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Sample records for 16th century megadrought

  1. Megadrought and Megadeath in 16th Century Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Therrell, Matthew D.

    2002-01-01

    The native population collapse in 16th century Mexico was a demographic catastrophe with one of the highest death rates in history. Recently developed tree-ring evidence has allowed the levels of precipitation to be reconstructed for north central Mexico, adding to the growing body of epidemiologic evidence and indicating that the 1545 and 1576 epidemics of cocoliztli (Nahuatl for "pest”) were indigenous hemorrhagic fevers transmitted by rodent hosts and aggravated by extreme drought conditions. PMID:11971767

  2. Megadrought and megadeath in 16th century Mexico.

    PubMed

    Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Stahle, David W; Cleaveland, Malcolm K; Therrell, Matthew D

    2002-04-01

    The native population collapse in 16th century Mexico was a demographic catastrophe with one of the highest death rates in history. Recently developed tree-ring evidence has allowed the levels of precipitation to be reconstructed for north central Mexico, adding to the growing body of epidemiologic evidence and indicating that the 1545 and 1576 epidemics of cocoliztli (Nahuatl for "pest") were indigenous hemorrhagic fevers transmitted by rodent hosts and aggravated by extreme drought conditions.

  3. The 8th Century Megadrought Across North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, D. W.; Therrell, M. D.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Fye, F. K.; Cook, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.; Acuna-Soto, R.

    2002-12-01

    Tree-ring data suggest that the 8th and 16th century megadroughts may have been the most severe and sustained droughts to impact North America in the past 1500 years. The 16th century megadrought may have persisted for up to 40 years, and extended from the tropics to the boreal forest and from the Pacific to Atlantic coasts. Evidence for the 8th century drought is sparse, but tree-ring and lake sediment data indicate that this drought extended from the northern Great Plains, across the southwestern United States, and into central Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula. Tree-ring data from Colorado and New Mexico document severe drought from A.D. 735-765, and may provide accurate and precise dating for the onset of the epic droughts reconstructed during the late first millennium A.D. with sedimentary data from Elk Lake, Minnesota; Moon Lake, South Dakota; La Piscina de Yuriria, Guanajuato; and Lake Chichancanab, Yucatan. If these chronological refinements are correct, then the sedimentary records suggest much greater persistence to the 8th century megadrought than indicated by the very high resolution tree-ring data, and a strong second pulse of prolonged drought late in the first millennium. Analyses of instrumental precipitation and drought indices during the 20th century, along with tree-ring reconstructions of climate in Mexico and the Southwest, indicate that annual and decadal droughts can both simultaneously impact the entire region from New Mexico and Texas down into central Mexico. The intensity and large-scale impact of drought across this region seem to be greatest when La Nina conditions and the low phase of the North Pacific oscillation prevail. The tree-ring dated 8th century megadrought occurred near the decline of the Classic Period civilizations at Teotihuacan in central Mexico and in the Mayan region of the Yucatan. The 8th century megadrought may have interacted with anthropogenic environmental degradation, epidemic disease, and social upheaval to

  4. [Physicians' households in the 16th century].

    PubMed

    Walter, Tilmann

    2008-01-01

    16th-century's medicine was marked by a wave of professionalization: besides scientific influences--evident by new ambitious texts on botany, anatomy, and chemiatry--functions of medical expertise for political purposes were an important factor. Based on findings made in my DFG-funded project "Arztliche Autorität in der Frühen Neuzeit" (medical authority in early modem times) is discussed how these influences altered the professional conditions for physicians. "Haushalt" (household) can be understood as a social community as well as a monetary budget in this context: physicians earned their money with a lot of different ventures beside medical practice, as commerce, farming, banking, or mining etc. Expenses for houses, gardens, interior etc. were based on needs of everyday life but could also be signs of luxury. Thus the physicians demonstrated the high social status they had acquired, and some of them thereby placed themselves at one social level with the nobility. Even scientific books can be estimated as a special case of such a conspicuous consumption for in most cases publishing made high investments without monetary benefit necessary. Thus scientific reputation was to some degree foreseeable: epoch-making books like above all Andreas Vesalius' "De humani Corporis fabrica libri septem" (Basel 1543) had to be financed out of the assets of the family (in Vesalius' case: a high-standing family in the emperor's services). Other sources show clearly that many doctors were not able to afford publishing comparable elaborated and expensive books. PMID:19830955

  5. The low countries - 16th/17th century.

    PubMed

    De Broe, M E; De Weerdt, D L; Ysebaert, D K; Vercauteren, S R; De Greef, K E; De Broe, L C

    1999-01-01

    Andreas Vesalius and Jan Baptist Van Helmont are the two major personalities who contributed substantially and in a different way to the early development of renal anatomy/physiology of the 16th/17th century in the Southern Low Countries. The importance of A. Vesalius' publication 'de humani corporis fabrica libri septem' cannot be overestimated. The kidney was an intriguing organ to Vesalius, the function of which he could not fully grasp. J.B. Van Helmont was the first to demonstrate the importance of the measurement of the specific gravity of the urine and relating it to physiological and pathophysiological conditions. He made accurate clinical observations supported by autopsy examinations concerning the role of the kidney in the generation of dropsy. PMID:10213829

  6. [Digestive diseases in the epistolary collection of 16th century].

    PubMed

    Devesa Jordà, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Correspondence is an important source of documentation for studying health and, therefore, the gastrointestinal symptoms of diseases. We studied the gastrointestinal disease described in the Monumenta Borgia collection, which contains documents from the 16th century, mainly letters about Francis Borgia, the last great figure of a family originally from Valencia and with universal significance. Of the 2769 documents examined, 1231 (44.5%) contained some health-related descriptions and 42 items were related to gastrointestinal disease, representing 7.5% of the specific diseases of natural causes. The most frequently mentioned organ in the whole human body was the stomach, with 20 references. The most frequent references were to symptoms related to the upper gastrointestinal tract, with 18 references, and the lower gastrointestinal tract, with 16. The comments made on health related to gastrointestinal disease usually reflect the typical galenism of the medicine of the times. The disorders attributed to the stomach are described in varied terminology and include an acute episode of gastrointestinal bleeding. The most frequently mentioned symptoms and processes are diarrhea, flatulence, hernias, and, among those attributed to the lower gastrointestinal tract, lower gastrointestinal hemorrhages. Also mentioned are hemorrhoids and intestinal colic. Although little mention is made of the liver and spleen, there are various allusions that Francis Borgia was affected by disease or pathogenic alterations in this area. However, the postmortem examination of his corpse, refuted the existence of these anomalies.

  7. The Perfect Ocean For Megadrought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routson, C. C.; McKay, N. P.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Overpeck, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Megadroughts, widespread droughts that last for decades, have played an important role in Southwestern US hydroclimate over the past 2000 years. Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are an important influence on recent droughts, but have past megadroughts been influenced by similar ocean conditions? Proxy SST records from around the world are used here to evaluate SST spatial patterns during exceptionally severe, widespread drought in the Southwest over the last 2000 years. Covariance between millennia-length moisture sensitive tree-ring records from Arizona, Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico are used to define the most severe droughts, which include iconic 16th century, medieval and earlier megadroughts. By evaluating proxy SST records, we find "La Niña like" SST conditions in the equatorial Pacific and warm North Atlantic SSTs are associated with the most extreme droughts during the past 2000 years. The SST patterns we find associated with past megadroughts are similar to those found in instrumental data comparisons. Whereas numerous factors influence Southwestern drought, SST appears to have an important and consistent association with megadrought.

  8. [Physicians and medicine in 16th century New Spain].

    PubMed

    de Micheli-Serra, A

    2001-01-01

    The more prominent physicians and surgeons, European, native and creole, who practiced their art in New Spain during the XVI century, are remembered. There were improvised surgeons among the Spanish soldiers, who faced the American natives in the name of universal empire and church. There were also native physicians, organized around an important cultural center: the Franciscan college of Holy Cross in Tlatelolco. They perpetuated the ancestral medical traditions. In the dawning of New Spain, arrived here some physicians and surgeons prepared in important medical centers, such Sevilla, Salamanca, and Alcalá de Henares. Soon after a noteworthy exchange of medicinal plants and, generally, of therapeutic products between the old and new world took place. Likewise arrived here medical books printed in Europe and, in the second half of such century, appeared Newspanish medical books. When the first chair of medicine was established in the Royal University of México (1578), the number of medical publications increased until, in 1598, appeared the first medical thesis printed in America.

  9. Native American Games & European Religious Attitudes in the 16th & 17th Centuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, George

    Some aspects of the white-Indian relationship are reflected in the writings of 16th and 17th century observers of Indian pastimes. The Noble Savage image was apparently accepted by French colonists as a consequence of an intellectual disappointment in the contemporary societies. In an age of absolutism and religious intolerance, the picture of the…

  10. [Did a 16th century Christian missionary observe that the Japanese were collectivists?].

    PubMed

    Takano, Yohtaro; Ito, Gen

    2016-02-01

    Volpi (2004) pointed out that Alessandro Valignano, a 16th century Christian missionary, had considered the Japanese extreme collectivists. According to Volpi, his remark was based on Valignano's reports (1583, 1592) edited by Alvares-Taladriz (1954). However, it is highly questionable whether Volpi examined these texts directly because the information about them provided by Volpi involved many serious errors. A thorough inspection of Valignano's translated reports found no mention of Japanese collectivism. On the contrary, he had actually reported exceedingly individualistic behaviors of Japanese warriors. Such behaviors are consistent with what is widely known about the 16th century Civil Wars in Japan. It has thus turned out that no reliable evidence is present for the alleged observation by Valignano. PMID:26964373

  11. [Did a 16th century Christian missionary observe that the Japanese were collectivists?].

    PubMed

    Takano, Yohtaro; Ito, Gen

    2016-02-01

    Volpi (2004) pointed out that Alessandro Valignano, a 16th century Christian missionary, had considered the Japanese extreme collectivists. According to Volpi, his remark was based on Valignano's reports (1583, 1592) edited by Alvares-Taladriz (1954). However, it is highly questionable whether Volpi examined these texts directly because the information about them provided by Volpi involved many serious errors. A thorough inspection of Valignano's translated reports found no mention of Japanese collectivism. On the contrary, he had actually reported exceedingly individualistic behaviors of Japanese warriors. Such behaviors are consistent with what is widely known about the 16th century Civil Wars in Japan. It has thus turned out that no reliable evidence is present for the alleged observation by Valignano.

  12. Relative Impacts of Mitigation, Temperature, and Precipitation on 21st-Century Megadrought Risk in the American Southwest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ault, Toby R.; Mankin, Justin S.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    Megadroughts are comparable in severity to the worst droughts of the 20th century but are of much longer duration. A megadrought in the American Southwest would impose unprecedented stress on the limited water resources of the area, making it critical to evaluate future risks not only under different climate change mitigation scenarios but also for different aspects of regional hydroclimate. We find that changes in the mean hydroclimate state, rather than its variability, determine megadrought risk in the American Southwest. Estimates of megadrought probabilities based on precipitation alone tend to underestimate risk. Furthermore, business-as-usual emissions of greenhouse gases will drive regional warming and drying, regardless of large precipitation uncertainties. We find that regional temperature increases alone push megadrought risk above 70, 90, or 99% by the end of the century, even if precipitation increases moderately, does not change, or decreases, respectively. Although each possibility is supported by some climate model simulations, the latter is the most common outcome for the American Southwest in Coupled Model Intercomparison 5 generation models. An aggressive reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions cuts megadrought risks nearly in half.

  13. Relative impacts of mitigation, temperature, and precipitation on 21st-century megadrought risk in the American Southwest

    PubMed Central

    Ault, Toby R.; Mankin, Justin S.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2016-01-01

    Megadroughts are comparable in severity to the worst droughts of the 20th century but are of much longer duration. A megadrought in the American Southwest would impose unprecedented stress on the limited water resources of the area, making it critical to evaluate future risks not only under different climate change mitigation scenarios but also for different aspects of regional hydroclimate. We find that changes in the mean hydroclimate state, rather than its variability, determine megadrought risk in the American Southwest. Estimates of megadrought probabilities based on precipitation alone tend to underestimate risk. Furthermore, business-as-usual emissions of greenhouse gases will drive regional warming and drying, regardless of large precipitation uncertainties. We find that regional temperature increases alone push megadrought risk above 70, 90, or 99% by the end of the century, even if precipitation increases moderately, does not change, or decreases, respectively. Although each possibility is supported by some climate model simulations, the latter is the most common outcome for the American Southwest in Coupled Model Intercomparison 5 generation models. An aggressive reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions cuts megadrought risks nearly in half. PMID:27713927

  14. Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th-Century Alghero, Sardinia

    PubMed Central

    Benedictow, Ole Jørgen; Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been responsible for at least 3 pandemics. During 1582–1583, a plague outbreak devastated the seaport of Alghero in Sardinia. By analyzing contemporary medical texts and local documentation, we uncovered the pivotal role played by the Protomedicus of Alghero, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio (1532–1617), in controlling the epidemic. Angelerio imposed rules and antiepidemic measures new to the 16th-century sanitary system of Sardinia. Those measures undoubtedly spared the surrounding districts from the spread of the contagion. Angelerio seems to have been an extremely successful public health officer in the history of plague epidemics in Sardinia. PMID:23968598

  15. Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and new measures for controlling plague in 16th-century Alghero, Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Benedictow, Ole Jørgen; Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been responsible for at least 3 pandemics. During 1582-1583, a plague outbreak devastated the seaport of Alghero in Sardinia. By analyzing contemporary medical texts and local documentation, we uncovered the pivotal role played by the Protomedicus of Alghero, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio (1532-1617), in controlling the epidemic. Angelerio imposed rules and antiepidemic measures new to the 16th-century sanitary system of Sardinia. Those measures undoubtedly spared the surrounding districts from the spread of the contagion. Angelerio seems to have been an extremely successful public health officer in the history of plague epidemics in Sardinia. PMID:23968598

  16. Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and new measures for controlling plague in 16th-century Alghero, Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Benedictow, Ole Jørgen; Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been responsible for at least 3 pandemics. During 1582-1583, a plague outbreak devastated the seaport of Alghero in Sardinia. By analyzing contemporary medical texts and local documentation, we uncovered the pivotal role played by the Protomedicus of Alghero, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio (1532-1617), in controlling the epidemic. Angelerio imposed rules and antiepidemic measures new to the 16th-century sanitary system of Sardinia. Those measures undoubtedly spared the surrounding districts from the spread of the contagion. Angelerio seems to have been an extremely successful public health officer in the history of plague epidemics in Sardinia.

  17. ["Catching falcons, training and keeping healthy". A hunting related reference of the late 16th century].

    PubMed

    Giese, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The "Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek" in Vienna houses a copy of Jacques Du Fouilloux, La vénerie avec plusieurs receptes pour guerir les chiens, Poitiers 1564 (signature: *44. Q. 13), a classic of early modern hunting literature, containing handwritten german notes on the catching, training and healing of birds of prey, mostly falcons, written by the anonymous passionate falconer who owned the print in the late 16th century. These handwritten notes are an interesting document for the history of falconry and likewise for the special terminology of this field of hunting "Fachprosa". In the appendix of the article the handwritten notes are edited and commented.

  18. Tuberculosis epidemiology and selection in an autochthonous Siberian population from the 16th-19th century.

    PubMed

    Dabernat, Henri; Thèves, Catherine; Bouakaze, Caroline; Nikolaeva, Dariya; Keyser, Christine; Mokrousov, Igor; Géraut, Annie; Duchesne, Sylvie; Gérard, Patrice; Alexeev, Anatoly N; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of most ancient diseases affecting human populations. Although numerous studies have tried to detect pathogenic DNA in ancient skeletons, the successful identification of ancient tuberculosis strains remains rare. Here, we describe a study of 140 ancient subjects inhumed in Yakutia (Eastern Siberia) during a tuberculosis outbreak, dating from the 16(th)-19(th) century. For a long time, Yakut populations had remained isolated from European populations, and it was not until the beginning of the 17(th) century that first contacts were made with European settlers. Subsequently, tuberculosis spread throughout Yakutia, and the evolution of tuberculosis frequencies can be tracked until the 19(th) century. This study took a multidisciplinary approach, examining historical and paleo-epidemiological data to understand the impact of tuberculosis on ancient Yakut population. In addition, molecular identification of the ancient tuberculosis strain was realized to elucidate the natural history and host-pathogen co-evolution of human tuberculosis that was present in this population. This was achieved by the molecular detection of the IS6110 sequence and SNP genotyping by the SNaPshot technique. Results demonstrated that the strain belongs to cluster PGG2-SCG-5, evocating a European origin. Our study suggests that the Yakut population may have been shaped by selection pressures, exerted by several illnesses, including tuberculosis, over several centuries. This confirms the validity and necessity of using a multidisciplinary approach to understand the natural history of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease.

  19. [Metamorphoses of commentary. Editorial projects and formation of anatomical knowledge in the 16th century].

    PubMed

    Mandressi, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    The new anatomical knowledge, which began to come into existence in the first half of the 16th century, generated intellectual and material tools for the acquisition and transmission of knowledge on the basis of a methodological program which reworked the relationship between the written word of the authorities and sensorial observations. The reception and critical evaluation of inherited texts was carried out through the adoption and transformation of modes of writing and editorial devices put into the service of the new relationships to the past history of the discipline in the formation of knowledge of the body. The traditional form of commentary and the techniques which are associated with it, initially adopted by Berengario da Carpi and which are then to be found at the base of Andreas Vesalius' work, played a central role in this sense. PMID:16689078

  20. [Experiences and knowledge exchanged in medical consultations by post (16th-18th centuries)].

    PubMed

    Barroux, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    Consultations by post make up together a significant part of the medical literature, especially between the 16(th) and 18(th) centuries and bring irreplaceable testimonies on how physicians could follow up their patients from far away, in relation with local practitioners who were at their patients' bedside or who could visit them on a regular basis. These testimonies are of a scientific nature since they show how illustrious physicians diagnosed, predicted and prescribed, such as Fernel, Chirac and later on Barthez and Tissot, or less famous practitioners such as Le Thieullier, for instance. They are of a literary nature since every physician has his own writing style, and the lay out of their letters often respects codes. They are of an anthropological nature in the sense that a conception of man, ill, with his character, his own life, is rendered under the form of narratives.

  1. Two cases of 16th century head injuries managed in royal European families.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Kamilah A; Goodrich, James Tait

    2016-07-01

    In Europe, during the 16th century, there were a number of prominent general surgeons adventurous enough to consider operating on the brain for head injuries. From the time of Hippocrates, operating on the skull and brain was considered both treacherous and too dangerous to be undertaken except on rare occasions. Operating on a member of a royal court was considered even more exceptional because if the outcome was poor, the surgeon could lose a hand or limb, or, even worse, be beheaded. The authors present two interesting cases of royal family members who underwent surgery for head injuries that were quite severe. The surgeons involved, Ambroise Paré, Andreas Vesalius, and Berengario da Carpi, were among the most prominent surgeons in Europe. Despite very challenging political situations, all were willing to undertake a complex surgical intervention on the member of a prominent royal family. The individuals involved, both royal and medical, plus the neurosurgical injuries are discussed. PMID:27364255

  2. Two cases of 16th century head injuries managed in royal European families.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Kamilah A; Goodrich, James Tait

    2016-07-01

    In Europe, during the 16th century, there were a number of prominent general surgeons adventurous enough to consider operating on the brain for head injuries. From the time of Hippocrates, operating on the skull and brain was considered both treacherous and too dangerous to be undertaken except on rare occasions. Operating on a member of a royal court was considered even more exceptional because if the outcome was poor, the surgeon could lose a hand or limb, or, even worse, be beheaded. The authors present two interesting cases of royal family members who underwent surgery for head injuries that were quite severe. The surgeons involved, Ambroise Paré, Andreas Vesalius, and Berengario da Carpi, were among the most prominent surgeons in Europe. Despite very challenging political situations, all were willing to undertake a complex surgical intervention on the member of a prominent royal family. The individuals involved, both royal and medical, plus the neurosurgical injuries are discussed.

  3. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 16th century: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira Ferreira, L. F.; Ferreira Machado, I.; Ferraria, A. M.; Casimiro, T. M.; Colomban, Ph.

    2013-11-01

    Sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the early-16th century from the "Mata da Machada" kiln and from an archaeological excavation on a small urban site in the city of Aveiro (from late 15th to early 16th century) were studied with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for two Spanish productions, from Valencia and Seville, both from same period (late 15th century and 16th century), since it is well know that Portugal imported significant quantities of those goods from Spain at that time.

  4. Cases of aphasia in a work on medicine from the 16th century.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Sanz, Augustin; Garcia-Avila, Juan Fernando; Vallejo, Jose Ramon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to bring to the attention of the international community the role in the history of aphasiology of the eminent Renaissance figure, the Extremaduran Francisco Arceo de Fregenal. To present the subject, after a brief biography of this surgeon, we will trace the development of the concept of aphasia up to the 16th century. In some ancient cultures we find that this disorder was described as a "cerebral accident", to be presented subsequently in the Middle Ages as a divine punishment, only for the original idea to be taken up again during the Renaissance. This return to the concept of the early civilisations was not to lead to the formal classification of this condition however, until the studies of Broca and Wernicke were published in the 19th century. The contribution of Arceo lies in the description of clinical cases included in his book De Recta cvrandorum, which are presented in their original written version in Latin accompanied by a translation in English. The first of these cases tells of spontaneous recovery from the disease, and the second of the evolution of a patient with aphasia secondary to traumatic brain injury following surgery. Despite the great value of Arceo's report, the historical context and his professional attitude did not allow for a localisationist interpretation of the concept of aphasia. PMID:25811692

  5. Temperature changes in Poland from the 16th to the 20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybylak, Rajmund; Majorowicz, Jacek; Wójcik, Gabriel; Zielski, Andrzej; Choryczewski, Waldemar; Marciniak, Kazimierz; Nowosad, Wiesaw; Oliski, Piotr; Syta, Krzysztof

    2005-05-01

    A standardized tree-ring width chronology of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) along with different types of documentary evidence (e.g. annals, chronicles, diaries, private correspondence, records of public administration, early newspapers) have been used to reconstruct air temperature in Poland. The ground surface temperature (GST) history has been reconstructed based on the continuous temperature logs from 13 wells, using a new method developed recently by Harris and Chapman (1998; Journal of Geophysical Research 103: 7371-7383) which is compared with the functional space inversion (FSI) method applied to all available Polish temperature-depth profiles analysed before.Response function calculations conducted for trees growing in Poland (except in mountainous regions) reveal a statistically significant correlation between the annual ring widths of the Scots pine and the monthly mean air temperatures, particularly from February and March, but also from January and April. Therefore, it was only possible to reconstruct the mean January-April air temperature.The following periods featured a warm late winter/early spring: 1530-90, 1656-70 (the warmest period), 1820-50, 1910-40, and after 1985. On the other hand, a cold January-April occurred in the following periods: 1600-50, 1760-75, 1800-15, 1880-1900, and 1950-80.Reconstructions of thermal conditions using documentary evidence were carried out for winter (December-February) and summer (June-August) from 1501 to 1840 and, therefore, their results cannot be directly compared with reconstructions based on tree-ring widths. Winter temperatures in this period were colder than air temperature in the 20th century. On the other hand, historical summers were generally warmer than those occurring in the 20th century. Such situations dominated in the 16th and 17th centuries, as well as at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. Throughout almost the entire period from 1501 to 1840, the thermal continentality of the climate

  6. Chemical composition and deterioration of glass excavated in the 15th 16th century fishermen town of Raversijde (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schalm, O.; Caluwé, D.; Wouters, H.; Janssens, K.; Verhaeghe, F.; Pieters, M.

    2004-10-01

    The chemical composition, as determined by electron probe X-ray microanalysis of a series of ca. 100 archaeological glass fragments, excavated at the Raversijde site (Belgium) is discussed. In the 15th-16th century, Raversijde was a flourishing fishermen town located on the shore of the North Sea, close to the city of Ostend. As a consequence of several battles that were fought in its vicinity, the site was abandoned in the 16th century and was not occupied since then. It is one of the rare archaeological sites in Europe that contains a significant amount of information on the daily life inside a small but affluent medieval community. A comparison of the chemical composition of fragments of vessels and window glass encountered in Raversijde to those found in urban centres in Belgium and to literature date on German and French archaeological finds shows that glass made with wood ash dominates. Usually, it concerns artifacts with a predominantly utilitarian use. A few objects made with sodic (i.e., Na-rich) glass were also encountered, likely to have been imported from Venice during the 15th century or in later periods from an urban centre such as Antwerp, where Façon-de-Venice glass manufacturing activities were established near the start of the 16th century.

  7. [The apothecaries of the quartier de la Harpe in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Large families of apothecaries, some of them very famous, lived in the Quartier de la Harpe in Paris, on the left bank of Seine, from the 16th to the 17th century. The study confirms a well-established fact that apothecaries practised endogamy, in others words marriage within the same social class. The biographical research includes ten apothecaries, most of whom lived in the rue Saint-André-des-Arts.

  8. Herbal treatment of the urinary system diseases based on 16(th) and 17(th) century herbals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Janusz; Rutkowski, Boleslaw

    2016-02-01

    The medicinal use of herbs is a principal achievement of human ingenuity. The most renowned doctors of antiquity: Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Theophrastus, Pliny the Elder and Galen mentioned herbs in their works. The first printed herbal was published in Mainz in 1485. Outstanding scientists e.g. Otto Brunfels, Hieronymus Bock, Leonard Fuchs and Andreo Mattiola published herbals in the 16th century. Polish doctors also contributed to the development of herbal treatment. The first work: Of Herbs and their Potency by Stefan Falimirz, published in 1534, triggered other publications in the 16th century, the age of herbals. In 1542, Hieronymus Spiczynski published a herbal: Of Local and Overseas Herbs and their Potency. Then, in 1568, Marcin Siennik published his: Herbal, which is the Description of Local and Overseas Herbs, their Potency and Application. In 1595, Marcin of Urzedow published: The Polish Herbal, the Books of Herbs. Completed in mid-16th century, it was only published 22 years after his death. The last work discussed is Herbal Known in Latin as published in 1613 by Simon Syrenius a graduate of Ingolstadt and Padua universities and lecturer at the Academy of Krakow. The work was Europes most complete elaboration on herbal treatment. The herbs described in the herbals worked as diuretics, demulcents, analgesics, relaxants and preventives of kidney stones. Published in Polish, they are still to be found in Poland. All the works presented herein are held by the Library of the Seminary of Wloclawek, and the Ossolinski National Institute in Wroclaw. PMID:26913886

  9. [Concepts and findings in dentistry in medical dissertations from the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Lorber, C G

    1977-12-01

    This historical paper deals with medical dissertations from the second half of the 18th century which deal with stomatology. 30 of the 100 consulted dissertations were translated from latin with great differences in scientific content and style, because they dated from the 16th to the 18th century. The views of normal anatomy and physiology of that time are described. Strange views were held on the embryological development. Apart from toothache, dentitio difficilis in children, aphtous stomatitis, cleft palates and the respective therapies were described. The scientific content of those dissertations was way backward when compared to contemporary text book literature.

  10. Southeast Asian Mega-Droughts of the Past 5 Centuries from Tree Rings and Historical Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, B. M.

    2007-12-01

    The need for understanding the natural range of climate variability in the monsoon regions of Asia - among the worldês most heavily populated and most dependent on agriculture - is critical for making sound planning decisions in the face of expected hydrological changes associated with global climate change. As part of a US National Science Foundation-funded project (Tree Ring Reconstructions of Asian Monsoon Climate Variability) we have produced climate-responsive tree-ring records from tropical Asia that span the past five centuries. We find compelling evidence for 18th century decadal-scale summer monsoon droughts that span from India to Vietnam. Historical records corroborate that periods of severe drought occurred across much of the region during this time, while speleothem and coral records suggest multiple decadal-scale droughts for much of the Little Ice Age period in India, and elevated Sea Surface Temperature (SST) during the 18th century for much of the tropical Pacific, respectively. Tropical Pacific SST anomalies are seen as one key component to monsoon variability over the study region, with El Ni?o and La Ni?a like conditions resulting in rainfall reductions and increases, respectively, with corresponding opposite-sign anomalies across much of western North America. Persistent anomaly trends in the SST fields can result in the kinds of decadal-scale variability our studies suggest, although this is not the entire story. We explore the role of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), first defined in 1999 as a Pacific-wide measure of variability that is physically distinct from both the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in contributing to protracted -mega-droughts" in the region related to weakening monsoon strength, as suggested by recent research. Interestingly, near-millennium-aged conifers from Vietnam and Laos have been located and much longer records are now being constructed. Of great interest is

  11. 14th-16th century Danube floods and long-term water-level changes reflected in archaeological-sedimentary evidence - in comparison with documentary evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea; Laszlovszky, József

    2014-05-01

    In the present paper an overview of published and unpublished results of archaeological and sedimentary investigations, predominantly reflect on 14th-16th-century changes, are provided and compared to documentary information on flood events and long-term changes. Long-term changes in flood behaviour and average water-level conditions had long-term detectable impacts on sedimentation and fluvio-morphological processes. Moreover, the available archaeological evidence might also provide information on the reaction of the society, in the form of changes in settlement organisation, building structures and processes. At present, information is mainly available concerning the 16th, and partly to the 14th-15th centuries. Medium and short term evidence mainly corresponds to the main flood peaks or even to single catastrophic flood events. Such processes may be identified in archaeological evidence concerning the second half of the 14th, early 15th centuries; while most of the cases listed above were connected to the flood peak (and/or generally increasing water-level conditions) of the late 15th and early 16th centuries. In other cases connections between sedimentary/archaeological evidence and the mid- and late 16th-century high flood-frequency period were presumed. Documentary evidence referring to the same period suggests that higher flood frequency and intensity periods occurred in the early and mid 16th century; a probably more prolonged flood rich period took place in the second half of the 16th century, with a peak in the late 1560s-early 1570s and maybe with another at the end of the 16th century. Earlier flood peaks in documentary evidence were detected on the Danube at the turn of the 14th-15th centuries and in the last decades of the 15th century, continuing in the early 16th century.

  12. [Lope de Vegas comedy "Los locos de Valencia" a view of a 16th century psychiatric institution].

    PubMed

    Dieckhöfer, K

    1975-01-01

    With the comedy "Los locos de Valencia" (The Insane of Valencia) Lope de Vega left us valuable evidence of the nursing of the insane in the 16th century. After a summarizing presentation of the intricate plot of the play the manifold details about admission, general treatment of the mentally ill as well as the habits in the oldest psychiatric institution of the world are communicated and analysed by means of citations form comedy. Furthermore, an attempt is being made to demonstrate the nosolgic understanding of the Humanist and non-physician Lope de Vega for the psychiatric conditions and way of living from the same source.

  13. Union catalogue of printed books of 15th, 16th and 17th centuries in European astronomical observatories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, G.

    This catalogue deals with the scientific subjects of that historical period such as astronomy, astrology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, historia naturalis and so forth, and contains extremely rare volumes such as the first printed editions of the eminent Arab, Latin, Greek and Persian scientists Albumasar, Albohazen Aly, Aristoteles, Ptolemaeus, Pliny the Elder and Ulugh Beig. In addition the catalogue contains the first works of such great astronomers of the 16th and 17th centuries as Copernicus, Kepler, Clavius, Regiomontanus, Sacrobosco, Mercator, Newton, Gassendi, Galilei and Hevelius, just to quote the most representative ones. The catalogue is followed by a chronological index and an index of printers and publishers.

  14. [Medical care and environmental hygiene in Mexico City from the 16th through the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M E; Rodríguez-de Romo, A C

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with public health in Mexico City from the 16th to the 18th century. The first part is about sickness and epidemics; the origin of a very high concerned with death rate at that time; general and private hospitals foundations, and about the role of the Church, Medical Board and the Viceroy in Health Care and Preventive Medicine. Medical care was efficient in these aspects. The second part deals with public services concerning public health as a clean environment and streets and collecting garbage, problems that caused sickness according to the ideas of those days. A clear environment was good until the second half of the 18th century. The paper is divided as follows: introduction; sickness and epidemics; medical care; actions against epidemics; public services, and final commentary.

  15. Floods of the Maros river in the early modern and modern period (16th-20th centuries)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In the poster presentation a series of historical and recent floods of the Maros river, with special emphasis on the flood events occurred on the lower sections, are presented. Similar to the Hungarian flood databases of the Middle-Danube and Lower-Tisza, the main sources of investigations are the institutional (legal-administrative) documentary evidence (e.g. Szeged and Makó town council protocols and related administrative documentation, Csanád County meeting protocols) mainly from the late 17th-early 18th century onwards. However, in case of the Maros river there is an increased importance of narrative sources, with special emphasis on the early modern period (16th-17th century): in this case the (mainly Transylvanian) narratives (chronicles, diaries, memoires etc.) written by aristocrats, other noblemen and town citizens have particular importance. In the presentation the frequency of detected flood events, from the mid-16th century onwards (with an outlook on sporadic medieval evidence), is provided; moreover, a 3-scaled magnitude classification and a seasonality analysis are also presented. Floods of the Maros river, especially those of the lower river sections, often cannot be understood and discussed without the floods of the (Lower-)Tisza; thus, a comparison of the two flood series are also a subject of discussion. Unlike the Lower-Tisza, the Maros is prone to winter and early spring ice jam floods: since the floods that belonged to this type (similar to those of the Middle-Danube at Budapest) were the most destructive among the flood events of the river, this flood type, and the greatest flood events (e.g. 1751-1752, 1784) are also presented in more detail.

  16. Tuberculosis Epidemiology and Selection in an Autochthonous Siberian Population from the 16th-19th Century

    PubMed Central

    Dabernat, Henri; Thèves, Catherine; Bouakaze, Caroline; Nikolaeva, Dariya; Keyser, Christine; Mokrousov, Igor; Géraut, Annie; Duchesne, Sylvie; Gérard, Patrice; Alexeev, Anatoly N.; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of most ancient diseases affecting human populations. Although numerous studies have tried to detect pathogenic DNA in ancient skeletons, the successful identification of ancient tuberculosis strains remains rare. Here, we describe a study of 140 ancient subjects inhumed in Yakutia (Eastern Siberia) during a tuberculosis outbreak, dating from the 16th–19th century. For a long time, Yakut populations had remained isolated from European populations, and it was not until the beginning of the 17th century that first contacts were made with European settlers. Subsequently, tuberculosis spread throughout Yakutia, and the evolution of tuberculosis frequencies can be tracked until the 19th century. This study took a multidisciplinary approach, examining historical and paleo-epidemiological data to understand the impact of tuberculosis on ancient Yakut population. In addition, molecular identification of the ancient tuberculosis strain was realized to elucidate the natural history and host-pathogen co-evolution of human tuberculosis that was present in this population. This was achieved by the molecular detection of the IS6110 sequence and SNP genotyping by the SNaPshot technique. Results demonstrated that the strain belongs to cluster PGG2-SCG-5, evocating a European origin. Our study suggests that the Yakut population may have been shaped by selection pressures, exerted by several illnesses, including tuberculosis, over several centuries. This confirms the validity and necessity of using a multidisciplinary approach to understand the natural history of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease. PMID:24587092

  17. Jean Falcon (1491-1541), a great surgeon and anatomist of the 16th century.

    PubMed

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Piagkou, Maria; Skandalakis, Panagiotis; Androutsos, George

    2013-01-01

    Jean Falcon, an Aragon native, became a famous surgeon at the Faculty of Montpellier. He was a Royal physician, wealthy enough to live a luxurious life and treat influential patients. His lectures were legendary, and his works gave him fame among the surgeons' class. Of all his manuscripts stands the "Guidon", which became an anatomical surgeons' handbook, worthy of reference from the scientific community for centuries.

  18. [Medical books printed in the 16th century in Dalmatian libraries].

    PubMed

    Dujmovic, Dubravka

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to search for medical books in monasteries, museums and university libraries in Split, Omi's, Zaostrog, Ciovo (near Trogir) and Sinj. Medical books from the 17th century were rare. When we compare this research with previous ones, one can conclude that very little of such sort of literature in Dalmatian libraries is still existing. Among preserved literary works we found works by Galenus, Oribasius, Valverde and others. The explanation for the little number of medical books is to be seeked in hard historical and educational conditions, destruction and damage to library stock in the past. PMID:17152192

  19. [Ebers Papyrus. The book of medical knowledge of the 16th century B.C. Egyptians].

    PubMed

    Hallmann-Mikołajczak, Aleksandra

    2004-01-01

    In 2nd century B.C. Clemens Alexanrinus was sure, that the Egyptians collected all their knowledge in 42 secret books. of which last six contained medical knowledge. Despite this and records of other ancient authors, for long time the opinion about the history of medicine was not changed. In traditional view the role of Hippocrates and the Greeks was emphasized. In 19th century egyptologist began finding Egyptian papyri, whose contents concerned medical matters. The first medical papyrus was published by Georg Ebers in 1875. The Ebers Papyrus is a scroll 20,23 meters in length and contains 108 columns of text. I is dated at the reign of Amenophis I (1536 B.C.). This papyrus was published and translated by different researches (the most valuable is German edition Grundriss de Medizin de alten ägypter, and based on this Paul Ghalioungui edition). In the opinion of Grundriss, chaotic arrangement of medical advices in papyrus suggest different originals from which they drew. The text of The Ebers Papyrus is ordered in series of prescriptions, which are grouped according to different diseases, illnesses and injuries. ALmost all of those groups have introduction by the formula: "Here begins.." used on 36 occasions. They are, however, often varied and disorganised. The owner of this papyrus was probably a physician - the text mentions about "physician secrets". Herodotus writes, that Egyptian physicians were specialized, which seems to be confirmed by The Ebers Papyrus.

  20. Gessner Studies: state of the research and new perspectives on 16th-century studies in natural history.

    PubMed

    Glardon, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The field of Gesnerian studies is still to a large extent underdeveloped. This statement sums up in a nutshell the state of research on the body of work of the Zurich physician. Yet, no place for pessimism in this succinct conclusion: in what follows we trace some major tendencies and developments in the study of the Gesnerian corpus. On the whole, it is mostly his illustrations that have drawn scholars' attention, providing interesting perspectives on art history and the representation of nature in the 16th century, as well as, through the study of the circulation of images, on the scholarly networks and knowledge communication in the Renaissance. The second part of this article builds on concrete examples to provide possible perspectives on the paratext of Historia animalium, and on the various additions made to it by its author. In conclusion, it appears that numerous aspects of the Renaissance perception of nature remain unexplored, but also that a reading that makes use of precise lexicological and statistical tools is necessary and promising. This conclusion is positive and seeks to highlight the network established between scholars from different domains of the humanities, and also the technical means available at present, which open new possibilities for comparison, exchange and collating of research information.

  1. Ice lubrication for moving heavy stones to the Forbidden City in 15th- and 16th-century China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Chen, Haosheng; Stone, Howard A

    2013-12-10

    Lubrication plays a crucial role in reducing friction for transporting heavy objects, from moving a 60-ton statue in ancient Egypt to relocating a 15,000-ton building in modern society. Although in China spoked wheels appeared ca. 1500 B.C., in the 15th and 16th centuries sliding sledges were still used in transporting huge stones to the Forbidden City in Beijing. We show that an ice lubrication technique of water-lubricated wood-on-ice sliding was used instead of the common ancient approaches, such as wood-on-wood sliding or the use of log rollers. The technique took full advantage of the natural properties of ice, such as sufficient hardness, flatness, and low friction with a water film. This ice-assisted movement is more efficient for such heavy-load and low-speed transportation necessary for the stones of the Forbidden City. The transportation of the huge stones provides an early example of ice lubrication and complements current studies of the high-speed regime relevant to competitive ice sports.

  2. Ice lubrication for moving heavy stones to the Forbidden City in 15th- and 16th-century China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiang; Chen, Haosheng; Stone, Howard A.

    2013-01-01

    Lubrication plays a crucial role in reducing friction for transporting heavy objects, from moving a 60-ton statue in ancient Egypt to relocating a 15,000-ton building in modern society. Although in China spoked wheels appeared ca. 1500 B.C., in the 15th and 16th centuries sliding sledges were still used in transporting huge stones to the Forbidden City in Beijing. We show that an ice lubrication technique of water-lubricated wood-on-ice sliding was used instead of the common ancient approaches, such as wood-on-wood sliding or the use of log rollers. The technique took full advantage of the natural properties of ice, such as sufficient hardness, flatness, and low friction with a water film. This ice-assisted movement is more efficient for such heavy-load and low-speed transportation necessary for the stones of the Forbidden City. The transportation of the huge stones provides an early example of ice lubrication and complements current studies of the high-speed regime relevant to competitive ice sports. PMID:24191029

  3. Gessner Studies: state of the research and new perspectives on 16th-century studies in natural history.

    PubMed

    Glardon, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The field of Gesnerian studies is still to a large extent underdeveloped. This statement sums up in a nutshell the state of research on the body of work of the Zurich physician. Yet, no place for pessimism in this succinct conclusion: in what follows we trace some major tendencies and developments in the study of the Gesnerian corpus. On the whole, it is mostly his illustrations that have drawn scholars' attention, providing interesting perspectives on art history and the representation of nature in the 16th century, as well as, through the study of the circulation of images, on the scholarly networks and knowledge communication in the Renaissance. The second part of this article builds on concrete examples to provide possible perspectives on the paratext of Historia animalium, and on the various additions made to it by its author. In conclusion, it appears that numerous aspects of the Renaissance perception of nature remain unexplored, but also that a reading that makes use of precise lexicological and statistical tools is necessary and promising. This conclusion is positive and seeks to highlight the network established between scholars from different domains of the humanities, and also the technical means available at present, which open new possibilities for comparison, exchange and collating of research information. PMID:27349031

  4. Degradation products from naturally aged paper leaves of a 16th-century-printed book: a spectrochemical study.

    PubMed

    Bronzato, Maddalena; Calvini, Paolo; Federici, Carlo; Bogialli, Sara; Favaro, Gabriella; Meneghetti, Moreno; Mba, Miriam; Brustolon, Marina; Zoleo, Alfonso

    2013-07-15

    In this work, we present a wide-range spectrochemical analysis of the degradation products from naturally aged paper. The samples obtained from wash waters used during the de-acidification treatment of leaves from a 16th-century-printed book were analysed through NMR, IR, Raman UV/Vis, EPR and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy and HPLC-MS and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. By these methods we also studied some of the previous samples treated by acidification (sample AP) and catalytic hydrogenation (sample HP). Crossing all the data, we obtained precise indications about the main functional groups occurring on the degraded, water-soluble cellulose oligomers. These results point out that the chromophores responsible for browning are conjugated carbonyl and carboxyl compounds. As a whole, we show that the analysis of wash waters, used in the usual conservation treatments of paper de-acidification, gives much valuable information about both the conservation state of the book and the degradation reactions occurring on the leaves, due to the huge amount of cellulose by-products contained in the samples. We propose therefore this procedure as a new very convenient general method to obtain precious and normally unavailable information on the cellulose degradation by-products from naturally aged paper. PMID:23733361

  5. The liturgical cope of D. Teotónio of Braganza: material characterization of a 16th century pluviale.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Teresa; Moreiras, Hugo; Manhita, Ana; Tomaz, Paula; Mirão, José; Dias, Cristina B; Caldeira, Ana T

    2015-02-01

    A 16th century liturgical cope belonging to D. Teotónio of Braganza (collection of the Museum of Évora, ME 172/1) was selected for a material study. The cope is made of a variety of materials that include two different types of metal threads, dyed silk yarns, and vegetable yarns used in the weft. Several samples from different points representing the different metal thread types and colored silk yarns were collected. Stereomicroscopy (optical microscopy) and scanning electron microscopy were used for morphological analysis of the textile fibers and evaluation of metal thread degradation products. Evaluation of mordants and metal thread composition was carried out by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometry detection was used for dye identification, which allowed the determination of three different red dye sources and one yellow dye source in the colored silk yarns. Although different fabrics were used in the manufacturing of the cope, similarities identified in the characterization of the materials suggest that a single workshop was involved in its making.

  6. [Genealogical study of the Pijart dynasty, goldsmiths or apothecaries in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2007-10-01

    The Pijart dynasty, established in Paris during the 16th and 17th centuries, included apothecaries and goldsmiths who had a common ancestor, Michel Pijart, warden of the goldsmith's guild (garde de l'orfèvrerie) in 1507. He was married to Jehanne Daumont and died 23rd July 1524. This couple had four sons, all goldsmiths, Pierre, Michel, Jehan and Nicolas. Pierre married twice. His first wife, Philippe Dusseau, was the sister of a famous apothecary. Only their eldest son, François, chose the profession of apothecary; the other three, Jacques, Jehan and Philibert, all followed their father's profession. By his second marriage to Marie de Mézières, Pierre had two sons, Claude the elder and Claude the younger, who both became goldsmiths. Thus, the goldsmith's trade became the favoured profession of the Pijart family. Professional endogamy prevailed in this dynasty, after the fashion of merchants belonging to the six most prestigious guilds (Six-Corps de métiers). Goldsmiths and apothecaries retained strong family ties, demonstrated by family reunions (baptisms, betrothals, etc.). It is undisputable that the renown of this dynasty is based on the fame of its goldsmiths. However, through marriage, the Pijart's developed links with other families of apothecaries, of which the most outstanding were the Boulduc's. PMID:18348497

  7. Enlivening the Old with the New: 21st-Century Thinking Applied to 16th-Century Art Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lori

    2007-01-01

    When displayed in museums and classrooms, Renaissance-era (1420-1600) painting, architecture, and drawing masterworks are often decontextualized from the social reality of the Academy system under which they were produced. For centuries, the artworks of the Italian Renaissance have seduced viewers with technical mastery, exquisite pigments, and…

  8. Study of a unique 16th century Antwerp majolica floor in the Rameyenhof castle's chapel by means of X-ray fluorescence and portable Raman analytical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Voorde, Lien; Vandevijvere, Melissa; Vekemans, Bart; Van Pevenage, Jolien; Caen, Joost; Vandenabeele, Peter; Van Espen, Piet; Vincze, Laszlo

    2014-12-01

    The most unique and only known 16th century Antwerp majolica tile floor in Belgium is situated in a tower of the Rameyenhof castle (Gestel, Belgium). This exceptional work of art has recently been investigated in situ by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy in order to study the material characteristics. This study reports on the result of the analyses based on the novel combination of non-destructive and portable instrumentation, including a handheld XRF spectrometer for obtaining elemental information and a mobile Raman spectrometer for retrieving structural and molecular information on the floor tiles in the Rameyenhof castle and on a second, similar medallion, which is stored in the Rubens House museum in Antwerp (Belgium). The investigated material, majolica, is a type of ceramic, which fascinated many people and potters throughout history by its beauty and colourful appearance. In this study the characteristic major/minor and trace element signature of 16th century Antwerp majolica is determined and the pigments used for the colourful paintings present on the floor are identified. Furthermore, based on the elemental fingerprint of the white glaze, and in particular on the presence of zinc in the tiles - an element that was not used for making 16th century majolica - valuable information about the originality of the chapel floor and the two central medallions is acquired.

  9. [The problem of reforms in the European medicine between 16th and 19th century in the light of selected concepts of methodology of the history of science].

    PubMed

    Plonka-Syroka, B

    1997-01-01

    The article depicts major concepts present in the contemporary historiography of medicine (positivistic and social-cultural trends) and some of the concepts of modern methodology of the history of science, reviewing the possibilities of its use in the analysis of the process of modernizing the European medicine that was implemented between the 16th and the 19th century. The author advocates the social-cultural trend that dominates the contemporary historiography of medicine. She discusses and analyzes the concepts developed by Ludwik Fleck, Samuel Kuhn, Imre Lakatos, Kurt Godl, Stefan Amsterdamski in respect of their sue to a historian of modern medicine.

  10. Characterization of glue sizing layers in Portuguese wood paintings from the 15th and 16th centuries by SEM secondary electron images and μ-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Vanessa; J Oliveira, Maria; Vargas, Helena; Candeias, António; Seruya, Ana; Dias, Luís; Serrão, Vítor; Coroado, João

    2014-02-01

    According to treatises on 15th and 16th century paintings, artists dedicated particular attention to the sizing layer-consisting mainly of animal glue applied onto the wood support before further application of the ground layer. The stability of a painting mainly depends on the presence of a very cohesive sizing layer. However, the study of these layers has not received special attention from researchers. In this article we present a methodology for characterization of the sizing layer both chemically, by IR spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), and morphologically, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Secondary electron images obtained by SEM allow precise characterization of such layers. Painting reconstructions were used as references in development of the method to study the sizing layer in real painting samples. Presented herein are examples of this study on 15th and 16th century Portuguese paintings, particularly on the Triptych of S. Simão, from the Aveiro Museum, and S. Pedro, belonging to the Mercy of Tavira. PMID:24119396

  11. Ancient mtDNA Analysis of Early 16th Century Caribbean Cattle Provides Insight into Founding Populations of New World Creole Cattle Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Speller, Camilla F.; Burley, David V.; Woodward, Robyn P.; Yang, Dongya Y.

    2013-01-01

    The Columbian Exchange resulted in a widespread movement of humans, plants and animals between the Old and New Worlds. The late 15th to early 16th century transfer of cattle from the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands to the Caribbean laid the foundation for the development of American creole cattle (Bos taurus) breeds. Genetic analyses of modern cattle from the Americas reveal a mixed ancestry of European, African and Indian origins. Recent debate in the genetic literature centers on the ‘African’ haplogroup T1 and its subhaplogroups, alternatively tying their origins to the initial Spanish herds, and/or from subsequent movements of taurine cattle through the African slave trade. We examine this problem through ancient DNA analysis of early 16th century cattle bone from Sevilla la Nueva, the first Spanish colony in Jamaica. In spite of poor DNA preservation, both T3 and T1 haplogroups were identified in the cattle remains, confirming the presence of T1 in the earliest Spanish herds. The absence, however, of “African-derived American” haplotypes (AA/T1c1a1) in the Sevilla la Nueva sample, leaves open the origins of this sub-haplogroup in contemporary Caribbean cattle. PMID:23894505

  12. Characterization of glue sizing layers in Portuguese wood paintings from the 15th and 16th centuries by SEM secondary electron images and μ-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Vanessa; J Oliveira, Maria; Vargas, Helena; Candeias, António; Seruya, Ana; Dias, Luís; Serrão, Vítor; Coroado, João

    2014-02-01

    According to treatises on 15th and 16th century paintings, artists dedicated particular attention to the sizing layer-consisting mainly of animal glue applied onto the wood support before further application of the ground layer. The stability of a painting mainly depends on the presence of a very cohesive sizing layer. However, the study of these layers has not received special attention from researchers. In this article we present a methodology for characterization of the sizing layer both chemically, by IR spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), and morphologically, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Secondary electron images obtained by SEM allow precise characterization of such layers. Painting reconstructions were used as references in development of the method to study the sizing layer in real painting samples. Presented herein are examples of this study on 15th and 16th century Portuguese paintings, particularly on the Triptych of S. Simão, from the Aveiro Museum, and S. Pedro, belonging to the Mercy of Tavira.

  13. Characterisation of gold gilt silver wires from five embroidered silk Qaaba curtains dated between the 16th and 19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, A. F.; Simsek, G.; Tezcan, H.

    2006-06-01

    The wires from five Qaaba curtains, dated between the 16th and 19th centuries, presently exhibited at the Topkapı Palace Museum in Istanbul, and embroidered with gold gilded silver and silver wires, were characterized physically and chemically. The curtains are part of the Kiswa, the cover of the Qaaba, the holy place of pilgrimage in Mecca for Muslims. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) (including field emission sem) studies were carried out using energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) as well as atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) for chemical analysis. The chemical and physical composition of the wires and their coatings, and the analysis of corrosion products were made, and the present state of the wires were evaluated and compared.

  14. [Andres Vesalio, Francisco Díaz, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra and the birth of urology in the 16th Century].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Esper, Raúl; Carrillo Córdova, Luis Daniel; Carrillo Córdova, Dulce María; Carrillo Córdova, Carlos Alberto; Carrillo Córdova, Jorge Raúl

    2015-01-01

    In the sixteenth century there were great advances in science, literature, and the arts. During this century, urology as a specialty was conceived, thanks to the contributions of Andreas Vesalius, anatomist and leading physician to the court of Charles V, and Dr. Francisco Diaz, a native of Alcala de Henares, surgeon and clinician. Dr. Diaz had a close relationship with Miguel de Cervantes, who at one point in his life suffered from renal colic. In his masterpiece "Re-Printed Treaty of all diseases of the kidneys, bladder and wattles of the Cock and Urina, divided into three books," of which the first book of urology is the History of Medicine, describes in detail the clinical and therapeutic aspects of urological diseases, known as the "bad stone" and urethral strictures known as "wattles", in addition to describing the different surgical techniques and the development of new instruments for urological procedures, which include the cisorio instrument and the Speculum pudendi. For the above, Dr. Francisco Diaz is considered the father of urology. PMID:26290034

  15. [Andres Vesalio, Francisco Díaz, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra and the birth of urology in the 16th Century].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Esper, Raúl; Carrillo Córdova, Luis Daniel; Carrillo Córdova, Dulce María; Carrillo Córdova, Carlos Alberto; Carrillo Córdova, Jorge Raúl

    2015-01-01

    In the sixteenth century there were great advances in science, literature, and the arts. During this century, urology as a specialty was conceived, thanks to the contributions of Andreas Vesalius, anatomist and leading physician to the court of Charles V, and Dr. Francisco Diaz, a native of Alcala de Henares, surgeon and clinician. Dr. Diaz had a close relationship with Miguel de Cervantes, who at one point in his life suffered from renal colic. In his masterpiece "Re-Printed Treaty of all diseases of the kidneys, bladder and wattles of the Cock and Urina, divided into three books," of which the first book of urology is the History of Medicine, describes in detail the clinical and therapeutic aspects of urological diseases, known as the "bad stone" and urethral strictures known as "wattles", in addition to describing the different surgical techniques and the development of new instruments for urological procedures, which include the cisorio instrument and the Speculum pudendi. For the above, Dr. Francisco Diaz is considered the father of urology.

  16. [The influence of anatomical treaties on the works of Wendel Dietterlin and his successors in the second half of the 16th century].

    PubMed

    Gampp, Axel

    2011-01-01

    In 1543 in Basel, Johannes Oporinus published one of the most famous treatises in the history of anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius. The book was an immediate success all over Europe, especially in the Upper Rhine region. In Strasbourg, Walter Ryff (Gualterius Rivius) was responsible for an early copy; others followed, as for example Felix Platter in Basel in 1581. One of the novelties of all these books consisted in the fact that for the first time the human body was dissected into its smallest units. Anatomical elements such as the opened thorax, the vertebral column, the kidney sectionned, or the laryngeal cartilages apparently stimulated an artist of the late 16th century in the same geographical region: Wendel Dietterlin (c.1550-1599) who principally worked in Strasbourg and introduced these elements into his treatise on architecture as architectural ornaments. This seems to be the first instance of a transfer of motifs from human anatomy to architecture. From this time on, the transfer reappeared in some works until William Hogarth's era in the 18th century. PMID:22400472

  17. Identification of resinous materials on 16th and 17th century reverse-glass objects by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumer, Ursula; Dietemann, Patrick; Koller, Johann

    2009-07-01

    Objects of hinterglasmalerei, reverse-glass paintings, are painted on the back side of glass panels. Obviously, the paint layers are applied in reverse order, starting with the uppermost layer. The finished hinterglas painting is viewed through the glass, thus revealing an impressive gloss and depth of colour. The binding media of two precious objects of hinterglasmalerei from the 16th and 17th century have been identified as almost exclusively resinous. Identification was performed by a special optimised analysis procedure, which is discussed in this paper: solvent extracts are analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, both with and without derivatisation or hydrolysis. In an additional step, oxalic acid is added to the methanol extracts prior to injection. This attenuates the peaks of the non-acidic compounds, whereas the acids elute with good resolution. The non-acidic compounds are emphasised after injection of the underivatised extracts. This approach minimises compositional changes caused by the sample preparation and derivatisation steps. Chromatograms of aged samples with a very complex composition are simplified, which allows a more reliable and straightforward identification of significant markers for various materials. The binding media of the hinterglas objects were thus shown to consist of mixtures of different natural resins, larch turpentine, heat-treated Pinaceae resin or mastic. Typical compounds of dragon's blood, a natural red resin, were also detectable in red glazes by the applied analysis routine. Identification of the binding media provides valuable information that can be used in the development of an adequate conservation treatment.

  18. Relationships between precipitation and floods in the fluvial basins of Central Spain based on documentary sources from the end of the 16th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullón, T.

    2011-08-01

    This study presents the results of a historic reconstruction based upon documentary sources of precipitation and floods during the last fifty years of the 16th century in Central Spain. We used data from primary sources contemporary to the events rather than compilations or secondary references. These documents belong to the institutions that administered the study area during the time period of interest and consist of municipal or monastic minute books and administrative texts from properties belonging to the nobility and royal family. Direct data that explicitly describe meteorological or flood-related events are haphazardly distributed throughout personal correspondence and various reports, and the sizes of floods or precipitation events can also be deduced from indirect data. We analysed the qualitative data by transforming them into numerical indices of intensity/duration for precipitation and intensity/area for floods. We differentiated three sets of years that presented different hydrological patterns. The first period, from 1554 to 1575, exhibited regular precipitation patterns associated with low-intensity floods. The second, from 1576 to 1584, was characterised by low precipitation levels and few floods. The third, from 1585 to 1599, showed intense precipitation with large floods interspersed with long-lasting droughts. We interpret these results in the context of the environmental and land-use patterns of the time period studied, which coincided with a period of low temperatures.

  19. Bone fractures as indicators of intentional violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique to the late medieval period (2nd-16th century AD).

    PubMed

    Slaus, Mario; Novak, Mario; Bedić, Zeljka; Strinović, Davor

    2012-09-01

    To test the historically documented hypothesis of a general increase in deliberate violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique (AN; 2nd-6th c.) through the early medieval (EM; 7th-11th c.) to the late-medieval period (LM; 12th-16th c.), an analysis of the frequency and patterning of bone trauma was conducted in three skeletal series from these time periods. A total of 1,125 adult skeletons-346 from the AN, 313 from the EM, and 466 from the LM series-were analyzed. To differentiate between intentional violence and accidental injuries, data for trauma frequencies were collected for the complete skeleton, individual long bones, and the craniofacial region as well as by type of injury (perimortem vs. antemortem). The results of our analyses show a significant temporal increase in total fracture frequencies when calculated by skeleton as well as of individuals exhibiting one skeletal indicator of deliberate violence (sharp force lesions, craniofacial injuries, "parry" fractures, or perimortem trauma). No significant temporal increases were, however, noted in the frequencies of craniofacial trauma, "parry" fractures, perimortem injuries, or of individuals exhibiting multiple skeletal indicators of intentional violence. Cumulatively, these data suggest that the temporal increase in total fracture frequencies recorded in the eastern Adriatic was caused by a combination of factors that included not only an increase of intentional violence but also a significant change in lifestyle that accompanied the transition from a relatively affluent AN urban lifestyle to a more primitive rural medieval way of life.

  20. North American Megadroughts in the Common Era: Reconstructions and Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Cook, Edward R.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Williams, A. Park; Coats, Sloan; Stahle, David W.; Villanueva Diaz, Jose

    2016-01-01

    During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), Western North America experienced episodes of intense aridity that persisted for multiple decades or longer. These megadroughts are well documented in many proxy records, but the causal mechanisms are poorly understood. General circulation models (GCMs) simulate megadroughts, but do not reproduce the temporal clustering of events during the MCA, suggesting they are not caused by the time history of volcanic or solar forcing. Instead, GCMs generate megadroughts through (1) internal atmospheric variability, (2) sea-surface temperatures, and (3) land surface and dust aerosol feedbacks. While no hypothesis has been definitively rejected, and no GCM has accurately reproduced all features (e.g., timing, duration, and extent) of any specific megadrought, their persistence suggests a role for processes that impart memory to the climate system (land surface and ocean dynamics). Over the 21st century, GCMs project an increase in the risk of megadrought occurrence through greenhouse gas forced reductions in precipitation and increases in evaporative demand. This drying is robust across models and multiple drought indicators, but major uncertainties still need to be resolved. These include the potential moderation of vegetation evaporative losses at higher atmospheric [CO2], variations in land surface model complexity, and decadal to multidecadal modes of natural climate variability that could delay or advance onset of aridification over the the next several decades. Because future droughts will arise from both natural variability and greenhouse gas forced trends in hydroclimate, improving our understanding of the natural drivers of persistent multidecadal megadroughts should be a major research priority.

  1. Stanovlenie zapadnoevropejskoj traditsii izobrazheniya neba v XVI veke %t Establishment of the western European tradition of sky depiction in the 16th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuz'min, A. V.

    In 1603 the first contemporary-looking star atlas was publihsed; it was the "Uranometria" by J. Bayer. This was due to about 150 years of intense development of both scientific and humanistic ideas which were finally realised in the domain of celestial cartography. The invention of printing, in its turn, assisted in the rapid dissemination of these principles and creation of their common standard form. This paper gives an attempt of a brief but comprehensive analysis of the European tradition in depiction of separate constellations and the celestial map as a whole in the period beginning in the mid-15th century (the first Renaissance pictures of constellations) and concluded by the publishing of the "Uranometria" in 1603.

  2. Archaeological Remains Accounting for the Presence and Exploitation of the North Atlantic Right Whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001–2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  3. Archaeological remains accounting for the presence and exploitation of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001-2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  4. A Multi-Analytical Approach for the Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Conservation-Restoration Treatment of Moroccan Historical Manuscripts Dating to the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Latifa; Boukir, Abdellatif; Assouik, Jamal; Kerbal, Abdelali; Kajjout, Mohamed; Doumenq, Pierre; De Carvalho, Maria Luisa

    2015-08-01

    The most critical steps during the conservation-restoration treatment applied in Moroccan libraries are the deacidification using immersion in a saturated aqueous calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) solution and the consolidation of degraded manuscripts using Japanese paper. The present study aims to assess the efficiency of this restoration method using a multi-analytical approach. For this purpose, three ancient Arabic Moroccan manuscript papers dating back to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries were investigated to characterize the paper support and make a comparative study between pre-restoration and post-restoration states. Three structural and molecular characterization techniques including solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on (13)C with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CP-MAS NMR), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to elucidate the cellulose main features, to identify the inorganic composition of the papers, and to study the crystallinity of the samples. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) allowed us to obtain a qualitative and quantitative characterization of the mineral fillers used in the manufacturing of the papers. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) ascertained the state of conservation of the different papers and helped us to study the elemental composition of the samples. After restoration, it was shown that the deacidification improved the stability of papers by providing an important alkaline buffer, as demonstrated using FT-IR and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) results. However, XRD and ICP-AES did not confirm the pertinence of the treatment for all samples because of the unequal distribution of Ca on the paper surface during the restoration. The consolidation process was studied using SEM analysis; its effectiveness in restoring

  5. Megadroughts: The scary past told by tree rings and its implications for the future (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, E. R.

    2013-12-01

    Drought occurs over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, from local single-year events to continental-scale droughts lasting several years or even decades. Much of our understanding of severe multi-year droughts or megadroughts has been possible through the development and analysis of drought-sensitive tree-ring chronologies spanning the past several centuries to a thousand or more years. Individually, these chronologies have provided us with a new understanding of megadroughts at the local level. When many tree-ring chronologies distributed over large regions are used collectively to reconstruct gridded instrumental drought indices like the Palmer Drought Severity Indices (PDSI), it is possible to produce drought atlases (annual maps of reconstructed drought), which can be used to study the large-scale spatiotemporal variability of megadroughts. Drought atlases have been produced now for North American (the North American Drought Atlas - NADA), monsoon Asia (the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas - MADA), and Europe-North Africa-Middle East (the Old World Drought Atlas - OWDA). This covers most of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) land area. In every region, megadroughts of unprecedented duration - in some cases over 100 years long - have been identified prior to the 20th Century instrumental record and the frequency of megadroughts is greater during medieval and early post-medieval times approximately 600-1000 years ago, a period of generally warmer-than-average temperatures over large areas of the NH. Examples from the NADA, MADA, and OWDA, some associated with past cultural decline and collapse, illustrate the severe impacts that some of these megadroughts have had on humanity. These epochs of unprecedented aridity clearly predate the recent buildup of atmospheric greenhouse gases and, thus, must be viewed as a natural property of the climate system. This is a scary finding because it means that the climate system has the inherent capacity to slip into a more

  6. Internal ocean-atmosphere variability drives megadroughts in Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, S.; Smerdon, J. E.; Cook, B. I.; Seager, R.; Cook, E. R.; Anchukaitis, K. J.

    2016-09-01

    Multidecadal droughts that occurred during the Medieval Climate Anomaly represent an important target for validating the ability of climate models to adequately characterize drought risk over the near-term future. A prominent hypothesis is that these megadroughts were driven by a centuries-long radiatively forced shift in the mean state of the tropical Pacific Ocean. Here we use a novel combination of spatiotemporal tree ring reconstructions of Northern Hemisphere hydroclimate to infer the atmosphere-ocean dynamics that coincide with megadroughts over the American West and find that these features are consistently associated with 10-30 year periods of frequent cold El Niño-Southern Oscillation conditions and not a centuries-long shift in the mean of the tropical Pacific Ocean. These results suggest an important role for internal variability in driving past megadroughts. State-of-the-art climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, however, do not simulate a consistent association between megadroughts and internal variability of the tropical Pacific Ocean, with implications for our confidence in megadrought risk projections.

  7. Extended megadroughts in the southwestern United States during Pleistocene interglacials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fawcett, P.J.; Werne, J.P.; Anderson, R. Scott; Heikoop, J.M.; Brown, E.T.; Berke, M.A.; Smith, S.J.; Goff, F.; Donohoo-Hurley, L.; Cisneros-Dozal, L. M.; Schouten, S.; Damste, J.S.S.; Huang, Y.; Toney, J.; Fessenden, J.; Woldegabriel, G.; Atudorei, V.; Geissman, J.W.; Allen, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    The potential for increased drought frequency and severity linked to anthropogenic climate change in the semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States (US) is a serious concern. Multi-year droughts during the instrumental period and decadal-length droughts of the past two millennia were shorter and climatically different from the future permanent, dust-bowl-like-megadrought conditions, lasting decades to a century, that are predicted as a consequence of warming. So far, it has been unclear whether or not such megadroughts occurred in the southwestern US, and, if so, with what regularity and intensity. Here we show that periods of aridity lasting centuries to millennia occurred in the southwestern US during mid-Pleistocene interglacials. Using molecular palaeotemperature proxies to reconstruct the mean annual temperature (MAT) in mid-Pleistocene lacustrine sediment from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, we found that the driest conditions occurred during the warmest phases of interglacials, when the MAT was comparable to or higher than the modern MAT. A collapse of drought-tolerant C 4 plant communities during these warm, dry intervals indicates a significant reduction in summer precipitation, possibly in response to a poleward migration of the subtropical dry zone. Three MAT cycles-1/42-C in amplitude occurred within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and seem to correspond to the muted precessional cycles within this interglacial. In comparison with MIS 11, MIS 13 experienced higher precessional-cycle amplitudes, larger variations in MAT (4-6??C) and a longer period of extended warmth, suggesting that local insolation variations were important to interglacial climatic variability in the southwestern US. Comparison of the early MIS 11 climate record with the Holocene record shows many similarities and implies that, in the absence of anthropogenic forcing, the region should be entering a cooler and wetter phase. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights

  8. Extended megadroughts in the southwestern United States during Pleistocene interglacials.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Peter J; Werne, Josef P; Anderson, R Scott; Heikoop, Jeffrey M; Brown, Erik T; Berke, Melissa A; Smith, Susan J; Goff, Fraser; Donohoo-Hurley, Linda; Cisneros-Dozal, Luz M; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Huang, Yongsong; Toney, Jaime; Fessenden, Julianna; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Atudorei, Viorel; Geissman, John W; Allen, Craig D

    2011-02-24

    The potential for increased drought frequency and severity linked to anthropogenic climate change in the semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States (US) is a serious concern. Multi-year droughts during the instrumental period and decadal-length droughts of the past two millennia were shorter and climatically different from the future permanent, 'dust-bowl-like' megadrought conditions, lasting decades to a century, that are predicted as a consequence of warming. So far, it has been unclear whether or not such megadroughts occurred in the southwestern US, and, if so, with what regularity and intensity. Here we show that periods of aridity lasting centuries to millennia occurred in the southwestern US during mid-Pleistocene interglacials. Using molecular palaeotemperature proxies to reconstruct the mean annual temperature (MAT) in mid-Pleistocene lacustrine sediment from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, we found that the driest conditions occurred during the warmest phases of interglacials, when the MAT was comparable to or higher than the modern MAT. A collapse of drought-tolerant C(4) plant communities during these warm, dry intervals indicates a significant reduction in summer precipitation, possibly in response to a poleward migration of the subtropical dry zone. Three MAT cycles ∼2 °C in amplitude occurred within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and seem to correspond to the muted precessional cycles within this interglacial. In comparison with MIS 11, MIS 13 experienced higher precessional-cycle amplitudes, larger variations in MAT (4-6 °C) and a longer period of extended warmth, suggesting that local insolation variations were important to interglacial climatic variability in the southwestern US. Comparison of the early MIS 11 climate record with the Holocene record shows many similarities and implies that, in the absence of anthropogenic forcing, the region should be entering a cooler and wetter phase.

  9. Extended megadroughts in the southwestern United States during Pleistocene interglacials.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Peter J; Werne, Josef P; Anderson, R Scott; Heikoop, Jeffrey M; Brown, Erik T; Berke, Melissa A; Smith, Susan J; Goff, Fraser; Donohoo-Hurley, Linda; Cisneros-Dozal, Luz M; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Huang, Yongsong; Toney, Jaime; Fessenden, Julianna; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Atudorei, Viorel; Geissman, John W; Allen, Craig D

    2011-02-24

    The potential for increased drought frequency and severity linked to anthropogenic climate change in the semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States (US) is a serious concern. Multi-year droughts during the instrumental period and decadal-length droughts of the past two millennia were shorter and climatically different from the future permanent, 'dust-bowl-like' megadrought conditions, lasting decades to a century, that are predicted as a consequence of warming. So far, it has been unclear whether or not such megadroughts occurred in the southwestern US, and, if so, with what regularity and intensity. Here we show that periods of aridity lasting centuries to millennia occurred in the southwestern US during mid-Pleistocene interglacials. Using molecular palaeotemperature proxies to reconstruct the mean annual temperature (MAT) in mid-Pleistocene lacustrine sediment from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, we found that the driest conditions occurred during the warmest phases of interglacials, when the MAT was comparable to or higher than the modern MAT. A collapse of drought-tolerant C(4) plant communities during these warm, dry intervals indicates a significant reduction in summer precipitation, possibly in response to a poleward migration of the subtropical dry zone. Three MAT cycles ∼2 °C in amplitude occurred within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and seem to correspond to the muted precessional cycles within this interglacial. In comparison with MIS 11, MIS 13 experienced higher precessional-cycle amplitudes, larger variations in MAT (4-6 °C) and a longer period of extended warmth, suggesting that local insolation variations were important to interglacial climatic variability in the southwestern US. Comparison of the early MIS 11 climate record with the Holocene record shows many similarities and implies that, in the absence of anthropogenic forcing, the region should be entering a cooler and wetter phase. PMID:21350483

  10. Interdecadal Pacific variability and eastern Australian megadroughts over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, T. R.; Roberts, J. L.; Plummer, C. T.; Kiem, A. S.; van Ommen, T. D.

    2015-01-01

    The Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) influences multidecadal drought risk across the Pacific, but there are no millennial-length, high-resolution IPO reconstructions for quantifying long-term drought risk. In Australia, drought risk increases in positive phases of the IPO, yet few suitable rainfall proxies and short (˜100 years) instrumental records mean large uncertainties remain around drought frequency and duration. Likewise, it is unknown whether megadroughts have occurred in Australia's past. In this study, an atmospheric teleconnection in the Indian Ocean midlatitudes linking East Antarctica and Australia is exploited to produce the first accurate, annually dated millennial-length IPO reconstruction from the Law Dome (East Antarctica) ice core. Combined with an eastern Australian rainfall proxy from Law Dome, the first millennial-length Australian megadrought (>5 year duration) reconstruction is presented. Eight megadroughts are identified including one 39 year drought (A.D. 1174-1212), which occurred during an unprecedented century of aridity (A.D. 1102-1212).

  11. [Andreas Vesalius, distinguished surgeon of the 16th century].

    PubMed

    Van Hee, R

    1996-01-01

    The author gives here some considerations about A. Vesalius through his life and his works as a surgeon. He was the father of the anatomical revolution against Galen but was also an eminent clinician and surgeon. He was immediately able to adapt his surgical practice whenever the promising methodology was identified (see Consilia). The author concludes with a critical analysis of the Chirurgia magna in septem libros digesta attributed to A. Vesalius.

  12. [Andreas Vesalius, distinguished surgeon of the 16th century].

    PubMed

    Van Hee, R

    1996-01-01

    The author gives here some considerations about A. Vesalius through his life and his works as a surgeon. He was the father of the anatomical revolution against Galen but was also an eminent clinician and surgeon. He was immediately able to adapt his surgical practice whenever the promising methodology was identified (see Consilia). The author concludes with a critical analysis of the Chirurgia magna in septem libros digesta attributed to A. Vesalius. PMID:11624867

  13. Jacques Guillemeau's 16th-century account of ophthalmoplegia.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Rodríguez, M Victoria; González-Hernández, Ayoze N

    2013-07-01

    In 1585, the renowned French royal surgeon Jacques Guillemeau published his Traité des maladies de l'oeil. The book is divided into 9 unequal sections devoted to the description of eye anatomy and ophthalmological diseases including muscle, membrane, and humor disorders; optic nerve damage; and eyelid affections. Section 3, in particular, focuses on a form of ophthalmoplegia involving progressive paralysis of extraocular muscles. Here we describe and discuss Guillemeau's theoretical framework and practical approach to this ophthalmological disorder. To determine whether this physician was possibly influenced by the thought of antique and contemporary learned men, we reviewed some fundamental ideas on cranial nerves and their paralysis as presented by authors such as Herophilus of Chalcedon, Erasistratus of Ceos, Claudius Galen, Andreas Vesalius, and Leonhard Fuchs. PMID:23700141

  14. Old World megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era.

    PubMed

    Cook, Edward R; Seager, Richard; Kushnir, Yochanan; Briffa, Keith R; Büntgen, Ulf; Frank, David; Krusic, Paul J; Tegel, Willy; van der Schrier, Gerard; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Baillie, Mike; Baittinger, Claudia; Bleicher, Niels; Bonde, Niels; Brown, David; Carrer, Marco; Cooper, Richard; Čufar, Katarina; Dittmar, Christoph; Esper, Jan; Griggs, Carol; Gunnarson, Björn; Günther, Björn; Gutierrez, Emilia; Haneca, Kristof; Helama, Samuli; Herzig, Franz; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Hofmann, Jutta; Janda, Pavel; Kontic, Raymond; Köse, Nesibe; Kyncl, Tomáš; Levanič, Tom; Linderholm, Hans; Manning, Sturt; Melvin, Thomas M; Miles, Daniel; Neuwirth, Burkhard; Nicolussi, Kurt; Nola, Paola; Panayotov, Momchil; Popa, Ionel; Rothe, Andreas; Seftigen, Kristina; Seim, Andrea; Svarva, Helene; Svoboda, Miroslav; Thun, Terje; Timonen, Mauri; Touchan, Ramzi; Trotsiuk, Volodymyr; Trouet, Valerie; Walder, Felix; Ważny, Tomasz; Wilson, Rob; Zang, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Climate model projections suggest widespread drying in the Mediterranean Basin and wetting in Fennoscandia in the coming decades largely as a consequence of greenhouse gas forcing of climate. To place these and other "Old World" climate projections into historical perspective based on more complete estimates of natural hydroclimatic variability, we have developed the "Old World Drought Atlas" (OWDA), a set of year-to-year maps of tree-ring reconstructed summer wetness and dryness over Europe and the Mediterranean Basin during the Common Era. The OWDA matches historical accounts of severe drought and wetness with a spatial completeness not previously available. In addition, megadroughts reconstructed over north-central Europe in the 11th and mid-15th centuries reinforce other evidence from North America and Asia that droughts were more severe, extensive, and prolonged over Northern Hemisphere land areas before the 20th century, with an inadequate understanding of their causes. The OWDA provides new data to determine the causes of Old World drought and wetness and attribute past climate variability to forced and/or internal variability. PMID:26601136

  15. Old World megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Edward R.; Seager, Richard; Kushnir, Yochanan; Briffa, Keith R.; Büntgen, Ulf; Frank, David; Krusic, Paul J.; Tegel, Willy; van der Schrier, Gerard; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Baillie, Mike; Baittinger, Claudia; Bleicher, Niels; Bonde, Niels; Brown, David; Carrer, Marco; Cooper, Richard; Čufar, Katarina; Dittmar, Christoph; Esper, Jan; Griggs, Carol; Gunnarson, Björn; Günther, Björn; Gutierrez, Emilia; Haneca, Kristof; Helama, Samuli; Herzig, Franz; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Hofmann, Jutta; Janda, Pavel; Kontic, Raymond; Köse, Nesibe; Kyncl, Tomáš; Levanič, Tom; Linderholm, Hans; Manning, Sturt; Melvin, Thomas M.; Miles, Daniel; Neuwirth, Burkhard; Nicolussi, Kurt; Nola, Paola; Panayotov, Momchil; Popa, Ionel; Rothe, Andreas; Seftigen, Kristina; Seim, Andrea; Svarva, Helene; Svoboda, Miroslav; Thun, Terje; Timonen, Mauri; Touchan, Ramzi; Trotsiuk, Volodymyr; Trouet, Valerie; Walder, Felix; Ważny, Tomasz; Wilson, Rob; Zang, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Climate model projections suggest widespread drying in the Mediterranean Basin and wetting in Fennoscandia in the coming decades largely as a consequence of greenhouse gas forcing of climate. To place these and other “Old World” climate projections into historical perspective based on more complete estimates of natural hydroclimatic variability, we have developed the “Old World Drought Atlas” (OWDA), a set of year-to-year maps of tree-ring reconstructed summer wetness and dryness over Europe and the Mediterranean Basin during the Common Era. The OWDA matches historical accounts of severe drought and wetness with a spatial completeness not previously available. In addition, megadroughts reconstructed over north-central Europe in the 11th and mid-15th centuries reinforce other evidence from North America and Asia that droughts were more severe, extensive, and prolonged over Northern Hemisphere land areas before the 20th century, with an inadequate understanding of their causes. The OWDA provides new data to determine the causes of Old World drought and wetness and attribute past climate variability to forced and/or internal variability. PMID:26601136

  16. Old World megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era.

    PubMed

    Cook, Edward R; Seager, Richard; Kushnir, Yochanan; Briffa, Keith R; Büntgen, Ulf; Frank, David; Krusic, Paul J; Tegel, Willy; van der Schrier, Gerard; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Baillie, Mike; Baittinger, Claudia; Bleicher, Niels; Bonde, Niels; Brown, David; Carrer, Marco; Cooper, Richard; Čufar, Katarina; Dittmar, Christoph; Esper, Jan; Griggs, Carol; Gunnarson, Björn; Günther, Björn; Gutierrez, Emilia; Haneca, Kristof; Helama, Samuli; Herzig, Franz; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Hofmann, Jutta; Janda, Pavel; Kontic, Raymond; Köse, Nesibe; Kyncl, Tomáš; Levanič, Tom; Linderholm, Hans; Manning, Sturt; Melvin, Thomas M; Miles, Daniel; Neuwirth, Burkhard; Nicolussi, Kurt; Nola, Paola; Panayotov, Momchil; Popa, Ionel; Rothe, Andreas; Seftigen, Kristina; Seim, Andrea; Svarva, Helene; Svoboda, Miroslav; Thun, Terje; Timonen, Mauri; Touchan, Ramzi; Trotsiuk, Volodymyr; Trouet, Valerie; Walder, Felix; Ważny, Tomasz; Wilson, Rob; Zang, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Climate model projections suggest widespread drying in the Mediterranean Basin and wetting in Fennoscandia in the coming decades largely as a consequence of greenhouse gas forcing of climate. To place these and other "Old World" climate projections into historical perspective based on more complete estimates of natural hydroclimatic variability, we have developed the "Old World Drought Atlas" (OWDA), a set of year-to-year maps of tree-ring reconstructed summer wetness and dryness over Europe and the Mediterranean Basin during the Common Era. The OWDA matches historical accounts of severe drought and wetness with a spatial completeness not previously available. In addition, megadroughts reconstructed over north-central Europe in the 11th and mid-15th centuries reinforce other evidence from North America and Asia that droughts were more severe, extensive, and prolonged over Northern Hemisphere land areas before the 20th century, with an inadequate understanding of their causes. The OWDA provides new data to determine the causes of Old World drought and wetness and attribute past climate variability to forced and/or internal variability.

  17. PREFACE: 16th European White Dwarfs Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Berro, Enrique; Hernanz, Margarita; Isern, Jordi; Torres, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    The 16th European Workshop on White Dwarfs was held in Barcelona, Spain, from 30 June to 4 July 2008 at the premises of the UPC. Almost 120 participants from Europe (France, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, and several others), America (USA, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile), and other continents (Australia, South Africa, . . . ) attended the workshop. Among these participants were the most relevant specialists in the field. The topics covered by the conference were: White dwarf structure and evolution Progenitors and Planetary Nebulae White dwarfs in binaries: cataclysmic variables, double degenerates and other binaries White dwarfs, dust disks and planetary systems Atmospheres, chemical composition, magnetic fields Variable white dwarfs White dwarfs in stellar clusters and the halo White Dwarfs as SNIa progenitors The programme included 54 talks, and 45 posters. The oral presentations were distributed into the following sessions: Luminosity function, mass function and populations White dwarf structure and evolution White dwarf ages White dwarf catalogs and surveys Central stars of planetary nebulae Supernovae progenitors White dwarfs in novae and CVs Physical processes in white dwarfs and magnetic white dwarfs Disks, dust and planets around white dwarfs Pulsating white dwarfs Additionally we had a special open session about Spitzer and white dwarfs. The Proceedings of the 16th European Workshop on White Dwarfs are representative of the current state-of-the-art of the research field and include new and exciting results. We acknowledge the very positive attitude of the attendants to the workshop, which stimulated very fruitful discussions that took place in all the sessions and after the official schedule. Also, the meeting allowed new collaborations tp start that will undoubtedly result in significant advances in the research field. We also acknowledge the willingness of the participants to deliver their contributions before the final deadline. We sincerely

  18. 1. General streetscape view in Langdale Mill Village 16th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General streetscape view in Langdale Mill Village - 16th St. looking northwest. Note duplication of side-gable, duplex house type. - Textile Industry in Valley, Alabama, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  19. Paleoclimate Model-Data Comparisons of Hydroclimate over North America with a Focus on Megadroughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, Sloan

    For the first time in the history of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the Paleoclimate and Coupled Model Intercomparison Projects Phases 3 and 5 produced an ensemble of forced transient simulations of the last millennium. This wealth of model output, when combined with a growing collection of high spatial and temporal resolution paleoclimate estimates of past climate variability, represents an important and unprecedented source of information on climate variability over decades to centuries. This dissertation thus combines paleoclimate evidence with climate modeling to define a physical and statistical paradigm through which to analyze these combined sources of information and subsequently to characterize the features of the North American climate system that cannot be sufficiently understood using instrumental data alone. This includes features that have long timescales of variability or that are rare, and by consequence have few degrees of freedom over the short instrumental interval (1850 C.E. to Present), as well as interannual dynamical relationships that, while potentially well characterized by observations, are non-stationary. An integrative approach to analyzing these features or relationships serves two fundamental purposes: 1) It provides a more comprehensive characterization of past climate variability, albeit with the caveat of model bias, to clarify understanding of the dynamics that produce these features or relationships in the real world; and 2) it assesses whether coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) are able to simulate these features or relationships, which is necessary to determine that state-of-the-art CGCMs can accurately constrain the risk of future climate change. The focus herein will be on multidecadal hydroclimate change, or megadroughts, in the paleoclimate record of the American Southwest to better inform our understanding of the risk of future hydroclimate change over the region. Two fundamental understandings are

  20. The challenge of accurately quantifying future megadrought risk in the American Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, Sloan; Mankin, Justin S.

    2016-09-01

    American Southwest (ASW) megadroughts represent decadal-scale periods of dry conditions the near-term risks of which arise from natural low-frequency hydroclimate variability and anthropogenic forcing. A large single-climate-model ensemble indicates that anthropogenic forcing increases near-term ASW megadrought risk by a factor of 100; however, accurate risk assessment remains a challenge. At the global-scale we find that anthropogenic forcing may alter the variability driving megadroughts over 55% of land areas, undermining accurate assessments of their risk. For the remaining areas, current ensembles are too small to characterize megadroughts' driving variability. For example, constraining uncertainty in near-term ASW megadrought risk to 5 percentage points with high confidence requires 287 simulations. Such ensemble sizes are beyond current computational and storage resources, and these limitations suggest that constraining errors in near-term megadrought risk projections with high confidence—even in places where underlying variability is stationary—is not currently possible.

  1. The 16th International Geological Congress, Washington, 1933

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In 1933, the International Geological Congress (IGC) returned to the United States of America (USA) for its sixteenth meeting, forty-two years after the 5th IGC convened in Washington. The Geological Society of America and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) supplied the major part of the required extra-registration funding after the effects of the Great Depression influenced the 72th U.S. Congress not to do so. A reported 1, 182 persons or organizations, representing fifty-four countries, registered for the 16 th IGC and thirty-four countries sent 141 official delegates. Of the total number of registrants, 665 actually attended the meeting; 500 came from the USA; and fifteen had participated in the 5th IGC. The 16 th Meeting convened in the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Building from 22 to 29 July. The eighteen half-day scientific sections-orogenesis (four), major divisions of the Paleozoic (three), miscellaneous (three), batholiths and related intrusives (two), arid-region geomorphic processes and products (one), fossil man and contemporary faunas (one), geology of copper and other ore deposits (one), geology of petroleum (one), measuring geologic time (one), and zonal relations of metalliferous deposits (one)-included 166 papers, of which fifty (including several of the key contributions) appeared only by title. The Geological Society of Washington, the National Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines hosted or contributed to evening presentations or receptions. Twenty-eight of the 16th IGC's thirty new guidebooks and one new USGS Bulletin aided eight pre-meeting, seven during-meeting, and four post-meeting field trips of local, regional, or national scope. The remaining two new guidebooks outlined the USA's structural geology and its stratigraphic nomenclature. The 16th IGC published a two-volume monograph on the world's copper resources (1935) and a two-volume report of its proceedings (1936).

  2. European Generic Medicines Association (EGA)--16th Annual Conference.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Bob

    2010-08-01

    The 16th Annual Conference of the European Generic Medicines Association (EGA), held in Rome, included topics covering new developments and challenges in the generic medicines industry in Europe. This conference report highlights selected presentations on developments for generics in the Italian healthcare system, a summary of the EGA pharmaceutical sector inquiry on the delayed market entry of generics, developments and trends in the European generics market, the evolution and growth of the global generics industry, and a CEO perspective on the challenges facing the industry.

  3. 16th Annual Land O'Lakes Bioanalytical Conference.

    PubMed

    Burns, Erik C; Guthrie, Randall H; Fluhler, Eric N; Stubbs, R John; Bateman, Kevin; King, Lindsay; Moran, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    This Land O'Lakes Conference is presented each year by the Division of Pharmacy Professional Development within the School of Pharmacy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (USA). The purpose of this 3-day conference is to provide an educational forum to discuss issues and applications associated with the analysis of xenobiotics, metabolites, biologics and biomarkers in biological matrices. The conference is designed to include and encourage an open exchange of scientific and methodological applications for bioanalysis. To increase the interactive nature of the conference, the program is a mixture of lectures, interactive discussions and a poster session. This report summarized the presentations at the 16th Annual Conference. 6th Annual Land O'Lakes Bioanalytical Conference, Fluno Center Madison, WI, USA, 13-16 July 2015. PMID:26563751

  4. 16(th) IHIW: report of the MICA project.

    PubMed

    Stastny, P; Zou, Y

    2013-02-01

    The MICA Project of the 16th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop was planned to improve the detection of specific antibodies against MICA antigens that develop in organ transplant recipients. It was organized as a serum exchange with 18 laboratories located in seven countries as participants. Each laboratory used the MICA screening reagents available to them. It was found that there were four different kits of Luminex beads conjugated with MICA antigens that could be used in these experiments. They were, kit BL, produced by Rainer Blasczyk in Hannover, Germany, containing 12 MICA antigens, the kit from Gen-Probe (GP), which included 28 MICA antigens, the beads from One Lambda (OL), consisting of ten antigens, and the beads produced in the laboratory of the organizers (ZS) consisting of 11 MICA antigens. The sera were all from transplant recipients and represented a spectrum of MICA-specific antibodies that are commonly found. All laboratories accurately could recognize which sera contained MICA antibodies. None failed to recognize the negative serum that was included in one of the shipments. While there were important differences in the specificities of MICA antigens recognized by the different kits, the results in laboratories using the same beads were remarkably similar. Feedback was given to the participants, and especially to the producers of the antibody detection kits, after each set of four sera was sent, and results were collected. Certain beads were replaced and results improved as can be seen in the results of the third shipment of sera. It is important for laboratories to be able to accurately determine the specificity of antibodies against MICA to know whether the antibodies are donor specific. Although complete consensus was not attained, some important errors were corrected, and a better understanding of how to accurately determine MICA allele-specific antibodies was developed.

  5. EDITORIAL: 16th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoksson, Professor Peter

    2006-06-01

    This special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the 16th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 2005), which was held in Göteborg, Sweden, at the Chalmers Conference Centre on the premises of Chalmers University of Technology, 4-6 September 2005. Göteborg is the second largest city in Sweden and is situated on the beautiful south-west coast. With its relaxed and friendly atmosphere Göteborg proudly lives up to its reputation of having the charm of a small town with all the opportunities of a big city. The MME workshop is a well recognized and established European event for creating microsensors and microactuators in the field of micromachining, microengineering and technology. The very first workshop was held at Twente University, The Netherlands, in 1989. Scientists and people from industry who are interested in the field gather annually for this event. The goals are stimulation and improvement of know-how in the field, as well as establishing cooperation and friendship between delegates. Thus MME is arranged so that people can meet in a friendly and informal atmosphere. That is why the accent is on mutual discussions around poster presentations rather than on formal oral presentations. The contributions, which came from 21 countries, were presented in four sessions and five keynote presentations. I am proud to present 24 high-quality papers from MME 2005 selected for their novelty and relevance to Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. Each paper passed a rigorous peer review process. May I take this opportunity to thank those authors who contributed their research to this special issue, which I hope gives an excellent overview of topics discussed at the workshop. I would also like to express my gratitude to Professor Robert Puers for advising on the selection of papers and to Dr Anke Sanz-Velasco for helping to coordinate the special issue with the Institute of Physics Publishing office at the start. I hope you

  6. Potential Bias in Projecting Future Regional Megadrought Risk: Insights From A Global Data-Model Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, J. T.; Ault, T.; Cole, J. E.; Fasullo, J.; Loope, G. R.; Parsons, L. A.; Stevenson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Megadrought is one of the most significant and costly climate extremes, and one that stakeholders (e.g., water and other resource managers) the world over wish to understand better; in particular, they need estimates of the risk of severe droughts as a function of drought frequency, severity, duration, and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration. In many dry-climate regions of the globe, megadrought is synonymous with multi-decadal drought. However, in other regions, megadrought can be defined as extended drought, mostly not seen in the period of instrumental observations, and that would have large impacts if it were to occur in the future. New and published paleoclimatic observations allow us to understand the spectrum of drought in many regions of the globe; droughts exceeding 50 years have occurred in recent Earth history in southwestern North America, sub-Saharan Africa, the Mediterranean and Australia, whereas shorter megadroughts have occurred in Monsoon Asia, Amazonia and elsewhere. Data-model comparisons for regions with sufficiently long (e.g., 1000-2000 years) records of observed hydroclimatic variability suggest that state-of-the-art models can provide realistic estimates of interannual to decadal drought risk, but underestimate the risk of megadrought. Likely reasons for this shortcoming are the lack of sufficient multi-decadal variability in simulations of the past and future, plus an underappreciated understanding about how temperature variability and land-surface feedbacks interact with hydrological and ecological drought, as well as the roles played by unusually wet hydroclimatic extremes (e.g., ENSO related) in ending droughts of long duration. Paleoclimatic records also provide the opportunity to estimate how much models underestimate megadrought risk as a function of locale, frequency, severity, duration, and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration; they also aid in providing stakeholders with bias-corrected estimates of megadrought risk.

  7. Two millennia of tropical cyclone-induced mud layers in a northern Yucatán stalagmite: Multiple overlapping climatic hazards during the Maya Terminal Classic "megadroughts"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frappier, Amy Benoit; Pyburn, James; Pinkey-Drobnis, Aurora D.; Wang, Xianfeng; Corbett, D. Reide; Dahlin, Bruce H.

    2014-07-01

    An annually laminated stalagmite from the northern Yucatán Peninsula contains mud layers from 256 cave flooding events over 2240 years. This new conservative proxy for paleotempestology recorded cave flooding events with a recurrence interval of 8.3 years during the twentieth century, with the greatest frequency during the twentieth century and the least frequent during the seventeenth century. Tropical cyclone (TC) events are unlikely to flood the cave during drought when the water table is depressed. Applying TC masking to the Chaac paleorainfall reconstruction suggests that the severity of the Maya "megadroughts" was underestimated. Without a high-resolution radiometric geochronology of individual local TC events, speleothem isotope records cannot resolve whether the Terminal Classic Period in the northern Maya Lowlands was punctuated by several brief drought breaks with normal TCs, or whether the region was very dry and peppered by unusually severe and frequent hurricane seasons.

  8. Using optical spectroscopy to characterize the material of a 16th c. stained glass window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceglia, A.; Meulebroeck, W.; Wouters, H.; Baert, K.; Nys, K.; Terryn, H.; Thienpont, H.

    In this paper we studied the transmittance spectra of a collection of several glass samples taken from a 16th century stained window of the Church of Our Lady in Bruges, Belgium. We recorded the optical spectra for all the samples in the region between 350 and 1600 nm. The goal of our research was to reveal information about the composition of the glass artifacts in a fast and non-destructive way. Analysis of the optical spectra allowed us in the first place to identify the type of colorants that were used. It was possible to recognize metal ions, such as Fe2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Mn3+, Cr3+ and Cu2+. Also colors made of metal nanoparticles, such as silver and copper colloids were successfully identified. The recognition of the coloring agents is of particular interest in dating the glass pieces. This is because some colorants were only used in certain periods. Green glass colored by chromium was produced only after the mid 19th century onwards. Our study showed that 3 of the 10 pieces were colored by this element and they originate as such from a later period. A second conclusion refers to the applied fluxing agent. By analyzing the spectral position of the first cobalt absorption band, we were able to classify the glass pieces as potash based (used in medieval times) or soda-based (used in modern times) and therefore to classify them as original or as restoration material. From the 10 blue colored samples, 7 of them were recognized as original material. Finally, for the naturally colored parts the analysis of the spectra allowed us to group them based on cobalt impurities.

  9. [Equivocal quintessence. Spiritual alchemy and counterfeit money in 16th-century Spain].

    PubMed

    Tausiet, María

    2011-01-01

    One of the main obsessions of the early modern era was that of determining the notions of true and false, in order to apply them to various fields of knowledge and thus establish the divide between the lawful and unlawful. This trend was to have a particular impact on the fields of religion and science, where it became necessary to distinguish not only between true and false spirits, relics or miracles, but also between genuine and fake astrologers and alchemists. Situated in the middle ground between idealism and materialism, alchemy was prime territory for such tensions, as was demonstrated by a trial held in 1593 at the Jeronymite monastery of Santa Enracia in Saragossa, whose prior accused a friar of making "silver out of smoke and jewels from goblins".

  10. [Equivocal quintessence. Spiritual alchemy and counterfeit money in 16th-century Spain].

    PubMed

    Tausiet, María

    2011-01-01

    One of the main obsessions of the early modern era was that of determining the notions of true and false, in order to apply them to various fields of knowledge and thus establish the divide between the lawful and unlawful. This trend was to have a particular impact on the fields of religion and science, where it became necessary to distinguish not only between true and false spirits, relics or miracles, but also between genuine and fake astrologers and alchemists. Situated in the middle ground between idealism and materialism, alchemy was prime territory for such tensions, as was demonstrated by a trial held in 1593 at the Jeronymite monastery of Santa Enracia in Saragossa, whose prior accused a friar of making "silver out of smoke and jewels from goblins". PMID:22368801

  11. [Development of European medicine to the time of Vesalius (16th century)].

    PubMed

    Smrcka, V; Nádvorník, P

    1999-01-25

    Mythical Greece, Egyptian Alexandria and ancient Rome were the cradle of ancient medicine where the beginnings of anatomy and physiology were combined with nature philosophy of great personalities such as Hippocrates and Galen. A modern contribution i.e. medical chemistry, to European medicine was made by Arab physicians Rhazes and Avicena. Only when clerical dogmatism was overcome, after the discovery of the New world and the development of universities the road to scientific progress ws opened on which started the great surgeon and physician Andreas Vesalius. PMID:10376393

  12. Tongue and lip frenectomy in Spanish medical texts of the 16th-18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Romero-Maroto, Martín; Sáez-Gómez, José Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The frena of the tongue and lip are normal structures of the buccal cavity, and surgical resection is only necessary in cases of hypertrophy. This article looks at medical texts of the Early Modern Era to analyze the origins and quality of our knowledge on this topic and examine any therapeutic measures proposed. This review shows that while the indications for carrying out tongue frenectomy are very similar to those today (speech and breastfeeding difficulties), those for carrying out a lip frenectomy are very different. Interestingly, apart from purely surgical or medicinal treatments, some authors indicated the need to complement such treatment with educational intervention and what can only be called basic speech therapy. PMID:22916406

  13. Underwater Dendrochronology of the Sierra Nevada: Testing the Medieval Mega-Drought Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, F.; Kleppe, J. A.; Brothers, D.; Kent, G.

    2006-12-01

    As stated in the NAS STR Report, "regional and large-scale reconstructions of changes in other climatic variables, such as precipitation, over the last 2,000 years would provide a valuable complement to those made for temperature." In this context, we focus on the 'Medieval Mega-drought Hypothesis', which is based on radiocarbon dating of dead trees and stumps found underwater in Sierra Nevada lakes and streambeds, and states that century-long dry periods caused lakes to retreat and streams to dry up, with the most recent mega-droughts happening during medieval times. While several paleoclimatic records support this hypothesis, some do not, and the possibility exists that geomorphic processes, such as landslides caused by seismic events, were responsible for the presence of trees and stumps under current bodies of water. Given the relevance of this hypothesis, not only for sustainable water management but also for social stability and security, it is necessary to test it beyond reasonable doubt. One way to do so is by measuring the location, orientation, and time of origin of underwater trees, to determine if they were transported or grew in situ. For example, during 2005 wood samples were retrieved from submerged trees at Fallen Leaf Lake, California. The trees had been previously located and documented using an ROV that can obtain high resolution color video, and collect small surface samples using a gripper, down to a water depth of about 150 m. For tree-ring dating, a reference chronology from AD 543 to 2003 was developed using live and dead western juniper trees located near the lake. One underwater sample, i.e. a branch cross section that included 69 rings, was then dated to AD 1085-1153. This shows that it is feasible to obtain calendar dates and continuous ring-width series from underwater trees in the Sierra Nevada. Submerged trees in Fallen Leaf Lake were mapped in summer 2006 using an EdgeTech 4200 side-scan system capable of decimeter resolution. The 5

  14. 16th Russian Youth Conference on Physics of Semiconductors and Nanostructures, Opto- and Nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suris, Robert A.; Vorobjev, Leonid E.; Firsov, Dmitry A.

    2015-01-01

    The 16th Russian Youth Conference on Physics of Semiconductors and Nanostructures, Opto- and Nanoelectronics was held on November 24 - 28 at St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. The program of the Conference included semiconductor technology, heterostructures with quantum wells and quantum dots, opto- and nanoelectronic devices, and new materials. A large number of participants with about 200 attendees from many regions of Russia provided a perfect platform for the valuable discussions between students and experienced scientists. The Conference included two invited talks given by a corresponding member of RAS P.S. Kopyev ("Nitrides: the 4th Nobel Prize on semiconductor heterostructures") and Dr. A.V. Ivanchik ("XXI century is the era of precision cosmology"). Students, graduate and postgraduate students presented their results on plenary and poster sessions. The total number of accepted papers published in Russian (the official conference language) was 92. Here we publish 18 of them in English. Like previous years, the participants were involved in the competition for the best report. Certificates and cash prizes were awarded to a number of participants for the presentations selected by the Program Committee. Two special E.F. Gross Prizes were given for the best presentations in semiconductor optics. Works with potential applications were recommended for participation in the following competition for support from the Russian Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises in Science and Technology. The Conference was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the "Dynasty" foundation and the innovation company "ATC - Semiconductor Devices", St. Petersburg. The official Conference website is http://www.semicond.spbstu.ru/conf2014-eng.html

  15. 2200-years of hydrological flickering and megadroughts in Yucatán using variographic analysis of stalagmite annual layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frappier, A. E.; Brill, M. E.

    2013-05-01

    Variograph analysis is a useful new tool for assessing annually layered speleothem data for paleoclimate information content and the temporal scales of climate variation which are represented in the proxy archive. We present a variograph analysis of annual layer thickness data from stalagmite CH-1, which grew in Cenote Chaltun Ha, Huhí, Yucatán, Mexico for about two millennia until it was collected in 2007. Our previous analyses of CH-1 showed that growth rates were very consistent throughout the entire growth period, with a sudden shift from a rapid growth regime to a slow growth regime at about 419+/-2 C.E. We also documented changes in cave flood frequencies due to tropical cyclone activity and high water tables on interannual to multicentennial timescales, with tropical cyclone activity generally tracking regional paleotempestology results showing very low cave flooding frequencies from the 13th to 18th centuries, high cave flooding frequencies prior to the early 5th century, and evidence for intense tropical cyclone activity during the Maya Terminal Classic so-called 'Megadroughts'. Results from the CH-1 variograph analysis, including flickering intensity, information content, and range, will be presented in comparison with other hydroclimatic proxy indicators in CH-1, including stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios, fluorescence intensity, and cave flooding events, and discussed in terms of the implications of these findings for the understanding of past hydroclimatic variability in the northern Yucatán peninsula during the last 2200 years.

  16. New insight on the underdrawing of 16th Flemish-Portuguese easel paintings by combined surface analysis and microanalytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Valadas, S; Freire, R; Cardoso, A; Mirão, J; Vandenabeele, P; Caetano, J O; Candeias, A

    2016-06-01

    This paper focusses on the study of the underdrawings of 16th century easel paintings attributed to the workshop of the Portuguese-Flemish Master Frei Carlos. This investigation encompasses multidisciplinary research that relates the results of surface exams (infrared reflectography, standard light photography and infrared photography) with analytical investigations. The surface analysis of Frei Carlos' underdrawings by infrared reflectography has shown heterogeneous work, revealing two different situations: (1) an abundant and expressive underdrawing, revealing a Flemish influence and (2) a simple and outlined underdrawing. This preliminary research raised an important question related to this Portuguese-Flemish workshop and to the analytical approach: Is the underdrawing's heterogeneity, as observed in the reflectograms, related to different artists or is this rather an effect that is produced due to the use of different materials in the underdrawing's execution? Consequently, if different materials were used, how can we have access to the hidden underdrawings? In order to understand the reasons for this dissemblance, chemical analysis of micro-samples collected in underdrawing areas and representing both situations were carried out by optical microscopy, micro Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-Raman). Taking into account the different possibilities and practical and theoretical limitations of surface and punctual examinations in the study of easel painting underdrawings, the methodology of research was adjusted, sometimes resulting in a re-analysis of experimental results. This research shows the importance of combining multispectral surface exams and chemical analysis in the understanding of the artistic creative processes of 16th century easel paintings.

  17. Organization of the 16th Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) Workshop by Stanford University

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhirong; Hogan, Mark

    2015-09-30

    Essentially all we know today and will learn in the future about the fundamental nature of matter is derived from probing it with directed beams of particles such as electrons, protons, neutrons, heavy ions, and photons. The resulting ability to “see” the building blocks of matter has had an immense impact on society and our standard of living. Over the last century, particle accelerators have changed the way we look at nature and the universe we live in and have become an integral part of the Nation’s technical infrastructure. Today, particle accelerators are essential tools of modern science and technology. The cost and capabilities of accelerators would be greatly enhanced by breakthroughs in acceleration methods and technology. For the last 32 years, the Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) Workshop has acted as the focal point for discussion and development of the most promising acceleration physics and technology. It is a particularly effective forum where the discussion is leveraged and promoted by the unique and demanding feature of the AAC Workshop: the working group structure, in which participants are asked to consider their contributions in terms of even larger problems to be solved. The 16th Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC2014) Workshop was organized by Stanford University from July 13 - 18, 2014 at the Dolce Hays Mansion in San Jose, California. The conference had a record 282 attendees including 62 students. Attendees came from 11 countries representing 66 different institutions. The workshop format consisted of plenary sessions in the morning with topical leaders from around the world presenting the latest breakthroughs to the entire workshop. In the late morning and afternoons attendees broke out into eight different working groups for more detailed presentations and discussions that were summarized on the final day of the workshop. In addition, there were student tutorial presentations on two afternoons to provide in depth education and

  18. FACING SOUNT AT JEFFERSON STREET AND 16TH STREET. NORTH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING SOUNT AT JEFFERSON STREET AND 16TH STREET. NORTH AND WEST BACKSIDES OF JOHN BREUNER AND COMPANY BUILDING IN CENTER (BACKGROUND), SURROUNDING STRUCTURES ON CLAY, JEFFERSON AND 15TH STREETS AT LEFT, RIGHT, AND FOREGROUND - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. Computers in Libraries Annual Conference (16th, Washington, DC, March 14-16, 2001): Collected Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Carol, Comp.

    This book contains the presentations of the 16th annual Computers in Libraries Conference. Contents include: "Creating New Services & Opportunities through Web Databases"; "Influencing Change and Student Learning through Staff Development"; "Top Ten Navigation Tips"; "Library of the Year: Gwinnett County Public Library Sets Strategies for the…

  20. 16th National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    ScienceCinema

    Chakoumakos, Bryan; Achilles, Cherie; Cybulskis, Viktor; Gilbert, Ian

    2016-07-12

    Students talk about their experience at the 16th National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering, or NXS 2014. Jointly conducted by Oak Ridge and Argonne national laboratories, NXS immerses graduate students in national user facilities to learn in a hands-on environment how to use neutrons and X-rays in their research.

  1. 16th National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Chakoumakos, Bryan; Achilles, Cherie; Cybulskis, Viktor; Gilbert, Ian

    2014-07-02

    Students talk about their experience at the 16th National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering, or NXS 2014. Jointly conducted by Oak Ridge and Argonne national laboratories, NXS immerses graduate students in national user facilities to learn in a hands-on environment how to use neutrons and X-rays in their research.

  2. Scientific Library Will Hold 16th Annual Book and Media Swap | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Scientific Library has begun collecting materials for the 16th Annual Book and Media Swap and will continue to do so through Tuesday, October 25. Opening day for the Swap is Wednesday, October 26, and the event will continue through Wednesday, November 30.

  3. [Iconography of embryos and fetuses in the treaties of delivery and anatomy from 16th century till 18th century].

    PubMed

    Morel, Marie-France

    2009-01-01

    Leonardo', Eurakius' and Jacob Rueff's carved woods focus attention as they are sketches of foetuses in breech presentation. From the very beginning foetus is a little man made in the image of God in the works of Guillemeau, Mauriceau and Viardel. Later the liking for Baroque made the Putti, embryos with kindly faces created in Padua and Venice. Hunter's treatise finishes this picturesque review. PMID:19852242

  4. Highlights of the 16th annual scientific sessions of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The 16th Annual Scientific Sessions of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) took place in San Francisco, USA at the end of January 2013. With a faculty of experts from across the world, this congress provided a wealth of insight into cutting-edge research and technological development. This review article intends to provide a highlight of what represented the most significant advances in the field of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) during this year’s meeting. PMID:23870663

  5. Highlights of the 16th annual scientific sessions of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, John-Paul; Patel, Amit R; Fernandes, Juliano Lara

    2013-07-19

    The 16th Annual Scientific Sessions of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) took place in San Francisco, USA at the end of January 2013. With a faculty of experts from across the world, this congress provided a wealth of insight into cutting-edge research and technological development. This review article intends to provide a highlight of what represented the most significant advances in the field of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) during this year's meeting.

  6. The 16th International Conference on X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS16)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunwaldt, J.-D.; Hagelstein, M.; Rothe, J.

    2016-05-01

    This preface of the proceedings volume of the 16th International Conference on X- ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS16) gives a glance on the five days of cutting-edge X-ray science which were held in Karlsruhe, Germany, August 23 - 28, 2015. In addition, several satellite meetings took place in Hamburg, Berlin and Stuttgart, a Sino-German workshop, three data analysis tutorials as well as special symposia on industrial catalysis and XFELs were held at the conference venue.

  7. "Treatises on Earthquakes" in late Renaissance (16th-17th cent), at the roots of historical seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albini, P.

    2009-04-01

    It was soon after the damaging November 1570 earthquake at Ferrara, Northern Italy, that the academic Stefano Breventano from Pavia, a small town in Northern Italy as well, started to compose his "Treatise on the earthquake". Completed by September 1576, this 250-page manuscript was to remain unpublished for centuries. The critical edition recently appeared (Albini, 2007) was a due tribute to the remarkable amount of information put together by Breventano, an otherwise "obscure" literate who, before getting involved with earthquakes, had published a history of the antiquities and remarkable events at his hometown Pavia (1570). Indeed, he was not the first Renaissance author to pursue the goal of checking into the historical sources of the previous centuries in search of earthquakes and other natural phenomena. What is outstanding in his "Treatise" is that he suceeded in retrieving information on more than two hundred earthquakes, along two thousand years, between 504 B.C. and 1575 A.D., covering the whole Euro-Mediterranean region, and the West Indies in early 16th century. Breventano's essay is here presented, together with a comparison between his style and amount of information with those included in the work by the contemporary British author Stephen Batman, "The Doome warning all men to the Judgement" (1581). A later treatise is presented also, the work by Marcello Bonito (1690) "Terra Tremante [Trembling Earth]", which could easily be defined as a worldwide list of earthquakes. In structure and content, Bonito's work goes along the same lines of Breventano, and could be considered a precursor of today descriptive catalogues, because of his outstandingly modern approach that paved the way to modern historical seismology.

  8. PREFACE: The 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takaho

    2009-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains invited and contributed peer-reviewed papers that were presented at the 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008), which was held on 7-12 September 2008, at Kunibiki Messe, Matsue, Japan. This triennial symposium has a half-century long history starting from the 1st meeting in 1959 at Asbury Park, New Jersey. We were very pleased to organize ISBB 2008, which gathered chemists, physicists, materials scientists as well as diamond and high-pressure researchers. This meeting had a strong background in the boron-related Japanese research history, which includes the discovery of superconductivity in MgB2 and development of Nd-Fe-B hard magnets and of YB66 soft X-ray monochromator. The scope of ISBB 2008 spans both basic and applied interdisciplinary research that is centered on boron, borides and related materials, and the collection of articles defines the state of the art in research on these materials. The topics are centered on: 1. Preparation of new materials (single crystals, thin films, nanostructures, ceramics, etc) under normal or extreme conditions. 2. Crystal structure and chemical bonding (new crystal structures, nonstoichiometry, defects, clusters, quantum-chemical calculations). 3. Physical and chemical properties (band structure, phonon spectra, superconductivity; optical, electrical, magnetic, emissive, mechanical properties; phase diagrams, thermodynamics, catalytic activity, etc) in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. 4. Applications and prospects (thermoelectric converters, composites, ceramics, coatings, etc) There were a few discoveries of new materials, such as nanomaterials, and developments in applications. Many contributions were related to 4f heavy Fermion systems of rare-earth borides. Exotic mechanisms of magnetism and Kondo effects have been discussed, which may indicate another direction of development of boride. Two special sessions

  9. Intensification of North American Megadroughts through Surface and Dust Aerosol Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Seager, Richard; Miller, Ron L.; Mason, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Tree-ring-based reconstructions of the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) indicate that, during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the central plains of North America experienced recurrent periods of drought spanning decades or longer. These megadroughts had exceptional persistence compared to more recent events, but the causes remain uncertain. The authors conducted a suite of general circulation model experiments to test the impact of sea surface temperature (SST) and land surface forcing on the MCA megadroughts over the central plains. The land surface forcing is represented as a set of dune mobilization boundary conditions, derived from available geomorphological evidence and modeled as increased bare soil area and a dust aerosol source (32deg-44degN, 105deg-95degW). In the experiments, cold tropical Pacific SST forcing suppresses precipitation over the central plains but cannot reproduce the overall drying or persistence seen in the PDSI reconstruction. Droughts in the scenario with dust aerosols, however, are amplified and have significantly longer persistence than in other model experiments, more closely matching the reconstructed PDSI. This additional drying occurs because the dust increases the shortwave planetary albedo, reducing energy inputs to the surface and boundary layer. The energy deficit increases atmospheric stability, inhibiting convection and reducing cloud cover and precipitation over the central plains. Results from this study provide the first model-based evidence that dust aerosol forcing and land surface changes could have contributed to the intensity and persistence of the central plains megadroughts, although uncertainties remain in the formulation of the boundary conditions and the future importance of these feedbacks.

  10. North American Megadroughts in PMIP3 Last-Millennium Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, S.; Smerdon, J. E.; Seager, R.; Cook, B.

    2013-12-01

    Some of the starkest features of proxy-estimated hydroclimate variability in the North American Southwest (NASW; 125°W-105°W, 25°N-42.5°N) are the severe and multidecadal drought periods that have existed in the region. These so called megadroughts are a prominent and well-established feature of the NASW's hydroclimate history. Given the prominence of these features in our recent past, it is imperative to consider whether Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) are capable of simulating these events and if such features of past hydroclimate change are forced or the product of internal variability. Toward such ends, low-frequency hydroclimatic variability is investigated in six last-millennium (LM) simulations derived from AOGCMs as organized through the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (PMIP3) archive. These simulations are analyzed and compared to the North American Drought Atlas (NADA), a gridded tree-ring derived estimate of hydroclimate variability in North America that spans the last one to two millennia. Megadroughts that are similar in duration and magnitude to NADA-estimated droughts are found to be a robust feature of the LM AOGCM simulations. These droughts, nevertheless, are not the result of changes in exogenous forcing conditions. Moreover, characteristically similar droughts occur in control simulations from the same AOGCMs. Previous work with a single AOGCM showed megadroughts in the NASW to be the result of stochastic-atmospheric variability, but the larger ensemble of LM simulations analyzed in the current study indicates that simulated multidecadal droughts occur for a variety of dynamic reasons. In particular, models that simulate realistic teleconnections between the tropical Pacific Ocean and North American hydroclimate, as measured against observational data, are observed to simulate persistent droughts as a consequence of changes in tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) gradients. Despite this

  11. The 16th Hilbert problem restricted to circular algebraic limit cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llibre, Jaume; Ramírez, Rafael; Ramírez, Valentín; Sadovskaia, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    We prove the following two results. First every planar polynomial vector field of degree S with S invariant circles is Darboux integrable without limit cycles. Second a planar polynomial vector field of degree S admits at most S - 1 invariant circles which are algebraic limit cycles. In particular we solve the 16th Hilbert problem restricted to algebraic limit cycles given by circles, because a planar polynomial vector field of degree S has at most S - 1 algebraic limit cycles given by circles, and this number is reached.

  12. Solar Influence on Medieval Megadroughts in the Greater Near East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushnir, Y.; Stein, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent surveys of medieval era chronicles provide calendar accurate information of years of unusual, extreme weather and climate events in areas surrounding the eastern Mediterranean, between the mid-A.D. 10th century and end of the 11th century. Put together, these documents show that the region was simultaneously afflicted by unprecedented sever and persistent droughts in Egypt's Nile Valley and by unusually cold and dry winters associated with crop failure and loss of pasture areas in present-day Iraq and Iran, and in historical Khurasan. We show that this documentary information is consistent with the annually dated Nile summer flood record as measured at the Cairo Nilometer site and within acceptable dating accuracies with much more coarsely resolved regional paleoclimate proxies. We furthermore note that the timing of these events coincided with the Oort Grand Solar Minimum that reached its peak between A.D. 1040 and 1080. Given the scientific evidence for the impact of solar minima on sea surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific and how the latter affect the intensity of the African summer monsoon, we argue that the Oort Solar Minimum forced the frequent failure of the Nile summer floods resulting in dearth and famine in Egypt. Furthermore, the simultaneous cold and dry winters in the northern Near East are also consistent with the hypothesized solar minimum influence on the North Atlantic Oscillation and on the intensity of the Siberian High. This interpretation underscores the sensitivity of the climate system to variations in solar irradiance, particularly on multi-decadal time scales, to their role in regional processes, and their impact on human history and may help understand other rapid Mediterranean cooling events that occured during the Holocene.

  13. Megadroughts in Southwestern North America in ECHO-G Millennial Simulations and Their Comparison to Proxy Drought Reconstructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coats, Sloan; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Cook, Benjamin I.; Gozalez-Rouco, J. F.

    2013-01-01

    Simulated hydroclimate variability in millennium-length forced transient and control simulations from the ECHAM and the global Hamburg Ocean Primitive Equation (ECHO-G) coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) is analyzed and compared to 1000 years of reconstructed Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) variability from the North American Drought Atlas (NADA). The ability of the model to simulate megadroughts in the North American southwest is evaluated. (NASW: 25deg42.5degN, 125deg-105degW). Megadroughts in the ECHO-G AOGCM are found to be similar in duration and magnitude to those estimated from the NADA. The droughts in the forced simulation are not, however, temporally synchronous with those in the paleoclimate record, nor are there significant differences between the drought features simulated in the forced and control runs. These results indicate that model-simulated megadroughts can result from internal variability of the modeled climate system rather than as a response to changes in exogenous forcings. Although the ECHO-G AOGCM is capable of simulating megadroughts through persistent La Nina-like conditions in the tropical Pacific, other mechanisms can produce similarly extreme NASW moisture anomalies in the model. In particular, the lack of low-frequency coherence between NASW soil moisture and simulated modes of climate variability like the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, Pacific decadal oscillation, and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation during identified drought periods suggests that stochastic atmospheric variability can contribute significantly to the occurrence of simulated megadroughts in the NASW. These findings indicate that either an expanded paradigm is needed to understand multidecadal hydroclimate variability in the NASW or AOGCMs may incorrectly simulate the strength and/or dynamics of the connection between NASW hydroclimate variability and the tropical Pacific.

  14. PREFACE: 16th International workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in physics research (ACAT2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiala, L.; Lokajicek, M.; Tumova, N.

    2015-05-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 16th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2014), this year the motto was ''bridging disciplines''. The conference took place on September 1-5, 2014, at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic. The 16th edition of ACAT explored the boundaries of computing system architectures, data analysis algorithmics, automatic calculations, and theoretical calculation technologies. It provided a forum for confronting and exchanging ideas among these fields, where new approaches in computing technologies for scientific research were explored and promoted. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 140 participants from all over the world. The workshop's 16 invited speakers presented key topics on advanced computing and analysis techniques in physics. During the workshop, 60 talks and 40 posters were presented in three tracks: Computing Technology for Physics Research, Data Analysis - Algorithms and Tools, and Computations in Theoretical Physics: Techniques and Methods. The round table enabled discussions on expanding software, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration in the respective areas. ACAT 2014 was generously sponsored by Western Digital, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hewlett Packard, DataDirect Networks, M Computers, Bright Computing, Huawei and PDV-Systemhaus. Special appreciations go to the track liaisons Lorenzo Moneta, Axel Naumann and Grigory Rubtsov for their work on the scientific program and the publication preparation. ACAT's IACC would also like to express its gratitude to all referees for their work on making sure the contributions are published in the proceedings. Our thanks extend to the conference liaisons Andrei Kataev and Jerome Lauret who worked with the local contacts and made this conference possible as well as to the program

  15. Frequency and patterning of bone trauma in the late medieval population (13th-16th century) from Dugopolje, southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Novak, Mario; Slaus, Mario

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the hypothesis of an increased level of interpersonal violence in Dugopolje during the late medieval period as testified by written sources. In order to accomplish this, an analysis and comparison of frequencies and patterning of long bone and craniofacial fractures between sex and age categories in the Dugopolje skeletal sample was performed. In total 209 excellently preserved adult skeletons were analysed: 111 males and 98 females. The total long bone fracture frequency is 1.5% (29/1910) with a significantly higher frequency in males compared to females. Most of the long bone injuries occurred as a result of accidents, probably due to rugged mountainous terrain, while a certain portion of trauma resulted from deliberate violence. Significantly higher fracture frequencies in males could be a result of a strict sexual division of labour where males performed more physically demanding and risky tasks, as witnessed by historical sources. 26 out of 119 complete adult crania (21.8%) exhibit skeletal trauma with significantly higher frequencies in males. Perimortem trauma was observed in one individual while antemortem healed sharp force lesions were registered in five individuals (all males). The predominance of frontal craniofacial injuries, as well as the presence ofperimortem trauma and sharp force lesions, suggests the presence of deliberate violence in this community. Although the indicators of deliberate violence were recorded predominantly in males, suggesting that intentional violence in Dugopolje was exclusively males' prerogative, the presence of nasal fracture in a female skeleton might point to a male towards female violence. Presented bioarchaeological data are in accordance with the written documents thus corroborating the claims of an increased level of deliberate interpersonal violence in the late medieval population from Dugopolje.

  16. Educational Actions of some Greek Scholars in Romania: end of 16th-beginning of 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovithis, Petros; Rovithis-Livaniou, Eleni

    2008-09-01

    The scientific work of some outstanding personalities like Chrysanthos Notaras (1668-1732), Nikiforos Theotokis (1731-1800) and Benjamin Lesvios (1759-1824), who acted and worked in Greece and Romania and contributed in the Cultural Heritage of both countries are presented and discussed. Their important role in the development and spreading of their times' sciences, mainly in Mathematics, Physics, Geography and Astronomy are referred, too.

  17. BACCHUS grape harvest days from Vienna and Klosterneuburg from the 16th to the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, C.; Koch, E.; Hammerl, C.; Pokorny, E.; Hammerl, T.

    2009-04-01

    The development of a grape harvest date (GHD) time series for the period 1523-2007 from Vienna and Klosterneuburg which are situated in one of the most north-eastern regions in Europe where wine is grown professionally is shown.Only original historical manuscript sources are used in order to avoid mistakes arising from later transcriptions and editions. Since wine harvest dates are intensely influenced by spring to (early) summer temperatures especially in a climatic border region for wine growing, we found highly significant correlation coefficients between the homogenized single to multi monthly mean temperatures at Vienna - Hohe Warte and GHD. This made it possible to reconstruct May to July mean temperatures starting in 1523 using the years from 1775 to 1850 as calibration period for determining the temperature sensitivity of GHD. The normalized power spectra of reconstructed and observed temperatures show both the same absolute normalized maximum at a period of 3.4 years confirming the quality of the temperature reconstruction. The more than 30 years lasting continuous temperature increase since the 1970s seems to be unprecedented in the last 470 years. But it also turned out that probably a change in viniculture took place in the last about 30years as the GHD of this period show remarkable differences of temperature sensitivity to the historical series.

  18. Active crustal deformation in the Jalisco block, Mexico: evidence for a great historical earthquake in the 16th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Gerardo; García-Acosta, Virginia; Gaulon, Roland

    1994-06-01

    On December 27th, 1568, a large earthquake occurred to the southwest of Guadalajara, Mexico, near the northeastern corner of the Jalisco block, in an area where no great earthquakes have been reported before. It caused heavy damage in the region where the Colima and Tepic-Zacoalco grabens intersect. Many churches, houses and convents in the neighboring towns collapsed and severe deformation of the ground was observed in the area. Landslides apparently dammed the Ameca River for several days and the opening of large cracks was reported in the lowlands. The flow of natural springs and the level of Lake Zacoalco changed dramatically after the earthquake. All of these reports strongly suggest that a local fault was the source of this large and destructive earthquake. Based on the intensity data inferred from the historical reports, the 1568 event is perhaps the largest earthquake to date in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Compared to other well documented, large earthquakes that occurred in the volcanic belt in 1875, 1912 and 1920, the magnitude appears to be greater than 7.0 ( MW). The Jalisco block is presumed to be rifting away from the North American plate. The Colima and Tepic-Zacoalco grabens, which bound the Jalisco block to the east and north, respectively, are apparently the boundaries where rifting is taking place in a complex and highly faulted environment. Based on the data available, it is impossible to identify the specific fault ruptured during the earthquake unequivocally. However, the occurrence of this large event in 1568 confirms that active deformation is still taking place in the Jalisco block. The apparently long recurrence times of these large events suggest that tectonic deformation is slow.

  19. The evolution of anatomical illustration and wax modelling in Italy from the 16th to early 19th centuries

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Alessandro; Conti, Gabriele; Solinas, Paola; Loy, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Although the contribution to anatomical illustration by Vesalius and his followers has received much attention, less credit has been given to Veslingius and particularly Fabricius. By 1600, Fabricius had amassed more than 300 paintings that together made the Tabulae Pictae, a great atlas of anatomy that was highly admired by his contemporaries. Many of his new observations were incorporated into subsequent books, including those by Casserius, Spighelius, Harvey and Veslingius. Also of importance were the Tabulae by Eustachius (1552), which, although only published in 1714, greatly influenced anatomical wax modelling. In 1742, Pope Benedict XIV established a Museum of Anatomy in Bologna, entrusting to Ercole Lelli the creation of several anatomical preparations in wax. Felice Fontana realised that the production of a large number of models by the casting method would make cadaveric specimens superfluous for anatomical teaching and in 1771 he asked the Grand Duke to fund a wax-modelling workshop in Florence as part of the Natural History Museum, later known as La Specola. Fontana engaged Giuseppe Ferrini as his first modeller and then the 19-year-old Clemente Susini who, by his death in 1814, had superintended the production of, or personally made, more than 2000 models. In 1780, the Austrian Emperor Joseph II visited La Specola and ordered a great number of models for his Josephinum museum; these were made by Fontana with the help of Clemente Susini and supervised by the anatomist Paolo Mascagni. It is, however, in Cagliari that some of Susini’s greatest waxes are to be found. These were made when he was free of Fontana’s influence and were based on dissections made by Francesco Antonio Boi (University of Cagliari). Their distinctive anatomical features include the emphasis given to nerves and the absence of lymphatics in the brain, a mistake made on earlier waxes. The refined technical perfection of the anatomical details demonstrates the closeness of the cooperation between Susini and Boi, whereas the expressiveness of the faces and the harmony of colours make the models of Cagliari masterpieces of figurative art. PMID:19900181

  20. 1/6TH SCALE STRIP EFFLUENT FEED TANK-MIXING RESULTS USING MCU SOLVENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this task was to determine if mixing was an issue for the entrainment and dispersion of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) solvent in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Strip Effluent Feed Tank (SEFT). The MCU strip effluent stream containing the Cs removed during salt processing will be transferred to the DWPF for immobilization in HLW glass. In lab-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing, mixing of the solvent in the dilute nitric acid solution proved problematic, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to perform scaled SEFT mixing tests to evaluate whether the problem was symptomatic of the lab-scale set-up or of the solvent. The solvent levels tested were 228 and 235 ppm, which represented levels near the estimated DWPF solvent limit of 239 ppm in 0.001M HNO{sub 3} solution. The 239 ppm limit was calculated by Norato in X-CLC-S-00141. The general approach for the mixing investigation was to: (1) Investigate the use of fluorescent dyes to aid in observing the mixing behavior. Evaluate and compare the physical properties of the fluorescent dyed MCU solvents to the baseline Oak Ridge CSSX solvent. Based on the data, use the dyed MCU solvent that best approximates the physical properties. (2) Use approximately a 1/6th linear scale of the SEFT to replicate the internal configuration for DWPF mixing. (3) Determine agitator speed(s) for scaled testing based on the DWPF SEFT mixing speed. (4) Perform mixing tests using the 1/6th SEFT and determine any mixing issues (entrainment/dispersion, accumulation, adhesion) through visual observations and by pulling samples to assess uniformity. The mixing tests used MCU solvent fabricated at SRNL blended with Risk Reactor DFSB-K43 fluorescent dye. This dyed SRNL MCU solvent had equivalent physical properties important to mixing as compared to the Oak Ridge baseline solvent, blended easily with the MCU solvent, and provided an excellent visual aid.

  1. Impacts of Mega-droughts on Water and Food Security in the Indo-Gangetic Plains: A Paleoclimate Scenario Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Pitois, G.; Ringler, C.; Wang, D.; Rosegrant, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Spanning over Pakistan, northern India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) is the home of several hundred million people and the "bread basket" for much of South Asia. The flat terrain, fertile soils, and favorable climate of the IGP make it agriculturally productive. However prolonged droughts caused by consecutive monsoon failures can seriously affect crop production and social wellbeing, in particular for the eastern part of the plains where agriculture remains largely rain-fed. Severe droughts were observed in the IGP historically, and recent paleoclimate studies reveal that more severe and long-lasting "mega-droughts" had happened in the distant past. Agricultural losses from major droughts can dramatically affect food systems and increase the vulnerability of resource-poor people given the delicate balance between food supply and demand under growing natural resource scarcity. To estimate the potential impacts of "mega-droughts" on the water and food systems in the IGP, we develop worst-case drought scenarios through inverse modeling of tree-ring-based PDSI reconstruction that covers the period 1300-1899 (A.D.), and analyze these historic mega-drought scenarios using IFPRI's IMPACT global water and food projections model. The base year of the IMPACT model is parameterized using socioeconomic and engineering data that reflect today's water management and infrastructure, agricultural technologies, population, income, and market institutions. The base year simulation is validated against observations to ensure model fidelity. Anticipated changes of the above factors in the future out to 2050 are specified using demographic and economic growth projections and literature data. Model simulation results represent the consequences of mega-droughts in the IGP given technological and socioeconomic conditions of today and in the future. We also explore policy options for increasing the resilience of water and food systems in the IGP, through scenario

  2. Arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in elite athletes. American College of Cardiology, 16th Bethesda Conference.

    PubMed

    Garson, A

    1998-01-01

    With the recent high visibility deaths of Hank Gathers and Reggie Lewis, two nationally recognized elite basketball players due to cardiovascular disease and arrhythmias, our awareness of the most optimal ways to manage athletes with known arrhythmias has become heightened. In making medical decisions we physicians come to rely in large measure on data, in addition to clinical acumen and experience. Unfortunately, we are at a disadvantage with respect to athletes since previously published data on the natural history and outcome of such individuals with known arrhythmias are sparse. Furthermore, the tragedies of Lewis, Gathers, Pete Maravich and others are also poignant reminders that the denominator of this equation is not defined and that we do not really know precisely how many athletes experience important arrhythmias, nor their relation to sports activity. In the decade since the 16th Bethesda Conference, an American College of Cardiology sponsored consensus panel that developed standards and recommendations for the disqualification from competition of athletes with known cardiovascular disease, little new data have been developed to make objective decisions in these areas (including arrhythmias) much easier. Nevertheless, while such decision-making in athletes involves situations that are relatively rare, the consequences of misjudgement are substantial. Unfortunately, to complicate matters, even if the precise likelihood of sudden death for a given athlete with arrhythmias were known, many (if not most) professional and elite college athletes might still regard any risk as acceptable and withdrawal from formal competition as highly unacceptable from a financial and psychological standpoint. In this review, consideration will be given to the state of our medical knowledge in these areas. Many controversies persist with regard to arrhythmias, most notably for the athlete who has Wolff-Parkinson-White, mitral valve prolapse, myocarditis, or complex ventricular

  3. Evidence of ENSO mega-drought triggered collapse of prehistory Aboriginal society in northwest Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Hamish; Marx, Samuel; Moss, Patrick; Hammond, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    The Kimberley region of northwest Australia contains one of the World's largest collections of rock art characterised by two distinct art forms; the fine featured anthropomorphic figures of the Gwion Gwion or Bradshaw paintings, and broad stroke Wandjina figures. Luminescence dating of mud wasp nests overlying Gwion Gwion paintings has confirmed an age of at least 17,000 yrs B.P. with the most recent dates for these paintings from around the mid-Holocene (5000 to 7000 yrs B.P.). Radiocarbon dating indicates that the Wandjina rock art then emerged around 3800 to 4000 yrs B.P. following a hiatus of at least 1200 yrs. Here we show that a mid-Holocene ENSO forced collapse of the Australian summer monsoon and ensuing mega-drought spanning approximately 1500 yrs was the likely catalyst of this change in rock art. The severity of the drought we believe was enhanced through positive feedbacks triggered by change in land surface condition and increased aerosol loading of the atmosphere leading to a weakening or failure of monsoon rains. This confirms that pre-historic aboriginal cultures experienced catastrophic upheaval due to rapid natural climate variability and that current abundant seasonal water supplies may fail again if significant change in ENSO occurs.

  4. PREFACE: The 16th International Conference on Positron Annihilation (ICPA-16)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Ashraf; Coleman, Paul; Dugdale, Stephen; Roussenova, Mina

    2013-06-01

    The 16th International Conference on Positron Annihilation (ICPA-16) was held at the University of Bristol, United Kingdom during 19-24 August, 2012. This triennial conference is the foremost gathering of the Positron Annihilation Physics community and it was hosted in the UK for the first time since the series of meetings first started back in 1965. The University of Bristol, the Alma Mater of Paul Dirac, is situated at the heart of the city, and it has established a worldwide reputation in research and teaching. Many of the topics which were discussed during ICPA-16 form an integral part of the research themes in the schools of Physics, Chemistry and Engineering of this University. ICPA-16 attracted a diverse audience, both from academic and industrial institutions, with over 200 participants from 29 countries. It continued the long held tradition of showcasing novel research in the field of positron annihilation and a total of 170 papers were presented as talks and posters. The papers reported studies of metallic and semi-conducting solids, polymers and soft matter, porous materials, surfaces and interfaces, as well as advances in experimental, analytical and biomedical applications. The high quality of the presented work, coupled with the enthusiastic exchange of ideas, provided an invaluable forum, especially for younger researchers and postgraduate students. The excellence of student presentations was acknowledged by the award of prizes for the best student posters, which were received by David Billington (University of Bristol, UK), Moussa Sidibe (CEMHTI, France) and Hongxia Xu (Tohoku University, Japan). All papers published in the Conference Proceedings were reviewed by ICPA-16 participants. We are indebted to all reviewers who contributed their time and intellectual resources, allowing the refereeing and editing process to move smoothly toward the compilation of the Proceedings. Our sincere thanks and gratitude go to everyone who contributed to the

  5. Case study: A severe hailstorm and strong downbursts over northeastern Slovenia on June 16th 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korosec, M.

    2009-09-01

    Introduction A strong isolated storm complex with bow echo feature crossed northeastern Slovenia in the late afternoon hours and caused extensive damage due to severe wind gusts near 30m/s, excessive rainfalls and large hail. Synoptic situation On June 16th 2009, an upper-level ridge persists over southern Europe while a positively tilted short-wave trough, connected to a complex deep trough over northern Europe, crosses central Europe. Accompanied by this trough, a cold front is extending southwestwards towards the Alps. A relatively strong jet steak wraps around the trough axis and creates strong shear environment which overlaps with a narrow band of unstable airmass present ahead of the coming frontal boundary. Behind this trough/front over central Europe, a high pressure area is developing with stable conditions. Over Slovenia, strong surface heating was on going through the day but lack of near-surface convergence zones, limited moisture and strong capping inversion surpressed any storm initiation in the afternoon. Presentation of research This case study will go through a research of damaging bow echo which caused extensive damage due to severe winds, excessive rainfalls and large hail over much of northeastern Slovenia. Numerous trees were down or uprooted and numerous roofs were blown off or were seriously damaged due to severe wind gusts near or exceeding 30m/s. At first stages, when an isolated severe storm entered Slovenia, it had classic high precipitation supercell features while it transformed into a powerful bow echo later on. Very large hail up to 6cm in diameter was first observed in southeast Austria and near the border with Slovenia, while later on the main threat was very strong wind gusts and intense rainfalls. This research paper will show a detailed analysis of the synoptic situation including analysis of satellite, radar and surface observations. Radar imagery clearly showed isolated storm trailing along the near-surface frontal boundary as

  6. 16th international conference on the physics of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, Stephan; Stöhlker, Thomas; Surzhykov, Andrey

    2013-09-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 16th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2012) held at the Ruprecht-Karls University in Heidelberg, Germany, 2-7 September 2012 (figure 1). This conference has been part of a biannual conference series that was started in Stockholm in 1982 and, since then, has been organized at various places around the world, with recent venues in Belfast (UK, 2006), Tokyo (Japan, 2008) and Shanghai (China, 2010). The physics of highly charged ions (HCI) is a rapidly developing and attractive field of research with impact upon many other research disciplines. Apart from fundamental studies on the structure and dynamics of matter in extreme fields, or the search for physics beyond the standard model, detailed knowledge about the properties and behavior of HCI is crucial for other areas, from astro- and solar physics to hot plasma and fusion research to extreme ultra-violet and ion lithography, or even to medical research, to name just a few. In fusion research, for example, of whether tokamak, stellarator or confinement fusion facilities, most models and diagnostics deeply rely on the understanding of HCI and the (theoretical) prediction of accurate atomic data for these systems. In life science, moreover, ion therapy or the laser acceleration of ions and electrons may help save and improve the quality of life in the future. Many of these and further topics are addressed in these proceedings. After 30 years, the HCI conference series, and especially the meeting in Heidelberg, is appreciated much as a key forum for bringing together senior experts with students, young researchers and scientists from related disciplines who make use and give back impact upon the research with HCI. More than 250 scientists from 23 countries participated in HCI 2012 and presented the current status of the field. About one third of them were post-graduate students, showing that the field attracts many young and talented

  7. Abraham Lincoln's blue pills. Did our 16th president suffer from mercury poisoning?

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, N; Feldman, R G; Greaves, I A

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that Abraham Lincoln took a medicine called "blue mass" or "blue pill," commonly prescribed in the 19th century. What is now hardly known is that the main ingredient of blue mass was finely dispersed elemental mercury. As his friends understood, mercury was often prescribed for melancholy or "hypochondriasis," a condition Lincoln famously endured. Mercury in the form of the blue pill is a potential neurotoxin, which we have demonstrated by recreating and testing the recipe. We present the testimony of many of Lincoln's contemporaries to suggest that Lincoln suffered the neurobehavioural consequences of mercury intoxication but, perhaps crucial to history, before the main years of his presidency; he was astute enough to recognize the effects and stop the medication soon after his inauguration.

  8. Consensus statement: the 16th Annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; September 5–6, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S.; Bathe, O.; Berry, S.; Buie, D.; Davies, J.; Doll, C.; Dowden, S.; Gill, S.; Gordon, V.; Hebbard, P.; Jones, E.; Kennecke, H.; Koski, S.; Krahn, M.; Le, D.; Lim, H.; Lund, C.; Luo, Y.; Mcffadden, A.; Mcghie, J.; Mulder, K.; Park, J.; Rashidi, F.; Sami, A.; Tan, K.T.; Wong, R.

    2015-01-01

    The 16th annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, September 4–5, 2014. The Consensus Conference is an interactive, multidisciplinary event attended by health care professionals from across western Canada (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) involved in the care of gastrointestinal cancer. Surgical, medical, and radiation oncologists; pathologists; radiologists; and allied health care professionals participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management of colorectal cancer. PMID:25908916

  9. The improbable but unexceptional occurrence of megadrought clustering in the American West during the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, Sloan; Smerdon, Jason E.; Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Seager, Richard

    2016-07-01

    The five most severe and persistent droughts in the American West (AW) during the Common Era occurred during a 450 year period known as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA—850-1299 C.E.). Herein we use timeseries modeling to estimate the probability of such a period of hydroclimate change occurring. Clustering of severe and persistent drought during an MCA-length period occurs in approximately 10% of surrogate timeseries that were constructed to have the same characteristics as a tree-ring derived estimate of AW hydroclimate variability between 850 and 2005 C.E. Periods of hydroclimate change like the MCA are thus expected to occur in the AW, although not frequently, with a recurrence interval of approximately 11 000 years. Importantly, a shift in mean hydroclimate conditions during the MCA is found to be necessary for drought to reach the severity and persistence of the actual MCA megadroughts. This result has consequences for our understanding of the atmosphere-ocean dynamics underlying the MCA and a persistently warm Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation is suggested to have played an important role in causing megadrought clustering during this period.

  10. 16th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Program, Extended Abstracts, and Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B. L.

    2006-08-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 16th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes held August 6-9, 2006 in Denver, Colorado. The workshop addressed the fundamental properties of PV-Si, new solar cell designs, and advanced solar cell processing techniques. It provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The Workshop Theme was: "Getting more (Watts) for Less ($i)". A combination of oral presentations by invited speakers, poster sessions, and discussion sessions reviewed recent advances in crystal growth, new cell structures, new processes and process characterization techniques, and cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands. The special sessions included: Feedstock Issues: Si Refining and Purification; Metal-impurity Engineering; Thin Film Si; and Diagnostic Techniques.

  11. a New High-Resolution Chronology of Megadrought Following the Medieval Climatic Anomaly and Little Ice Age in the Central Great Plains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfen, A. F.; Johnson, W. C.; Hanson, P. R.; Spencer, J. Q.; Woodburn, T.; Young, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    Recent research has emphasized using eolian sediments for reconstructing late Holocene megadroughts, especially in the Great Plains where other drought proxies are scarce. Eolian dune fields can serve as proxy sources for megadroughts because, during prolonged drought conditions, vegetation cover is diminished and eolian sedimentation ensues. In an effort to better characterize late-Holocene megadroughts, two dune fields spanning a 400 km east-west transect of the central Great Plains have been investigated, resulting thus far in over 110 optically stimulated luminescence ages. Ages from the Hutchinson and Arkansas River dune fields have provided a new, high-resolution chronology of dune activity that spans much of the past 2000 years. Both dune fields were stable prior to the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA) but started to activate towards the height of the warming around 1.0 ka. Activity continued throughout the MCA but intensified as climate shifted towards cooler conditions between 0.8 and 0.7 ka. Around the onset of the Little Ice Age (LIA) dune activity decreased, but did not cease, and, by the end of the LIA, activity again intensified between 0.3 and 0.2 ka. Dune activity continued into historical times (e.g., 1930’s Dust Bowl drought), and today the dune fields are stable with only small areas of anthropogenically-triggered activity. A clustering of ages defines two periods of megadrought, at 0.8 to 0.7 and 0.3 to 0.2 ka. Dune activity between 0.8 and 0.7 ka correlates well with Palmer Drought Severity Index data constructed from tree-rings and regional dune activity; this suggests that one or more megadroughts occurred within much of the Great Plains during the MCA. The period of dune activity between 0.3 and 0.2 ka correlate with activity in the Great Bend Sand Prairie and southwestern Nebraska, but is not coeval with activation records from the Nebraska Sand Hills, or those from the Duncan and Abilene dune fields of the eastern Great Plains. This

  12. Megadroughts in Millennium-Length Forced and Control Simulations and their Comparison to the Proxy-derived North American Drought Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, S.; Smerdon, J. E.; Seager, R.; Cook, B. I.; Gonzalez-Rouco, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    Some of the starkest features of proxy-estimated hydroclimate variability in the North American Southwest (NASW; 125°W-105°W, 25°N-42.5°N) are the severe and multidecadal drought periods that have existed in the region. These so called megadroughts are a prominent and well-established feature of the NASW's hydroclimate history. Given the prominence of these features in our recent past, it is imperative to consider whether Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) are capable of simulating these events and if such features of past hydroclimate change are forced or the product of internal variability. Simulated hydroclimate variability in millennium-length forced transient and control runs from the ECHO-G coupled AOGCM is analyzed and compared to reconstructed Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) variability from the North American Drought Atlas (NADA). Megadroughts in the ECHO-G AOGCM are found to be similar in duration and magnitude to those estimated from the NADA. The droughts in the forced simulation are not, however, temporally synchronous with those in the paleoclimate record, nor are there significant differences between the megadrought features simulated in the forced and control runs. These results indicate that model-simulated megadroughts can result from internal variability of the modeled climate system, rather than as a response to changes in exogenous forcings. Although the ECHO-G AOGCM is capable of simulating megadroughts by means of persistent La-Nina-like conditions in the tropical Pacific, other mechanisms can produce similarly extreme NASW moisture anomalies in the model. In particular, the lack of low-frequency coherence between NASW soil moisture and other modeled fields and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation indices during identified drought periods, suggests that stochastic atmospheric variability can contribute significantly to the occurrence of simulated megadroughts in the NASW by means of

  13. Megadroughts in Southwestern North America: A data-model comparison using last-millennium GCM simulations and the proxy-derived North American Drought Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, Sloan; Smerdon, Jason; Seager, Richard; Cook, Benjamin; Fidel Gonzalez-Rouco, J.

    2013-04-01

    Some of the starkest features of proxy-estimated hydroclimate variability in the North American Southwest (NASW; 125°W-105°W, 25°N-42.5°N) are the severe and multidecadal drought periods that have existed in the region. These so called megadroughts are a prominent and well-established feature of the NASW's hydroclimate history. Given the prominence of these features in our recent past, it is imperative to consider whether Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) are capable of simulating these events and if such features of past hydroclimate change are forced or the product of internal variability. Simulated hydroclimate variability in millennium-length forced transient and control runs from the ECHO-G coupled AOGCM is analyzed and compared to reconstructed Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) variability from the North American Drought Atlas (NADA). Megadroughts in the ECHO-G AOGCM are found to be similar in duration and magnitude to those estimated from the NADA. The droughts in the forced simulation are not, however, temporally synchronous with those in the paleoclimate record, nor are there significant differences between the megadrought features simulated in the forced and control runs. These results indicate that model-simulated megadroughts can result from internal variability of the modeled climate system, rather than as a response to changes in exogenous forcings. Although the ECHO-G AOGCM is capable of simulating megadroughts by means of persistent La-Nina-like conditions in the tropical Pacific, other mechanisms can produce similarly extreme NASW moisture anomalies in the model. In particular, the lack of low-frequency coherence between NASW soil moisture and dominant modes of variability in the model simulations during identified drought periods, suggests that stochastic atmospheric variability can contribute significantly to the occurrence of simulated megadroughts in the NASW by means of storm track displacement. Using the ECHO

  14. Control of PM2.5 in Guangzhou during the 16th Asian Games period: implication for hazy weather prevention.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jun; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Zhisheng; Huang, Ruijin; Wu, Yunfei; Zhang, Renjian; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated control measures for reducing PM2.5 (aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm) and hazy weather, day- and night-time PM2.5 samples were collected at an urban site in Guangzhou during the 16th Asian Games period in November 2010. PM2.5 samples were subject to chemical analysis for major water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), element carbon (EC), and biomass burning tracers-anhydrosugar levoglucosan (LG). In addition, aerosol scattering coefficient (bsp) at dry condition and aerosol absorption coefficient (bap) and visibility at ambient condition were measured. The seven major control measures were effective for reducing PM2.5 mass concentration and improving visibility during the Asian Games period. All monitored air pollutants except PM2.5 satisfied the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). However, daily PM2.5 concentrations still exceeded the NAAQS on 47% of the days and hazy weather also occurred on 80% of the days during this period. One factor causing the high frequency of hazy weather occurrence was the increased relative humidity during the Asian Games period. To avoid hazy weather occurrence, new PM2.5 standard was recommended based on visibility calculations using three available aerosol hygroscopic curves previously obtained for this city. The recommended PM2.5 standard was 63 μgm(-3) under dry condition and lower than 42 μg m(-3) under humid condition (RH ≥ 70%). These recommended value s were much stricter than the NAAQS value of 75 μg m(-3). To reach the new standard, more rigorous control measures for coal industries should be established in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. PMID:25437953

  15. Control of PM2.5 in Guangzhou during the 16th Asian Games period: implication for hazy weather prevention.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jun; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Zhisheng; Huang, Ruijin; Wu, Yunfei; Zhang, Renjian; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated control measures for reducing PM2.5 (aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm) and hazy weather, day- and night-time PM2.5 samples were collected at an urban site in Guangzhou during the 16th Asian Games period in November 2010. PM2.5 samples were subject to chemical analysis for major water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), element carbon (EC), and biomass burning tracers-anhydrosugar levoglucosan (LG). In addition, aerosol scattering coefficient (bsp) at dry condition and aerosol absorption coefficient (bap) and visibility at ambient condition were measured. The seven major control measures were effective for reducing PM2.5 mass concentration and improving visibility during the Asian Games period. All monitored air pollutants except PM2.5 satisfied the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). However, daily PM2.5 concentrations still exceeded the NAAQS on 47% of the days and hazy weather also occurred on 80% of the days during this period. One factor causing the high frequency of hazy weather occurrence was the increased relative humidity during the Asian Games period. To avoid hazy weather occurrence, new PM2.5 standard was recommended based on visibility calculations using three available aerosol hygroscopic curves previously obtained for this city. The recommended PM2.5 standard was 63 μgm(-3) under dry condition and lower than 42 μg m(-3) under humid condition (RH ≥ 70%). These recommended value s were much stricter than the NAAQS value of 75 μg m(-3). To reach the new standard, more rigorous control measures for coal industries should be established in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region.

  16. The Pendulum in the 21st Century-Relic or Trendsetter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Randall D.

    2004-01-01

    When identifying instruments that have had great influence on the history of physics, none comes to mind more quickly than the pendulum. Though first treated scientifically by Galileo in the 16th century, and in some respects nearly "dead" by the middle of the 20th century; the pendulum experienced "rebirth" by becoming an archetype of chaos. With…

  17. Old Masters' lead white pigments: investigations of paintings from the 16th to the 17th century using high precision lead isotope abundance ratios.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, G; Ritter, A; Fabian, D

    2005-06-01

    White lead (2PbCO(3).Pb(OH)(2)), a common component in 17c. artists' painting materials, was singled out to investigate the potential of lead isotope abundance ratios in the field of authentication and origin assignment. Paintings by Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck and other Old Masters of the Northern and Southern schools were chosen for this study. An interdisciplinary approach was chosen using both analytical instrumental methods, art technological and art historical knowledge. Minute samples taken from paintings from selected art collections worldwide were investigated using mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The high precision lead isotope abundance ratios were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). The determination of the calcium matrix influence with respect to possible bias effects to the isotope ratios gave clear decision support, to whether a result lies within the stated combined measurement uncertainty of the result, to eliminate time-consuming matrix separations. The scatter plots of the measured isotope abundance ratios for the painting pigments from P. P. Rubens, A. van Dyck and other Flemish painters exhibit a very narrow distribution forming a cluster. The range of the measured ratio (206)Pb/(204)Pb amounts to 0.55% and for the ratio (207)Pb/(204)Pb to 0.2%. The comparison of the data to cis-alpine (Italian) sample pigments from paintings from the same time period reveals a clear distinction between the two fields. With respect to the lead isotope data originating from the ores it is assumed that the pigment isotope ratio distribution can be explained by very distinct origin of raw materials. Presumably, no mixing of different lead ores from Europe took place. The comparison of the measured white lead isotope ratio values (Flemish paintings) and the data from ore samples led to the unexpected conclusion that local ores were not used for the pigment production but British or German sources.

  18. Tycho Brahe and Egnazio Danti. Observations and astronomical research at Prague and Florence at the end of the 16th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triarico, Carlo

    The paper aims at pointing out the similarities between the astronomical research of Tycho Brahe and Egnazio Danti. The main issue is the comparison between the researches of the two astronomers about the measurement of the ecliptic's obliquity and its possible variation. The books published by the two scientists about the use and building up of the astronomical instruments will be also compared. Finally, will be given some examples of instruments of the Medici Family collection in the Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza in Florence, which come from Praha and were built by the technicians who worked for Tycho.

  19. Reiner Solenander (1524-1601): an important 16th century medical practitioner and his original report of Vesalius' death in 1564.

    PubMed

    Biesbrouck, Maurits; Goddeeris, Theodoor; Steeno, Omer

    2015-01-01

    Reiner Solenander (1524-1601) was a physician born in the Duchy of Cleves, who got his education at the University of Leuven and at various universities in Italy and in France. Back at home he became the court physician of William V and later of his son John William. In this article his life and works are discussed. A report on the death of Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), noted down by Solenander in May 1566, one year and seven months after the death of Vesalius, is discussed in detail. Due to the importance of that document a copy of its first publication is given, together with a transcription and a translation as well. It indicates that Vesalius did not die in a shipwreck. PMID:27604197

  20. Corrosion of 15th and early 16th century stained glass from the monastery of Batalha studied with external ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Vilarigues, M.; Redol, P.; Machado, A.; Rodrigues, P.A.; Alves, L.C.; Silva, R.C. da

    2011-02-15

    This paper reports the study of corrosion in two stained glass panels from the south aisle of Sta. Maria da Vitoria monastery, at Batalha (Portugal), one depicting the Last Supper (dated from 1508), and the other one showing a saint (c. 1450). These panels exhibit extensive corrosion with darkening phenomena that are an impediment to their correct visualization, a source of major concern both to conservators and curators. By using external micro-beam Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) spectrometry, the elemental compositions of large fragments were obtained, enabling the selection of representative corroded areas, from which elemental distribution maps were produced by scanning. Calcium and potassium rich structures were found - at the surface and inside cavities in the glass - that were identified as oxalates and carbonates, by Raman microscopy and micro-FTIR. The dark spots present in the glass surfaces were found to be Zn and Pb rich. These findings indicate that the corrosion observed was due not only to reactions with atmospheric water and CO{sub 2} but also with the oxalic acid secreted by micro-organisms. Furthermore, it did not result from reactions with atmospheric SO{sub 2} or acid rain. The information obtained is relevant for a better understanding of the corrosion processes and products formed on the surface of these panels and therefore for the proper planning of much needed adequate conservation-restoration actions and appropriate display conditions. - Research Highlights: {yields} Corrosion and darkening of stained glasses is of concern to conservators and curators. {yields} A multi-technique approach is of relevance to study stained glass corrosion. {yields} External beam PIXE-PIGE provide valuable insight on stained glass corrosion.

  1. The Canadian West Discovered: An Exhibition of Printed Maps from the 16th to Early 20th Century (Glenbow Museum, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, January 26-April 15, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javorski, Mary

    This document provides historical research from the earliest French experiences on the upper North American peninsula through today. Approximately 50 maps have been provided outlining the evolution of information that has been collected by those who sought to explore the region. Most of these explorers were trading company employees who were hired…

  2. La Educacion de los Jesuitas en Cuba durante el Siglo XVI (1566-1574) (Jesuit Education in Cuba during the 16th Century (1566-1574).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes

    2000-01-01

    Explains the relationship between Spanish colonialism in Cuba, evangelization of the Indians, and the origins of Cuban culture, as well as the role the Jesuits played in this process of transculturation. Analyzes the first phase in the history of the educational work of the Jesuits in Cuba (1566-1574). (BT)

  3. Reiner Solenander (1524-1601): an important 16th century medical practitioner and his original report of Vesalius' death in 1564.

    PubMed

    Biesbrouck, Maurits; Goddeeris, Theodoor; Steeno, Omer

    2015-01-01

    Reiner Solenander (1524-1601) was a physician born in the Duchy of Cleves, who got his education at the University of Leuven and at various universities in Italy and in France. Back at home he became the court physician of William V and later of his son John William. In this article his life and works are discussed. A report on the death of Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), noted down by Solenander in May 1566, one year and seven months after the death of Vesalius, is discussed in detail. Due to the importance of that document a copy of its first publication is given, together with a transcription and a translation as well. It indicates that Vesalius did not die in a shipwreck.

  4. List of prints of leading Prague astronomers of the 16th - 17th century in the historical libraries in Bohemia and Moravia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horský, Z.; Tenorová, D.

    This publication presents a bibliography of the works of nine leading scholars of the Prague astronomical centre, about 1600. The following authors are taken into account: Johannes Kepler, Tycho Brahe, Jan Jessenius z Velké Jeseně, Tadeáš Hájek z Hájku, Martin Bacháček z Nauměřic, Martin Horký z Lochovic, Nicolaus Raimarus Ursus, Jost Bürgi, and David Gans.

  5. Bone loss during partial weight bearing (1/6th gravity) is mitigated by resistance and aerobic exercise in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreaux, R. D.; Metzger, C. E.; Macias, B. R.; Shirazi-Fard, Y.; Hogan, H. A.; Bloomfield, S. A.

    2014-06-01

    Astronauts on long duration missions continue to experience bone loss, as much as 1-2% each month, for up to 4.5 years after a mission. Mechanical loading of bone with exercise has been shown to increase bone formation, mass, and geometry. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two exercise protocols during a period of reduced gravitational loading (1/6th body weight) in mice. Since muscle contractions via resistance exercise impart the largest physiological loads on the skeleton, we hypothesized that resistance training (via vertical tower climbing) would better protect against the deleterious musculoskeletal effects of reduced gravitational weight bearing when compared to endurance exercise (treadmill running). Young adult female BALB/cBYJ mice were randomly assigned to three groups: 1/6 g (G/6; n=6), 1/6 g with treadmill running (G/6+RUN; n=8), or 1/6 g with vertical tower climbing (G/6+CLB; n=9). Exercise was performed five times per week. Reduced weight bearing for 21 days was achieved through a novel harness suspension system. Treadmill velocity (12-20 m/min) and daily run time duration (32-51 min) increased incrementally throughout the study. Bone geometry and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at proximal metaphysis and mid-diaphysis tibia were assessed by in vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) on days 0 and 21 and standard dynamic histomorphometry was performed on undemineralized sections of the mid-diaphysis after tissue harvest. G/6 caused a significant decrease (P<0.001) in proximal tibia metaphysis total vBMD (-9.6%). These reductions of tibia metaphyseal vBMD in G/6 mice were mitigated in both G/6+RUN and G/6+CLB groups (P<0.05). After 21 days of G/6, we saw an absolute increase in tibia mid-diaphysis vBMD and in distal metaphysis femur vBMD in both G/6+RUN and G/6+CLB mice (P<0.05). Substantial increases in endocortical and periosteal mineralizing surface (MS/BS) at mid-diaphysis tibia in G/6+CLB demonstrate that bone formation can be increased even in the presence of reduced weight bearing. These data suggest that moderately vigorous endurance exercise and resistance training, through treadmill running or climb training mitigates decrements in vBMD during 21 days of reduced weight bearing. Consistent with our hypothesis, tower climb training, most pronounced in the tibia mid-diaphysis, provides a more potent osteogenic response compared to treadmill running.

  6. Gravity wave activity observed in the mesosphere and ionosphere on September 16th 2015 by an all-sky imager and dTEC maps over Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrasse, Cristiano M.; Gobbi, Delano; Buriti, Ricardo; Bageston, José Valentin; Medeiros, Amauri; Paulino, Igo; Cosme Alexandre Figueiredo, M.; Takahashi, Hisao; Azambuja, Rodrigo

    2016-07-01

    All-sky imager was used to observe the wave activity in the mesosphere and a ground network of GPS receivers were used to make detrended Total Electron Content (dTEC) maps to monitor the ionosphere. The wave activity was observed on September 16th 2015 over the southeast region in Brazil. The gravity wave characteristics and the atmospheric conditions for wave propagation will be presented and discussed. The gravity wave source was associated with strong tropospheric convection.

  7. Conference highlights of the 16th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and related retroviruses, 26-30 June 2013, Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Barbeau, Benoit; Hiscott, John; Bazarbachi, Ali; Carvalho, Edgar; Jones, Kathryn; Martin, Fabiola; Matsuoka, Masao; Murphy, Edward L; Ratner, Lee; Switzer, William M; Watanabe, Toshiki

    2014-02-24

    The 16th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses was held in Montreal, Québec from June 26th to June 30th, 2013 and was therefore hosted by a Canadian city for the first time. The major topic of the meeting was human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs) and was covered through distinct oral and poster presentation sessions: clinical research, animal models, immunology, molecular and cellular biology, human endogenous and emerging exogenous retroviruses and virology. In this review, highlights of the meeting are provided by different experts for each of these research areas.

  8. Conference Highlights of the 16th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses, 26–30 June 2013, Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The 16th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses was held in Montreal, Québec from June 26th to June 30th, 2013 and was therefore hosted by a Canadian city for the first time. The major topic of the meeting was human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs) and was covered through distinct oral and poster presentation sessions: clinical research, animal models, immunology, molecular and cellular biology, human endogenous and emerging exogenous retroviruses and virology. In this review, highlights of the meeting are provided by different experts for each of these research areas. PMID:24558960

  9. Primary cosmic ray spectrum in the 10 to the 12th power - 10 to the 16th power eV energy range from the NUSEX experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, E.; Bloise, C.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Chiarella, V.; Ciocio, A.; Cundy, D.

    1985-01-01

    A primary cosmic ray spectrum was derived which fits both experimental multiple muon rates and the all-nucleon flux derived from the single muon intensities underground. In the frame of the interaction model developed by Gaisser, Elbert and Stanev, it is possible to reproduce NUSEX muon data with a primary composition in which the iron spectrum is only slightly flatter than the proton one. This result rules out the popular idea that the primary composition varies drastically with increasing energy, leading to the dominance of heavier nuclei at energies 10 to the 15th power to 10 to the 16th power eV.

  10. American veterinary history: before the nineteenth century. 1940.

    PubMed

    Bierer, Bert W

    2014-11-01

    With the development of our present day domesticated animals in America (during the 16th and 17th centuries), it was not long before animal diseases became troublesome and destructive (especially during the latter half of the 18th century). Though veterinary medicine became rather firmly established in many European countries (including England) during the latter half of the 18th century, veterinary medicine was relatively nonexistent in America, with only self-styled animal doctors and farriers (with their empirical and often destructive remedies).

  11. Conference report from the International Congress on Infectious Diseases 2014: Part One. 16th International Congress on Infectious Diseases, Cape Town, South Africa 2-5 April 2014.

    PubMed

    McLoughlin, Hilda

    2014-01-01

    The 16th International Congress on Infectious Diseases (ICID) was held in Cape Town this year, marking the return of the conference to Africa for the first time in 22 years. While infectious diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV--all still prevalent in the African healthcare landscape--dominated the program, the conference featured several important sessions on fungal infection and a significant number of posters devoted to this critical medical area. Within the context of the rise of antimicrobial resistance, now identified by the WHO as one of the three greatest threats to human health, came the message that resistance is not limited to antimicrobials, but that antifungal resistance is also a significant and emerging threat worldwide. PMID:25437185

  12. PREFACE: The Joint 16th Europhysics Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases--5th International Conference on Reactive Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, N.

    2003-11-01

    The first joint meeting of the Europhysics Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG), the International Conference on Reactive Plasmas (ICRP) and the Symposium on Plasma Processing (SPP) was held in Grenoble, France between 14 and 18 July 2002. ESCAMPIG is an important biennial European event at which academics and industrialists working in low temperature plasma science meet. ICRP and SPP are Japanese triennial and annual meetings covering the entire field of reactive plasmas: generation, diagnostics and modelling of plasmas and their interaction with surfaces, and their applications. This ESCAMPIG 16th--ICRP 5th joint conference was organized under the sponsorship of the European Physical Society (EPS), the Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP), University Joseph Fourier (UJF) and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). The scientific scope of this joint conference was focused on both experimental and theoretical aspects of physics of ionized gases and on its industrial applications. It covered the following topics: bullet atomic and molecular processes in plasmas bullet particle energy distribution functions bullet discharge physics: sheathes, transport processes and modelling bullet plasma diagnostics bullet laser and particle beam assisted plasma processes bullet physical basis of plasma chemistry and plasma--surface interactions bullet production and control of reactive plasmas bullet etching, deposition and cleaning bullet environmental and other applications. The ESCAMPIG 16th--ICRP 5th joint conference was attended by 379 scientists from 26 countries. 22 invited papers were presented. Most of these papers are published in this special issue. In addition, 16 contributed papers were selected by the joint International Scientific Committee (ISC) for oral presentation as a `hot topic'. Beside this, two workshops were held on `Recent developments in plasma monitoring for microelectronics', organized by Professor H

  13. Pacific Decadal Variability in the Southern Indian Ocean: A 1 ky Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and Australian Megadrought Reconstruction from Law Dome, East Antarctica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, T.; Roberts, J. L.; Plummer, C. T.; Kiem, A.; van Ommen, T. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) is a multidecadal mode of Pacific basin SST anomalies, and is the basin-wide, bi-hemispheric expression of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The two indices are highly correlated, but the extent to which they are merely low frequency ENSO is debated. Nonetheless, the IPO/PDO significantly influences interannual rainfall variability and drought risk across and beyond the Pacific region on multi-decadal timescales, thus an understanding of long-term IPO/PDO variability will help with assessing past and future drought risk. A new and highly accurate 1 ky IPO reconstruction has been produced from the Law Dome ice core (East Antarctica). Law Dome is a high accumulation site on the coast of Antarctica in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean, and the Law Dome record is directly related to atmospheric anomalies across a broad mid-latitude swathe of this region. The reconstruction utilizes both the accumulation (snowfall) and sea salt (wind proxy) records to produce a reconstruction that is highly calibrated to the instrumental IPO record from 1870-2009 and shows excellent skill (reduction of error value of 0.86). We then super-imposed the 1 ky IPO on a Law Dome proxy for rainfall in eastern subtropical Australia (previously shown to represent rainfall with high significance during IPO positive phases (r =0.406-0.677, p <0.0001-0.01) to identify eight Australian 'mega-droughts' (dry periods >5 y duration) over the last millennium. Six mega-droughts occur between AD 1000-1320 including one 39 y drought (AD 1174-1212). Water resources and infrastructure planning in Australia has been based on very limited statistical certainty around drought risk due to the short instrumental record and lack of rainfall proxies. A recent drought (the 'Big Dry' ~1995-2009) brought both agricultural and urban water supplies to critically low levels, while the Murray-Darling Basin river system, which provides 65% of the water used for

  14. Quality vaccines for all people: Report on the 16th annual general meeting of the Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network, 05-07th October 2015, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Khomvilai, Sumana

    2016-06-30

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN) assembled high-profile leaders from global health organisations and vaccine manufactures for its 16th Annual General Meeting to work towards a common goal: providing quality vaccines for all people. Vaccines contribute to a healthy community and robust health system; the Ebola outbreak has raised awareness of the threat and damage one single infectious disease can make, and it is clear that the world was not prepared. However, more research to better understand emerging infectious agents might lead to suitable vaccines which help prevent future outbreaks. DCVMN members presented their progress in developing novel vaccines against Dengue, HPV, Chikungunya, Cholera, cell-based influenza and other vaccines, demonstrating the commitment towards eliminating and eradicating preventable diseases worldwide through global collaboration and technology transfer. The successful introduction of novel Sabin-IPV and Oral Cholera vaccine in China and Korea respectively in 2015 was highlighted. In order to achieve global immunisation, local authorities and community leaders play an important role in the decision-making in vaccine introduction and uptake, based on the ability of vaccines to protect vaccinated people and protect non-vaccinated in the community through herd immunity. Reducing the risk of vaccine shortages can also be achieved by increasing regulatory convergence at regional and international levels. Combatting preventable diseases remains challenging, and collective efforts for improving multi-centre clinical trials, creating regional vaccine security strategies, fostering developing vaccine markets and procurement, and building trust in vaccines were discussed.

  15. The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln and the Evolution of Neuro-Trauma Care: Would the 16th President Have Survived in the Modern Era?

    PubMed

    Yan, Sandra C; Smith, Timothy R; Bi, Wenya Linda; Brewster, Ryan; Gormley, William B; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R

    2015-11-01

    Abraham Lincoln was the 16(th) President of the United States of America. On April 14, 1865, shortly after his re-election and the conclusion of the Civil War, Lincoln was shot and killed by John Wilkes Booth. Although numerous physicians tended to the President shortly after his injury, he passed away the next morning. Today, we recognize Lincoln as one of the greatest Presidents in American history. His assassination profoundly influenced the future of the United States, especially as the country was coming back together again following the Civil War. Testaments to his lasting legacy can be seen in many places, from the stone carving of him on Mount Rushmore to his image gracing the $5 bill. What if the President had survived his injury? Would he have had a different outcome utilizing current critical care treatment? Neurotrauma care in 1865 was not yet developed, and head wounds such as the one Lincoln sustained were almost always fatal. The medical attention he received is considered by historians and physicians today to be excellent for that time. We look at the evolution of neurotrauma care during the last 150 years in the US. Particular focus is paid to the advancement of care for penetrating brain injuries in modern trauma centers. PMID:26092530

  16. The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln and the Evolution of Neuro-Trauma Care: Would the 16th President Have Survived in the Modern Era?

    PubMed

    Yan, Sandra C; Smith, Timothy R; Bi, Wenya Linda; Brewster, Ryan; Gormley, William B; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R

    2015-11-01

    Abraham Lincoln was the 16(th) President of the United States of America. On April 14, 1865, shortly after his re-election and the conclusion of the Civil War, Lincoln was shot and killed by John Wilkes Booth. Although numerous physicians tended to the President shortly after his injury, he passed away the next morning. Today, we recognize Lincoln as one of the greatest Presidents in American history. His assassination profoundly influenced the future of the United States, especially as the country was coming back together again following the Civil War. Testaments to his lasting legacy can be seen in many places, from the stone carving of him on Mount Rushmore to his image gracing the $5 bill. What if the President had survived his injury? Would he have had a different outcome utilizing current critical care treatment? Neurotrauma care in 1865 was not yet developed, and head wounds such as the one Lincoln sustained were almost always fatal. The medical attention he received is considered by historians and physicians today to be excellent for that time. We look at the evolution of neurotrauma care during the last 150 years in the US. Particular focus is paid to the advancement of care for penetrating brain injuries in modern trauma centers.

  17. [Mercury (and...) through the centuries].

    PubMed

    Kłys, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Mercury has a long history, fascinating in its many aspects. Through the centuries--from ancient times to the present day--the metal in its various forms, also known under the name "quicksilver", accompanied the man and was used for diversified purposes. Today, mercury is employed in manufacturing thermometers, barometers, vacuum pumps and explosives. It is also used in silver and gold mining processes. Mercury compounds play a significant role in dentistry, pharmaceutical industry and crop protection. The contemporary use of mercury markedly decreases, but historically speaking, the archives abound in materials that document facts and events occurring over generations and the immense intellectual effort aiming at discovering the true properties and mechanisms of mercury activity. Mercury toxicity, manifested in destruction of biological membranes and binding of the element with proteins, what disturbs biochemical processes occurring in the body, was discovered only after many centuries of the metal exerting its effect on the lives of individuals and communities. For centuries, mercury was present in the work of alchemists, who searched for the universal essence or quintessence and the so-called philosopher's stone. In the early modern era, between the 16th and 19th centuries, mercury was used to manufacture mirrors. Mercury compounds were employed as a medication against syphilis, which plagued mankind for more than four hundred years--from the Middle Ages till mid 20th century, when the discovery of penicillin became the turning point. This extremely toxic therapy resulted in much suffering, individual tragedies, chronic poisonings leading to fatalities and dramatic sudden deaths. In the last fifty years, there even occurred attempts of mentally imbalanced individuals at injecting themselves with metallic mercury, also as a performance-enhancing drug. Instances of mass mercury poisoning occurred many times in the past in consequence of eating food products

  18. [Mercury (and...) through the centuries].

    PubMed

    Kłys, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Mercury has a long history, fascinating in its many aspects. Through the centuries--from ancient times to the present day--the metal in its various forms, also known under the name "quicksilver", accompanied the man and was used for diversified purposes. Today, mercury is employed in manufacturing thermometers, barometers, vacuum pumps and explosives. It is also used in silver and gold mining processes. Mercury compounds play a significant role in dentistry, pharmaceutical industry and crop protection. The contemporary use of mercury markedly decreases, but historically speaking, the archives abound in materials that document facts and events occurring over generations and the immense intellectual effort aiming at discovering the true properties and mechanisms of mercury activity. Mercury toxicity, manifested in destruction of biological membranes and binding of the element with proteins, what disturbs biochemical processes occurring in the body, was discovered only after many centuries of the metal exerting its effect on the lives of individuals and communities. For centuries, mercury was present in the work of alchemists, who searched for the universal essence or quintessence and the so-called philosopher's stone. In the early modern era, between the 16th and 19th centuries, mercury was used to manufacture mirrors. Mercury compounds were employed as a medication against syphilis, which plagued mankind for more than four hundred years--from the Middle Ages till mid 20th century, when the discovery of penicillin became the turning point. This extremely toxic therapy resulted in much suffering, individual tragedies, chronic poisonings leading to fatalities and dramatic sudden deaths. In the last fifty years, there even occurred attempts of mentally imbalanced individuals at injecting themselves with metallic mercury, also as a performance-enhancing drug. Instances of mass mercury poisoning occurred many times in the past in consequence of eating food products

  19. Resource Sharing: New Technologies as a Must for Universal Availability of Information. International Essen Symposium (16th, Essen, Germany, October 18-21, 1993). Festschrift in Honor of Hans-Peter Geh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helal, Ahmed H., Ed.; Weiss, Joachim W.

    This proceedings includes the following papers presented at the 16th International Essen Symposium: "Electronic Resource Sharing: It May Seem Obvious, But It's Not as Simple as it Looks" (Herbert S. White); "Resource Sharing through OCLC: A Comprehensive Approach" (Janet Mitchell); "The Business Information Network: Improving European Enterprise…

  20. Pre-seismic anomalous geomagnetic signature related to M8.3 earthquake occurred in Chile on September 16-th, 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armand Stanica, Dragos, ,, Dr.; Stanica, Dumitru, ,, Dr.; Vladimirescu, Nicoleta

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we retrospectively analyzed the geomagnetic data collected, via internet (www.intermagnet.com), on the interval 01 July-30 September 2015 at the observatories Easter Island (IMP) and Pilar (PIL), placed in Chile and Argentina, respectively, to emphasize a possible relationship between the pre-seismic anomalous behavior of the normalized function Bzn and M8.3 earthquake, that occurred in Offshore Coquimbo (Chile) on September 16-th, 2015. The daily mean distributions of the normalized function Bzn=Bz/Bperp (where Bz is vertical component of the geomagnetic field; Bperp is geomagnetic component perpendicular to the geoelectrical strike) and its standard deviation (STDEV) are performed in the ULF frequency range 0.001Hz to 0.0083Hz by using the FFT band-pass filter analysis. It was demonstrated that in pre-seismic conditions the Bzn has a significant enhancement due to the crustal electrical conductivity changes, possibly associated with the earthquake-induced rupture-processes and high-pressure fluid flow through the faulting system developed inside the foci and its neighboring area. After analyzing the anomalous values of the normalized function Bzn obtained at Easter Island and Pilar observatories, the second one taken as reference, we used a statistical analysis, based on a standardized random variable equation, to identify on 1-2 September 2015 a pre-seismic signature related to the M8.3 earthquake. The lead time was 14 days before the M8.3 earthquake occurrence. The final conclusion is that the proposed geomagnetic methodology might be used to provide suitable information for the extreme earthquake hazard assessment.

  1. Social differences in oral health: Dental status of individuals buried in and around Trakai Church in Lithuania (16th-17th c.c.).

    PubMed

    Miliauskienė, Žydrūnė; Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of social differences in dental health is based on the assumption that individuals belonging to a higher social class consumed a different diet than a common people. The aim of our study was to analyse and compare dental health of 16(th) - 17(th) c. individuals, buried inside and around the Roman Catholic Church in Trakai (Lithuania). All material (189 adult individuals) was divided in two samples of a presumably different social status: the Churchyard (ordinary townsmen) and the Presbytery (elite). Dental status analysis included that of tooth loss, tooth wear, caries, abscesses and calculus. Results revealed higher prevalence of dental disease in the Churchyard sample compared to the Presbytery. Individuals buried around the church had statistically higher prevalence of caries, antemortem tooth loss and abscesses compared to those who were buried inside the church. The Churchyard sample was also characterised by a higher increase in severity of caries with age, and a more rapid tooth wear. Differences in dental health between the samples the most probably reflect different dietary habits of people from different social groups: poor quality carbohydrate based diet of laymen buried in the churchyard and more varied diet with proteins and of a better quality of local elite, buried inside the church. Substantial sex differences in dental health were found only in the Churchyard sample: males had statistically higher prevalence of abscesses and calculus, while females had higher prevalence of caries and AMTL (antemortem tooth loss). Females were also characterised by a higher increase in the number of dental decay and tooth loss with age and had higher prevalence of gross caries, which indicates a more rapid progression of the disease. Worse dental health of females could be a result of culturally based dietary differences between females (more carbohydrates) and males (more proteins) and different physiological demands (hormonal fluctuations and

  2. [Discovery of blood cells in the 17th century].

    PubMed

    Doubek, M

    2001-07-01

    Landmark works of the 17th century concerning observations of blood cells are quoted in the article. "Simple" and successively "compound" microscopes made their appearance in the late 16th century and early 17th century. In 1656, Frenchman Pierre Borel, physician-in-ordinary to the King Louis XIV, who first applied the microscope to medicine described a type of "worn" found in human blood. In 1657, Athanasius Kircher, a Jesuit priest and scientist from Germany, examined blood from plague victims, and described "worms" of plague. In 1661, 1664 and 1665, the blood cells were discerned by Marcello Malpighi. In 1678, the red blood corpuscles was described by Jan Swammerdam of Amsterdam, a Dutch naturalist and physician. The first complete account of the red cells was made by Anthony van Leeuwenhoek of Delft in the last quarter of the 17th century.

  3. Patterns and sources of multidecadal oscillations in drought-sensitive tree-ring records from the central and southern Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, S.J.; Betancourt, J.L.; Fastie, C.L.; Jackson, S.T.

    2003-01-01

    Tree-ring records spanning the past seven centuries from the central and southern Rocky Mountains were studied using wavelet analysis to examine multidecadal (>30-70 yr) patterns of drought variation. Fifteen tree-ring series were grouped into five regional composite chronologies based on shared low-frequency behavior. Strong multidecadal phasing of moisture variation was present in all regions during the late 16th century megadrought. Oscillatory modes in the 30-70 yr domain persisted until the mid-19th century in two regions, and wet-dry cycles were apparently synchronous at some sites until the 1950s drought. The 16th/17th century pattern of severe multidecadal drought followed by decades of wet conditions resembles the 1950s drought and post-1976 wet period. The 16th century megadrought, which may have resulted from coupling of a decadal (???20-30 yr) Pacific cool phase with a multidecadal warm phase in the North Atlantic, marked a substantial reorganization of climate in the Rocky Mountain region.

  4. Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by Lagos state athletes at the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA games 2009) in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria. The study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA Games 2009). It was also aimed at providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes. Methods The study was carried out at Amadu Bello Stadium Complex, sporting arena of the Murtala Square and the team Lagos mini clinic. Participants were accredited Lagos state athletes who at one point in time during the games required treatment from any of the members of the medical team. Demographic data of athletes, type of injuries, body parts injured and treatment modalities used were documented and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Within the period of the games, a total of 140 sports injuries were documented from 132 athletes with an approximate male to female ratio of 2:1 and age ranging from 15-38 years. Most of the injuries reported by the athletes were "minor" injuries. Muscle strain was the most common type of injury (31.4%) followed by ligament sprains (22.9%). The lower extremities were the most injured body region accounting for 50% of all injuries. Over 60% of injuries presented by the athletes were from basketball, cricket, hockey, rugby and baseball. Cryotherapy was the most frequently used treatment modality, followed by bandaging and massage with anti-inflammatory gels. Conclusion Establishing injury prevention programmes directed at the lower extremities may help reduce the risk of injuries to the lower extremities. Since cryotherapy was the most used treatment modality, it is suggested that it should be made abundantly available to the medical team preferably in forms of portable cold sprays for easy transportation and application during the games. It is also important that physiotherapists form the core of the medical team since they are trained to apply most of these treatment modalities and they also play a

  5. RST (Robust Satellite Techiniques) analysis for monitoring earth emitted radiation at the time of the Hector Mine 16th October 1999 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisi, M.; Filizzola, C.; Genzano, N.; Mazzeo, G.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2009-12-01

    Several studies have been performed, in the past years, reporting the appearance of space-time anomalies in TIR satellite imagery, from weeks to days, before severe earthquakes. Different authors, in order to explain the appearance of anomalously high TIR records near the place and the time of earthquake occurrence, attributed their appearance to the increase of green-house gas (such as CO2, CH4, etc.) emission rates, to the modification of ground water regime and/or to the increase of convective heat flux. Among the others, a Robust Satellite data analysis Technique (RST), based on the RAT - Robust AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) Techniques - approach, was proposed to investigate possible relations between earthquake occurrence and space-time fluctuations of Earth’s emitted TIR radiation observed from satellite. The RST analysis is based on a statistically definition of “TIR anomalies” allowing their identification even in very different natural (e.g. related to atmosphere and/or surface) and observational (e.g. related to time/season, but also to solar and satellite zenithal angles) conditions. The correlation analysis (in the space-time domain) with earthquake occurrence is always carried out by using a validation/confutation approach, in order to verify the presence/absence of anomalous space-time TIR transients in the presence/absence of significant seismic activity. The RST approach was already tested in the case of tens of earthquakes occurred in different continents (Europe, Asia, America and Africa), in various geo-tectonic settings (compressive, extensional and transcurrent) and with a wide range of magnitudes (from 4.0 to 7.9). In this paper, the results of RST analysis performed over 7 years of TIR satellite records collected over the western part of the United States of America at the time of Hector Mine earthquake (16th October 1999, M 7.1) are presented and compared with an identical analysis (confutation) performed in

  6. Terrestrial and Aerial Ground-Penetrating Radar in Use for the Architectural Researches: Ancient 16TH Century Water Supply and Drainage at the Monastery of EL Escorial (madrid, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chias, P.; Abad, T.; Echeverria, E.

    2013-07-01

    Remote sensing techniques in Archaeology are increasingly essential components of the methodologies used in archaeological and architectural researches. They allow uncovering unique forgotten data which are unobtainable using traditional excavation techniques, mainly because their precise location is lost. These data are still important since they can help to prevent flood effects inside the ancient building cellars and basements, as it happened periodically in El Escorial. Wide ancient drainage galleries run more than one hundred feet downhill outside the building, ensuring that rainwater and springs were adequately drained. Nowadays their plans are lost, and the lack of documents related both to the ancient water supply and drainage systems become an impediment to solve the stains of damp on the stone masonry walls and vaults, and even other occasional flooding effects. In this case, nondestructive techniques were needed to find the ancient underground passages in order to preserve the integrity of the building and its current activities. At a first stage oblique aerial infrared images taken from a helium barrage balloon helped to find easily, quickly and cheaply the buried masonry structures. Secondly, radar pulses were particularly interesting to image the subsurface as they were valuable means of assessing the presence and amount of both soil water and buried structures. The combination of both techniques proved to be an accurate and low-cost way to find the ancient drainage systems. Finally, results were produced by means of open source software.

  7. [Medicinal roles tea--a non-essential beverage--played in forming the Japanese culture during the Japanese middle ages (12th-16th AD)].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    The term "culture" generally refers to practices and customs including clothes, food and housing as well as various arts, ethics, religions, politics and economies that support them, with the more refined formats such as tea ceremony or flower arrangement being more dependent on the maturity of the society at the time. Among these, tea may be especially noteworthy as it has been widely used as a favored beverage in various scenes in daily life, playing an important role in the development of Japanese society. As a medicinal agent, tea has psychotropic functions that activate senses, thoughts or association of ideas, and remove or alleviate drowsiness and fatigue. While alcohol, coffee or narcotics also have mind-altering effects, tea has been more widely accepted, possibly because of its milder effect and its adaptability to cultivation in different climate zones, leaving broad and deep impressions in the forming of the culture. In the fifth century, the rulers in Japan started opening state-run ranches throughout the country to raise horses and cattle, which drove population growth, spurred a commodity economy and gave rise to an associated birth of logistics providers. The ranch administrators, however, gradually built up political and economic power over the years to become samurai, who would eventually come to rule the country. In the Japanese Middle Ages, many merchants who had accumulated wealth in trades, finance, sake breweries or leather industries enjoyed gatherings with tea, which became the very popular tea ceremony. From these occasions, many of the now so-called classic arts with top-class artists were born. The popularity of the tea ceremony eventually produced SADO, the way of tea. Tea thus provided a cradle for many cultural elements as social barriers were often disregarded at such gatherings so that many artists and men of stature were able to emerge regardless of their backgrounds. PMID:20527289

  8. [Medicinal roles tea--a non-essential beverage--played in forming the Japanese culture during the Japanese middle ages (12th-16th AD)].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    The term "culture" generally refers to practices and customs including clothes, food and housing as well as various arts, ethics, religions, politics and economies that support them, with the more refined formats such as tea ceremony or flower arrangement being more dependent on the maturity of the society at the time. Among these, tea may be especially noteworthy as it has been widely used as a favored beverage in various scenes in daily life, playing an important role in the development of Japanese society. As a medicinal agent, tea has psychotropic functions that activate senses, thoughts or association of ideas, and remove or alleviate drowsiness and fatigue. While alcohol, coffee or narcotics also have mind-altering effects, tea has been more widely accepted, possibly because of its milder effect and its adaptability to cultivation in different climate zones, leaving broad and deep impressions in the forming of the culture. In the fifth century, the rulers in Japan started opening state-run ranches throughout the country to raise horses and cattle, which drove population growth, spurred a commodity economy and gave rise to an associated birth of logistics providers. The ranch administrators, however, gradually built up political and economic power over the years to become samurai, who would eventually come to rule the country. In the Japanese Middle Ages, many merchants who had accumulated wealth in trades, finance, sake breweries or leather industries enjoyed gatherings with tea, which became the very popular tea ceremony. From these occasions, many of the now so-called classic arts with top-class artists were born. The popularity of the tea ceremony eventually produced SADO, the way of tea. Tea thus provided a cradle for many cultural elements as social barriers were often disregarded at such gatherings so that many artists and men of stature were able to emerge regardless of their backgrounds.

  9. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 16th Workshop on MHD Stability Control: Optimizing and Understanding the Role of Coils for Mode Control Selected papers from the 16th Workshop on MHD Stability Control: Optimizing and Understanding the Role of Coils for Mode Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Haye, Rob

    2012-09-01

    The Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Control Workshop with the theme 'Optimizing and Understanding the Role of Coils for Mode Control' was held at General Atomics (20-22 November 2011) following the 2011 APS-DPP Annual Meeting in Salt Lake City, Utah (14-18 November). This was the 16th in the annual series and was organized jointly by Columbia University, General Atomics, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Program committee participation included representatives from the EU and Japan along with other US laboratory and university institutions. This workshop highlighted the role of applied non-axisymmetric magnetic fields from both internal and external coils for control of MHD stability to achieve high performance fusion plasmas. The application of 3D magnetic field offers control of important elements of equilibrium, stability, and transport. The use of active 3D fields to stabilize global instabilities and to correct magnetic field errors is an established tool for achieving high beta configurations. 3D fields also affect transport and plasma momentum, and are shown to be important for the control of edge localized modes (ELMs), resistive wall modes, and optimized stellarator configurations. The format was similar to previous workshops, including 13 invited talks, 21 contributed talks, and this year there were 2 panel discussions ('Error Field Correction' led by Andrew Cole of Columbia University and 'Application of Coils in General' led by Richard Buttery of General Atomics). Ted Strait of General Atomics also gave a summary of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) MHD meeting in Padua, a group for which he is now the leader. In this special section of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (PPCF) is a sample of the presentations at the workshop, which have been subject to the normal refereeing procedures of the journal. They include a review (A Boozer) and an invited talk (R Fitzpatrick) on error fields, an invited

  10. century drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  11. Hay fever, a post industrial revolution epidemic: a history of its growth during the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, M B

    1988-05-01

    Although other forms of allergic disease were described in antiquity, hay fever is surprisingly modern. Very rare descriptions can be traced back to Islamic texts of the 9th century and European texts of the 16th century. It was only in the early 19th century that the disease was carefully described and at that time was regarded as most unusual. By the end of the 19th century it had become commonplace in both Europe and North America. This paper attempts to chart the growth of hay fever through the medical literature of the 19th century. It is hoped that an understanding of the increase in prevalence between 1820 and 1900 may provide an insight for modern researchers and give some clues into possible reasons for the epidemic nature of the disease today.

  12. The 16th International Young Physicists' Tournament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Steve

    2003-09-01

    The UK team from Shrewsbury School performed very well in this year's International Young Physicists' Tournament and learnt a lot of physics in the process. This article describes the format of the competition and the team's approach.

  13. 16th Annual School Construction Report, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Almost 73 percent of construction in 2009 was of new school buildings. New school buildings accounted for less than 60 percent of construction spending in 2010, suggesting a shift to using less abundant construction dollars to upgrade and add to existing buildings. While overall construction fell more than $1.8 billion in 2010, spending on…

  14. The 16th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A technology survey of devices designed for use in space operations is presented. Technological areas covered include design of unique ground support equipment, orbiter specialized hardware, payload deployment, and positioning.

  15. Hallmarks in the history of enteral and parenteral nutrition: from antiquity to the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Vassilyadi, Frank; Panteliadou, Alkistis-Kira; Panteliadis, Christos

    2013-04-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral nutrition (EN) have a very long history, emerging in the ancient world and developing throughout the common epoch. This history dates back as far as 3500 bc to the ancient Egyptians, Indians, and Chinese. Their medical practices were the first reports of enteral feeding therapy, provided via rectum with enemas of wine, milk, whey, wheat, and barley. Hippocrates and Plato, in ancient Greece, were the first personalities to emphasize the importance of diet on health. In the following centuries, Erasistratus and Herophilus described the first notion of the circulatory system, and Oribasius and Celsus described the role of nutrition and disease. There is a great historical gap between the times of Galen (2nd century), who elaborated on the circulatory system; Ibn Zuhr (12th century), who constructed the first model of PN; and Capivacceus (16th century), who placed the first tube for EN. The 17th-19th centuries showed major developments in modern nutrition elements. Steps toward artificial nutrition began in 1628 with the detailed description of blood circulation by William Harvey; however, most of the advances in enteral and parenteral feeding techniques, solutions, and formulas took place in the 20th century. Over the last decade of the 20th century, research focused on metabolic control, multitude formulas, timing and the combination of EN and PN for intensive care patients.

  16. Infanticide in Mecklenburg and Western Pomerania: documents from four centuries (1570-1842).

    PubMed

    Hässler, Günther; Hässler, Frank

    2011-03-01

    In this study we present an unprecedented comprehensive overview of cases of infanticide in the region of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, from the end of the 16th century to the middle of the 19th century. Using the Faculty of Law's verdict files stored in the University of Rostock's archives, we analysed and evaluated 362 cases. Changes in the prosecution of this crime, in the way the trials were conducted and in the passing of sentences illustrate the judicial conceptions of the academics, as well as being of great social interest. For the almost exclusively female defendants, behavioural patterns occurred repeatedly: shame, confusion and hopelessness triggered concealment of the pregnancy and ultimately the deliberate or negligent killing of the newborn child.

  17. Ambroise Paré (1510 to 1590): a surgeon centuries ahead of his time.

    PubMed

    Shen, James T; Weinstein, Michael; Beekley, Alec; Yeo, Charles; Cowan, Scott

    2014-06-01

    In their extensive writings, Hippocrates and Celsus counseled physicians to be knowledgeable in both the medical and surgical management of patient recovery. However, their words fell by the wayside because cutting of the body was forbidden by the Roman Catholic Church. Furthermore, the contemporaneous Arabic medical teachings emphasized tradition and authority over observation and personal experience. This created an ever-growing rift between the schools of surgical and pharmacologic medicine with both groups denying their involvement in the other domain. Surgeons had been plagued by postoperative complications including infection, malnutrition, and muscular wasting for centuries. Surgeons were forced to re-examine how diet and exercise affected outcomes before the advent of microbiology and advances in pharmacology. All of this changed when Ambroise Paré, a 16th century surgeon, revolutionized the medical world with his astute observations of postoperative diet and exercise. PMID:24887788

  18. Selected Proceedings from the Annual Conferences of the Pennsylvania Association of Developmental Educators (PADE) (16th and 17th, Hidden Valley and Hershey, Pennsylvania, April 10-11, 1997, and March 26-27, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Sally, Ed.

    This document presents 13 keynote addresses and major papers presented at the 1997 and 1998 conferences of the Pennsylvania Association of Developmental Educators. The papers are: (1) "Developmental Education: History of Implications" (Hunter Boylan, 1997 keynote speaker); (2) "Learning and Teaching in the 21st Century: Seven Habits of Highly…

  19. Ancient Forests and the Tree-Ring Reconstruction of Past Climate (Ancient Forests and Dendroclimatology)

    SciTech Connect

    Stahle, David

    2003-02-12

    The original presettlement forests of North America have been dramatically altered, but thousands of unmolested ancient forests survive on remote or noncommercial terrain, including dry-site eastern hardwoods such as chestnut oak and post oak, the pinyon-juniper woodlands of the semiarid West, oak woodlands of California and in northeast Mexico, and the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska. Long tree-ring chronologies derived from these ancient forest remnants provide irreplaceable archives of environmental variability which are crucial for evaluating present and future change. Temperature sensitive tree -ring chronologies from cold treeline environments place 20th century warming into long historical perspective, and moisture sensitive tree-ring chronologies provide analogs to the decadal moisture regimes of the 20th century. These tree-ring data suggests that the 16th century megadrought was the most severe-sustained drought to impact North America in 1500 years, and had huge environmental and social impacts at the dawn of European settlement.

  20. Faces and Photography in 19th-Century Visual Science.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2016-09-01

    Reading faces for identity, character, and expression is as old as humanity but representing these states is relatively recent. From the 16th century, physiognomists classified character in terms of both facial form and represented the types graphically. Darwin distinguished between physiognomy (which concerned static features reflecting character) and expression (which was dynamic and reflected emotions). Artists represented personality, pleasure, and pain in their paintings and drawings, but the scientific study of faces was revolutionized by photography in the 19th century. Rather than relying on artistic abstractions of fleeting facial expressions, scientists photographed what the eye could not discriminate. Photography was applied first to stereoscopic portraiture (by Wheatstone) then to the study of facial expressions (by Duchenne) and to identity (by Galton and Bertillon). Photography opened new methods for investigating face perception, most markedly with Galton's composites derived from combining aligned photographs of many sitters. In the same decade (1870s), Kühne took the process of photography as a model for the chemical action of light in the retina. These developments and their developers are described and fixed in time, but the ideas they initiated have proved impossible to stop. PMID:27146124

  1. Faces and Photography in 19th-Century Visual Science.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2016-09-01

    Reading faces for identity, character, and expression is as old as humanity but representing these states is relatively recent. From the 16th century, physiognomists classified character in terms of both facial form and represented the types graphically. Darwin distinguished between physiognomy (which concerned static features reflecting character) and expression (which was dynamic and reflected emotions). Artists represented personality, pleasure, and pain in their paintings and drawings, but the scientific study of faces was revolutionized by photography in the 19th century. Rather than relying on artistic abstractions of fleeting facial expressions, scientists photographed what the eye could not discriminate. Photography was applied first to stereoscopic portraiture (by Wheatstone) then to the study of facial expressions (by Duchenne) and to identity (by Galton and Bertillon). Photography opened new methods for investigating face perception, most markedly with Galton's composites derived from combining aligned photographs of many sitters. In the same decade (1870s), Kühne took the process of photography as a model for the chemical action of light in the retina. These developments and their developers are described and fixed in time, but the ideas they initiated have proved impossible to stop.

  2. [The patent of Dr. Thibert: models of organs and his secret modeling at the beginning of the 19th century. Analysis of the stomach model (a8n°8) at the Conservatory of Montpellier].

    PubMed

    Noirot, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    In the early 19th century, Dr. Thibert discovered a process to overcome the difficulties of casting soft and moist organs. However, the analysis of a stomach made by Thibert reveals a modeling, changing the strict mechanical objectivity of the cast. This modeling inside the cast named "reparation" structures the illusionism of this cast. The scientific and artistic aspect of this study is to establish the typology of a secret modeling. This last one is the inheritance of the tricks of the mediocritas: between material and matter, so valuable for the goldsmiths of the 16th century.

  3. Central Vietnam climate over the past five centuries from cypress tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Brendan M.; Stahle, Daniel K.; Luu, Hong Truong; Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Nguyen, Tran Quoc Trung; Thomas, Philip; Le, Canh Nam; Ton, That Minh; Bui, The Hoang; Nguyen, Van Thiet

    2016-08-01

    We present the first crossdated tree ring record from central Vietnam, derived from the growth rings of the rare cypress Fokienia hodginsii from the mountains of Quang Nam Province near the Laos border. The Quang Nam Fokienia hodginsii time series (QNFH), based on the crossdated sequences of 71 increment core samples from 37 mature trees, is the third published dendrochronological record from this species. The record extends 667 years from AD 1347 to 2013 and exhibits a mean series intercorrelation of 0.526, similarly significant with the first two published Fokienia hodginsii records: 0.474 for Mu Cang Chai (MCFH) and 0.578 for Bidoup-Nui Ba National Park (BDFH) in the north and south of Vietnam, respectively. The Expressed Population Signal (EPS) for the QNFH record exceeds the generally accepted threshold of 0.85 back to AD 1567, but remains above 0.8 back to 1550. Similar to the MCFH and BDFH records, QNFH expresses statistically significant linkages to regional hydroclimate metrics and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Here we present a reconstruction of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for the month of April, averaged over a large region of Southeast Asia. As with prior studies we demonstrate that cool phase (La Niña) and warm phase (El Niño) events are linked to regional wet and dry conditions, respectively, with linkages to modulation of the surface water temperature over the adjacent sea to the east of Vietnam as well as the Indian Ocean. A late eighteenth century megadrought that is expressed widely across South and Southeast Asia, and notably from the MCFH and BDFH records described above, is not as pronounced in Central Vietnam and we explore the reasons why.

  4. 21st Century Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Terrence

    2009-01-01

    Bethpage Union Free School District in New York is a high-performing district by almost any current accountability measure. Yet administrators and teachers worried that they were not doing enough to prepare their students as critical thinkers for the 21st century. Inspired by the curriculum framework of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the…

  5. MBA: The First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Carter A.

    This book traces the development of the curriculum, the objectives, the popularity, and the reputation of graduate business programs during the 20th century, the first century of the MBA degree. The chapters are: (1) "Getting Started: Before 1910"; (2) "1910-1918: Searching for a Curriculum"; (3) "1919-1922: Explosive Growth, Descriptive Era"; (4)…

  6. Traces and echoes of De Architectura by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio in the work of Xu Guangqi in 17th century China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigola, Michela; Fang, Yibing

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the role played by Xu Guangqi (1562-1633), minister of the Ming Dynasty, in the development of European scientific and technical knowledge in China between the 16th and 17th centuries by analyzing a book of Western technology that he wrote, namely, Taixi Shuifa ( On Western Hydraulics). Several Western books related to machine knowledge are searched to trace the source of the illustrations in Taixi Shuifa. We found that Archimedes' screw and Ctesibius' machine, which are included in Vitruvius' De Architectura volumes, also appear in the work of Xu Guangqi.

  7. Comet of the Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, Fred; Ottewell, G.

    The present century has been a disappointing one for comets, but past centuries often featured spectacular, unforgettable comet shows that dominated the night (and even daytime) sky for months: comets that outshone Venus or even the Moon, whose spectacular tails stretched more than halfway across the sky or were weirdly split, and whose apparition was held responsible for everything from wars to unusually good wine vintages. Published to coincide with the first naked-eye appearance of Comet Hale-Bopp, perhaps our own comet of the century, this book is an irresistible guide to comet facts and lore throughout history.

  8. The Sahelian agro-ecosystem vulnerability to an acceleration of ice-sheet melting during the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defrance, Dimitri; Ramstein, Gilles; Charbit, Sylvie; Sultan, Benjamin; Dumas, Christophe; Vrac, Mathieu; Swingedouw, Didier; Gemenne, François; Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Vanderlinden, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    During the 20th century, Sahelian drought episodes like those between 1972 and 1982 showed the vulnerability of the Sahelian agro-ecosystem provoking significant intraregional southward human migrations, to or near the coast. According to the latest IPCC report, the Sahel could become increasingly impacted by climate change during the 21st century because of a lagged and shorter rainfall season having the potential to induce a drastic destabilization of the Sahelian agro-ecosystem and to heavily impact the population. Such effects could be further amplified by a net increase of the Sahelian population. Drastic climate changes over tropical areas also occurred in the past: weakening of the West African Monsoon and megadrought Sahelian episodes have been reported with a close correspondence between the large rainfall decrease and the massive freshwater discharges following ice-sheet melting or iceberg surges. During the last decades a continuous acceleration of ice-sheet mass loss has been observed and post IPCC-AR5 studies suggest the ice-sheet contribution to future sea-level rise could be revised upward due partly to the lack of an accurate representation of ice-ocean interactions. The release of freshwater discharge in response to ice-sheet instability could have large consequences on the most vulnerable regions, such as the tropical areas. To investigate the impacts of large ice-sheet instability during the 21st century, we first explore the climatic signature of Greenland or Antarctic ice-sheet collapse scenarios corresponding to 0.5 to 1.5 meter of sea-level rise, superimposed to the RCP8.5 scenario. We show that a freshwater discharge coming from Greenland melting induces a significant decrease of summer monsoon rainfall, that may lead to changes in agricultural practices. Combined with increasing demography, this has the potential to induce important human migration flows. Without adaptation measures, we estimate that tens to hundreds million people could be

  9. The Chemical Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Ralph E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses present and future problems of producing clean energy. Graphically presents the changing patterns of fuel use in the United States over the past century, and predicts population growth and energy sources and consumption up to the year 2100 for the United States and the world. (JR)

  10. The century for cytopathology.

    PubMed

    Naylor, B

    2000-01-01

    By the end of the 19th century, exfoliated cancer cells had been described in all of the types of specimen in which we find them today. However, it was not until Drs. Papanicolaou and Traut published their account of the diagnosis of uterine cancer from exfoliated cells (1941 and 1943) that cytopathology acquired the momentum to develop into the powerful presence that it has in human medicine today. These and the subsequent publications by Papanicolaou stimulated the development and application of cytopathology worldwide, resulting in abundant literature on the subject and a galaxy of outstanding practitioners. The 1980s saw the development and widespread use of aspiration cytology. This was followed in the 1990s by the development of automated screening systems, marking the latest stage in the evolution of cytopathology. These and other events and achievements in cytopathology, from its meager beginnings in the early 20th century to its worldwide use and acceptance today, mark this century as the "century for cytopathology."

  11. Suidas (tenth century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Greek encyclopedist. In the course of reading Suidas's Lexicon, EDMOND HALLEY mistakenly connected the naming of the Saros cycle of 223 synodic months by the tenth century Greek lexicographer Suidas with the eclipse cycle of the same period. The solar eclipse cycle is thus now known by the name that Suidas used for another phenomenon. Halley's mistake accounts for the historical confusion that th...

  12. Drought, epidemic disease, and the fall of classic period cultures in Mesoamerica (AD 750-950). Hemorrhagic fevers as a cause of massive population loss.

    PubMed

    Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Stahle, David W; Therrell, Matthew D; Gomez Chavez, Sergio; Cleaveland, Malcolm K

    2005-01-01

    The classical period in Mexico (AD 250-750) was an era of splendor. The city of Teotihuacan was one of the largest and most sophisticated human conglomerates of the pre-industrial world. The Mayan civilization in southeastern Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula reached an impressive degree of development at the same time. This time of prosperity came to an end during the Terminal Classic Period (AD 750-950) a time of massive population loss throughout Mesoamerica. A second episode of massive depopulation in the same area was experienced during the sixteenth century when, in less than one century, between 80% and 90% of the entire indigenous population was lost. The 16th century depopulation of Mexico constitutes one of the worst demographic catastrophes in human history. Although newly imported European and African diseases caused high mortality among the native population, the major 16th century population losses were caused by a series of epidemics of a hemorrhagic fever called Cocoliztli, a highly lethal disease unknown to both Aztec and European physicians during the colonial era. The cocoliztli epidemics occurred during the 16th century megadrought, when severe drought extended at times from central Mexico to the boreal forest of Canada, and from the Pacific to the Atlantic coast. The collapse of the cultures of the Classic Period seems also to have occurred during a time of severe drought. Tree ring and lake sediment records indicate that some of the most severe and prolonged droughts to impact North America-Mesoamerica in the past 1000-4000 years occurred between AD 650 and 1000, particularly during the 8th and 9th centuries, a period of time that coincides with the Terminal Classic Period. Based on the similarities of the climatic (severe drought) and demographic (massive population loss) events in Mesoamerica during the sixteenth century, we propose that drought-associated epidemics of hemorrhagic fever may have contributed to the massive population loss

  13. GRANTING A LICENCE FOR OPENING A PHARMACY IN BOLOGNA DURING ACTIVITY OF THE BOLOGNESE ARTE DE' SPEZIALI (13TH - 18TH CENTURY).

    PubMed

    Oszajca, Paulina; Bela, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the main changes in legislation concerning granting the licenses for opening a new pharmacy in Bologna in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period. The organization of all traders, including apothecaries, was subordinated, as almost everywhere in Italy, to the Guilds. In the 2nd half of 16th century the Arte de' Speziali of Bologna came under the jurisdiction of the Collegio di Medicina, leading to disagreements between the two corporations. Giovanni Baldi, in his Notizie storiche su la farmacia bolognese (Bologna, 1955) mentioned one of these controversies, dating on the second half of 18th century. The Authors present this controversy basing on original documents from Archivio di Stato di Bologna.

  14. GRANTING A LICENCE FOR OPENING A PHARMACY IN BOLOGNA DURING ACTIVITY OF THE BOLOGNESE ARTE DE' SPEZIALI (13TH - 18TH CENTURY).

    PubMed

    Oszajca, Paulina; Bela, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the main changes in legislation concerning granting the licenses for opening a new pharmacy in Bologna in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period. The organization of all traders, including apothecaries, was subordinated, as almost everywhere in Italy, to the Guilds. In the 2nd half of 16th century the Arte de' Speziali of Bologna came under the jurisdiction of the Collegio di Medicina, leading to disagreements between the two corporations. Giovanni Baldi, in his Notizie storiche su la farmacia bolognese (Bologna, 1955) mentioned one of these controversies, dating on the second half of 18th century. The Authors present this controversy basing on original documents from Archivio di Stato di Bologna. PMID:26946818

  15. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  16. The Renaissance Kidney-Nephrology in and about the Sixteenth Century.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2012-07-01

    The endeavor to understand the workings of the human body is as old as civilization; but it is in the intellectual movement of the Renaissance that its actual scientific study began in earnest and has not ceased growing since then. It was in the 16th century that the study of organs was launched and with it that of the kidney, which was then conceived as an accessory organ to clear the excess water ingested with food. The study of the structural basis of kidney function was launched by Bartolomeo Eustachio (1514-1574); the elements of its physiology and pathology were promulgated by Jean Fernel (1497-1558), and that of the chemical study of urine and of the principal cause of kidney disease then, calculi, instigated by Joan Baptista Van Helmont (1577-1644). The methodological approaches of these and their contemporary investigators, which were crystallized and formulated by Francis Bacon (1561-1626), opened the gates of the Scientific Revolution that followed in the 17th century, beginning with that of describing the circulation in 1628 by William Harvey (1564-1657) that would finally free the kidney from the shackles imposed on it as a mere accessory organ to the liver in Galen's physiology. PMID:22320147

  17. The Renaissance Kidney-Nephrology in and about the Sixteenth Century.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2012-07-01

    The endeavor to understand the workings of the human body is as old as civilization; but it is in the intellectual movement of the Renaissance that its actual scientific study began in earnest and has not ceased growing since then. It was in the 16th century that the study of organs was launched and with it that of the kidney, which was then conceived as an accessory organ to clear the excess water ingested with food. The study of the structural basis of kidney function was launched by Bartolomeo Eustachio (1514-1574); the elements of its physiology and pathology were promulgated by Jean Fernel (1497-1558), and that of the chemical study of urine and of the principal cause of kidney disease then, calculi, instigated by Joan Baptista Van Helmont (1577-1644). The methodological approaches of these and their contemporary investigators, which were crystallized and formulated by Francis Bacon (1561-1626), opened the gates of the Scientific Revolution that followed in the 17th century, beginning with that of describing the circulation in 1628 by William Harvey (1564-1657) that would finally free the kidney from the shackles imposed on it as a mere accessory organ to the liver in Galen's physiology.

  18. a GIS of SARDINIA'S Coastal Defense System (xvi - XVIII Century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidda, M.; Musa, C.; Vacca, G.

    2015-06-01

    The use of GIS as a tool for archival, analysis and representation of geographic information has become significantly popular in many scientific fields that are directly concerned with the "territory" as their object of study. The field of application of GIS, however, has expanded also in other areas, such as those related to humanities and architecture, in which the territory is studied in an "indirect" mode because it constitutes a kind of substrate on which to develop a specific spatial analysis for particular purposes. Among these areas are to be included certainly archeology and restoration, fields in which the GIS has become a useful tool for historical studies. In this work we present a GIS developed for the study of the historical and territorial coastal defense system of Sardinia (16th - 18th century), in order to respond to the need to store, analyze and efficiently manage the information regarding cultural heritage and landscape heritage such as that consisting of the coastal defensive towers of Sardinia. This defensive system, in fact, was composed by over 100 towers positioned around the entire coastal perimeter of Sardinia, of which more than 90 still exist today. Their position was planned on the basis of the following criteria: - Warning the neighboring towers about the sighting of enemy ships - Protecting coasts located near the towns - Monitoring the water sources near the coast - Allowing for the full visibility of the coasts of any morphology With this study we also verified, through the use of high resolution and high accuracy DTM (LiDAR) and the topographic databases, whether the positioning criteria specified in the design of the system were respected and effective.

  19. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 1: Pigments and glazes characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira Ferreira, L. F.; Casimiro, T. M.; Colomban, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    Two sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the first and second halves of the 17th century were studied carefully with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Laser Induced Luminescence (LIL) and Proton Induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for a Chinese Ming porcelain, Wanli period (16th/beginning of the 17th centuries), which served as an influence for the initial Lisbon's faience production. By combining information of the different non-destructive spectroscopic techniques used in this work, it was possible to conclude that: Co3O4 (Co II and Co III) can be found in the silicate matrix and is the blue pigment in the "Especieiro" sample (1st half of the 17th C.). Cobalt olivine silicate (Co2SiO4, Co II only) was clearly identified as the blue pigment in "Aranhões" sample (2nd half of the17th C.) - 824 cm-1 band in the micro-Raman-spectrum. Cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4, Co II only) is the blue pigment in the Wanli plate - 203 and 512 cm-1 bands in the micro-Raman spectrum. The blue pigment in the 1st half 17th century of Lisbon's production was obtained by addition of a cobalt ore in low concentrations, which gives no specific Raman signature, because of complete dissolution in the glass. However, in most cases of the 2nd half 17th century, the Raman signature was quite evident, from a cobalt silicate. These findings point to the use of higher temperature kilns in the second case.

  20. The management century.

    PubMed

    Kiechel, Walter

    2012-11-01

    In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it. PMID:23155998

  1. Proceedings of the 16th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    The principal achievement of the Low Cost Solar Array Project in 1980 was the attainment of $2.80/Wp Technical Readiness, and that processes and equipment now commercially available can make possible a deliverable product in 1982. A prototype array for intermediate load applications was demonstrated using frameless modules. It was proof tested to 40 lb/sq ft loading, and priced at $24/sq m, including array fabrication, module installation, shipping to the site and site installation for quantities of 20 MW.

  2. 16(th) IHIW : review of HLA typing by NGS.

    PubMed

    De Santis, D; Dinauer, D; Duke, J; Erlich, H A; Holcomb, C L; Lind, C; Mackiewicz, K; Monos, D; Moudgil, A; Norman, P; Parham, P; Sasson, A; Allcock, R J N

    2013-02-01

    Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genes play an important role in the success of organ transplantation and are associated with autoimmune and infectious diseases. Current DNA-based genotyping methods, including Sanger sequence-based typing (SSBT), have identified a high degree of polymorphism. This level of polymorphism makes high-resolution HLA genotyping challenging, resulting in ambiguous typing results due to an inability to resolve phase and/or defining polymorphisms lying outside the region amplified. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) may resolve the issue through the combination of clonal amplification, which provides phase information, and the ability to sequence larger regions of genes, including introns, without the additional effort or cost associated with current methods. The NGS HLA sequencing project of the 16IHIW aimed to discuss the different approaches to (i) template preparation including short- and long-range PCR amplicons, exome capture and whole genome; (ii) sequencing platforms, including GS 454 FLX, Ion Torrent PGM, Illumina MiSeq/HiSeq and Pacific Biosciences SMRT; (iii) data analysis, specifically allele-calling software. The pilot studies presented at the workshop demonstrated that although individual sequencers have very different performance characteristics, all produced sequence data suitable for the resolution of HLA genotyping ambiguities. The developments presented at this workshop clearly highlight the potential benefits of NGS in the HLA laboratory.

  3. 16th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the SPRAT conference is to bring members of the space solar cell community together in a relatively informal conference setting to discuss the recent developments in solar cell technology and to discuss the future directions of the field. The conference is sponsored by the Photovoltaic and Space Environmental Effects Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  4. The 16th National Seminar on Crystallography: Abstract of papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    The abstracts of the papers received for this seminar are presented. These papers deal with the following subjects: Methods in Crystal Structure Analysis Including Computational Methods; Crystallography in Biology, Biohemistry, and Pharmacology; Atomic Scale Mechanisms, Physical Properties and Structures; Materials Science; Real and Ideal Crystals; Inorganic and Mineralogical Crystallography; Structures of Organic, Organic-Metallic Coordination Compounds and Polymers; Apparatus and Techniques; and Structural Methods Other Than Diffraction.

  5. A century of editors.

    PubMed

    Riley, R W

    1983-07-01

    They are unalike and far apart, these 13 past editors of The Journal. Between Nathan S. Davis's first issue and William R. Barclay's retirement, there was almost a century of change in medicine, society, the American Medical Association, prose style, and editorial needs. During these years, the editors ranged from the brilliant organizers John B. Hamilton and George H. Simmons to the diligent John H. Hollister and the devoted Johnson F. Hammond. There were editors with the hot determination of James C. Culbertson, John H. Talbott, and Robert H. Moser, and there were those with the cool precision of Austin Smith and Hugh H. Hussey. They varied from Morris Fishbein, who wrote and spoke "with the grade of an eagle in its unhindered soar," to Truman W. Miller, who wrote scarcely a word. Here, briefly, they are together.

  6. EDITORIAL: The 16th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 16th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suominen, Kalle-Antti; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Piilo, Jyrki

    2010-09-01

    This workshop, also known as CEWQO2009, was held in Turku, Finland on 23-27 May 2009. The main location was the new ICT building of the University of Turku. For one day, 25 May, the meeting site was changed to the large ferry boats that travel daily between Turku and Stockholm; the participants spent the morning following plenary talks, then swapped from one boat to another at Mariehamn (Åland islands) and enjoyed the scenic view of the archipelago in the afternoon. There were about 180 participants at the meeting, which proved to be very successful and was apparently enjoyed by all. The CEWQO meetings have a long history, starting from the first held in Bratislava in 1993. Quantum optics has always been a strongly developing research field. This is partly due to the fact that theory and experiments are closely connected in this field of physics, driving each other forward. Also, the distance between fundamental studies and the development of practical applications has always been short. Professor Stig Stenholm had his 70th birthday on 26 February 2009. Thus CEWQO2009 provided a suitable backdrop for celebrating the event, and 26 May was dedicated to Stig. His career in quantum optics, starting from work with Willis Lamb on lasers and continuing today on the fundamental aspects of quantum physics, is an excellent demonstration of the history of quantum optics during the last 40+ years, including laser spectroscopy, cooling and trapping of atoms, short laser pulses, Bose-Einstein condensation and quantum information. The organization of CEWQO2009 was carried out by the quantum optics community at the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, assisted by the Congress Office of the University. Financial support came from the Federation of Finnish Learned Societies (TSV) and the Turku University Foundation. A separate book of abstracts appeared in the Report Series in Physics L 32, University of Turku. Special thanks goes to Roger Wäppling, the Managing Editor of Physica Scripta, for the opportunity to publish the CEWQO2009 proceedings in the journal. Finally, CEWQO2009 was one of the major events that led to the establishment of the Turku Centre for Quantum Physics (TCQP), in Autumn 2009.

  7. 21st Century Skills Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  8. A century of smoke.

    PubMed

    Yach, D; Wipfli, H

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco kills 5 million people annually. By the mid 2020s, that figure will increase to about 10 million a year, with most of the deaths occurring in developing countries. This review explains how early technological and regulatory developments contributed to the epidemic, reveals the efforts of the tobacco industry to conceal its products' harmfulness, and stresses the role of the globalization of trade and marketing as a means of increasing consumption world-wide. The results of tens of thousands of studies published globally over the past 50 years point to an association between smoking and lung cancer and other adverse health effects, and the non-smoker's rights movement has exposed the wide-spread perils of 'secondhand' smoke. Yet, the tobacco industry continues its global expansion, and consumers in low- and middle-income countries are especially susceptible to its marketing tactics. This review ends by emphasising the need for a global public-health response, and identifies the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control as a significant effort. It stresses the need for accelerated action and innovative tobacco-control efforts, if the projected death toll is to be reduced in this century.

  9. The Cosmic Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    2006-06-01

    Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

  10. The Cosmic Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    2013-04-01

    Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

  11. Sixteenth Century Astronomical Telescopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    2001-12-01

    Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet is named for the ``moist star" which in mythology is the partner of Hamlet's royal Sun. Together the couple seem destined to rule on earth just as their celestial counterparts rule the heavens, but the tragedy is that they are afflicted, just as the Sun and Moon are blemished. In 1.3 Laertes lectures Ophelia on love and chastity, describing first Cytherean phases (crescent to gibbous) and then Lunar craters. Spots mar the Sun (1.1, 3.1). Also reported are Jupiter's Red Spot (3.4) and the resolution of the Milky Way into stars (2.2). These interpretations are well-founded and support the cosmic allegory. Observations must have been made with optical aid, probably the perspective glass of Leonard Digges, father of Thomas Digges. Notably absent from Hamlet is mention of the Galilean moons, owing perhaps to the narrow field-of-view of the telescope. That discovery is later celebrated in Cymbeline, published soon after Galileo's Siderius Nuncius in 1610. In 5.4 of Cymbeline the four ghosts dance ``in imitation of planetary motions" and at Jupiter's behest place a book on the chest of Posthumus Leonatus. His name identifies the Digges father and son as the source of data in Hamlet since Jupiter's moons were discovered after the deaths of Leonard (``leon+hart") and Thomas (the ``lion's whelp"). Lines in 5.4 urge us not to read more into the book than is contained between its covers; this is understandable because Hamlet had already reported the other data in support of heliocentricism and the cosmic model discussed and depicted by Thomas Digges in 1576. I conclude therefore that astronomical telescopy began in England before the last quarter of the sixteenth century.

  12. Two positive tuberculosis cases in the late Nigrovits family, 18th century, Vác, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szikossy, Ildikó; Pálfi, György; Molnár, Erika; Karlinger, Kinga; Kovács, Balázs K; Korom, Csaba; Schultz, Michael; Schmidt-Schultz, Tyede H; Spigelman, Mark; Donoghue, Helen D; Kustár, Ágnes; Pap, Ildikó

    2015-06-01

    Two mummies of the Hungarian mummy collection from Vác were the subjects of anthropological, paleopathological, radiological, paleomicrobiological, paleohistological and paleoproteomic studies. Both individuals belonged to the same family. The father, József Nigrovits (No 29), died at the age of 55 on the 11th of November 1793; his son, Antal Nigrovits (No 54), died on the 16th of July 1803, at the age of 22. They lived in the 18th century in Vác, a small town in northern Hungary. The macroscopic examination of the son showed a severely deformed neck and back region; the father has no visible mark of any illnesses. As earlier researches showed that tuberculosis was widespread in the community, the etiology of these deformities was examined. The paleomicrobiological results found that both individuals were infected with tuberculosis. Although they suffered from TB, the CT scan data of the bodies and their 3D reconstructions showed no skeletal evidence of tuberculosis. The deformity of the son turned to be a developmental abnormality of unknown origin, but no Pott's gibbus was present.

  13. Acute traumatic death of a 17th century general based on examination of mummified remains found in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Sun; Lee, Eun-Joo; Park, Jun Bum; Baek, Seung Hee; Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Soong Deok; Kim, Yi-Suk; Bok, Gi Dae; Hong, Jung Won; Lim, Do-Sun; Shin, Myung Ho; Seo, Min; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2009-06-01

    Recently, we examined one of the most perfectly preserved mummies of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) ever found in Korea. The individual was an elderly man and a high-ranking general who had lived sometime during the 16th or 17th century in Korea. When computerized tomography (CT) radiographs were taken, a fracture line was observed on the left side of the mandible. A post-factum dissection also provided crucial clues to the cause of death. First of all, blood clots were still evident at the fracture site, indicating that the mandibular fracture had occurred just before death. Second, we also found feces exclusively in the sigmoid colon or rectum, but not in the stomach, small intestine or colon. This told us that our subject had not eaten anything during his final 2 days (even though there was no indication that he would have had any difficulty eating during that time). Therefore, we presume that this case might not be one of chronic or wasting disease, but rather a case of sudden death. By virtue of the varied specialties of the researchers involved in this study, we were able to piece together a partly very clear and partly very plausible story for our 17th century mummy subject. Considering the high level of preservation of remains and artifacts found in lime soil mixture barrier (LSMB) tombs, not to mention the rich supplementary information available from historical documents, similarly successful studies are promised in forthcoming days and years. PMID:19345566

  14. White Macael marble: a key element in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia for over 25 centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Rafael; Sol Cruz, Ana; Arriaga, Lourdes; Baltuille, José Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Marble from Macael (Andalusia) is one of the most important natural stones in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia; in particular the variety commercially known as "White Macael". This natural stone has been used outdoors as well as indoors for decorative, ornamental or structural purposes. During the 7th century (B.C.) the Phoenicians began to systematically extract these quarries to be used in their more social important elements such as sarcophagus. During the Roman period this rock had a greater importance in construction; we find columns, pavements, tombstones… in many historical buildings such as the Roman amphitheatre in Mérida (1st century B.C.) and the city of Itálica in Seville (3rd century B.C.). But it is during the Muslim period when marble from Macael is more widely used: the Mosque of Córdoba (8th century), the Lions Court in the Alhambra palace, the Alcazaba in Almería, the Medina-Azahara palace in Córdoba (10th century). Other important buildings using the white marble are: Carlos V palace or the Royal Chapel in Granada (15th century), the Almería cathedral or El Escorial monastery in Madrid (16th century), San Telmo palace in Seville (17th century) or The Royal Palace in Madrid (18th century). Uncountable number of buildings, both historical and contemporary, show different elements made of this marble. From a geological point of view, the quarries are located in the upper part of the Nevado-Filábride Complex, the lowest nappe of the Internal Zones of the Betic Chains. Under the "White Macael" name is also possible to include another commercial denominations such "White Macael Río" or "White Macael Río Veteado". It is a clear white coloured, calcitic marble (up than 97% calcite), with average grain size between 0,16 y 3,2 mm in a mosaic texture with a very homogenous aspect. Regarding the main physical and mechanical properties, this rock has an open porosity value between 0,1-0,6%, bulk density 2,50-2,75 g/cm3, water absorption at

  15. Composition of Façon de Venise glass from early 17th century London in comparison with luxury glass of the same age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagno, S.; De Raedt, I.; Jeffries, T.; Janssens, K.

    SEM-EDX and LA-ICP-MS analyses were performed on a set of early 17th century London glass fragments. The samples originate from two archaeological sites (Aldgate and Old Broad Street) where glass workshops were active in this period. The great majority of the samples are made of soda glass. Two distinct compositional groups are observed, each typical of one site of provenance. The samples originating from the Old Broad Street excavation feature a silica-soda-lime composition, with a moderate amount of potash. The samples from Aldgate are richer in potassium and feature higher amounts of trace elements such as Rb, Zr and Cu. The distinction between the two groups stems from different flux and silica sources used for glassmaking. A comparison with different European glass compositions of that time reveals no resemblance with genuine Venetian production, yet the composition of the Old Broad Street glass shows a close similarity to that of fragments produced `à la façon de Venise' in Antwerp at the end of the 16th century. This coincides with historical sources attesting the arrival of glassworkers from the Low Countries in England and suggests that a transfer of technology took place near the turn of the century.

  16. [The Piscine Probatica, a painted canvas of the Hotel-Dieu of Rheims, documentation of an epidemic at the end of the 15th century].

    PubMed

    Ségal, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The Piscina Probatica theme is the highly distinctive iconography in an impressive painted canvas from the ancient Rheims hôtel-Dieu, dating back to the late 15th or early 16th century. In the first place, it is interesting to note that the actual site of the pool has been located, so that archaeological findings bring confirmation to testament scriptures. Through the choice of the painted-canvas medium, and thanks to his great pictorial skill, the anonymous Rheims artist has given us a document of exceptional value, concerning the signs and symptoms of an illness which wrought havoc in the Rheims area in his own lifetime, namely ignis plaga or "mal des ardents". Other great artists of the same period, such as J. Bosch, have testified to the horror of the illness. As a matter-of-fact, the illness has been fully documented, from the 17th century onwards, and the medical expert H.A. Tessier, also acting as an agricultural expert, has demonstrated that ergotized rye is responsible for the fatal condition known as ergotism, and for the heavy toll it has levied on human lives in the course of centuries. PMID:22073758

  17. [Odontologic History. The XVIIth Century].

    PubMed

    Bagur, D B

    1994-06-01

    Scientific progress lines go on developping in that century and at the same time it begins to be drawn the trajectory of the futur dentist, with its usual and popular denomination, since the times of Guy de Chauliac (1363), when he outlined the separation of odontologic knowledges from those of Medicine.

  18. Twenty-first-century science.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, M R

    1995-01-01

    Scientific life is changing in fundamental ways as the twenty-first century approaches. Advances in technology are changing methods of scientific communications and dissemination of information, while diminishing resources lead to stabilization, politicization, increased public oversight, and the potential for significant downsizing. Libraries can foster the crucial interdisciplinary connections necessary to forge a new vision of scholarship. PMID:7703945

  19. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

  20. Talladega College: The First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Maxine D.; Richardson, Joe M.

    The book presents the history of the growth, development, and significance of Alabama's Talladega College, a black liberal arts college, from its inception in the 1860s through the student protest movement more than a century later. The historical account emphasizes such college issues as finance, enrollment, students, educational policy, and the…

  1. Physics in the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskopf, Victor F.

    1970-01-01

    Provides a review of the great discoveries, theoretical concepts and development of physics in the 20th century. The growth and significance of diverse fields such as quantum theory, relativity theory, atomic physics, molecular physics, the physics of the solid state, nuclear physics, astrophysics, plasma physics, and particle physics are…

  2. Selenography in the seventeenth century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, E. A.

    Contents: 1. Pre-telescopic observations. 2. The first telescopic observations. 3. Galileo's lunar observations. 4. Two new selenographical programmes. 5. A flurry of activity. 6. Hevelius and his Selenographia. 7. Riccioli, Grimaldi, and nomenclature. 8. Robert Hooke and selenology. 9. Cassini and La Hire. 10. Other seventeenth-century selenography. 11. Conclusion.

  3. Immigration and the American century.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, Charles

    2005-11-01

    The full impact of immigration on American society is obscured in policy and academic analyses that focus on the short-term problems of immigrant adjustment. With a longer-term perspective, which includes the socioeconomic roles of the children of immigrants, immigration appears as one of the defining characteristics of twentieth-century America. Major waves of immigration create population diversity with new languages and cultures, but over time, while immigrants and their descendants become more "American," the character of American society and culture is transformed. In the early decades of the twentieth century, immigrants and their children were the majority of the workforce in many of the largest industrial cities; in recent decades, the arrival of immigrants and their families has slowed the demographic and economic decline of some American cities. The presence of immigrants probably creates as many jobs for native-born workers as are lost through displacement. Immigrants and their children played an important role in twentieth-century American politics and were influential in the development of American popular culture during the middle decades of the twentieth century. Intermarriage between the descendants of immigrants and old-stock Americans fosters a national identity based on civic participation rather than ancestry.

  4. Two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around New Zealand and East Australia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Emma L; Jackson, Jennifer A; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time. PMID:24690918

  5. Two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around New Zealand and East Australia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Emma L; Jackson, Jennifer A; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time.

  6. Two Intense Decades of 19th Century Whaling Precipitated Rapid Decline of Right Whales around New Zealand and East Australia

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Emma L.; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D.

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time. PMID:24690918

  7. The 21st century propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haloulakos, V. E.; Boehmer, C.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of future space travel in the next millennium starts by examining the past and extrapolating into the far future. Goals for the 21st century include expanded space travel and establishment of permanent manned outposts, and representation of Lunar and Mars outposts as the most immediate future in space. Nuclear stage design/program considerations; launch considerations for manned Mars missions; and far future propulsion schemes are outlined.

  8. The 21st Century Skills Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

  9. Decadal Drought and Wetness Reconstructed for Subtropical North America in the Mexican Drought Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnette, D. J.; Stahle, D. W.; Cook, E. R.; Villanueva Diaz, J.; Griffin, D.; Cook, B.

    2014-12-01

    A new drought atlas has been developed for subtropical North America, including the entire Republic of Mexico. This Mexican Drought Atlas (MXDA) is based on 251 tree-ring chronologies, including 82 from Mexico and another 169 from the southern U.S. and western Guatemala. Point-by-point principal components regression was used to reconstruct the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for June-August. Calibration and verification statistics were improved over what was previously possible with the North American Drought Atlas, which was based on fewer chronologies only in Mexico. The MXDA will be served on the web with analytical tools for composite, correlation, and congruence analyses. The new PDSI reconstructions provide a more detailed estimation of decadal moisture regimes over the past 2000 years, but are most robust after 1400 AD, when several chronologies are available across Mexico. Droughts previously identified in a subset of chronologies are confirmed and their spatial impact quantified in the new reconstructions. This includes the intense drought of the mid-15th Century described in Aztec legend, the 16th Century megadrought, and "El Año del Hambre", one of the worst famines in Mexican history. We also use the best replicated portion of the MXDA in the 18th and 19th Centuries to reconstruct moisture anomalies during key time periods of Mexican turmoil (e.g., the Mexican War of Independence).

  10. [Thomas Bartholin, theological anatomy in the 17th century --religion and science in Danish history of medicine].

    PubMed

    Mønster-Kjaer, Inge

    2009-01-01

    It is commonly accepted, that the Reformation heavily influenced scientific thinking in Europe. But in many historical accounts, this effect is presented as a fundamental break at the beginning of the 16th century with previous ideas and methods. In this view, scientists turned their back on explanations based on religion and began deliberately and determinedly to pull society away from the church. After studying Bartholin's writings, particularly some of the less well known texts such as his treatises on biblical medicine, I have come to the conclusion, that he in fact saw himself primarily as a theologian. For him anatomy was merely a tool, and so it had been for scientist all over Europe from its gradual evolvement as a field of study from Antiquity to the Renaissance. It had been a tool to illustrate the greatness and perfection of God's Creation in artistic ways, a tool to prove sanctity, a tool to establish causes of death in both judicial and medical contexts etc.

  11. Two Centuries of Solar Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. W.

    2015-10-01

    In 1811, François Arago observed the disk of the Sun with his "lunette polariscopique". From the absence of detectable polarization compared with his laboratory observations of glowing solids, liquids, and flames he concluded that the Sun's visible surface is an incandescent gas. From this beginning, thanks to orders of magnitude technology improvements, a remarkable amount of what we know about the physics of the Sun has continued to flow from solar polarimetry. This short review compares some selected polarimetric discoveries with subsequent recent observations to illustrate the tremendous progress of solar polarimetry during the last two centuries.

  12. Climate, people, fire and vegetation: new insights into vegetation dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean since the 1st century AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, J.; Paulissen, E.; Kaniewski, D.; Poblome, J.; De Laet, V.; Verstraeten, G.; Waelkens, M.

    2012-08-01

    Anatolia forms a bridge between Europe, Africa and Asia and is influenced by all three continents in terms of climate, vegetation and human civilisation. Unfortunately, well dated palynological records focussing on the period from the end of the classical Roman period until subrecent times are rare for Anatolia and completely absent for southwest Turkey, resulting in a lacuna in knowledge concerning the interactions of climatic change, human impact, and environmental change in this important region. Two well dated palaeoecological records from the Western Taurus Mountains, Turkey, provide a first relatively detailed record of vegetation dynamics from late Roman times until the present in SW Turkey. Combining pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal, sedimentological, archaeological data, and newly developed multivariate numerical analyses, allows for the disentangling of climatic and anthropogenic influences on vegetation change. Results show both the regional pollen signal as well as local soil sediment characteristics respond accurately to shifts in regional climatic conditions. Both climatic as well as anthropogenic change had a strong influence on vegetation dynamics and land use. A moist environmental trend during the late 3rd century caused an increase in marshes and wetlands in the moister valley floors, limiting possibilities for intensive crop cultivation at such locations. A mid 7th century shift to pastoralism coincided with a climatic deterioration as well as the start of Arab incursions into the region, the former driving the way in which the vegetation developed afterwards. Resurgence in agriculture was observed in the study during the mid 10th century AD, coinciding with the Medieval Climate Anomaly. An abrupt mid 12th century decrease in agriculture is linked to socio-political change, rather than the onset of the Little Ice Age. Similarly, gradual deforestation occurring from the 16th century onwards has been linked to changes in lands use during

  13. William R. Maples, forensic historian: four men, four centuries, four countries.

    PubMed

    Goza, W M

    1999-07-01

    Prior to 1984, William R. Maples, Ph.D. worked primarily with Medical Examiners in the State of Florida in investigation of and testimony in criminal cases. In 1984 the Republic of Peru requested him to identify skeletal remains thought to be those of Francisco Pizarro, conqueror of Peru and the Incas in the early 16th Century. Dr. Maples made a positive identification of those remains as Pizarro, resulting in their substitution in a glass-sided coffin in the Cathedral of Lima, where other remains had been displayed as those of Pizarro for a hundred years. In addition, it was proved that the remains removed could not have been those of Pizarro. In 1988, Dr. Maples examined the skeletal remains of Joseph Merrick ("The Elephant Man") at Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel, and made photographic studies of them for comparison with death casts of limbs and skull to ascertain depth of tissue by video-superimposition. In 1991, Dr. Maples, headed a team which removed President Zachary Taylor (1779-1842) from his tomb in Louisville, Kentucky. The purpose was to determine if he had been poisoned, as had been proposed by some at the time. Test results showed that he had not been. In 1992, Dr. Maples and a team of forensic specialists went by invitation to Ekaterinburg, Russia to study skeletal remains which the Russians had tentatively identified as the Russian Royal Family, and entourage, murdered in 1918. The American team identified them as Tsar Nicholas II, his wife, three of his children, his physician, and three of his servants. William Ross Maples died in Gainesville, Florida, 27 February 1997.

  14. Coastal Fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland) and Its Basin from the 15 to the Early 20th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Lajus, Julia; Kraikovski, Alexei; Lajus, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20th centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20th century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16th century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19th century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch. PMID:24204735

  15. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland) and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Lajus, Julia; Kraikovski, Alexei; Lajus, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th) centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th) century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th) century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th) century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  16. Reworking Seventeenth-Century Saltpetre.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Haileigh

    2016-05-01

    In the early modern period, saltpetre was perhaps best known for its role as one of the three components of gunpowder. For natural philosophers in seventeenth-century England, saltpetre also had important uses in chymistry and medicine. While some factories did successfully produce saltpetre in early modern England, the domestic industry was not on the whole a great success. Intellectuals who were keen to apply their knowledge in the real world saw this as an opportunity, and proposed a variety of new and improved methods that they claimed would produce this vital material more efficiently and in abundance. Yet their proposals remained on the page and their efforts fell flat. To understand the challenges and experiences faced by both scholars and artisan saltpetre-makers, I 'reworked' early modern methods of saltpetre-making with the Medieval Gunpowder Research Group. Reworking revealed procedural challenges and complexities that explain why, even with the best intentions, seventeenth-century natural philosophers struggled to get to grips with this important material.

  17. Sahel megadroughts triggered by glacial slowdowns of Atlantic meridional overturning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulitza, Stefan; Prange, Matthias; Stuut, Jan-Berend; Zabel, Matthias; von Dobeneck, Tilo; Itambi, Achakie C.; Nizou, Jean; Schulz, Michael; Wefer, Gerold

    2008-12-01

    The influence of the large-scale ocean circulation on Sahel rainfall is elusive because of the shortness of the observational record. We reconstructed the history of eolian and fluvial sedimentation on the continental slope off Senegal during the past 57,000 years. Our data show that abrupt onsets of arid conditions in the West African Sahel were linked to cold North Atlantic sea surface temperatures during times of reduced meridional overturning circulation associated with Heinrich Stadials. Climate modeling suggests that this drying is induced by a southward shift of the West African monsoon trough in conjunction with an intensification and southward expansion of the midtropospheric African Easterly Jet.

  18. Teaching health in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Lee-Ann

    2015-01-01

    School nurses have a broad scope of practice, including direct clinical care, as well as teaching health lessons. Students in the 21st century require educators who understand the current global needs of these learners. Effective health teaching meets these 21st-century needs. This article presents a background of 21st-century learning, with specific recommendations for teaching this generation of students. PMID:25626242

  19. On the analytical form of the Earth's magnetic attraction expressed as a function of time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlheim-Gyllenskold, V.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt is made to express the Earth's magnetic attraction in simple analytical form using observations during the 16th to 19th centuries. Observations of the magnetic inclination in the 16th and 17th centuries are discussed.

  20. Fire-climate interactions in the American West since 1400 CE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouet, Valerie; Taylor, Alan H.; Wahl, Eugene R.; Skinner, Carl N.; Stephens, Scott L.

    2010-02-01

    Despite a strong anthropogenic fingerprint on 20th Century wildland fire activity in the American West, climate remains a main driver. A better understanding of the spatio-temporal variability in fire-climate interactions is therefore crucial for fire management. Here, we present annually resolved, tree-ring based fire records for four regions in the American West that extend back to 1400 CE. In all regions, years with high fire activity were characterized by widespread yet regionally distinct summer droughts. Overall fire activity was high in late Medieval times, when much of the American West was affected by mega-droughts. A distinct decline in fire activity in the late 16th Century corresponds with anomalously low temperatures during the Little Ice Age and a decline in Native American fire use. The high spatiotemporal resolution of our fire record discloses a time-frequency dependent climatic influence on wildfire regimes in the American West that needs to be accounted for in fire models.

  1. Preparing Students for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchida, Donna; And Others

    As the 21st century approaches, many educators are debating the role of education in meeting students' and the economy's needs. This booklet describes the results of a modified Delphi study that asked a panel of 55 experts from education, business, and government how to best prepare students for the 21st century. During the course of three survey…

  2. The Century of Education. CEE DP 109

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisson, Christian; Murtin, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    Global economic transformations have never been as dramatic as in the twentieth century. Most countries have experienced radical changes in the standards of income per capita, technology, fertility, mortality, income inequality and the extent of democracy in the course of the past century. It is the goal of many disciplines--economics, history,…

  3. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  4. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  5. Pedagogical Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson-Lundeberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' perceptions of how intentionally taught 21st century skills have transformed their lives. Personal development education (PDE) encompasses interpersonal and interaction skills that are required for students to function and succeed in global-oriented 21st century colleges and careers. The Common Core State Standards…

  6. A Fortunate Half-Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2016-09-01

    The author has had the happy opportunity to work and study in the field of theoretical astrophysics during a half-century of unparalleled observational discovery. Quasars, pulsars, large-scale cosmic structure, galaxy evolution, and many other phenomena were discovered using revolutionary new observational techniques. In the same period of time, analytical tools ranging from new disciplines like plasma physics to enormously enhanced computational facilities became available, giving theoreticians the machinery to make some sense of this new world. At the start of the era the extragalactic world was largely framed as a quasi-homogeneous Universe of static galaxies formed by unknown and in fact unexamined processes. By the end of the period there was widespread acceptance of a self-consistent, evolving cosmological model amenable to calculation and comprehension. The author was fortunate indeed to have had the chance to collaborate with many wonderfully talented colleagues during this exciting time, attempting to unravel the multiple cosmic puzzles that nature delivered to us.

  7. Trends in Female Schooling and Literacy: England, 1500-1700.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balmuth, Miriam

    Women's education in 16th and 17th century England is discussed. Prior to the 16th century, education for women had a religious focus. That picture was changed by three 16th century events: the rise of humanism, the Protestant Reformation, and the reign of Elizabeth I. Humanists recommended that women be given advanced education. Many Protestant…

  8. Correction: Two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around New Zealand and east Australia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Emma L; Jackson, Jennifer A; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time.

  9. Correction: Two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around New Zealand and east Australia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Emma L; Jackson, Jennifer A; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time. PMID:24770341

  10. Percy W. Bridgman's second century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemley, Russell J.

    2010-12-01

    Percy Williams Bridgman's impact on science began in 1909 with his first three experimental papers. These publications on high pressure calibration, techniques, and compressibility, together with the many articles that followed, established his influence on the course of modern high pressure research. Grounded in classical thermodynamics and practical mechanics, his developments showed how the variable of pressure leads to myriad transformations in materials. Studies carried out under a broader range of conditions now provide unprecedented insights into chemical and physical properties at multimegabar pressures and temperatures from millikelvins to thousands of degrees, where novel electronic, magnetic, and superconducting phases are now being discovered. With careful attention to experimental techniques and material performance, Bridgman extended the available pressure range that could be achieved in the laboratory with the development of new devices. We are now witness to continued refinement of static and dynamic compression methods and in situ measurement techniques, including the marriage of high pressure methods with large facilities such as synchrotron, neutron, and laser sources. Bridgman showed the broad range of implications of this work; the modern field of high pressure research now spans physics and chemistry, geosciences and planetary science, materials science and technology, and biology. Selected examples illustrate Bridgman's impact and legacy in this, his second century. For dense hydrogen, new insights have been obtained from high P-T measurements as well as studies of alloys and compounds of hydrogen, leading to the creation of new metallic and superconducting phases. Studies of other hydrogen-rich systems provide both tests of fundamental theory and potentially useful materials for hydrogen storage. High pressure studies of oxides have led to new ferroelectric and multiferroic materials and phases with remarkable properties that guide the

  11. The Ninth-Century Renaissance in Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the events in the ninth century that moved astronomy away from the pursuit of mystical hermetic sciences and astrology back toward observation and measurement. Describes the achievements of astronomers and the instruments and calculations used during that period. (JRH)

  12. Science diplomacy in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Fedoroff, Nina V

    2009-01-01

    Science diplomacy is the use of scientific collaborations among nations to address the common problems facing 21(st) century humanity and to build constructive international partnerships. There are many ways that scientists can contribute to this process.

  13. Dragging scientific publishing into the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Khan, Razib; Goodman, Laurie; Mittelman, David

    2014-12-11

    Scientific publishers must shake off three centuries of publishing on paper and embrace 21st century technology to make scientific communication more intelligible, reproducible, engaging and rapidly available.

  14. The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, Alan Henry

    2015-08-01

    The term "revolution" in scientific contexts usually refers either to the beginnings of modern western science in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, or to the two great revolutions of early twentieth century physics. Comparison of what was known at the beginning of the nineteenth century with what was known at the end, however, shows that century to have been one of transformation in astronomy, and in the other sciences, that amounts to "revolution". Astronomers in 1800 knew neither the nature of the Sun nor the distances of the stars. Developments in instrumentation enabled the first determinations of stellar parallax in the 1830s, and later enabled the solar prominences to be studied outside the brief momemnts of total eclipses. The development of photography and of spectroscopy led to the birth of observational astrophysics, while the greater understanding of the nature of heat and the rise of thermodynamics made possible the first attempts to investigate the theory of stellar structure. Nothing was known in 1800 of extra-galactic objects apart from some tentative identifcations by William Herschel but, by the end of the century, the discovery of the spiral structure of some nebulae had led some to believe that these were the "island universes" about which Kant had speculated. Of course, astrophysics and cosmology would be much further developed in the twentieth century and those of us whose careers spanned the second half of that century look back on it as a "golden age" for astronomy; but the nineteenth century was undoubtedly a time of rapid transformation and can be reasonably described as as one of the periods of revolution in astronomy.

  15. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  16. Twentieth century sea level: an enigma.

    PubMed

    Munk, Walter

    2002-05-14

    Changes in sea level (relative to the moving crust) are associated with changes in ocean volume (mostly thermal expansion) and in ocean mass (melting and continental storage): zeta(t) = zeta(steric)(t) + zeta(eustatic)(t). Recent compilations of global ocean temperatures by Levitus and coworkers are in accord with coupled ocean/atmosphere modeling of greenhouse warming; they yield an increase in 20th century ocean heat content by 2 x 10(23) J (compared to 0.1 x 10(23) J of atmospheric storage), which corresponds to zeta(greenhouse)(2000) = 3 cm. The greenhouse-related rate is accelerating, with a present value zeta(greenhouse)(2000) approximately 6 cm/century. Tide records going back to the 19th century show no measurable acceleration throughout the late 19th and first half of the 20th century; we take zeta(historic) = 18 cm/century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change attributes about 6 cm/century to melting and other eustatic processes, leaving a residual of 12 cm of 20th century rise to be accounted for. The Levitus compilation has virtually foreclosed the attribution of the residual rise to ocean warming (notwithstanding our ignorance of the abyssal and Southern Oceans): the historic rise started too early, has too linear a trend, and is too large. Melting of polar ice sheets at the upper limit of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates could close the gap, but severe limits are imposed by the observed perturbations in Earth rotation. Among possible resolutions of the enigma are: a substantial reduction from traditional estimates (including ours) of 1.5-2 mm/y global sea level rise; a substantial increase in the estimates of 20th century ocean heat storage; and a substantial change in the interpretation of the astronomic record.

  17. Nineteenth-Century American and British Poets on Columbus: A Twentieth-Century View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Anita G.

    In the 19th century alone, Christopher Columbus was the subject of hundreds of poems that rarely questioned his voyage, his methods, or his place in human history. However, the scholarly work and political realities of the 20th century have undermined the noble, heroic visions conveyed by the poets. Modern readers/students have a dual duty to…

  18. Maglev: Transportation for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, G.M.; Gillies, G.T.

    1987-04-01

    The noise, gaseous and particulate pollution inherent in 19th and 20th century transportation must be eliminated from the city of the 21st century. If cities are to achieve their full potential as economic and cultural centers they must possess superior transportation systems. Ultra-silent, energy stingy, non-polluting maglevs can furnish the passenger and freight transportation system that the coming millennium will demand. Maglev floats railroad-like cars on a magnetic field a few inches above an elevated guideway. The cars can move at any convenient speed up to 300 mph. Yet, maglev produces less noise than a well muffled automobile, no vibration and no pollution.

  19. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience.

  20. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience. PMID:1454278

  1. 20th-Century Gold Rush.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wargo, Joseph G.

    1992-01-01

    Presents Nevada's gold rush activities spurred by technological advancements in search methods. Describes the events that led to the twentieth-century gold rush, the techniques for finding deposits and the geological formation process of disseminated gold deposits. Vignettes present the gold extraction process, cross-section, and profile of a…

  2. A Century of Plays by American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Rachel, Ed.

    Chosen for their literary quality and because they reflect the historical periods in which they were written, the 23 one-act dramas in this anthology represent the work of American female playwrights. The plays range from the realistic dramas produced in the "Little Theatres" of New York City at the turn of the century to current off-Broadway…

  3. Music Education Half a Century Hence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahlmann, John J.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on what music education will be like in the year 2050. Addresses issues such as: technology's impact on music, cognitive science's role in music education, the effects of changing delivery systems, and the relationship of music and the elderly. Highlights the next half century's impact on music education. (CMK)

  4. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuebing, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The seminar on "Creating 21st Century Learning Environments" was organized by the United Kingdom's Department for Education and Skills (DfES) and the OECD Program on Educational Building (PEB). The seminar was posed as a networked learning experience with professionals from throughout the world presenting their accomplishments and findings.…

  5. American Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishnietsky, Dan H.

    This book examines American education at the turn of the new millennium. It reviews its history and suggests, in broad terms, where it may be headed in the 21st century. Topics considered include a brief survey of the education "scene" today, the notion of a global village and ramifications for a global curriculum, technology related to globalism,…

  6. Workforce Education: Issues for the New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pautler, Albert J., Jr., Ed.

    This book contains 22 papers on workforce education issues for the new century: "Introduction" (Alfred J. Pautler, Jr.); "Vocational Education: Past, Present, and Future" (Cheryl L. Hogg); "A Philosophic View for Seeing the Past of Vocational Education and Envisioning the Future of Workforce Education: Pragmatism Revisited" (Melvin D. Miller,…

  7. Toward the 21st Century for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Ruth H.

    1975-01-01

    The International Women's Year Conference decided that the key to the future for women throughout the world was continuing education enabling women to gain a sense of self realization, promote family life, increase options, and to contribute their talents to a better world in the 21st century. (Author/BP)

  8. The Constitution in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Paul L.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the development of the United States Constitution in the twentieth century up to and including the Burger Court. Contends that interpreting the Constitution is an important issue of our times. Consequently argues that we should teach students about the development of this document. (RKM)

  9. Economists & Higher Learning in the Nineteenth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, William J., Ed.

    As part of a multi-nation research project on the institutionalization of political economy in European, Japanese, and North American universities, the 14 essays in this volume explore the roots of academic economics in the United States during the 19th century. The organization of the essays is designed to show the catalytic role economists…

  10. PR in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbush, Dan; Toon, John

    1994-01-01

    The ways in which advancing technology will affect college and university public relations and the mass media in the next century are examined, and a survey of 60 campus public relations specialists and 40 journalists concerning predicted changes is reported. Implications for campus communications with the media are also discussed. (MSE)

  11. Reality Therapy for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wubbolding, Robert E.

    This book serves as a comprehensive and practical guide to reality therapy, and extends its principles and practices beyond the initial descriptions. A central theme of this edition is that reality therapy is a method inherently designed for the exigencies of the 21st century. It contains 22 types of self-evaluations counselors can use to shorten…

  12. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

  13. A Day in the Nineteenth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanton, Ann Halpenny

    1982-01-01

    Describes a living history program on life in nineteenth-century San Diego for secondary students. During tours of a restored Victorian house, students view slides of historical photographs, study clothing and furniture styles, and participate in typical sewing, cooking, and cleaning chores. (AM)

  14. 21ST CENTURY MOLD ANALYSIS IN FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, the indoor air community has relied on mold analysis performed by either microscopic observations or the culturing of molds on various media to assess indoor air quality. These techniques were developed in the 19th century and are very laborious and time consumin...

  15. Legal madness in the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, P

    2001-01-01

    Legal sources remain under-exploited in the history of madness, and the legal character of some documents is sometimes unrecognized. This article examines the inter-relations between legal and medical histories of madness, and discusses use and availability of nineteenth-century legal source material relating to criminal insanity, mental incapacity, and the confinement of the insane.

  16. Business Education for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    Each year, the Policies Commission for Business and Economic Education develops statements regarding business education. The following are among the commission's guidelines regarding planning the business education curriculum for the new century: (1) making business education an integral and equal partner within schools' educational communities…

  17. Academic Freedom in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.; Lechuga, Vicente M.

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, academic freedom was a foundational value for the academy in the United States. The concept of academic freedom pertains to the right of faculty to enjoy considerable autonomy in their research and teaching. The assumption that drives academic freedom is that the country benefits when faculty are able to search for…

  18. Making Sense of the Eighteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Pressures on curriculum time force us all to make difficult choices about curriculum content, but the eighteenth century seems to have suffered particular neglect. Inspired by the tercentenary of the accession of the first Georgian king and the interest in the Acts of Union prompted by this year's referendum on Scottish independence,…

  19. 21st Century Learning Environment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides short descriptions of systemic approaches for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding including: (1) 21st Century Classroom; (2) Comprehensive Professional Development; (3) Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems; (4) Formative Assessment; (5) Digital Content; (6) Virtual Learning; and (7) Learning Management Systems.

  20. Mozart and medicine in the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, J S

    1995-07-01

    Over the years the medical history and death of Mozart have been the subject of many studies, but in spite of all this attention much remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve some of the difficulty it is useful to see his life, and that of his family as recorded in their letters, in the context of medicine in eighteenth-century Europe.

  1. Curriculum for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, David

    1983-01-01

    Urges reconsideration of educational ends. Suggests eight curriculum principles that can help Canadian schools move into the next century. Explains six educational needs roughly based on Maslow's hierarchy (aesthetic needs, need for meaning, self-actualization, self-concept, social needs, need for survival) and relates them to curriculum…

  2. Transcendent Schools for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monberg, Greg; Kacan, George; Bannourah, Riyad

    2011-01-01

    Amidst the debate over funding cuts, an increased focus on teacher effectiveness, and the move toward e-learning, many question the importance of quality educational facilities. But an examination of developmental and psychological theory suggests that exceptional schools have an exciting and crucial role to play in 21st century education. So,…

  3. Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnight, Ron

    The Lifelong Learning Center for the 21st Century was proposed to provide personal renewal and technical training for employees at a major United States automotive manufacturing company when it implemented a new, computer-based Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, robotics, and high technology facility. The employees needed training for…

  4. Century High School: Better Than Accessible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Century High School, Rochester, MN.

    A 6-minute videotape shows ways that one newly-built high school (Century High School, Rochester, MN) accommodates the needs of people with disabilities. Various building and room designs are detailed showing both poor and good design provisions. The accessibility and usefulness of the auditorium control room, emergency exits, elevators, science…

  5. The "Casa dei Bambini": A Century Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the early history of Montessori education from the Italian State Orthophrenic School to the opening of the original Casa dei Bambini in San Lorenzo, Italy on January 6, 1907. Includes a synopsis of Maria Montessori's progressive revelations of the child's developing self over the past century. (JPB)

  6. The 21st Century Information Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Rod

    This paper on the 21st century information environment begins with a section that discusses the impact of e-commerce over the next ten years. The second section addresses government focus areas, including ensuring a telecommunications infrastructure, developing the IT (information technology) industry, promoting innovation and entrepreneurship,…

  7. Transportation fuels for the 21st century

    EPA Science Inventory

    As we enter the 21st century, policymakers face complex decisions regarding options for meeting the demand for transportation fuels. There is now a broad scientific consensus that the burning of fossil fuels has been contributing to climate change, and the transportation sector i...

  8. Workforce Education: Issues for the New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pautler, Albert J., Jr.

    This paper is intended to guide small groups of vocational educators in discussions regarding work force education issues for the next century. The following work force issues are suggested: the aging work force; vocational education's role in reforming K-12 education; distance education for technical education programs; the labor shortages…

  9. 21st Century Learning Outcomes Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Bernita E.

    2003-01-01

    Like many institutions of higher learning, Hocking College has struggled to define, document, and assess those general skills deemed necessary for success in the workplace and life. An opportunity for Hocking College to focus on this task was provided through its participation in the 21st Century Learning Outcomes Project sponsored by The League…

  10. "Stakes is High": Educating New Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladson-Billings, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    My apologies to iconic hip-hop artists, De La Soul for I have shamelessly appropriated the title, "Stakes is high" to underscore the importance of the work ahead for educators, students, parents, community members, and researchers as we attempt to develop a generation of what I call "new century" students for a world we can hardly imagine. Through…

  11. Social Studies for the Pacific Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Peter Nien-chu

    1991-01-01

    Discusses using the changing conditions of life within the United States as the starting point for developing global perspectives in social studies teaching and curriculum transformation. Suggests that the Pacific Century will require people of the United States to function in a multicultural world. Examines the history of Asians in the United…

  12. Museums, Libraries, and 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Museum and Library Services, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a project that underscores the critical role of this nation's museums and libraries in helping citizens build such 21st century skills as information, communications and technology literacy, critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, civic literacy, and global awareness. Recognizing that every individual requires these…

  13. A Vision of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene

    2006-01-01

    The new vision for the 21st century is reflected in ACTE's recent position paper on strengthening the American high school through career and technical education. Teachers and administrators are encouraged to continue raising students' academic achievements and their high school completion rates. However, the way the American high school is…

  14. Developing Leaders for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Leadership Development for the 21st Century: Linking Research, Academics and Extension program that began in June 2005. This 12-month program, designed to explore different models of leadership, develop peer networks, and enhance skills and knowledge in leadership competencies, is specifically for land grand educators…

  15. Making a Comeback in the New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Reveals how Ohio's Central State University avoided state closure with a bold mission to rebuild both the academic programs and the facilities. What the new century holds for maintenance, software, card systems, contract services, and security and online purchasing are discussed. (GR)

  16. Black Women Workers in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Debra Lynn

    1986-01-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century one-third of black women worked; most did agricultural or domestic work. Gradually as employment benefits increased and anti-discrimination laws were enforced, work opportunities for black women became more varied and better paying. (VM)

  17. Twentieth-Century Art: Issues of Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Julie

    1990-01-01

    Presents lesson plans designed for secondary students that assess the role of naturalistic representation in twentieth-century art by examining the artwork of four artists: Pablo Picasso, Rene Magritte, David Smith, and Jackson Pollock. Provides background information on each illustration, and outlines discussion and art production activities for…

  18. The Microscope and Nineteenth Century Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milacek, Barbara Roads

    Studied were (1) the evolving use of the microscope in science education, and (2) its relationship to the changing teaching methods, content, and emphases of science courses and to the prevailing philosophies of education of nineteenth century American colleges. To establish the necessary background, the evolution and availability of the…

  19. Computerized Farm of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrann, James M.

    Advancement in computer technology comes at a time when agriculture is in transition from a production-oriented to a business-oriented activity and will require new skills and knowledge if farmers are to be prepared for the future. Electronic technology applications on 21st century commercial farms and ranches will include farm decision support…

  20. Managing Reliability in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Dellin, T.A.

    1998-11-23

    The rapid pace of change at Ike end of the 20th Century should continue unabated well into the 21st Century. The driver will be the marketplace imperative of "faster, better, cheaper." This imperative has already stimulated a revolution-in-engineering in design and manufacturing. In contrast, to date, reliability engineering has not undergone a similar level of change. It is critical that we implement a corresponding revolution-in-reliability-engineering as we enter the new millennium. If we are still using 20th Century reliability approaches in the 21st Century, then reliability issues will be the limiting factor in faster, better, and cheaper. At the heart of this reliability revolution will be a science-based approach to reliability engineering. Science-based reliability will enable building-in reliability, application-specific products, virtual qualification, and predictive maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate a dialogue on the future of reliability engineering. We will try to gaze into the crystal ball and predict some key issues that will drive reliability programs in the new millennium. In the 21st Century, we will demand more of our reliability programs. We will need the ability to make accurate reliability predictions that will enable optimizing cost, performance and time-to-market to meet the needs of every market segment. We will require that all of these new capabilities be in place prior to the stint of a product development cycle. The management of reliability programs will be driven by quantifiable metrics of value added to the organization business objectives.

  1. Changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands inferred from 19th and 20th century landscape paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Wevers, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Geodiversity is the natural and cultural range of geological, geomorphological and soil features. We analysed the large database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis and Buunk (www.Simonis-Buunk.com) to track changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands since pre-photographic times. Peat dominated in two of the eight main landscapes of the Netherlands: the Lowland peats in the Holocene west and the Highland peats in the sandy Pleistocene eastern parts. Painters were mainly attracted by the lowland peats. Since more than thousand years, peat plays a major role in Dutch military security, economy, ecology and cultural life. Natural variety and cultural use resulted in a geodiversity that is unique in Europe. There are more than 100 place names with 'veen' (= peat), and surnames with 'veen' are common. Proof of the exploitation of peat for salt and fuel exists from the Roman times onwards. In the 9th century, peatlands were drained and reclaimed for growing wheat. Already in the 11th century, it was necessary to build dikes to prevent flooding, to control waterlevels to avoid further oxidation, and to convert landuse to grassland. But subsidence continued, and in the 14th century windmills were needed to drain the lands and pump the water out. In the 16th century industrial peat exploitation fuelled the rise of industries and cities. All this draining and digging caused the peat surface to shrink. The few remaining living peats are conserved by nature organisations. Geodiversity and landscape paintings In the peat landscapes, popular painting motives were high water levels, the grasslands of the 'Green Heart', the winding streams and remaining lakes. The paintings of landscapes where peat had been removed, show watermanagement adaptations: wind mills, different water levels, canals made for the transport of fuel, bridges, tow paths and the 'plassen', i.e. the lakes left after peat exploitation. The droogmakerijen (reclaimed lakes), now 2 to 5 m below

  2. Climate, people, fire and vegetation: new insights into vegetation dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean since the 1st century AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, J.; Paulissen, E.; Kaniewski, D.; Poblome, J.; De Laet, V.; Verstraeten, G.; Waelkens, M.

    2013-01-01

    Anatolia forms a bridge between Europe, Africa and Asia and is influenced by all three continents in terms of climate, vegetation and human civilisation. Unfortunately, well-dated palynological records focussing on the period from the end of the classical Roman period until subrecent times are rare for Anatolia and completely absent for southwest Turkey, resulting in a lacuna in knowledge concerning the interactions of climatic change, human impact, and environmental change in this important region. Two well-dated palaeoecological records from the Western Taurus Mountains, Turkey, provide a first relatively detailed record of vegetation dynamics from late Roman times until the present in SW Turkey. Combining pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal, sedimentological, archaeological data, and newly developed multivariate numerical analyses allows for the disentangling of climatic and anthropogenic influences on vegetation change. Results show changes in both the regional pollen signal as well as local soil sediment characteristics match shifts in regional climatic conditions. Both climatic as well as anthropogenic change had a strong influence on vegetation dynamics and land use. A moist environmental trend during the late-3rd century caused an increase in marshes and wetlands in the moister valley floors, limiting possibilities for intensive crop cultivation at such locations. A mid-7th century shift to pastoralism coincided with a climatic deterioration as well as the start of Arab incursions into the region, the former driving the way in which the vegetation developed afterwards. Resurgence in agriculture was observed in the study during the mid-10th century AD, coinciding with the Medieval Climate Anomaly. An abrupt mid-12th century decrease in agriculture is linked to socio-political change, rather than the onset of the Little Ice Age. Similarly, gradual deforestation occurring from the 16th century onwards has been linked to changes in land use during Ottoman

  3. Hydrologic drought of water year 2011 compared to four major drought periods of the 20th century in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivers, Molly J.; Andrews, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Water year 2011 (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011) was a year of hydrologic drought (based on streamflow) in Oklahoma and the second-driest year to date (based on precipitation) since 1925. Drought conditions worsened substantially in the summer, with the highest monthly average temperature record for all States being broken by Oklahoma in July (89.1 degrees Fahrenheit), June being the second hottest and August being the hottest on record for those months for the State since 1895. Drought conditions continued into the fall, with all of the State continuing to be in severe to exceptional drought through the end of September. In addition to effects on streamflow and reservoirs, the 2011 drought increased damage from wildfires, led to declarations of states of emergency, water-use restrictions, and outdoor burning bans; caused at least $2 billion of losses in the agricultural sector and higher prices for food and other agricultural products; caused losses of tourism and wildlife; reduced hydropower generation; and lowered groundwater levels in State aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, conducted an investigation to compare the severity of the 2011 drought with four previous major hydrologic drought periods during the 20th century – water years 1929–41, 1952–56, 1961–72, and 1976–81. The period of water years 1925–2011 was selected as the period of record because few continuous record streamflow-gaging stations existed before 1925, and gaps in time existed where no streamflow-gaging stations were operated before 1925. In water year 2011, statewide annual precipitation was the 2d lowest, statewide annual streamflow was 16th lowest, and statewide annual runoff was 42d lowest of those 87 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service climate divisions from water year 2011 were compared to those during four previous major hydrologic drought

  4. [Contribution of the faculty of pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela to the development of the Spanish scientific research in the first third of the 20th century (1900-1936)].

    PubMed

    Arias, Beatriz Brasa; Míguez, Santiago Sanmartín; Landín, Mariana

    2010-01-01

    The Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela was founded in 1857, but research activities did not start until the beginning of the 20th century. The new Spanish regulations promoting the experimentation at universities and the stages of professors and recently graduated students outside Spain contributed to generate a remarkable research group in a provincial university. The excessive university centralism at that time in Spain and the characteristics of the headquarters of the faculty -- a 16th century Renaissance palace -- hindered, in general, the research development. However, the scientific spirit of professors and students, and their work were imposed and they achieved an estimable status in pharmacy research in Galicia. The facilities were the staff's highest priority and it raised more than a protest. A remarkable investment in apparatuses and laboratory materials was carried out and researchers started to publish original research papers in local journals, such as the "Revista de farmacia," published by their own University. In the previous years to the Spanish Civil War (1936) the research status in drug development and the background of the staff and students were important, allowing them to join the military laboratory that Franco's army created at the faculty of pharmacy. The research work continued in a small scale and was specially focused on the production of "copy drugs" coping European specific drugs which were scarce at that time. The first third of the 20th century was the germ of the great research prestige that the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela enjoys at present. PMID:21188884

  5. Eighteenth-century forms of quasicrystals.

    PubMed

    Pina, Carlos M; López-Acevedo, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    A careful inspection of the drawings and baked clay models created by the mineralogist Romé de L'Isle in the 18th century has revealed the existence of a number of intriguing forms with pentagonal symmetries. These forms cannot be classified in any of the 32 crystal classes. They can thus be considered the first crystallographic descriptions of polyhedral forms found in quasicrystals two centuries later. This paper presents a symmetry analysis of the fascinating drawings and clay models with pentagonal symmetries described in the book Cristallographie published in 1783 by Romé de L'Isle, as well as a comparison with quasicrystals recently synthesized. The paper also briefly discusses what could induce Romé de L'Isle to consider forms with pentagonal symmetries as plausible crystal forms. PMID:26697870

  6. A New Biology for a New Century

    PubMed Central

    Woese, Carl R.

    2004-01-01

    Biology today is at a crossroads. The molecular paradigm, which so successfully guided the discipline throughout most of the 20th century, is no longer a reliable guide. Its vision of biology now realized, the molecular paradigm has run its course. Biology, therefore, has a choice to make, between the comfortable path of continuing to follow molecular biology's lead or the more invigorating one of seeking a new and inspiring vision of the living world, one that addresses the major problems in biology that 20th century biology, molecular biology, could not handle and, so, avoided. The former course, though highly productive, is certain to turn biology into an engineering discipline. The latter holds the promise of making biology an even more fundamental science, one that, along with physics, probes and defines the nature of reality. This is a choice between a biology that solely does society's bidding and a biology that is society's teacher. PMID:15187180

  7. A new neuropsychology for the XXI century.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Regardless of the significant interest in comparing neuropsychological syndromes across cultures, little interest is observed in comparing these syndromes across time. Most of the neuropsychological syndromes were described during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century (e.g., aphasia, alexia, agraphia, acalculia, etc.). However, living conditions have so dramatically changed during the last 100 years that those classical neuropsychological syndromes have to be re-stated and reconsidered; eventually, new syndromes could be proposed. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of the new living conditions in spoken language, written language, numerical abilities, memory, spatial orientation, people recognition, and executive functions is presented. It is concluded that it is time to re-analyze and re-interpret the classical neuropsychological syndromes; and develop new assessment procedures, more in accordance with the twenty-first century living conditions.

  8. Observing Sunspots with 18th Century Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalgaard, Leif

    2016-05-01

    The sunspot and group numbers in the 18th Century relies heavily on the observations by J.C. Staudauch during 1749-1799 performed with a three-foot 'sky tube', likely affected by spherical and chromatc aberration. An observing network has been set up to make drawings of the spots on the solar disk using original telescopes from the 18th Century or reconstructed 'sky tubes' with the same defects as the instruments available to and affordable for amateurs of the period. We report the initial results of the effort, finding that the counts of groups and the sunspot numbers must be multipled by three to reproduce modern observations. This confirms the scale factors derived from recent revisions of the solar record.

  9. Gonadotropin therapy: a 20th century relic.

    PubMed

    Reindollar, Richard H; Goldman, Marlene B

    2012-04-01

    Gonadotropin therapy has been a cornerstone of infertility therapy for half a century. From the very beginning, its use has been associated with a high rate of multiple births, particularly high order multiples, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Initially, success rates seemed acceptable when used for superovulation (SO)/IUI therapy. However, as data from RCTs have emerged, reported outcomes suggest that we question the use of injectible gonadotropins. This manuscript examines the studies that have challenged gonadotropin use for SO/IUI and other research that supports reduced doses of gonadotropins for IVF. We examine the challenges for its continued use for SO/IUI and for moving to lower doses worldwide for IVF. We propose a future that views gonadotropins as a relic of the twentieth century. PMID:22463775

  10. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Ahmed, Shahid; Kanthan, Selliah Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC. PMID:26421012

  11. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Ahmed, Shahid; Kanthan, Selliah Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC. PMID:26421012

  12. The 16th Werner Brandt Workshop on charged particle penetration phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics: impact parameter dependence of charge transfer and energy loss; nonlinear dynamical response of the electron gas: comparison of some simple theories; stopping of ultrarelativistic ions in solids (33.2-TeV {sup 108}Pb); collective excitation in reduced dimensionality; collective states in atoms and cluster; plasmon coupling with external probes; atomic collisions with antiprotons; layer-number scaling in ultra-thin film stopping and energetics; atom-surface scattering under classical conditions; nonlinear effect of sweeping-out electrons in stopping power and electron emission in cluster impacts; electron emission from fast grazing collisions of ions with silicon surfaces; electron emission from ultra-thin carbon foils by kiV ions; Auger rates for highly charged ions in metals; Auger and plasmon assisted neutralization at surfaces; low energy (< 5eV) F{sup +} and F{sup -} ions transmission through condensed layers of water: enhancement and attenuation processes; charge transfer for H interacting with Al: atomic levels and linewidths; scattered projectile angular and charge state distributions for grazing collisions of multicharged ions with metal and insulator single crystal targets; the prolate hyperboloidat model in scanning probe microscopy; scanning probe microscopy of large biomolecules; microcantilever sensors; solution of the Fokker-Planck equation for electron transport using analytic spatial moments; and effective charge parametrization for z = 3-17 projectiles in composite targets.

  13. COGME's 16th Report to Congress: too many physicians could be worse than wasted.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Robert L; Dodoo, Martey; Jaén, Carlos R; Green, Larry A

    2005-01-01

    Departing from past reports, the latest Council on Graduate Medical Education (COGME) report warns of a physician deficit of 85,000 by 2020 and recommends increases in medical school and residency output. COGME notes that contributions of other clinicians and changes in how medical care is delivered in the future would likely offset physician deficits but chose not to modify their recommendations. COGME offers a relatively minor workforce correction in an otherwise flawed system of health care; however, the nation awaits a reassessment of its physician workforce based on what the nation wants and needs from physicians working in modern systems of care. Great caution should be exercised in expanding the physician workforce. Producing a physician surplus could be far worse than wasted, because the investment required and resulting rise in health care cost may harm, not help, the health of people in the United States. Instead, these resources could be applied in ways that improve health.

  14. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (16th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 16-20, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, James G., Ed.; Wedemeyer, Dan J., Ed.

    This volume comprises the papers presented at the 1994 conference of the Pacific Telecommunications Council. This gathering, which focused on the theme, "Forging New Links: Focus on Developing Economies," brought together more than 1,100 participants from over 40 countries. The 146 papers are organized chronologically, according to date of…

  15. A 16th Suggestions for Educational Curriculum Improvement in Jordan, from the Experts Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahasneh, Omar

    2015-01-01

    The present research was conducted to identify the most important suggestions for educational curriculum improvement in Jordan, from the expert's point of view. A descriptive survey through data and information collection tool (questionnaire) was used as an approach. The study sample consisted of (620) educational experts in the field of…

  16. ICAS, Congress, 16th, Jerusalem, Israel, Aug. 28-Sept. 2, 1988, Proceedings. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The present conference discusses topics in aircraft environmental safety, hypersonic aerothermodynamics, fatigue and damage tolerance, laminar flow regimes, the application of CFD to propulsion, helicopter flight dynamics, active control technologies, next-generation transport aircraft design, optimal aircraft guidance methods, turbulence-modeling methods, primary structure-applicable composite materials, aircraft certification procedures, missile guidance and control methods, materials and structural techniques applicable to hypersonic aircraft design, and aircraft control in windshear conditions. Also discussed are aircraft configuration planform optimization, the nonviscid modeling of unsteady aerodynamics, air traffic control technologies, modern propeller aerodynamics, aircraft dynamics and fatigue phenomena, numerical methods in aerodynamic design, viscous effects in vortex flow, hypersonic propulsion vehicle integration, inlet and nozzle system design, advanced structural materials, vortex flaps, and gas turbine component technology.

  17. 16th iWoRiD scientific summary and personal impressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacchi, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    The development of Radiation Imaging Detectors dedicated to specific front edge use is a rapidly expanding galaxy taking force from a healthy mixture of growing ambitions within basic science targets and applicative use in many contiguous fields. The growth of the high technology imaging tools market is a relevant motivating element. On the scene of this conference a flow of very accurate and informative presentations has allowed to gather a vivid image on the almost frantic target oriented work, the results shown have often surpassed the most visionary expectations.

  18. Results of LLNL's Participation in the 16th OPCW Proficiency Test

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, H R; Alcaraz, A

    2005-01-24

    The Sixteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test started in October 2004. The samples were prepared by scientists affiliated with the Forensic Science Center at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, USA. The work was funded by the US Department of Energy. The test scenario and the spiking and background chemicals were discussed and agreed in advance with the OPCW. The samples were prepared in accordance with ''Work Instruction for the Preparation of Test Samples for OPCW Proficiency Tests'' (Document No.: QDOC/LAB/WI/PT2). The preparation of the test samples and their analysis are described in this report.

  19. PREFACE: 16th International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron, and Ion Technologies (VEIT 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Wolfhard; Guerassimov, Nikolay; Ghelev, Chavdar

    2010-04-01

    The International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT) has been organized biennially since 1977 when the series of VEIT Schools was launched by the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with the aim to act as a forum for interchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas on the latest developments in electron-, ion-, and plasma-assisted technologies. Beginning from 2001, the school has been jointly organized with the Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Germany. Whereas, the school initially provided a meeting place for researchers mainly from Eastern and Central European countries, its importance grew issue by issue. The school is now a major scientific event and a meeting place for young scientists from Eastern and Western Europe involved in research and development associated with high-tech industries. Many former school participants have gone on to become leading scientists in research establishments and companies throughout the world. Leading international companies, such as High Voltage Engineering, Balzers, Varian, and Hauzer have used the VEIT forum to present their products through oral presentations, poster contributions or exhibits. The School Proceedings have been published in special issues of the international journals Vacuum, Plasma Processes and Polymers, Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Sixteenth VEIT school was held in the Black Sea resort Sunny Beach, Bulgaria on 28 September to 2 October 2009. It was attended by close to 110 participants from 13 countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Romania, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, UK and USA. Following the tradition of publishing the VEIT Proceedings, a selection of papers presented at the event is published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, under the originality and quality criteria of acceptance by the journal, including peer reviewing. The school comprised nine oral and three poster sessions. Seventeen invited talks of general interest and six progress reports were presented orally. In total 63 contributed papers were presented during the poster sessions. There were several scientific highlights covering fundamentals of interaction of fast particles with solids and challenging practical applications ranging from novel techniques for creating hard coatings, optical/protective layers, biocompatible materials to nanosized structures produced by evaporation, sputtering or external irradiation. Latest results were presented on ion-beam synthesis and modification in both low-energy (deposition and film growth) and high-energy (sputtering, implantation) regimes, and processing of solid materials aiming at patterning the surface or to create nanophase systems towards for electronic or tribological/wear resistant applications. Despite the busy scientific program, the atmosphere was relaxed and informal. The early afternoons of most conference days were free to stimulate both scientific and social interaction between participants, which often took place on the beach. The social program included a welcome reception, a conference banquet, and an outing to historical landmarks in Bulgaria. VEIT 2009 owes its success to many people. The International Advisory Committee shaped the scientific program and ensured high-quality plenary presentations by careful selection of invited speakers. The Local Committee bore the brunt of the organization both at the conference site and in dealing with correspondence, abstracts, and manuscripts for these proceedings. We are grateful to our sponsors Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany and Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria for their generosity that enabled us to support the attendance of students and provided support to deal with mailing, printing, renting the conference site, etc. We would like to thank also all authors for their valuable contributions to these proceedings and to the school, as well as all reviewers for thei

  20. 16th Department of Energy Computer Security Group Training Conference: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Various topic on computer security are presented. Integrity standards, smartcard systems, network firewalls, encryption systems, cryptography, computer security programs, multilevel security guards, electronic mail privacy, the central intelligence agency, internet security, and high-speed ATM networking are typical examples of discussed topics. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  1. Eascon '83: 16th annual IEEE electronics and aerospace systems conference and explosition. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: space stations; future satellite applications; direct broadcast systems; NASA advanced satellite communications technology; aerospace surveillance; surface surveillance; undersea surveillance; advanced software systems; fault-tolerant electronics; command control communications intelligence (c/sup 3/i) systems; distributed database systems; computer networking; and interactive displays. Abstracts of individual papers can be found under the relevant classification codes in this or future issues.

  2. PREFACE: 16th International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron, and Ion Technologies (VEIT 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Wolfhard; Guerassimov, Nikolay; Ghelev, Chavdar

    2010-04-01

    The International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT) has been organized biennially since 1977 when the series of VEIT Schools was launched by the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with the aim to act as a forum for interchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas on the latest developments in electron-, ion-, and plasma-assisted technologies. Beginning from 2001, the school has been jointly organized with the Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Germany. Whereas, the school initially provided a meeting place for researchers mainly from Eastern and Central European countries, its importance grew issue by issue. The school is now a major scientific event and a meeting place for young scientists from Eastern and Western Europe involved in research and development associated with high-tech industries. Many former school participants have gone on to become leading scientists in research establishments and companies throughout the world. Leading international companies, such as High Voltage Engineering, Balzers, Varian, and Hauzer have used the VEIT forum to present their products through oral presentations, poster contributions or exhibits. The School Proceedings have been published in special issues of the international journals Vacuum, Plasma Processes and Polymers, Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Sixteenth VEIT school was held in the Black Sea resort Sunny Beach, Bulgaria on 28 September to 2 October 2009. It was attended by close to 110 participants from 13 countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Romania, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, UK and USA. Following the tradition of publishing the VEIT Proceedings, a selection of papers presented at the event is published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, under the originality and quality criteria of acceptance by the journal, including peer reviewing. The school comprised nine oral and three poster sessions. Seventeen invited talks of general interest and six progress reports were presented orally. In total 63 contributed papers were presented during the poster sessions. There were several scientific highlights covering fundamentals of interaction of fast particles with solids and challenging practical applications ranging from novel techniques for creating hard coatings, optical/protective layers, biocompatible materials to nanosized structures produced by evaporation, sputtering or external irradiation. Latest results were presented on ion-beam synthesis and modification in both low-energy (deposition and film growth) and high-energy (sputtering, implantation) regimes, and processing of solid materials aiming at patterning the surface or to create nanophase systems towards for electronic or tribological/wear resistant applications. Despite the busy scientific program, the atmosphere was relaxed and informal. The early afternoons of most conference days were free to stimulate both scientific and social interaction between participants, which often took place on the beach. The social program included a welcome reception, a conference banquet, and an outing to historical landmarks in Bulgaria. VEIT 2009 owes its success to many people. The International Advisory Committee shaped the scientific program and ensured high-quality plenary presentations by careful selection of invited speakers. The Local Committee bore the brunt of the organization both at the conference site and in dealing with correspondence, abstracts, and manuscripts for these proceedings. We are grateful to our sponsors Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany and Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria for their generosity that enabled us to support the attendance of students and provided support to deal with mailing, printing, renting the conference site, etc. We would like to thank also all authors for their valuable contributions to these proceedings and to the school, as well as all reviewers for their important work. The next conference in the series will be held in September 2011. Wolfhard Möller, Nikolay Guerassimov, Chavdar Ghelev Guest Editors

  3. Selected papers from the 16th Annual Bio-Ontologies Special Interest Group Meeting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the 16 years, the Bio-Ontologies SIG at ISMB has provided a forum for vibrant discussions of the latest and most innovative advances in the research area of bio-ontologies, its applications to biomedicine and more generally in the organisation, sharing and re-use of knowledge in biomedicine and the life sciences. The six papers selected for this supplement span a wide range of topics including: ontology-based data integration, ontology-based annotation of scientific literature, ontology and data model development, representation of scientific results and gene candidate prediction.

  4. PREFACE: 16th International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (CALOR 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, Rainer W.

    2015-02-01

    The XVIth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics - CALOR 2014 - was held in Giessen, Germany from 6-11 April 2014 at the Science Campus of the University. It was hosted by the Justus-Liebig-University and the HIC for FAIR Helmholtz International Center. The series of conferences on calorimetry were started in 1990 at Fermilab and are focusing primarily on operating and future calorimeter systems within the Hadron and High-Energy Physics community without neglecting the impact on other fields such as Astrophysics or Medical Imaging. Confirmed by the impressive list of over 70 oral presentations, 5 posters and over 100 attendees, the field of calorimetry appears alive and attractive. The present volume contains the written contributions of almost all presentations which can be found at http://calor2014.de. Time slots of 15 or 30 minutes including discussion were allocated. The conference was accompanied by a small exhibition of several industrial companies related to the field. The day before the opening of the scientific program, Richard Wigmans gave an excellent and vivid tutorial on basic aspects on calorimetry meant as an introduction for students and conference attendees new in the field. The opening ceremony was used to give an impression of the present and future status and the scientific program of the new FAIR facility nearby at Darmstadt presented by Klaus Peters from GSI. The conference program of the first day was dedicated to the performance and required future upgrade of the LHC experiments, dominated by ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. The program of the next day contained specific aspects on electronics and readout as well as calorimetry in outer space. Several contributions discussed in detail new concepts for hadron calorimeters within the CALICE collaboration completed by a session on sampling calorimeters. The next sections were dedicated to operating and future calorimeters at various laboratories and covering a wide range of projectiles and beam energies, such as ELSA at Bonn, BELLE2, BESIII or future projects at JLab, FAIR or RHIC. The last group of contributions was focusing on new concepts including new detector materials or techniques taking into account the general demand on radiation hardness. Damage caused by a large fluence of hadrons appears to become the limiting factor for the detector performance in future collider experiments. The scientific program was completed by a single contribution on applications in medical imaging. Marcella Diemoz gave a personal conference summary underlining again the high quality of the presentations, lively discussions and the wide range of the physics program and the related detector systems. The significant support by the Justus-Liebig-University, HIC for FAIR and sponsoring industrial partners allowed to keep the overall costs low and to support the participation of students and young scientists. I personally would like to thank the session chairs, the local organizing committee, the secretaries, technicians and students of the institute for the smooth operation of the conference. Finally, I would like to express my appreciation to all participants who made the conference successful by their high level contributions and discussion distributing their ideas and experiences. Rainer W Novotny Chair of the Conference

  5. ANNUAL CURRICULUM CONFERENCE, HOW THE CURRICULUM CAN PROMOTE INTEGRATION (16TH, JANUARY 24, 1964).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SLOTKIN, AARON H.; AND OTHERS

    IN THE KEYNOTE ADDRESS, DR. JOSEPH LORETAN DEFINED "TO INTEGRATE" AS "TO MAKE WHOLE OR TO RENEW." THE WORK OF INTEGRATION CAN BE SEEN AS A RENEWAL OF FAITH IN THE MOST BASIC TENETS OF AMERICA. IN APPROACHING THE QUESTION OF HOW THE CURRICULUM CAN PROMOTE INTEGRATION, HE DEVELOPED SEVERAL PROPOSITIONS. CURRICULUM BUILDERS AND TEACHERS SHOULD BE…

  6. CONFERENCE REPORT: Summary of the 16th IAEA Technical Meeting on 'Research using Small Fusion Devices'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribkov, V.; Van Oost, G.; Malaquias, A.; Herrera, J.

    2006-10-01

    Common research topics that are being studied in small, medium and large devices such as H-mode like or improved confinement, turbulence and transport are reported. These included modelling and diagnostic developments for edge and core, to characterize plasma density, temperature, electric potential, plasma flows, turbulence scale, etc. Innovative diagnostic methods were designed and implemented which could be used to develop experiments in small devices (in some cases not possible in large devices due to higher power deposition) to allow a better understanding of plasma edge and core properties. Reports are given addressing research in linear devices that can be used to study particular plasma physics topics relevant for other magnetic confinement devices such as the radial transport and the modelling of self-organized plasma jets involved in spheromak-like plasma formation. Some aspects of the work presented are of interest to the astrophysics community since they are believed to shed light on the basis of the physics of stellar jets. On the dense magnetized plasmas (DMP) topic, the present status of research, operation of new devices, plasma dynamics modelling and diagnostic developments is reported. The main devices presented belong to the class of Z-pinches, mostly plasma foci, and several papers were presented under this topic. The physics of DMP is important both for the main-stream fusion investigations as well as for providing the basis for elaboration of new concepts. New high-current technology introduced in the DMP devices design and construction make these devices nowadays more reliably fitted to various applications and give the possibility to widen the energy range used by them in both directions—to the multi-MJ level facilities and down to miniature plasma focus devices with energy of just a few J.

  7. PREFACE: 16th Russian Youth Conference on Physics and Astronomy (PhysicA.SPb/2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The sixteenth Russian Conference on Physics and Astronomy PhysicA.SPb was held 23-24 October 2013 in Saint-Petersburg, Russia. The Conference continues the tradition of Saint-Petersburg Seminars on Physics and Astronomy originating from mid-90s. Since then PhysicA.SPb maintains both scientific and educational quality of contributions delivered to the young audience. This is the main feature of the Conference that makes it possible to combine the whole spectrum of modern Physics and Astronomy within one event. PhysicA.SPb/2013 has brought together about 200 students, young scientists and their colleague professors from many universities and research institutes across whole Russia as well as from Belarus, Ukraine, Switzerland, Turkey, Finland and France. Oral and poster presentations were combined into a few well-defined sections among which one should name Astronomy and Astrophysics, Plasma physics, hydro- and aero-dynamics, Physics of quantum-sized structures, Nanostructured and thin-film materials, Biophysics, THz and UHF materials and devices, Optoelectronic devices, Optics and spectroscopy, Atomic and elementary particles physics, Defects and impurities in solid state, Physics and technology of the alternative energetics. This issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series presents the extended contributions from participants of PhysicA.SPb/2013 that were peer-reviewed by expert referees through processes administered by the Presiders of the Organising and Programme Committees to the best professional and scientific standards. The Editors: Nikita S. Averkiev, Sergey A. Poniaev and Grigorii S. Sokolovskii

  8. Plenary Presentations. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference (16th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 16-20, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, James G., Ed.; Wedemeyer, Dan J., Ed.

    This document contains the following plenary speeches from the 1994 annual conference of the Pacific Telecommunications Council (PTC): "Forging New Links--Focus on Developing Economies" by Sir Donald Maitland of the Independent Commission for World-Wide Telecommunications Development (United Kingdom); "The Missing Link: Still Missing? The…

  9. Mozart and medicine in the eighteenth century.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, J S

    1995-01-01

    Over the years the medical history and death of Mozart have been the subject of many studies, but in spite of all this attention much remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve some of the difficulty it is useful to see his life, and that of his family as recorded in their letters, in the context of medicine in eighteenth-century Europe. PMID:7562811

  10. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O'Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  11. [Criminal madness in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Barras, V

    1990-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry, as we know it, was established in the early 19th century. But already the "Ancien Régime" knew--with regard to mentally disturbed criminals--particular legal and medical considerations and practical arrangements. The author analyses the theoretical reasoning of some cases selected from the judicial archives of Geneva (mainly 18th c.). This enables him to establish the great lines of a "prehistory" of forensic-psychiatric expertise.

  12. Irish return migration in the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Hart, M

    1985-01-01

    This study is concerned with return migration to Ireland from the United States during the nineteenth century. The author first notes that the rate of return migration was relatively low. Reasons for returning are then considered, including inheritance and poor health. Data on 671 Irish returnees from passenger lists of ships arriving in the United Kingdom from the United States between 1858 and 1867 are analyzed with regard to sex, marital status, age, occupations, and impact of returnees.

  13. NASA prepares for its next half century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Half a century ago this month, on 29 July 1958, US President Dwight Eisenhower signed legislation that created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or NASA. The agency came into being at a critical time. The previous October, the Soviet Union had shocked the world, and particularly the US, when it launched Sputnik 1 - the first Earth-orbiting satellite (see Physics World October 2007 pp23-27).

  14. Twenty-first century learning in afterschool.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Eric; Stolow, David

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-first century skills increasingly represent the ticket to the middle class. Yet, the authors argue, in-school learning is simply not enough to help students develop these skills. The authors make the case that after-school (or out-of-school) learning programs are emerging as one of the nation's most promising strategies for preparing young people for the workforce and civic life. Most school systems have significant limitations for teaching twenty-first century skills. They have the limits of time: with only six hours per day there is barely enough time to teach even the basic skills, especially for those students starting already behind. They have the limits of structure: typical school buildings and classrooms are not physically set up for innovative learning. They have the limits of inertia and bureaucracy: school systems are notoriously resistant to change. And perhaps most important, they have the limits of priorities: especially with the onset of the No Child Left Behind Act, schools are laserlike in their focus on teaching the basics and therefore have less incentive to incorporate twenty-first century skills. Meanwhile, the authors argue that after-school programs are an untapped resource with three competitive advantages. First, they enable students to work collaboratively in small groups, a setup on which the modern economy will increasingly rely. Second, they are well suited to project-based learning and the development of mastery. Third, they allow students to learn in the real-world contexts that make sense. Yet the after-school sector is fraught with challenges. It lacks focus-Is it child care, public safety, homework tutoring? And it lacks rigorous results. The authors argue that the teaching of twenty-first century skills should become the new organizing principle for afterschool that will propel the field forward and more effectively bridge in-school and out-of-school learning.

  15. Science for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  16. Credentialing Kepler: Transits in the Seventeenth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    2005-08-01

    Kepler's successful prediction of the 1631 transit of Mercury spurred an interest in his decidedly user-unfriendly Rudolfine Tables. Because his Ephemerides went only to 1636, he did not draw attention to the 1639 transit of Venus, although the tables actually predicted the phenomenon, and the observation by Horrocks again proved the superiority of Kepler's work. By mid-century alternative user-friendly versions of the Rudolfine Tables were published by V. Renieri in Italy, J.B. Morin in France, Maria Cunitia in Germany, and (in a more modified form) by J. Shakerley in England. Transits of Mercury were observed in 1651 (by Shakerley in Surat, India), 1661, 1667, 1690, and 1697, giving astronomers opportunities to compare the predictions from these tables as well as those of Lansbergen (which were a variant of the Copernican Prutenic Tables). Because of the subsequent interest in transits for determining the length of the astronomical unit, the 18th-century French astronomer J-N. Delisle compiled for these early transits extensive systematic records, which are now preserved at the Paris Observatory. By his day, however, the as-yet-unpublished tables of Edmond Halley gave the most successful predictions, and Delisle showed little interest in further credentialing the Rudolfine Tables, a process that had already taken place in the previous century.

  17. Poisson's ratio over two centuries: challenging hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, G. Neville

    2013-01-01

    This article explores Poisson's ratio, starting with the controversy concerning its magnitude and uniqueness in the context of the molecular and continuum hypotheses competing in the development of elasticity theory in the nineteenth century, moving on to its place in the development of materials science and engineering in the twentieth century, and concluding with its recent re-emergence as a universal metric for the mechanical performance of materials on any length scale. During these episodes France lost its scientific pre-eminence as paradigms switched from mathematical to observational, and accurate experiments became the prerequisite for scientific advance. The emergence of the engineering of metals followed, and subsequently the invention of composites—both somewhat separated from the discovery of quantum mechanics and crystallography, and illustrating the bifurcation of technology and science. Nowadays disciplines are reconnecting in the face of new scientific demands. During the past two centuries, though, the shape versus volume concept embedded in Poisson's ratio has remained invariant, but its application has exploded from its origins in describing the elastic response of solids and liquids, into areas such as materials with negative Poisson's ratio, brittleness, glass formation, and a re-evaluation of traditional materials. Moreover, the two contentious hypotheses have been reconciled in their complementarity within the hierarchical structure of materials and through computational modelling. PMID:24687094

  18. Complete Conduct Principles for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, John

    Research predicts that 21st century society will be very different from 20th century society. What is good conduct in the 21st century? Good conduct is advantageous to work, job, and career. Students who learn good conduct now will benefit in their school lives and in future careers. This handbook aims to prepare everyone's personal conduct for…

  19. Twentieth Century Thinkers in Adult & Continuing Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Peter, Ed.

    This book contains 19 papers on 20th century thinkers in adult and continuing education. The book is arranged in four parts as follows: early 20th century English thinkers; early 20th century American thinkers; theorists of adult and continuing education; and theorists of adult education and social change. The following papers are included:…

  20. Who Will the 21st-Century Learners Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dweck, Carol

    2009-01-01

    In the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner," the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) describes the skills, dispositions, responsibilities, and self-assessment strategies that are necessary for a 21st-century learner. However, as wonderful as AASL's 21st-century goals sound, they will fall on deaf ears because students who have a…

  1. Judicial Review of Citizenship Education in Nineteenth Century American Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, George J.

    This paper traces the Supreme Court's powers of judicial review in the 19th century and considers its relation to citizenship education. The 19th century was selected as the major focus because it was during this century that the Court attempted to establish its powers of review and generally to reaffirm judicial powers. Also, the controversy over…

  2. Twenty-First Century Learning: Communities, Interaction and Ubiquitous Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leh, Amy S.C.; Kouba, Barbara; Davis, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Advanced technology makes 21st century learning, communities and interactions unique and leads people to an era of ubiquitous computing. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the discussion of learning in the 21st century. The paper will review literature on learning community, community learning, interaction, 21st century learning and…

  3. The Second Century of Ability Testing: Some Predictions and Speculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    The last century was marked by dazzling changes in many areas, such as technology and communications. Predictions into the second century of testing are seemingly difficult in such a context. Yet, looking back to the turn of the last century, Kirkpatrick (1900), in his American Psychological Association presidential address, presented fundamental…

  4. Dance Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Anne Green

    2005-01-01

    Margaret H'Doubler brought the magic of dance to the 20th century, yet the 21st century has yet to find a person to rekindle the same public desire for dance education. Consequently, the future of dance education in the next century is hard to predict. Based on an informal survey of fellow advisory board members of Dance and the Child…

  5. Causation of insanity in nineteenth century Australia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, G A

    1982-03-01

    In this article an endeavour has been made to explore the writings of Frederick Norton Manning as they pertain to understanding nineteenth century medical viewpoints in Australia as to the causation of mental disease. Of particular note are the concept of hereditary weakness and issues related to the harsh Australian environment and the developing colonial society. These writings reveal, in large part, the use of a scientific approach and some concepts of causality which, for the times, were highly sophisticated. Nevertheless, some highly speculative theorizing does occur.

  6. The development of science during this century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisskopf, V. F.

    1993-12-01

    This is a slightly revised version of a talk delivered at the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, in Boston, on 14 February 1993, and at a CERN Colloquium, on 5 August 1993, entitled 'Science -yesterday, today and tomorrow'. It describes the tremendous growth of scientific knowledge and insights acquired since the beginning of this century. The changes in the character, sociology and support, of science are discussed, including the growing predominance of American science and the recent trend away from basic science towards applied research.

  7. Mammalian developmental genetics in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Artzt, Karen

    2012-12-01

    This Perspectives is a review of the breathtaking history of mammalian genetics in the past century and, in particular, of the ways in which genetic thinking has illuminated aspects of mouse development. To illustrate the power of that thinking, selected hypothesis-driven experiments and technical advances are discussed. Also included in this account are the beginnings of mouse genetics at the Bussey Institute, Columbia University, and The Jackson Laboratory and a retrospective discussion of one of the classic problems in developmental genetics, the T/t complex and its genetic enigmas.

  8. Inspiring facility fuses a century of change.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-04-01

    Creating a 21st Century mental healthcare facility which would soon be world-renowned both for its quality of care, and for the high standard of its buildings, was the overriding goal of the project team behind the new pound 75 million, 312-bed Roseberry Park mental healthcare facility in Middlesbrough. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie visited the new PFI facility to discover more about the sizeable new mental healthcare "village", which was highly commended at the 2010 Building Better Healthcare Awards, from MAAP Architects lead designer and director Raechal Ferguson, and project director at the Tees, Esk and Wear Valleys (TEWV) NHS Foundation Trust John Ord. PMID:21585144

  9. Teratology in Mexico. 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Gorbach, Frida

    2014-01-01

    It was not until the last third of the 19th century, the period in which, according to historiography, the country definitely inserted itself into modernity, that anomalies and monstrosities had a presence in Mexico. Therefore, what I present here are four moments of teratology in Mexico, four dates in which I try to recount how teratology, which still occupied a marginal place within the main themes of national science, not only reached to cover the realm of medical discussions at the time, but also laid the foundations for new disciplines like biology and anthropology.

  10. Inspiring facility fuses a century of change.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-04-01

    Creating a 21st Century mental healthcare facility which would soon be world-renowned both for its quality of care, and for the high standard of its buildings, was the overriding goal of the project team behind the new pound 75 million, 312-bed Roseberry Park mental healthcare facility in Middlesbrough. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie visited the new PFI facility to discover more about the sizeable new mental healthcare "village", which was highly commended at the 2010 Building Better Healthcare Awards, from MAAP Architects lead designer and director Raechal Ferguson, and project director at the Tees, Esk and Wear Valleys (TEWV) NHS Foundation Trust John Ord.

  11. Mammalian Developmental Genetics in the Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    Artzt, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This Perspectives is a review of the breathtaking history of mammalian genetics in the past century and, in particular, of the ways in which genetic thinking has illuminated aspects of mouse development. To illustrate the power of that thinking, selected hypothesis-driven experiments and technical advances are discussed. Also included in this account are the beginnings of mouse genetics at the Bussey Institute, Columbia University, and The Jackson Laboratory and a retrospective discussion of one of the classic problems in developmental genetics, the T/t complex and its genetic enigmas. PMID:23212897

  12. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.G.

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  13. Vaccines for the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Delany, Isabel; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In the last century, vaccination has been the most effective medical intervention to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. It is believed that vaccines save at least 2–3 million lives per year worldwide. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio has almost disappeared worldwide through global vaccine campaigns. Most of the viral and bacterial infections that traditionally affected children have been drastically reduced thanks to national immunization programs in developed countries. However, many diseases are not yet preventable by vaccination, and vaccines have not been fully exploited for target populations such as elderly and pregnant women. This review focuses on the state of the art of recent clinical trials of vaccines for major unmet medical needs such as HIV, malaria, TB, and cancer. In addition, we describe the innovative technologies currently used in vaccine research and development including adjuvants, vectors, nucleic acid vaccines, and structure-based antigen design. The hope is that thanks to these technologies, more diseases will be addressed in the 21st century by novel preventative and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:24803000

  14. Nursing heroism in the 21st Century'

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Vivian Bullwinkel Oration honours the life and work of an extraordinary nurse. Given her story and that of her World War II colleagues, the topic of nursing heroism in the 21st century could not be more germane. Discussion Is heroism a legitimate part of nursing, or are nurses simply 'just doing their job' even when facing extreme personal danger? In this paper I explore the place and relevance of heroism in contemporary nursing. I propose that nursing heroism deserves a broader appreciation and that within the term lie many hidden, 'unsung' or 'unrecorded' heroisms. I also challenge the critiques of heroism that would condemn it as part of a 'militarisation' of nursing. Finally, I argue that nursing needs to be more open in celebrating our heroes and the transformative power of nursing achievements. Summary The language of heroism may sound quaint by 21st Century standards but nursing heroism is alive and well in the best of our contemporary nursing ethos and practice. PMID:21324152

  15. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    PubMed

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness.

  16. Physician professionalism for a new century.

    PubMed

    Holsinger, James W; Beaton, Benjamin

    2006-07-01

    During the past 50 years, physicians have become increasingly dissatisfied with certain aspects of their profession. Dissatisfaction has intensified with the advent of managed care in the late 20th century, the medical liability crisis, and the growing divergence between the professional and personal expectations placed upon physicians and their practical ability to meet these expectations. These and other factors have encroached on physician autonomy, the formerly ascendant professional value within medicine. As the underlying values and practical realities of the broader American health care system have changed, the professional values and practices of physicians have failed to adapt correspondingly, resulting in a "professionalism gap" that contributes to physician dissatisfaction. To improve the outlook and efficacy of modern American physicians, the profession must adopt a new values framework that conforms to today's health care system. This means foregoing the 20th century's preferred "independent physician" model in favor of a new professional structure based on teamwork and collaboration. Convincing established physicians to embrace such a model will be difficult, but opportunities exist for significant progress among a new generation of physicians accustomed to the realities of managed care, flexible practice models, and health information technology. The teaching of clinical anatomy, given its incorporation of student collaboration at the earliest stages of medical education, offers a prime opportunity to introduce this generation to a reinvigorated code of professionalism that should reduce physician dissatisfaction and benefit society.

  17. DIMMING OF THE 17TH CENTURY SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Foukal, Peter; Ortiz, Ada; Schnerr, Roald

    2011-06-01

    Reconstructions of total solar irradiance (TSI) rely mainly on linear relations between TSI variation and indices of facular area. When these are extrapolated to the prolonged 15th-17th century Spoerer and Maunder solar activity minima, the estimated solar dimming is insufficient to explain the mid-millennial climate cooling of the Little Ice Age. We draw attention here to evidence that the relation departs from linearity at the lowest activity levels. Imaging photometry and radiometry indicate an increased TSI contribution per unit area from small network faculae by a factor of 2-4 compared with larger faculae in and around active regions. Even partial removal of this more TSI-effective network at prolonged minima could enable climatically significant solar dimming, yet be consistent with the weakened but persistent 11 yr cycle observed in Be 10 during the Maunder Minimum. The mechanism we suggest would not alter previous findings that increased solar radiative forcing is insufficient to account for 20th century global warming.

  18. Food processing: a century of change.

    PubMed

    Welch, R W; Mitchell, P C

    2000-01-01

    In 1900, the population was beset with poverty, and infectious and deficiency diseases were common. The first half of the century was blighted by world wars, economic depression and post-war austerity. Nevertheless, a combination of enlightened social policy and the application of medical, nutritional and food science, resulted in substantial improvements in health, such that, by 1950, many hitherto common infectious diseases were under control, and the diet was generally nutritionally adequate. The second half of the century saw increasing economic prosperity, and unprecedented social and scientific advances. The impact on food processing was manifold: nascent technologies such as freezing and chilling were increasingly exploited, and the consumer became the major focus of a food industry that became more sophisticated, embracing automation, computerisation and new developments in, for example, drying, heat processing, controlled and modified atmosphere packaging, ingredients and quality assurance. By 1999, this had led to an industry which provided foods that were not only safe, nutritious and palatable, but which were also increasingly convenient and healthy.

  19. Challenges in 21st Century Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

  20. Vaccines for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Delany, Isabel; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2014-05-06

    In the last century, vaccination has been the most effective medical intervention to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. It is believed that vaccines save at least 2-3 million lives per year worldwide. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio has almost disappeared worldwide through global vaccine campaigns. Most of the viral and bacterial infections that traditionally affected children have been drastically reduced thanks to national immunization programs in developed countries. However, many diseases are not yet preventable by vaccination, and vaccines have not been fully exploited for target populations such as elderly and pregnant women. This review focuses on the state of the art of recent clinical trials of vaccines for major unmet medical needs such as HIV, malaria, TB, and cancer. In addition, we describe the innovative technologies currently used in vaccine research and development including adjuvants, vectors, nucleic acid vaccines, and structure-based antigen design. The hope is that thanks to these technologies, more diseases will be addressed in the 21st century by novel preventative and therapeutic vaccines.

  1. A century of induced earthquakes in Oklahoma?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, Susan E.; Page, Morgan T.

    2015-01-01

    Seismicity rates have increased sharply since 2009 in the central and eastern United States, with especially high rates of activity in the state of Oklahoma. Growing evidence indicates that many of these events are induced, primarily by injection of wastewater in deep disposal wells. The upsurge in activity has raised two questions: What is the background rate of tectonic earthquakes in Oklahoma? How much has the rate varied throughout historical and early instrumental times? In this article, we show that (1) seismicity rates since 2009 surpass previously observed rates throughout the twentieth century; (2) several lines of evidence suggest that most of the significant earthquakes in Oklahoma during the twentieth century were likely induced by oil production activities, as they exhibit statistically significant temporal and spatial correspondence with disposal wells, and intensity measurements for the 1952 El Reno earthquake and possibly the 1956 Tulsa County earthquake follow the pattern observed in other induced earthquakes; and (3) there is evidence for a low level of tectonic seismicity in southeastern Oklahoma associated with the Ouachita structural belt. The 22 October 1882 Choctaw Nation earthquake, for which we estimate Mw 4.8, occurred in this zone.

  2. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    PubMed

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness. PMID:20513626

  3. Global Cooling the in 21 Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, S.; Genda, H.; Ikoma, M.

    2008-12-01

    [Objective] To predict the climate in the 21 Century [Methods employed] Evaluating the functions to control the surface temperature of the Earth in order of potentials from high to low, 1) albedo mainly by glacier and cloud, 2) Sun activity (relative Sunspot number), 3) greenhouse gas, and Millancovich effect, we estimate the climate change in 21 Century. [Result] Albedo is further controlled by a) Galactic cosmic ray radiation, b)Earth's geomagnetic intensity, c)aerosols derived from volcanic ash, aeorian dusts, and d)aircrafts. Albedo effect is the largest; 1% cloud corresponds to 0.6K on the surface temperature of the Earth (Genda, 2008). Activity of Sun has been observed as the relative change of sunspot number for the last 400 years. Moreover, the C14 of annual ring in the old tree such as Jo-mon redwood back to 6000 years has been measured. Periodical change of Sun activity in the past is extrapolated to the future, indicating the Sun activity has just passed the maximum ca. 2 years ago. Greenhouse gas is evaluated independently for each species. Predominant role is H2O which occupies about 90-95% among greenhouse gas. CO2 has increased 1-2 ppm every year for the last 100 years. 1 ppm corresponds to only 0.004K, which is negligibly small, compared to the potential of cloud effect. The Earth is in the stage of near the end of 20,000 years cycle of Millancovich. Although the 100,000 years cycle is clearly regular for the last 400,000 years, the 20,000 years cycle does not seem to be clear, and we are now hanging on the abrupt drop from inter-glacial to glacial period. Moreover, the role of volcanic eruption would force to cool the climate, if erupted as such a case of Pinatuvo in Philippine in 1992 when 0.5K dropped during 2 years. The rapidly decreasing the Earth's geomagnetism promotes the formation of cloud, to raise the amount of cloud in this Century. More active industrial activity in Asia particularly China and India would increase the amounts of

  4. Nineteenth-Century Agrarian Populism and Twentieth-Century Communitarianism: Points of Contact and Contrast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    Connects contemporary communitarian ideas to the agenda of the 19th-century populist movement. The populist educational agenda (the agrarian revolt and Farmers' Alliance) provides historical examples of the implementation of communitarian educational theory. The populist movement as an example of communitarianism highlights an instance of a…

  5. Hybrids, pure cultures, and pure lines: from nineteenth-century biology to twentieth-century genetics.

    PubMed

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2007-12-01

    Prompted by recent recognitions of the omnipresence of horizontal gene transfer among microbial species and the associated emphasis on exchange, rather than isolation, as the driving force of evolution, this essay will reflect on hybridization as one of the central concerns of nineteenth-century biology. I will argue that an emphasis on horizontal exchange was already endorsed by 'biology' when it came into being around 1800 and was brought to full fruition with the emergence of genetics in 1900. The true revolution in nineteenth-century life sciences, I maintain, consisted in a fundamental shift in ontology, which eroded the boundaries between individual and species, and allowed biologists to move up and down the scale of organic complexity. Life became a property extending both 'downwards', to the parts that organisms were composed of, as well as 'upwards', to the collective entities constituted by the relations of exchange and interaction that organisms engage in to reproduce. This mode of thinking was crystallized by Gregor Mendel and consolidated in the late nineteenth-century conjunction of biochemistry, microbiology and breeding in agro-industrial settings. This conjunction and its implications are especially exemplified by Wilhelm Johannsen's and Martinus Beijerinck's work on pure lines and cultures. An understanding of the subsequent constraints imposed by the evolutionary synthesis of the twentieth century on models of genetic systems may require us to rethink the history of biology and displace Darwin's theory of natural selection from that history's centre. PMID:18053934

  6. Rural School Consolidation in Early Twentieth Century Iowa: Lessons for the Early Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, David R.

    Rural school consolidation in Iowa in the early 20th century was not simply an attempt at educational reform, but was also an attempt to transform the rural social geography of the region. Since consolidation of corporate power had resulted in economic progress in the cities, it was thought that re-centering rural life around country towns could…

  7. Learning 21st-Century Skills Requires, 21st-Century Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky; Opfer, V. Darleen

    2012-01-01

    For students to learn 21st-century skills, we will have to teach them differently than we have in the past. The outdated, transmission model, through which teachers transmit factual knowledge to students via lectures and textbooks, remains the dominant approach to compulsory education in much of the world, yet it is not the most effective way to…

  8. A 21st Century Library in a 20th Century Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graboyes, Alanna S.

    2012-01-01

    The library at George C. Marshall High School in Fairfax County, Virginia, needed an update to better meet the needs of 21st century students. A major renovation was in the works, but head librarian Graboyes wanted to do something to make the library useful and appealing for current students. With careful budgeting and donations of time and money,…

  9. Leadership for a healthy 21st century.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Every economic institution finds itself caught on the horns of a dilemma: Competing sets of values strike a conflict between social good and economic wealth, regardless of whether organizations articulate it. The struggle in U.S. health care, however, is both more acute and poignant. On the one hand, ethical and cultural values require societal commitments to the well-being of the individual. Who among us would want to refuse help to someone sick or injured? On the other hand, market forces require an economic accounting of health care. Social trends emphasize a mission to provide care for all, while managed care promotes the industry's fidelity to a balanced ledger. U.S. health care is thus defined by paradox. The nation spends more than $1.3 trillion annually on health care--a national line-item larger than the economies of all other nations except two (Germany and Japan). A new study by the Health Care Financing Administration warns that health care spending may nearly double to $2.1 trillion by 2007. Yet the industry is perceived to be too "resource-constrained" to assure health care services for all citizens. This poses a key question: Are there too few resources, or are we simply not allocating them in the best ways possible? Health care's "double bottom line"--social and economic accountability--typifies the social and economic milieu of health care as the final pages turn on the 20th Century. And, it is this duality that forms the underlying theme for the landmark study--Leadership for a Healthy 21st Century--conducted over the course of the past year by Arthur Andersen and The Healthcare Forum Foundation, with primary research support from DYG, Inc. and Baruch Lev, professor at the Stern School of Business, New York University. The study was designed to investigate a new economic model emerging in the information economy and its impact on health care; the evolving values of consumers in relation to business, health and health care; and the values of

  10. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  11. Gerontological nursing in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Burggraf, V; Barry, R

    1998-06-01

    The approaching millennium brings not only a muted but also a challenging vision for the future of gerontological nursing. This vision is muted by the rhetoric of the 90s dictating the elimination of costly programs with the potential to diminish quality. It is a vision of challenge to advocate for, protect, demand, and create a new framework that will guarantee high-quality health care for older patients. In an attempt to clarify that vision, this article outlines three areas of gerontological nursing: education, practice, and research. The future direction in these areas will dictate how collective thinking can support health care for older people in the next century and beyond. These components of nursing must be integrated to develop quality care needed by older patients.

  12. Antiparasitic DNA vaccines in 21st century.

    PubMed

    Wedrychowicz, Halina

    2015-06-01

    Demands for effective vaccines to control parasitic diseases of humans and livestock have been recently exacerbated by the development of resistance of most pathogenic parasites to anti-parasitic drugs. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and improvement of DNA vaccines which are relatively easy as well as cheap to fabricate and stable at room temperatures. However, their main limitation is rather poor immunogenicity, which makes it necessary to couple the antigens with adjuvant molecules. This paper review recent advances in the development of DNA vaccines to some pathogenic protozoa and helminths. Numerous studies were conducted over the past 14 years of 21st century, employing various administration techniques, adjuvants and new immunogenic antigens to increase efficacy of DNA vaccines. Unfortunately, the results have not been rewarding. Further research is necessary using more extensive combinations of antigens; alternate delivery systems and more efficient adjuvants based on knowledge of the immunomodulatory capacities of parasitic protozoa and helminths.

  13. A Half-century of SETI Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuch, H. Paul

    We begin our journey with a brief review of half a century of SETI science. The material in this introductory chapter is offered for the benefit of those educated laypersons whose enthusiasm for the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence exceeds their detailed knowledge of the relevant technologies. It is my hope that readers of this volume will better appreciate the material which follows if they first have a basic understanding of SETI concepts. Hence, I offer an overview, which is intended not to be exhaustive, but rather representative. Together, we will explore the nature of radio telescopes, experimental design strategies, SETI instrumentation, signal analysis, and the hallmarks of artificiality that allow us to differentiate between natural astrophysical emissions and intelligent interstellar transmissions. If you are already a technical specialist in these areas, feel free to bypass this introduction, and proceed directly to the subsequent chapters.

  14. Corneal infections in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ong, Hon Shing; Corbett, Melanie C

    2015-10-01

    Ninety years ago, the first issue of the Postgraduate Medical Journal published a review of an article written by Mr Robert Lindsay-Rea, a consultant ophthalmic surgeon in the Western Ophthalmic Hospital and an oculist in the West End Hospital for Nervous Diseases, entitled "A preliminary report on the treatment of keratitis". Today, microbial keratitis remains an important cause of avoidable visual impairment in the world. The aetiology of microbial keratitis has changed greatly over the past century due to the discovery of antibiotics, improvement in sanitation and education, the rising trend of contact lens wear and increased air travel. Significant advances have also been made in our understanding and management of this important disorder. This article highlights some of these changes and discusses the current management and research.

  15. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity.

  16. Half a Century of Physical Review Letters

    ScienceCinema

    Garisto, Robert

    2016-07-12

    Fifty years ago, Sam Goudsmit started an experiment: the journal Physical Review Letters.  Since 1958, the experiment has thrived. PRL has gone through many changes, published many important papers, and become a leader in international scientific publication.  I will trace the rise of PRL from its early 20th century roots as "Letters to the Editor," through changes in editorial process and advents of new technology. Along the way I'll show what has gone on behind the scenes, and give a glimpse of our plans for the future.  I'll also give some advice to would-be authors and referees, illustrated with interesting correspondence we've received.

  17. Two centuries of mineral policy in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrom, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Wisconsin has experienced several major shifts in mineral policy which reflect changing public attitudes about resources. Early law either encouraged mineral development or was mute during the territory and early statehood period because the prevalent attitude was for rapid development to generate capital which would foster economic growth and development. The development push of the 19th century was followed by a slow shift to environmental and social consciousness. This shift subverted Wisconsin's relationship to and dependence on outside sources of mineals and its posture with regard to mineral developent. Development is now strongly controlled by laws, land access, and social responsibility. Increased mineral dependence and high consumer prices are the price which society pays for such policies, and the author suggests the need for a national minerals policy to serve as a model for the states. 3 references.

  18. Osteogenic Sarcoma: A 21st Century Review.

    PubMed

    Osasan, Stephen; Zhang, Mingyong; Shen, Fan; Paul, Paulose J; Persad, Sujata; Sergi, Consolato

    2016-09-01

    Compared to other bone tumors, bone osteogenic sarcoma (BOS) continues to confer a much grimmer prognosis as the survival benefit of traditional chemotherapy treatment regimens is still unsatisfactory. Chemotherapy was demonstrated to be effective in eradicating both primary tumor and pulmonary metastases in the last century, with effective agents used in various combination regimens having changed the survival rate from less than 10% to 75%. The most common primary bone cancer, BOS is conventionally a primary intramedullary high-grade malignant tumor characterized by malignant cells forming immature bone or osteoid. BOS is a disease with diverse morphological presentations. The treatment of all morphological variants seem to have been the same for over 30 years. The introduction of antiproliferative agents such as insulin growth factor-binding protein 3 hold promise of a potentially veritable therapeutic target. In this review, we highlight recent data on osteosarcoma to consolidate a platform able to connect bench and bedside. PMID:27630274

  19. Six centuries of changing oceanic mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanxu; Jaeglé, Lyatt; Thompson, LuAnne; Streets, David G.

    2014-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global and persistent contaminant, affecting human health primarily via marine fish consumption. Large anthropogenic releases of Hg to the atmosphere by mining and coal combustion have resulted in a significant perturbation to the biogeochemical cycling of Hg. The magnitude of this perturbation and the relative roles of the ocean and land as sinks for anthropogenic Hg remain unclear. Here we use a 3-D global ocean biogeochemical model to show that surface ocean Hg concentrations have increased fourfold over the last 600 years. We find that anthropogenic Hg enters the ocean's interior predominantly by absorption onto sinking organic matter particulates, which decompose and release Hg at a depth of 500-800 m, implying that the human perturbation is largest in subsurface waters of biologically productive regions. Our model simulation predicts that over the last six centuries half of emitted anthropogenic Hg has accumulated in the oceans and marine sediments.

  20. Twentieth-Century Sea Surface Temperature Trends

    PubMed

    Cane; Clement; Kaplan; Kushnir; Pozdnyakov; Seager; Zebiak; Murtugudde

    1997-02-14

    An analysis of historical sea surface temperatures provides evidence for global warming since 1900, in line with land-based analyses of global temperature trends, and also shows that over the same period, the eastern equatorial Pacific cooled and the zonal sea surface temperature gradient strengthened. Recent theoretical studies have predicted such a pattern as a response of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system to an exogenous heating of the tropical atmosphere. This pattern, however, is not reproduced by the complex ocean-atmosphere circulation models currently used to simulate the climatic response to increased greenhouse gases. Its presence is likely to lessen the mean 20th-century global temperature change in model simulations. PMID:9020074

  1. Reliability for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Keller-McNulty, Sallie; Wilson, A. G.

    2002-01-01

    The sophistication of science and teclinology is growing almost exponentially. Government and industry are relying more and more on science's advanced methods to assess reliability coupled with pcrformance, safety, surety, cost, schedule, etc. Unfortunately, policy, cost, schedule, and other constraints imposed by the real world inhibit the ability of researchers to calculate these metrics efficiently and accurately using traditional methods. Because of such constraints, reliability must undergo an evolutionary change. The first step in this evolution is to reinterpret the concepts and responsibilities of scientists responsible for reliability calculations to meet the new century's needs. The next step is to mount a multidisciplinary approach to the quantification of reliability and its associated metrics using both empirical methods and auxiliary data sources, such as expert knowledge, corporate memory, and mathematical modeling and simulation.

  2. Space Biology in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, Thora W.; Krauss, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Biology is poised to make significant contributions to science in the next century. A carefully crafted, but largely ground-based, program in the United States has evolved major questions that require answers through experiments in space. Science, scientists, and the new long-term spacecrafts designed by NASA will be available for the first time to mount a serious Space Biology effort. The scientific challenge is of such importance that success will provide countless benefits to biologically dependent areas such as medicine, food, and commerce in the decades ahead. The international community is rapidly expanding its role in this field. The United States should generate the resources that will allow progress in Space Biology to match the recognized progress made in aeronautics and the other space sciences.

  3. Astronomical dating in the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2010-01-01

    Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective. Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was repeatedly used in the second half of the 19th century before the invention of radio-isotopic dating. Building upon earlier ideas of Joseph Adhémar, James Croll started to formulate his astronomical theory of the ice ages in 1864 according to which precession controlled ice ages occur alternatingly on both hemispheres at times of maximum eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The publication of these ideas compelled Charles Lyell to revise his Principles of Geology and add Croll's theory, thus providing an alternative to his own geographical cause of the ice ages. Both Croll and Lyell initially tuned the last glacial epoch to the prominent eccentricity maximum 850,000 yr ago. This age was used as starting point by Lyell to calculate an age of 240 million years for the beginning of the Cambrium. But Croll soon revised the tuning to a much younger less prominent eccentricity maximum between 240,000 and 80,000 yr ago. In addition he tuned older glacial deposits of late Miocene and Eocene ages to eccentricity maxima around 800,000 and 2,800,000 yr ago. Archibald and James Geikie were the first to recognize interglacials during the last glacial epoch, as predicted by Croll's theory, and attempted to tune them to precession. Soon after Frank Taylor linked a series of 15 end-moraines left behind by the retreating ice sheet to precession to arrive at a possible age of 300,000 yr for the maximum glaciation. In a classic paper, Axel Blytt (1876) explained the scattered distribution of plant groups in Norway to precession induced alternating rainy and dry periods as recorded by the

  4. [Twentieth-century Penelopes: popular culture revisited].

    PubMed

    Favaro, Cleci Eulalia

    2010-01-01

    During their settlement of the so-called Old Italian Colonies of Rio Grande do Sul, immigrants constructed a set of positive values that were to serve as an emotional support and a means of outside communication. When women immigrants embroidered images and sayings on wall hangings or kitchen towels made of rustic fabric, they helped nourish the dream of a better life, sought by all and achieved by some. The objects crafted by these twentieth-century Penelopes bear witness to a way of doing, thinking, and acting. Local museums and exhibits have fostered the recovery of old-time embroidery techniques and themes; sold at open-air markets and regional festivals, these products represent income for women whose age excludes them from the formal labor market.

  5. Engineering in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reasonable evolutionary trends in federal outlays for aerospace research and development predict a continuing decline in real resources (1970 dollars) until the mid eighties, and a growth thereafter to the 1970 level by 2000, still well below the 1966 peak. Employment levels will parallel this trend with no shortage of available personnel foreseen. These trends characterize a maturing industry. Shifts in outlook toward the economic use of resources, rather than minimum risk at any cost, and toward missions aligned with societal needs and broad national goals will accompany these trends. These shifts in outlook will arise in part in academia, and will, in turn, influence engineering education. By 2000, space technology will have achieved major advances in the management of information, in space transportation, in space structures, and in energy. The economics of space systems must be the primary consideration if the space program foreseen for the 21st century is to become an actuality.

  6. [Assisted birth in 19th century Bahia].

    PubMed

    Barreto, Maria Renilda Nery

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the traditions of assisted childbirth in the Brazilian state of Bahia in the 19th Century and develops the hypothesis that two obstetrical traditions coexisted in the capital, Salvador, namely the doctor-midwives--who used technical resources and knowledge acquired from obstetrics as a medical specialty--and the traditional midwives, whose know-how was purely of an empirical-sensorial nature. Despite all efforts employed by the doctors to win over the confidence of Bahian families, the midwives continued to be predominant in the art of 'delivering' children and treating female illnesses. The analysis focuses on the social and professional segments that were active in assisted birth; the role of the Bahian College of Medicine (Faculdade de Medicina da Bahia) in the training and certification of midwives and the use of newspapers as a way to legitimize the doctor-midwives; it also discusses the scant coverage of the midwives in these media.

  7. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity. PMID:26710571

  8. The Pulkovo Observatory on the Centuries' Borderline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalakin, Viktor K.

    The present paper deals with the development of astrophysical research at the Pulkovo Observatory (now: the Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences) at adjacent time periods separated by the threshold between the 19th and the 20th centuries. The Pulkovo Observatory had been inaugurated in 1839. Its traditional field of research work was astrometry. The confirmation of light absorption phenomenon in interstellar space by Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve marked the turn of the Observatory's research programs toward astrophysics. New tendencies in the development of contemporaneous astronomy in Russia were pointed out by Otto Struve in his paper “About the Place of Astrophysics in Astronomy” presented in 1866 to the Saint-Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Wide-scale astrophysical studies were performed at Pulkovo Observatory around 1900 during the directorships of Theodore Bredikhin, Oscar Backlund and Aristarchos Belopolsky.

  9. Butterfly community shifts over two centuries.

    PubMed

    Habel, Jan Christian; Segerer, Andreas; Ulrich, Werner; Torchyk, Olena; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Schmitt, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Environmental changes strongly impact the distribution of species and subsequently the composition of species assemblages. Although most community ecology studies represent temporal snap shots, long-term observations are rather rare. However, only such time series allow the identification of species composition shifts over several decades or even centuries. We analyzed changes in the species composition of a southeastern German butterfly and burnet moth community over nearly 2 centuries (1840-2013). We classified all species observed over this period according to their ecological tolerance, thereby assessing their degree of habitat specialisation. This classification was based on traits of the butterfly and burnet moth species and on their larval host plants. We collected data on temperature and precipitation for our study area over the same period. The number of species declined substantially from 1840 (117 species) to 2013 (71 species). The proportion of habitat specialists decreased, and most of these are currently endangered. In contrast, the proportion of habitat generalists increased. Species with restricted dispersal behavior and species in need of areas poor in soil nutrients had severe losses. Furthermore, our data indicated a decrease in species composition similarity between different decades over time. These data on species composition changes and the general trends of modifications may reflect effects from climate change and atmospheric nitrogen loads, as indicated by the ecological characteristics of host plant species and local changes in habitat configuration with increasing fragmentation. Our observation of major declines over time of currently threatened and protected species shows the importance of efficient conservation strategies. PMID:26743786

  10. Brief History of a Relativistic Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, E.

    2011-08-01

    More than one century is passed by the publication of special relativity and few less by the birth of general relativity. Despite the great experimental successes of these theories, the study of the universe, is plagued by numerous unsolved problems. For example one of the most problems in cosmology is the cosmological constant, which governs the expansion of the universe, also known as dark energy. A substantial portion, about 60%, of the mass-energy in the universe is in a form of mysterious energy that is pushing the cosmos apart at an accelerating rate. What is this energy, and where does it come from? Cosmologists have no real idea. Although given a similar name, there is another problem in cosmology, the so-called dark matter, which is actually unrelated to dark energy, except insofar as they involve things we don't understand. About 90% of the mass in the universe is in an apparently invisible form of matter that we call dark matter. This dark matter can only be measured by the gravitational pull it has on objects around it, and all galaxies we observe contain large halos of it, often extending for hundreds of thousands of light years beyond the edge of luminous matter. Is this dark matter actual matter, such as weakly interacting massive particles, or perhaps it is just an observational artifact caused by an improper theory of gravity? Another mystery is why there is so much more matter than antimatter in the universe. According to physical theories, these forms of matter are essentially equivalent, but conventional matter is observed in much greater abundances than antimatter. In this paper we summarily introduce the principal alternative theories proposed during one century of relativity.

  11. Acoustic emission: The first half century

    SciTech Connect

    Drouillard, T.F.

    1994-08-01

    The technology of acoustic emission (AE) is approaching the half century mark, having had its beginning in 1950 with the work of Joseph Kaiser. During the 1950s and 1960s researchers delved into the fundamentals of acoustic emission, developed instrumentation specifically for AE, and characterized the AE behavior of many materials. AE was starting to be recognized for its unique capabilities as an NDT method for monitoring dynamic processes. In the decade of the 1970s research activities became more coordinated and directed with the formation of the working groups, and its use as an NDT method continued to increase for industrial applications. In the 1980s the computer became a basic component for both instrumentation and data analysis, and today it has sparked a resurgence of opportunities for research and development. Today we are seeing a transition to waveform-based AE analysis and a shift in AE activities with more emphasis on applications than on research. From the beginning, we have been fortunate to have had so many dedicated savants with different fields of expertise contribute in a collective way to bring AE to a mature, fully developed technology and leave a legacy of knowledge recorded in its literature. AE literature has been a key indicator of the amount of activity, the proportion of research to application, the emphasis on what was of current interest, and the direction AE has taken. The following is a brief survey of the history of acoustic emission with emphasis on development of the infrastructure over the past half century.

  12. Food safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Käferstein, F.; Abdussalam, M.

    1999-01-01

    The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will

  13. Tropical mathematics and the financial catastrophe of the 17th century. Thermoeconomics of Russia in the early 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, V. P.

    2010-03-01

    In the paper, an example is presented concerning relationships (which cannot be neglected) between mathematics and other sciences. In particular, the relationship between the tropical mathematics and the humanitarian-economic catastrophe of 17th century (related to slavery of Africans) is considered. The notion of critical state of economy of the 19th century is introduced by using the refined Fisher equation. A correspondence principle for thermodynamics of fluids and economics of the 19th century is presented.

  14. 21st Century Readiness Skills for Career and Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Tyrone L.

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century has embraced the technological age by storm and has approached us quicker than most have expected, leaving many still stuck in the 20th century. Technical careers require very skilled workers and their education has sprung as a strong vehicle all over the country but still most of our employed citizens, especially the youth, have…

  15. Motives of 21st-Century-Skills Group Questioned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Depending on whom one asks, "21st-century skills" can mean different things: technology literacy, the ability to analyze and apply knowledge, a knack for working effectively with colleagues in teams. In what is probably its most visible form for educators, though, the term refers to the work of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the Tucson,…

  16. Global Trends in Language Learning in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Today's language classroom is vastly different from that of the mid- to late 20th century. The study is a meta-analysis of recent research which provided the means to identify current and emerging trends in the field. Informed by this research, some identified trends that are shaping the 21st century language classroom are outdated practices such…

  17. Rebuilding the LMS for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Finally--12 years into the 21st century--higher ed classrooms are turning into incubators for the kind of learning environment that curriculum and instructional technology experts have advocated for years. Yet a key question remains: Can legacy learning management systems (LMSs) be dragged into the 21st century as part of this new educational…

  18. The Worker's Life in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, William L.

    1979-01-01

    What will life be like for occupational education graduates in the next century? This article offers a provocative look at the life of James Jones, a hypothetical twenty-first-century worker whose horizons extend to outer space and inner consciousness. (CT)

  19. Educational Initiatives in Mental Retardation in Nineteenth-Century Holland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weijers, Ido

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the educational initiatives in the Netherlands during the nineteenth century in relation to mental retardation. States that the optimism towards people with mental retardation that emerged in many countries in the second half of the nineteenth century did not emerge within the Netherlands. (CMK)

  20. Eight Sages over Five Centuries Share Oxygen's Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severinghaus, John W.

    2016-01-01

    During the last century, historians have discovered that between the 13th and 18th centuries, at least six sages discovered that the air we breathe contains something that we need and use. Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) in Cairo and Michael Servetus (1511-1553) in France accurately described the pulmonary circulation and its effect on blood color.…

  1. Fostering Higher Order Critical Thinking in 21st Century Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Mary Miller

    2012-01-01

    Teachers working with increasingly diverse student populations are expected, for the first time in American history, to bring all students to high levels of proficiency. American graduates must compete with graduates from other nations, given the realities of the 21st century global economy. American teachers must possess 21st century skills in…

  2. Organic Education in Public Schools of Late Nineteenth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    Organic education, which was introduced into the United States during the last third of the 19th century, was based upon Froebel's ideal of life as a connected whole. The late 19th century was a favorable period for innovation, for its economic prosperity made leaders feel that with the use of scientific methods anything was possible, and its…

  3. Deaf Lives: Nineteenth-Century Spanish Deaf Girls and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plann, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This article is about the lives of nineteenth-century Spanish deaf girls and women. The research presented is contained in a larger work, a book titled "Portraits from the Spanish National Deaf-Mute School," to be published by Gallaudet University Press. These "portraits" are in fact biographical essays on nineteenth-century deaf people and their…

  4. Gender, Science and Modernity in Seventeenth-Century England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    The seventeenth century in England, bounded by the scientific stimulus of Francis Bacon at the beginning and Isaac Newton at the end, seemingly saw a huge leap from the Aristotelian dialectic of the past to a reconstruction of knowledge based on inductive methods, empirical investigation and cooperative research. In mid-century, Puritan reformers…

  5. Teaching 21st Century Skills: An ASCD Action Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Any school interested in preparing students for learning and working in 21st century academic and job settings needs this resource to explain to teachers the new skills students need and provide teachers with tools to teach and reinforce these skills. Based on the work of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, this action tool defines what…

  6. The Culturally Fluent Leader of the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert Charles; Lischin, Stevi

    Increased global interdependence will be the dominant feature of the 21st century. This increased relatedness among the world's cultures and nations will require close intercultural linkages which are often fragile and full of hazards. If the 21st century is to experience a greater sense of planetary community, rather than increased tensions and…

  7. Preparing Students for the Future--21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century economy is driven by information and communication technologies (ICT). This change has made innovation, manufacturing and production of products and services, rather than manufacturing of material goods, the driving force of economies of leading countries (Wagner, 2008). Due to this shift, today's 21st century society and…

  8. Intercultural Education by Governesses (Seventeenth to Twentieth Century)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardach-Pinke, Irene

    2010-01-01

    One of the early forms of intercultural education was the upbringing of children by foreign governesses, who appeared on the European labour market during the seventeenth century. In Germany families of the gentry and the wealthy middle-classes began, since the eighteenth century, to copy the upbringing of princely children. They too wanted their…

  9. Teaching & Assessing 21st Century Skills. The Classroom Strategies Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    As the 21st century unfolds, the pace of change in the world is accelerating. Teachers and administrators must lead the cultural shift required to ensure their students can survive and thrive in the changing world. In Teaching & Assessing 21st Century Skills the authors present a model of instruction and assessment based on a combination of…

  10. Martian weather and climate in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    The historical interest in the weather and climate of Mars and current understanding of aspects of the present climate are addressed. Scientific research into the weather and climate of Mars in the next century is examined. The impact of the Martian weather of the 21st century on humans that may then be inhabiting the planet is considered. 8 refs.

  11. Puerperal insanity in the 19th and 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Rehman, A U; St Clair, D; Platz, C

    1990-06-01

    All patients with puerperal psychosis admitted to the Royal Edinburgh Hospital within 90 days of childbirth during the periods 1880-90 and 1971-80 were compared. The majority of cases in both groups had an affective illness with an acute presentation and a fixed interval of onset. The 19th-century cases had a more florid presentation and a greater length of admission (mean, 151 days) to the hospital than the 20th-century ones (mean, 39 days). The incidence of the disorder rose from 0.34 per 1000 childbirths per year in the 19th-century group to 1.04 in the 20th-century one, but this could be explained by nosocomial factors. Most 19th-century cases occurred in multigravid women, which questions the association of puerperal psychosis with primiparae.

  12. [A century of neurotransplantation in mammals].

    PubMed

    Woerly, S; Marchand, R

    1990-01-01

    The transplantation of neural tissue into the mammalian brain has been studied for a century. Although the experimental foundations of neurotransplantation were limited to basic biological issues, the progress made over the last decade in the use of foetal neurotransplants to replace interrupted neuronal pathways or to correct induced functional deficit of the central nervous system (C.N.S.), has opened a new field of research for repair of the damaged C.N.S. This review summarizes three major topics: (1) the major developments in the field of neurotransplantation since the first attempt in 1890, (2) the global field of application of grafting techniques of autologous, homologous and heterologous transplants to particular neuroaxonal systems in animal models (sensory, endocrine, motor, cognitive systems), (3) the specific applications of neurotransplantation to experimental forms of human neurological disorders in rodents and non human primates as a potential treatment for neurodegenerative diseases, and the future directions of neural grafting techniques (in vitro and transgenic techniques, artificial substrates) in the context of the scientific and the ethical problems which have been recently addressed.

  13. A century of human blood groups.

    PubMed

    Daniels, G

    2001-10-30

    During the course of the twentieth century, at least 270 authenticated alloantigens have been recognised on the red cell surface. Most of these have been classified into 26 blood group systems, each of which represents a single gene or a cluster of two or three closely-linked homologous genes. Most blood group polymorphisms result from single nucleotide changes encoding amino acid substitutions in cell surface proteins. Many other mechanisms, including recombination between homologous genes, are also involved, especially in the complex Rh and MNS systems. There are at least three common molecular backgrounds to the RhD-negative phenotype. Some blood group antigens are carbohydrates, the polymorphisms resulting from mutations within genes encoding glycosyltransferases. Red cell surface proteins perform a variety of functions. For some the functions are well understood, but for most they can only be surmised from the structure of the protein. Putative functions include, membrane transport, cell adhesion, complement inactivation, binding chemokines, and anchoring the plasma membrane to the cytoskeleton. Some erythroid cell surface antigens may serve their primary purpose during erythropoiesis. Analysis of the development of these proteins on erythroid cells during erythropoiesis, ex vivo, has provided clues to their functions and a useful set of markers for the study of erythropoiesis.

  14. Molecular medicine in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Semsarian, C; Seidman, C E

    2001-01-01

    When Watson and Crick proposed the double helix model for DNA structure in a 2 page Nature article in 1953, no one could have predicted the enormous impact this finding would have on the study of human disease. Over the last decade in particular, major advances have been made in our understanding of both normal biological processes and basic molecular mechanisms underlying a variety of medical diseases. Knowledge obtained from basic cellular, molecular and genetic studies has enabled the development of strategies for the modification, prevention and potential cure of human diseases. This brief overview focuses on the enormous impact molecular studies have had on various aspects of medicine. The inherited cardiac disorder hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is used here as a model to illustrate how molecular studies have not only redefined 'gold standards' for diagnosis, but have also influenced management approaches, increased our understanding of fundamental disease-causing mechanisms and identified potential targets for therapeutic intervention. The near-completion of the Human Genome Project, which identifies the 3.2 billion base pairs that comprise the human genome (the so-called 'Book of Life'), has exponentially heightened the focus on the importance of molecular studies and how such studies will impact on various aspects of medicine in the 21st century.

  15. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm.

    PubMed

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R; Markwald, R

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. PMID:20811099

  16. Plasminogen receptors: the first quarter century.

    PubMed

    Miles, Lindsey A; Parmer, Robert J

    2013-06-01

    The interaction of plasminogen with cell surfaces results in promotion of plasmin formation and retention on the cell surface. This results in arming cell surfaces with the broad-spectrum proteolytic activity of plasmin. Over the past quarter century, key functional consequences of the association of plasmin with the cell surface have been elucidated. Physiologic and pathophysiologic processes with plasmin-dependent cell migration as a central feature include inflammation, wound healing, oncogenesis, metastasis, myogenesis, and muscle regeneration. Cell surface plasmin also participates in neurite outgrowth and prohormone processing. Furthermore, plasmin-induced cell signaling also affects the functions of inflammatory cells, via production of cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and other mediators. Finally, plasminogen receptors regulate fibrinolysis. In this review, we highlight emerging data that shed light on longstanding controversies and raise new issues in the field. We focus on (1) the impact of the recent X-ray crystal structures of plasminogen and the development of antibodies that recognize cell-induced conformational changes in plasminogen on our understanding of the interaction of plasminogen with cells; (2) the relationship between apoptosis and plasminogen binding to cells; (3) the current status of our understanding of the molecular identity of plasminogen receptors and the discovery of a structurally unique novel plasminogen receptor, Plg-RKT; (4) the determinants of the interplay between distinct plasminogen receptors and cellular functions; and (5) new insights into the role of colocalization of plasminogen and plasminogen activator receptors on the cell surface. PMID:23532575

  17. Shelter for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, J D

    1990-01-01

    Housing for the twenty-first century will be shaped by the changes that are occurring in society. These include the demographics of the occupant, the products and materials used for construction and furnishing, and the basic use of the structure. An aging population will have different demands on design and function. The health concerns of an aging population encompass chronic degenerative diseases as well as injury. The lessons of the past must make us mindful that chronic, low-level exposures to substances can occur at home. Products and materials used in homes can release vapors that may affect immunologic and neurologic function. Manifestations of dysfunctions will be more important as our population ages and if there is a continued reliance on new chemical formulation for products used in homes and workplaces. The future portends changes in functional use of residences. Electronic communications and robotics will decentralize our work force. Manufacturing or office functions will occur at home. This will present new challenges for health and safety for both monitoring and prevention. PMID:2401266

  18. Viewpoint: New physicians for a new century.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard A; Tauber, Alfred I

    2005-12-01

    How to train competent and compassionate physicians has assumed a new urgency. The authors propose that these concerns be approached by radically restructuring the medical school curriculum in ways that place facts and skills within the context of ethics and values. Doing so will require that the positivist stance of medical education be coupled to strategies that deal with ambiguity and uncertainty, communication and empathy, and, most important, physician self-awareness. Achieving such balance will require fundamental change in medicine's education philosophy along five general lines: (1) assertion of medical ethics as the foundation of clinical medicine; (2) recognition of the central place of values in clinical decision making; (3) cultivation of the ethos of humane care; (4) selection of medical students with the dual capacities of strong cognitive skills and empathy; and (5) encouragement and support of faculty who can transmit the knowledge of clinical science coupled to the principles of humane care. Such changes are both timely and necessary. Although they will be difficult to accomplish, they offer an opportunity for medical educators to foster the development of physicians with the range attributes that this new century demands. PMID:16306277

  19. Nineteenth century research on cell death.

    PubMed

    Clarke, P G H; Clarke, S

    2012-10-01

    This paper reviews research on cell death in the 19th C. The first report of cell death was by Vogt in 1842, which was remarkably soon after the establishment of the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann between 1838 and 1842. Initial studies on cell death, including that of Vogt, focused on its occurrence in metamorphosis (Vogt, 1842; Prévost and Lebert, 1844; Weismann, 1863-1866) or in blatant pathology (Virchow, 1858), but as histological techniques improved it was found to be involved in more subtle roles in numerous situations including endochondral ossification (Stieda, 1872), ovarian follicle atresia (Flemming, 1885), cell turnover (Nissen, 1886), the wholesale loss of a population of sensory neurons in fish (Beard, 1889), and the naturally occurring histogenetic death of myocytes (Felix, 1889) and neurons (Collin, 1906). The current categorization of cell death into about three main morphological types has 19th century roots in that apoptosis was well described by Flemming (1885), who called it chromatolysis, and various authors including Noetzel (1895) proposed a threefold classification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Apoptosis: Four Decades Later". PMID:23069997

  20. Century Scale Evaporation Trend: An Observational Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoui, Lahouari

    2012-01-01

    Several climate models with different complexity indicate that under increased CO2 forcing, runoff would increase faster than precipitation overland. However, observations over large U.S watersheds indicate otherwise. This inconsistency between models and observations suggests that there may be important feedbacks between climate and land surface unaccounted for in the present generation of models. We have analyzed century-scale observed annual runoff and precipitation time-series over several United States Geological Survey hydrological units covering large forested regions of the Eastern United States not affected by irrigation. Both time-series exhibit a positive long-term trend; however, in contrast to model results, these historic data records show that the rate of precipitation increases at roughly double the rate of runoff increase. We considered several hydrological processes to close the water budget and found that none of these processes acting alone could account for the total water excess generated by the observed difference between precipitation and runoff. We conclude that evaporation has increased over the period of observations and show that the increasing trend in precipitation minus runoff is correlated to observed increase in vegetation density based on the longest available global satellite record. The increase in vegetation density has important implications for climate; it slows but does not alleviate the projected warming associated with greenhouse gases emission.

  1. Planetary Missions of the 20th Century*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, V. I.; Huntress, W. T.; Shevalev, I. L.

    2002-09-01

    Among of the highlights of the 20th century were flights of spacecraft to other bodies of the Solar System. This paper describes briefly the missions attempted, their goals, and fate. Information is presented in five tables on the missions launched, their goals, mission designations, dates, discoveries when successful, and what happened if they failed. More detailed explanations are given in the accompanying text. It is shown how this enterprise developed and evolved step by step from a politically driven competition to intense scientific investigations and international cooperation. Initially, only the USA and USSR sent missions to the Moon and planets. Europe and Japan joined later. The USSR carried out significant research in Solar System exploration until the end of the 1980s. The Russian Federation no longer supports robotic planetary exploration for economic reasons, and it remains to be seen whether the invaluable Russian experience in planetary space flight will be lost. Collaboration between Russian and other national space agencies may be a solution.

  2. Constraints, Dangers, and Challenges of the Twenty-First Century. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondel, Daniele

    This document groups together the ideas about the difficulties, dangers, and challenges of the 21st century expressed by the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century. In discussing constraints created by contemporary world history, the paper suggests that the development of the world economy and society is at present…

  3. [Steadiness and progress. Medicine in Würzburg in the mirror of the centuries - a contribution to the foundation of the University of Würzburg 600 years ago].

    PubMed

    Vollmuth, Ralf; Keil, Gundolf

    2003-01-01

    In the year 1402 one of the first German universities was founded by bishop Johann von Egloffstein, but it had last in its full composition for only a few decades. Nevertheless, the 600th anniversary has a great importance, because in the 16th century, during the second foundation, there was an adequate tradition of university in Würzburg to lean on and go back to.Although, in a medical-history view, in 1402 this university had been without a greater importance, the medicine in Würzburg in the Middle Ages and the Early modern Times had been on a high level, what is shown by representatives like Ortolf von Baierland (13th century) and Berthold Blumentrost (14th century) or by documents like the 'Würzburger Wundarznei' at the end of the 15th century and the 'Nüttzlicher Bericht' by Walther Hermann Ryff, printed 1548 in Würzburg, as one of the first dental mongraphies.A lasting success was finally the university opened in the year 1582. In 1575/6 bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn had reached, using the traditions of the university of 1402, a new privilege by the pope and the emperor. The medical faculty which was functional deeply connected with the Juliusspital as a kind of hospital right from the beginning, was determined by Wilhelm Schefferlein, Gottfriedt van der Steighe and Adriaen van Roomen. In the beginning of the 17th century the medical faculty turned pale, but two representatives of the philosophic faculty, Athanasius Kircher and Caspar Schott, accomplished remarkable outcomes in medical fields. Heavily stricken by the Thirty Years' War the medicine at the University of Würzburg was changed by the prince-bishops to the model of the University of Leiden, in order to improve the feeble position of the medical faculty. After not being successful in the beginning, the foundation of the blossom and of its worldwide importance had been laid in the last third of the 18th century. Karl Kaspar Siebold had, with the help of some of his fellows, students, and

  4. The Future of Fossil Fuels: A Century of Abundance or a Century of Decline?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelder, C.

    2012-12-01

    Horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and other advanced technologies have spawned a host of new euphoric forecasts of hydrocarbon abundance. Yet although the world's remaining oil and gas resources are enormous, most of them are destined to stay in the ground due to real-world constraints on price, flow rates, investor appetite, supply chain security, resource quality, and global economic conditions. While laboring under the mistaken belief that it sits atop a 100-year supply of natural gas, the U.S. is contemplating exporting nearly all of its shale gas production even as that production is already flattening due to poor economics. Instead of bringing "energy independence" to the U.S. and making it the top oil exporter, unrestricted drilling for tight oil and in the federal outer continental shelf would cut the lifespan of U.S. oil production in half and make it the world's most desperate oil importer by mid-century. And current forecasts for Canadian tar sands production are as unrealistic as their failed predecessors. Over the past century, world energy production has moved progressively from high quality resources with high production rates and low costs to lower quality resources with lower production rates and higher costs, and that progression is accelerating. Soon we will discover the limits of practical extraction, as production costs exceed consumer price tolerance. Oil and gas from tight formations, shale, bitumen, kerogen, coalbeds, deepwater, and the Arctic are not the stuff of new abundance, but the oil junkie's last dirty fix. This session will highlight the gap between the story the industry tells about our energy future, and the story the data tells about resource size, production rates, costs, and consumer price tolerance. It will show why it's time to put aside unrealistic visions of continued dependence on fossil fuels, face up to a century of decline, and commit ourselves to energy and transportation transition.

  5. Alcoholism in Romania in the Late Nineteenth Century and at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    ANDREESCU, OANA; LEAŞU, FLORIN; ROGOZEA, LILIANA

    2014-01-01

    Although alcohol consumption has been described from the earliest times, alcohol abuse has grown significantly since the mid-nineteenth century as a consequence of the industrialization progress. Due to the socio-economic profile of Romania, which was considered to be agrarian, the idea of developing mainly the industry branches belonging to agriculture was considered. Amongst these branches, the production of alcohol appeared to be the most appropriate. The political state leaders from Romania enjoyed the taxes collected from alcohol commercialization, disregarding the costs involved in alcoholism which went far beyond them. PMID:26528038

  6. Alcoholism in Romania in the Late Nineteenth Century and at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century.

    PubMed

    Andreescu, Oana; Leaşu, Florin; Rogozea, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Although alcohol consumption has been described from the earliest times, alcohol abuse has grown significantly since the mid-nineteenth century as a consequence of the industrialization progress. Due to the socio-economic profile of Romania, which was considered to be agrarian, the idea of developing mainly the industry branches belonging to agriculture was considered. Amongst these branches, the production of alcohol appeared to be the most appropriate. The political state leaders from Romania enjoyed the taxes collected from alcohol commercialization, disregarding the costs involved in alcoholism which went far beyond them. PMID:26528038

  7. Technical improvements in 19th century Belgian window glass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauriks, Leen; Collette, Quentin; Wouters, Ine; Belis, Jan

    Glass was used since the Roman age in the building envelope, but it became widely applied together with iron since the 19th century. Belgium was a major producer of window glass during the nineteenth century and the majority of the produced window glass was exported all over the world. Investigating the literature on the development of 19th century Belgian window glass production is therefore internationally relevant. In the 17th century, wood was replaced as a fuel by coal. In the 19th century, the regenerative tank furnace applied gas as a fuel in a continuous glass production process. The advantages were a clean production, a more constant and higher temperature in the furnace and a fuel saving. The French chemist Nicolas Leblanc (1787-1793) and later the Belgian chemist Ernest Solvay (1863) invented processes to produce alkali out of common salt. The artificial soda ash improved the quality and aesthetics of the glass plates. During the 19th century, the glass production was industrialized, influencing the operation of furnaces, the improvement of raw materials as well as the applied energy sources. Although the production process was industrialized, glassblowing was still the work of an individual. By improving his work tools, he was able to create larger glass plates. The developments in the annealing process followed this evolution. The industry had to wait until the invention of the drawn glass in the beginning of the 20th century to fully industrialise the window glass manufacture process.

  8. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  9. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal

  10. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    PubMed

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  11. Isaac Newton: Eighteenth-century Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, A. Rupert

    1999-05-01

    This new product of the ever-flourishing Newton industry seems a bit far-fetched at first sight: who but a few specialists would be interested in the historiography of Newton biography in the eighteenth century? On closer inspection, this book by one of the most important Newton scholars of our day turns out to be of interest to a wider audience as well. It contains several biographical sketches of Newton, written in the decades after his death. The two most important ones are the Eloge by the French mathematician Bernard de Fontenelle and the Italian scholar Paolo Frisi's Elogio. The latter piece was hitherto unavailable in English translation. Both articles are well-written, interesting and sometimes even entertaining. They give us new insights into the way Newton was revered throughout Europe and how not even the slightest blemish on his personality or work could be tolerated. An example is the way in which Newton's famous controversy with Leibniz is treated: Newton is without hesitation presented as the wronged party. Hall has provided very useful historical introductions to the memoirs as well as footnotes where needed. Among the other articles discussed is a well-known memoir by John Conduitt, who was married to Newton's niece. This memoir, substantial parts of which are included in this volume, has been a major source of personal information for Newton biographers up to this day. In a concluding chapter, Hall gives a very interesting overview of the later history of Newton biography, in which he describes the gradual change from adoration to a more critical approach in Newton's various biographers. In short, this is a very useful addition to the existing biographical literature on Newton. A J Kox

  12. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    PubMed

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  13. Twenty-first century challenges for biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Hench, Larry L.; Thompson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    During the 1960s and 1970s, a first generation of materials was specially developed for use inside the human body. These developments became the basis for the field of biomaterials. The devices made from biomaterials are called prostheses. Professor Bill Bonfield was one of the first to recognize the importance of understanding the mechanical properties of tissues, especially bone, in order to achieve reliable skeletal prostheses. His research was one of the pioneering efforts to understand the interaction of biomaterials with living tissues. The goal of all early biomaterials was to ‘achieve a suitable combination of physical properties to match those of the replaced tissue with a minimal toxic response in the host’. By 1980, there were more than 50 implanted prostheses in clinical use made from 40 different materials. At that time, more than three million prosthetic parts were being implanted in patients worldwide each year. A common feature of most of the 40 materials was biological ‘inertness’. Almost all materials used in the body were single-phase materials. Most implant materials were adaptations of already existing commercial materials with higher levels of purity to eliminate release of toxic by-products and minimize corrosion. This article is a tribute to Bill Bonfield's pioneering efforts in the field of bone biomechanics, biomaterials and interdisciplinary research. It is also a brief summary of the evolution of bioactive materials and the opportunities for tailoring the composition, texture and surface chemistry of them to meet five important challenges for the twenty-first century. PMID:20484227

  14. Genome Evolution in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, James

    2006-03-01

    Assume no previous theories about genetics and evolution. What conclusions would we draw from molecular data (e.g. genome sequences)? We start from basic principles of cellular information processing: cells behave cognitively using signal transduction networks; signal transduction involves weak noncovalent interactions; allosteric properties of biomolecules; multivalent storage of information in DNA sequences and nucleoprotein complexes; inertness of naked DNA. Genome informatics thus requires formation of nucleoprotein complexes. Complex formation requires generic repeated signals in the DNA; repetition also permits cooperativity to stabilize weak interactions. DNA is a functional structural component of nucleoprotein complexes, not a passive data tape. Specificity in DNA nucleoprotein complex formation involves combining multiple generic signals and/or sequence recognition by small RNAs. Novel combinations of generic signals and coding sequences arise in genomes by iteration and rearrangement. Cells possess natural genetic engineering functions that actively restructure DNA molecules. These internal DNA remodeling functions act cognitively in response to internal and external inputs. They operate non-randomly with respect to (1) the types of new structures produced and (2) the regions of the genome modified. Whole genome sequence data increasingly documents the historical role of natural genetic engineering in evolutionary changes. Basic principles of cellular molecular biology and DNA function lead to a complex interactive systems view of genome organization. This view incorporates different DNA components found in sequenced genomes. Regulated cellular natural genetic engineering functions permit genomes to serve as Read-Write information storage systems, not just Read-Only memories subject to accidental change. These 21st Century conclusions are most compatible with a systems engineering view of the evolutionary process.

  15. CLIMATE CHANGE: The Causes of 20th Century Warming.

    PubMed

    Zwiers, F W; Weaver, A J

    2000-12-15

    Global air surface temperatures increased by about 0.6 degrees C during the 20th century, but as Zwiers and Weaver discuss in their Perspective, the warming was not continuous. Two distinct periods of warming, from 1910 to 1945 and since 1976, were separated by a period of very gradual cooling. The authors highlight the work by Stott et al., who have performed the most comprehensive simulation of 20th century climate to date. The agreement between observed and simulated temperature variations strongly suggests that forcing from anthropogenic activities, moderated by variations in solar and volcanic forcing, has been the main driver of climate change during the past century.

  16. Vaccines for the twenty-first century society.

    PubMed

    Rappuoli, Rino; Mandl, Christian W; Black, Steven; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2011-11-04

    Vaccines have been one of the major revolutions in the history of mankind and, during the twentieth century, they eliminated most of the childhood diseases that used to cause millions of deaths. In the twenty-first century, vaccines will also play a major part in safeguarding people's health. Supported by the innovations derived from new technologies, vaccines will address the new needs of a twenty-first century society characterized by increased life expectancy, emerging infections and poverty in low-income countries.

  17. Another seventeenth-century denigration of Gaspare Tagliacozzi.

    PubMed

    Cosman, B

    1978-05-01

    Gaspare Tagliacozzi published his carefully documented procedures for nasal reconstruction at the end of the sixteenth century. However, almost all authorities in the succeeding century failed to give him credence. Although his name was widely known, his work became an object of scorn. James Cooke, author of one of the most popular English surgical textbooks of the seventeenth century, in an amusing and previously unnoted reference, adds to this denigration and helps to explain why nasal reconstruction became a subject of satire in England.

  18. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  19. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  20. Performance Technique on Brass Instruments During the Seventeenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromme, Arnold

    1972-01-01

    Contemporary brass instruments and today's playing techniques can be quite misleading if treated as evidence, or even as vestiges of pre-eighteenth century techniques and performance concepts. (Author)

  1. Campus Activism in the 21st Century: A Historical Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames campus activism by introducing the historical movements that have been important for higher education since the 18th century to the present and exploring the connections and shared characteristics among these various movements.

  2. Texting While Parenting: a 21st Century Trap

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Texting While Parenting: A 21st Century Trap Smartphones can get in the way of family life, ... tone or your toddler's crying? Mobile devices like smartphones and tablets can be distracting from child-rearing, ...

  3. VIEW OF BROOKLYN TOWER EMERGING BEHIND NINETEENTH CENTURY COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BROOKLYN TOWER EMERGING BEHIND NINETEENTH CENTURY COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS ON THE CORNER OF FRONT STREET AND CAMDEN PLAZA - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  4. Spectroscopy, colorimetry, and biological chemistry in the nineteenth century.

    PubMed Central

    Rinsler, M G

    1981-01-01

    The development of colorimetry and spectroscopy in the nineteenth century is described. An account is given of the application of their techniques to biological chemistry during that period. PMID:7014652

  5. Psychological symptoms and medical responses in nineteenth-century India.

    PubMed

    Radhika, P; Murthy, Pratima; Sarin, Alok; Jain, Sanjeev

    2015-03-01

    The article documents medical approaches to mental illness in mid- to late-nineteenth-century India through examining the Indian Medical Gazette and other medical accounts. By the late nineteenth century, psychiatry in Europe moved from discussions around asylum-based care to a nuanced and informed debate about the nature of mental symptoms. This included ideas on phrenology and craniometry, biological and psycho-social causes, physical and drug treatments, many of which travelled to India. Simultaneously, indigenous socio-medical ideas were being debated. From the early to the mid-nineteenth century, not much distinction was made between the Western and the native 'mind', and consequently the diagnosis and investigation of mental symptoms did not differ. However, by the late nineteenth century Western medicine considered the 'Western mind' as more civilized and sophisticated than the 'native mind. PMID:25698688

  6. RSA Opening Minds: A Curriculum for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candy, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the RSA Opening Minds competence framework, an innovative curriculum to meet the needs of young people as future employees, lifelong learners and as citizens of the twenty-first century.

  7. Redrawing the map: science in twentieth-century China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fa-ti

    2007-09-01

    This essay argues that science in twentieth-century China is a rich topic that can be productively integrated into research and teaching on the history of modern science. It identifies major issues of science in twentieth-century China and demonstrates that they can prove useful to any scholar who wishes to consider science in a comparative and trans/international context. The essay suggests two important steps for a fruitful investigation into the topic of science in twentieth-century China: first, revising the historiographic assumptions and categories that underlie much of the conventional historical narrative of modern science; and, second, breaking free from the tunnel history of national science. To illustrate these points, the essay examines a series of case studies of science in modern China and discusses the relevance of such subjects as scientific nationalism, Maoist mass science, and transnational scientific networks for the understanding of science in the twentieth-century world.

  8. Regulating Homeopathic Products - A Century of Dilute Interest.

    PubMed

    Podolsky, Scott H; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-01-21

    In 2015, U.S. government agencies began considering greater regulation of both homeopathic drugs and the advertising of such products. These actions came after more than a century of missed opportunities to regulate homeopathic medicines.

  9. [Half a century history of nurses and working women].

    PubMed

    Chevandier, Christian

    2011-10-01

    Half a century of history of nurses and working women. A historian's perspective of a professional group considers firstly the context, to understand what distinguishes it from other groups. The remarkable aspect of the history of nurses over the last half century is that they are predominantly women. It is therefore interesting to determine if the evolution of this profession and its practitioners, as noted in research, has any correlation with the history of the country's female population in general.

  10. A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.

    2002-02-25

    This paper is entitled ''A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN''. Since the first statement on the strategy for radioactive waste management in Japan was made by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1976, a quarter century has passed, in which much experience has been accumulated both in technical and social domains. This paper looks back in this 25-year history of radioactive waste management in Japan by highlighting activities related to high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal.

  11. Seventeenth-century uplift in eastern Hokkaido, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, B.F.; Furakawa, R.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Ikeda, Y.; Kashima, K.; Kawase, K.; Kelsey, H.M.; Moore, A.L.; Nanayama, F.; Nishimura, Y.; Odagiri, S.; Ota, Y.; Park, S.-C.; Satake, K.; Sawai, Y.; Shimokawa, K.

    2004-01-01

    Shores of eastern Hokkaido rose by perhaps 1 m a few centuries ago. The uplifted area extended at least 50 km along the southern Kuril Trench. It included the estuaries Akkeshi-ko and Hichirippu, on the Pacific coast, and Fu??ren-ko and Onneto??, which open to the Okhotsk Sea. At each estuary, intertidal and subtidal flats rose with respect to tide level; wetland plants colonized the emerging land; and peaty wetland deposits thereby covered mud and sand of the former flats. Previous work at Akkeshi-ko and Onneto?? showed that such emergence occurred at least three times in the past 3000 years. Volcanic-ash layers date the youngest emergence to the seventeenth century AD. New evidence from Akkeshi-ko, Hichirippu and Fu??ren-ko clarifies the age and amount of this youngest emergence. Much of it probably dates from the century's middle decades. Some of the newly emerged land remained above high tides into the middle of the eighteenth century or later. The emergence in the last half of the seventeenth century probably exceeded 0.5 m (inferred from stratigraphy and diatom palaeoecology) without far exceeding 1 m (estimated by comparing seventeenth- and eighteenth-century descriptions of Akkeshi-ko). The stratigraphy and palaeoecology of the emergence are better explained by tectonic uplift than by bay-mouth blockage, tidal-flat accretion or sea-level fall. Eastern Hokkaido needs occasional uplift, moreover, to help reconcile its raised marine terraces with its chronic twentieth-century subsidence. Because it took place above forearc mantle, eastern Hokkaido's seventeenth-century uplift probably lacks analogy with coseismic uplift that occurs above typical plate-boundary ruptures at subduction zones.

  12. The Madras lunatic asylum in the early nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Ernst, W

    1998-01-01

    Early clarification of authority structures in regard to asylum management and curtailment of petty corruption were important features in the development of the Madras Lunatic Asylum. Although the development of the Madras Asylum in the early nineteenth century had been relatively free of controversy in comparison to the institutions in Bengal, it possessed some distinct features. It was finally closed down almost exactly a century after its inauguration, and its inmates were moved to new premises.

  13. Health in Barbados in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Walrond, E R

    2001-09-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, Barbados was described as the most unhealthy place in the British Empire; at the end of the century, it is considered amongst the healthiest of developing countries. At the start of the century the statistics were harsh; for example, there was an infant mortality rate of 400 per 1000 live births. It is now between 10 and 15 per 1000 live births. In the last two-thirds of the century, there was a series of ongoing revolutions in Education, Public Health and Hospital Services that affected the health status favourably. The revolution in education was enhanced by the provision of University education starting with Medicine at Mona, Jamaica. Training of doctors expanded to Barbados in 1967 and has been an essential ingredient in the medical care revolution of the last third of the century. In 1953, the first Public Health Centre was opened and Barbados can now boast the most modern public health and primary care facilities. However, modern lifestyles are associated with an epidemic of obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. HIV/AIDS has emerged as a major problem. Health in the 21st century will need to look at lifestyles--the effects of the internal combustion engine, the availability of tools of violence, the lure of 'illegal drugs', personal relationships and gender as well as the driving forces behind the associated lifestyles.

  14. Gentian Violet: A 19th Century Drug Re-Emerges in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Maley, Alexander M.; Arbiser, Jack L.

    2013-01-01

    Gentian violet (GV) has a long and varied history as a medicinal agent. Historically used as an anti-bacterial and anti-fungal, recent reports have shown its utility as an anti-typranosomal, anti-viral and anti-angiogenic agent. The objective of this paper is to summarize evidence regarding the efficacy, and safety of GV use in dermatology. Recent discoveries have found novel targets of GV, namely NADPH oxidase in mammalian cells and thioredoxin reductase 2 in bacterial, fungal, and parasitic cells. These discoveries have expanded the use of GV in the 21st century. Given that GV is well tolerated, effective and inexpensive, its use in dermatology is predicted to increase. PMID:24118276

  15. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This document summarizes the principal findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the first year of the 21st Century Jobs Initiative. Launched by leaders of the the 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley,{close_quotes} the Jobs Initiative is an action-oriented strategic plan that responds to the region`s most pressing economic challenges. Department of Energy funds have supported the initiative and Tennessee`s Resource Valley, the region`s premier marketing and promotion organization, has spearheaded the project. Consulting assistance has been provided by a team lead by DRI/McGraw-Hill`s Economic Competitiveness Group and IC{sup 2}, Dr. George Kozmetsky`s organization affiliated with the University of Texas at Austin. The consultants have developed several reports and other materials that may be of interest to the reader.

  16. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  17. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  18. The Second Century of Ability Testing: Some Predictions and Speculations. William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan E.

    This report asserts that rapid changes in many areas, such as technology and communications, marked the 20th century, the first century of ability testing. Predictions about the second century of testing seem difficult in such a context. Yet, looking back to the turn of the last century, E. Kirkpatrick (1900) in his American Psychological…

  19. Marl Prairie Vegetation Response to 20th Century Hydrologic Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Willard, Debra A.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted geochronologic and pollen analyses from sediment cores collected in solution holes within marl prairies of Big Cypress National Preserve to reconstruct vegetation patterns of the last few centuries and evaluate the stability and longevity of marl prairies within the greater Everglades ecosystem. Based on radiocarbon dating and pollen biostratigraphy, these cores contain sediments deposited during the last ~300 years and provide evidence for plant community composition before and after 20th century water management practices altered flow patterns throughout the Everglades. Pollen evidence indicates that pre-20th century vegetation at the sites consisted of sawgrass marshes in a peat-accumulating environment; these assemblages indicate moderate hydroperiods and water depths, comparable to those in modern sawgrass marshes of Everglades National Park. During the 20th century, vegetation changed to grass-dominated marl prairies, and calcitic sediments were deposited, indicating shortening of hydroperiods and occurrence of extended dry periods at the site. These data suggest that the presence of marl prairies at these sites is a 20th century phenomenon, resulting from hydrologic changes associated with water management practices.

  20. A century of trends in adult human height.

    PubMed

    2016-07-26

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.

  1. A century of trends in adult human height

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5–22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3–19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8–144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13410.001 PMID:27458798

  2. [The 20th century: 100 years of misfortune and splendor].

    PubMed

    Urdaneta-Carruyo, Eliéxer

    2005-01-01

    The 20th century has been one of the most intense and convulsive periods in the History of humanity. A century of paradoxes and contrasts, it began with optimism, it witnessed the apocalypse of two world wars, and finished with unimaginable scientific progress that gave us a new civilization that we cannot yet grasp. In this century, significant events happened that shaped our time and projected their results toward an immediate future. Some of these were providential in understanding man's life, fighting against illnesses and prolonging life, and others were of undeniable social importance for humanity. Some knowledge was based on the work of others. Philosophy was embedded in mathematics, as was science in philosophy, while politics and the economy exercised so decisive an influence in our way of feeling and living that culture and society were affected to the core. Within that century the biggest technological revolution of all the time was also created, as transcendent as it was unimaginable, which put mankind on the road to the stars with the moon landing and in the process created the information society whose signature symbol, the internet, emerged as a new demiurge. However, the 20th century, with all its misfortune and splendor, paradoxes and contrasts, creation and destruction, was the most transcendent in the whole of history and it bequeaths to the future a promising horizon in the search for a renovated meaning of life and a yearning for peaceful coexistence for the whole humanity. PMID:15754756

  3. A century of trends in adult human height.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries. PMID:27458798

  4. [The 20th century: 100 years of misfortune and splendor].

    PubMed

    Urdaneta-Carruyo, Eliéxer

    2005-01-01

    The 20th century has been one of the most intense and convulsive periods in the History of humanity. A century of paradoxes and contrasts, it began with optimism, it witnessed the apocalypse of two world wars, and finished with unimaginable scientific progress that gave us a new civilization that we cannot yet grasp. In this century, significant events happened that shaped our time and projected their results toward an immediate future. Some of these were providential in understanding man's life, fighting against illnesses and prolonging life, and others were of undeniable social importance for humanity. Some knowledge was based on the work of others. Philosophy was embedded in mathematics, as was science in philosophy, while politics and the economy exercised so decisive an influence in our way of feeling and living that culture and society were affected to the core. Within that century the biggest technological revolution of all the time was also created, as transcendent as it was unimaginable, which put mankind on the road to the stars with the moon landing and in the process created the information society whose signature symbol, the internet, emerged as a new demiurge. However, the 20th century, with all its misfortune and splendor, paradoxes and contrasts, creation and destruction, was the most transcendent in the whole of history and it bequeaths to the future a promising horizon in the search for a renovated meaning of life and a yearning for peaceful coexistence for the whole humanity.

  5. Onoufrios, the famous XVI's century iconographer, creator of the ``Berati School'': studying the technique and materials used in wall paintings of inscribed churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidou, E.; Arapi, M.; Zorba, T.; Anastasiou, M.; Civici, N.; Stamati, F.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.

    2006-06-01

    The study of the materials and techniques employed for wall painting, complementing the information from historical and aesthetic data, contributes to the integrated knowledge of the iconographer and his period. In the 16th century, regarding the iconography in the former Byzantine area, besides the School of Crete and Francos Catelanos and his school, a third artistic personality who also created his own school, Onoufrios, appeared in central Albania and expanded his activity as a painter to northern Greece as well as nearby areas, such as Ohrid. Inscriptions documenting the works of Onoufrios are found in some of the churches that he decorated with wall paintings: “St. Apostles” (1547) Kastoria Greece, “St. Nicolas” Shelcan Albania, “St. Paraskevi” (1554), Valsh Albania, while are attributed to him the church of “St. Theodores” in Berati, Albania (before 1547) and others. He is one of the best icon painters of the whole Balkan region, and the best painter that has ever worked in Albanian territory. Onoufrios managed to combine the local painting tradition with the best tradition of the eastern (Paleologian) and western (Italian) schools, resulting in a realistic and natural depiction. He is the creator of the “Berati School” that expanded to other parts of the peninsula. His individual character can be distinguished in the work of his students: his son Nikolaos (who inherited his style in painting), Onoufrios from Cyprus, etc. Based on careful observations, we extracted number of paint samples from wall paintings of three of the above mentioned churches. Ground and paint layers were examined using micro-FTIR, Optical Microscopy, TXRF and SEM-EDS, to characterize materials and methods used by the artist to create these works. Our findings in each church are discussed and compared with the others in order to understand how and with what material and resources the painter worked and how he developed his technique. The presence of calcium

  6. [Theriac in modern period (XVIIth-XXth centuries)].

    PubMed

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2010-10-01

    After centuries of fluctuant usages, the theriac, this kind of universal drug to cure everything, was popular again starting from the XVIIth century and it will remain at the official french pharmacopea up to 1908. Viper was one of the key components, which was an opportunity for several authors to discuss about its real therapeutic value. Amont the tens of constituants of theriac, opium, in large quantities, was also an important part of this "électuaire". Its success was at the origin of many formulations (such as poors' theriac and celestial theriac), and falsifications, the most famous being the "Orvietan", driving pharmacists to produce it themselves. Counterfeiting being frequent, it became usual to prepare theriac publicly up to the french Revolution. Very much criticized, as a symbol of polypharmacy more and more rejected, theriac will progressively disappear during the XIXth century, sometime replaced nowadays by new universal drugs outside the pharmaceutical network.

  7. [Popular knowledge about medicaments in 19th century periodicals].

    PubMed

    Arabas, Iwona

    2004-01-01

    Polish periodicals published since the beginning of 19th century contained household knowledge which was of great importance to peasants. In the second half of 19th century the number of articles related to prevention, treatment as well as life hygiene (including nutrition guidance) enlarged significantly. The term "household medicine box# was very often used in periodicals as titles of both: sections dedicated to hygiene or medicine as well as for articles describing medicaments intended to be kept in the boxes. Articles referenced law regulations stated in "law for pharmacists and pharmacies# from 1844. The availability of medical handbooks widened with the end of the century and this fact may have caused the changes in profiles of numerous medical sections in popular periodicals. However the changes did not affect publications related to contents of medical boxes.

  8. The revival of vivisection in the sixteenth century.

    PubMed

    Allen Shotwell, R

    2013-01-01

    In this article I examine the origins and progression of the practice of vivisection in roughly the first half of the sixteenth century, paying particular attention to the types of vivisection procedures performed, the classical sources for those procedures and the changing nature of the concerns motivating the anatomists who performed them. My goal is to reexamine a procedure typically treated as something revived by Vesalius from classical sources as a precursor to early modern discoveries by placing the practice of vivisection in its sixteenth-century context. There were a variety of reasons for employing vivisection in the sixteenth century, including exploring the differences between living and dead bodies, considering how parts of the body worked, and advocating the entirely new idea of the pulmonary transit. By exploring the discussions of Berengario, Niccolò Massa, Vesalius, Colombo and Juan Valverde I try to elaborate on these various reasons and their origins.

  9. Turning points in twentieth-century American psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Sabshin, M

    1990-10-01

    The author examines four major turning points in twentieth-century American psychiatry, emphasizing the movement during the post-World War II period toward a psychotherapeutic/psychoanalytic approach and the emergence of biological psychiatry, neuroscience, and logical positivism during the 1970s and 1980s. He discusses the impact of Adolf Meyer during the mid-twentieth century and his ongoing influence. The final turning point involves a prediction of a late twentieth-century change, including new directions in nosology, emphasis on combined pharmacotherapeutic/psychotherapeutic treatments, efforts to create alternatives to full inpatient care, better outcome data for psychiatric treatments, and beginning resolution of major boundary problems of current practice. PMID:2205113

  10. [Counteraction against alcoholism in religious letters of 18th century].

    PubMed

    Rok, B

    1999-01-01

    The Polish historiography talks at length about the problem of alcoholism in Poland in the 18th century. Estimates were made about the scale and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Many records are available today, mainly in the form of diaries, which describe the extent of drunkenness at that time. Much information on drinking bouts comes from satires (this article quotes after an anonymous satire found in the Polish manuscripts of the 18th century). Apart from the literature, also preachers contributed to the present knowledge of alcohol consumption within that period. Drunkenness was often mentioned in sermons and varied types of religious guides. The 18th century priests deemed drunkenness as a heavy sin and fiercely counteracted the abuse of alcoholic beverages, by condemning people in a state of intoxication.

  11. Informing 21st-Century Risk Assessments with 21st-Century Science.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Burke, Thomas A; Jones, James J

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and preventing adverse impacts from chemicals in the environment is fundamental to protecting public health, and chemical risk assessments are used to inform public health decisions in the United States and around the world. Traditional chemical risk assessments focus on health effects of environmental contaminants on a chemical-by-chemical basis, largely based on data from animal models using exposures that are typically higher than those experienced by humans. Results from environmental epidemiology studies sometimes show effects that are not observed in animal studies at human exposure levels that are lower than those used in animal studies. In addition, new approaches such as Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21) and exposure forecasting (ExpoCast) are generating mechanistic data that provide broad coverage of chemical space, chemical mixtures, and potential associated health outcomes, along with improved exposure estimates. It is becoming clear that risk assessments in the future will need to use the full range of available mechanistic, animal, and human data to integrate multiple types of data and to consider nontraditional health outcomes and end points. This perspective was developed at the "Strengthening the Scientific Basis of Chemical Safety Assessments" workshop, which was cosponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, where gaps between the emerging science and traditional chemical risk assessments were explored, and approaches for bridging the gaps were considered.

  12. Informing 21st-Century Risk Assessments with 21st-Century Science

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burke, Thomas A.; Jones, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding and preventing adverse impacts from chemicals in the environment is fundamental to protecting public health, and chemical risk assessments are used to inform public health decisions in the United States and around the world. Traditional chemical risk assessments focus on health effects of environmental contaminants on a chemical-by-chemical basis, largely based on data from animal models using exposures that are typically higher than those experienced by humans. Results from environmental epidemiology studies sometimes show effects that are not observed in animal studies at human exposure levels that are lower than those used in animal studies. In addition, new approaches such as Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21) and exposure forecasting (ExpoCast) are generating mechanistic data that provide broad coverage of chemical space, chemical mixtures, and potential associated health outcomes, along with improved exposure estimates. It is becoming clear that risk assessments in the future will need to use the full range of available mechanistic, animal, and human data to integrate multiple types of data and to consider nontraditional health outcomes and end points. This perspective was developed at the “Strengthening the Scientific Basis of Chemical Safety Assessments” workshop, which was cosponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, where gaps between the emerging science and traditional chemical risk assessments were explored, and approaches for bridging the gaps were considered. PMID:27035154

  13. Northern Hemisphere hydroclimate variability over the past twelve centuries.

    PubMed

    Ljungqvist, Fredrik Charpentier; Krusic, Paul J; Sundqvist, Hanna S; Zorita, Eduardo; Brattström, Gudrun; Frank, David

    2016-04-01

    Accurate modelling and prediction of the local to continental-scale hydroclimate response to global warming is essential given the strong impact of hydroclimate on ecosystem functioning, crop yields, water resources, and economic security. However, uncertainty in hydroclimate projections remains large, in part due to the short length of instrumental measurements available with which to assess climate models. Here we present a spatial reconstruction of hydroclimate variability over the past twelve centuries across the Northern Hemisphere derived from a network of 196 at least millennium-long proxy records. We use this reconstruction to place recent hydrological changes and future precipitation scenarios in a long-term context of spatially resolved and temporally persistent hydroclimate patterns. We find a larger percentage of land area with relatively wetter conditions in the ninth to eleventh and the twentieth centuries, whereas drier conditions are more widespread between the twelfth and nineteenth centuries. Our reconstruction reveals that prominent seesaw patterns of alternating moisture regimes observed in instrumental data across the Mediterranean, western USA, and China have operated consistently over the past twelve centuries. Using an updated compilation of 128 temperature proxy records, we assess the relationship between the reconstructed centennial-scale Northern Hemisphere hydroclimate and temperature variability. Even though dry and wet conditions occurred over extensive areas under both warm and cold climate regimes, a statistically significant co-variability of hydroclimate and temperature is evident for particular regions. We compare the reconstructed hydroclimate anomalies with coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model simulations and find reasonable agreement during pre-industrial times. However, the intensification of the twentieth-century-mean hydroclimate anomalies in the simulations, as compared to previous centuries, is not supported

  14. Northern Hemisphere hydroclimate variability over the past twelve centuries.

    PubMed

    Ljungqvist, Fredrik Charpentier; Krusic, Paul J; Sundqvist, Hanna S; Zorita, Eduardo; Brattström, Gudrun; Frank, David

    2016-04-01

    Accurate modelling and prediction of the local to continental-scale hydroclimate response to global warming is essential given the strong impact of hydroclimate on ecosystem functioning, crop yields, water resources, and economic security. However, uncertainty in hydroclimate projections remains large, in part due to the short length of instrumental measurements available with which to assess climate models. Here we present a spatial reconstruction of hydroclimate variability over the past twelve centuries across the Northern Hemisphere derived from a network of 196 at least millennium-long proxy records. We use this reconstruction to place recent hydrological changes and future precipitation scenarios in a long-term context of spatially resolved and temporally persistent hydroclimate patterns. We find a larger percentage of land area with relatively wetter conditions in the ninth to eleventh and the twentieth centuries, whereas drier conditions are more widespread between the twelfth and nineteenth centuries. Our reconstruction reveals that prominent seesaw patterns of alternating moisture regimes observed in instrumental data across the Mediterranean, western USA, and China have operated consistently over the past twelve centuries. Using an updated compilation of 128 temperature proxy records, we assess the relationship between the reconstructed centennial-scale Northern Hemisphere hydroclimate and temperature variability. Even though dry and wet conditions occurred over extensive areas under both warm and cold climate regimes, a statistically significant co-variability of hydroclimate and temperature is evident for particular regions. We compare the reconstructed hydroclimate anomalies with coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model simulations and find reasonable agreement during pre-industrial times. However, the intensification of the twentieth-century-mean hydroclimate anomalies in the simulations, as compared to previous centuries, is not supported

  15. Scientific Misconduct and Theft: Case Report from 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella

    2008-01-01

    Gjuro Armen Baglivi was one of the most famous medical authorities of the 17th century. Apart from his numerous books and publications, several extensive collections of his correspondence have been preserved and are available in libraries around the world. They provide new information about the 17th century scientific culture and place of Baglivi’s work in the scientific European context. Also, they shed light on his personality more than other writings intended for the public eye. In this paper I will present the case of a theft of intellectual property, which Baglivi described in one of his letters to Jean Jacques Manget. PMID:18293461

  16. The Italian neurological schools of the twentieth century

    PubMed Central

    Bonavita, Vincenzo

    Summary This lecture is not a historical lecture, but rather a journey through the “story” of neurology in Italy from its “prehistoric” beginning in the 19th century. The birth of a neurological school is that magical moment in which a founder attracts disciples: the more capable this founder is of transmitting methodology and allowing his pupils intellectual freedom, the longer his memory will live on. On the basis of this idea, the scientific biography of a few leading Italian neurologists of the 20th century is outlined, starting from Leonardo Bianchi, founder of the Italian Neurological Society in 1907. PMID:21729589

  17. Physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, L

    1994-01-01

    In conclusion, physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century will be: new, exciting technologies, different patient populations, different practice settings, fewer PM&R residents, and more physician assistants, all operating under a universal access, single payer, Canadian-style health care system. I began my presentation with a quote from Yogi Berra. I'll close by paraphrasing the immortal words of Charles Dickens in the opening lines of A Tale Of Two Cities. PM&R in the 21st century will be "the best of times, the worst of times, the epoch of belief, the epoch of incredulity." PMID:8291948

  18. Gender and insanity in nineteenth-century Ireland.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Oonagh

    2004-01-01

    The nineteenth century was a period of considerable social, political, and economic change in Ireland, change that was demonstrated with particular force in relation to the care of the insane. This chapter seeks to examine some of the means through which the insane were re-figured in nineteenth-century Irish society, and looks in particular at popular conceptions of danger, the gender specificity or otherwise of insanity, and the question of celibacy as a precipitating factor in mental illness. The chapter seeks to engage with the ongoing debate in the history of psychiatry over the relative importance of gender as a factor in the admission, treatment, and discharge of the insane.

  19. Ideal men: masculinity and decline in seventeenth-century Spain.

    PubMed

    Lehfeldt, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how the experience and critique of their country's decline led Spaniards to craft a distinct discourse of masculinity in the seventeenth century. As they self-consciously examined Spain's crisis and offered political and economic solutions, these same writers also offered a scathing critique of standards of masculinity. Using the figure of the ideal nobleman as a case study, the article examines how moralists, arbitristas, and hagiographers constructed a dynamic code of manhood linked to questions of productivity, male chastity, and military performance. Further, it argues that this discourse was ultimately nostalgic and failed to adapt itself to the circumstances of the seventeenth century.

  20. Demanding excellence in the 21st century 1

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    Chiropractic theory and development is briefly explored and compared with contemporary medical theory. Theoretical and philosophical assumptions in chiropractic, this writer predicts, may be challenged and altered in the 21st century. Technological advances and a slow trend in chiropractic toward a more scientific basis may result in improved theory, practice, and utilization in the next century. In order for such advances to occur, however, the profession must change some deeply rooted attitudes regarding scientific research and practice, adopt new attitudes regarding the need for clinical research, and ultimately become consumers of chiropractic research and of chiropractic techniques that have been subject to research.

  1. New Proxies from Loess-Paleosols on Mount Kilimanjaro document Late Pleistocene Megadroughts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zech, R.; Huang, Y.; Russell, J. M.; Tarozo, R.; Gao, L.; Hemp, A.; Zech, W.

    2009-12-01

    Innovative, new proxies from loess and paleosol sediments hold great potential to obtain more quantitative information about paleoclimate changes in terrestrial environments. Here we present results from lipid biomarkers (GDGTs) and hydrogen isotopic measurements on long-chain fatty acids and alkanes that we extracted from 69 paleosol samples from Mt Kilimanjaro, Tanzania (~3°S). The respective soil pit and sediment core at ~2700 m above sea level is radiocarbon-dated to 38.4 ka BP, and probably covers most of the Late Pleistocene, making it one of the longest, continuous, terrestrial archives in the East African tropics. Our compound-specific deuterium measurements show lowest δD values from ~9 to 5 ka in the Early/Middle Holocene, consistent with regional evidence for an “African Humid Period,” followed by a shift towards more arid conditions during the Late Holocene (~5‰ shift). The Younger Dryas is characterized by a δD enrichment (=aridity) of ~15‰ compared to the Early/Middle Holocene, almost reaching LGM values (~20‰ shift). The enrichment during the LGM is, however, significantly smaller than the 50‰ change as observed in Lake Tanganyika further southwest. At present it is not possible to determine whether these differences result from geographic variations in precipitation and humidity, or isotopic distillation processes along the vapor transport trajectories across East Africa. Much more arid conditions (~40‰ enrichment) can be inferred for the paleosols older than ~60 ka. Although further dating efforts are required to determine the exact timing, this corroborates earlier findings from African lakes that suggested ‘megadroughts’ occurred during Marine Isotope Stages 5 and 4. Acknowledging the general perception that precipitation in East Africa is strongly controlled by ITCZ positioning, we highlight the role of (strong) eccentricity in modulating the precessional forcing, which - in combination with high-latitude glacial boundary conditions - may have caused extreme amplitudes of seasonal ITCZ migration and corresponding variability of climate conditions in the tropics on orbital timescales. Counter-intuitively, our GDGT temperature reconstruction based on MBT and CBT indices shows temperatures ~5°C warmer throughout the LGM and MIS3 than during the Holocene. Although local soil temperature may be affected by vegetation and/or cloud cover, such results advice caution and highlight the necessity to further validate and develop these new biomarker proxies.

  2. Curriculum Design: Historical Perspectives on the Art of the State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, David

    Taking the premise that curriculum design embraces the historical introduction of "order" into schooling, this paper considers theories of curriculum order since the 16th century. Calvinist social discipline brought a curriculum of schooling to be followed and to be completed as well. Peter Ramus, a 16th century professor, reshaped "methodus" to…

  3. Rediscovering Substance of Soul in 21st Century Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Middle schools take on a higher purpose by making every effort to empower all of their students to attain their highest potential. This article rediscovers the "substance of soul" in the 21st century middle schools. The author stresses that returning to one's substance of soul goes beyond merely revisiting what educators truly value and then…

  4. Leading the University in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Joanne E.

    2006-01-01

    Leading the modern university in the twenty-first century is a nearly impossible task. According to Parker Palmer (2006), the answer for all university presidents and faculty alike lies not in looking outward at competing demands, but in facing inward. Palmer would agree that new leadership is needed for new times, but it will not come from…

  5. New Frontiers for a New Century: A National Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Patte, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This publication presents an introduction,"New Frontiers for a New Century: A National Overview" (Kati Haycock), which announces a new, online, interactive database of national educational records and discusses the importance of making necessary changes in education. This requires that educators, policymakers, and advocates receive solid…

  6. Servant Leadership: Guiding Extension Programs in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Goodwin, Jeff; Hodnett, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A new set of leadership skills is required for Extension administrators for the 21st century. Past models and theories are reviewed and discussed. The old "power" model of leadership is no longer relevant. A relatively new model called "Servant Leadership" is reviewed and explained. Seven key practices of servant leadership are outlined, and the…

  7. A possible account of synaesthesia dating from the seventeenth century.

    PubMed

    Larner, A J

    2006-09-01

    An account of a blind man able to detect colors by touch, dating from the mid-seventeenth century, is presented. The details come to us through the physician John Finch, the scientist Robert Boyle, and the author Jonathan Swift. The details in the account suggest the possibility that this may be an early report of colored-touch synaesthesia.

  8. Reproducing an Early-20th-Century Wave Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Physics students often have problems understanding waves. Over the years numerous mechanical devices have been devised to show the propagation of both transverse and longitudinal waves (Ref. 1). In this article an updated version of an early-20th-century transverse wave machine is discussed. The original, Fig. 1, is at Creighton University in…

  9. Eighteenth Century Short Title Catalogue on CD-ROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richey, Debora J.

    The Eighteenth Century Short Title Catalogue (ESTC) on compact disc provides access to nearly 300,000 printed materials from Britain and the British colonies from 1701 to 1800. The file contains a wide variety of materials (laws, almanacs, posters, catalogs, directories, verses, monographs, advertisements, and flyers) in all languages, and covers…

  10. Winds of Change: A Century of Agroclimatology Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate has been of primary concern from the beginning of agricultural and natural resources research. Early in the 20th century, climatology and agronomy evolved as separate disciplines, focusing primarily on production agriculture and crop adaptation to new regions. Key concepts developed include...

  11. 20 Discoveries that Shaped Our Lives: Century of the Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Horace Freeland

    1984-01-01

    Describes (in separate articles) 20 developments in science, technology, and medicine that were made during the twentieth century and had significant impact on society. They include discoveries related to intelligence tests, plastics, aviation, antibiotics, genetics, evolution, birth control, computers, transistors, DNA, lasers, statistics,…

  12. Mythologies and Panics: Twentieth Century Constructions of Child Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alyson

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines twentieth century social constructions of child prostitutes and child prostitution, the origins of these representations and the extent to which they have been used as metaphors for other perceived social, economic and political problems. It is important to recognise that these children have been sexually abused and that…

  13. Some astronomical challenges for the twenty-first century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the scientific puzzles that astronomers may face in the next century. Four areas in astronomy are discussed in detail. These include cosmology and galaxy formation, active galaxies and quasars, supernovae and stellar remnants, and the formation of stars and planets. A variety of observatories on the Moon are proposed to attack these astronomical challenges.

  14. Managing Colleges into the Next Century. Coombe Lodge Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brace, Diane; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This document contains seven papers about managing Great Britain's further education colleges in the next century. The papers examine a wide range of administrative issues, including building on human resources investments through strategic planning, maintaining relationships with local education authorities, customer satisfaction as a marketing…

  15. 21st Century Learning and Progressive Education: An Intersection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The seminal tenets of progressive education bear a striking resemblance to the newly fashionable principles associated with with a new movement known as "21st Century Education". This article traces the development of progressive education principles, starting with the founding of the Progressive Education Association, and shows their close…

  16. Why the American Public Supports Twenty-First Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacconaghi, Michele

    2006-01-01

    American attitudes toward the need for teaching twenty-first century skills appear as strong as the socioeconomic research being done that shows how critical these skills are for students' future access to the middle class and the country's economic competitiveness. In 2003, the AOL Time Warner Foundation (now the Time Warner Foundation) set out…

  17. Higher Technological Education in England: The Crucial Quarter Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harold

    2007-01-01

    The crucial quarter century is from 1945 to the designation of the polytechnics at the end of the 1960s. Technology after the Second World War was "in the news", and recommendations for higher technological education in and outside the universities came from individuals, organisations, governments and reports in the 1950s. A White Paper on…

  18. Higher Education Staff Development: Directions for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jennifer; And Others

    This collection of 13 papers offers an international perspective on future directions of staff development at colleges and universities, focusing on academic staff development, higher education teaching networks, and managerial and human resource development. Papers are: (1) "Higher Education Staff Development for the 21st Century: Directions for…

  19. Education in Japan: A Century of Modern Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ronald S.

    The history of education in Japan from feudal to modern times is covered in this book. The Japanese educational system has played a crucial role in that country's development during the past century, and a study in this field provides an understanding of the close relationship between the schools, society, and culture. Four broad areas of interest…

  20. Connecticut's Children: A New Century's Promise. 2000 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michelle Doucette

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Connecticut's children. The report first examines how well children have faired during the past 100 years in terms of economics, education, health and safety, and race relations, and how they are doing at the start of the 21st century. This section also outlines the state's…