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Sample records for 17-4 ph ss

  1. 17-4 PH and 15-5 PH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Howard T.

    1995-01-01

    17-4 PH and 15-5 PH are extremely useful and versatile precipitation-hardening stainless steels. Armco 17-4 PH is well suited for the magnetic particle inspection requirements of Aerospace Material Specification. Armco 15-5 PH and 17-4 PH are produced in billet, plate, bar, and wire. Also, 15-5 PH is able to meet the stringent mechanical properties required in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Both products are easy to heat treat and machine, making them very useful in many applications.

  2. Hot Ductility of the 17-4 PH Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera Lara, V.; Guerra Fuentes, L.; Covarrubias Alvarado, O.; Salinas Rodriguez, A.; Garcia Sanchez, E.

    2016-03-01

    The mechanisms of loss of hot ductility and the mechanical behavior of 17-4 PH alloys were investigated using hot tensile testing at temperatures between 700 and 1100 °C and strain rates of 10-4, 10-2, and 10-1 s-1. Scanning electron microscopy was used in conjunction with the results of the tensile tests to find the temperature region of loss of ductility and correlate it with cracking observed during processing by hot upsetting prior to ring rolling. It is reported that 17-4 PH alloys lose ductility in a temperature range around 900 °C near to the duplex austenite + ferrite phase field. Furthermore, it is found that niobium carbides precipitated at austenite/ferrite interfaces and grain boundaries have a pronounced effect on the mechanical behavior of the alloy during high-temperature deformation.

  3. Influence of Postbuild Microstructure on the Electrochemical Behavior of Additively Manufactured 17-4 PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoudt, M. R.; Ricker, R. E.; Lass, E. A.; Levine, L. E.

    2017-01-01

    The additive manufacturing build process produces a segregated microstructure with significant variations in composition and phases that are uncommon in traditional wrought materials. As such, the relationship between the postbuild microstructure and the corrosion resistance is not well understood. Stainless steel alloy 17-4 precipitation hardened (SS17-4PH) is an industrially relevant alloy for applications requiring high strength and good corrosion resistance. A series of potentiodynamic scans conducted in a deaerated 0.5-mol/L NaCl solution evaluated the influence of these microstructural differences on the pitting behavior of SS17-4. The pitting potentials were found to be higher in the samples of additively processed material than in the samples of the alloy in wrought form. This indicates that the additively processed material is more resistant to localized corrosion and pitting in this environment than is the wrought alloy. The results also suggest that after homogenization, the additively produced SS17-4 could be more resistant to pitting than the wrought SS17-4 is in an actual service environment.

  4. Influence of Postbuild Microstructure on the Electrochemical Behavior of Additively Manufactured 17-4 PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoudt, M. R.; Ricker, R. E.; Lass, E. A.; Levine, L. E.

    2017-03-01

    The additive manufacturing build process produces a segregated microstructure with significant variations in composition and phases that are uncommon in traditional wrought materials. As such, the relationship between the postbuild microstructure and the corrosion resistance is not well understood. Stainless steel alloy 17-4 precipitation hardened (SS17-4PH) is an industrially relevant alloy for applications requiring high strength and good corrosion resistance. A series of potentiodynamic scans conducted in a deaerated 0.5-mol/L NaCl solution evaluated the influence of these microstructural differences on the pitting behavior of SS17-4. The pitting potentials were found to be higher in the samples of additively processed material than in the samples of the alloy in wrought form. This indicates that the additively processed material is more resistant to localized corrosion and pitting in this environment than is the wrought alloy. The results also suggest that after homogenization, the additively produced SS17-4 could be more resistant to pitting than the wrought SS17-4 is in an actual service environment.

  5. Two-Phase Master Sintering Curve for 17-4 PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Im Doo; Ha, Sangyul; Park, Seong Jin; Blaine, Deborah C.; Bollina, Ravi; German, Randall M.

    2016-11-01

    The sintering behavior of 17-4 PH stainless steel has been efficiently characterized by a two-phase master sintering curve model (MSC). The activation energy for the sintering of gas-atomized and water-atomized 17-4 PH powders is derived using the mean residual method, and the relative density of both powders is well predicted by the two-phase MSC model. The average error between dilatometry data and MSC model has been reduced by 68 pct for gas-atomized powder and by 45 pct for water-atomized powder through the consideration of phase transformation of 17-4 PH in MSC model. The effect of δ-ferrite is considered in the two-phase MSC model, leading to excellent explanation of the sintering behavior for 17-4 PH stainless steel. The suggested model is useful in predicting the densification and phase change phenomenon during sintering of 17-4 PH stainless steel.

  6. Data demonstrating the effects of build orientation and heat treatment on fatigue behavior of selective laser melted 17-4 PH stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Yadollahi, Aref; Simsiriwong, Jutima; Thompson, Scott M; Shamsaei, Nima

    2016-06-01

    Axial fully-reversed strain-controlled ([Formula: see text]) fatigue experiments were performed to obtain data demonstrating the effects of building orientation (i.e. vertical versus horizontal) and heat treatment on the fatigue behavior of 17-4 PH stainless steel (SS) fabricated via Selective Laser Melting (SLM) (Yadollahi et al., submitted for publication [1]). This data article provides detailed experimental data including cyclic stress-strain responses, variations of peak stresses during cyclic deformation, and fractography of post-mortem specimens for SLM 17-4 PH SS.

  7. Biocompatibility of 17-4 PH stainless steel foam for implant applications.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Ilven; Oktay, Enver

    2011-01-01

    In this study, biocompatibility of 17-4 PH stainless steel foam for biomedical implant applications was investigated. 17-4 PH stainless steel foams having porosities in the range of 40-82% with an average pore size of around 600 μm were produced by space holder-sintering technique. Sintered foams were precipitation hardened for times of 1-6 h at temperatures between 450-570 °C. Compressive yield strength and Young's modulus of aged stainless steel foams were observed to vary between 80-130 MPa and 0.73-1.54 GPa, respectively. Pore morphology, pore size and the mechanical properties of the 17-4 PH stainless steel foams were close to cancellous bone. In vitro evaluations of cytotoxicity of the foams were investigated by XTT and MTT assays and showed sufficient biocompatibility. Surface roughness parameters of the stainless steel foams were also determined to characterize the foams.

  8. Hybrid Laser-arc Welding of 17-4 PH Martensitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Ma, Junjie; Atabaki, Mehdi Mazar; Pillai, Raju; Kumar, Biju; Vasudevan, Unnikrishnan; Sreshta, Harold; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2015-06-01

    17-4 PH stainless steel has wide applications in severe working conditions due to its combination of good corrosion resistance and high strength. The weldability of 17-4 PH stainless steel is challenging. In this work, hybrid laser-arc welding was developed to weld 17-4 PH stainless steel. This method was chosen based on its advantages, such as deep weld penetration, less filler materials, and high welding speed. The 17-4 PH stainless steel plates with a thickness of 19 mm were successfully welded in a single pass. During the hybrid welding, the 17-4 PH stainless steel was immensely susceptible to porosity and solidification cracking. The porosity was avoided by using nitrogen as the shielding gas. The nitrogen stabilized the keyhole and inhibited the formation of bubbles during welding. Solidification cracking easily occurred along the weld centerline at the root of the hybrid laser-arc welds. The microstructural evolution and the cracking susceptibility of 17-4 PH stainless steel were investigated to remove these centerline cracks. The results showed that the solidification mode of the material changed due to high cooling rate at the root of the weld. The rapid cooling rate caused the transformation from ferrite to austenite during the solidification stage. The solidification cracking was likely formed as a result of this cracking-susceptible microstructure and a high depth/width ratio that led to a high tensile stress concentration. Furthermore, the solidification cracking was prevented by preheating the base metal. It was found that the preheating slowed the cooling rate at the root of the weld, and the ferrite-to-austenite transformation during the solidification stage was suppressed. Delta ferrite formation was observed in the weld bead as well no solidification cracking occurred by optimizing the preheating temperature.

  9. Optimized postweld heat treatment procedures for 17-4 PH stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, A.K.; Sujith, S.; Srinivasan, G.; Gill, T.P.S.; Mannan, S.L.

    1995-05-01

    The postweld heat treatment (PWHT) procedures for 17-4 PH stainless steel weldments of matching chemistry was optimized vis-a-vis its microstructure prior to welding based on microstructural studies and room-temperature mechanical properties. The 17-4 PH stainless steel was welded in two different prior microstructural conditions (condition A and condition H 1150) and then postweld heat treated to condition H900 or condition H1150, using different heat treatment procedures. Microstructural investigations and room-temperature tensile properties were determined to study the combined effects of prior microstructural and PWHT procedures.

  10. Corrosion properties of powder bed fusion additively manufactured 17-4 PH stainless steel

    DOE PAGES

    Schaller, Rebecca; Taylor, Jason; Rodelas, Jeffrey; ...

    2017-02-18

    The corrosion susceptibility of a laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additively manufactured alloy, UNS S17400 (17-4 PH), was explored compared to conventional wrought material. Microstructural characteristics were characterized and related to corrosion behavior in quiescent, aqueous 0.6 M NaCl solutions. Electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the LPBF 17-4 PH alloy exhibited a reduced passivity range and active corrosion compared to its conventional wrought counterpart. Lastly, a micro-electrochemical cell was employed to further understand the effects of the local scale and attributed the reduced corrosion resistance of the LPBF material to pores with diameters ≥ 50 µm.

  11. Failure Maps for Rectangular 17-4PH Stainless Steel Sandwiched Foam Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Ghosn, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    A new and innovative concept is proposed for designing lightweight fan blades for aircraft engines using commercially available 17-4PH precipitation hardened stainless steel. Rotating fan blades in aircraft engines experience a complex loading state consisting of combinations of centrifugal, distributed pressure and torsional loads. Theoretical failure plastic collapse maps, showing plots of the foam relative density versus face sheet thickness, t, normalized by the fan blade span length, L, have been generated for rectangular 17-4PH sandwiched foam panels under these three loading modes assuming three failure plastic collapse modes. These maps show that the 17-4PH sandwiched foam panels can fail by either the yielding of the face sheets, yielding of the foam core or wrinkling of the face sheets depending on foam relative density, the magnitude of t/L and the loading mode. The design envelop of a generic fan blade is superimposed on the maps to provide valuable insights on the probable failure modes in a sandwiched foam fan blade.

  12. Laser-based welding of 17-4 PH martensitic stainless steel in a tubular butt joint configuration with a built-in backing bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Junjie; Atabaki, Mehdi Mazar; Liu, Wei; Pillai, Raju; Kumar, Biju; Vasudevan, Unnikrishnan; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2016-08-01

    Laser-based welding of thick 17-4 precipitation hardening (PH) martensitic stainless steel (SS) plates in a tubular butt joint configuration with a built-in backing bar is very challenging because the porosity and cracks are easily generated in the welds. The backing bar blocked the keyhole opening at the bottom surface through which the entrapped gas could escape, and the keyhole was unstable and collapsed overtime in a deep partially penetrated welding conditions resulting in the formation of pores easily. Moreover, the fast cooling rate prompted the ferrite transform to austenite which induced cracking. Two-pass welding procedure was developed to join 17-4 PH martensitic SS. The laser welding assisted by a filler wire, as the first pass, was used to weld the groove shoulder. The added filler wire could absorb a part of the laser beam energy; resulting in the decreased weld depth-to-width ratio and relieved intensive restraint at the weld root. A hybrid laser-arc welding or a gas metal arc welding (GMAW) was used to fill the groove as the second pass. Nitrogen was introduced to stabilize the keyhole and mitigate the porosity. Preheating was used to decrease the cooling rate and mitigate the cracking during laser-based welding of 17-4 PH martensitic SS plates.

  13. Effect of porosity on ductility variation in investment cast 17-4PH.

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Robert D.; Kilgo, Alice C.; Grant, Richard P.; Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Susan, Donald Francis

    2005-02-01

    The stainless steel alloy 17-4PH contains a martensitic microstructure and second phase delta ({delta}) ferrite. Strengthening of 17-4PH is attributed to Cu-rich precipitates produced during age hardening treatments at 900-1150 F (H900-H1150). For wrought 17-4PH, the effects of heat treatment and microstructure on mechanical properties are well-documented [for example, Ref. 1]. Fewer studies are available on cast 17-4PH, although it has been a popular casting alloy for high strength applications where moderate corrosion resistance is needed. Microstructural features and defects particular to castings may have adverse effects on properties, especially when the alloy is heat treated to high strength. The objective of this work was to outline the effects of microstructural features specific to castings, such as shrinkage/solidification porosity, on the mechanical behavior of investment cast 17-4PH. Besides heat treatment effects, the results of metallography and SEM studies showed that the largest effect on mechanical properties is from shrinkage/solidification porosity. Figure 1a shows stress-strain curves obtained from samples machined from castings in the H925 condition. The strength levels were fairly similar but the ductility varied significantly. Figure 1b shows an example of porosity on a fracture surface from a room-temperature, quasi-static tensile test. The rounded features represent the surfaces of dendrites which did not fuse or only partially fused together during solidification. Some evidence of local areas of fracture is found on some dendrite surfaces. The shrinkage pores are due to inadequate backfilling of liquid metal and simultaneous solidification shrinkage during casting. A summary of percent elongation results is displayed in Figure 2a. It was found that higher amounts of porosity generally result in lower ductility. Note that the porosity content was measured on the fracture surfaces. The results are qualitatively similar to those found by

  14. Nonlinear ultrasonic characterization of precipitation in 17-4PH stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, Kathryn; Bradley, Harrison A.; Thiele, Sebastian; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Wall, James J.; Jung, Hee Joon; Qu, Jianmin; Jacobs, Laurence J.

    2015-04-01

    The extension of operational lifetime of most US nuclear reactors will cause reactor pressure vessel to be exposed to increased levels of neutron radiation damage. This research is part of a broader effort to develop a nondestructive evaluation technique to monitor radiation damage in reactor pressure vessel steels. The main contributor to radiation embrittlement in these steels is the formation of copper-rich precipitates. In this work, a precipitate hardenable martensitic alloy, 17-4PH stainless steel is exposed to thermal aging treatments, and used as a surrogate material to study the effects of copper precipitates on the measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter. Previous work has demonstrated the effectiveness of these nonlinear ultrasonic (NLU) measurements in the characterization of radiation-induced microstructural changes in neutron irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels. NLU measurements using Rayleigh surface waves are performed on 17-4PH samples subjected to isothermal aging. NLU measurements are interpreted with hardness, thermo-electric power, TEM, and atom probe tomography measurements. The Rayleigh wave measurements showed a decrease in the acoustic nonlinearity parameter with increasing aging time, consistent with evidence of increasing number density of nucleated precipitates.

  15. Alloy Shrinkage factors for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Porter, Wallace D

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the alloy shrinkage factors were obtained for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts. For the investment casting process, unfilled wax and fused silica with a zircon prime coat were used for patterns and shell molds, respectively. Dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured using a Coordinate Measurement Machine. For all the properties, the experimental data available in the literature did not cover the entire temperature range necessary for process simulation. A comparison between the predicted material property data measured property data is made. It was found that most material properties were accurately predicted over the most of the temperature range of the process. Several assumptions were made in order to obtain a complete set of mechanical property data at high temperatures. Thermal expansion measurements for the 17-4PH alloy were conducted at heating and cooling. As a function of temperature, the thermal expansion for both the alloy and shell mold materials showed different evolution at heating and cooling. Thus, one generic simulation were performed with thermal expansion obtained at heating and another one with thermal expansion obtained at cooling. The alloy dimensions were obtained from numerical simulation results of solidification, heat transfer, and deformation phenomena. As compared with experimental results, the numerical simulation results for the shrinkage factors were slightly over-predicted.

  16. Characterization of 17-4 PH stainless steel foam for biomedical applications in simulated body fluid and artificial saliva environments.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Ilven; Oktay, Enver

    2013-04-01

    Highly porous 17-4 PH stainless steel foam for biomedical applications was produced by space holder technique. Metal release and weight loss from 17-4 PH stainless steel foams was investigated in simulated body fluid and artificial saliva environments by static immersion tests. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer was employed to measure the concentrations of various metal ions released from the 17-4 PH stainless steel foams into simulated body fluids and artificial saliva. Effect of immersion time and pH value on metal release and weight loss in simulated body fluid and artificial saliva were determined. Pore morphology, pore size and mechanical properties of the 17-4 PH stainless steel foams were close to human cancellous bone.

  17. Mechanical Properties of 17-4PH Stainless Steel Foam Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Ghosn, L. J.; Lerch, B. a.; Hebsur, M.; Cosgriff, L. M.; Fedor, J.

    2007-01-01

    Rectangular 17-4PH stainless steel sandwiched foam panels were fabricated using a commercial manufacturing technique by brazing two sheets to a foam core. Microstructural observations and ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of the panels revealed large variations in the quality of the brazed areas from one panel to the next as well as within the same panel. Shear tests conducted on specimens machined from the panels exhibited failures either in the brazed region or in the foam core for the poorly brazed and well-brazed samples, respectively. Compression tests were conducted on the foam cores to evaluate their elastic and plastic deformation behavior. These data were compared with published data on polymeric and metallic foams, and with theoretical deformation models proposed for open cell foams.

  18. Shot Peening and Thermal Stress Relaxation in 17-4 PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Enwei; Chen, Guoxing; Tan, Ziming; Wu, Shuhui

    2015-11-01

    Shot peening is an effective process to enhance the fatigue performance of turbine blades. In this study, the effect of peening pressures was discussed in terms of the residual stress distribution and the surface morphology. Shot peening processes were designed at varying pressures on a 17-4 PH martensitic stainless steel. The profiles of hardness and residual stress were characterized in the cross section. The thermal stress relaxation was further carried out to evaluate the stability of the compressive residual stress under service temperatures of turbine blades. Results show that a maximum stress depth is obtained with peening pressure of 0.40 MPa, and the residual stress can be maintained up to 400 °C, which ensures the service in low-pressure turbine blades.

  19. Experimental investigation on selective laser melting of 17-4PH stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhiheng; Zhu, Haihong; Zhang, Hu; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technique that uses powders to fabricate 3Dparts directly. The objective of this paper is to perform an experimental investigation of selective laser melted 17-4PH stainless steel. The investigation involved the influence of separate processing parameters on the density, defect, microhardness and the influence of heat-treatment on the mechanical properties. The outcomes of this study show that scan velocity and slice thickness have significant effects on the density and the characteristics of pores of the SLMed parts. The effect of hatch spacing depends on scan velocity. The processing parameters, such as scan velocity, hatch spacing and slice thickness, have effect on microhardness. Compared to the samples with no heat-treatment, the yield strength of the heat-treated sample increases significantly and the elongation decreases due to the transformation of microstructure and the changes in the precipitation strengthening phases. By a combination of changes in composition and precipitation strengthening, microhardness improved.

  20. Additive Manufacturing of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel: Post-processing Heat Treatment to Achieve Uniform Reproducible Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheruvathur, Sudha; Lass, Eric A.; Campbell, Carelyn E.

    2016-03-01

    17-4 precipitation hardenable (PH) stainless steel is a useful material when a combination of high strength and good corrosion resistance up to about 315°C is required. In the wrought form, this steel has a fully martensitic structure that can be strengthened by precipitation of fine Cu-rich face-centered cubic phase upon aging. When fabricated via additive manufacturing (AM), specifically laser powder-bed fusion, 17-4 PH steel exhibits a dendritic structure containing a substantial fraction of nearly 50% of retained austenite along with body centered cubic/martensite and fine niobium carbides preferentially aligned along interdendritic boundaries. The effect of post-build thermal processing on the material microstructure is studied in comparison to that of conventionally produced wrought 17-4 PH with the intention of creating a more uniform, fully martensitic microstructure. The recommended stress relief heat treatment currently employed in industry for post-processing of AM 17-4 PH steel is found to have little effect on the as-built dendritic microstructure. It is found that, by implementing the recommended homogenization heat treatment regimen of Aerospace Materials Specification 5355 for CB7Cu-1, a casting alloy analog to 17-4 PH, the dendritic solidification structure is eliminated, resulting in a microstructure containing about 90% martensite with 10% retained austenite.

  1. Microstructures, mechanical properties, and fracture behaviors of metal-injection molded 17-4PH stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming-Wei; Huang, Zeng-Kai; Tseng, Chun-Feng; Hwang, Kuen-Shyang

    2015-05-01

    Metal injection molding (MIM) is a versatile technique for economically manufacturing various metal parts with complicated shapes and excellent properties. The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of powder type (water-atomized and gas-atomized powders) and various heat treatments (sintering, solutioning, H900, and H1100) on the microstructures, mechanical properties, and fracture behaviors of MIM 17-4PH stainless steels. The results showed that better mechanical properties of MIM 17-4PH can be achieved with gas-atomized powder than with water-atomized powder due mainly to the lower silicon and oxygen contents and fewer SiO2 inclusions in the steels. The presence of 10 vol% δ ferrite does not impair the UTS or elongation of MIM 17-4PH stainless steels. The δ ferrite did not fracture, even though the neighboring martensitic matrix was severely cracked. Moreover, H900 treatment produces the highest hardness and UTS, along with moderate elongation. H1100 treatment produces the best elongation, along with moderate hardness and UTS.

  2. The Structure and Properties of Diffusion Assisted Bonded Joints in 17-4 PH, Type 347, 15-5 PH and Nitronic 40 Stainless Steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigley, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    Diffusion assisted bonds are formed in 17-4 PH, 15-5 PH, type 347 and Nitronic 40 stainless steels using electrodeposited copper as the bonding agent. The bonds are analyzed by conventional metallographic, electron microprobe analysis, and scanning electron microscopic techniques as well as Charpy V-notch impact tests at temperatures of 77 and 300 K. Results are discussed in terms of a postulated model for the bonding process.

  3. Microstructure and dry-sliding wear properties of DC plasma nitrided 17-4 PH stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gui-jiang; Wang, Jun; Li, Cong; Peng, Qian; Gao, Jian; Shen, Bao-luo

    2008-05-01

    An attempt that the precipitation hardening steel 17-4PH was conducted by DC plasma nitriding (DCPN) is made to develop a kind of candidate material for nuclear reactor. Nitriding process performed at temperature ⩽ 400 °C takes effect on creation of the layers composed of S-phase (expanded austenite) and αN‧ (expanded martensite). Up to the temperature of 420 °C, the S-phase peaks disappear due to the transformation occurrence (S-phase → αN‧ + CrN). For the samples nitrided at temperature ⩾ 450 °C, no evidence of αN‧ is found owing to a precipitation (αN‧ → α +CrN) taking place. For the 480 °C/4 h treated sample, it is the surface microhardness that plays the lead role in the wear rate reduction but the surface roughness; while for the 400 °C/4 h treated sample, it is both of the surface roughness and the S-phase formation. Dry sliding wear of the untreated 17-4PH is mainly characterized by strong adhesion, abrasion and oxidation mechanism. Samples nitrided at 400 °C which is dominated by slight abrasion and plastic deformation exhibit the best dry sliding wear resistance compared to the samples nitrided at other temperatures.

  4. The effect of 17-4PH stainless steel on the lifetime of a Pennzane lubricated Microwave Limb Sounder Antenna Actuator Assembly ball screw for the AURA spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Jansen, Mark J.; Chen, Gun-Shing; Lam, Jonathan; Balzer, Mark; Lo, John; Anderson, Mark; Schepis, Joseph P.

    2005-07-01

    During ground based life testing of a Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Antenna Actuator Assembly (AAA) ball-screw assembly, lubricant darkening and loss were noted when approximately 10% of required lifetime was completed. The MLS-AAA ball screw and nut are made from 17-4 PH steel, the nut has 440C stainless steel balls, and the assembly is lubricated with a Pennzane formulation containing a three weight percent lead naphthenate additive. Life tests were done in dry nitrogen at 50°C. To investigate the MLS-AAA life test anomaly, Spiral Orbit Tribometer (SOT) accelerated tests were performed. SOT results indicated greatly reduced relative lifetimes of Pennzane formulations in contact with 17-4 PH steel compared to 440C stainless steel. Also, dry nitrogen tests yielded longer relative lifetimes than comparable ultrahigh vacuum tests. Generally, oxidized Pennzane formulations yielded shorter lifetimes than non-oxidized lubricant. This study emphasizes surface chemistry effects on the lubricated lifetime of moving mechanical assemblies.

  5. Effects of the Treating Time on Microstructure and Erosion Corrosion Behavior of Salt-Bath-Nitrided 17-4PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuanhua; Li, Mingxing; Fan, Hongyuan; Zeng, Dezhi; Xiong, Ji

    2013-08-01

    The effects of salt-bath nitriding time on the microstructure, microhardness, and erosion-corrosion behavior of nitrided 17-4PH stainless steel at 703 K (430 °C) were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and erosion-corrosion testing. The experimental results revealed that the microstructure and phase constituents of the nitrided surface alloy are highly process condition dependent. When 17-4PH stainless steel was subjected to complex salt-bathing nitriding, the main phase of the nitrided layer was expanded martensite ( α`), expanded austenite (S), CrN, Fe4N, and Fe2N. The thickness of nitrided layers increased with the treating time. The salt-bath nitriding improves effectively the surface hardness. The maximum values measured from the treated surface are observed to be 1100 HV0.1 for 40 hours approximately, which is about 3.5 times as hard as the untreated material (309 HV0.1). Low-temperature nitriding can improve the erosion-corrosion resistance against two-phase flow. The sample nitrided for 4 hours has the best corrosion resistance.

  6. Synergetic effect of hardness and phosphorus grain-boundary segregation on the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of 17-4 PH steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christien, F.; Le Gall, R.; Saindrenan, G.

    2003-11-01

    The influence of hardness and phosphorus grain-boundary segregation (PGBS) on the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of a 17-4 PH martensitic steel was studied. Thermal treatments including long-time aging at low temperature were made to get different hardness levels and different PGBS amounts. A synergetic effect between PGBS and hardness on the DBTT of the steel is evidenced; in other words, the DBTT shift due to PGBS increases with hardness. If hardness is low enough, PGBS can even have no effect on the DBTT. A tentative interpretation of this synergetic effect is proposed, based on the assumption that the detrimental effect of PGBS on the grain-boundary cohesion increases with temperature.

  7. Precipitation-Induced Changes in Microstrain and Its Relation with Hardness and Tempering Parameter in 17-4 PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, S.; Manojkumar, R.; Jayakumar, T.; Das, C. R.; Rao, B. P. C.

    2016-06-01

    17-4 PH (precipitation hardening) stainless steel is a soft martensitic stainless steel strengthened by aging at appropriate temperature for sufficient duration. Precipitation of copper particles in the martensitic matrix during aging causes coherency strains which improves the mechanical properties, namely hardness and strength of the matrix. The contributions to X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile broadening due to coherency strains caused by precipitation and crystallite size changes due to aging are separated and quantified using the modified Williamson-Hall approach. The estimated normalized mean square strain and crystallite size are used to explain the observed changes in hardness. Microstructural changes observed in secondary electron images are in qualitative agreement with crystallite size changes estimated from XRD profile analysis. The precipitation kinetics in the age-hardening regime and overaged regime are studied from hardness changes and they follow the Avrami kinetics and Wilson's model, respectively. In overaged condition, the hardness changes are linearly correlated to the tempering parameter (also known as Larson-Miller parameter). Similar linear variation is observed between the normalized mean square strain (determined from XRD line profile analysis) and the tempering parameter, in the incoherent regime which is beyond peak microstrain conditions.

  8. Effects of Powder Attributes and Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) Process Conditions on the Densification and Mechanical Properties of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrinki, Harish; Dexter, Michael; Barmore, Brenton; Enneti, Ravi; Pasebani, Somayeh; Badwe, Sunil; Stitzel, Jason; Malhotra, Rajiv; Atre, Sundar V.

    2016-03-01

    The effects of powders attributes (shape and size distribution) and critical processing conditions (energy density) on the densification and mechanical properties of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) 17-4 PH stainless steel were studied using four types of powders. The % theoretical density, ultimate tensile strength and hardness of both water- and gas-atomized powders increased with increased energy density. Gas-atomized powders showed superior densification and mechanical properties when processed at low energy densities. However, the % theoretical density and mechanical properties of water-atomized powders were comparable to gas-atomized powders when sintered at a high energy density of 104 J/mm3. An important result of this study was that, even at high % theoretical density (97% ± 1%), the properties of as-printed parts could vary over a relatively large range (UTS: 500-1100 MPa; hardness: 25-39 HRC; elongation: 10-25%) depending on powder characteristics and process conditions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using relatively inexpensive water-atomized powders as starting raw material instead of the typically used gas-atomized powders to fabricate parts using L-PBF techniques by sintering at high energy densities.

  9. The Effect of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel on the Lifetime of a Pennzane(Trademark) Lubricated Microwave Limb Sounder Antenna Actuator Assembly Ball Screw for the AURA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Jansen, Mark J.; Chen, Gun-Shing; Lam, Jonathan; Balzer, Mark; Anderson, Mark; Lo, John; Schepis, Joseph P.

    2005-01-01

    During ground based life testing of a Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Antenna Actuator Assembly (AAA) ball-screw assembly, lubricant darkening and loss were noted when approximately 10 percent of required lifetime was completed. The MLS-AAA ball screw and nut are made from 17-4 PH steel, the nut has 440C stainless steel balls, and the assembly is lubricated with a Pennzane formulation containing a three weight percent lead naphthenate additive. Life tests were done in dry nitrogen at 50 C. To investigate the MLS-AAA life test anomaly, Spiral Orbit Tribometer (SOT) accelerated tests were performed. SOT results indicated greatly reduced relative lifetimes of Pennzane formulations in contact with 17-4 PH steel compared to 440C stainless steel. Also, dry nitrogen tests yielded longer relative lifetimes than comparable ultrahigh vacuum tests. Generally, oxidized Pennzane formulations yielded shorter lifetimes than non-oxidized lubricant. This study emphasizes surface chemistry effects on the lubricated lifetime of moving mechanical assemblies.

  10. Hydrogen Embrittlement in 17-4PH Stainless Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    Precipitation-Strengthened St.2.nless Steels", Met. Trans. A., Vol. 7A (1976), pp. 315-318. 4. J. K. Stanley. " Stress Corrosion Cracking and Hydrogen Embrittle... corrosion resistance. However, in the past 20 years, evidence has been presented which indicates that there is considerable susceptibility to stress ... corrosion cracking (SCC) and 1-yd- rogen embrittlement (HE) in components produced from these steels. One* early example of this was the failure of 17

  11. 22 CFR 17.4 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equity and good conscience. 17.4 Section 17.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND... PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.4 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and...

  12. 22 CFR 17.4 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equity and good conscience. 17.4 Section 17.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND... PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.4 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and...

  13. 22 CFR 17.4 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equity and good conscience. 17.4 Section 17.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND... PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.4 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and...

  14. 22 CFR 17.4 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Equity and good conscience. 17.4 Section 17.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND... PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.4 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and...

  15. 22 CFR 17.4 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equity and good conscience. 17.4 Section 17.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND... PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.4 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and...

  16. 47 CFR 17.4 - Antenna structure registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna structure registration. 17.4 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES General Information § 17.4 Antenna structure registration. Link to an amendment... antenna structure that requires notice of proposed construction to the Federal Aviation...

  17. 47 CFR 17.4 - Antenna structure registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna structure registration. 17.4 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES General Information § 17.4 Antenna structure registration. (a) Effective July 1, 1996, the owner of any proposed or existing antenna structure that requires notice of proposed...

  18. 47 CFR 17.4 - Antenna structure registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna structure registration. 17.4 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES General Information § 17.4 Antenna structure registration. (a) Effective July 1, 1996, the owner of any proposed or existing antenna structure that requires notice of proposed...

  19. 47 CFR 17.4 - Antenna structure registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structure registration. 17.4 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES General Information § 17.4 Antenna structure registration. (a) Effective July 1, 1996, the owner of any proposed or existing antenna structure that requires notice of proposed...

  20. 40 CFR 17.4 - Applicability to EPA proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability to EPA proceedings. 17.4... ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 17.4 Applicability to EPA proceedings. The Act applies to an adversary adjudication pending before EPA at any time between October...

  1. 40 CFR 17.4 - Applicability to EPA proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability to EPA proceedings. 17.4... ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 17.4 Applicability to EPA proceedings. The Act applies to an adversary adjudication pending before EPA at any time between October...

  2. 40 CFR 17.4 - Applicability to EPA proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability to EPA proceedings. 17.4... ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 17.4 Applicability to EPA proceedings. The Act applies to an adversary adjudication pending before EPA at any time between October...

  3. 40 CFR 17.4 - Applicability to EPA proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability to EPA proceedings. 17.4... ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 17.4 Applicability to EPA proceedings. The Act applies to an adversary adjudication pending before EPA at any time between October...

  4. 40 CFR 17.4 - Applicability to EPA proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability to EPA proceedings. 17.4... ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 17.4 Applicability to EPA proceedings. The Act applies to an adversary adjudication pending before EPA at any time between October...

  5. Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of 17-4 Precipitation Hardenable Steel Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafi, H. Khalid; Pal, Deepankar; Patil, Nachiket; Starr, Thomas L.; Stucker, Brent E.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanical behavior and the microstructural evolution of 17-4 precipitation hardenable (PH) stainless steel processed using selective laser melting have been studied. Test coupons were produced from 17-4 PH stainless steel powder in argon and nitrogen atmospheres. Characterization studies were carried out using mechanical testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The results show that post-process heat treatment is required to obtain typically desired tensile properties. Columnar grains of smaller diameters (<2 µm) emerged within the melt pool with a mixture of martensite and retained austenite phases. It was found that the phase content of the samples is greatly influenced by the powder chemistry, processing environment, and grain diameter.

  6. [SS physician Johann Paul Kremer].

    PubMed

    Kucharski, J

    1998-01-01

    SS-Obersturmfuhrer Johann Paul Kremer (professor of anatomy of Munster University) in Auschwitz camp tested upon human bodies result in starvation. He carried out researches concerning liver illness (braune Atrophie). He had been a SS in Auschwitz since 30th August till 18th November 1942. During a process of Auschwitz-Birkenau SS crew he was sentenced to death 22nd December 1947 by National Tribunal in Cracow. Verdict was changed by The President of Polish Republic for life-annuity. Verdict revision in 1960 sentenced him for 10 years of prison. He died in 60's.

  7. EUVE Observations of SS Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauche, C. W.; Raymond, J. C.; Mattei, J. A.

    1994-05-01

    Target-of-opportunity observations of the dwarf nova SS Cyg were made by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite on 1993 August 17--23. The observations cover the rise and plateau phases of a rare symmetric outburst which began on August ~ 15.5 and which reached maximum at V ~ 8.3 on August ~ 20. During the observations, the EUV brightness of the source as measured by the EUVE Deep Survey instrument (40--190 Angstroms ) rose from ~ 0.02 counts s(-1) to ~ 5 counts s(-1) . The EUV light curve rose more steeply than the optical light curve, manifesting a delay of ~ 1 day on August 17, but only ~ 0.5 day on August 19. The EUV spectrum recorded during this interval extends from the short-wavelength cutoff of the EUVE spectrometer at ~ 70 Angstroms \\ down to ~ 130 Angstroms . The spectrum is extremely rich in emission and absorption features due to high-ionization species of Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe superposed on a weak `blue' continuum. We present the optical and EUV light curves and short-wavelength EUV spectrum of this outburst of SS Cyg. Simple models are used to constrain the physical conditions of the EUV-radiating plasma as well as the column density of neutral material to the source due to the ISM and possibly the wind of this dwarf nova.

  8. Spectropolarimetry Emission from SS433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, Miguel Charcos; Eikenberry, Stephen S.

    2008-05-01

    In the last few years, spectropolarimetry has become an important tool in the study of AGN. Their geometry is obtained by comparing synthetic Stokes spectra with the observed spectropolarimetry. Similar techniques can be applied to the study of the scattering regions in the jets and disk of X-ray binary systems. We introduce a new code DESPEJO (Dynamical Evolution of Spectropolarimetry Emission of Jet Objects) that has been developed to analyze line intensity and polarization components in the emission from scattering regions on microquasars. In particular, the heating mechanisms and ejection of the gas in the jets of SS433 remain a mystery. Previous work on its polarized emission tried in vain to answer questions about the physical origin of its jets. Because SS433 has unique geometrical and dynamical configurations the study of synthetic polarimetric spectra and their evolution will give an important insight into the jet mechanism. We present our initial results with DESPEJO using the first spectropolarimetry data of this target. This method will give clues on the formation, acceleration, collimation and state of the gas bullets in its jets as well as on other properties of the system concerning the nature of the donor star and disk geometry.

  9. Periodic changes in the compact radio structure of SS 433

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niell, A. E.; Preston, R. A.; Lockhart, T. G.

    1981-01-01

    VLBI observations of SS 433 at 2.3 GHz made on 12 days between 1979 May and 1980 August yield the following results: (a) the position angle of the radio 'jet' of angular size of about 0.1 arcsec varies approximately sinusoidally about a mean value of 100.2 + or - 1.7 deg with an amplitude of 19.3 + or - 3.4 deg for a period fixed at 163.6 days. This resolves the ambiguity in the two angles of the optical model of Abell and Margon and assigns the inclination of the axis of the precession cone to the 79 deg value; (b) the position angle of the radio structure on this scale lags that of the optical model by 17.4 + or - 1.6 days; and (c) at least some of the radio emitting material appears to propagate away from the core in blobs. Using the rate of change of angular separation of the blobs from the core obtained from measurements on four different days, and assuming that the radio emission is traveling at the speed derived for the optical jets from the kinematic model, a distance to SS 433 of 5.1 + or - 0.5 kpc is obtained.

  10. 17. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, Photographer, February 1998 VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 051-00025D-01986N (JAMES P. HOULIHAN BRIDGE) APPROACH SPAN FENDER - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 051-00025D-01986N, US 17 & State Route 25 Spanning Savannah River, Port Wentworth, Chatham County, GA

  11. 45 CFR 17.4 - Regulatory investigations and trial-type proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... organizations or to pending agency trial-type proceedings shall be released only in limited circumstances in... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulatory investigations and trial-type... RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.4 Regulatory investigations and trial-type...

  12. 45 CFR 17.4 - Regulatory investigations and trial-type proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.4 Regulatory investigations and trial-type proceedings... economic harm may occur unless the public is notified immediately, it may release information to news media... operating component shall rely on the news media to the extent necessary to provide such notice even...

  13. 45 CFR 17.4 - Regulatory investigations and trial-type proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.4 Regulatory investigations and trial-type proceedings... economic harm may occur unless the public is notified immediately, it may release information to news media... operating component shall rely on the news media to the extent necessary to provide such notice even...

  14. 45 CFR 17.4 - Regulatory investigations and trial-type proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.4 Regulatory investigations and trial-type proceedings... economic harm may occur unless the public is notified immediately, it may release information to news media... operating component shall rely on the news media to the extent necessary to provide such notice even...

  15. 45 CFR 17.4 - Regulatory investigations and trial-type proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.4 Regulatory investigations and trial-type proceedings... economic harm may occur unless the public is notified immediately, it may release information to news media... operating component shall rely on the news media to the extent necessary to provide such notice even...

  16. NARSTO EPA SS ATLANTA RAPID SPMS DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS ATLANTA RAPID SPMS DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... Mass Spectrometer Location:  Altanta, Georgia Spatial Resolution:  Point Measurements ...   Order Data Guide Documents:  Atlanta SPMS Guide EPA Sites Get Google Earth ...

  17. SS433 Trek 2: light curve analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, J.; Obana, Y.; Okugami, M.

    The authors have calculated theoretical light curves of SS433 during eclipse and precession, using a model in which SS433 consists of a geometrically thick torus around a compact star and a companion star filling the Roche lobe. The favorite combination is that the mass ratio is about 2 (a compact star is a black hole) and the surface temperature of the companion is around 17000K.

  18. 47 CFR 97.311 - SS emission types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false SS emission types. 97.311 Section 97.311... SERVICE Technical Standards § 97.311 SS emission types. (a) SS emission transmissions by an amateur... station in another country that permits such communications. SS emission transmissions must not be...

  19. 47 CFR 97.311 - SS emission types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SS emission types. 97.311 Section 97.311... SERVICE Technical Standards § 97.311 SS emission types. (a) SS emission transmissions by an amateur... station in another country that permits such communications. SS emission transmissions must not be...

  20. 47 CFR 97.311 - SS emission types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false SS emission types. 97.311 Section 97.311... SERVICE Technical Standards § 97.311 SS emission types. (a) SS emission transmissions by an amateur... station in another country that permits such communications. SS emission transmissions must not be...

  1. Steel slag raises pH of greenhouse substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dolomitic lime (DL) is the primary liming agent used for increasing pH in peatmoss-based substrates. Steel slag (SS) is a byproduct of the steel manufacturing industry that has been used to elevate field soil pH. The objective of this research was to determine the pH response of a peatmoss-based g...

  2. Revised (s,S) Power Approximation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    Principal Investigator MacCormick , A. (1974), Statistical Problems in Inventory Control, ’ ONR and ARO Technical Report 2, December 1974, School of...Ehrhardt, and A. MacCormick (1977), Forecasting Operating Characteristics of (s,S) Inventory Systems, ONR and ARO Technical Report 13, December 1977, School

  3. Middle Level SS&C Energy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Linda W.; Aldridge, Bill G.

    The project on Scope Sequence and Coordination of Secondary School Science (SS&C) was initiated by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and recommends that all students study science every year and advocates carefully sequenced, well-coordinated instruction in biology, chemistry, earth/space science, and physics. This document…

  4. Early Careers of Recent U.S. Social Science PhDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Emory; Rudd, Elizabeth; Nerad, Maresi

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we analyse findings of the largest, most comprehensive survey of the career paths of social science PhD graduates to date, "Social Science PhDs--Five+Years Out (SS5)". "SS5" surveyed more than 3,000 graduates of U.S. PhD programmes in six social science fields six to ten years after earning their PhD. The…

  5. An Ss Model with Adverse Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Christopher L.; Leahy, John V.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model of the market for a used durable in which agents face fixed costs of adjustment, the magnitude of which depends on the degree of adverse selection in the secondary market. We find that, unlike typical models, the sS bands in our model contract as the variance of the shock increases. We also analyze a dynamic version of the model…

  6. The Power of SS 433's Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David F.

    1999-01-01

    We observed SS 433 for the third time with RXTE, this time simultaneously with a Nobeyama millimeter band monitoring campaign. These observations extended the RXTE coverage of SS 433's precession phases. and once again monitored the source during a binary eclipse. Our AO-2 campaign of a joint RXTE-VLBA-VLA-MERLIN observation was delayed to little more than a month before the AO-3 observations. We also had an AO-1 observation of SS 433. In each case we observed an eclipse of the compact ob'ect by the companion star, and had contemporaneous optical observations. We are analyzing all three sets of observations together. A publication is in preparation; Its completion will be supported by the remaining AO-2 funds. Here I will summarize the general results and point out the relevant features of the AO-3 observations. The spectrum is detected to approx. 50 keV, which is entirely within the PCA energy band. We find that the HEXTE data do not add significantly to the spectrum, and most of our fits are without HEXTE. We find that the continuum can be fit with a power law with an exponential cutoff; the photon index is usually approx. 1.4. A line at approx. 6.4 keV is definitely required, and the fits improve significant, if we add a second line, also with an energy in the iron K(alpha) complex, and an absorption edge. The edge usually has an energy of approx. 5.8 keV, which does not correspond to any known physical feature. and may be an instrumental artifact. This is under further investigation.

  7. Interpretation of spectroscopic variations in SS433.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newson, G. H.; Collins, G. W., II

    The peculiar celestial object SS433 emits three sets of strong emission lines, two of which move back and forth across the spectrum with a variable period of about 163 days. The object appears to be a binary system with a 13.1-day period. Models proposed to explain the 'moving' lines involve relativistic jets or non-thermal line emission in an accretion ring about a black hole. The 163-day period presumably results from precessional motion in the binary system, but no consensus yet exists as to the dynamics in this system.

  8. Electrochemical studies on the performance of SS316L electrode in electrokinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jeong-Hee; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Lee, Hyun-Goo; Ha, Tae-Hyun; Bae, Jeong-Hyo

    2009-10-01

    Organic and trace metal pollutants are removed by employing various electrodes in an electrokinetic (EK) process. Stainless steel was used either as an anode or a cathode by various investigators in electroremediation systems. In the present study, the role of SS316L as an anode and cathode in EK system was studied by the measurements of pH, conductivity of electrolyte, and potential of the anode and cathode at different current densities. The weight loss of the anode and cathode and the leaching of chromium, iron, and nickel at different current densities were measured and discussed with an electroosmosis process. The electrochemical behavior of SS316L electrode in neutral, acidic and alkaline pH in soil environment was studied by an electrochemical technique viz. polarization study. Surface analysis of SS316L after EK was done by XPS and SEM. The higher conductivity was noticed at anolyte when compared to catholyte. The weight loss of the anode was in the following order 0.615 > 0.307 > 0.123 mA/cm2 and the cathode corrosion rate was vice versa. Peroxide production was also noticed at the anolyte, which may encourage the degradation of the total organic content (TOC) in the soil. The OCP (open circuit potential) of SS316L was about +75 mV vs SCE in the soil extract; while adding acetic acid, the potential shifted to the positive side, to about +380 mV vs SCE. The breakdown potential and the range of passivation potential were higher in acetic acid added system when compared to other systems. Pitting was observed on both the anode and cathode within 48 h during the EK process. The present study concludes that SS is not a proper electrode material for the EK process.

  9. Kinetics of Mn(II) oxidation by Leptothrix discophora SS1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinghao; Lion, Leonard W.; Nelson, Yarrow M.; Shuler, Michael L.; Ghiorse, William C.

    2002-03-01

    The kinetics of Mn(II) oxidation by the bacterium Leptothrix discophora SS1 was investigated in this research. Cells were grown in a minimal mineral salts medium in which chemical speciation was well defined. Mn(II) oxidation was observed in a bioreactor under controlled conditions with pH, O 2, and temperature regulation. Mn(II) oxidation experiments were performed at cell concentrations between 24 mg/L and 35 mg/L, over a pH range from 6 to 8.5, between temperatures of 10°C and 40°C, over a dissolved oxygen range of 0 to 8.05 mg/L, and with L. discophora SS1 cells that were grown in the presence of Cu concentrations ranging from zero to 0.1 μM. Mn(II) oxidation rates were determined when the cultures grew to stationary phase and were found to be directly proportional to O 2 and cell concentrations over the ranges investigated. The optimum pH for Mn(II) oxidation was approximately 7.5, and the optimum temperature was 30°C. A Cu level as low as 0.02 μM was found to inhibit the growth rate and yield of L. discophora SS1 observed in shake flasks, while Cu levels between 0.02 and 0.1 μM stimulated the Mn(II) oxidation rate observed in bioreactors. An overall rate law for Mn(II) oxidation by L. discophora as a function of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration (D.O.), and Cu concentration is proposed. At circumneutral pH, the rate of biologically mediated Mn(II) oxidation is likely to exceed homogeneous abiotic Mn(II) oxidation at relatively low (≈μg/L) concentrations of Mn oxidizing bacteria.

  10. Functionalization of PVC membrane with ss oligonucleotides for a potentiometric biosensor.

    PubMed

    Shishkanova, T V; Volf, R; Krondak, M; Král, V

    2007-05-15

    A novel application of a single stranded (ss) oligonucleotide as an active component of polymeric membrane in an ion-selective electrode (ISE) is described. The original oligonucleotides, oligo(dA)(15), modified by cholesterol, triphenylmethyl and hexadecyl derivatives, were immobilized into poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane using extraction protocol. In parallel, the adsorption protocol was used to immobilize unmodified oligo(dA)(15) on the PVC membrane based on tridodecylmethyammonium chloride (TDDMA(+)Cl(-)). Immobilization of ss oligonucleotide probe through spacer was more effective for the potentiometric detection of the hybridization between complementary oligonucleotides. It was found that cholesterol-oligo(dA)(15) modified membranes were sensitive toward complementary oligo(dT)(15) in the concentration range 2-80 nM at pH 7. An explanation for the detection mechanism is proposed.

  11. 47 CFR 97.311 - SS emission types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Technical Standards § 97.311 SS emission types. (a) SS emission transmissions by an amateur station are authorized only for communications between points within areas where the amateur service...

  12. 47 CFR 97.311 - SS emission types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Technical Standards § 97.311 SS emission types. (a) SS emission transmissions by an amateur station are authorized only for communications between points within areas where the amateur service...

  13. NARSTO EPA SS ATLANTA 1999 CHEM PM MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS ATLANTA 1999 CHEM PM MET DATA Note: The negative sign is ... the longitude in the following data files: NARSTO_EPA_SS_ATLANTA_GAS_GAS_DATA_1_KB_V1.csv and ... transmission Location:  Atlanta, Georgia Spatial Resolution:  Point Measurements ...

  14. Mechanochemical regulations of RPA's binding to ssDNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin; Le, Shimin; Basu, Anindita; Chazin, Walter J.; Yan, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a ubiquitous eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein that serves to protect ssDNA from degradation and annealing, and as a template for recruitment of many downstream factors in virtually all DNA transactions in cell. During many of these transactions, DNA is tethered and is likely subject to force. Previous studies of RPA's binding behavior on ssDNA were conducted in the absence of force; therefore the RPA-ssDNA conformations regulated by force remain unclear. Here, using a combination of atomic force microscopy imaging and mechanical manipulation of single ssDNA tethers, we show that force mediates a switch of the RPA bound ssDNA from amorphous aggregation to a much more regular extended conformation. Further, we found an interesting non-monotonic dependence of the binding affinity on monovalent salt concentration in the presence of force. In addition, we discovered that zinc in micromolar concentrations drives ssDNA to a unique, highly stiff and more compact state. These results provide new mechanochemical insights into the influences and the mechanisms of action of RPA on large single ssDNA.

  15. Embedded algorithms for the SS-411 digital sun sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enright, John; Sinclair, Doug; Li, Chris

    2009-05-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of the SS-411 series digital sun sensor. The earlier SS-256 and SS-330 models have proven themselves in orbit on low-cost satellite missions. The SS-411 represents a further hardware revision with enhanced robustness and improved attitude estimation performance. To complement the latest hardware improvements, researchers in the Space Avionics and Instrumentation Laboratory (SAIL) at Ryerson University in Toronto have developed advanced signal processing routines compatible with the SS-411. These routines significantly improve the accuracy of the sensor's estimation without increasing manufacturing complexity. With this advanced processing, the sensor maintains a 2-σ accuracy of 0.11° over the entire field-of-view.

  16. SS1 (NAL1)- and SS2-Mediated Genetic Networks Underlying Source-Sink and Yield Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Long; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Fan; Wu, Yuan; Zheng, Tian-Qing; Wang, Yong-Hong; Zhao, Xiu-Qin; Cui, Yan-Ru; Chen, Kai; Zhang, Qiang; Lin, Hong-Xuan; Li, Jia-Yang; Li, Zhi-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Source leaf/sink capacity (SS) traits are important determinants of grain yield (GY) of rice. To understand the genetic basis of the SS relationship in rice, five SS and GY traits of rice were genetically dissected using two reciprocal introgression populations. Seventy-three QTL affecting the SS and GY traits were identified, most of which were detected in one of the parental genetic backgrounds (GBs). Two major QTL at bins 4.7 (SS1) and 3.12 (SS2) were associated consistently with all measured SS and yield traits in both GBs across two contrasting environments. Strong interactions between SS1/SS2 and the detected QTL led us to the discovery of genetic networks affecting the SS and GY traits. The SS1 acted as a regulator controlling two groups of downstream QTL affecting the source leaf width and grain number per panicle (GNP). SS2 functioned as a regulator positively regulating different groups of downstream QTL affecting the source leaf length, GNP, grain weight, and GY. Map-based cloning of SS1 indicates that SS1 is NAL1 involved in polar auxin/IAA transport. Different alleles at NAL1 were apparently able to qualitatively and/or quantitatively control the IAA transport from the apical meristem to different plant tissues and thus regulate those downstream loci/pathways controlling different SS traits of rice. There was a functional allele and a non-functional mutation in the parents at each of the QTL downstream of SS1 or SS2, which were detectable only in the presence of the functional allele of SS1 or SS2. Our results provided direct evidence that SS and yield traits in rice are controlled by complex signaling pathways and suggest further improvement of rice yield potential with enhanced and balanced SS relationships can be achieved by accurately manipulating allelic combinations at loci in the SS1 and SS2 mediated pathways.

  17. Ro(SS-A) and anti-Ro(SS-A): an update.

    PubMed

    Sibilia, J

    1998-01-01

    Anti-Ro/SSA antibodies are the antinuclear antibodies most commonly found in everyday clinical practice and are closely associated with Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus and neonatal lupus. They play a pathogenic role in a variety of clinical manifestations, including skin lesions and neonatal lupus heart block. Autoantibodies to Ro(SS-A) recognize a ribonucleoprotein complex composed of small single-stranded RNAs (hYRNAs) and of one or more peptides. Four molecular forms of this complex have been differentiated based on the nature of the peptide: a lymphocyte and an erythrocyte Ro with a 60 kDa peptide, a lymphocyte Ro with a 52 kDa peptide and an erythrocyte Ro with a 54 kDa peptide. The Ro complex is found in most tissues and cells (erythrocytes, platelets), with differences in structure and quantity across tissues, species and embryonic development stages. Although its function remains unknown, its ability to bind nucleic acids and the fact that it shares homologies with gene regulation proteins suggest that it may participate in RNA transcription processes. A number of environmental factors (exposure to ultraviolet radiation, viral infections) may cause translocation of the Ro complex to nucleocytoplasmic and membrane sites where it is not normally found, thereby leading to the development of autoimmunity. The structure of the Ro(SS-A)-hYRNA complex and the development of autoimmunity are currently the focus of active research efforts that can be expected to improve our understanding of the clinical manifestations directly related to anti-Ro(SS-A) antibodies.

  18. KiSS-1 expression in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Martin, Tracey A; Watkins, Gareth; Jiang, Wen G

    2005-01-01

    The KiSS-1 gene encodes a 145 amino acid residue peptide that is further processed to a final peptide, metastin, a ligand to a G-coupled orphan receptor (OT7T175/AXOR12). KiSS-1 has been identified as a putative human metastasis suppressor gene in melanomas and in breast cancer cell lines. This study aimed to determine the expression and distribution of KiSS-1 and its receptor in human breast cancer tissues and to identify a possible link between expression levels and patient prognosis. Frozen sections from breast cancer primary tumours (matched tumour 124 and background 33) were immuno-stained with KiSS-1 antibody. RNA was reverse transcribed and analyzed by Q-PCR (standardized using beta-actin, and normalized with cytokeratin-19 levels). Levels of expression of KiSS-1 were higher in tumour compared to background tissues (3,124+/-1,262 vs 2,397+/-1,181) and significantly increased in node positive tumours compared to node negative (3,637+/-1,719 vs 2,653+/-1,994, P = 0.02). KiSS-1 expression was also increased with increasing grade and TNM status. There were no such trends with the KiSS-1 receptor. Expression of KiSS-1 was higher in patients who had died from breast cancer than those who had remained healthy (4,631+/-3,024 vs 2,280+/-1,403) whereas expression of the receptor was reduced (480+/-162 vs 195+/-134). Immunohistochemical staining showed increased expression of KiSS-1 in tumour sections. Insertion of the KiSS-1 gene into the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, resulted in cells that were significantly more motile and invasive in behaviour, with reduced adhesion to matrix, using respective assays. In conclusion, KiSS-1 expression is increased in human breast cancer, particularly in patients with aggressive tumours and with mortality. Over-expression of KiSS-1 in breast cancer cells result in more aggressive phenotype. Together, it suggests that KiSS-1 plays a role beyond the initial metastasis repressor in this cancer type.

  19. Development in corrosion resistance by microstructural refinement in Zr-16 SS 304 alloy using suction casting technique

    SciTech Connect

    Das, N. Sengupta, P.; Abraham, G.; Arya, A.; Kain, V.; Dey, G.K.

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Grain refinement was made in Zr–16 wt.% SS alloy while prepared by suction casting process. • Distribution of Laves phase, e.g., Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Cr) was raised in suction cast (SC) Zr–16 wt.% SS. • Corrosion resistance was improved in SC alloy compared to that of arc-melt-cast alloy. • Grain refinement in SC alloy assisted for an increase in its corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Zirconium (Zr)-stainless steel (SS) hybrid alloys are being considered as baseline alloys for developing metallic-waste-form (MWF) with the motivation of disposing of Zr and SS base nuclear metallic wastes. Zr–16 wt.% SS, a MWF alloy optimized from previous studies, exhibit significant grain refinement and changes in phase assemblages (soft phase: Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Cr)/α-Zr vs. hard phase: Zr{sub 3}(Fe, Ni)) when prepared by suction casting (SC) technique in comparison to arc-cast-melt (AMC) route. Variation in Cr-distribution among different phases are found to be low in suction cast alloy, which along with grain refinement restricted Cr-depletion at the Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Cr)/Zr interfaces, prone to localized attack. Hence, SC alloy, compared to AMC alloy, showed lower current density, higher potential at the breakdown of passivity and higher corrosion potential during polarization experiments (carried out under possible geological repository environments, viz., pH 8, 5 and 1) indicating its superior corrosion resistance.

  20. TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF THE HUMAN KiSS1 GENE

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Johanna K.; Dietzel, Anja; Lomniczi, Alejandro; Loche, Alberto; Tefs, Katrin; Kiess, Wieland; Danne, Thomas; Ojeda, Sergio R.; Heger, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Kisspeptin, the product of the KiSS1 gene, has emerged as a key component of the mechanism by which the hypothalamus controls puberty and reproductive development. It does so by stimulating the secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Little is known about the transcriptional control of the KiSS1 gene. Here we show that a set of proteins postulated to be upstream components of a hypothalamic network involved in controlling female puberty regulates KiSS1 transcriptional activity. Using RACE-PCR we determined that transcription of KiSS1 mRNA is initiated at a single transcription start site (TSS) located 153–156 bp upstream of the ATG translation initiation codon. Promoter assays performed using 293 MSR cells showed that the KiSS1 promoter is activated by TTF1 and CUX1-p200, and repressed by EAP1, YY1, and CUX1-p110. EAP1 and CUX-110 were also repressive in GT1-7 cells. All four TFs are recruited in vivo to the KiSS1 promoter and are expressed in kisspeptin neurons. These results suggest that expression of the KiSS1 gene is regulated by trans-activators and repressors involved in the system-wide control of mammalian puberty. PMID:21672609

  1. A substitute for BOC modulation based on SS-CPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chengeng; Guo, Shuren; Zhou, Hongwei

    2013-03-01

    CPM (continuous phase modulation) has been widely used in the field of satellite communication, which has high spectrum efficiency and constant envelope. This paper explores the applicability of CPM to satellite navigation. A SS-CPM (Spread-Spectrum CPM) modulation is investigated. The SS-CPM with tuned parameters can resemble the spectrum of Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) modulation and yields comparable performance in terms of tracking accuracy, multipath mitigation, anti-jamming, and compatibility. The BOC-like SS-CPM signal maintains the constant envelope at transmission and less out-band emission in radio determination satellite service (RDSS) band, which provides a reference modulation for COMPASS satellite navigation signal.

  2. NARSTO EPA SS ST LOUIS AIR CHEM PM MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-07

    NARSTO EPA SS ST LOUIS AIR CHEM PM MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... Aethaelometer Anemometer Rain Gauge Pressure Sensor Radiometers Temperature Sensor Weighing Balance AA (Atomic Absorption Spectrometer) ...

  3. Brucella T4SS: the VIP pass inside host cells.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Thais Lourdes Santos; Salcedo, Suzana Pinto; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2013-02-01

    For many Gram-negative bacteria, like Brucella, the type IV secretion system (T4SS) has a critical role in bacterial virulence. In Brucella, the VirB T4SS permits the injection of bacterial effectors inside host cells, leading to subversion of signaling pathways and favoring bacterial growth and pathogenesis. The virB operon promoter is tightly regulated by a combination of transcriptional activators and repressors that are expressed according to the environmental conditions encountered by Brucella. Recent advances have shed light on the Brucella T4SS regulatory mechanisms and also its substrates. Characterization of the targets and functions of these translocated effectors is underway and will help understand the role of the T4SS in the establishment of a replication niche inside host cells.

  4. Proceedings of GLaSS: Global Lakes Sentinel Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Steef; Hommersom, Annelies; Alikas, Krista; Heege, Thomas; Schenk, Karin; Ruescas, Ana; Eleveld, Marieke; Giardino, Claudia; Koponen, Sampsa; Kallio, Kari; Philipson, Petra

    2015-12-01

    Global Lakes Sentinel Services (GLaSS) is developing a prototype Sentinel service infrastructure to ingest and process Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 data into validated ecological water quality parameters for lakes, plus training material. GLaSS is an EU-funded R&D project within the Copernicus framework. The project is well on its way to reach its goals. Some results on comparisons on atmospheric correction methods for inland waters are presented here.

  5. Details of ssDNA annealing revealed by an HSV-1 ICP8–ssDNA binary complex

    PubMed Central

    Tolun, Gökhan; Makhov, Alexander M.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Griffith, Jack D.

    2013-01-01

    Infected cell protein 8 (ICP8) from herpes simplex virus 1 was first identified as a single-strand (ss) DNA-binding protein. It is essential for, and abundant during, viral replication. Studies in vitro have shown that ICP8 stimulates model replication reactions, catalyzes annealing of complementary ssDNAs and, in combination with UL12 exonuclease, will catalyze ssDNA annealing homologous recombination. DNA annealing and strand transfer occurs within large oligomeric filaments of ssDNA-bound ICP8. We present the first 3D reconstruction of a novel ICP8–ssDNA complex, which seems to be the basic unit of the DNA annealing machine. The reconstructed volume consists of two nonameric rings containing ssDNA stacked on top of each other, corresponding to a molecular weight of 2.3 MDa. Fitting of the ICP8 crystal structure suggests a mechanism for the annealing reaction catalyzed by ICP8, which is most likely a general mechanism for protein-driven DNA annealing. PMID:23605044

  6. SS-mPMG and SS-GA: tools for finding pathways and dynamic simulation of metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, Tetsuo; Ono, Naoaki; Yasumoto, Keiichi; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Hirai, Masami Y; Sriyudthsak, Kansuporn; Sawada, Yuji; Yamashita, Yui; Chiba, Yukako; Onouchi, Hitoshi; Fujiwara, Toru; Naito, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Fumihide; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2013-05-01

    Metabolomics analysis tools can provide quantitative information on the concentration of metabolites in an organism. In this paper, we propose the minimum pathway model generator tool for simulating the dynamics of metabolite concentrations (SS-mPMG) and a tool for parameter estimation by genetic algorithm (SS-GA). SS-mPMG can extract a subsystem of the metabolic network from the genome-scale pathway maps to reduce the complexity of the simulation model and automatically construct a dynamic simulator to evaluate the experimentally observed behavior of metabolites. Using this tool, we show that stochastic simulation can reproduce experimentally observed dynamics of amino acid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this simulation, SS-mPMG extracts the metabolic network subsystem from published databases. The parameters needed for the simulation are determined using a genetic algorithm to fit the simulation results to the experimental data. We expect that SS-mPMG and SS-GA will help researchers to create relevant metabolic networks and carry out simulations of metabolic reactions derived from metabolomics data.

  7. Using Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry to Detect ss- and ds-Oligodeoxynucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Tsen; Huang, Ming-Feng; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2013-06-01

    We applied surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) with HgTe nanostructures as the matrix for the detection of single- and double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ss-ODNs and ds-ODNs). The concentrations of surfactant and additives (metal ions, an amine) and the pH and ionic strength of the sample matrix played significantly different roles in the detection of ss- and ds-ODNs with various sequences. In the presence of Brij 76 (1.5 %), Hg2+ (7.5 μM), and cadaverine (10 μM) at pH 5.0, this SALDI-MS approach allowed the simultaneous detection of T15, T20, T33, and T40, with limits of detection at the femtomole-to-picomole level and sample-to-sample intensity variation <23 %. In the presence of Ag+ (1 μM) and cadaverine (10 μM) at pH 7.0, this technique allowed the detection of randomly sequenced ss- and ds-ODNs at concentrations down to the femtomole level. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to report the detection of ss-ODNs (up to 50-mer) and ds-ODNs (up to 30 base pairs) through the combination of SALDI-MS with HgTe nanostructures as matrices. We demonstrated the practicality of this approach through analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism that determines the fate of the valine residue in the β-globin of sickle cell megaloblasts.

  8. Dissociation energies of PH and PH+.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, R. R.; Nazeer Ahammed, Y.; Srinivasa Rao, A.; Rao, T. V. R.

    1995-12-01

    Dissociation energies for the ground electronic states of diatomic PH and PH+ are determined by fitting empirical potential functions to the respective RKRV curves using correlation coefficients. The estimated ground state dissociation energies of PH and PH+ are 3.10 and 3.20 eV respectively by the curve fitting procedure using the Lippincott potential function. The computed values are in good agreement with experimental values.

  9. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Simulated Heat-Affected Zones in Cast Precipitation-Hardened Stainless Steels 17-4 and 13-8+Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlin, Robert J.; DuPont, John N.

    2017-01-01

    Cast precipitation-hardened (PH) stainless steels 17-4 and 13-8+Mo are used in applications that require a combination of high strength and moderate corrosion resistance. Many such applications require fabrication and/or casting repair by fusion welding. The purpose of this work is to develop an understanding of microstructural evolution and resultant mechanical properties of these materials when subjected to weld thermal cycles. Samples of each material were subjected to heat-affected zone (HAZ) thermal cycles in the solution-treated and aged condition (S-A-W condition) and solution-treated condition with a postweld thermal cycle age (S-W-A condition). Dilatometry was used to establish the onset of various phase transformation temperatures. Light optical microscopy (LOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were used to characterize the microstructures, and comparisons were made to gas metal arc welds that were heat treated in the same conditions. Tensile testing was also performed. MatCalc thermodynamic and kinetic modeling software was used to predict the evolution of copper (Cu)-rich body center cubic precipitates in 17-4 and β-NiAl precipitates in 13-8+Mo. The yield strength was lower in the simulated HAZ samples of both materials prepared in the S-A-W condition when compared to their respective base metals. Samples prepared in the S-W-A condition had higher and more uniform yield strengths for both materials. Significant changes were observed in the matrix microstructure of various HAZ regions depending on the peak temperature, and these microstructural changes were interpreted with the aid of dilatometry results, LOM, SEM, and EDS. Despite these significant changes to the matrix microstructure, the changes in mechanical properties appear to be governed primarily by the precipitation behavior. The decrease in strength in the HAZ samples prepared in the S-A-W condition was attributed to the dissolution of precipitates

  10. A smart tumor targeting peptide-drug conjugate, pHLIP-SS-DOX: synthesis and cellular uptake on MCF-7 and MCF-7/Adr cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Qin; Chuan, Xingxing; Chen, Binlong; He, Bing; Zhang, Hua; Dai, Wenbing; Wang, Xueqing; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anticancer drug for the treatment of tumors, but the poor specificity and multi-drug resistance (MDR) on tumor cells have restricted its application. Here, a pH and reduction-responsive peptide-drug conjugate (PDC), pHLIP-SS-DOX, was synthesized to overcome these drawbacks. pH low insertion peptide (pHLIP) is a cell penetrating peptide (CPP) with pH-dependent transmembrane ability. And because of the unique cell membrane insertion pattern, it might reverse the MDR. The cellular uptake study showed that on both drug-sensitive MCF-7 and drug-resistant MCF-7/Adr cells, pHLIP-SS-DOX obviously facilitated the uptake of DOX at pH 6.0 and the uptake level on MCF-7/Adr cells was similar with that on MCF-7 cells, indicating that pHLIP-SS-DOX had the ability to target acidic tumor cells and reverse MDR. In vitro cytotoxicity study mediated by GSH-OEt demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of pHLIP-SS-DOX was reduction responsive, with obvious cytotoxicity at pH 6.0; while it had poor cytotoxicity at pH 7.4, no matter with or without GSH-OEt pretreatment. This illustrated that pHLIP could deliver DOX into tumor cells with acidic microenvironment specifically and could not deliver drugs into normal cells with neutral microenvironment. In summary, pHLIP-SS-DOX is a promising strategy to target drugs to tumors and provides a possibility to overcome MDR.

  11. ssDNA binding reveals the atomic structure of graphene.

    PubMed

    Husale, By Sudhir; Sahoo, Sangeeta; Radenovic, Aleksandra; Traversi, Floriano; Annibale, Paolo; Kis, Andras

    2010-12-07

    We used AFM to investigate the interaction of polyelectrolytes such as ssDNA and dsDNA molecules with graphene as a substrate. Graphene is an appropriate substrate due to its planarity, relatively large surfaces that are detectable via an optical microscope, and straightforward identification of the number of layers. We observe that in the absence of the screening ions deposited ssDNA will bind only to the graphene and not to the SiO(2) substrate, confirming that the binding energy is mainly due to the π-π stacking interaction. Furthermore, deposited ssDNA will map the graphene underlying structure. We also quantify the π-π stacking interaction by correlating the amount of deposited DNA with the graphene layer thickness. Our findings agree with reported electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) measurements. Finally, we inspected the suitability of using a graphene as a substrate for DNA origami-based nanostructures.

  12. e-VLBI observations of SS 433 in outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudose, V.; Paragi, Z.; Trushkin, S.; Soleri, P.; Fender, R.; Garrett, M.; Spencer, R.; Rushton, A.; Burgess, P.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Pazderski, E.; Borkowski, K.; Hammargren, R.; Lindqvist, M.; Maccaferri, G.

    2008-11-01

    We have observed the X-ray binary SS 433 on November 6, 2008 between 13:48-18:35 UT at 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN) using the e-VLBI technique. The radio telescopes participating in the experiment were: Medicina, Onsala 25m, Torun, Jodrell Bank MkII and Cambridge. The X-ray binary SS 433 is in outburst. Trushkin & Nizhelskij (ATel #1819) reported a major flare already active during the RATAN-600 observations in the 1-22 GHz band on 2008 October 28.

  13. NARSTO EPA SS PITTSBURGH GAS PM PROPERTY DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS PITTSBURGH GAS PM PROPERTY DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  Tropospheric Chemistry Field Campaigns Aerosols Level:  L2 ... Data Guide Documents:  Pittsburgh Gas PM Property Guide Pittsburgh Project Plan  (PDF) ...

  14. RPA homologs and ssDNA processing during meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Jonathan; Abby, Emilie; Livera, Gabriel; Martini, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    Meiotic homologous recombination is a specialized process that involves homologous chromosome pairing and strand exchange to guarantee proper chromosome segregation and genetic diversity. The formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during meiotic recombination differs from those during mitotic recombination in that the homologous chromosome rather than the sister chromatid is the preferred repair template. The processing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) formed on intermediate recombination structures is central to driving the specific outcomes of DSB repair during meiosis. Replication protein A (RPA) is the main ssDNA-binding protein complex involved in DNA metabolism. However, the existence of RPA orthologs in plants and the recent discovery of meiosis specific with OB domains (MEIOB), a widely conserved meiosis-specific RPA1 paralog, strongly suggest that multiple RPA complexes evolved and specialized to subdivide their roles during DNA metabolism. Here we review ssDNA formation and maturation during mitotic and meiotic recombination underlying the meiotic specific features. We describe and discuss the existence and properties of MEIOB and multiple RPA subunits in plants and highlight how they can provide meiosis-specific fates to ssDNA processing during homologous recombination. Understanding the functions of these RPA homologs and how they interact with the canonical RPA subunits is of major interest in the fields of meiosis and DNA repair.

  15. The Symbiotic System SS73 17 seen with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Randall K.; Mushotzky, Richard; Kallman, Tim; Tueller, Jack; Mukai, Koji; Markwardt, Craig

    2007-01-01

    We observed with Suzaku the symbiotic star SS73 17, motivated by the discovery by the INTEGRAL satellite and the Swift BAT survey that it emits hard X-rays. Our observations showed a highly-absorbed X-ray spectrum with NH > loz3 emp2, equivalent to Av > 26, although the source has B magnitude 11.3 and is also bright in UV. The source also shows strong, narrow iron lines including fluorescent Fe K as well as Fe xxv and Fe XXVI. The X-ray spectrum can be fit with a thermal model including an absorption component that partially covers the source. Most of the equivalent width of the iron fluorescent line in this model can be explained as a combination of reprocessing in a dense absorber plus reflection off a white dwarf surface, but it is likely that the continuum is partially seen in reflection as well. Unlike other symbiotic systems that show hard X-ray emission (CH Cyg, RT Cru, T CrB, GX1+4), SS73 17 is not known to have shown nova-like optical variability, X-ray flashes, or pulsations, and has always shown faint soft X-ray emission. As a result, although it is likely a white dwarf, the nature of the compact object in SS73 17 is still uncertain. SS73 17 is probably an extreme example of the recently discovered and relatively small class of hard X-ray emitting symbiotic systems.

  16. A 0.7-V 17.4- μ W 3-lead wireless ECG SoC.

    PubMed

    Khayatzadeh, Mahmood; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Tan, Jun; Liew, Wen-Sin; Lian, Yong

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a fully integrated sub-1 V 3-lead wireless ECG System-on-Chip (SoC) for wireless body sensor network applications. The SoC includes a two-channel ECG front-end with a driven-right-leg circuit, an 8-bit SAR ADC, a custom-designed 16-bit microcontroller, two banks of 16 kb SRAM, and a MICS band transceiver. The microcontroller and SRAM blocks are able to operate at sub-/near-threshold regime for the best energy consumption. The proposed SoC has been implemented in a standard 0.13- μ m CMOS process. Measurement results show the microcontroller consumes only 2.62 pJ per instruction at 0.35 V . Both microcontroller and memory blocks are functional down to 0.25 V. The entire SoC is capable of working at single 0.7-V supply. At the best case, it consumes 17.4 μ W in heart rate detection mode and 74.8 μW in raw data acquisition mode under sampling rate of 500 Hz. This makes it one of the best ECG SoCs among state-of-the-art biomedical chips.

  17. Nuclear processes in the jets of SS433

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The very narrow gamma-ray lines observed at 1.495 and 6.695 MeV from SS433 which are blueshifted 1.369 and 6.129 emissions from deexcitations of (24)Mg* and (16)O* in grains moving with the jets and inelastically excited by interactions with the ambient medium are discussed. Energetic particle interactions in grains produce very narrow gamma ray lines from deexcitation of nuclear levels whose lifetimes are long enough that the excited nuclei stop before deexcitation. The presence of grains in the jets resolves hitherto discussed difficulties of inelastic excitation models for gamma ray production in SS433, the very narrow widths of the observed lines and the absence of other strong lines, expected from abundant elements. A model is proposed which could be distinguished from a previously proposed fusion model by gamma ray line observations.

  18. Nuclear processes in the jets of SS 433

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The very narrow gamma-ray lines observed at 1.495 and 6.695 MeV from SS 433 which are blueshifted 1.369 and 6.129 emissions from deexcitations of (24)Mg-asterisk and (16)O-asterisk in grains moving with the jets and inelastically excited by interactions with the ambient medium are discussed. Energetic particle interactions in grains produce very narrow gamma ray lines from deexcitation of nuclear levels whose lifetimes are long enough that the excited nuclei stop before deexcitation. The presence of grains in the jets resolves hitherto discussed difficulties of inelastic excitation models for gamma ray production in SS 433, the very narrow widths of the observed lines and the absence of other strong lines, expected from abundant elements. A model is proposed which could be distinguished from a previously proposed fusion model by gamma ray line observations.

  19. O-Demethylation and Successive Oxidative Dechlorination of Methoxychlor by Bradyrhizobium sp. Strain 17-4, Isolated from River Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Minoru; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    O-Demethylation of insecticide methoxychlor is well known as a phase I metabolic reaction in various eukaryotic organisms. Regarding prokaryotic organisms, however, no individual species involved in such reaction have been specified and characterized so far. Here we successfully isolated a bacterium that mediates oxidative transformation of methoxychlor, including O-demethylation and dechlorination, from river sediment. The isolate was found to be closely related to Bradyrhizobium elkanii at the 16S rRNA gene sequence level (100% identical). However, based on some differences in the physiological properties of this bacterium, we determined that it was actually a different species, Bradyrhizobium sp. strain 17-4. The isolate mediated O-demethylation of methoxychlor to yield a monophenolic derivative [Mono-OH; 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane] as the primary degradation product. The chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that the isolate possesses high enantioselectivity favoring the formation of (S)-Mono-OH (nearly 100%). Accompanied by the sequential O-demethylation to form the bis-phenolic derivative Bis-OH [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethane], oxidative dechlorination of the side chain proceeded, and monophenolic carboxylic acid accumulated, followed by the formation of multiple unidentified polar degradation products. The breakdown proceeded more rapidly when reductively dechlorinated (dichloro-form) methoxychlor was applied as the initial substrate. The resultant carboxylic acids and polar degradation products are likely further biodegraded by ubiquitous bacteria. The isolate possibly plays an important role for complete degradation (mineralization) of methoxychlor by providing the readily biodegradable substrates. PMID:22635993

  20. Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.

    1998-09-01

    Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior.

  1. Revisiting the HST Fine Guidance Sensor Parallax of SS Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Thomas E.; McArthur, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Recently, our results for the HST FGS parallax of SS Cyg (Harrison et al. 2000) have been called into question due to a recent radio parallax for this object (Miller-Jones et al. 2013). We have re-analyzed the data for our FGS program on SS Cyg and derive a revised parallax of 7.3 +/- 0.2 mas (137 pc). This parallax is 17% larger than that originally published. We discuss the new analysis effort, and the reasons for the change in our result. We believe we have identified why the radio parallax (8.77 mas) disagrees with the FGS results: We find that if we allow for a roll of two degrees in the HST coordinate system, we obtain the discrepant VLBA radio parallax. It is impossible, however, for the error in the roll of HST to be more than a few tenths of a degree, or else the FGS would not lock-on to the program targets. This roll leads to the large, and erroneous VLBA parallax for SS Cyg. We note that the radio parallax for the black hole system V404 Cyg (Miller-Jones et al. 2009) is also much larger than the spectroscopic parallax of its secondary star. In addition, we closely examine the attempt by Nelan & Bond (2013) to reconcile the FGS data set with the radio result. We identify what we believe to be significant issues with their analysis. Finally, we present a quantitative abundance analysis for SS Cyg, RU Peg, and GK Per derived from moderate resolution K-band spectroscopy. We find severe carbon deficiencies (10 to 20% of the solar value) in the secondary stars of all three objects. We describe the Python program "kmoog" which generates synthetic spectra, and autonomously compares them to observational data.

  2. Broad band variability of SS433: accretion disk at work?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revnivtsev, M.; Fabrika, S.; Abolmasov, P.; Postnov, K.; Bikmaev, I.; Burenin, R.; Pavlinsky, M.; Sunyaev, R.; Khamitov, I.; Sakhibullin, N.

    2006-02-01

    We present broad band power spectra of variations of SS433 in radio, optical and X-ray spectral bands. We show that at frequencies lower than 10-5 Hz the source demonstrates the same variability pattern in all these bands. The broad band power spectrum can be fitted by one power law down to frequencies 10-7 Hz with flattening afterwards. Such a flattening means that on time scales longer than 107 s the source variability becomes uncorrelated. This naturally leads to the appearance of quasi-poissonian flares in the source light curve, which have been regularly observed in radio and optical spectral bands. The radio flux power spectrum appears to have a second break at Fourier frequencies ˜ 10-5 Hz which can be caused by the smearing of the intrinsic radio variability on timescale of the light-crossing time of the radio emitting region. We find a correlation of the radio and optical fluxes of SS433 and the radio flux is delayed by about ˜ 2 days with respect to the optical one. Power spectra of optical and X-ray variabilities continue with the same power law from 10-7 Hz up to 0.01{-}0.05 Hz. The broad band power spectrum of SS433 can be interpreted in terms of self-similar accretion rate modulations in the accretion disk proposed by Lyubarskii (1997, MNRAS, 292, 679) and elaborated by Churazov et al. (2001, MNRAS, 321, 759). We discuss a viscous time-scale in the accretion disk of SS433 with reference to the observed broad band power spectrum.

  3. Social class and survival on the S.S. Titanic.

    PubMed

    Hall, W

    1986-01-01

    Passengers' chances of surviving the sinking of the S.S. Titanic were related to their sex and their social class: females were more likely to survive than males, and the chances of survival declined with social class as measured by the class in which the passenger travelled. The probable reasons for these differences in rates of survival are discussed as are the reasons accepted by the Mersey Committee of Inquiry into the sinking.

  4. THE Be STAR SPECTRA (BeSS) DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    Neiner, C.; De Batz, B.; Cochard, F.; Floquet, M.; Mekkas, A.; Desnoux, V.

    2011-11-15

    Be stars vary on many timescales, from hours to decades. A long time base of observations to analyze certain phenomena in these stars is therefore necessary. Collecting all existing and future Be star spectra into one database has thus emerged as an important tool for the Be star community. Moreover, for statistical studies, it is useful to have centralized information on all known Be stars via an up-to-date catalog. These two goals are what the Be Star Spectra (BeSS, http://basebe.obspm.fr) database proposes to achieve. The database contains an as-complete-as-possible catalog of known Be stars with stellar parameters, as well as spectra of Be stars from all origins (any wavelength, any epoch, any resolution, etc.). It currently contains over 54,000 spectra of more than 600 different Be stars among the {approx}2000 Be stars in the catalog. A user can access and query this database to retrieve information on Be stars or spectra. Registered members can also upload spectra to enrich the database. Spectra obtained by professional as well as amateur astronomers are individually validated in terms of format and science before being included in BeSS. In this paper, we present the database itself as well as examples of the use of BeSS data in terms of statistics and the study of individual stars.

  5. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B.; Miranda, L. F.

    2013-11-01

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are located in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) diagram and the presence of Hα line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak Hα survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the Hα emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (≅10{sup 8-9} cm{sup –3}), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ versus [O III] λ4363/Hγ diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful tool in

  6. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors E... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors E... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors E... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and...

  9. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors E... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors E... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and...

  11. Doxorubicin Delivery Using pH and Redox Dual-Responsive Hollow Nanocapsules with a Cationic Electrostatic Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Teranishi, Ryoma; Matsuki, Ryota; Yuba, Eiji; Harada, Atsushi; Kono, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    For the delivery of doxorubicin (DOX), pH and redox dual responsive hollow nanocapsules were prepared through the stabilization of polymer vesicles, which spontaneously formed from polyamidoamine dendron-poly(l-lysine) (PAMAM dendron-PLL), by the introduction of disulfide (SS) bonds between PLLs. The SS-bonded nanocapsules exhibited a very slow release of DOX under an extracellular environment because the cationic PLL membrane acted as an electrostatic barrier against the protonated DOX molecules. However, increasing the glutathione concentration to the intracellular level facilitated the immediate release of DOX through the collapse of nanocapsules by the spontaneous cleavage of SS bonds. SS-bonded nanocapsules also escaped from the endosome by the buffering effect of PAMAM dendrons, and DOX delivery into the cytoplasm was achieved. Furthermore, DOX molecules delivered by SS-bonded nanocapsules exhibited an effective in vitro anticancer effect to HeLa cells. PMID:28042818

  12. Improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digesters treating SS-OFMSW through enrichment with compost and leachate seeds.

    PubMed

    Ghanimeh, Sophia; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Saikaly, Pascal

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines the potential of improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) by adding leachate and compost during inoculation. For this purpose, two stable thermophilic digesters, A (control) and B (with added leachate and compost), were subjected to a sustained substrate shock by doubling the organic loading rate for one week. Feeding was suspended then gradually resumed to reach the pre-shock loading rate (2 gVS/l/d). Digester A failed, exhibiting excessive increase in acetate and a corresponding decrease in pH and methane generation, and lower COD and solids removal efficiencies. In contrast, digester B was able to restore its functionality with 90% recovery of pre-shock methane generation rate at stable pH, lower hydrogen levels, and reduced VFAs and ammonia accumulation.

  13. EUVE photometry of SS Cygni: Dwarf nova outbursts and oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Mauche, C.W.

    1995-05-15

    The authors present EUVE Deep Survey photometry and AAVSO optical measurements of the 1993 August and 1994 June/July outbursts of the dwarf nova SS Cygni. The EUV and optical light curves are used to illustrate the different response of the accretion disk to outbursts which begin at the inner edge and propagate outward, and those which begin at the outer edge and propagate inward. Furthermore, the authors describe the properties of the quasi-coherent 7--9 s sinusoidal oscillations in the EUV flux detected during the rise and plateau stages of these outbursts.

  14. Osler usque ad mare: the SS William Osler

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, C S; Fransiszyn, M

    1999-01-01

    William Osler's connections with the sea included a strong family history of seafaring, his own transatlantic crossings (of which there were at least 32) and the occasional use of nautical imagery in his inspirational writings. An unusual Oslerian connection with the sea emerged after his death in the form of a World War II Liberty ship. Through the SS William Osler and its sister ships, Osler was symbolically reunited with colleagues associated with the early days of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. The William Osler circumnavigated the globe in 1943 without engaging the enemy. She was then converted into an army hospital ship and renamed the USHS Wisteria. PMID:10530306

  15. [The SS dentist Dr. Willy Frank. A biography].

    PubMed

    Huber, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    In his role as leading SS dentist in the concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau Dr. Willy Frank was involved in the worst crimes of World War II: In the early summer of 1944 the so called "Hungarian Action" commenced. It planned the extermination of around 450 000 Hungarian Jews within only a few months. Some twenty years later he was sentenced during the Frankfurt Auschwitz Trials to seven years of imprisonment on grounds of his participation in the selection and gassing of the Jews. Before that he had been able to resume his professional worksince 1947 unchecked.

  16. ss3sim: an R package for fisheries Stock Assessment simulation with stock synthesis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sean C; Monnahan, Cole C; Johnson, Kelli F; Ono, Kotaro; Valero, Juan L

    2014-01-01

    Simulation testing is an important approach to evaluating fishery stock assessment methods. In the last decade, the fisheries stock assessment modeling framework Stock Synthesis (SS3) has become widely used around the world. However, there lacks a generalized and scriptable framework for SS3 simulation testing. Here, we introduce ss3sim, an R package that facilitates reproducible, flexible, and rapid end-to-end simulation testing with SS3. ss3sim requires an existing SS3 model configuration along with plain-text control files describing alternative population dynamics, fishery properties, sampling scenarios, and assessment approaches. ss3sim then generates an underlying 'truth' from a specified operating model, samples from that truth, modifies and runs an estimation model, and synthesizes the results. The simulations can be run in parallel, reducing runtime, and the source code is free to be modified under an open-source MIT license. ss3sim is designed to explore structural differences between the underlying truth and assumptions of an estimation model, or between multiple estimation model configurations. For example, ss3sim can be used to answer questions about model misspecification, retrospective patterns, and the relative importance of different types of fisheries data. We demonstrate the software with an example, discuss how ss3sim complements other simulation software, and outline specific research questions that ss3sim could address.

  17. XTE Proposal #20102--"SS 433's High Energy Spectrum"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.; Blanco, P.; Rothschild, R.; Kawai, N.; Kotani, T.; Oka, T.; Wagner, R. M.; Hjellming, R.; Rupen, M.; Brinkmann, W.

    1999-01-01

    We observed the jet-producing compact binary system SS 433 with RXTE during three multiwavelength campaigns, the first in conjunction with ASCA observations, the second simultaneous with a VLA-VLBA-MERLIN campaign, and the third associated with a Nobeyama millimeter-band campaign. All these campaigns included optical observations. Occurring at different jet precession and binary phases, the observations also monitored the system during a radio flare. The data provide SS 433's X-ray spectrum over more than an energy decade, and track the spectral variations as the X-ray source was partially eclipsed. The continuum can be modeled as a power law with an exponential cutoff, which can be detected to approximately 50 keV. Strong line emission is evident in the 5-10 keV range which can be modeled as a broad line whose energy is precession independent and a narrow line whose energy does vary with jet precession phase; this line model is clearly an over simplification since the PCA does not have sufficient energy resolution to detect the lines ASCA observed. The eclipses are deeper at high energy and at jet precession phases when the jets are more inclined towards and away from us. A large radio flare occurred between two sets of X-ray monitoring observations; an X-ray observation at the peak of the flare found a softer spectrum with a flux approximately 1/3 that of the quiescent level.

  18. Acousto-microfluidics for screening of ssDNA aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jee-Woong; Lee, Su Jin; Ren, Shuo; Lee, Sangwook; Kim, Soyoun; Laurell, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a new screening method for obtaining a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) binding aptamer based on an acoustofluidic separation (acoustophoreis) technique. Since acoustophoresis provides simultaneous washing and separation in a continuous flow mode, we efficiently obtained a PSA binding aptamer that shows high affinity without any additional washing step, which is necessary in other screening methods. In addition, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to accelerate the identification of the screened ssDNA pool, improving the selecting process of the aptamer candidate based on the frequency ranking of the sequences. After the 8th round of the acoustophoretic systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) and following sequence analysis with NGS, 7 PSA binding ssDNA aptamer-candidates were obtained and characterized with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for affinity and specificity. As a result of the new SELEX method with PSA as the model target protein, the best PSA binding aptamer showed specific binding to PSA with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.7 nM. PMID:27272884

  19. Measurement of outgassing rate for GTAW welded SS304 materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukhari, Mohsin; Mukherjee, Samiran; Panchal, Paresh; Gangradey, Ranjana; Shukla, Ajit Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Outgassing plays an important role to achieve Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) and to maintaining the required vacuum level of the vessel. For a large size machines like Tokamak, accelerators, space simulation chambers, outgassing from the structural materials and their welding sections need to be checked during the design. Hence studies were carried out for the measurement of outgassing rate for the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) welded SS304 materials at OutGassing Measurement System (OGMS) at IPR Extension Lab. The system consists of two chambers, pumping chamber and sample chamber, made up of 304 grades Stainless Steel pre-air baked at 400 °C. The pumping chamber connected to a turbo molecular pump having pumping speed 240 l/s, backed by a rotary vacuum pump having pumping speed 5m3/hour. Pumping chamber and sample chamber connected through a 100 CF flange having a circular aperture of 5.2 mm diameter. The conductance of aperture is 2.47 l/s. Bare SS304 sample & GTAW welded SS304 samples are prepared with 100mmX50mmX5mm and 95mmX55mmX5mm dimensions respectively. The base outgassing rate of the blank system is 2.34×10-11 mbar l/s-cm2. The calculated outgassing rate is 3.66×10-10 & 4.37×10-10 mbar l/s-cm2 for bare sample & welded sample. From the partial pressure analysis it has been found that hydrogen and nitrogen are in the partial level of 3.35×10-9 & 2.36×10-9 for bare sample and 3.14×10-9 mbar & 2.33×10-9 mbar for welded sample. It has been observed that, the GTAW doesn't have major effect on outgassing rate and one can use welded joint for designing a large vessel welding sections.

  20. Jets of SS 433 on scales of dozens of parsecs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panferov, Alexander A.

    2017-03-01

    Context. The radio nebula W 50 harbours the relativistic binary system SS 433, which is a source of powerful wind and jets. The origin of W 50 is wrapped in the interplay of the wind, supernova remnant, and jets. The evolution of the jets of SS 433 on the scale of the nebula W 50 is a Rosetta stone for its origin. Aims: To disentangle the roles of these components, we study the physical conditions of the propagation of the jets of SS 433 inside W 50 and determine the deceleration of the jets. Methods: We analysed the morphology and parameters of the interior of W 50 using the available observations of the eastern X-ray lobe, which trace the jet. In order to estimate deceleration of this jet, we devised a simplistic model of the viscous interaction of a jet, via turbulence, with the ambient medium. This model fits mass entrainment from the ambient medium into the jets of the radio galaxy 3C 31, the well-studied case of continuously decelerating jets. Results: X-ray observations suggest that the eastern jet is hollow, persists through W50, and is recollimated to the opening angle of 30°. From the thermal emission of the eastern X-ray lobe, we determine a pressure of P 3 × 10-11 erg/cm3 inside W 50. In the frame of a theory of the dynamics of radiative supernova remnants and stellar wind bubbles, in combination with other known parameters this pressure restricts the origin of W 50 to a supernova occuring 100 000 yr ago. Also, this pressure in our entrainment model gives a deceleration of the jet by 60% in the bounds of the spherical component of W 50, of radius 40 pc. In this case, the age of the jet should be ≪27 000 yr so as to satisfy the sphericity of W 50. The entrainment model comes to the viscous stress in a jet of a form σ = αP, where the viscosity parameter α is predefined by the model.

  1. KiSS-1 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma and its prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Shin, Wui-Jung; Cho, Young-Ah; Kang, Kyung-Rim; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Hong, Seong-Doo; Lee, Jae-Il; Hong, Sam-Pyo; Yoon, Hye-Jung

    2016-04-01

    Downregulated expression of KiSS-1 has been correlated with tumor progression, metastasis, and patient prognosis in various human malignancies. However, there is no information regarding the expression of KiSS-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Our aims were to examine KiSS-1 expression in OSCC tissue samples and cell lines and to determine its prognostic significance. KiSS-1 expression was significantly lower in lymph node (LN) metastases than in primary tumor tissues. Five of six OSCC cell lines showed absence or relatively low expression of KiSS-1. Correlations between KiSS-1 expression and clinicopathological parameters were statistically assessed. There were significant correlations between KiSS-1 expression and LN metastasis (p = 0.007), TNM stage (p = 0.024), and local recurrence (p = 0.012). In the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, negative KiSS-1 expression significantly correlated with poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) (p = 0.000 and 0.000, respectively). Multivariate analysis using Cox regression modeling revealed that KiSS-1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for both OS and DFS (p = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively). Our findings suggested that KiSS-1 downregulation may play a role in tumor progression and metastasis of OSCC and may be a reliable biomarker for predicting clinical outcome in OSCC.

  2. Discovery of Circularly Polarized Radio Emission from SS 433.

    PubMed

    Fender; Rayner; Norris; Sault; Pooley

    2000-02-10

    We report the discovery of circularly polarized radio emission from the radio-jet X-ray binary SS 433 with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The flux density spectrum of the circular polarization, clearly detected at four frequencies between 1 and 9 GHz, is of the form V~nu-0.9+/-0.1. Multiple components in the source and a lack of very high spatial resolution do not allow a unique determination of the origin of the circular polarization or of the spectrum of fractional polarization. However, we argue that the emission is likely to arise in the inner regions of the binary, possibly via propagation-induced conversion of linear to circular polarization, and the fractional circular polarization of these regions may be as high as 10%. Observations such as these have the potential to help us investigate the composition, whether pairs or baryonic, of the ejecta from X-ray binaries.

  3. Performance Analysis of HF Band FB-MC-SS

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein Moradi; Stephen Andrew Laraway; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

    2016-01-01

    Abstract—In a recent paper [1] the filter bank multicarrier spread spectrum (FB-MC-SS) waveform was proposed for wideband spread spectrum HF communications. A significant benefit of this waveform is robustness against narrow and partial band interference. Simulation results in [1] demonstrated good performance in a wideband HF channel over a wide range of conditions. In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of the bit error probably for this system. Our analysis tailors the results from [2] where BER performance was analyzed for maximum ration combining systems that accounted for correlation between subcarriers and channel estimation error. Equations are give for BER that closely match the simulated performance in most situations.

  4. On the long-term behavior of SS Cygni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannizzo, John K.; Mattei, Janet A.

    1992-01-01

    The complete historical light curve of the dwarf nova SS Cygni taken by the American Association of Variable Star Observers from September 27, 1896 to April 7, 1992 is examined. The data consist of 29,387 daily means based on 180,233 individual observations. The statistical properties of the outburst durations, quiescence intervals, and cycle times associated with the 705 outbursts which occurred during this time are investigated. No significant difference is found between the correlations of the duration of a burst with the length of the following cycle time and the duration of a burst with the length of the preceding cycle time. On the basis of long-term moving averages, the inverse relation between cycle time and quiescent magnitude pointed out by Warner (1987, 1988) is confirmed.

  5. Fragmentation of the fluorite type in Fe8Al(17.4)Si(7.6): structural complexity in intermetallics dictated by the 18 electron rule.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Rie T; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2012-10-01

    This Article presents the synthesis, structure determination, and bonding analysis of Fe(8)Al(17.4)Si(7.6). Fe(8)Al(17.4)Si(7.6) crystallizes in a new monoclinic structure type based on columns of the fluorite (CaF(2)) structure type. As such, the compound can be seen as part of a structural series in which the fluorite structure-adopted by several transition metal disilicides (TMSi(2))-is fragmented by the incorporation of Al. Electronic structure analysis using density functional theory (DFT) and DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations indicates that the fluorite-type TMSi(2) phases (TM = Co, Ni) exhibit density of states (DOS) pseudogaps near their Fermi energies. An analogous pseudogap occurs for Fe(8)Al(17.4)Si(7.6), revealing that its complex structure serves to preserve this stabilizing feature of the electronic structure. Pursuing the origins of these pseudogaps leads to a simple picture: the DOS minimum in the TMSi(2) structures arises via a bonding scheme analogous to those of 18 electron transition metal complexes. Replacement of Si with Al leads to the necessity of increasing the (Si/Al):TM ratio to maintain this valence electron concentration. The excess Si/Al atoms are accommodated through the fragmentation of the fluorite type. The resulting picture highlights how the elucidating power of bonding concepts from transition metal complexes can extend into the intermetallic realm.

  6. [Laboratory-based evaluation of "INOVA/QUANTA Lite" to determine antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and autoantibodies to double-stranded DNA, SS-A and SS-B].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Megumi S; Shingaki, Naohiko; Yamane, Nobuhisa

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated QUANTA Lite reagent series (INOVA Diagnostics, CA, USA) to determine antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and autoantibodies to double-stranded (ds) DNA, SS-A and SS-B, in parallel with MESACUP (Medical & Biological Laboratories, Nagoya). Overall agreements between two reagents for qualitative interpretation ranged from 77.5% (ANA) to 99.0%(anti-SS-B antibodies). When we compared to the results by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test on HEp-2 cells, QUANTA Lite ANA demonstrated better sensitivity and specificity; 92.2% versus 76.5% in sensitivity and 92.1% versus 86.8% in specificity. Also, determining anti-chromatin antibodies and IFA test onto Chrithidia luciliae demonstrated greater interpretive correlation to detect anti-ds DNA by QUANTA Lite than by MESACUP. All the discrepant sera to which QUANTA Lite SS-A gave positive interpretations were confirmed to contain the antibodies specific to SS-A 52kDa antigen, which is supplemented to QUANTA Lite capture-probes. With these results, we can conclude that QUANTA Lite has superiorities over MESACUP; (1) to detect a variety of autoantibodies consisting of ANA, (2) to have a better correlation with confirmatory tests to detect anti-ds DNA antibodies, (3)to detect additional autoantibodies specific to SS-A 52kDa antigen, and (4) to have an enough compatibility in determining anti-SS-B antibodies.

  7. Controllable g5p-Protein-Directed Aggregation of ssDNA-Gold Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Maye, M; Zhang, Y; Gang, O; van der Lelie, D

    2009-01-01

    We assembled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) conjugated nanoparticles using the phage M13 gene 5 protein (g5p) as the molecular glue to bind two antiparallel noncomplementary ssDNA strands. The entire process was controlled tightly by the concentration of the g5p protein and the presence of double-stranded DNA. The g5p-ssDNA aggregate was disintegrated by hybridization with complementary ssDNA (C-ssDNA) that triggers the dissociation of the complex. Polyhistidine-tagged g5p was bound to nickel nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni2+-NTA) conjugated nanoparticles and subsequently used to coassemble the ssDNA-conjugated nanoparticles into multiparticle-type aggregates. Our approach offers great promise for designing biologically functional, controllable protein/nanoparticle composites.

  8. Beginning of the End: The Leadership of SS Obersturmbannfuehrer Jochen Peiper

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Z-time (the Greenwich Mean Time) in NATO. The second explanation is the use of the German terminology for ranks and unit names and other military...SS Sonderkommando Zossen (special commando) and SS Sonderkommando Jüterbog into the Adolf-Hitler- Standarte (Adolf Hitler guards). Hitler, himself...members, including Dietrich, were promoted for “distinguished service” (1991, 13). Butler points out that in 1934 the unit was renamed SS Standarte

  9. Upregulated UHRF1 Promotes Bladder Cancer Cell Invasion by Epigenetic Silencing of KiSS1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Jianwei; Han, Zhiyou; Ma, Xuetao; Zhang, Yuhai

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1), as an epigenetic regulator, plays important roles in the tumorigenesis and cancer progression. KiSS1 functions as a metastasis suppressor in various cancers, and epigenetic silencing of KiSS1 increases the metastatic potential of cancer cells. We therefore investigated whether UHRF1 promotes bladder cancer cell invasion by inhibiting KiSS1. The expression levels of UHRF1 and KiSS1 were examined by quantitative real-time PCR assay in vitro and in vivo. The role of UHRF1 in regulating bladder cancer metastasis was evaluated in bladder cancer cell. We found that UHRF1 levels are upregulated in most clinical specimens of bladder cancer when compared with paired normal tissues, and UHRF1 expression levels are significantly increased in primary tumors that subsequently metastasized compared with non-metastatic tumors. Forced expression of UHRF1 promotes bladder cancer cell invasion, whereas UHRF1 knockdown decreases cell invasion. Overexpression of UHRF1 increases the methylation of CpG nucleotides and reduces the expression of KiSS1. UHRF1 and KiSS1 expression level is negatively correlated in vivo and in vitro. Knockdown of KiSS1 promotes bladder cancer cell invasion. Importantly, forced expression of KiSS1 partly abrogates UHRF1-induced cell invasion. These data demonstrated that upregulated UHRF1 increases bladder cancer cell invasion by epigenetic silencing of KiSS1. PMID:25272010

  10. Upregulated UHRF1 promotes bladder cancer cell invasion by epigenetic silencing of KiSS1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Huang, Zhen; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Jianwei; Han, Zhiyou; Ma, Xuetao; Zhang, Yuhai

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1), as an epigenetic regulator, plays important roles in the tumorigenesis and cancer progression. KiSS1 functions as a metastasis suppressor in various cancers, and epigenetic silencing of KiSS1 increases the metastatic potential of cancer cells. We therefore investigated whether UHRF1 promotes bladder cancer cell invasion by inhibiting KiSS1. The expression levels of UHRF1 and KiSS1 were examined by quantitative real-time PCR assay in vitro and in vivo. The role of UHRF1 in regulating bladder cancer metastasis was evaluated in bladder cancer cell. We found that UHRF1 levels are upregulated in most clinical specimens of bladder cancer when compared with paired normal tissues, and UHRF1 expression levels are significantly increased in primary tumors that subsequently metastasized compared with non-metastatic tumors. Forced expression of UHRF1 promotes bladder cancer cell invasion, whereas UHRF1 knockdown decreases cell invasion. Overexpression of UHRF1 increases the methylation of CpG nucleotides and reduces the expression of KiSS1. UHRF1 and KiSS1 expression level is negatively correlated in vivo and in vitro. Knockdown of KiSS1 promotes bladder cancer cell invasion. Importantly, forced expression of KiSS1 partly abrogates UHRF1-induced cell invasion. These data demonstrated that upregulated UHRF1 increases bladder cancer cell invasion by epigenetic silencing of KiSS1.

  11. [Gene expression of AAV-ITR ssDNA mini vector in skeletal muscle of mice].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongqin; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Chun

    2014-11-01

    AAV-ITR single strand DNA mini vector (AAV-ITR ssDNA mini vector) is a novel gene expression vector based on AAV-ITR. We have shown efficient gene expression of AAV-ITR ssDNA mini vector in HEK 293T. Here, we studied the efficacy of gene expression of AAV-ITR ssDNA mini vector in vivo. We injected the skeletal muscle of ICR mice separately with equal molars of AAV-ITR ssDNA mini vector, ITR mutated AAV-ITR single strand DNA mini vector (AAV-ITRmm ssDNA mutant vector), AAV-ITR dsDNA and pUC57-minivector-GFP, combined with TurboFect. Florescence microscope analysis of skeletal muscle section shows that AAV-ITR ssDNA mini vector had higher expression efficiency and longer expression period. We extracted DNA from the muscle three months after injection and quantified three vectors by Real-time PCR. RT-PCR analysis shows that there were highest copy numbers of AAV-ITR ssDNA mini vector existing in muscle. Stable existing of AAV- TR ssDNA mini vector in muscle could be the molecular basis of long term gene expression of the vector. The results suggest that AAV-ITR ssDNA mini vector might be a promising vector for gene therapy.

  12. APOBEC3G Interacts with ssDNA by Two Modes: AFM Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlyakhtenko, Luda S.; Dutta, Samrat; Banga, Jaspreet; Li, Ming; Harris, Reuben S.; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.

    2015-10-01

    APOBEC3G (A3G) protein has antiviral activity against HIV and other pathogenic retroviruses. A3G has two domains: a catalytic C-terminal domain (CTD) that deaminates cytidine, and a N-terminal domain (NTD) that binds to ssDNA. Although abundant information exists about the biological activities of A3G protein, the interplay between sequence specific deaminase activity and A3G binding to ssDNA remains controversial. We used the topographic imaging and force spectroscopy modalities of Atomic Force Spectroscopy (AFM) to characterize the interaction of A3G protein with deaminase specific and nonspecific ssDNA substrates. AFM imaging demonstrated that A3G has elevated affinity for deaminase specific ssDNA than for nonspecific ssDNA. AFM force spectroscopy revealed two distinct binding modes by which A3G interacts with ssDNA. One mode requires sequence specificity, as demonstrated by stronger and more stable complexes with deaminase specific ssDNA than with nonspecific ssDNA. Overall these observations enforce prior studies suggesting that both domains of A3G contribute to the sequence specific binding of ssDNA.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of PEG-P(MAA-SS-VCL) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L. L.; Yang, K.; Mu, R. H.; Zhang, N.; Su, L.

    2016-07-01

    The PEG-P(MAA-SS-VCL) nanoparticles were obtained using disulfide containing dimethacrylate (SS) as cross-linking agent, using polyethylene glycol methyl acrylate (PEGMA), N-Vinyl-ε-caprolactam (VCL), and methacrylic acid (MAA) as monomers via homogeneous polymerization in aqueous. The PEG-P(MAA-SS-VCL) nanoparticles were characterized by FT-IR and TGA. The particle size and morphology variation in different environments were detected by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is the very method that PEG-P(MAA-SS-VCL) nanoparticles can be obtained in this study.

  14. Multimodal Pyrethroid Resistance in Malaria Vectors, Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O.; Ohashi, Kazunori; Komagata, Osamu; Kasai, Shinji; Tomita, Takashi; Sonye, George; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Mwatele, Cassian; Njenga, Sammy M.; Mwandawiro, Charles; Minakawa, Noboru; Takagi, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. are the most important species for malaria transmission. Pyrethroid resistance of these vector mosquitoes is one of the main obstacles against effective vector control. The objective of the present study was to monitor the pyrethroid susceptibility in the 3 major malaria vectors in a highly malaria endemic area in western Kenya and to elucidate the mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in these species. Gembe East and West, Mbita Division, and 4 main western islands in the Suba district of the Nyanza province in western Kenya were used as the study area. Larval and adult collection and bioassay were conducted, as well as the detection of point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel (1014L) by using direct DNA sequencing. A high level of pyrethroid resistance caused by the high frequency of point mutations (L1014S) was detected in An. gambiae s.s. In contrast, P450-related pyrethroid resistance seemed to be widespread in both An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. Not a single L1014S mutation was detected in these 2 species. A lack of cross-resistance between DDT and permethrin was also found in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s., while An. gambiae s.s. was resistant to both insecticides. It is noteworthy that the above species in the same area are found to be resistant to pyrethroids by their unique resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, it is interesting that 2 different resistance mechanisms have developed in the 2 sibling species in the same area individually. The cross resistance between permethrin and DDT in An. gambiae s.s. may be attributed to the high frequency of kdr mutation, which might be selected by the frequent exposure to ITNs. Similarly, the metabolic pyrethroid resistance in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. is thought to develop without strong selection by DDT. PMID:21853038

  15. Mid-Tertiary Isopach and Lithofacies Maps for the Los Angeles Region, California: Templates for Palinspastic Reconstruction to 17.4 Ma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCulloh, Thane H.; Beyer, Larry A.

    2004-01-01

    Opening of the Neogene Los Angeles Basin began abruptly about 17.4 Ma. Extensional rifting, with local basaltic volcanism, began the process and accompanied its early stages. Crustal detachment, followed by clockwise tectonic rotation and translation of large crustal blocks has been shown by previous paleomagnetic declination measurements in the western Transverse Ranges Province northwest of the basin and by large strike-slip and dip-slip separations on several major faults transecting it. Successful palinspastic reconstruction of the region to its arrangement before 17.4 Ma depends on understanding and integration of many stratigraphic and structural components. Before 17.4 Ma, fluviatile, alluvial and floodplain deposits, interstratified in the younger part with shallow marine to deeper shelf transgressive equivalents, accumulated to thicknesses as great as several kilometers. This report maps the surface and subsurface extents, thickness variations, and facies patterns of these strata, the Sespe plus Vaqueros and Trancas Formations or equivalents. Separate southeast and northwest sectors are revealed, each with distinctive internal thickness and facies patterns, which must have been related before rifting and transrotation. Terrestrial vertebrate and marine molluscan and foraminiferal fossils, plus magnetostratigraphic profiles of other workers and a few dates of igneous rocks, provide timing for key depositional and structural events. Our preliminary reconstruction of the region brings the internal patterns of the northwest and southeast sectors toward congruity but leaves unsatisfied discrepancies that suggest important information is missing. The reconstruction focuses attention on critical elements, specific uncertainties, and deficiencies of prior reconstructions. It also provides a new foundation for further work

  16. Chandra HETGS and VLBI Observations of SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Herman L.; Roberts, David H.; Schulz, Norbert S.

    2017-01-01

    In a previous Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) observations of SS 433, we found a large Doppler shift change on a time scale of 20 ks, a time much shorter than the known dynamical times. The rapid change could be related to the formation and ejection of a jet knot, as observed in VLBI observations, perhaps as a leptonic jet impinges on a disk wind and shock heats it. New data were obtained to test this model in a long continuous HETGS observation. The VLBA and Chandra HETGS data were obtained but while no radio ejections were observed during the Chandra observation, there were interesting aspects to the observations. First, although the jet emission lines were expected to vary with the usual precession period (162 days) or with the period of the nodding motion (6.6 days), we did not detect the expected Doppler shifts in over 120 ks of exposure. Furthermore, there is new evidence for jet curvature that has not been previously reported.Support for this work was provided in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) through the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) contract SV3-73016 to MIT for support of the Chandra X-Ray Center (CXC), which is operated by SAO for and on behalf of NASA under contract NAS8-03060. Support was also provided by NASA under grant GO4-15040A to MIT.

  17. Interfacial Shear Strength of Oxide Scale and SS 441 Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-05-01

    Recent developments on decreasing the operating temperature for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) have enabled the use of high temperature ferritic alloys as interconnect materials. Oxide scale will inevitably grow on the ferritic interconnects in a high temperature oxidation environment of SOFCs. The growth of the oxide scale induces growth stresses in the scale layer and on the scale/substrate interface. These growth stresses combined with the thermal stresses induced upon stacking cooling by the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the oxide scale and the substrate may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation, which may lead to serious cell performance degradation. Hence the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of the metallic interconnect in SOFC operating environments. In this paper, we applied an integrated experimental/modeling methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the SS 441 metallic interconnect. The predicted interfacial strength is discussed in details.

  18. Multi-wave studies of the jet in SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, Anthony; Maccarone, Tom; Conway, John; Laing, Robert; Spencer, Ralph; Cawthorne, Tim

    2010-10-01

    Observations are proposed to study the core and extended jet of SS 433 in the cm and mm (and possibly near-IR bands). We request that near simultaneous multi-wavelength observations are coordinated with instruments with similar spacial resolutions: ATCA, EVLA, PdBI and VLT (with a coronagraph). Multi-epochs (three) will be used to study variation between the core and jet over a period of three weeks. A cross-band spectral index map at each epoch will then separate the expected power-law index of the jet, from the flat spectrum core, in order to test galactic jet models to unprecedented accuracy. In addition, the successful detection of variations in the extended jets at mm or near-IR bands will directly test changes in the outflow rate (as these bands are expected to be optically thin), whereas in the cm-bands this can be confused with changes in just the optical depth (e.g. the formation of a shock).

  19. Multi-wave studies of the jet in SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, Anthony Peter; Maccarone, Tom; Conway, John; Laing, Robert; Black, John Harry; Spencer, Ralph; Cawthorne, Tim

    2011-04-01

    Observations are proposed to study the core and extended jet of SS 433 in the cm and mm (and possibly near-IR bands). We request that near simultaneous multi-wavelength observations are coordinated with instruments with similar spacial resolutions: ATCA, EVLA, e-MERLIN, ALMA and VLT (with a coronagraph). Multi-epochs (three) will be used to study variation between the core and jet over a period of three weeks. A cross-band spectral index map at each epoch will then separate the expected power-law index of the jet, from the flat spectrum core, in order to test galactic jet models to unprecedented accuracy. In addition, the successful detection of variations in the extended jets at mm or near-IR bands will directly test changes in the outflow rate (as these bands are expected to be optically thin), whereas in the cm-bands this can be confused with changes in just the optical depth (e.g. the formation of a shock).

  20. Tritium release from SS316 under vacuum condition

    SciTech Connect

    Torikai, Y.; Penzhorn, R.D.

    2015-03-15

    The plasma facing surface of the ITER vacuum vessel, partly made of low carbon austenitic stainless steel type 316L, will incorporate tritium during machine operation. In this paper the kinetics of tritium release from stainless steel type 316 into vacuum and into a noble gas stream are compared and modelled. Type 316 stainless steel specimens loaded with tritium either by exposure to 1.2 kPa HT at 573 K or submersion into liquid HTO at 298 K showed characteristic thin surface layers trapping tritium in concentrations far higher than those determined in the bulk. The evolution of the tritium depth profile in the bulk during heating under vacuum was non-discernible from that of tritium liberated into a stream of argon. Only the relative amount of the two released tritium-species, i.e. HT or HTO, was different. Temperature-dependent depth profiles could be predicted with a one-dimensional diffusion model. Diffusion coefficients derived from fitting of the tritium release into an evacuated vessel or a stream of argon were found to be (1.4 ± 1.0)*10{sup -7} and (1.3 ± 0.9)*10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/s at 573 and 423 K, respectively. Polished surfaces on type SS316 stainless steel inhibit considerably the thermal release rate of tritium.

  1. Characterizing and controlling the motion of ssDNA in a solid-state nanopore.

    PubMed

    Luan, Binquan; Martyna, Glenn; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2011-11-02

    Sequencing DNA in a synthetic solid-state nanopore is potentially a low-cost and high-throughput method. Essential to the nanopore-based DNA sequencing method is the ability to control the motion of a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecule at single-base resolution. Experimental studies showed that the average translocation speed of DNA driven by a biasing electric field can be affected by ionic concentration, solvent viscosity, or temperature. Even though it is possible to slow down the average translocation speed, instantaneous motion of DNA is too diffusive to allow each DNA base to stay in front of a sensor site for its measurement. Using extensive all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we study the diffusion constant, friction coefficient, electrophoretic mobility, and effective charge of ssDNA in a solid-state nanopore. Simulation results show that the spatial fluctuation of ssDNA in 1 ns is comparable to the spacing between neighboring nucleotides in ssDNA, which makes the sensing of a DNA base very difficult. We demonstrate that the recently proposed DNA transistor could potentially solve this problem by electrically trapping ssDNA inside the DNA transistor and ratcheting ssDNA base-by-base in a biasing electric field. When increasing the biasing electric field, we observed that the translocation of ssDNA changes from ratcheting to steady-sliding. The simulated translocation of ssDNA in the DNA transistor was theoretically characterized using Fokker-Planck analysis.

  2. 75 FR 10017 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form SS-8

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Status for Purpose of Federal Employment Taxes and Income Tax Withholding. DATES: Written comments should... Employment Taxes and Income Tax Withholding. OMB Number: 1545-0004. Form Number: SS-8. Abstract: Form SS-8 is... whether a worker is an employee for purposes of Federal ] employment taxes and income tax withholding....

  3. 78 FR 23981 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form SS-8

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Status for Purpose of Federal Employment Taxes and Income Tax Withholding. DATES: Written comments should... Employment Taxes and Income Tax Withholding. OMB Number: 1545-0004. Form Number: SS-8. Abstract: Form SS-8 is... whether a worker is an employee for purposes of Federal employment taxes and income tax withholding....

  4. The Pseudomonas putida T6SS is a plant warden against phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Patricia; Allsopp, Luke P; Filloux, Alain; Llamas, María A

    2017-04-01

    Bacterial type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are molecular weapons designed to deliver toxic effectors into prey cells. These nanomachines have an important role in inter-bacterial competition and provide advantages to T6SS active strains in polymicrobial environments. Here we analyze the genome of the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and identify three T6SS gene clusters (K1-, K2- and K3-T6SS). Besides, 10 T6SS effector-immunity pairs were found, including putative nucleases and pore-forming colicins. We show that the K1-T6SS is a potent antibacterial device, which secretes a toxic Rhs-type effector Tke2. Remarkably, P. putida eradicates a broad range of bacteria in a K1-T6SS-dependent manner, including resilient phytopathogens, which demonstrates that the T6SS is instrumental to empower P. putida to fight against competitors. Furthermore, we observed a drastically reduced necrosis on the leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana during co-infection with P. putida and Xanthomonas campestris. Such protection is dependent on the activity of the P. putida T6SS. Many routes have been explored to develop biocontrol agents capable of manipulating the microbial composition of the rhizosphere and phyllosphere. Here we unveil a novel mechanism for plant biocontrol, which needs to be considered for the selection of plant wardens whose mission is to prevent phytopathogen infections.

  5. Plant Habitat (PH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  6. Specific autoantibody slows the rapid plasma clearance of 125I-SS-B (La) in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Schrieber, L; Melsom, R D; Venables, P J; McCarthy, D A; Maini, R N

    1984-01-01

    In BALB/c mice the plasma clearance of intravenously (i.v.) injected 125I-SS-B (La) (T 1/2 = 3 min) is markedly delayed when complexed in vitro to specific autoantibody (T 1/2 = 60 min) and is associated with diminished hepatic and renal uptake. The in vivo behaviour of 11S 125I-SS-B-IgG-anti-SS-B complexes was similar to that of 20-30S 125I-heat-aggregated IgG. The presence of anti-SS-B antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome could similarly result in persistence of SS-B containing immune complexes and provide a mechanism which may perpetuate autoimmunity. PMID:6611229

  7. Selection and Application of ssDNA Aptamers against Clenbuterol Hydrochloride Based on ssDNA Library Immobilized SELEX.

    PubMed

    Duan, Nuo; Gong, Wenhui; Wu, Shijia; Wang, Zhouping

    2017-03-01

    Clenbuterol hydrochloride (CLB) is often abused as additive feed for livestock to decrease adipose tissue deposition and to increase growth rate. It raises a potential risk to human health through the consumption of animal product. In this study, aptamers with higher affinity and specificity were screened through 16 selection rounds based on the ssDNA library immobilized systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) technique. After cloning and sequencing, five aptamer candidates were picked out for affinity and specificity assays based on a graphene oxide (GO) adsorption method. The results showed that the aptamer CLB-2 binds specifically against CLB with a dissociation constant, Kd, value of 76.61 ± 12.70 nM. In addition, an aptamer-based fluorescence bioassay was established for CLB analysis. The correlation between the CLB concentration and fluorescent signal was found to be linear within the range of 0.10 to 50 ng/mL with a limit of detection of 0.07 ng/mL. It has been further applied for the determination of CLB in pork samples, showing its great potential for sensitive analysis in food safety control.

  8. pH Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunelli, Bruno; Scagnolari, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The exposition of the pervasive concept of pH, of its foundations and implementation as a meaningful quantitative measurement, in nonspecialist university texts is often not easy to follow because too many of its theoretical and operative underpinnings are neglected. To help the inquiring student we provide a concise introduction to the depth just…

  9. pH optrode

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen; Langry, Kevin C.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for forming a long-lasting, stable, pH-sensitive dye-acrylamide copolymer useful as a pH-sensitive material for use in an optrode or other device sensitive to pH. An optrode may be made by mechanically attaching the copolymer to a sensing device such as an optical fiber.

  10. Ph.D. shortage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The late 1990s will see a shortage of Ph.D. graduates, according to the Association of American Universities, Washington, D.C. AAU's new comprehensive study, “The Ph.D. Shortage: The Federal Role,” reports that competition for new Ph.D.s is already intense and can only intensify because demand is greater than supply in both academic and nonacademic markets.Doctoral education plays an increasingly important role in U.S. research and development programs. Students have a pivotal part in doing research and enriching it with new ideas. The AAU report says that graduate students are “major determinants of the creativity and productivity of U.S. academic research, the source of more than 50% of the nation's basic research.’ The market for doctoral education extends beyond the university. In 1985, about 43% of all Ph.D.s employed in this country were working outside higher education; the demand for doctorate recipients in nonacademic sectors continues to grow.

  11. The Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study (PLuSS)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David O.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Fisher, Stephen N.; Balogh, Paula; Landreneau, Rodney J.; Luketich, James D.; Siegfried, Jill M.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: The role of computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer is controversial, currently under study, and not yet fully elucidated. Objectives: To report findings from initial and 1-year repeat screening low-radiation-dose CT of the chest and 3-year outcomes for 50- to 79-year-old current and ex-smokers in the Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study (PLuSS). Methods: Notified of findings on screening CT, subjects received diagnostic advice from both study and personal physicians. Tracking subjects for up to three years since initial screening, we obtained medical records to document diagnostic procedures, lung cancer diagnoses, and deaths. Measurements and Main Results: 3,642 and 3,423 subjects had initial and repeat screening. A total of 1,477 (40.6% of 3,624) were told about noncalcified lung nodules on the initial screening and, before repeat screening, 821 (55.6% of 1,477, 22.5% of 3,642) obtained one or more subsequent diagnostic imaging studies (CT, positron emission tomography [PET], or PET-CT). Tracking identified 80 subjects with lung cancer, including 53 subjects with tumor seen at initial screening. In all, 36 subjects (1.0% of the 3,642 screened), referred for abnormalities on either the initial or repeat screening, had a major thoracic surgical procedure (thoracotomy, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery [VATS], median sternotomy, or mediastinoscopy) leading to a noncancer final diagnosis. Out of 82 subjects with thoracotomy or VATS to exclude malignancy in a lung nodule, 28 (34.1%) received a noncancer final diagnosis. Forty of 69 (58%) subjects with non–small cell lung cancer had stage I disease at diagnosis. Conclusions: Though leading to the discovery of early stage lung cancer, CT screening also led to many diagnostic follow-up procedures, including major thoracic surgical procedures with noncancer outcomes. PMID:18635890

  12. Immunohistochemical study of KiSS1 and KiSS1R expression in human primary breast cancer: Association with breast cancer receptor status, proliferation markers and clinicopathological features.

    PubMed

    Jarzabek, Katarzyna; Koda, Mariusz; Kozlowski, Leszek; Milewski, Robert; Wolczynski, Slawomir

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have raised doubts about the protective role of KiSS1/KiSS1R in breast malignancy progression. However, the role of the KiSS1/KiSS1R system in primary breast cancer remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to characterize the biology and invasiveness potential of primary breast cancer through evaluation of KiSS1/KiSS1R protein expression and cellular localization with regard to lymph node metastasis status, receptor status (ERs, PR and HER-2/neu), and expression of aromatase, MMP-9, Ki-67 and Cyclin D1 in primary invasive breast cancer tissues. We showed increased protein expression of both KiSS1/KiSS1R and MMP-9 in the cancerous tissues compared with noncancerous tissue adjacent to the breast tumour. In the studied group of breast cancer samples, we observed a positive correlation between KiSS1 and MMP-9. We also showed a positive correlation between KiSS1R and aromatase expression in all studied breast cancers. We did not notice any associations between system and cell cycle regulators. KiSS1/KiSS1R did not correlate either with Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 or with receptor status. However, we showed higher levels of KiSS1R expression in ERα-negative cases than in ERα-positive cases in patients with lymph node metastasis. Present data do not confirm the protective role of KiSS1/KiSS1R in breast cancer progression, but our results do support the hypothesis that the KiSS1/KiSS1R system is activated even in primary breast cancer and sustained during invasion to local lymph nodes.

  13. AtlasT4SS: A curated database for type IV secretion systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The type IV secretion system (T4SS) can be classified as a large family of macromolecule transporter systems, divided into three recognized sub-families, according to the well-known functions. The major sub-family is the conjugation system, which allows transfer of genetic material, such as a nucleoprotein, via cell contact among bacteria. Also, the conjugation system can transfer genetic material from bacteria to eukaryotic cells; such is the case with the T-DNA transfer of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to host plant cells. The system of effector protein transport constitutes the second sub-family, and the third one corresponds to the DNA uptake/release system. Genome analyses have revealed numerous T4SS in Bacteria and Archaea. The purpose of this work was to organize, classify, and integrate the T4SS data into a single database, called AtlasT4SS - the first public database devoted exclusively to this prokaryotic secretion system. Description The AtlasT4SS is a manual curated database that describes a large number of proteins related to the type IV secretion system reported so far in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as in Archaea. The database was created using the RDBMS MySQL and the Catalyst Framework based in the Perl programming language and using the Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern for Web. The current version holds a comprehensive collection of 1,617 T4SS proteins from 58 Bacteria (49 Gram-negative and 9 Gram-Positive), one Archaea and 11 plasmids. By applying the bi-directional best hit (BBH) relationship in pairwise genome comparison, it was possible to obtain a core set of 134 clusters of orthologous genes encoding T4SS proteins. Conclusions In our database we present one way of classifying orthologous groups of T4SSs in a hierarchical classification scheme with three levels. The first level comprises four classes that are based on the organization of genetic determinants, shared homologies, and evolutionary

  14. Genomic analysis of the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp with evidence of T3SS and T6SS gene expression on plant roots.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Muriel; Boutin, Morgane; Gazengel, Kévin; Rispe, Claude; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Guillerm-Erckelboudt, Anne-Yvonne; Lebreton, Lionel; Barret, Matthieu; Daval, Stéphanie; Sarniguet, Alain

    2013-06-01

    Several bacterial strains of the Pseudomonas genus provide plant growth stimulation, plant protection against pests or bioremediation. Among these bacteria, P. fluorescens Pf29Arp reduces the severity of take-all, a disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) on wheat roots. In this study, we obtained a draft genome of Pf29Arp and subsequent comparative genomic analyses have revealed that this bacterial strain is closely related to strains of the 'P. brassicacearum-like' subgroup including P. brassicacearum ssp. brassicacearum NFM421 and P. fluorescens F113. Despite an overall chromosomal organization similar to these strains, a number of features including antibiotic synthesis gene clusters from secondary metabolism are not found in the Pf29Arp genome. But Pf29Arp possesses different protein secretion systems including type III (T3SS) and type VI (T6SS) secretion systems. Pf29Arp is the first Pseudomonas sp. strain described with four T6SS clusters (cluster I, II, III and IV). In addition, some protein-coding genes involved in the assembly of these secretion systems are basally expressed during Pf29Arp colonization of healthy wheat roots and display different expression patterns on necrotized roots caused by Ggt. These data suggest a role of T3SS and T6SS in the Pf29Arp adaptation to different root environments.

  15. A novel protein elicitor (SsCut) from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum induces multiple defense responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huajian; Wu, Qun; Cao, Shun; Zhao, Tongyao; Chen, Ling; Zhuang, Peitong; Zhou, Xiuhong; Gao, Zhimou

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we report the cloning of the SsCut gene encoding cutinase from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We isolated a 609-bp cDNA encoding a polypeptide of 202 amino acids with a molecular weight of 20.4 kDa. Heterologous expression of SsCut in Escherichia coli (His-SsCut) caused the formation of lesions in tobacco that closely resembled hypersensitive response lesions. Mutational analysis identified the C-terminal-half peptide and the same amino acids indispensable for both enzyme and elicitor activity. His-SsCut was caused cell death in Arabidopsis, soybean (Glycine max), oilseed rape (Brassica napus), rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), indicating that both dicot and monocot species are responsive to the elicitor. Furthermore, the elicitation of tobacco was effective in the induction of the activities of hydrogen peroxide, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxides, and polyphenol oxidase. His-SsCut-treated plants exhibited enhanced resistance as indicated by a significant reduction in the number and size of S. sclerotiorum, Phytophthora sojae, and P. nicotianae lesions on leaves relative to controls. Real-time PCR results indicated that the expression of defense-related genes and genes involved in signal transduction were induced by His-SsCut. Our results demonstrate that SsCut is an elicitor that triggers defense responses in plants and will help to clarify its relationship to downstream signaling pathways that induce defense responses.

  16. Identifying physiological origins of baroreflex dysfunction in salt-sensitive hypertension in the Dahl SS rat

    PubMed Central

    Bugenhagen, Scott M.; Cowley, Allen W.

    2010-01-01

    Salt-sensitive hypertension is known to be associated with dysfunction of the baroreflex control system in the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat. However, neither the physiological mechanisms nor the genomic regions underlying the baroreflex dysfunction seen in this rat model are definitively known. Here, we have adopted a mathematical modeling approach to investigate the physiological and genetic origins of baroreflex dysfunction in the Dahl SS rat. We have developed a computational model of the overall baroreflex heart rate control system based on known physiological mechanisms to analyze telemetry-based blood pressure and heart rate data from two genetic strains of rat, the SS and consomic SS.13BN, on low- and high-salt diets. With this approach, physiological parameters are estimated, unmeasured physiological variables related to the baroreflex control system are predicted, and differences in these quantities between the two strains of rat on low- and high-salt diets are detected. Specific findings include: a significant selective impairment in sympathetic gain with high-salt diet in SS rats and a protection from this impairment in SS.13BN rats, elevated sympathetic and parasympathetic offsets with high-salt diet in both strains, and an elevated sympathetic tone with high-salt diet in SS but not SS.13BN rats. In conclusion, we have associated several important physiological parameters of the baroreflex control system with chromosome 13 and have begun to identify possible physiological mechanisms underlying baroreflex impairment and hypertension in the Dahl SS rat that may be further explored in future experimental and modeling-based investigation. PMID:20354102

  17. Corrosion Resistance of 304L SS Spray Coated with Zirconia Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswari, A. Uma; Sivakumar, M.; Indhumathi, N.; Mohan, Sreedevi R.

    2016-09-01

    Influence of substrate temperature on corrosion (in 3.5% NaCl) and wear resistance of nanostructured zirconia thin film coated 304L SS substrates are studied by electrochemical and nano-indentation methods. This analysis shows 304L SS substrate spray coated with nanostructured zirconia at substrate temperature closer to the boiling point of the spray solvent ethanol exhibited good corrosion and wear resistance behaviour. This is because of the compressive stress developed during film fabrication at lower substrate temperature (∼50 °C) and hence constrains the indentation plasticity, which leads to higher indentation load than the bare 304L SS.

  18. Large short- and long-term Hikurangi margin, New Zealand SSEs in 2013, and possible triggering of moderate to large seismicity during the SSEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, L. M.; Fry, B.; Bannister, S. C.; Hamling, I. J.; Ito, Y.; Obara, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Hikurangi margin has been the site of 3 large slow slip events (SSEs) during the 2013 period. These include a recurrence of the deep (30-50 km depth) long-term Kapiti SSE that began in January 2013, as well as a large, shallow (Mw 6.8, <15 km depth) SSE on the central Hikurangi subduction thrust in February 2013. At the time of submission of this abstract, the Kapiti SSE is still ongoing, but based on past behavior of Kapiti SSEs, they typically last 1 year, and release moment equivalent to a Mw 7.0. The previous Kapiti SSEs occurred in 2003 and 2008, confirming a 5 year recurrence interval for these SSEs. The central Hikurangi (Hawkes Bay region) SSE is the largest SSE observed to date on the portion of the subduction thrust beneath Hawke Bay, involving 1.5-2 cm of horizontal displacement of cGPS sites, and it is among the largest shallow (<15 km depth) SSEs ever observed on Earth. Most of the slip beneath Hawke Bay occurred within a 2 week period, but continued steady slip north of the main SSE region is ongoing (as of August 2013). In July, another shallow SSE occurred at the northern Hikurangi margin, where 4 Ocean Bottom Pressure recorders are deployed by Tohoku University to capture vertical seafloor deformation in Hikurangi SSEs. These 3 SSEs further demonstrate the remarkable diversity of slow slip behavior at the Hikurangi margin, particularly in terms of recurrence, depths, duration, and magnitudes. In addition to SSE activity, 2013 has also seen a swarm of earthquakes (up to ML 4.8) during the Hawkes Bay region SSE. On July 21, 2013, the largest earthquake to strike the Wellington region (Mw 6.5) since 1942 occurred on a NE-striking strike-slip fault at about 13 km focal depth, within the overriding plate beneath Cook Strait. The event was preceded by foreshocks reaching Mw 5.7 that had predominantly reverse focal mechanisms and somewhat deeper depths. We present evidence that this earthquake sequence may have been promoted by stress changes from the

  19. Tissue uptake and catabolic studies of /sup 125/I SS-B (La) injected into mice

    SciTech Connect

    Schrieber, L.; Melsom, R.D.; Venables, P.J.; Maini, R.N.

    1984-04-01

    The radiolabeled soluble cellular antigen /sup 125/I SS-B (La) has a plasma half-life of 3 min following iv injection into BALB/C mice. Uptake by Kupffer cells (KC) and proximal renal tubular (PRT) cells was demonstrated by autoradiography (ARG). That trichloracetic acid (TCA)-soluble products of /sup 125/I SS-B appeared in plasma within 1 min of iv injection suggests rapid in vivo breakdown. Activated peritoneal macrophages (APM) degraded /sup 125/I SS-B in a time- and cell-dose-dependent fashion. These findings suggest that the plasma clearance and catabolism of /sup 125/I SS-B may be dependent on its interaction with phagocytic cells. This rapid antigen elimination may protect against harmful autoantibody responses.

  20. An investigation of p-normed sparsity evaluation for SS-LBP-based edge extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-yi, Zhao; Jia-ning, Sun; Shuang, Qiao

    2017-02-01

    SS-LBP is a very efficient tool for fast edge extraction in digital radiography. In this paper, we introduce a p-normed sparsity evaluation strategy to improve and generalize the existing SS-LBP framework. To illustrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, several experimental results are presented. Comparisons show that 1-normed sparsity evaluation is more effective and robust in practical applications.

  1. Integrated Composite Stiffener Structure (ICoSS) Concept for Planetary Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris

    2016-01-01

    Results from the design, manufacturing, and testing of a lightweight Integrated Composite Stiffened Structure (ICoSS) concept, intended for multi-mission planetary entry vehicles are presented. Tests from both component and full-scale tests for a typical Earth Entry Vehicle forward shell manufactured using the ICoSS concept are presented and advantages of the concept for the particular application of passive Earth Entry Vehicles over other structural concepts are discussed.

  2. Small Subunits of Serine Palmitoyltransferase (ssSPTs) and Their Physiological Roles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-12

    blast homology searches of Tsc3p against the human genome showed no candidate homologs. However, recently two functional orthologs of Tsc3p, the small...ssSPTs in Schizosaccharomyces pombe   INTRODUCTION: Schizosaccharomyces pombe forms a major clade of the ‘Ascomycete fungi ’ but it is believed...homology search against the C. elegans genome database, using human ssSPTa as the query sequence. Blast analysis yielded one questionable homolog

  3. DNA nanotubes and helical nanotapes via self-assembly of ssDNA-amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Timothy R; Kokkoli, Efrosini

    2015-01-07

    DNA nanotubes were created using molecular self-assembly of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-amphiphiles composed of a hydrophobic dialkyl tail and polycarbon spacer and a hydrophilic ssDNA headgroup. The nanotube structures were formed by bilayers of amphiphiles, with the hydrophobic components forming an inner layer that was shielded from the aqueous solvent by an outer layer of ssDNA. The nanotubes appeared to form via an assembly process that included transitions from twisted nanotapes to helical nanotapes to nanotubes. Amphiphiles that contained different ssDNA headgroups were created to explore the effect of the length and secondary structure of the ssDNA headgroup on the self-assembly behavior of the amphiphiles in the presence and absence of the polycarbon spacer. It was found that nanotubes could be formed using a variety of headgroup lengths and sequences. The ability to create nanotubes via ssDNA-amphiphile self-assembly offers an alternative to the other purely DNA-based approaches like DNA origami and DNA tile assembly for constructing these structures and may be useful for applications in drug delivery, biosensing, and electronics.

  4. The mitochondrial-targeted compound SS-31 re-energizes ischemic mitochondria by interacting with cardiolipin.

    PubMed

    Birk, Alexander V; Liu, Shaoyi; Soong, Yi; Mills, William; Singh, Pradeep; Warren, J David; Seshan, Surya V; Pardee, Joel D; Szeto, Hazel H

    2013-07-01

    Ischemia causes AKI as a result of ATP depletion, and rapid recovery of ATP on reperfusion is important to minimize tissue damage. ATP recovery is often delayed, however, because ischemia destroys the mitochondrial cristae membranes required for mitochondrial ATP synthesis. The mitochondria-targeted compound SS-31 accelerates ATP recovery after ischemia and reduces AKI, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we used a polarity-sensitive fluorescent analog of SS-31 to demonstrate that SS-31 binds with high affinity to cardiolipin, an anionic phospholipid expressed on the inner mitochondrial membrane that is required for cristae formation. In addition, the SS-31/cardiolipin complex inhibited cytochrome c peroxidase activity, which catalyzes cardiolipin peroxidation and results in mitochondrial damage during ischemia, by protecting its heme iron. Pretreatment of rats with SS-31 protected cristae membranes during renal ischemia and prevented mitochondrial swelling. Prompt recovery of ATP on reperfusion led to rapid repair of ATP-dependent processes, such as restoration of the actin cytoskeleton and cell polarity. Rapid recovery of ATP also inhibited apoptosis, protected tubular barrier function, and mitigated renal dysfunction. In conclusion, SS-31, which is currently in clinical trials for ischemia-reperfusion injury, protects mitochondrial cristae by interacting with cardiolipin on the inner mitochondrial membrane.

  5. The Mitochondrial-Targeted Compound SS-31 Re-Energizes Ischemic Mitochondria by Interacting with Cardiolipin

    PubMed Central

    Birk, Alexander V.; Liu, Shaoyi; Soong, Yi; Mills, William; Singh, Pradeep; Warren, J. David; Seshan, Surya V.; Pardee, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    Ischemia causes AKI as a result of ATP depletion, and rapid recovery of ATP on reperfusion is important to minimize tissue damage. ATP recovery is often delayed, however, because ischemia destroys the mitochondrial cristae membranes required for mitochondrial ATP synthesis. The mitochondria-targeted compound SS-31 accelerates ATP recovery after ischemia and reduces AKI, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we used a polarity-sensitive fluorescent analog of SS-31 to demonstrate that SS-31 binds with high affinity to cardiolipin, an anionic phospholipid expressed on the inner mitochondrial membrane that is required for cristae formation. In addition, the SS-31/cardiolipin complex inhibited cytochrome c peroxidase activity, which catalyzes cardiolipin peroxidation and results in mitochondrial damage during ischemia, by protecting its heme iron. Pretreatment of rats with SS-31 protected cristae membranes during renal ischemia and prevented mitochondrial swelling. Prompt recovery of ATP on reperfusion led to rapid repair of ATP-dependent processes, such as restoration of the actin cytoskeleton and cell polarity. Rapid recovery of ATP also inhibited apoptosis, protected tubular barrier function, and mitigated renal dysfunction. In conclusion, SS-31, which is currently in clinical trials for ischemia-reperfusion injury, protects mitochondrial cristae by interacting with cardiolipin on the inner mitochondrial membrane. PMID:23813215

  6. Promotion of plant growth by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 via novel volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Dutta, Swarnalee; Ann, Mina; Raaijmakers, Jos M; Park, Kyungseok

    2015-05-29

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play key roles in modulating plant growth and induced systemic resistance (ISR) to pathogens. Despite their significance, the physiological functions of the specific VOCs produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 (Pf.SS101) have not been precisely elucidated. The effects of Pf.SS101 and its VOCs on augmentation of plant growth promotion were investigated in vitro and in planta. A significant growth promotion was observed in plants exposed Pf.SS101 under both conditions, suggesting that its VOCs play a key role in promoting plant growth. Solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and a gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) system were used to characterize the VOCs emitted by Pf.SS101 and 11 different compounds were detected in samples inoculated this bacterium, including 13-Tetradecadien-1-ol, 2-butanone and 2-Methyl-n-1-tridecene. Application of these compounds resulted in enhanced plant growth. This study suggests that Pf.SS101 promotes the growth of plants via the release of VOCs including 13-Tetradecadien-1-ol, 2-butanone and 2-Methyl-n-1-tridecene, thus increasing understanding of the role of VOCs in plant-bacterial inter-communication.

  7. KiSS1 and its G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54 in cancer development and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Gook; Li, Dali; Tan, Kunrong; Siwko, Stefan K; Liu, Mingyao

    2012-12-01

    KiSS1 and its cognate G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR54, have diverse functions. While KiSS1 and GPR54 have been intensively studied in physiology, their role in cancer is still unclear. In cancer, KiSS1 and GPR54 have been known to suppress metastasis by inhibiting cancer cell motility. However, recent studies suggest that KiSS1 and GPR54 have varied roles even in cancer development and metastasis. Here, we examine recent advances in understanding the roles of KiSS1 and GPR54 in cancer development and metastasis.

  8. Prognostic role of KiSS-1 and possibility of therapeutic modality of metastin, the final peptide of the KiSS-1 gene, in urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toshikazu; Kikuchi, Eiji; Mikami, Shuji; Suzuki, Eriko; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Miyajima, Akira; Okada, Yasunori; Oya, Mototsugu

    2012-04-01

    The KiSS-1 gene has been reported to be a metastasis suppressor gene in human melanoma. The gene product was isolated from human placenta as the ligand of GPR54, a G protein-coupled receptor, and the C-terminally amidated peptide of 54 amino acids is called metastin. The binding of metastin to GPR54 has been shown to inhibit tumor metastasis in some tumor cells; however, its function remains unclear in urothelial carcinoma. We first evaluated KiSS-1 expression and GPR54 expression in 151 patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma to determine their prognostic significance. Next, we examined the role of metastin in the invasiveness and lung metastasis of MBT-2 variant (MBT-2V), which is a highly metastatic murine bladder cancer cell. Multivariate analysis revealed that KiSS-1 expression was an independent predictor of metastasis and overall survival. However, GPR54 expression was not selected. Hematogeneous metastasis had a significantly lower level of KiSS-1 expression compared with lymph node metastasis. Metastin treatment significantly reduced the invasiveness of MBT-2V cells and inhibited the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by blocking its nuclear translocation, leading to a reduction in the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Metastin treatment dramatically prevented the occurrence of lung metastatic nodules (6.3 ± 2.3, n = 15) compared with controls (30.4 ± 5.1, n = 15; P < 0.01), as well as had survival benefit. KiSS-1 plays an important role in the prognosis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma and metastin may be an effective inhibitor of metastasis in urothelial carcinoma through its blockade of NF-κB function.

  9. Data demonstrating the effects of build orientation and heat treatment on fatigue behavior of selective laser melted 17–4 PH stainless steel

    PubMed Central

    Yadollahi, Aref; Simsiriwong, Jutima; Thompson, Scott M.; Shamsaei, Nima

    2016-01-01

    Axial fully-reversed strain-controlled (R=−1) fatigue experiments were performed to obtain data demonstrating the effects of building orientation (i.e. vertical versus horizontal) and heat treatment on the fatigue behavior of 17–4 PH stainless steel (SS) fabricated via Selective Laser Melting (SLM) (Yadollahi et al., submitted for publication [1]). This data article provides detailed experimental data including cyclic stress-strain responses, variations of peak stresses during cyclic deformation, and fractography of post-mortem specimens for SLM 17–4 PH SS. PMID:26955653

  10. Atom Probe Tomographic Characterization of Nanoscale Cu-Rich Precipitates in 17-4 Precipitate Hardened Stainless Steel Tempered at Different Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zemin; Fang, Xulei; Li, Hui; Liu, Wenqing

    2017-03-16

    The formation of copper-rich precipitates of 17-4 precipitate hardened stainless steel has been investigated, after tempering at 350-570°C for 4 h, by atom probe tomography (APT). The results reveal that the clusters, enriched only with Cu, were observed after tempering at 420°C. Segregation of Ni, Mn to the Cu-rich clusters took place at 450°C, contributing to the increased hardening. After tempering at 510°C, Ni and Mn were rejected from Cu-rich precipitates and accumulated at the precipitate/matrix interfaces. Al and Si were present and uniformly distributed in the precipitates that were <1.5 nm in radius, but Ni, Mn, Al, and Si were enriched at the interfaces of larger precipitates/matrix. The proxigram profiles of the Cu-rich precipitates formed at 570°C indicated that Ni, Mn, Al, and Si segregated to the precipitate/matrix interfaces to form a Ni(Fe, Mn, Si, Al) shell, which significantly reduced the interfacial energy as the precipitates grew into an elongated shape. In addition, the number density of Cu-rich precipitates was increased with the temperature elevated from 350 up to 450°C and subsequently decreased at higher temperatures. Also, the composition of the matrix and the precipitates were measured and found to vary with temperature.

  11. Toxicity of neurons treated with herbicides and neuroprotection by mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Tejaswini P; Manczak, Maria; Calkins, Marcus J; Mao, Peizhong; Reddy, Arubala P; Shirendeb, Ulziibat; Park, Byung; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the neurotoxicity of two commonly used herbicides: picloram and triclopyr and the neuroprotective effects of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, SS31. Using mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells and primary neurons from C57BL/6 mice, we investigated the toxicity of these herbicides, and protective effects of SS1 peptide against picloram and triclopyr toxicity. We measured total RNA content, cell viability and mRNA expression of peroxiredoxins, neuroprotective genes, mitochondrial-encoded electron transport chain (ETC) genes in N2a cells treated with herbicides and SS31. Using primary neurons from C57BL/6 mice, neuronal survival was studied in neurons treated with herbicides, in neurons pretreated with SS31 plus treated with herbicides, neurons treated with SS31 alone, and untreated neurons. Significantly decreased total RNA content, and cell viability in N2a cells treated with picloram and triclopyr were found compared to untreated N2a cells. Decreased mRNA expression of neuroprotective genes, and ETC genes in cells treated with herbicides was found compared to untreated cells. Decreased mRNA expression of peroxiredoxins 1-6 in N2a cells treated with picloram was found, suggesting that picloram affects the antioxidant enzymes in N2a cells. Immunofluorescence analysis of primary neurons revealed that decreased neuronal branching and degenerating neurons in neurons treated with picloram and triclopyr. However, neurons pretreated with SS31 prevented degenerative process caused by herbicides. Based on these results, we propose that herbicides--picloram and triclopyr appear to damage neurons, and the SS31 peptide appears to protect neurons from herbicide toxicity.

  12. Toxicity of Neurons Treated with Herbicides and Neuroprotection by Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SS31

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Tejaswini P.; Manczak, Maria; Calkins, Marcus J.; Mao, Peizhong; Reddy, Arubala P.; Shirendeb, Ulziibat; Park, Byung; Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the neurotoxicity of two commonly used herbicides: picloram and triclopyr and the neuroprotective effects of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, SS31. Using mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells and primary neurons from C57BL/6 mice, we investigated the toxicity of these herbicides, and protective effects of SS1 peptide against picloram and triclopyr toxicity. We measured total RNA content, cell viability and mRNA expression of peroxiredoxins, neuroprotective genes, mitochondrial-encoded electron transport chain (ETC) genes in N2a cells treated with herbicides and SS31. Using primary neurons from C57BL/6 mice, neuronal survival was studied in neurons treated with herbicides, in neurons pretreated with SS31 plus treated with herbicides, neurons treated with SS31 alone, and untreated neurons. Significantly decreased total RNA content, and cell viability in N2a cells treated with picloram and triclopyr were found compared to untreated N2a cells. Decreased mRNA expression of neuroprotective genes, and ETC genes in cells treated with herbicides was found compared to untreated cells. Decreased mRNA expression of peroxiredoxins 1–6 in N2a cells treated with picloram was found, suggesting that picloram affects the antioxidant enzymes in N2a cells. Immunofluorescence analysis of primary neurons revealed that decreased neuronal branching and degenerating neurons in neurons treated with picloram and triclopyr. However, neurons pretreated with SS31 prevented degenerative process caused by herbicides. Based on these results, we propose that herbicides—picloram and triclopyr appear to damage neurons, and the SS31 peptide appears to protect neurons from herbicide toxicity. PMID:21318024

  13. An improved DNA force field for ssDNA interactions with gold nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xiankai; Huai, Ping; Fan, Chunhai; Song, Bo E-mail: bosong@sinap.ac.cn; Gao, Jun; Huynh, Tien; Zhou, Ruhong E-mail: bosong@sinap.ac.cn

    2014-06-21

    The widespread applications of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have spurred an increasing interest in the interactions between ssDNA and AuNPs. Despite extensive studies using the most sophisticated experimental techniques, the detailed molecular mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can thus be used to supplement experiments by providing complementary information about ssDNA-AuNP interactions. However, up to now, all modern force fields for DNA were developed based on the properties of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules, which have hydrophilic outer backbones “protecting” hydrophobic inner nucleobases from water. Without the double-helix structure of dsDNA and thus the “protection” by the outer backbone, the nucleobases of ssDNA are directly exposed to solvent, and their behavior in water is very different from that of dsDNA, especially at the interface with nanoparticles. In this work, we have improved the force field of ssDNA for use with nanoparticles, such as AuNPs, based on recent experimental results and quantum mechanics calculations. With the new improved force field, we demonstrated that a poly(A) sequence adsorbed on a AuNP surface is much more stable than a poly(T) sequence, which is consistent with recent experimental observations. On the contrary, the current standard force fields, including AMBER03, CHARMM27, and OPLSAA, all gave erroneous results as compared to experiments. The current improved force field is expected to have wide applications in the study of ssDNA with nanomaterials including AuNPs, which might help promote the development of ssDNA-based biosensors and other bionano-devices.

  14. [Study and development of a new automatic suction system (SS) of intratracheal sputum in order to improve QOL of many patients with tracheostomy mechanical ventilation (TMV) and their family members by this new autonomic SS].

    PubMed

    Hokezu, Youichi; Yamamoto, Makoto; Tokunaga, Syuichi; Niikura, Makoto; Nagamatsu, Keiji; Kira, Jun-ichi; Fukunaga, Toshihide; Shima, Kouji; Kikuchi, Seiji; Kimura, Itaru; Kondo, Kiyohiko; Mori, Teruhiko; Goto, Katumasa; Takigami, Shigeru; Shioya, Keiichi; Uehara, Minako

    2009-11-01

    In Japan, many patients equipped with TMV are under medical treatment at home after 1990. These patients can't put out sputa in trachea, so that these patient's family members must suck these patient's intratracheal sputa all days. Mr Yamamoto and Mr Tokunaga, main researchers of this study, began the study on the automatic SS of itratracheal sputa from 1999. In first stage, They developed the intermittent SS in detaining the suction tube within tracheal cannula, monitering the intratracheal pressure, but this system takes the ventilation away from the patient. Hypoventilation caused by this SS may cause the serious accident in patient. Therefore, we remodel the SS from intermittent SS to rollerpomp-type SS continuing to suck the itratracheal sputa with low volume from 2004, and thereafter we made up the SS of piston pomp type-SS finally at 2007. We developed the tracheal cannula with double suction holes of inner and lower hole in the lower part of its cannula together with the suction machine. We think that the practical use of this automatic SS will bring these patients with TMV and their family members great benefits. We desire that the practical use of this SS will be realized as soon as possible.

  15. ReSS: Resource Selection Service for National and Campus Grid Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Timm, Steve

    2010-04-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) offers access to around hundred Compute elements (CE) and storage elements (SE) via standard Grid interfaces. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) is a push-based workload management system that is integrated with the OSG information systems and resources. ReSS integrates standard Grid tools such as Condor, as a brokering service and the gLite CEMon, for gathering and publishing resource information in GLUE Schema format. ReSS is used in OSG by Virtual Organizations (VO) such as Dark Energy Survey (DES), DZero and Engagement VO. ReSS is also used as a Resource Selection Service for Campus Grids, such as FermiGrid. VOs use ReSS to automate the resource selection in their workload management system to run jobs over the grid. In the past year, the system has been enhanced to enable publication and selection of storage resources and of any special software or software libraries (like MPI libraries) installed at computing resources. In this paper, we discuss the Resource Selection Service, its typical usage on the two scales of a National Cyber Infrastructure Grid, such as OSG, and of a campus Grid, such as FermiGrid.

  16. ReSS: Resource Selection Service for National and Campus Grid Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Timm, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) offers access to around hundred Compute elements (CE) and storage elements (SE) via standard Grid interfaces. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) is a push-based workload management system that is integrated with the OSG information systems and resources. ReSS integrates standard Grid tools such as Condor, as a brokering service and the gLite CEMon, for gathering and publishing resource information in GLUE Schema format. ReSS is used in OSG by Virtual Organizations (VO) such as Dark Energy Survey (DES), DZero and Engagement VO. ReSS is also used as a Resource Selection Service for Campus Grids, such as FermiGrid. VOs use ReSS to automate the resource selection in their workload management system to run jobs over the grid. In the past year, the system has been enhanced to enable publication and selection of storage resources and of any special software or software libraries (like MPI libraries) installed at computing resources. In this paper, we discuss the Resource Selection Service, its typical usage on the two scales of a National Cyber Infrastructure Grid, such as OSG, and of a campus Grid, such as FermiGrid.

  17. Differential Role of the T6SS in Acinetobacter baumannii Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Foucault-Grunenwald, Marie-Laure; Borges, Vitor; Charpentier, Xavier; Limansky, Adriana S.; Gomes, João Paulo; Viale, Alejandro M.; Salcedo, Suzana P.

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, are an increasing burden in hospitals worldwide with an alarming spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Herein, we compared a type strain (ATCC17978), a non-clinical isolate (DSM30011) and MDR strains of A. baumannii implicated in hospital outbreaks (Ab242, Ab244 and Ab825), revealing distinct patterns of type VI secretion system (T6SS) functionality. The T6SS genomic locus is present and was actively transcribed in all of the above strains. However, only the A. baumannii DSM30011 strain was capable of killing Escherichia coli in a T6SS-dependent manner, unlike the clinical isolates, which failed to display an active T6SS in vitro. In addition, DSM30011 was able to outcompete ATCC17978 as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, bacterial pathogens relevant in mixed nosocomial infections. Finally, we found that the T6SS of DSM30011 is required for host colonization of the model organism Galleria mellonella suggesting that this system could play an important role in A. baumannii virulence in a strain-specific manner. PMID:26401654

  18. Functional analysis of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SS) in sugarcane (Saccharum) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Verma, A K; Upadhyay, S K; Verma, P C; Solomon, S; Singh, S B

    2011-03-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) and sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13) are key enzymes in the synthesis and breakdown of sucrose in sugarcane. The activities of internodal SPS and SS, as well as transcript expression were determined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR at different developmental stages of high and low sucrose accumulating sugarcane cultivars. SPS activity and transcript expression was higher in mature internodes compared with immature internodes in all the studied cultivars. However, high sugar cultivars showed increased transcript expression and enzyme activity of SPS compared to low sugar cultivars at all developmental stages. SS activity was higher in immature internodes than in mature internodes in all cultivars; SS transcript expression showed a similar pattern. Our studies demonstrate that SPS activity was positively correlated with sucrose and negatively correlated with hexose sugars. However, SS activity was negatively correlated with sucrose and positively correlated with hexose sugars. The present study opens the possibility for improvement of sugarcane cultivars by increasing expression of the respective enzymes using transgene technology.

  19. Diffractional Imaging of Mantle Transition Zone Discontinuities Using SdS-SS Traveltimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Z.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The mantle transition zone is characterized by two discontinuities at depths of about 410 and 660 km. Mineral physics studies suggest that wavespeed and density jumps across the discontinuities are associated with olivine phase transformations and the depths at which the phase transformations occur are strongly dependent on temperature. Imaging lateral variations of the discontinuity depths is important for constraining thermal structure in the mid mantle. SS precursors (SdS) are waves reflected at the underside of the discontinuities and arrive beforethe SS phase. Their traveltime measurements at teleseismic distances can be used to map the discontinuities at a global scale. In this study, we measure frequency-dependent SS precursors traveltimes using seismograms recorded at GSN stations for earthquakes occurred between 2000 and 2015. The measurements were made using cosine tapers and multitapers and the traveltimes show significant dispersion. We calculate finite-frequency sensitivity kernels for SdS-SS differential measurements based on traveling-wave mode summation, which account for complete wave interactions within the measurement window. We will discuss preliminary results from finite-frequency imaging using SdS-SS dispersion measurements and the effects of 3-D crustal structure and mantle wavespeed structure.

  20. Structure/property (constitutive and dynamic strength/damage) characterization of additively manufactured 316L SS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, G. T., III; Livescu, V.; Rigg, P. A.; Trujillo, C. P.; Cady, C. M.; Chen, S. R.; Carpenter, J. S.; Lienert, T. J.; Fensin, S.

    2015-09-01

    For additive manufacturing (AM), the certification and qualification paradigm needs to evolve as there exists no "ASTM-type" additive manufacturing certified process or AM-material produced specifications. Accordingly, utilization of AM materials to meet engineering applications requires quantification of the constitutive properties of these evolving materials in comparison to conventionally-manufactured metals and alloys. Cylinders of 316L SS were produced using a LENS MR-7 laser additive manufacturing system from Optomec (Albuquerque, NM) equipped with a 1kW Yb-fiber laser. The microstructure of the AM-316L SS is detailed in both the as-built condition and following heat-treatments designed to obtain full recrystallization. The constitutive behavior as a function of strain rate and temperature is presented and compared to that of nominal annealed wrought 316L SS plate. The dynamic damage evolution and failure response of all three materials was probed using flyer-plate impact driven spallation experiments at a peak stress of 4.5 GPa to examine incipient spallation response. The spall strength of AM-produced 316L SS was found to be very similar for the peak shock stress studied to that of annealed wrought or AM-316L SS following recrystallization. The damage evolution as a function of microstructure was characterized using optical metallography.

  1. HL Canis Majoris in preoutburst and SS Cygni - The interoutburst disk instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansperger, C. S.; Kaitchuck, R. H.; Garnavich, P. M.; Dinshaw, N.; Zamkoff, E.

    1994-01-01

    SS Cygni and HL Canis majoris were observed by IUE for three consecutive nights in November of 1992. During the first two nights, simultaneous photometric ground-based observations of SS Cyg were made at the Ball State University Observatory. Observations of SS Cyg and HL CMa were also obtained simultaneously with the 90-inch telescope at the Steward Observatory on the last two nights of the IUE run. These spectroscopic observations covered the wavelength range from 4100 to 5000 A, while the spectra taken with the short wavelength camera on IUE resulted in wavelength coverage from 1150 A to 1980 A. SS Cyg is a U Geminorum-type dwarf nova with an orbital period of 6.6 hr. Good simultaneous UV and optical orbital coverage was obtained for this system. HL CMa is a Z Camelopardalis-type dwarf nova with a mean outburst interval of 15 days. The American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) reports that this system was in outburst 4 days after the observing run. Therefore, HL CMa may have been in a preoutburst state during these observations. Optical spectra of HL CMa indicate a warm front passed through the outer disk four days before outburst, but no changes were seen in the UV spectra. Signs of a preoutburst state were observed to develop in SS Cyg, but no outburst occurred for another 30 days.

  2. Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Laser Melted 304L SS Weldment in Nitric Acid Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Girija; Kishor, P. S. V. R. A.; Dasgupta, Arup; Upadhyay, B. N.; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2017-02-01

    The manuscript presents the effect of laser surface melting on the corrosion property of 304L SS weldment in nitric acid medium. 304L SS weldment was prepared by gas tungsten arc welding process and subsequently laser surface melted using Nd:YAG laser. The microstructure and corrosion resistance of laser surface melted 304L SS weldment was evaluated and compared with that of 304L SS as-weldment and 304L SS base. Microstructural evaluation was carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopes attached with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Corrosion investigations were carried out in 4 and 8 M nitric acid by potentiodynamic polarization technique. From the results, it was found that laser surface melting of the weldment led to chemical and microstructural homogeneities, accompanied by a substantial decrease in delta ferrite content, that enhanced the corrosion resistance of the weldment in 4 and 8 M nitric acid. However, the enhancement in the corrosion resistance was not substantial. The presence of small amount of delta ferrite (2-4 wt.%) in the laser surface melted specimens was found to be detrimental in nitric acid. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies were carried out to investigate the composition of the passive film.

  3. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A.nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles.

  4. SS-Stabilizing Proteins Rationally: Intrinsic Disorder-Based Design of Stabilizing Disulphide Bridges in GFP.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bogdan S; Povarnitsyna, Tatiana V; Glukhov, Anatoly S; Melnik, Tatyana N; Uversky, Vladimir N; Sarma, Ramaswamy H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The most attractive and methodologically convenient way to enhance protein stability is via the introduction of disulphide bond(s). However, the effect of the artificially introduced SS-bond on protein stability is often quite unpredictable. This raises the question of how to choose the protein sites in an intelligent manner, so that the 'fastening' of these sites by the SS-bond(s) would provide maximal protein stability. We hypothesize that the successful design of a stabilizing SS-bond requires finding highly mobile protein regions. Using GFP as an illustrative example, we demonstrate that the knowledge of the peculiarities of the intramolecular hydrophobic interactions, combined with the understanding of the local intrinsic disorder propensities (that can be evaluated by various disorder predictors, e.g., PONDRFIT), is sufficient to find the candidate sites for the introduction of stabilizing SS-bridge(s). In fact, our analysis revealed that the insertion of the engineered SS-bridge between two highly flexible regions of GFP noticeably increased the conformational stability of this protein toward the thermal and chemical unfolding. Therefore, our study represents a novel approach for the rational design of stabilizing disulphide bridges in proteins.

  5. Previously unknown and highly divergent ssDNA viruses populate the oceans.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Jessica M; Suttle, Curtis A

    2013-11-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses are economically important pathogens of plants and animals, and are widespread in oceans; yet, the diversity and evolutionary relationships among marine ssDNA viruses remain largely unknown. Here we present the results from a metagenomic study of composite samples from temperate (Saanich Inlet, 11 samples; Strait of Georgia, 85 samples) and subtropical (46 samples, Gulf of Mexico) seawater. Most sequences (84%) had no evident similarity to sequenced viruses. In total, 608 putative complete genomes of ssDNA viruses were assembled, almost doubling the number of ssDNA viral genomes in databases. These comprised 129 genetically distinct groups, each represented by at least one complete genome that had no recognizable similarity to each other or to other virus sequences. Given that the seven recognized families of ssDNA viruses have considerable sequence homology within them, this suggests that many of these genetic groups may represent new viral families. Moreover, nearly 70% of the sequences were similar to one of these genomes, indicating that most of the sequences could be assigned to a genetically distinct group. Most sequences fell within 11 well-defined gene groups, each sharing a common gene. Some of these encoded putative replication and coat proteins that had similarity to sequences from viruses infecting eukaryotes, suggesting that these were likely from viruses infecting eukaryotic phytoplankton and zooplankton.

  6. Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Laser Melted 304L SS Weldment in Nitric Acid Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Girija; Kishor, P. S. V. R. A.; Dasgupta, Arup; Upadhyay, B. N.; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2016-12-01

    The manuscript presents the effect of laser surface melting on the corrosion property of 304L SS weldment in nitric acid medium. 304L SS weldment was prepared by gas tungsten arc welding process and subsequently laser surface melted using Nd:YAG laser. The microstructure and corrosion resistance of laser surface melted 304L SS weldment was evaluated and compared with that of 304L SS as-weldment and 304L SS base. Microstructural evaluation was carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopes attached with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Corrosion investigations were carried out in 4 and 8 M nitric acid by potentiodynamic polarization technique. From the results, it was found that laser surface melting of the weldment led to chemical and microstructural homogeneities, accompanied by a substantial decrease in delta ferrite content, that enhanced the corrosion resistance of the weldment in 4 and 8 M nitric acid. However, the enhancement in the corrosion resistance was not substantial. The presence of small amount of delta ferrite (2-4 wt.%) in the laser surface melted specimens was found to be detrimental in nitric acid. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies were carried out to investigate the composition of the passive film.

  7. Architecture and ssDNA interaction of the Timeless-Tipin-RPA complex

    PubMed Central

    Witosch, Justine; Wolf, Eva; Mizuno, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    The Timeless-Tipin (Tim-Tipin) complex, also referred to as the fork protection complex, is involved in coordination of DNA replication. Tim-Tipin is suggested to be recruited to replication forks via Replication Protein A (RPA) but details of the interaction are unknown. Here, using cryo-EM and biochemical methods, we characterized complex formation of Tim-Tipin, RPA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Tim-Tipin and RPA form a 258 kDa complex with a 1:1:1 stoichiometry. The cryo-EM 3D reconstruction revealed a globular architecture of the Tim-Tipin-RPA complex with a ring-like and a U-shaped domain covered by a RPA lid. Interestingly, RPA in the complex adopts a horse shoe-like shape resembling its conformation in the presence of long ssDNA (>30 nucleotides). Furthermore, the recruitment of the Tim-Tipin-RPA complex to ssDNA is modulated by the RPA conformation and requires RPA to be in the more compact 30 nt ssDNA binding mode. The dynamic formation and disruption of the Tim-Tipin-RPA-ssDNA complex implicates the RPA-based recruitment of Tim-Tipin to the replication fork. PMID:25348395

  8. Electrochemical and spectroscopic studies of ssDNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide using graphene based nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Berghian-Grosan, Camelia; Biris, Alexandru Radu; Coros, Maria; Pogacean, Florina; Pruneanu, Stela

    2015-06-01

    The oxidative damage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been intensively studied due to its role in the occurrence of some diseases. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS). It can induce oxidation of DNA bases, sugar lesions or DNA strand breaks. The Pt/Gr-Au-3 modified electrode was employed for the analysis of four ssDNA samples: single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), ssDNA pre-treated with hydrogen peroxide (ssDNA-H2O2), ssDNA pre-treated with graphene-gold nanoparticles (ssDNA-Gr-Au) and ssDNA-Gr-Au complex pre-treated with hydrogen peroxide (ssDNA-Gr-Au-H2O2). By monitoring the changes of the purine oxidation peaks currents, we obtained valuable information about the damage induced by the hydrogen peroxide onto the un-treated or graphene pre-treated ssDNA and also about the interaction between ssDNA and graphene-based nanomaterial. The FTIR analysis has been also used to obtain information about the ssDNA damage. These findings allowed us to prove the utility of graphene-based nanomaterials (mainly Gr-Au-3) not only for the investigation of the oxidative damage induced by a non-radical oxidant, but also for the determination of the type of interaction between ssDNA and graphene surface. The stability of the ssDNA-Gr-Au-3 complex against the damage induced by H2O2, in the absence of reduced transition metals, was also established.

  9. Energy separations for the electronic states of PH -2,PH 2 and PH +2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, K.

    1993-03-01

    All-electron complete-active space multi-configuration self-consistent field (CASSCF) followed by second-order configuration interaction (SOCI) calculations in conjunction with large P(13s10p3d2flg/7s6p3d2flg) and H (10s5p1d/8s5p1d) basis sets are made on the electronic states of PH -2, PH 2 and PH +2. We compute the adiabatic electron affinities of PH 2 and PH. The 3B 1-X 1A 1, 1B 1-X 1A 1 energy separations of PH +2 and the 2A 1-X 2B 1 energy separation of PH 2 are computed.

  10. Plasmon-driven dimerization via S-S chemical bond in an aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lin; Wang, Peijie; Chen, Xiaowei; Fang, Yurui; Zhang, Zhenglong; Sun, Mengtao

    2014-11-27

    The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of thioanisole are experimentally investigated in an electrochemical environment in this study. Two Raman peaks, which depend strongly not only on electric potential but also on the local surface plasmon resonances (LSPR), have been observed. Theoretical calculations reveal that thioanisole is first dissociated from thiophenol via the S-CH3 bond; plasmons then drive the dimerisation of thiophenol via the S-S bond, which is strongly potential dependent. One Raman peak corresponds to the S-S vibrational mode of the thiophenol dimer, and the other corresponds to the asymmetric C-C stretching modes of the benzenyl of the thiophenol dimer. The potential-dependent two Raman modes is the potential-dependent dimerisation dynamics of thiophenol via the S-S bond. Our experimental findings provide insight into the structural elucidation of adsorbed molecules and molecular surface reaction dynamics.

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation of ss-DNA translocation between copper nanoelectrodes incorporating electrode charge dynamics.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christina M; Zhao, Xiongce; Vlcek, Lukas; Cummings, Peter T

    2008-02-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study the translocation of single-stranded (ss)-DNA through the nanoscale gap between the nanoscale electrodes of a proposed genomic sequencing device. Using a fixed gap width between the electrodes and a small sample segment of ss-DNA as initial starting points in this project, the effect of applied electric fields on translocation velocity was studied. To describe the electrostatic interactions of the water, ions, and ss-DNA with the nanoscale electrodes, we applied the electrode charge dynamics (ECD) method. Through the density profile and comparison of translocation velocities to extrapolated experimental data, we found the ECD potential to be a better descriptor of the metal/nonmetal electrostatic interactions compared to the commonly used universal force field (UFF). Translocation velocities obtained using the ECD potential were consistent with simulated bulk data.

  12. Resistance of superhydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces to varied temperature applications on 316L SS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Hamza; Basit, Kanza; Saleem, Sajid; Siddiqui, Bilal A.

    316L SS also called Marine Stainless Steel is an important material for structural and marine applications. When superhydrophobic and oleophobic coatings are applied on 316L SS it shows significant resistance to wear and corrosion. This paper aims to validate the coatings manufacturer's information on optimal temperature range and test the viability of coating against multiple oil based cleaning agents. 316L SS was coated with multiple superhydrophic and oleohobic coatings and observed under SEM for validity of adhesion and thickness and then scanned under FFM to validate the tribological information. The samples were then dipped into multiple cleaning agents maintained at the range of operating temperatures specified by the manufacturer. Coating was observed for deterioration over a fixed time intervals through SEM and FFM. A comparison was drawn to validate the most critical cleaning agent and the most critical temperature at which the coating fails to leave the base substrate exposed to the environment.

  13. "Another type of perpetrator": the SS racial experts and forced population movements in the occupied regions.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, I

    2001-01-01

    The "racial experts" of the Race and Settlement Main Office of the SS (RuSHA) were an important, yet not well studied, group of perpetrators. By setting up a procedure for "racial examination" that was applied not only to the members of the SS but also to millions of civilians in the Occupied Territories, they provided the ideological background and logistics of persecution. Following the outbreak of war, the racial experts' qualification of persons as "desirable" or "undesirable" guided National Socialist population policy and the planned ethnic reconstruction of Europe. This article analyzes these SS racial experts' efforts to legitimize, implement, and accelerate not only forced population movements in general, but also the "Final Solution".

  14. Combinatorial gene editing in mammalian cells using ssODNs and TALENs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Niamat, Rohina A.; Rivera-Torres, Natalia; Kmiec, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of gene editing is being elucidated in mammalian cells and its potential as well as its limitations are becoming evident. ssODNs carry out gene editing by annealing to their complimentary sequence at the target site and acting as primers for replication fork extension. To effect a genetic change, a large amount of ssODN molecules must be introduced into cells and as such induce a Reduced Proliferation Phenotype (RPP), a phenomenon in which corrected cells do not proliferate. To overcome this limitation, we have used TAL-Effector Nucleases (TALENs) to increase the frequency, while reducing the amount of ssODN required to direct gene correction. This strategy resolves the problem and averts the serious effects of RPP. The efficiency of gene editing can be increased significantly if cells are targeted while they progress through S phase. Our studies define new reaction parameters that will help guide experimental strategies of gene editing.

  15. SWIFT Observations of a Far UV Luminosity Component in SS433

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannizzo, J. K.; Boyd, P. T.; Dolan, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    SS433 is a binary system showing relativistic Doppler shifts in its two sets of emission lines. The origin of its UV continuum is not well established. We observed SS433 to determine the emission mechanism responsible for its far UV spectrum. The source was observed at several different phases of both its 13 d orbital period and 162.5 d precession period using the UVOT and XRT detector systems on Swift. The far UV spectrum down to 1880 Angstrom lies significantly above the spectral flux distribution predicted by extrapolating the reddened blackbody continuum that fits the spectrum above 3500 Angstroms. The intensity of the far UV flux varies over a period of days and the variability is correlated with the variability of the soft X-ray flux from the source. An emission mechanism in addition to those previously detected in the optical and X-ray regions must exist in the far UV spectrum of SS433.

  16. MIX and match: mobile T6SS MIX-effectors enhance bacterial fitness.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Dor

    2016-01-01

    Protein secretion systems that mediate interbacterial competition secret a wide repertoire of antibacterial toxins. A major player in these competitions is the newly discovered bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS). We recently found that a subset of polymorphic MIX-effectors, which are a widespread class of effectors secreted by T6SSs, are horizontally shared between marine bacteria and are used to diversify their T6SS effector repertoires, thus enhancing their environmental fitness. In this commentary, I expand on the ideas that were introduced in the previous report, and further speculate on the possible mobility of other MIX-effectors. In addition, I discuss the possible role of horizontal gene transfer in the dissemination of MIX-effectors through bacterial genomes, as well as its possible role in diversifying the T6SS effector repertoire.

  17. Plasmon-driven dimerization via S-S chemical bond in an aqueous environment

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lin; Wang, Peijie; Chen, Xiaowei; Fang, Yurui; Zhang, Zhenglong; Sun, Mengtao

    2014-01-01

    The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of thioanisole are experimentally investigated in an electrochemical environment in this study. Two Raman peaks, which depend strongly not only on electric potential but also on the local surface plasmon resonances (LSPR), have been observed. Theoretical calculations reveal that thioanisole is first dissociated from thiophenol via the S-CH3 bond; plasmons then drive the dimerisation of thiophenol via the S-S bond, which is strongly potential dependent. One Raman peak corresponds to the S-S vibrational mode of the thiophenol dimer, and the other corresponds to the asymmetric C-C stretching modes of the benzenyl of the thiophenol dimer. The potential-dependent two Raman modes is the potential-dependent dimerisation dynamics of thiophenol via the S-S bond. Our experimental findings provide insight into the structural elucidation of adsorbed molecules and molecular surface reaction dynamics. PMID:25427897

  18. Attenuation of the in vitro neurotoxicity of 316L SS by graphene oxide surface coating.

    PubMed

    Tasnim, Nishat; Kumar, Alok; Joddar, Binata

    2017-04-01

    A persistent theme in biomaterials research comprises of surface engineering and modification of bare metallic substrates for improved cellular response and biocompatibility. Graphene Oxide (GO), a derivative of graphene, has outstanding chemical and mechanical properties; its large surface to volume ratio, ease of surface modification and processing make GO an attractive coating material. GO-coatings have been extensively studied as biosensors. Further owing to its surface nano-architecture, GO-coated surfaces promote cell adhesion and growth, making it suitable for tissue engineering applications. The need to improve the long-term durability and therapeutic effectiveness of commercially available bare 316L stainless steel (SS) surfaces led us to adopt a polymer-free approach which is cost-effective and scalable. GO was immobilized on to 316L SS utilizing amide linkage, to generate a strongly adherent uniform coating with surface roughness. GO-coated 316L SS surfaces showed increased hydrophilicity and biocompatibility with SHSY-5Y neuronal cells, which proliferated well and showed decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression. In contrast, cells did not adhere to bare uncoated 316L SS meshes nor maintain viability when cultured in the vicinity of bare meshes. Therefore the combination of the improved surface properties and biocompatibility implies that GO-coating can be utilized to overcome pertinent limitations of bare metallic 316L SS implant surfaces, especially SS neural electrodes. Also, the procedure for making GO-based protective coatings can be applied to numerous other implants where the development of such protective films is necessary.

  19. Modulation of vacuolar pH is required for replication of Edwardsiella ictaluri in channel catfish macrophages.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Wes A; Dubytska, Lidiya; Rogge, Matthew L; Mottram, Peter J; Thune, Ronald L

    2014-06-01

    Previous in vitro work demonstrated that Edwardsiella ictaluri produces an acid-activated urease that can modulate environmental pH through the production of ammonia from urea. Additional work revealed that expression of the E. ictaluri type III secretion system (T3SS) is upregulated by acidic pH. Both the urease and the T3SS were previously shown to be essential to intracellular replication. In this work, fluorescence microscopy with LysoTracker Red DND-99 (LTR) indicated that E. ictaluri-containing vacuoles (ECV) became acidified following ingestion by head kidney-derived macrophages (HKDM). In vivo ratiometric imaging demonstrated a lowered ECV pH, which fell to as low as pH 4 but subsequently increased to pH 6 or greater. Inhibition of vacuolar H(+)-ATPases by use of the specific inhibitor bafilomycin A1 abrogated both ECV acidification and intracellular replication in HKDM. Failure of an E. ictaluri urease knockout mutant to increase the ECV pH in the in vivo ratiometric assay suggests that ammonia produced by the urease reaction mediates the pH increase. Additionally, when the specific arginase inhibitor l-norvaline was used to treat E. ictaluri-infected HKDM, the ECV failed to neutralize and E. ictaluri was unable to replicate. This indicates that the HKDM-encoded arginase enzyme produces the urea used by the E. ictaluri urease enzyme. Failure of the ECV to acidify would prevent both upregulation of the T3SS and activation of the urease enzyme, either of which would prevent E. ictaluri from replicating in HKDM. Failure of the ECV to neutralize would result in a vacuolar pH too low to support E. ictaluri replication.

  20. Effects of carbon dioxide and pH variations in vitro on blood respiratory functions, red blood cell volume, transmembrane pH gradients, and sickling in sickle cell anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Y.; Bookchin, R.M.

    1984-08-01

    An examination was made of the O/sub 2/ affinity, Bohr effect, transmembrane pH gradient, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, and red blood cell sickling at half O/sub 2/ saturation in whole sickle cell (SS) and normal (AA) blood during CO/sub 2/ titration and acid-base titration at three Pco/sub 2/ levels, 10, 40, and 80 mm Hg. The CO/sub 2/-induced Bohr effect of SS blood was considerably larger than normal (maximum, 0.91, referred to cell pH) and similar to that found with acid-base titration at Pco/sub 2/ of 40. In contrast to AA blood, SS blood showed an increased O/sub 2/ affinity when Pco/sub 2/ was raised from 40 to 80, and at half O/sub 2/ saturation showed biphasic or sigmoid Bohr curves, a fall in transmembrane pH gradient with rising Pco/sub 2/, and an absence of the normal cell volume increase at low pH and Pco/sub 2/. Sickling of SS cells at half O/sub 2/ saturation was partly inhibited by increasing Pc/sub 2/, particularly in the higher pH ranges. These complex differences in the behavior of SS blood are interpreted in terms of the balancing of several effects: the lowering of hemoglobin O/sub 2/-affinity by polymerization, low pH and increased CO/sub 2/ binding, inhibition of hemoglobin S polymerization by CO/sub 2/ binding to ..beta../sup s/-chain amino termini, differences between hemoglobin S and A in competitive binding of CO/sub 2/ and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate at different pH levels, and an increased net negative charge exhibited by intracellular deoxyhemoglobin S polymers. From a clinical standpoint, in the absence of hypoxia or acidosis, an increased blood Pco/sub 2/ might have a beneficial effect by inhibiting red blood cell sickling, whereas a metabolic acidosis, with low blood pH and Pco/sub 2/, would be very hazardous.

  1. SS433: Evolution of Radio Structure in {L} and {C} Frequency Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuprikov, A. A.; Guirin, I. A.

    2010-02-01

    We analyze results of data processing of observations of SS433 with the VLBA during more than 10 years. Data were processed with ASL for Windows software. The Multi Frequency Synthesis method was used for reconstruction of radio maps at 18- and 6-cm wavelength ranges (L and C ranges). High-quality images of SS433 for several epochs are presented. Evolution of its radio structure is demonstrated. Astrophysical parameters of the object and their temporal changes are discussed. Polarization phenomena were not taken into account. We present results of our data processing of RR polarization for all the observing sessions.

  2. Wideband, high speed switch matrix development for SS-TDMA applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prather, W. H.; Cory, B. J.; Wade, R. F.; Taft, W. J.; Buzinski, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The paper describes the design of an SS-TDMA microwave switch matrix being developed as part of the NASA 30/20 GHz Communications Satellite Program. A critical element in the systems development is the high-speed wideband switching capability necessary for 30/20 GHz SS-TDMA trunking service interconnections. A proof-of-concept model of a 20-by-20 microwave switch matrix with a 2.5 GHz bandwidth and 10-nanosecond switching speeds is being developed to realize this capability.

  3. KiSS1 inhibits growth and invasion of osteosarcoma cells through inhibition of the MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Tang, Y J; Li, Z H; Pan, F; Huang, K; Xu, G H

    2013-10-29

    As a metastasis suppressor, KiSS1 has been implicated in numerous human cancers. However, recent studies have demonstrated that KiSS1 promotes tumor growth and metastasis in breast cancer, and it is unclear about the expression and function of KiSS1 in human osteosarcoma (OS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role and molecular mechanisms of KiSS1 in human OS. The expression of KiSS1 was assessed by immunohistochemical assay using a tissue microarray procedure in forty cases of OS tissues. A gain-of-function approach was used to observe the effects of lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of KiSS1 (Lv-KiSS1) on the biological behaviors including proliferative activities and invasive potential of OS MG-63 cells, indicated by MTT and Transwell assays, respectively. The results showed that the expression of KiSS1 protein in OS tissues was significantly lowered compared to that in adjacent non-cancerous tissues (ANCT) (42.5% vs 70.0%, P=0.023), and had negative correlation with distant metastases of the tumor (P=0.019). Overexpression of KiSS1 inhibited proliferation and invasion of OS cells with the decreased expression of p38 MAPK and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Taken together, our findings indicate that the decreased expression of KiSS1 is correlated with distant metastasis of OS, and KiSS1 may function as a tumor suppressor in OS cells through inhibition of the MAPK pathway, suggesting that KiSS1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer.

  4. KiSS1 Inhibits Growth and Invasion of Osteosarcoma Cells through Inhibition of the MAPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Tang, Y.J.; Li, Z.H.; Pan, F.; Huang, K.; Xu, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    As a metastasis suppressor, KiSS1 has been implicated in numerous human cancers. However, recent studies have demonstrated that KiSS1 promotes tumor growth and metastasis in breast cancer, and it is unclear about the expression and function of KiSS1 in human osteosarcoma (OS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role and molecular mechanisms of KiSS1 in human OS. The expression of KiSS1 was assessed by immunohistochemical assay using a tissue microarray procedure in forty cases of OS tissues. A gain-of-function approach was used to observe the effects of lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of KiSS1 (Lv-KiSS1) on the biological behaviors including proliferative activities and invasive potential of OS MG-63 cells, indicated by MTT and Transwell assays, respectively. The results showed that the expression of KiSS1 protein in OS tissues was significantly lowered compared to that in adjacent non-cancerous tissues (42.5% vs 70.0%, P=0.023), and had negative correlation with distant metastases of the tumor (P=0.019). Overexpression of KiSS1 inhibited proliferation and invasion of OS cells with the decreased expression of p38 MAPK and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Taken together, our findings indicate that the decreased expression of KiSS1 is correlated with distant metastasis of OS, and KiSS1 may function as a tumor suppressor in OS cells through inhibition of the MAPK pathway, suggesting that KiSS1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer. PMID:24441183

  5. The 3' sequences required for incorporation of an engineered ssRNA into the Reovirus genome

    PubMed Central

    Roner, Michael R; Roehr, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    Background Understanding how an organism replicates and assembles a multi-segmented genome with fidelity previously measured at 100% presents a model system for exploring questions involving genome assortment and RNA/protein interactions in general. The virus family Reoviridae, containing nine genera and more than 200 members, are unique in that they possess a segmented double-stranded (ds) RNA genome. Using reovirus as a model member of this family, we have developed the only functional reverse genetics system for a member of this family with ten or more genome segments. Using this system, we have previously identified the flanking 5' sequences required by an engineered s2 ssRNA for efficient incorporation into the genome of reovirus. The minimum 5' sequence retains 96 nucleotides and contains a predicted sequence/structure element. Within these 96 nucleotides, we have identified three nucleotides A-U-U at positions 79–81 that are essential for the incorporation of in vitro generated ssRNAs into new reovirus progeny viral particles. The work presented here builds on these findings and presents the results of an analysis of the required 3' flanking sequences of the s2 ssRNA. Results The minimum 3' sequence we localized retains 98 nucleotides of the wild type s2 ssRNA. These sequences do not interact with the 5' sequences and modifications of the 5' sequences does not result in a change in the sequences required at the 3' end of the engineered s2 ssRNA. Within the 3' sequence we discovered three regions that when mutated prevent the ssRNA from being replicated to dsRNA and subsequently incorporated into progeny virions. Using a series of substitutions we were able to obtain additional information about the sequences in these regions. We demonstrate that the individual nucleotides from, 98 to 84, 68 to 59, and 28 to 1, are required in addition to the total length of 98 nucleotides to direct an engineered reovirus ssRNA to be replicated to dsRNA and incorporated

  6. Production of biogenic Mn oxides by Leptothrix discophora SS-1 in a chemically defined growth medium and evaluation of their Pb adsorption characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Y.M.; Lion, L.W.; Ghiorse, W.C.; Shuler, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Biogenic Mn oxides were produced by the bacterium Leptothrix discophora SS-1 (= ATCC 3182) in a chemically defined mineral salts medium, and the Pb binding and specific surface area of these oxides were characterized. Growth of SS-1 in the defined medium with pyruvate as a carbon and energy source required the addition of vitamin B{sub 12}. Complete oxidation of Mn(II) within 60 h required the addition of {ge}0.1 {micro}M FeSO{sub 4}. Pb adsorption isotherms were determined for the biogenic Mn oxides (and associated cells with their extracellular polymer) and compared to the Pb adsorption isotherms of cells and exopolymer alone, as well as to abiotic Mn oxides. The Pb adsorption to cells and exopolymer with biogenic Mn oxides at pH 6.0 and 25 C was 2 orders of magnitude greater than the Pb adsorption to cells and exopolymer alone. The Pb adsorption to the biogenic Mn oxide was two to five times greater than the Pb adsorption to a chemically precipitated abiotic Mn oxide and several orders of magnitude greater than the Pb adsorption to two commercially available crystalline MnO{sub 2} minerals. The N{sub 2} Brunauer-Emmet-Teller specific surface areas of the biogenic Mn oxide and fresh Mn oxide precipitate were significantly greater than those of the commercial Mn oxide minerals. The Pb adsorption capacity of the biogenic Mn oxide also exceeded that of a chemically precipitated colloidal hydrous Fe oxide under similar solution conditions. These results show that amorphous biogenic Mn oxides similar to those produced by SS-1 may play a significant rule in the control of trace metal phase distribution in aquatic systems.

  7. The pH Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes a game that can be used to teach students about the acidity of liquids and substances around their school and enable them to understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students collect samples and measure the pH of water, soil, plants, and other natural material. (DDR)

  8. Redox and pH Responsive Poly (Amidoamine) Dendrimer-Heparin Conjugates via Disulfide Linkages for Letrozole Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thanh Luan; Nguyen, Thi Hiep; Nguyen, Cuu Khoa

    2017-01-01

    Heparin (Hep) conjugated to poly (amidoamine) dendrimer G3.5 (P) via redox-sensitive disulfide bond (P-SS-Hep) was studied. The redox and pH dual-responsive nanocarriers were prepared by a simple method that minimized many complex steps as previous studies. The functional characterization of G3.5 coated Hep was investigated by the proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The size and formation were characterized by the dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy. P-SS-Hep was spherical in shape with average diameter about 11 nm loaded with more than 20% letrozole. This drug carrier could not only eliminate toxicity to cells and improve the drugs solubility but also increase biocompatibility of the system under reductive environment of glutathione. In particular, P-SS-Hep could enhance the effectiveness of cancer therapy after removing Hep from the surface. These results demonstrated that the P-SS-Hep conjugates could be a promising candidate as redox and pH responsive nanocarriers for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:28246606

  9. Kisspeptins (KiSS-1): essential players in suppressing tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Venugopal Vinod; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekharan

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptins (KPs) encoded by the KiSS-1 gene are C-terminally amidated peptide products, including KP- 10, KP-13, KP-14 and KP-54, which are endogenous agonists for the G-protein coupled receptor-54 (GPR54). Functional analyses have demonstrated fundamental roles of KiSS-1 in whole body homeostasis including sexual differentiation of brain, action on sex steroids and metabolic regulation of fertility essential for human puberty and maintenance of adult reproduction. In addition, intensive recent investigations have provided substantial evidence suggesting roles of Kisspeptin signalling via its receptor GPR54 in the suppression of metastasis with a variety of cancers. The present review highlights the latest studies regarding the role of Kisspeptins and the KiSS-1 gene in tumor progression and also suggests targeting the KiSS-1/GPR54 system may represent a novel therapeutic approach for cancers. Further investigations are essential to elucidate the complex pathways regulated by the Kisspeptins and how these pathways might be involved in the suppression of metastasis across a range of cancers.

  10. Intrinsic ssDNA annealing activity in the C-terminal region of WRN.

    PubMed

    Muftuoglu, Meltem; Kulikowicz, Tomasz; Beck, Gad; Lee, Jae Wan; Piotrowski, Jason; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2008-09-30

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in humans characterized by premature aging and genetic instability. WS is caused by mutations in the WRN gene, which encodes a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases. Cellular and biochemical studies suggest that WRN plays roles in DNA replication, DNA repair, telomere maintenance, and homologous recombination and that WRN has multiple enzymatic activities including 3' to 5' exonuclease, 3' to 5' helicase, and ssDNA annealing. The goal of this study was to map and further characterize the ssDNA annealing activity of WRN. Enzymatic studies using truncated forms of WRN identified a C-terminal 79 amino acid region between the RQC and the HRDC domains (aa1072-1150) that is required for ssDNA annealing activity. Deletion of the region reduced or eliminated ssDNA annealing activity of the WRN protein. Furthermore, the activity appears to correlate with DNA binding and oligomerization status of the protein.

  11. The CUrious Variables Experiment (CURVE). Variable properties of the dwarf nova SS Ursae Minoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olech, A.; Mularczyk, K.; Kędzierski, P.; Złoczewski, K.; Wiśniewski, M.; Szaruga, K.

    2006-06-01

    We report on extensive photometry of the dwarf nova SS Ursae Minoris throughout nine months of 2004. In total, we recorded two superoutbursts and 11 normal outbursts of the star. SS UMi has been known to show frequent superoutbursts with a mean interval of 84.7 days. Our data suggest that the interval between successive superoutbursts lengthened to 197 days, indicating that SS UMi entered a period of untypical behavior manifested by a growth in the quiescent magnitude of the star and a series of frequent, low-amplitude, normal outbursts observed from July to September 2004. The mean superhump period derived for the April 2004 superoutburst of SS UMi is P_sh = 0.070149(16) days (101.015±0.023 min). Combining this value with an earlier orbital period determination, we were able to derive the period excess, which is equal to 3.5±1.6%, and estimate the mass ratio of the binary system as equal to q=0.16±0.07. During the entire superoutburst, the period decreased at a rate of dot P/P_sh = -6.3(1.4) × 10-5. However, detailed analysis of the timings of superhump maxima seem to suggest a more complex period change, with a decrease in the period during the first and last stages of the superoutburst but an increase in the middle interval.

  12. Inflow and outflow from the accretion disc of the microquasar SS433: UKIRT spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez M., Sebastian; Blundell, Katherine M.

    2009-08-01

    A succession of near-infrared (near-IR) spectroscopic observations, taken nightly throughout an entire cycle of SS433's orbit, reveal (i) the persistent signature of SS433's accretion disc, having a rotation speed of ~500kms-1, (ii) the presence of circumbinary disc recently discovered at optical wavelengths by Blundell, Bowler & Schmidtobreick (2008) and (iii) a much faster outflow than has previously been measured for the disc wind, with a terminal velocity of ~1500kms-1. The increased wind terminal velocity results in a mass-loss rate of ~10-4Msolaryr-1. These, together with the newly (upwardly) determined masses for the components of the SS433 system, result in an accurate diagnosis of the extent to which SS433 has super-Eddington flows. Our observations imply that the size of the companion star is comparable with the semiminor axis of the orbit which is given by , where e is the eccentricity. Our relatively spectral resolution at these near-IR wavelengths has enabled us to deconstruct the different components that comprise the Brackett-γ (Brγ) line in this binary system, and their physical origins. With this line being dominated throughout our series of observations by the disc wind, and the accretion disc itself being only a minority (~15 per cent) contribution, we caution against use of the unresolved Brγ line intensity as an `accretion signature' in X-ray binaries or microquasars in any quantitative way.

  13. Ball Indentation Studies on the Effect of Nitrogen on the Tensile Properties of 316LN SS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, M. D.; Ganesh Kumar, J.; Ganesan, V.; Laha, K.

    2015-12-01

    Type 316L(N) stainless steel (SS) containing 0.02-0.03 wt% carbon and 0.06-0.08 wt% nitrogen is used as the major structural material for the components of fast reactors. Research is underway to improve the high-temperature mechanical properties of 316LN SS by increasing the nitrogen content in the steel above the level of 0.08 wt%. In this investigation, ball indentation (BI) technique was used to evaluate the effect of nitrogen content on the tensile properties of 316LN SS. BI tests were conducted on four different heats of 316LN SS containing 0.07, 0.11, 0.14 and 0.22 wt% nitrogen in the temperature range 300-923 K. The tensile properties such as yield strength and ultimate tensile strength increased with increase in nitrogen content at all the investigated temperatures. These results were consistent with the corresponding uniaxial tensile test results. These studies showed that BI technique can be used to optimize the chemical composition during alloy development by evaluating tensile properties with minimum volume of material.

  14. Usability of AcceSS for Web Site Accessibility. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Stephanie; Parmanto, Bambang

    2006-01-01

    The standard display of web pages is inadequate for users who are visually impaired. Most visually impaired people obtain information from a web page in a linear fashion via a screen reader, whereas sighted users can immediately obtain a bird's-eye view of a web page's organization and content by quickly scanning the page. AcceSS (which stands for…

  15. Study of advanced communications satellite systems based on SS-FDMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiesling, J.

    1980-01-01

    A satellite communication system based on the use of a multiple, contiguous beam satellite antenna and frequency division multiple access (FDMA) is studied. Emphasis is on the evaluation of the feasibility of SS (satellite switching) FDMA technology, particularly the multiple, contiguous beam antenna, the onboard switch and channelization, and on methods to overcome the effects of severe Ka band fading caused by precipitation. This technology is evaluated and plans for technology development and evaluation are given. The application of SS-FDMA to domestic satellite communications is also evaluated. Due to the potentially low cost Earth stations, SS-FDMA is particularly attractive for thin route applications up to several hundred kilobits per second, and offers the potential for competing with terrestrial facilities at low data rates and over short routes. The onboard switch also provides added route flexibility for heavy route systems. The key beneficial SS-FDMA strategy is to simplify and thus reduce the cost of the direct access Earth station at the expense of increased satellite complexity.

  16. ExsE Is a Negative Regulator for T3SS Gene Expression in Vibrio alginolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinxin; Lu, Shao-Yeh; Orfe, Lisa H.; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Call, Douglas R.; Avillan, Johannetsy J.; Zhao, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) contribute to microbial pathogenesis of Vibrio species, but the regulatory mechanisms are complex. We determined if the classic ExsACDE protein-protein regulatory model from Pseudomonas aeruginosa applies to Vibrio alginolyticus. Deletion mutants in V. alginolyticus demonstrated that, as expected, the T3SS is positively regulated by ExsA and ExsC and negatively regulated by ExsD and ExsE. Interestingly, deletion of exsE enhanced the ability of V. alginolyticus to induce host-cell death while cytotoxicity was inhibited by in trans complementation of this gene in a wild-type strain, a result that differs from a similar experiment with Vibrio parahaemolyticus ExsE. We further showed that ExsE is a secreted protein that does not contribute to adhesion to Fathead minnow epithelial cells. An in vitro co-immunoprecipitation assay confirmed that ExsE binds to ExsC to exert negative regulatory effect on T3SS genes. T3SS in V. alginolyticus can be activated in the absence of physical contact with host cells and a separate regulatory pathway appears to contribute to the regulation of ExsA. Consequently, like ExsE from P. aeruginosa, ExsE is a negative regulator for T3SS gene expression in V. alginolyticus. Unlike the V. parahaemolyticus orthologue, however, deletion of exsE from V. alginolyticus enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity. PMID:27999769

  17. Regulatory mechanisms of exoribonuclease PNPase and regulatory small RNA on T3SS of dickeya dadantii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an essential virulence factor for many bacterial pathogens. Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) is one of the major exoribonucleases in bacteria and plays important roles in mRNA degradation, tRNA processing, and small RNA (sRNA) turnover. In this study, we ...

  18. Screening and Identification of ssDNA Aptamer for Human GP73

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jingchun; Hong, Jianming; Xu, Chun; Cai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Bo; Zhou, Chengbo; Xu, Xia

    2015-01-01

    As one tumor marker of HCC, Golgi Protein 73 (GP73) is given more promise in the early diagnosis of HCC, and aptamers have been developed to compete with antibodies as biorecognition probes in different detection system. In this study, we utilized GP73 to screen specific ssDNA aptamers by SELEX technique. First, GP73 proteins were expressed and purified by prokaryotic expression system and Nickle ion affinity chromatography, respectively. At the same time, the immunogenicity of purified GP73 was confirmed by Western blotting. The enriched ssDNA library with high binding capacity for GP73 was obtained after ten rounds of SELEX. Then, thirty ssDNA aptamers were sequenced, in which two ssDNA aptamers with identical DNA sequence were confirmed, based on the alignment results, and designated as A10-2. Furthermore, the specific antibody could block the binding of A10-2 to GP73, and the specific binding of A10-2 to GP73 was also supported by the observation that several tumor cell lines exhibited variable expression level of GP73. Significantly, the identified aptamer A10-2 could distinguish normal and cancerous liver tissues. So, our results indicate that the aptamer A10-2 might be developed into one molecular probe to detect HCC from normal liver specimens. PMID:26583119

  19. PU/SS EUTECTIC ASSESSMENT IN 9975 PACKAGINGS IN A STORAGE FACILITY DURING EXTENDED FIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.

    2012-03-26

    In a radioactive material (RAM) packaging, the formation of eutectic at the Pu/SS (plutonium/stainless steel) interface is a serious concern and must be avoided to prevent of leakage of fissile material to the environment. The eutectic temperature for the Pu/SS is rather low (410 C) and could seriously impact the structural integrity of the containment vessel under accident conditions involving fire. The 9975 packaging is used for long term storage of Pu bearing materials in the DOE complex where the Pu comes in contact with the stainless steel containment vessel. Due to the serious consequences of the containment breach at the eutectic site, the Pu/SS interface temperature is kept well below the eutectic formation temperature of 410 C. This paper discusses the thermal models and the results for the extended fire conditions (1500 F for 86 minutes) that exist in a long term storage facility and concludes that the 9975 packaging Pu/SS interface temperature is well below the eutectic temperature.

  20. Stanford SsTO Mission to Mars: A Realistic, Safe and Cost Effective Approach to Human Mars Exploration Using the Stanford SsTO Launch System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Robert D.

    1999-06-01

    In recent years, a lot of time and energy has been spent exploring possible mission scenarios for a human mission to Mars. NASA along with the privately funded Mars Society and a number of universities have come up with many options that could place people on the surface of Mars in a relatively short period of time at a relatively low cost. However, a common theme among all or at least most of these missions is that they require heavy lift vehicles such as the Russian Energia or the NASA proposed Magnum 100MT class vehicle to transport large payloads from the surface of Earth into a staging orbit about Earth. However, there is no current budget or any signs for a future budget to review the Russian Energia, the US made Saturn V, or to design and build a new heavy lift vehicle. However, there is a lot of interest and many companies looking into the possibility of "space planes". These vehicles will have the capability to place a payload into orbit without throwing any parts of the vehicle away. The concept of a space plane is basically that the plane is transported to a given altitude either by it's own power or on the back of another air worthy vehicle before the rocket engines are ignited. From this altitude, a Single Step to Orbit (SsTO) vehicle with a significant payload is possible. This report looks at the possibility of removing the requirement of a heavy lift vehicle by using the Stanford designed Single Step to Orbit.(SsTO) Launch Vehicle. The SsTO would eliminate the need for heavy lift vehicles and actually reduce the cost of the mission because of the very low costs involved with each SSTO launch. Although this scenario may add a small amount of risk assembling transfer vehicles in Earth orbit, it should add no additional risk to the crew.

  1. Synthesis and Functionalization of Gold Nanoparticles Using Chemically Modified ssDNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, P. G.

    In the first part of this thesis, methods for functionalizing spherical gold nanoparticles with nucleic acid binding ligands (aptamers) that target the VEGF receptor complex were developed. In order to provide a multiplexed labeling strategy for imaging the VEGF receptor complex in electron microscopy, gold nanoparticles of distinct sizes were conjugated to modified ssDNA aptamers that target the VEGF-A cytokine, the VEGFR-2 RTK receptor and a membrane associated co-receptor, Nrp-1. The modified ssDNA gold nanoparticle conjugates were applied to a human lung carcinoma cell line (A549) which has been shown to express each of these proteins and used as a model system for VEGF signaling. Binding constants for the modified aptamers were also determined using a fluorescence polarization anisotropy assay to determine KD and KOFF for the aptamers with their respective proteins. In the latter part of this thesis, a modied ssDNA SELEX protocol was also developed in order to evolve imidazole modied ssDNA sequences that assemble gold nanoparticles from Au3+ precursor ions in aqueous solution. Active sequences bound to nanoparticles were partitioned from inactive sequences based on density via ultracentrifugation through a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Colloidal gold solutions produced by the evolved pool had a distinct absorbance spectra and produced nanoparticles with a narrower distribution of sizes compared to colloidal gold solutions produced by the starting randomized pool of imidazole modified ssDNA. Sequencing data from the evolved pool shows that conserved 5 and 6 nt motifs were shared amongst many of the isolates, which indicates that these motifs could serve as chelation sites for gold atoms or help stabilize colloidal gold solutions in a base specific manner.

  2. The Phage Lysin PlySs2 Decolonizes Streptococcus suis from Murine Intranasal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Gilmer, Daniel B.; Schmitz, Jonathan E.; Thandar, Mya; Euler, Chad W.; Fischetti, Vincent A.

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis infects pigs worldwide and may be zoonotically transmitted to humans with a mortality rate of up to 20%. S. suis has been shown to develop in vitro resistance to the two leading drugs of choice, penicillin and gentamicin. Because of this, we have pursued an alternative therapy to treat these pathogens using bacteriophage lysins. The bacteriophage lysin PlySs2 is derived from an S. suis phage and displays potent lytic activity against most strains of that species including serotypes 2 and 9. At 64 μg/ml, PlySs2 reduced multiple serotypes of S. suis by 5 to 6-logs within 1 hour in vitro and exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 μg/ml for a S. suis serotype 2 strain and 64 μg/ml for a serotype 9 strain. Using a single 0.1-mg dose, the colonizing S. suis serotype 9 strain was reduced from the murine intranasal mucosa by >4 logs; a 0.1-mg dose of gentamicin reduced S. suis by <3-logs. A combination of 0.05 mg PlySs2 + 0.05 mg gentamicin reduced S. suis by >5-logs. While resistance to gentamicin was induced after systematically increasing levels of gentamicin in an S. suis culture, the same protocol resulted in no observable resistance to PlySs2. Thus, PlySs2 has both broad and high killing activity against multiple serotypes and strains of S. suis, making it a possible tool in the control and prevention of S. suis infections in pigs and humans. PMID:28046082

  3. Summary of Tests to Determine Effectiveness of Gelatin Strike on SS{ampersand}C Dissolver Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.M.; Karraker, D.G.

    1998-05-01

    The solutions from the dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible (SS&C) material are sufficiently different from previous solutions processed via the F-Canyon Purex process that the effectiveness of individual process steps needed to be ascertained. In this study, the effectiveness of gelatin strike was tested under a variety of conditions. Specifically, several concentrations of silica, fluoride, nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), and aluminium nitrate nonahydrate (ANN) were studied. The disengagement times of surrogate and plant SS&C dissolver solutions from plant solvent also were measured. The results of the tests indicate that gelatin strike does not coagulate the silica at the low concentration of silica ({tilde 30} ppm) expected in the SS&C dissolver solutions because the silicon is complexed with fluoride ions (e.g., SiF{sub 6}{sup -2}). The silicon fluoride complex is expected to remain with the aqueous phase during solvent extraction. The disengagement times of the dissolver solutions from the plant solvent were not affected by the presence of low concentrations of silica and no third phase formation was observed in the disengagement phase with the low silica concentrations. Tests of surrogate SS&C dissolver solutions with higher concentration of silica (less than 150 ppm) did show that gelatin strike followed by centrifugation resulted in good phase disengagement of the surrogate SS{ampersand}C dissolver solution from the plant dissolver solution. At the higher silica concentrations, there is not sufficient fluoride to complex with the silica, and the silica must be entrained by the gelatin and removed from the dissolver solution prior to solvent extraction.

  4. Fatigue Crack Propagation from Notched Specimens of 304 SS in elevated Temperature Aqueous Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wire, G. L.; Mills, W. J.

    2002-08-01

    Fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates for 304 stainless steel (304SS) were determined in 24 degree C and 288 degree C air and 288 degree C water using double-edged notch (DEN) specimens of 304 stainless steel (304 SS). Test performed at matched loading conditions in air and water at 288 degree C with 20-6- cc h[sub]2/kg h[sub]2O provided a direct comparison of the relative crack growth rates in air and water over a wide range of crack growth rates. The DEN crack extension ranged from short cracks (0.03-0.25 mm) to long cracks up to 4.06 mm, which are consistent with conventional deep crack tests. Crack growth rates of 304 SS in water were about 12 times the air rate. This 12X environmental enhancement persisted to crack extensions up to 4.06 mm, far outside the range associated with short crack effects. The large environmental degradation for 304 SS crack growth is consistent with the strong reduction of fatigue life in high hydrogen water. Further, very similar environmental effects w ere reported in fatigue crack growth tests in hydrogen water chemistry (HWC). Most literature data in high hydrogen water show only a mild environmental effect for 304 SS, of order 2.5 times air or less, but the tests were predominantly performed at high cyclic stress intensity or equivalently, high air rates. The environmental effect in low oxygen environments at low stress intensity depends strongly on both the stress ratio, R, and the load rise time, T[sub]r, as recently reported for austenitic stainless steel in BWR water. Fractography was performed for both tests in air and water. At 288 degree C in water, the fracture surfaces were crisply faceted with a crystallographic appearance, and showed striations under high magnification. The cleavage-like facets on the fracture surfaces suggest that hydrogen embrittlement is the primary cause of accelerated cracking.

  5. Alterations in hypothalamic KiSS-1 system in experimental diabetes: early changes and functional consequences.

    PubMed

    Castellano, J M; Navarro, V M; Roa, J; Pineda, R; Sánchez-Garrido, M A; García-Galiano, D; Vigo, E; Dieguez, C; Aguilar, E; Pinilla, L; Tena-Sempere, M

    2009-02-01

    Using long-term streptozotocin (STZ)-treated male rats, we recently proposed that defective function of hypothalamic KiSS-1 system is mechanistically relevant for central hypogonadotropism of uncontrolled diabetes. However, the temporal pattern of such defects and its potential contribution to disturbed gonadotropin secretion in the diabetic female remain so far unexplored. To cover these issues, expression analyses and hormonal tests were conducted in diabetic male (1 wk after STZ; short term) and female (4 wk after STZ; long term) rats. Short-term diabetic males had lower basal testosterone levels and decreased gonadotropin responses to orchidectomy (ORX), which associated with significantly attenuated post-ORX rises of hypothalamic KiSS-1 mRNA. Yet kisspeptin administration to diabetic males was able to acutely elicit supramaximal LH and testosterone responses and normalize post-ORX gonadotropin secretion. Long-term diabetic females showed persistent anestrus and significantly decreased basal gonadotropin levels as well as blunted LH responses to ovariectomy; changes that were linked to lowering of basal and postovariectomy expression of hypothalamic KiSS-1 mRNA. Moreover, despite prevailing gonadotropin suppression, LH responses to acute kisspeptin administration were fully preserved, and even enhanced after its repeated injection, in diabetic females. In sum, our present findings further define the temporal course and mechanistic relevance of altered hypothalamic KiSS-1 system in the hypogonadotropic state of uncontrolled diabetes. Furthermore, our data provide the basis for the potential therapeutic intervention of the KiSS-1 system as adjuvant in the management of disturbed gonadotropin secretion of type 1 diabetes in the female.

  6. [Psychogram of the Auschwitz commander: insight and confrontation through destruction. On the autobiography of Rudolf Höss].

    PubMed

    Zeiler, J

    1991-04-01

    By reference to the personality of Rudolf Höss, the author illuminates once again the terrifying juxtaposition of criminality and apparent normality in the psychic life of a Nazi criminal. The inferno of the concentration camp is interpreted as a perverse explication and staging of split-off ideational contents in the mind of Höss.

  7. Definition of a discontinuous immunodominant epitope at the NH2 terminus of the La/SS-B ribonucleoprotein autoantigen.

    PubMed Central

    McNeilage, L J; Umapathysivam, K; Macmillan, E; Guidolin, A; Whittingham, S; Gordon, T

    1992-01-01

    High-titer IgG autoantibodies to the La/SS-B ribonucleoprotein (RNP) are a hallmark of patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome. Anti-La/SS-B-positive human sera bind to multiple epitopes on recombinant La/SS-B, although the initial response is against an immunodominant epitope within the first 107 NH2-terminal amino acids (aa). Sequence analysis has identified a striking homology between aa 88-101 in this NH2-terminal region of La/SS-B and a feline retroviral gag polypeptide suggesting the anti-La/SS-B response may be initiated by cross-reactivity with an exogenous agent. In the present study, detailed mapping of this NH2-terminal epitope, using recombinant La/SS-B purified from the expression of overlapping DNA fragments spanning aa 1-107, has shown that this immunodominant epitope is a complex conformational or discontinuous epitope dependent upon both aa 12-28 and 82-99 for expression, even though these regions share no homology with each other. This requirement questions the significance of the homology between La/SS-B and a retroviral gag polypeptide in the generation of the B cell response to La/SS-B and is in accord with the general concept that B cells recognize conformational epitopes on antigens rather than small linear peptide sequences. The finding also reinforces the notion that native autoantigen could be the initiator of the autoimmune response. Images PMID:1373741

  8. The Safe Schools/Healthy Students (SS/HS) Initiative: Lessons Learned form Implementing Comprehensive Youth Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, Michael; Paige, Leslie Z.; Osher, David

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of this special issue that examines the implementation of the Safe Schools/Healthy Students (SS/HS) Initiative in seven local communities. An overview of the SS/HS Initiative is provided. Critical lessons learned from the seven sites are discussed with a focus on the special role that school psychologists can play in…

  9. The relationship between relative solvent accessible surface area (rASA) and irregular structures in protean segments (ProSs)

    PubMed Central

    Shaji, Divya

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) lack a stable, three-dimensional structure under physiological conditions, yet they exhibit numerous biological activities. Protean segments (ProSs) are the functional regions of intrinsically disordered proteins that undergo disorder-to-order transitions upon binding to their partners. Example ProSs collected from the intrinsically disordered proteins with extensive annotations and literature (IDEAL) database. The interface of protean segments (ProSs) is classified into core, rim, and support, and analyzed their secondary structure elements (SSEs) based on the relative accessible surface area (rASA). The amino acid compositions and the relative solvent accessible surface areas (rASAs) of ProS secondary structural elements (SSEs) at the interface, core and rim were compared to those of heterodimers. The average number of contacts of alpha helices and irregular residues was calculated for each ProS and heterodimer. Furthermore, the ProSs were classified into high and low efficient based on their average number of contacts at the interface. The results indicate that the irregular structures of ProSs and heterodimers are significantly different. The rASA of irregular structures in the monomeric state (rASAm) is large, leads to the formation of larger ΔrASA and many contacts in ProSs. PMID:28250616

  10. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 4 January - 21 March 1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, Alex

    2005-06-30

    This documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and pH at hydrographic stations during the R/V Maurice Ewing cruise in the South Atlantic Ocean on the A17 WOCE section. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), this cruise was also a part of the French WOCE program consisting of three expeditions (CITHER 1, 2, and 3) focused on the South Atlantic Ocean. The A17 section was occupied during the CITHER 2 expedition, which began in Montevideo, Uruguay, on January 4, 1994 and finished in Cayenne, French Guyana, on March 21, 1994. During this period the ship stopped in Salvador de Bahia and Recife, Brazil, to take on supplies and exchange personnel. Upon completion of the cruise the ship transited to Fort de France, Martinique. Instructions for accessing the data are provided.

  11. Urine pH test

    MedlinePlus

    ... pubmed/7797810 . Read More Acid loading test (pH) Acute kidney failure Alkalosis Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Diabetic ketoacidosis Diarrhea - overview Distal renal tubular acidosis Gastric suction Interstitial nephritis Kidney stones ...

  12. Exercise and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Process: Some First Steps Adoption Success Story Watch Classroom Recordings Empowered Patient Online Toolkit Tab 1: Very ... Kathy Groebner Education Programs Patients and Caregivers PHA Classroom PHA on the Road: PH Patients and Families ...

  13. Esophageal pH monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... test can also be done during upper GI endoscopy by clipping a pH monitor to the lining of the esophagus. ... esophagitis : Barium swallow Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (also called upper GI endoscopy)

  14. PET quantification of the norepinephrine transporter in human brain with (S,S)-18F-FMeNER-D2.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Sho; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Ichise, Masanori; Arakawa, Ryosuke; Takano, Harumasa; Seki, Chie; Ikoma, Yoko; Takahata, Keisuke; Nagashima, Tomohisa; Yamada, Makiko; Mimura, Masaru; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2016-12-15

    Norepinephrine transporter (NET) in the brain plays important roles in human cognition and the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Two radioligands, (S,S)-(11)C-MRB and (S,S)-(18)F-FMeNER-D2, have been used for imaging NETs in the thalamus and midbrain (including locus coeruleus) using positron emission topography (PET) in humans. However, NET density in the equally important cerebral cortex has not been well quantified because of unfavorable kinetics with (S,S)-(11)C-MRB and defluorination with (S,S)-(18)F-FMeNER-D2, which can complicate NET quantification in the cerebral cortex adjacent to the skull containing defluorinated (18)F radioactivity. In this study, we have established analysis methods of quantification of NET density in the brain including cerebral cortex using (S,S)-(18)F-FMeNER-D2 PET.

  15. PhEDEx Data Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Ricky; Wildish, Tony; Huang, Chih-Hao

    2010-04-01

    The PhEDEx Data Service provides access to information from the central PhEDEx database, as well as certificate-authenticated managerial operations such as requesting the transfer or deletion of data. The Data Service is integrated with the "SiteDB" service for fine-grained access control, providing a safe and secure environment for operations. A plug-in architecture allows server-side modules to be developed rapidly and easily by anyone familiar with the schema, and can automatically return the data in a variety of formats for use by different client technologies. Using HTTP access via the Data Service instead of direct database connections makes it possible to build monitoring web-pages with complex drill-down operations, suitable for debugging or presentation from many aspects. This will form the basis of the new PhEDEx website in the near future, as well as providing access to PhEDEx information and certificate-authenticated services for other CMS dataflow and workflow management tools such as CRAB, WMCore, DBS and the dashboard. A PhEDEx command-line client tool provides one-stop access to all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service interactively, for use in simple scripts that do not access the service directly. The client tool provides certificate-authenticated access to managerial functions, so all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service are available to it. The tool can be expanded by plug-ins which can combine or extend the client-side manipulation of data from the Data Service, providing a powerful environment for manipulating data within PhEDEx.

  16. Programmable pH buffers

    DOEpatents

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  17. Self-assembly of ssDNA-amphiphiles into micelles, nanotapes and nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Timothy R.

    The field of DNA nanotechnology utilizes DNA as a construction material to create functional supramolecular and multi-dimensional structures like two-dimensional periodic lattices and three-dimensional polyhedrons with order on the nanometer scale for many nanotechnology applications including molecular templating, nanosensors, and drug delivery. Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is often used to create these nanostructures as the DNA bases provide an intrinsic molecular code that can be exploited to allow for the programmed assembly of structures based upon Watson-Crick base-pairing. However, engineering these complex structures from biopolymers alone requires careful design to ensure that the intrinsic forces responsible for organizing the materials can produce the desired structures. Additional control over supramolecular assembly can be achieved by chemically modifying the ssDNA with hydrophobic moieties to create amphiphilic molecules, which adds the hydrophobic interaction to the list of contributing forces that drive the self-assembly process. We first explored the self-assembly behavior of a set of ssDNA aptamer-amphiphiles composed of the same hydrophobic tail and hydrophilic ssDNA aptamer headgroup but with different spacer molecules linking these groups together. Through the use of cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), and circular dichroism (CD) we show that the aptamer-amphiphiles can assemble into a variety of structures depending on the spacer used. We demonstrated, for the first time, the creation of self-assembled aptamer-amphiphile nanotape structures and show that the choice of the spacer used in the design of aptamer-amphiphiles can influence their supramolecular self-assembly as well as the secondary structure of the aptamer headgroup. We next explored the role of the ssDNA headgroup on the amphiphile self-assembly behavior by designing amphiphiles with headgroups of multiple lengths and nucleotides

  18. Data communications with VSATs - RA/TDMA vs. SS/CDMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kap S.

    Random-access TDMA and spread-spectrum CDMA, two of the most predominant hub-VSAT (very-small-aperture terminal) inbound access techniques today, are discussed in relation to the interactive data application environment where the response time is the most critical performance parameter. The system access techniques, access time, channel capacity, and performance comparison are presented. It is concluded that, in general, either RA/TDMA or SS/CDMA can provide cost/performance-effective serivce for interactive applications as compared with terrestrial service alternatives. If the user's data application consists mostly of short message transactions and its inbound aggregated data rate is low (less than 9.6 kb/s), the SS/CDMA system is recommended. The RA/TDMA system is better suited for the user applications which require a mix of interactive and batch processings.

  19. An accurate geometric distance to the compact binary SS Cygni vindicates accretion disc theory.

    PubMed

    Miller-Jones, J C A; Sivakoff, G R; Knigge, C; Körding, E G; Templeton, M; Waagen, E O

    2013-05-24

    Dwarf novae are white dwarfs accreting matter from a nearby red dwarf companion. Their regular outbursts are explained by a thermal-viscous instability in the accretion disc, described by the disc instability model that has since been successfully extended to other accreting systems. However, the prototypical dwarf nova, SS Cygni, presents a major challenge to our understanding of accretion disc theory. At the distance of 159 ± 12 parsecs measured by the Hubble Space Telescope, it is too luminous to be undergoing the observed regular outbursts. Using very long baseline interferometric radio observations, we report an accurate, model-independent distance to SS Cygni that places the source substantially closer at 114 ± 2 parsecs. This reconciles the source behavior with our understanding of accretion disc theory in accreting compact objects.

  20. Experimental investigation of machining parameter under MQL milling of SS304

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatade, Vivek T.; Patil, Vikas T.; Kuppan, P.; Balan, A. S. S.; Oyyaravelu, R.

    2016-09-01

    Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) or near dry machining has been recognized by many researchers and industrialist in order to move one step ahead towards the green manufacturing. MQL assisted machining reduces the harmful environmental impact caused by flood coolant and machining cost. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the impact of oxygen as a carrier gas in MQL during end milling of austenitic stainless steel grade SS304. Also, the machining performance under conventional MQL with air and dry machining have been studied. The evaluation was done on tool wear, surface roughness and cutting forces under two distinct cutting speeds i.e. 75 m/min and 100 m/min. Investigation brings to light that presence of oxygen is susceptible in the case of machining of SS304, it provides extra protective oxide layer near the tool chip interface. Consequently, increased tool life, reduced surface roughness and cutting forces when compared to conventional MQL assisted milling.

  1. Automated analysis of mature red blood cells and reticulocytes in SS and SC disease.

    PubMed

    Maier-Redelsperger, Micheline; Flahault, Antoine; Neonato, Maria Grazia; Girot, Robert; Labie, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Phenotypic expression of sickle cell disease (SCD) is highly variable. We investigated red blood cells (RBCs) and reticulocytes using a laser light scattering method (ADVIA120, Bayer Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY) in a series of patients with either sickle cell anemia (SS) or compound SC heterozygosity (SC), both groups with or without alpha thalassemia. Results were compared with those of a series of patients without hematological disease. Known data were consistently confirmed, namely heterogeneity in cell volume and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, as well as the premature exit of "stress" reticulocytes from the bone marrow, mostly in SS patients. Specific changes were observed during maturation, including decreases in macrocytic and hypodense cells. Simultaneous viewing of the indices of the different RBC populations provided information on erythropoietic maturation by a rapid, reproducible, and cost-effective method.

  2. Quantifying the Carbon Abundances in the Secondary Stars of SS Cygni, RU Pegasi, and GK Persei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Hamilton, Ryan T.

    2015-11-01

    We use a modified version of MOOG to generate large grids of synthetic spectra in an attempt to derive quantitative abundances for three CVs (GK Per, RU Peg, and SS Cyg) by comparing the models to moderate resolution (R ˜ 25,000) K-band spectra obtained with NIRSPEC on Keck. For each of the three systems we find solar, or slightly sub-solar values for [Fe/H], but significant deficits of carbon: for SS Cyg we find [C/Fe] = -0.50, for RU Peg [C/Fe] = -0.75, and for GK Per [C/Fe] = -1.00. We show that it is possible to use lower resolution (R ˜ 2000) spectra to quantify carbon deficits. We examine realistic veiling scenarios and find that emission from H i or CO cannot reproduce the observations.

  3. QUANTIFYING THE CARBON ABUNDANCES IN THE SECONDARY STARS OF SS CYGNI, RU PEGASI, AND GK PERSEI

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Hamilton, Ryan T. E-mail: rthamilton@sofia.usra.edu

    2015-11-15

    We use a modified version of MOOG to generate large grids of synthetic spectra in an attempt to derive quantitative abundances for three CVs (GK Per, RU Peg, and SS Cyg) by comparing the models to moderate resolution (R ∼ 25,000) K-band spectra obtained with NIRSPEC on Keck. For each of the three systems we find solar, or slightly sub-solar values for [Fe/H], but significant deficits of carbon: for SS Cyg we find [C/Fe] = −0.50, for RU Peg [C/Fe] = −0.75, and for GK Per [C/Fe] = −1.00. We show that it is possible to use lower resolution (R ∼ 2000) spectra to quantify carbon deficits. We examine realistic veiling scenarios and find that emission from H i or CO cannot reproduce the observations.

  4. Bioconversion of glycerol for bioethanol production using isolated Escherichia coli ss1

    PubMed Central

    Suhaimi, Sheril Norliana; Phang, Lai-Yee; Maeda, Toshinari; Abd-Aziz, Suraini; Wakisaka, Minato; Shirai, Yoshihito; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2012-01-01

    Bioconverting glycerol into various valuable products is one of glycerol's promising applications due to its high availability at low cost and the existence of many glycerol-utilizing microorganisms. Bioethanol and biohydrogen, which are types of renewable fuels, are two examples of bioconverted products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ethanol production from different media by local microorganism isolates and compare the ethanol fermentation profile of the selected strains to use of glucose or glycerol as sole carbon sources. The ethanol fermentations by six isolates were evaluated after a preliminary screening process. Strain named SS1 produced the highest ethanol yield of 1.0 mol: 1.0 mol glycerol and was identified as Escherichia coli SS1 Also, this isolated strain showed a higher affinity to glycerol than glucose for bioethanol production. PMID:24031858

  5. Hybrid nano-composites made of ss-DNA/wrapped carbon nanotubes and titania.

    PubMed

    Romio, Martina; Mesa, Camillo La

    2017-04-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes, MWCNTs, are stabilized thanks to the surface wrapping of single-strand DNA, ss-DNA; the resulting adducts are kinetically and thermodynamically stable Such entities build up nano-hybrids with titania, TiO2, nano-particles, in presence of surfactant as an adjuvant. The conditions leading to TiO2 adsorption onto ss-DNA/CNTs were investigated, by optimizing the concentration of adducts, nano-particles (NPs), and of the cationic surfactant (CTAB). Controlling the working conditions makes possible to get homogeneously organized hybrids. Characterization by DLS, electro-phoretic mobility, SEM and AFM clarified the surfactant-assisted association modes between adducts and CTAB-functionalized TiO2. Nano-particles' clustering onto DNA-wrapped adducts gives hybrids trough electrostatic interactions. Surface coverage by TiO2 is significant and homogeneous. It is expected that the reported hybrids can be useful for applications in heterogeneous catalysis.

  6. JBIR-66, a new metabolite isolated from tunicate-derived Saccharopolyspora sp. SS081219JE-28.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Motoki; Motohashi, Keiichiro; Izumikawa, Miho; Khan, Shams Tabrez; Hwang, Ji-Hwan; Shin-Ya, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    In the course of our chemical screening program for new secondary metabolites, we isolated a new compound JBIR-66 (1) from the culture broth of the tunicate-derived actinomycete, Saccharopolyspora sp. SS081219JE-28. The structure of 1 was determined to be (3Z,6E,8E)-N-(4-acetamido-3-hydroxybutyl)-2-hydroxy-4,8-dimethylundeca-3,6,8-trienamide on the basis of extensive NMR and MS spectroscopic data.

  7. Cleavage of metastasis suppressor gene product KiSS-1 protein/metastin by matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Takino, Takahisa; Koshikawa, Naohiko; Miyamori, Hisashi; Tanaka, Motohiro; Sasaki, Takuma; Okada, Yasunori; Seiki, Motoharu; Sato, Hiroshi

    2003-07-24

    A human placenta cDNA library was screened by the expression cloning method for gene products that interact with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and we isolated a cDNA whose product formed a stable complex with pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9. The cDNA encoded the metastasis suppressor gene KiSS-1. KiSS-1 protein was shown to form a complex with pro-MMP. KiSS-1 protein is known to be processed to peptide ligand of a G-protein-coupled receptor (hOT7T175) named metastin, and suppresses metastasis of tumors expressing the receptor. Active MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, MT3-MMP and MT5-MMP cleaved the Gly118-Leu119 peptide bond of not only full-length KiSS-1 protein but also metastin decapeptide. Metastin decapeptide induced formation of focal adhesion and actin stress fibers in cells expressing the receptor, and digestion of metastin decapeptide by MMP abolished its ligand activity. Migration of HT1080 cells expressing hOT7T175 that harbor a high-level MMP activity was only slightly suppressed by either metastin decapeptide or MMP inhibitor BB-94 alone, but the combination of metastin decapeptide and BB-94 showed a synergistic effect in blocking cell migration. We propose that metastin could be used as an antimetastatic agent in combination with MMP inhibitor, or MMP-resistant forms of metastin could be developed and may also be efficacious.

  8. Estimating the recombination frequency for the MN and the Ss loci.

    PubMed

    Spence, M A; Field, L L; Marazita, M L; Joseph, J; Sparkes, M; Crist, M; Crandall, B F; Anderson, C E; Bateman, J B; Rotter, J I

    1984-01-01

    Linkage analysis of 146 informative families for MN and Ss resulted in an estimate of the recombination frequency greater than previously reported. Our total is 7 recombinant children out of 467 individuals, including 1 confirmed recombinant (retested and HLA-compatible) and 6 not verified. The 95% confidence interval of our estimate of recombination is 0.0033-0.0167. Our results are compared with two earlier studies.

  9. Studies on the murine Ss protein. I. Purification, molecular weight, and subunit structure

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The murine Ss protein has been isolated and purified. Using specific antisera, the radiolabeled protein has a mol wt of 120,000 in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels. It is composed of two basic subunits of 23,000 and 14,000 daltons. The smaller molecular weight subunit contains a single disulfide bridge, is devoid of carbohydrate, and may represent the murine equivalent of beta2-microglobulin. PMID:809530

  10. ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAX OF THE DWARF NOVA SS CYGNI

    SciTech Connect

    Nelan, Edmund P.; Bond, Howard E. E-mail: heb11@psu.edu

    2013-08-20

    SS Cygni is one of the brightest dwarf novae (DNe), and one of the best studied prototypes of the cataclysmic variables. Astrometric observations with the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGSs) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), published in 2004, gave an absolute trigonometric parallax of 6.06 {+-} 0.44 mas. However, recent very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), obtained during radio outbursts of SS Cyg, has yielded a significantly larger absolute parallax of 8.80 {+-} 0.12 mas, as well as a large difference in the direction of the proper motion (PM) compared to the HST result. The VLBI distance reduces the implied luminosity of SS Cyg by about a factor of two, giving good agreement with predictions based on accretion-disk theory in order to explain the observed DN outburst behavior. This discrepancy raises the possibility of significant systematic errors in FGS parallaxes and PMs. We have reanalyzed the archival HST/FGS data, including (1) a critical redetermination of the parallaxes of the background astrometric reference stars, (2) updated input values of the reference-star PMs, and (3) correction of the position measurements for color-dependent shifts. Our new analysis yields a PM of SS Cyg that agrees well with the VLBI motion, and an absolute parallax of 8.30 {+-} 0.41 mas, also statistically concordant with the VLBI result at the {approx}1.2 {sigma} level. Our results suggest that HST/FGS parallaxes are free of large systematic errors, when the data are reduced using high-quality input values for the astrometry of the reference stars, and when instrumental signatures are properly removed.

  11. On the Hubble Space Telescope Trigonometric Parallax of the Dwarf Nova SS Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelan, Edmund P.; Bond, Howard E.

    2013-08-01

    SS Cygni is one of the brightest dwarf novae (DNe), and one of the best studied prototypes of the cataclysmic variables. Astrometric observations with the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGSs) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), published in 2004, gave an absolute trigonometric parallax of 6.06 ± 0.44 mas. However, recent very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), obtained during radio outbursts of SS Cyg, has yielded a significantly larger absolute parallax of 8.80 ± 0.12 mas, as well as a large difference in the direction of the proper motion (PM) compared to the HST result. The VLBI distance reduces the implied luminosity of SS Cyg by about a factor of two, giving good agreement with predictions based on accretion-disk theory in order to explain the observed DN outburst behavior. This discrepancy raises the possibility of significant systematic errors in FGS parallaxes and PMs. We have reanalyzed the archival HST/FGS data, including (1) a critical redetermination of the parallaxes of the background astrometric reference stars, (2) updated input values of the reference-star PMs, and (3) correction of the position measurements for color-dependent shifts. Our new analysis yields a PM of SS Cyg that agrees well with the VLBI motion, and an absolute parallax of 8.30 ± 0.41 mas, also statistically concordant with the VLBI result at the ~1.2 σ level. Our results suggest that HST/FGS parallaxes are free of large systematic errors, when the data are reduced using high-quality input values for the astrometry of the reference stars, and when instrumental signatures are properly removed. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  12. Can SNMP be Used to Create a Silent SS in an 802.16 Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    security -U- UDC UL Channel Descriptor UDP User Datagram Protocol UL Uplink UL Upload -V- VoIP Voice over IP VPN Virtual Private...personal cheering section. Finally, I would like to thank Rex Buddenberg, without whose insight this thesis would have never seen the light of day...create a silent SS, however in the research another option came to light which may hold potential for meeting the ends of this thesis. It was

  13. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of SS220 and Deet Against Mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    eucalypt and mangrove wetlands, where mosquitoes are commonly found in the summer from September to April each year. The current field trial was...LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF SS220 AND DEET AGAINST MOSQUITOES IN QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA4 STEPHEN P. FRANCES,1 DONNA O. MACKENZIE,1 JEROME A...methylpiperindinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide] against mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia, were conducted. In the laboratory, both compounds provided

  14. Effect of chronic contractile activity on SS and IMF mitochondrial apoptotic susceptibility in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Adhihetty, Peter J; Ljubicic, Vladimir; Hood, David A

    2007-03-01

    Chronic contractile activity of skeletal muscle induces an increase in mitochondria located in proximity to the sarcolemma [subsarcolemmal (SS)] and in mitochondria interspersed between the myofibrils [intermyofibrillar (IMF)]. These are energetically favorable metabolic adaptations, but because mitochondria are also involved in apoptosis, we investigated the effect of chronic contractile activity on mitochondrially mediated apoptotic signaling in muscle. We hypothesized that chronic contractile activity would provide protection against mitochondrially mediated apoptosis despite an elevation in the expression of proapoptotic proteins. To induce mitochondrial biogenesis, we chronically stimulated (10 Hz; 3 h/day) rat muscle for 7 days. Chronic contractile activity did not alter the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, an index of apoptotic susceptibility, and did not affect manganese superoxide dismutase levels. However, contractile activity increased antiapoptotic 70-kDa heat shock protein and apoptosis repressor with a caspase recruitment domain by 1.3- and 1.4-fold (P<0.05), respectively. Contractile activity elevated SS mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production 1.4- and 1.9-fold (P<0.05) during states IV and III respiration, respectively, whereas IMF mitochondrial state IV ROS production was suppressed by 28% (P<0.05) and was unaffected during state III respiration. Following stimulation, exogenous ROS treatment produced less cytochrome c release (25-40%) from SS and IMF mitochondria, and also reduced apoptosis-inducing factor release (approximately 30%) from IMF mitochondria, despite higher inherent cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor expression. Chronic contractile activity did not alter mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP) components in either subfraction. However, SS mitochondria exhibited a significant increase in the time to Vmax of mtPTP opening. Thus, chronic contractile activity induces predominantly antiapoptotic adaptations in both

  15. Evidence for 4-chlorobenzoic acid dehalogenation mediated by plasmids related to pSS50.

    PubMed Central

    Layton, A C; Sanseverino, J; Wallace, W; Corcoran, C; Sayler, G S

    1992-01-01

    The biodegradation of 4-chlorobiphenyl usually proceeds through the intermediate 4-chlorobenzoate. Few bacterial strains can degrade 4-chlorobiphenyl to 4-chlorobenzoate and 4-chlorobenzoate to CO2. This study demonstrates that the 4-chlorobiphenyl-degrading Alcaligenes sp. strain ALP83 can degrade 4-chlorobenzoate to 4-hydroxybenzoate. The dehalogenase activity is correlated with a 10-kb fragment carried on plasmid pSS70. Images PMID:1539985

  16. Intermittency in 200 GeV/nucleon S+S collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, P.; Bloomer, M.A.

    1992-03-01

    We have studied one and two-dimensional intermittency in S+S collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon in a high statistics electronic measurement at the CERN SPS using pad-readout streamer tubes. We observe no intermittency signal beyond that produced by folding the Fritiof event generator with a detailed model of our detector. Even though the observed signal contains significant distortions due to experimental effects, we show that we are sensitive to intermittency in the collision.

  17. Highly thymine-dependent formation of fluorescent copper nanoparticles templated by ss-DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guiying; Shao, Yong; Peng, Jian; Dai, Wei; Liu, Lingling; Xu, Shujuan; Wu, Fei; Wu, Xiaohua

    2013-08-01

    Double-stranded DNAs (ds-DNAs) have been identified as efficient templates favoring the formation of fluorescent copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs). Herein, we have tried to synthesize fluorescent Cu NPs using single-stranded DNAs (ss-DNAs) as templates and to identify the critical DNA sequences. By comparing the results using homopolymer DNAs, hairpin DNAs, and pristine ss-DNAs as templates, we found that DNA thymine base plays a dominant role in producing red-emissive fluorescent Cu NPs on ss-DNA templates. The thymine-dependent growth of the fluorescent Cu NPs is confirmed by Hg2+ mediated T-T base pair in comparison with the other non-specific metal ions, which could be developed into a practical sensor for turn-on fluorescence detection of Hg2+ with a high selectivity. The mechanism is briefly discussed according the DNA sequence-dependent formation of fluorescent Cu NPs. This work demonstrates the sequence role in producing fluorescent Cu NPs that could serve as promising fluorescent nanoprobes in biosensing and DNA-hosted Cu nanomaterials.

  18. A novel, highly divergent ssDNA virus identified in Brazil infecting apple, pear and grapevine.

    PubMed

    Basso, Marcos Fernando; da Silva, José Cleydson Ferreira; Fajardo, Thor Vinícius Martins; Fontes, Elizabeth Pacheco Batista; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo

    2015-12-02

    Fruit trees of temperate and tropical climates are of great economical importance worldwide and several viruses have been reported affecting their productivity and longevity. Fruit trees of different Brazilian regions displaying virus-like symptoms were evaluated for infection by circular DNA viruses. Seventy-four fruit trees were sampled and a novel, highly divergent, monopartite circular ssDNA virus was cloned from apple, pear and grapevine trees. Forty-five complete viral genomes were sequenced, with a size of approx. 3.4 kb and organized into five ORFs. Deduced amino acid sequences showed identities in the range of 38% with unclassified circular ssDNA viruses, nanoviruses and alphasatellites (putative Replication-associated protein, Rep), and begomo-, curto- and mastreviruses (putative coat protein, CP, and movement protein, MP). A large intergenic region contains a short palindromic sequence capable of forming a hairpin-like structure with the loop sequence TAGTATTAC, identical to the conserved nonanucleotide of circoviruses, nanoviruses and alphasatellites. Recombination events were not detected and phylogenetic analysis showed a relationship with circo-, nano- and geminiviruses. PCR confirmed the presence of this novel ssDNA virus in field plants. Infectivity tests using the cloned viral genome confirmed its ability to infect apple and pear tree seedlings, but not Nicotiana benthamiana. The name "Temperate fruit decay-associated virus" (TFDaV) is proposed for this novel virus.

  19. DETECTION OF PERSISTENT GAMMA-RAY EMISSION TOWARD SS433/W50

    SciTech Connect

    Bordas, P.; Yang, R.; Kafexhiu, E.; Aharonian, F. E-mail: ryang@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2015-07-01

    The microquasar SS433 features the most energetic jets known in our Galaxy. A large fraction of the jet kinetic power is delivered to the surrounding W50 nebula at the jet termination shock, from which high-energy emission and cosmic-ray production have been anticipated. Here, we report on the detection of a persistent gamma-ray signal obtained with the Fermi Large Area Telescope from an unidentified source that we tentatively associate, given its 99.9% confidence level position accuracy and the lack of any other high-energy emitter counterpart in the studied region, with SS433. The obtained spectral energy distribution displays a distinct maximum at ∼250 MeV and only extends up to ∼800 MeV. We discuss the possibility that the observed gamma-ray emission is produced through proton–proton collisions at the SS433/W50 interaction regions. If the same mechanism is operating in other baryon-loaded microquasar jets, their collective contribution could represent a significant fraction of the total galactic cosmic-ray flux at GeV energies.

  20. Mechanism of homologous recombination from the RecA-ssDNA/dsDNA structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhucheng; Yang, Haijuan; Pavletich, Nikola P

    2008-07-08

    The RecA family of ATPases mediates homologous recombination, a reaction essential for maintaining genomic integrity and for generating genetic diversity. RecA, ATP and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) form a helical filament that binds to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), searches for homology, and then catalyses the exchange of the complementary strand, producing a new heteroduplex. Here we have solved the crystal structures of the Escherichia coli RecA-ssDNA and RecA-heteroduplex filaments. They show that ssDNA and ATP bind to RecA-RecA interfaces cooperatively, explaining the ATP dependency of DNA binding. The ATP {gamma}-phosphate is sensed across the RecA-RecA interface by two lysine residues that also stimulate ATP hydrolysis, providing a mechanism for DNA release. The DNA is underwound and stretched globally, but locally it adopts a B-DNA-like conformation that restricts the homology search to Watson-Crick-type base pairing. The complementary strand interacts primarily through base pairing, making heteroduplex formation strictly dependent on complementarity. The underwound, stretched filament conformation probably evolved to destabilize the donor duplex, freeing the complementary strand for homology sampling.

  1. Deformation behavior of SS400 Thick plate by high-frequency-induction-heating-based line heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Eom, Deuk Ha; Lee, Jung-Hwan

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the line heating-induced permanent deformation behavior of an SS400 thick plate was investigated through both numerical analysis and experimental testing by applying high-frequency induction heating after generating dual-curvature by secondary line heating. First, an approach based on electromagnetic-thermal-structural coupling numerical analysis was adopted for predicting the temperature distribution and subsequent permanent deformation over the SS400 carbon steel plate. Experimental line heating was also carried out to validate the feasibility of the numerical analysis by applying newly designed laboratory-scale high-frequency (HF) induction-heating (IH) equipment. It was found that the shape of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) generated by HF IH and the subsequent microstructure of the SS400 carbon steel plate within the HAZ were strongly dependent on the input power. Permanent vertical deformation increased with an increase in the input power, regardless of the shape of the doubly curved plates (concave- or saddle-type plates). Transverse curvature determined in both the simulation and the experiment were investigated and compared.

  2. The Precession of SS433's Radio Ruff on Long Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doolin, Samuel; Blundell, Katherine M.

    2009-06-01

    Roughly perpendicular to SS433's famous precessing jets is an outflowing "ruff" of radio-emitting plasma, revealed by direct imaging on milliarcsecond scales. Over the last decade, images of the ruff have revealed that its orientation changes over time with respect to a fixed sky coordinate grid. For example, during two months of daily observations with the VLBA by Mioduszewski et al., a steady rotation through ~10° is observed while the jet angle changes by ~20°. The ruff reorientation is not coupled with the well known precession of SS433's radio jets, as the ruff orientation varies across a range of 69° while the jet angle varies across 40°, and on greatly differing and noncommensurate timescales. It has been proposed that the ruff is fed by SS433's circumbinary disk, discovered by a sequence of optical spectroscopy by Blundell et al., and so we present the results of three-dimensional numerical simulations of circumbinary orbits. These simulations show precession in the longitude of the ascending node of all inclined circumbinary orbits—an effect which would manifest itself as the observed ruff reorientation. Matching the rate of ruff precession is possible if circumbinary components are sufficiently close to the binary system, but only if the binary mass fraction is close to equality and the binary eccentricity is nonzero.

  3. Diverse circular ssDNA viruses discovered in dragonflies (Odonata: Epiprocta).

    PubMed

    Rosario, Karyna; Dayaram, Anisha; Marinov, Milen; Ware, Jessica; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Breitbart, Mya; Varsani, Arvind

    2012-12-01

    Viruses with circular ssDNA genomes that encode a replication initiator protein (Rep) are among the smallest viruses known to infect both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. In the past few years an overwhelming diversity of novel circular Rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA) viruses has been unearthed from various hosts and environmental sources. Since there is limited information regarding CRESS-DNA viruses in invertebrates, this study explored the diversity of CRESS-DNA viruses circulating among insect populations by targeting dragonflies (Epiprocta), top insect predators that accumulate viruses from their insect prey over space and time. Using degenerate PCR and rolling circle amplification coupled with restriction digestion, 17 CRESS-DNA viral genomes were recovered from eight different dragonfly species collected in tropical and temperate regions. Nine of the genomes are similar to cycloviruses and represent five species within this genus, suggesting that cycloviruses are commonly associated with insects. Three of the CRESS-DNA viruses share conserved genomic features with recently described viruses similar to the mycovirus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus 1, leading to the proposal of the genus Gemycircularvirus. The remaining viruses are divergent species representing four novel CRESS-DNA viral genera, including a gokushovirus-like prokaryotic virus (microphage) and three eukaryotic viruses with Reps similar to circoviruses. The novelty of CRESS-DNA viruses identified in dragonflies using simple molecular techniques indicates that there is an unprecedented diversity of ssDNA viruses among insect populations.

  4. Bithermal Low-Cycle Fatigue Evaluation of Automotive Exhaust System Alloy SS409

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Gui-Ying; Behling, Mike B.; Halford, Gary R.

    2000-01-01

    This investigation provides, for the first time, cyclic strainrange-controlled, thermomechanical fatigue results for the ferritic stainless steel alloy SS409. The alloy has seen extensive application for automotive exhaust system components. The data were generated to calibrate the Total Strain Version of the Strainrange Partitioning (TS-SRP) method for eventual application to the design and durability assessment of automotive exhaust systems. The thermomechanical cyclic lifetime and cyclic stress-strain constitutive behavior for alloy SS409 were measured using bithermal tests cycling between isothermal extremes of 400 and 800 C. Lives ranged up to 10,000 cycles to failure with hold-times of 0.33 to 2.0 minutes. The bithermal fatigue behavior is compared to isothermal, strain-controlled fatigue behavior at both 400 and 800 C. Thermomechanical cycling was found to have a profound detrimental influence on the fatigue failure resistance of SS409 compared to isothermal cycling. Supplementary bithermal cyclic stress-strain constitutive tests with hold-times ranging from 40 seconds up to 1.5 hours were conducted to calibrate the TS-SRP equation for extrapolation to longer lifetime predictions. Observed thermomechanical (bithermal) fatigue lives correlated well with lives calculated using the calibrated TS-SRP equations: 70% of the bithermal fatigue data fall within a factor of 1.2 of calculated life; 85% within a factor of 1.4; and 100% within a factor of 1.8.

  5. Synonymous Mutations Reduce Genome Compactness in Icosahedral ssRNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Tubiana, Luca; Božič, Anže Lošdorfer; Micheletti, Cristian; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that single-stranded (ss) viral RNAs fold into more compact structures than random RNA sequences with similar chemical composition and identical length. Based on this comparison, it has been suggested that wild-type viral RNA may have evolved to be atypically compact so as to aid its encapsidation and assist the viral assembly process. To further explore the compactness selection hypothesis, we systematically compare the predicted sizes of >100 wild-type viral sequences with those of their mutants, which are evolved in silico and subject to a number of known evolutionary constraints. In particular, we enforce mutation synonynimity, preserve the codon-bias, and leave untranslated regions intact. It is found that progressive accumulation of these restricted mutations still suffices to completely erase the characteristic compactness imprint of the viral RNA genomes, making them in this respect physically indistinguishable from randomly shuffled RNAs. This shows that maintaining the physical compactness of the genome is indeed a primary factor among ssRNA viruses’ evolutionary constraints, contributing also to the evidence that synonymous mutations in viral ssRNA genomes are not strictly neutral. PMID:25564866

  6. Coordinated X-ray, ultraviolet and optical observations of AM Herculis, U Geminorum, and SS Cygni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabbiano, G.; Hartmann, L.; Raymond, J.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Matilsky, T.; Steiner, J.

    1981-01-01

    Simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous optical, UV and X-ray observations of the accreting degenerate dwarf stars AM Herculis, U Geminorum and SS Cygni are reported. The observations were obtained in March 1979, by instruments on board the Einstein Observatory and the IUE satellite, and optical properties were monitored on the ground. AM Her was found to be in a high state at the time of the observations, while SS Cyg and U Gem appeared to be in the optical low state. The presence of a strong UV excess is found in SS Cyg, U Gem and AM Her, which most likely originates from the boundary of the accretion disk in U Gem. The observed excess, with a blackbody component greater than 10 eV, is noted to be inconsistent with standard accretion disk and column models. It is suggested that nuclear burning at the surface of the white dwarf may be responsible for the excess UV flux in the three systems, with differences in spectral distributions resulting from different levels of magnetic field intensity and accretion rate.

  7. TIMES-SS--recent refinements resulting from an industrial skin sensitisation consortium.

    PubMed

    Patlewicz, G; Kuseva, C; Mehmed, A; Popova, Y; Dimitrova, G; Ellis, G; Hunziker, R; Kern, P; Low, L; Ringeissen, S; Roberts, D W; Mekenyan, O

    2014-01-01

    The TImes MEtabolism Simulator platform for predicting Skin Sensitisation (TIMES-SS) is a hybrid expert system, first developed at Bourgas University using funding and data from a consortium of industry and regulators. TIMES-SS encodes structure-toxicity and structure-skin metabolism relationships through a number of transformations, some of which are underpinned by mechanistic 3D QSARs. The model estimates semi-quantitative skin sensitisation potency classes and has been developed with the aim of minimising animal testing, and also to be scientifically valid in accordance with the OECD principles for (Q)SAR validation. In 2007 an external validation exercise was undertaken to fully address these principles. In 2010, a new industry consortium was established to coordinate research efforts in three specific areas: refinement of abiotic reactions in the skin (namely autoxidation) in the skin, refinement of the manner in which chemical reactivity was captured in terms of structure-toxicity rules (inclusion of alert reliability parameters) and defining the domain based on the underlying experimental data (study of discrepancies between local lymph node assay Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) and Guinea Pig Maximisation Test (GPMT)). The present paper summarises the progress of these activities and explains how the insights derived have been translated into refinements, resulting in increased confidence and transparency in the robustness of the TIMES-SS predictions.

  8. Fracture strengths of HIPed DS-Cu/SS joints for ITER shielding blanket/first wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, T.; Kanari, M.; Sato, S.; Gotoh, M.; Furuya, K.; Kuroda, T.; Saito, M.; Enoeda, M.; Takatsu, H.

    1998-10-01

    Fracture toughness and crack propagation tests were performed to investigate the effect of HIP temperature and fracture behavior of HIPed DS-Cu/SS joints. Test specimens of DS-Cu/SS HIPed joints were manufactured by bonding flat plates of DS-Cu and SS under HIP temperatures of 980°C, 1030°C and 1050°C. JQ of the joint at HIP temperature of 1050°C was larger than the other two joints. For the crack propagation test, two types of test specimens were prepared. One had a notch along the HIPed interface and the other in DS-Cu and normal to the interface. The crack in the former specimen propagated along the interface. On the other hand, the crack in the latter specimen propagated in the DS-Cu perpendicular to the loading direction, stopped at the interface, and then exfoliated along the HIPed interface. In the fracture tests, the crack was observed propagating in DS-Cu side at approximately 5-10 μm away from the interface.

  9. Genetic analysis of SS18L1 in French amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Teyssou, Elisa; Vandenberghe, Nadia; Moigneu, Carine; Boillée, Séverine; Couratier, Philippe; Meininger, Vincent; Pradat, Pierre-François; Salachas, François; Leguern, Eric; Millecamps, Stéphanie

    2014-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating motor neuron disease including about 15% of genetically determined forms. A de novo mutation in the SS18L1 (also known as CREST or KIAA0693) gene encoding the calcium-responsive transactivator and/or neuronal chromatin remodeling complex subunit has recently been identified by exome sequencing of 47 sporadic ALS trios. This Q388stop mutation deleting the last 9 amino acids was shown to impair activity-dependent dendritic outgrowth. A missense mutation (c.369T>G, p.Ileu123Met) was also found in 1 of 62 ALS families previously screened for other ALS-related genes and not carrying any mutation. To confirm the contribution of SS18L1 to ALS, we sequenced the 11 coding exons and exon-intron boundaries in 87 familial ALS (FALS). We identified 2 variants: the c.660_668del, p.Gln222_Ser224del in a patient devoid of mutation in any ALS related genes and the c.790G>A, p.Ala264Thr in a patient carrying a p.Arg96Leu variant in the OPTN gene. As these variants were not found in Single Nucleotide Polymorphism databases and were absent from 180 controls they could be new SS18L1 mutations causing ALS.

  10. Defining the Content of an Online Sexual Health Intervention: The MenSS Website

    PubMed Central

    Gerressu, Makeda; Michie, Susan; Estcourt, Claudia; Anderson, Jane; Ang, Chee Siang; Murray, Elizabeth; Rait, Greta; Stephenson, Judith; Bailey, Julia V

    2015-01-01

    Background Health promotion and risk reduction are essential components of sexual health care. However, it can be difficult to prioritize these within busy clinical services. Digital interventions may provide a new method for supporting these. Objective The MenSS (Men’s Safer Sex) website is an interactive digital intervention developed by a multidisciplinary team, which aims to improve condom use in men who have sex with women (MSW). This paper describes the content of this intervention, and the rationale for it. Methods Content was informed by a literature review regarding men’s barriers to condom use, workshops with experts in sexual health and technology (N=16) and interviews with men in sexual health clinics (N=20). Data from these sources were analyzed thematically, and synthesized using the Behavior Change Wheel framework. Results The MenSS intervention is a website optimized for delivery via tablet computer within a clinic waiting room setting. Key targets identified were condom use skills, beliefs about pleasure and knowledge about risk. Content was developed using behavior change techniques, and interactive website features provided feedback tailored for individual users. Conclusions This paper provides a detailed description of an evidence-based interactive digital intervention for sexual health, including how behavior change techniques were translated into practice within the design of the MenSS website. Triangulation between a targeted literature review, expert workshops, and interviews with men ensured that a range of potential influences on condom use were captured. PMID:26142304

  11. Biomolecular detection at ssDNA-conjugated nanoparticles by nano-impact electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Anahita; Hayat, Akhtar; Andreescu, Silvana

    2017-01-15

    We describe the use of ssDNA functionalized silver nanoparticle (AgNP) probes for quantitative investigation of biorecognition and real time detection of biomolecular targets using nano-impact electrochemistry. The method is based on measurements of the individual collision events between ssDNA aptamer-functionalized AgNPs and a carbon fiber miroelectrode (CFME). Specific binding events of target analyte induced collision frequency changes enabling ultrasensitive detection of the aptamer target in a single step. These changes are assigned to the surface coverage of the NP by the ssDNA aptamers and subsequent conformational changes of the aptamer probe which affect the electron transfer between the NP and the electrode surface. The method enables sensitive and selective detection of ochratoxin A (OTA), chosen here as a model target, with a limit of detection of 0.05nM and a relative standard deviation of 4.9%. The study provides a means of characterizing bioconjugation of AgNPs with aptamers and assessing biomolecular recognition events with high sensitivity and without the use of exogenous reagents or enzyme amplification steps. This methodology can be broadly applicable to other bioconjugated systems, biosensing and related bioanalytical applications.

  12. KiSS-1 expression and metastin-like immunoreactivity in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Brailoiu, G Cristina; Dun, Siok L; Ohsawa, Masahiro; Yin, Deling; Yang, Jun; Chang, Jaw Kang; Brailoiu, Eugen; Dun, Nae J

    2005-01-17

    Metastin, the gene product of metastasis suppressor gene KiSS-1, is the endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54 (or AXOR12, or OT7T175). The expression of KiSS-1 gene and peptide and the distribution of metastin were studied in the rat central nervous system by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical methods. KiSS-1 gene and peptide expression was higher in the hypothalamus than in the brainstem and spinal cord. In the brain, metastin-like immunoreactivity (irMT) was found mainly in three groups of cells: dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, and caudal ventrolateral medulla. Immunoreactive fibers of varying density were noted in bed nucleus of stria terminalis, septal nuclei, nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, diagonal band, amygdala, hypothalamus, zona incerta, thalamus, periaqueductal gray, raphe nuclei, lateral parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, spinal trigeminal tract, rostral ventrolateral medulla, and medullary reticular nucleus. Preabsorption of the antiserum with metastin peptide fragment (45-54)-NH2 (1 microg/ml) resulted in no staining in any of the sections. The biological activity of metastin was assessed by monitoring intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i in cultured hippocampal neurons, which are known to express GPR54. Metastin increased [Ca2+]i in a population of cultured hippocampal neurons. The results show that metastin is biologically active in rat central neurons, and its anatomical distribution suggests a possible role in nociception and autonomic and neuroendocrine functions.

  13. KiSS-1 and GPR54 as new players in gonadotropin regulation and puberty.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Ursula B; Kuohung, Wendy

    2005-04-01

    The recent identification of loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding GPR54, the receptor for the KiSS-1-derived peptides, kisspeptins, has highlighted a previously unrecognized pathway in the physiologic regulation of puberty and reproduction. Patients with loss-of-function mutations in GPR54 have idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and mice lacking GPR54 similarly fail to undergo puberty and have immature reproductive organs and low levels of sex steroids and gonadotropins. These observations have led to the hypothesis that kisspeptins activate hypothalamic GnRH release, thereby serving as a pivotal factor in the pubertal activation of the reproductive cascade. This hypothesis is supported by subsequent studies in rodent and primate models that have demonstrated localization of KiSS-1 mRNA in the hypothalamus, colocalization of GPR54 in GnRH neurons, GnRH-dependent activation of LH and FSH release by intracerebroventricular or peripheral administration of kisspeptin, and increased hypothalamic KiSS-1 and GPR54 mRNA levels at the onset of puberty. Taken together, these findings weave a compelling case for a role of the kisspeptin-GPR54 system in the activation of GnRH neurons at the time of pubertal awakening of the reproductive axis.

  14. Facile C-S, S-H, and S-S bond cleavage using a nickel(0) NHC complex.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Thomas; Backes, Marc; Plietzsch, Oliver; Radius, Udo

    2009-09-21

    [Ni2(iPr2Im)4(COD)] 1 (iPr2Im = 1,3-di(isopropyl)-imidazol-2-ylidene) reacts at room temperature with the thioethers methyl para-tolyl sulfide, ethyl phenyl sulfide, benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene to afford the C-S bond cleavage products [Ni(iPr2Im)2(4-CH3-C6H4)(SMe)] 2, [Ni(iPr2Im)2(C6H5)(SEt)] 3, [Ni(iPr2Im)2(1,8-benzothiophenylato)] 4 and [Ni(iPr2Im)2(C,S-dibenzothiophenylato)] 5. In contrast to the reaction of thioethers or sulfoxides (reported earlier), no C-S bond cleavage was observed for the reaction of 1 with the sulfones bezothiophene-1,1-dioxide and methyl phenyl sulfone. In those cases the stable compounds [Ni(iPr2Im)2(eta2-2,3-benzothiophene-1,1-dioxide)] 6 and [Ni(iPr2Im)2(eta2-MeSO2C6H5)] 7 with a eta2-coordinated sulfone ligand have been isolated. Compound 6 has been structurally characterized. S-H bond cleavage was observed using 2-methyl-2-propanthiol to afford [Ni(iPr2Im)2(H)(StBu)] 8. The reaction of 1 with disulfides led to the dithiolato complexes [Ni(iPr2Im)2(SR)2] (R = tBu 9, Me 10, Ph 11) by S-S bond scission.

  15. Development of Silica Glass Coatings on 316L SS and Evaluation of its Corrosion Resistance Behavior in Ringer's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayalakshmi, U.; Rajeswari, S.

    2012-12-01

    Sol-gel derived silica glasses have many promising features, including low-temperature preparation as well as chemical and physical stability. Two silica glasses with Si100 and Si80 composition were prepared to understand the factors contributing to the rate of bioactivity. The effects of pH, solution aging temperature, and molar ratio of H2O/tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) were studied, and the obtained powder sample was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction studies, and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized silica glasses were deposited on 316L SS by the spin coating method at the optimized speed of 2000 revolutions per minute. The corrosion resistance behavior of the coatings was determined by (1) open-circuit potential vs time of exposure, (2) electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and (3) cyclic polarization in Ringer's solution. A higher breakdown potential ( E b) and repassivation potential ( E p) value with lower current density was obtained from cyclic polarization. Similar results were observed from impedance analysis with higher charge transfer resistance ( R ct) and lower double layer capacitance ( C dl) indicating the corrosion resistance behavior of the coatings compared with the uncoated 316L stainless steel. From the results, it was observed that both Si100 and Si80 glass coatings had a positive effect on the corrosion resistance behavior. An adhesive strength of 46 MPa and 45 MPa was obtained for the Si100 and Si80 coatings, respectively. An accelerated leach out study was carried out by impressing the potential at their breakdown potential to determine the effect of glass coating for long-term contact between the implant and a normal biological medium.

  16. Cloning and expression pattern of SsHKT1 encoding a putative cation transporter from halophyte Suaeda salsa.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qun; Zhao, Chang; Han, Ning; Wang, Bao-shan

    2008-04-01

    Potassium is an essential element for plant, and high-affinity K+ uptake system plays a crucial role in potassium absorption and transportation. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a HKT1 homolog from C3 halophyte Suaeda salsa (L.) (SsHKT1), particularly under low K+ treatment. The SsHKT1 cDNA was 2033 nucleotides long including 1650 bp ORF for a 550 amino acids peptide and a predicted molecular mass of 63.0 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of SsHKT1 was 39-64% identical to other plant HKT-like sequences. A SsHKT1-specific antibody was prepared and reacted with a 63.0 kDa protein from S. salsa plasma membrane. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed that SsHKT1 was mainly expressed in leaf tissues and to a lesser extent, in root tissues. Amounts of SsHKT1 transcript were developmentally controlled and significantly up-regulated by K+ deprivation and NaCl treatment. The results suggested that SsHKT1 might play an important role in ion homeostasis and salt tolerance of S. salsa.

  17. Salmonella Typhimurium utilizes a T6SS-mediated antibacterial weapon to establish in the host gut

    PubMed Central

    Flaugnatti, Nicolas; Lugo, Kyler A.; Lam, Lilian H.; Jacobson, Amanda; Baylot, Virginie; Durand, Eric; Journet, Laure; Cascales, Eric; Monack, Denise M.

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract is colonized by a high-density polymicrobial community where bacteria compete for niches and resources. One key competition strategy includes cell contact-dependent mechanisms of interbacterial antagonism, such as the type VI secretion system (T6SS), a multiprotein needle-like apparatus that injects effector proteins into prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic target cells. However, the contribution of T6SS antibacterial activity during pathogen invasion of the gut has not been demonstrated. We report that successful establishment in the gut by the enteropathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium requires a T6SS encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island-6 (SPI-6). In an in vitro setting, we demonstrate that bile salts increase SPI-6 antibacterial activity and that S. Typhimurium kills commensal bacteria in a T6SS-dependent manner. Furthermore, we provide evidence that one of the two T6SS nanotube subunits, Hcp1, is required for killing Klebsiella oxytoca in vitro and that this activity is mediated by the specific interaction of Hcp1 with the antibacterial amidase Tae4. Finally, we show that K. oxytoca is killed in the host gut in an Hcp1-dependent manner and that the T6SS antibacterial activity is essential for Salmonella to establish infection within the host gut. Our findings provide an example of pathogen T6SS-dependent killing of commensal bacteria as a mechanism to successfully colonize the host gut. PMID:27503894

  18. A comparative toxicity evaluation of Escherichia coli-targeted ssDNA and chlorine in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Rajni; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a comparative assessment of the effectiveness of ssDNA and chlorine as disinfectants for treating water contaminated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) was investigated on the basis of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The gene targets addressed for the ssDNA based inhibition method were marA (multiple antibiotic resistance) and groL (essential gene Hsp60) in E. coli. Based on the maximum log reduction in E. coli cell numbers when compared to no ssDNA control, groL-1 was chosen as the optimized ssDNA for gene silencing-based inactivation. For toxicity assessment, HepG2 cells were exposed to extracts corresponding to concentrations of 0.2, 1, 5, 25 and 50 mL water/mL medium of chlorine doped water and 1, 10, 100, 300 nM of ssDNA. Compared with ssDNA, HepG2 cells exposed to extracts of chlorine doped water for 24 h showed higher cytotoxicity, caspase 3/7 levels, DNA damage, micronuclei frequency, and decreased cell viability. Water doped with chlorine was found to be more toxic than that by ssDNA when exposed to HepG2 cells. The results of this study provide a scientific basis for comparative evaluation of new and conventional disinfection methods by taking into consideration the outcome of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessments.

  19. Single molecule identification of homology-dependent interactions between long ssRNA and dsDNA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenli; Danilowicz, Claudia; Kleckner, Nancy; Prentiss, Mara

    2017-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are prominently associated with chromosomes in an ever-increasing diversity of roles. To provide further insight into the potential nature of these associations, we have explored, for the first time, the interaction of long single-stranded (ss) RNAs with cognate homologous double-stranded (ds) DNA in vitro. Using magnetic tweezers, we measured the effects of ssRNA on force extension curves for dsDNA. We observe that the presence of ssRNA impedes the extension of dsDNA, specifically at low forces, dependent on homology between the RNA and DNA species, and dependent on ssRNA lengths (≥1 kb). The observed effect also depends on the concentration of ssRNA and is abolished by overstretching of the dsDNA. These findings show that significant homologous contacts can occur between long ssRNA and dsDNA in the absence of protein and that these contacts alter the mechanical properties of the dsDNA. We propose that long ssRNA interacts paranemically with long dsDNA via periodic short homologous interactions, e.g. mediated by RNA/DNA triplex-formation, and that dsDNA extension is impeded by formation of RNA secondary structure in the intervening unbound regions. Analogous interactions in vivo would permit lncRNAs to mediate the juxtaposition of two or more DNA regions on the same or different chromosomes. PMID:27580717

  20. IFNL4 ss469415590 polymorphism is associated with unfavourable clinical and immunological status in HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Machmach, K; Abad-Molina, C; Romero-Sánchez, M C; Dominguez-Molina, B; Moyano, M; Rodriguez, M M; Rafii-El-Idrissi Benhnia, M; Jimenez-Mejias, M E; Vidal, F; Muñoz-Fernández, M A; Genebat, M; Viciana, P; González-Escribano, M F; Leal, M; Ruiz-Mateos, E

    2015-03-01

    The IFNL4 ss469415590 polymorphism, in high linkage disequilibrium with the IL28B rs12979860 variant, has been associated with hepatitis C virus clearance. We evaluated whether ss469415590 is associated with clinical and immunovirological parameters in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects. We found an independent association of the IFNL4 ss469415590 polymorphism with higher prevalence of AIDS-defining illnesses and lower CD4 T cell numbers. These results suggest the existence of common host defence mechanisms against different viral infections.

  1. KiSS-1-mediated suppression of the invasive ability of human pancreatic carcinoma cells is not dependent on the level of KiSS-1 receptor GPR54

    PubMed Central

    WANG, CHUN-HUI; QIAO, CHONG; WANG, RUO-CHEN; ZHOU, WEN-PING

    2016-01-01

    The onset of local invasion and lymphatic metastasis in pancreatic cancer limits survival following surgical intervention and additional therapies. Reduced expression of KiSS-1 in pancreatic cancer is associated with cancer metastasis. Previous studies have indicated that kisspeptin, the KiSS-1 peptide, is able to bind to its receptor-GPR54 (hOT7T175) and suppress the migration of PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. Whether the metastatic suppression of KiSS-1 is dependent on the levels of GPR54 in pancreatic cancer cell lines remains unclear. Human BxPC-3 pancreatic carcinoma cells are highly differentiated without exhibiting metastasis, however PANC-1 pancreatic carcinoma cells are poorly differentiated and exhibit local and lymph node metastasis. Compared with primary cultured trophoblasts, BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cells were observed to express low levels of KiSS-1 mRNA and protein, measured using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. However, greater mRNA and protein expression levels of GPR54 were observed in PANC-1 cells compared with BxPc-3 cells. An MTT assay was used to investigate the effect of KiSS-1 on BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cell proliferation. There were no significant differences in proliferation following transfection with KiSS-1 in BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cells compared with the controls (P>0.05). A Transwell assay with chambers coated with Matrigel was used to evaluate the in vitro invasive ability of BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cells, with the invasion index of BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cells significantly reduced following 48 h of KiSS-1 overexpression (P<0.05). The mRNA and protein expression levels of KiSS-1 were significantly increased in BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cells 48 h subsequent to transfection with KiSS-1 (P<0.05), while GPR54 expression was not altered (P>0.05). KiSS-1 is a metastasis suppressor gene of pancreatic cancer, and this suppression is not dependent on the expression levels of GPR54. Therefore, KiSS-1 is

  2. Intragastric pH Monitoring,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    disposable sensor.. hnt Care 13. Peterson WL. GI bleeding. In: Sleisenger MH, Fordtran IS, Med 1988;14:232-5. ,. eds. Gastrointestinal disease: pathophysiology ... diagnosis and 27. Fimmel CL, Etienne A, Cilluffo T, et al. Long-term ambu- management, Vol I. 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, latory gastric pH

  3. Making pH Tangible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Elizabeth; Moss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise in which students test the pH of different substances, study the effect of a buffer on acidic solutions by comparing the behavior of buffered and unbuffered solutions upon the addition of acid, and compare common over-the-counter antacid remedies. (MKR)

  4. Binding of antibodies to the extractable nuclear antigens SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La is induced on the surface of human keratinocytes by ultraviolet light (UVL): Implications for the pathogenesis of photosensitive cutaneous lupus

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, F.; Kashihara-Sawami, M.; Lyons, M.B.; Norris, D.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Autoantibodies to the non-histone nucleoprotein antigens SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, and RNP are highly associated with photosensitive cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LE). In order to better understand the potential mechanisms of ultraviolet (UV) light on photosensitivity in patients with cutaneous LE, we designed immunopathologic in vitro and in vivo experiments to evaluate the effects of UV on the binding of such autoantibodies to the surface of human keratinocytes, one major target of immunologic damage in photosensitive LE. Short-term 2% paraformaldehyde fixation of suspensions of cultured human keratinocytes previously incubated with monospecific antiserum probes enabled the detection of ENA expression on the cell surface by flow-cytometry analysis. UVB light (280-320 nm) induced the binding of monospecific antibody probes for SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La on keratinocytes in a dose-dependent pattern with maximal induction observed at the dose of 200 mJ/cm2 UVB. Binding of SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, and RNP antibody was augmented strongly, but binding of anti-Sm was very weak. In contrast, UVA (320-400 nm) light had no effect on the induction of binding of these antibody probes. Identical results were seen by standard immunofluorescence techniques. Hydroxyurea-treated keratinocytes showed similar induction of those antigens by UVB irradiation, which suggested that ENA expression on cultured keratinocytes by UVB were cell-cycle independent. Tunicamycin, an inhibitor of glycosylation of proteins, reduced UVB light effect on the SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La antigen's expression. These in vitro FACS analyses revealed that ENA augmentation on the keratinocyte cell surface was dose dependent, UVB dependent, glycosylation dependent, and cell-cycle independent. In vivo ENA augmentation on the keratinocyte surface was examined in suction blister epidermal roofs.

  5. Overexpression of SsCHLAPXs confers protection against oxidative stress induced by high light in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pang, Cai-Hong; Li, Ke; Wang, Baoshan

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the physiological importance of chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase (CHLAPX) in the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging system of a euhalophyte, we cloned the CHLAPX of Suaeda salsa (SsCHLAPX) encoding stromal APX (sAPX) and thylakoid-bound APX. The stromal APX of S. salsa (Ss.sAPX) cDNA consists of 1726 nucleotides including an 1137-bp open reading frame (ORF) and encodes 378 amino acids. The thylakoid-bound APX of S. salsa (Ss.tAPX) cDNA consists of 1561 nucleotides, including a 1284-bp ORF, and encodes 427 amino acids. The N-terminal 378 amino acids of Ss.sAPX are identical with those of Ss.tAPX, whereas the C-terminal 49 amino acids differ. Arabidopsis thaliana lines overexpressing Ss.sAPX and Ss.tAPX were constructed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation methods. Under high light (1000 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹), malondialdehyde (MDA) content was lower in transgenic plants than in the wild type. Under high light, Fv/Fm and chlorophyll contents of both overexpressing lines and the wild type declined but were significantly higher in the overexpressing lines than in the wild type. The activities of APX (EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT 1.11.1.6) and superoxide dismutase (SOD EC 1.15.1.1) were higher in the overexpressing lines than in the wild type. The transgenic plants showed increased tolerance to oxidative stress caused by high light. These results suggest that SsCHLAPX plays an important role in scavenging ROS in chloroplasts under stress conditions such as high light.

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Chilean version of the Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS.

    PubMed

    Ruston, Francisco Contreras; Moreti, Felipe; Vivero, Martín; Malebran, Celina; Behlau, Mara

    This research aims to accomplish the cross-cultural equivalence of the Chilean version of the VoiSS protocol through its cultural and linguistic adaptation. After the translation of the VoiSS protocol to Chilean Spanish by two bilingual speech therapists and its back translation to English, we compared the items of the original tool with the previous translated version. The existing discrepancies were modified by a consensus committee of five speech therapists and the translated version was entitled Escala de Sintomas Vocales - ESV, with 30 questions and five answers: "Never", "Occasionally", "Sometimes", "Most of the time", "Always". For cross-cultural equivalence, the protocol was applied to 15 individuals with vocal problems. In each question the option of "Not applicable" was added to the answer choices for identification of the questions not comprehended or not appropriate for the target population. Two individuals had difficulty answering two questions, which made it necessary to adapt the translation of only one of them. The modified ESV was applied to three individuals with vocal problems, and there were incomprehensible inappropriate questions for the Chilean culture. The ESV reflects the original English version, both in the number of questions and the limitations of the emotional and physical domains. There is now a cross-cultural equivalence of VoiSS in Chilean Spanish, titled ESV. The validation of the ESV for Chilean Spanish is ongoing. RESUMEN Este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la equivalencia cultural de la versión Chilena del protocolo Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS por medio de su adaptación cultural y lingüística. Después de la traducción del VoiSS para el Español Chileno, por dos fonoaudiólogos bilingües, y de la retro traducción para el inglés, se realizó una comparación de los ítems del instrumento original con la versión traducida, surgiendo discrepancias; tales divergencias fueron resueltas por un comité compuesto por

  7. Gel-based oligonucleotide microarray approach to analyze protein–ssDNA binding specificity

    PubMed Central

    Zasedateleva, Olga A.; Mikheikin, Andrey L.; Turygin, Alexander Y.; Prokopenko, Dmitry V.; Chudinov, Alexander V.; Belobritskaya, Elena E.; Chechetkin, Vladimir R.; Zasedatelev, Alexander S.

    2008-01-01

    Gel-based oligonucleotide microarray approach was developed for quantitative profiling of binding affinity of a protein to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). To demonstrate additional capabilities of this method, we analyzed the binding specificity of ribonuclease (RNase) binase from Bacillus intermedius (EC 3.1.27.3) to ssDNA using generic hexamer oligodeoxyribonucleotide microchip. Single-stranded octamer oligonucleotides were immobilized within 3D hemispherical gel pads. The octanucleotides in individual pads 5′-{N}N1N2N3N4N5N6{N}-3′ consisted of a fixed hexamer motif N1N2N3N4N5N6 in the middle and variable parts {N} at the ends, where {N} represent A, C, G and T in equal proportions. The chip has 4096 pads with a complete set of hexamer sequences. The affinity was determined by measuring dissociation of the RNase–ssDNA complexes with the temperature increasing from 0°C to 50°C in quasi-equilibrium conditions. RNase binase showed the highest sequence-specificity of binding to motifs 5′-NNG(A/T/C)GNN-3′ with the order of preference: GAG > GTG > GCG. High specificity towards G(A/T/C)G triplets was also confirmed by measuring fluorescent anisotropy of complexes of binase with selected oligodeoxyribonucleotides in solution. The affinity of RNase binase to other 3-nt sequences was also ranked. These results demonstrate the applicability of the method and provide the ground for further investigations of nonenzymatic functions of RNases. PMID:18474529

  8. Role of zinc in the structure and function of ssDNA binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.E.; Giedroc, D.P.; Keating, K.M.; Williams, K.R.

    1987-05-01

    Gene 32 protein (g32P), the ssDNA binding protein required for replication, recombination and translational control in the phage T4 life cycle contains 1 g at Zn per mol bound in a tetrahedral complex to -S/sup -/ ligands. Chemical modification and spectroscopic evidence suggest binding to Cys 77, His 81, Cys 87 and Cys 90. The Zn-binding domain is at the N-terminal end of AA residues 72 to 116 which contains 6 of the 8 Tyr residues in g32P, shown by /sup 1/H-NMR to be involved in deoxynucleotide binding. Limited proteolysis of g32P with trypsin removes residues 1-21 and 254-301 leaving a trypsin-resistant core, g32P. The latter retains high affinity for a single site nucleotide lattice, but has lost cooperative binding to DNA. Removal of Zn from native g32P renders the molecule susceptible to proteolysis and the core is hydrolyzed to small peptides. Rebinding of Zn restores the core stability. Apo g32P binds 3 orders of magnitude less tightly to ssDNA and cannot melt polyd(AT) at 150 mM NaCl. Loss of binding affinity is primarily due to loss of cooperative protein-protein interactions accompanying Zn removal. Thus, both the N-terminal domain and the Zn-binding domain are required for cooperative binding to DNA. G5P from fd and ssB from E. coli do not contain Zn, but small basic proteins, products of the gag gene of retroviruses, e.g., p10 from MuLV, p15 from HTLVI and p15 from HTLV-III contain tandem repeats of a -C-X/sub 2/-C-X/sub 4/-H-X/sub 4/-C- sequence similar to the Zn-binding sequence found in g32P.

  9. Search for Doppler-shifted gamma-ray emission from SS 433 using the SMM spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geldzahler, B. J.; Share, G. H.; Kinzer, R. L.; Magura, J.; Chupp, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    Data accumulated from 1980 to 1983 with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer aboard NASA's Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite were searched for evidence of red and blue Doppler-shifted 1.37 MeV Mg-24 nuclear lines from SS 433. The SMM data base covers 270 days when SS 433 was in the field of view and includes periods of radio flaring and quiescence. No evidence was found for Doppler-shifted line emission in any of the spectra. The range of 3-sigma upper limits for individual 9 day integration periods was 0.0008-0.0023 photons/sq cm per sec for the blue beam, encompassing the reported about 1.5 MeV line, and 0.0008-0.002 photons/sq cm per sec for the red beam, encompassing the reported about 1.2 MeV line; the average 3-sigma upper limit in each beam for shifted about 1.37 MeV lines is 0.0015 photons/sq cm per sec for single 9 day integrations. The 3-sigma upper limit on 1.37 MeV gamma-ray emission over 23 9-day integration intervals for the red beam and 28 intervals for the blue beam is 0.0002 photons/sq cm per sec. These new limits from SMM can be reconciled with the HEAO 3 results only if SS 433 emits gamma radiation at or above the SMM sensitivity limit on rare occasions due to variable physical conditions in the system.

  10. Good Science, Good Sense and Good Sensibilities: The Three Ss of Carol Newton

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adrian J.; Hawkins, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The use of animals in research is controversial and there are ongoing efforts to refine and limit their use to an absolute minimum. The Three Rs principle developed by William M. S. Russell and Rex L. Burch in the UK in the 1950s is widely used for this purpose: Replacement, Reduction and Refinement. Another useful principle which complements the Three Rs was proposed by Carol Newton in the 1970s. This principle is the Three Ss: Good Science, Good Sense and Good Sensibilities. Unlike the Three Rs, the Three Ss have not been described in detail in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the Three Ss, which are a useful supplement to the Three Rs, improving animal welfare and leading to better science. Abstract The Three Rs principle of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement developed by William M. S. Russell and Rex L. Burch in the 1950s has achieved worldwide recognition as a means of reducing the impact of science on animals and improving their welfare. However, application of the Three Rs is still far from universal, and evidence-based methods to implement the Three Rs are still lacking in many areas of laboratory animal science. The purpose of this paper is to create interest in a less well-known but equally useful principle that complements the Three Rs, which was proposed by the American biomathematician Carol M. Newton in the 1970s: the Three Ss—Good Science, Good Sense and Good Sensibilities. PMID:27845707

  11. Thick SS316 materials TIG welding development activities towards advanced fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, B. Ramesh; Gangradey, R.

    2012-11-01

    Advanced fusion reactors like ITER and up coming Indian DEMO devices are having challenges in terms of their materials design and fabrication procedures. The operation of these devices is having various loads like structural, thermo-mechanical and neutron irradiation effects on major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, magnets and blanket modules. The concept of double wall vacuum vessel (VV) is proposed in view of protecting of major reactor subsystems like super conducting magnets, diagnostic systems and other critical components from high energy 14 MeV neutrons generated from fusion plasma produced by D-T reactions. The double walled vacuum vessel is used in combination with pressurized water circulation and some special grade borated steel blocks to shield these high energy neutrons effectively. The fabrication of sub components in VV are mainly used with high thickness SS materials in range of 20 mm- 60 mm of various grades based on the required protocols. The structural components of double wall vacuum vessel uses various parts like shields, ribs, shells and diagnostic vacuum ports. These components are to be developed with various welding techniques like TIG welding, Narrow gap TIG welding, Laser welding, Hybrid TIG laser welding, Electron beam welding based on requirement. In the present paper the samples of 20 mm and 40 mm thick SS 316 materials are developed with TIG welding process and their mechanical properties characterization with Tensile, Bend tests and Impact tests are carried out. In addition Vickers hardness tests and microstructural properties of Base metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Zone are done. TIG welding application with high thick SS materials in connection with vacuum vessel requirements and involved criticalities towards welding process are highlighted.

  12. Differential sensitivity of the nicotinic receptor of long (LS) and short (SS) sleep mice to ethanol (E) and forane (F)

    SciTech Connect

    McArdle, J.J.; Choi, J.J. )

    1989-02-09

    Studies of inbred mice indicate that heredity determines the behavioral response to CNS depressants. For example, LS mice lose their righting reflex at blood levels of E having no effect on this reflex of SS mice. In order to determine if such differential sensitivity extends to the effects of depressants known to alter the mean open time (tau) of the ion channel activated by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AR), we used an extracellular electrode to record miniature end-plate currents (23 C) from the triangularis sterni muscle of adult male LS and SS mice. The average decay time constant (tau) of 70 currents was calculated before, during and after drug exposure. Tau was the same for LS and SS mice (1.41 {plus minus} 0.03 mS and 1.47 {plus minus} 0.02 mS, respectively) prior to treatment and was reversible prolonged by E and shortened by F as expected. However, tau of SS mice was more responsive. For example, 25 mM of E increased tau by 12.9% and 3.8% in SS and LS mice, respectively. Likewise, the decrease of tau in response to 3 mM F was 18.5% and 9.2%. The net result was that the curve relating tau for LS mice to drug concentration was to the right of the for SS mice. These data suggest that the sensitivity of the peripheral AR to CNS depressants can be genetically controlled.

  13. The SsDREB Transcription Factor from the Succulent Halophyte Suaeda salsa Enhances Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Liu, Xiaoxue; Wu, Lei; Yu, Guihong; Wang, Xiue; Ma, Hongxiang

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) transcription factor (TF) plays a key role for abiotic stress tolerance in plants. In this study, a novel cDNA encoding DREB transcription factor, designated SsDREB, was isolated from succulent halophyte Suaeda salsa. This protein was classified in the A-6 group of DREB subfamily based on multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic characterization. Yeast one-hybrid assays showed that SsDREB protein specifically binds to the DRE sequence and could activate the expression of reporter genes in yeast, suggesting that the SsDREB protein was a CBF/DREB transcription factor. Real-time RT-PCR showed that SsDREB was significantly induced under salinity and drought stress. Overexpression of SsDREB cDNA in transgenic tobacco plants exhibited an improved salt and drought stress tolerance in comparison to the nontransformed controls. The transgenic plants revealed better growth, higher chlorophyll content, and net photosynthesis rate, as well as higher level of proline and soluble sugars. The semiquantitative PCR of transgenics showed higher expression of stress-responsive genes. These data suggest that the SsDREB transcription factor is involved in the regulation of salt stress tolerance in tobacco by the activation of different downstream gene expression.

  14. [Cloning, prokaryotic expression, and functional identification of a sesquiterpene synthase gene (AsSS4) from Aquilaria sinensis].

    PubMed

    Liang, Liang; Guo, Qing-Mei; Zhang, Zheng; Xu, Yan-Hong; Han, Xiao-Min; Liu, Juan

    2014-12-01

    A sesquiterpene synthase (AsSS4) full-length open reading frame (ORF) cDNA was cloned from wounded stems of Aquilaria sinensis by RT-PCR method. The result showed that the ORF of AsSS4 was 1,698 bp encoding 565 amino acids. Prokaryotic expression vector pET28a-AsSS4 was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. Recombinant AsSS4 protein was obtained after induction by IPTG and SDS-PAGE analysis with a MW of 64 kD. Enzymatic reactions using farnesyl pyrophosphate showed that recombinant AsSS4 protein purified by Ni-agarose gel yielded five sesquiterpene compounds, cyclohexane, 1-ethenyl-1-methyl-2, 4-bis(1-methylethenyl)-, β-elemene, α-guaiene, α-caryophyllene and δ-guaiene. This paper reported the first cloning and functional characterization of AsSS4 gene from A. sinensis, which will establish a foundation for future studies on the molecular mechanisms of wound-induce agarwood formation in A. sinensis

  15. ssODN-mediated knock-in with CRISPR-Cas for large genomic regions in zygotes

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimi, Kazuto; Kunihiro, Yayoi; Kaneko, Takehito; Nagahora, Hitoshi; Voigt, Birger; Mashimo, Tomoji

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas system is a powerful tool for generating genetically modified animals; however, targeted knock-in (KI) via homologous recombination remains difficult in zygotes. Here we show efficient gene KI in rats by combining CRISPR-Cas with single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). First, a 1-kb ssODN co-injected with guide RNA (gRNA) and Cas9 messenger RNA produce GFP-KI at the rat Thy1 locus. Then, two gRNAs with two 80-bp ssODNs direct efficient integration of a 5.5-kb CAG-GFP vector into the Rosa26 locus via ssODN-mediated end joining. This protocol also achieves KI of a 200-kb BAC containing the human SIRPA locus, concomitantly knocking out the rat Sirpa gene. Finally, three gRNAs and two ssODNs replace 58-kb of the rat Cyp2d cluster with a 6.2-kb human CYP2D6 gene. These ssODN-mediated KI protocols can be applied to any target site with any donor vector without the need to construct homology arms, thus simplifying genome engineering in living organisms. PMID:26786405

  16. The SsDREB Transcription Factor from the Succulent Halophyte Suaeda salsa Enhances Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Liu, Xiaoxue; Wu, Lei; Yu, Guihong; Wang, Xiue; Ma, Hongxiang

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) transcription factor (TF) plays a key role for abiotic stress tolerance in plants. In this study, a novel cDNA encoding DREB transcription factor, designated SsDREB, was isolated from succulent halophyte Suaeda salsa. This protein was classified in the A-6 group of DREB subfamily based on multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic characterization. Yeast one-hybrid assays showed that SsDREB protein specifically binds to the DRE sequence and could activate the expression of reporter genes in yeast, suggesting that the SsDREB protein was a CBF/DREB transcription factor. Real-time RT-PCR showed that SsDREB was significantly induced under salinity and drought stress. Overexpression of SsDREB cDNA in transgenic tobacco plants exhibited an improved salt and drought stress tolerance in comparison to the nontransformed controls. The transgenic plants revealed better growth, higher chlorophyll content, and net photosynthesis rate, as well as higher level of proline and soluble sugars. The semiquantitative PCR of transgenics showed higher expression of stress-responsive genes. These data suggest that the SsDREB transcription factor is involved in the regulation of salt stress tolerance in tobacco by the activation of different downstream gene expression. PMID:26504772

  17. An evaluation of microbial growth and corrosion of 316L SS in glycol/seawater mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason S; Ray, Richard I; Lowe, Kristine L; Jones-Meehan, Joanne; Little, Brenda J

    2003-04-01

    Glycol/seawater mixtures containing > 50% glycol inhibit corrosion of 316L stainless steel and do not support bacterial growth. The results indicate bacteria are able to use low concentrations of glycol (10%) as a growth medium, but bacterial growth decreased with increasing glycol concentration. Pitting potential, determined by anodic polarization, was used to evaluate susceptibility of 316L SS to corrosion in seawater-contaminated glycol. Mixture containing a minimum concentration of 50% propylene glycol-based coolant inhibited pitting corrosion. A slightly higher minimum concentration (55%) was needed for corrosion protection in ethylene glycol mixtures.

  18. Upper Mantle Discontinuity Structure Beneath the Western Atlantic Ocean and Eastern North America from SS Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmerr, N. C.; Beghein, C.; Kostic, D.; Baldridge, A. M.; West, J. D.; Nittler, L. R.; Bull, A. L.; Montesi, L.; Byrne, P. K.; Hummer, D. R.; Plescia, J. B.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Lekic, V.; Schmidt, B. E.; Elkins, L. J.; Cooper, C. M.; ten Kate, I. L.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Parai, R.; Glass, J. B.; Ni, J.; Fuji, N.; McCubbin, F. M.; Michalski, J. R.; Zhao, C.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Koelemeijer, P.; Courtier, A. M.; Dalton, H.; Waszek, L.; Bahamonde, J.; Schmerr, B.; Gilpin, N.; Rosenshein, E.; Mach, K.; Ostrach, L. R.; Caracas, R.; Craddock, R. A.; Moore-Driskell, M. M.; Du Frane, W. L.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic discontinuities within the mantle arise from a wide range of mechanisms, including changes in mineralogy, major element composition, melt content, volatile abundance, anisotropy, or a combination of the above. In particular, the depth and sharpness of upper mantle discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth are attributed to solid-state phase changes sensitive to both mantle temperature and composition, where regions of thermal heterogeneity produce topography and chemical heterogeneity changes the impedance contrast across the discontinuity. Seismic mapping of this topography and sharpness thus provides constraint on the thermal and compositional state of the mantle. The EarthScope USArray is providing unprecedented access to a wide variety of new regions previously undersampled by the SS precursors. This includes the boundary between the oceanic plate in the western Atlantic Ocean and continental margin of eastern North America. Here we use a seismic array approach to image the depth, sharpness, and topography of the upper mantle discontinuities, as well as other possible upper mantle reflectors beneath this region. This array approach utilizes seismic waves that reflect off the underside of a mantle discontinuity and arrive several hundred seconds prior to the SS seismic phase as precursory energy. In this study, we collected high-quality broadband data SS precursors data from shallow focus (< 30 km deep), mid-Atlantic ridge earthquakes recorded by USArray seismometers in Alaska. We generated 4th root vespagrams to enhance the SS precursors and determine how they sample the mantle. Our data show detection of localized structure on the discontinuity boundaries as well as additional horizons, such as the X-discontinuity and a potential reflection from a discontinuity near the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. These structures are related to the transition from predominantly old ocean lithosphere to underlying continental lithosphere, as while

  19. The distance to SS433/W50 and its interaction with the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockman, Felix J.; Blundell, Katherine M.; Goss, W. M.

    2007-11-01

    The distance to the relativistic jet source SS433 and the related supernova remnant W50 is re-examined using new observations of HI in absorption from the Very Large Array, HI in emission from the Green Bank Telescope, and 12CO emission from the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory. The new measurements show HI in absorption against SS433 to a velocity of 75 km s-1 but not to the velocity of the tangent point, which bounds the kinematic distance at 5.5 <= dk < 6.5 kpc. This is entirely consistent with a 5.5 +/- 0.2 kpc distance determined from light traveltime arguments by Blundell & Bowler. The HI emission map shows evidence of interaction of the lobes of W50 with the interstellar medium near the adopted systemic velocity of VLSR = 75 km s-1. The western lobe sits in a cavity in the HI emission near the Galactic plane, while the eastern lobe terminates at an expanding HI shell. The expanding shell has a radius of 40 pc, contains 8 +/- 3 × 103Msolar of HI and has a measured kinetic energy of 3 +/- 1.5 × 1049 erg. There may also be a static HI ring or shell around the main part of W50 itself at a local standard of rest (LSR) velocity of 75 km s-1, with a radius of 70 pc and a mass in HI of 3.5-10 × 104Msolar. We do not find convincing evidence for the interaction of the system with any molecular cloud or with HI at other velocities. The HI emission data suggest that SS433 lies in an interstellar environment substantially denser than average for its distance from the Galactic plane. This Population I system, now about 200 pc below the Galactic plane, most likely originated as a runaway O-star binary ejected from a young cluster in the plane. Given a modest ejection velocity of >=30 km s-1, the binary could have reached its present location in <=10 Myr at which time the more massive member became a supernova (SN). New astrometric data on SS433 show that the system now has a peculiar velocity of a few tens of km s-1 in the direction of the Galactic plane. From

  20. Request to Monitor U Gem and SS Cyg for Radio Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2007-11-01

    Dr. Elmar Koerding, University of Southampton, England, and his collaborators have requested our assistance in a continuing project to monitor two dwarf novae - U Geminorum and SS Cygni - in support of radio observations with the Jodrell Bank MERLIN Array and NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) telescopes. This new campaign is a continuation of the project described in AAVSO Alert Notice 345. Koerding and collaborators are attempting to detect and characterize radio emission from dwarf novae during outbursts. Rapid optical detection of an outburst onset will be used to trigger target-of-opportunity (TOO) observations with the MERLIN Array in the UK and with the VLA in New Mexico. Observations of SS Cyg during the first campaign yielded important new results, and a paper on those observations will be submitted for publication in late 2007. Continuous optical monitoring and rapid reporting of observations of U Gem and SS Cyg is requested beginning 2007 November 5 (JD 2454410). This campaign will continue for at least several months, until a total of four outbursts are detected in either of these systems and TOO observations are obtained with the VLA and MERLIN. Rapid reporting of observations is critical to the success of this campaign. Observers are requested to report their observations to the AAVSO International Database within one (1) hour, especially if an object appears to be in transition to outburst. Quiescent (including "fainter-than" (upper-limit) observations) and full outburst observations are also important as they can be used to constrain when an outburst begins and and ends. Both visual and CCD observations are requested, but CCD time-series observations should only be performed if the data can be reduced and submitted immediately if an outburst has not yet been reported. Once an outburst has been detected and acknowledged by the radio observatories, filtered time-series observations will then be very useful. The outburst threshold (the magnitude at which the

  1. Waffen SS: Friend or Foe? The 1978 Holtzman Amendment to the Immigration and Nationality Act

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-09

    have, because of their birthright , become victims themselves. (8) This paper is not an attempt to portray the Waffen-SS as knights in shining armor...allowed Nazi war criminals to enter the United States and acquire citizenship . This amendment was to be the catch-all law to once-and-for-all rid the... citizenship was introduced in a personal bill by four members of Congress. This Act of Congress did not sit well with Ms. Holtzman. (3) 2. In another case

  2. An evaluation of microbial growth and corrosion of 316L SS in glycol/seawater mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason S.; Ray, Richard I.; Lowe, Kristine L.; Jones-Meehan, Joanne; Little, Brenda J.

    2003-01-01

    Glycol/seawater mixtures containing > 50% glycol inhibit corrosion of 316L stainless steel and do not support bacterial growth. The results indicate bacteria are able to use low concentrations of glycol (10%) as a growth medium, but bacterial growth decreased with increasing glycol concentration. Pitting potential, determined by anodic polarization, was used to evaluate susceptibility of 316L SS to corrosion in seawater-contaminated glycol. Mixture containing a minimum concentration of 50% propylene glycol-based coolant inhibited pitting corrosion. A slightly higher minimum concentration (55%) was needed for corrosion protection in ethylene glycol mixtures.

  3. SS 433: Total Coverage of 162-Day Precession Phase in Four Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The observations prior to AO-4 covered a number of precession phases, leaving a gap at phase 0.8. In addition, ASCA and previous observations of SS 433 did not observe the spectrum above approx. 10 keV, and consequently the continuum underlying the spectral lines was poorly constrained. Therefore RXTE observations were scheduled for April 1997 to extend the observed spectrum to higher energies; these observations were planned to sample the X-ray lightcurve during the 13.08 day binary period, concentrating on the eclipse of the compact object which emits the jets. We proposed and were awarded ASCA observations simultaneous with the RXTE observations; the purpose of the ASCA observations was to provide greater spectral resolution at the low end of the spectrum observed by RXTE, and to complete the phase coverage of SS 433. As a result of scheduling difficulties early in the mission the RXTE observations were confined to a much shorter time range than originally planned, April 18-91 1997. Optical observations of SS 433 were performed at a number of observatories. The ASCA observations occurred from April 18 13:10 (UT) to April 21 13:20 (UT) for a total effective exposure of 120 ks. The continuum X-ray light curve shows that the ASCA observations started shortly before the ingress into the X-ray partial eclipse, and ended approximately at the time of the egress. Light curves were also obtained for the prominent Fe emission lines in the blue-shifted frame (approaching jet), red-shifted frame (receding jet), and the stationary frame (fluorescent line from the ambient matter). Through the eclipse mapping technique using the light curves, the parameters of the jet emission model were constrained, showing that the kinetic power in the jet exceeds 104? erg s-l. If the energy source is gravitational accretion, as is commonly believed, the derived l;inetic power implies extremely supercritical accretion even for a black; hole with 10M. These results will be described more

  4. Characteristics and restriction analysis of the 4-chlorobiphenyl catabolic plasmid, pSS50.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, S W; Dockendorff, T C; Sayler, G S

    1989-01-01

    The plasmid pSS50 is a 53-kilobase self-transmissible plasmid of broad host range that has been isolated from several Alcaligenes and Acinetobacter species. This plasmid has previously been shown to mediate the mineralization of 4-chlorobiphenyl to carbon dioxide and water. Physical characterization of this plasmid by restriction analysis indicates that most hexanucleotide cleavage sites are clustered in a 5-kilobase region, leaving large regions without restriction sites. The paucity of restriction sites is not due to DNA methylation. PMID:2757383

  5. Regulation of the Edwardsiella ictaluri Type III Secretion System by pH and Phosphate Concentration through EsrA, EsrB, and EsrC ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rogge, Matthew L.; Thune, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    A recently described Edwardsiella ictaluri type III secretion system (T3SS) with functional similarity to the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 T3SS is required for replication in channel catfish head-kidney-derived macrophages (HKDM) and virulence in channel catfish. Quantitative PCR and Western blotting identified low pH and phosphate limitation as conducive to expression of the E. ictaluri T3SS, growth conditions that mimic the phagosomal environment. Mutagenesis studies demonstrated that expression is under the control of the EsrAB two-component regulatory system. EsrB also induces upregulation of the AraC-type regulatory protein EsrC, which enhances expression of the EscB/EseG chaperone/effector operon in concert with EsrB and induces expression of the pEI1-encoded effector, EseH. EsrC also induces expression of a putative type VI secretion system translocon protein, EvpC, which is secreted under the same low-pH conditions as the T3SS translocon proteins. The pEI2-encoded effector, EseI, was upregulated under low-pH and low-phosphate conditions but not in an EsrB- or EsrC-dependent manner. Mutations of EsrA and EsrB both resulted in loss of the ability to replicate in HKDM and full attenuation in the channel catfish host. Mutation of EsrC did not affect intracellular replication but did result in attenuation in catfish. Although EsrB is the primary transcriptional regulator for E. ictaluri genes within the T3SS pathogenicity island, EsrC regulates expression of the plasmid-carried effector eseH and appears to mediate coordinated expression of the T6SS with the T3SS. PMID:21551284

  6. A New Blind Adaptive Array Antenna Based on CMA Criteria for M-Ary/SS Signals Suitable for Software Defined Radio Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozuma, Miho; Sasaki, Atsushi; Kamiya, Yukihiro; Fujii, Takeo; Umebayashi, Kenta; Suzuki, Yasuo

    M-ary/SS is a version of Direct Sequence/Spread Spectrum (DS/SS) aiming to improve the spectral efficiency employing orthogonal codes. However, due to the auto-correlation property of the orthogonal codes, it is impossible to detect the symbol timing by observing correlator outputs. Therefore, conventionally, a preamble has been inserted in M-ary/SS, signals. In this paper, we propose a new blind adaptive array antenna for M-ary/SS systems that combines signals over the space axis without any preambles. It is surely an innovative approach for M-ary/SS. The performance is investigated through computer simulations.

  7. Effect of Chewing Bicarbonate-containing Sugar-free Gum on the Salivary pH: An in vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Ballal, Raksha K; Bhat, Sham S; Ramdas, Shenoy Shailesh; Ballal, Shrinidhi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of chewing gum on the salivary pH and to compare the effect of chewing bicarbonate-containing sugar-free gum on salivary pH against that of standard sugar-free gum. The experiment was carried out on 30 volunteers aged 20-22 years (mean age = 21 years) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The test gum was sugar-free greenmint-flavored bicarbonate-containing gum and the standard control was sugar-free spearmint-flavored gum. The pH was measured immediately using pH strips. According to statistical analysis, the mean salivary pH of the bicarbonate gum at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes is 6.9713, 6.5667, 6.4267, 6.3867 and 6.3233 respectively. There is decrease in pH from 0 to 20 minutes. According to Bonferroni, there was no significant difference in pH from 0 to 20 minutes, 10 to 20 minutes and 15 to 20 minutes, but there was a significant difference in salivary pH from 5 to 20 minutes (p = 0.014). The mean salivary pH of the standard gum at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes is 6.8767, 6.6067, 6.4200, 6.4027 and 6.3000 respectively. There is decrease in pH from 0 to 20 minutes. According to Bonferroni, there was no significant difference in pH from 0 to 20 minutes, 5 to 20 minutes, 10 to 20 minutes and 15 to 20 minutes. Thus, the higher salivary pH achieved with chewing bicarbonate gum compared with a standard sugar-free gum may have important oral health implications. How to cite this article: Ballal RK, Bhat SS, Ramdas SS, Ballal S. Effect of Chewing Bicarbonate-containing Sugar-free Gum on the Salivary pH: An in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):35-38.

  8. Effect of Chewing Bicarbonate-containing Sugar-free Gum on the Salivary pH: An in vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Sham S; Ramdas, Shenoy Shailesh; Ballal, Shrinidhi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of chewing gum on the salivary pH and to compare the effect of chewing bicarbonate-containing sugar-free gum on salivary pH against that of standard sugar-free gum. The experiment was carried out on 30 volunteers aged 20-22 years (mean age = 21 years) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The test gum was sugar-free greenmint-flavored bicarbonate-containing gum and the standard control was sugar-free spearmint-flavored gum. The pH was measured immediately using pH strips. According to statistical analysis, the mean salivary pH of the bicarbonate gum at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes is 6.9713, 6.5667, 6.4267, 6.3867 and 6.3233 respectively. There is decrease in pH from 0 to 20 minutes. According to Bonferroni, there was no significant difference in pH from 0 to 20 minutes, 10 to 20 minutes and 15 to 20 minutes, but there was a significant difference in salivary pH from 5 to 20 minutes (p = 0.014). The mean salivary pH of the standard gum at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes is 6.8767, 6.6067, 6.4200, 6.4027 and 6.3000 respectively. There is decrease in pH from 0 to 20 minutes. According to Bonferroni, there was no significant difference in pH from 0 to 20 minutes, 5 to 20 minutes, 10 to 20 minutes and 15 to 20 minutes. Thus, the higher salivary pH achieved with chewing bicarbonate gum compared with a standard sugar-free gum may have important oral health implications. How to cite this article: Ballal RK, Bhat SS, Ramdas SS, Ballal S. Effect of Chewing Bicarbonate-containing Sugar-free Gum on the Salivary pH: An in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):35-38. PMID:27274153

  9. The Borrelia burgdorferi telomere resolvase, ResT, anneals ssDNA complexed with its cognate ssDNA-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shu Hui; Kobryn, Kerri

    2016-01-01

    Spirochetes of the genus Borrelia possess unusual genomes that consist in a linear chromosome and multiple linear and circular plasmids. The linear replicons are terminated by covalently closed hairpin ends, referred to as hairpin telomeres. The hairpin telomeres represent a simple solution to the end-replication problem. Deoxyribonucleic acid replication initiates internally and proceeds bidirectionally toward the hairpin telomeres. The telomere resolvase, ResT, forms the hairpin telomeres from replicated telomere intermediates in a reaction with similarities to those promoted by type IB topoisomerases and tyrosine recombinases. ResT has also been shown to possess DNA single-strand annealing activity. We report here that ResT promotes single-strand annealing of both free DNA strands and ssDNA complexed with single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB). The annealing of complementary strands bound by SSB requires a ResT–SSB interaction that is mediated by the conserved amphipathic C-terminal tail of SSB. These properties of ResT are similar to those demonstrated for the recombination mediator protein, RecO, of the RecF pathway. Borrelia burgdorferi is unusual in lacking identifiable homologs of the RecFOR proteins. We propose that ResT may provide missing RecFOR functions. PMID:27131360

  10. Comparison of the microbial communities in solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) reactors operated at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Nelson, Michael C; Chen, Po-Hsu; Graf, Joerg; Li, Yebo; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-01-01

    The microbiomes involved in liquid anaerobic digestion process have been investigated extensively, but the microbiomes underpinning solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) are poorly understood. In this study, microbiome composition and temporal succession in batch SS-AD reactors, operated at mesophilic or thermophilic temperatures, were investigated using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A greater microbial richness and evenness were found in the mesophilic than in the thermophilic SS-AD reactors. Firmicutes accounted for 60 and 82 % of the total Bacteria in the mesophilic and in the thermophilic SS-AD reactors, respectively. The genus Methanothermobacter dominated the Archaea in the thermophilic SS-AD reactors, while Methanoculleus predominated in the mesophilic SS-AD reactors. Interestingly, the data suggest syntrophic acetate oxidation coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis as an important pathway for biogas production during the thermophilic SS-AD. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that temperature was the most influential factor in shaping the microbiomes in the SS-AD reactors. Thermotogae showed strong positive correlation with operation temperature, while Fibrobacteres, Lentisphaerae, Spirochaetes, and Tenericutes were positively correlated with daily biogas yield. This study provided new insight into the microbiome that drives SS-AD process, and the findings may help advance understanding of the microbiome in SS-AD reactors and the design and operation of SS-AD systems.

  11. Sewage sludge pretreatment by microwave irradiation combined with activated carbon fibre at alkaline pH for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dedong; Guo, Sixiao; Ma, Nina; Wang, Guowen; Ma, Chun; Hao, Jun; Xue, Mang; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the effects of microwave-assisted activated carbon fibre (ACF) (MW-ACF) treatment on sewage sludge at alkaline pH. The disintegration and biodegradability of sewage sludge were studied. It was found that the MW-ACF process at alkaline pH provided a rapid and efficient process to disrupt the microbial cells in the sludge. The results suggested that when irradiated at 800 W MW for 110 s with a dose of 1.0 g ACF/g solid concentration (SS) at pH 10.5, the MW-ACF pretreatment achieved 55% SS disintegration, 23% greater than the value of MW alone (32%). The concentration of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, supernatant soluble chemical oxygen demand, protein, and polysaccharide increased by 60%, 144%, 145%, 74%, and 77%, respectively. An increase in biogas production by 63.7% was achieved after 20 days of anaerobic digestion (AD), compared to the control. The results indicated that the MW-ACF pretreatment process at alkaline pH provides novel sludge management options in disintegration of sewage sludge for further AD.

  12. In Vitro Activities of Kissorphin, a Novel Hexapeptide KiSS-1 Derivative, in Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Milton, Nathaniel G. N.

    2012-01-01

    The primary products of the metastasis-suppressor KiSS-1 gene are the kisspeptin (KP) peptides that stimulate gonadotrophin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) release via GPR-54 receptor activation. Recent studies have suggested that the KP-10 peptide also activates neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors. The aim of the current study was to determine the activities of the KiSS-1 derivative kissorphin (KSO), which contains the first six amino acids of the KP-10 peptide, is C-terminally amidated, and shares amino acid similarities with the biologically active NPFF 3–8 sequence. The KSO peptide inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production in ND7/23 neuroblastoma cells via an action that could be inhibited by the NPFF receptor antagonist RF9. Release of GnRH by LA-N-1 neuroblastoma cells was not altered by the KSO peptide. In ND7/23 neuroblastoma cells, the KSO peptide was able to reduce forskolin neuroprotection against H2O2 toxicity. The KSO peptide was also able to prevent prostaglandin E2-induced apoptosis in rat cortical neurons. The NPFF receptor antagonist RF9 could inhibit these actions of the KSO peptide in oxidative stress and apoptosis models. In conclusion, the kissorphin peptide, comprising the amino acid sequence Tyr-Asn-Trp-Asn-Ser-Phe-NH2, has NPFF-like biological activity without showing any GnRH releasing activity and inhibits forskolin-activated cAMP release. PMID:22848794

  13. ReSS: A Resource Selection Service for the Open Science Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Mhashilkar, Parag; Timm, Steve; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Open Science Grid offers access to hundreds of computing and storage resources via standard Grid interfaces. Before the deployment of an automated resource selection system, users had to submit jobs directly to these resources. They would manually select a resource and specify all relevant attributes in the job description prior to submitting the job. The necessity of a human intervention in resource selection and attribute specification hinders automated job management components from accessing OSG resources and it is inconvenient for the users. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) project addresses these shortcomings. The system integrates condor technology, for the core match making service, with the gLite CEMon component, for gathering and publishing resource information in the Glue Schema format. Each one of these components communicates over secure protocols via web services interfaces. The system is currently used in production on OSG by the DZero Experiment, the Engagement Virtual Organization, and the Dark Energy. It is also the resource selection service for the Fermilab Campus Grid, FermiGrid. ReSS is considered a lightweight solution to push-based workload management. This paper describes the architecture, performance, and typical usage of the system.

  14. Co-deposition of titanium and iron nitrides on SS-321 by using plasma focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, R.; Hassan, M.; Murtaza, G.; Akhter, J. I.; Qayyum, A.; Waheed, A.; Zakaullah, M.

    2006-02-01

    This article reports the co-deposition process of TiN0.9 and (Fe,Cr)(2)N compounds on SS-321 substrate using a 2.3 kJ dense plasma focus device operated with N-2 discharges. X-ray diffraction analysis is performed to investigate the ion-induced changes in the near surface structure of the SS-321. Scanning electron microscopy with the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy is carried out to analyse the surface morphology and the elemental composition of the nitrided samples. The results reveal that at the low fluence of ion bombardment, a non-stoichiometric tertiary phase (Fe,Cr)(x)N is developed, which transforms into a stable stoichiometric compound (Fe,Cr)(2)N by increasing the ion flux. Some CrN precipitates are also observed because of the thermal effect produced by the bombardment of energetic ion beam. Vickers micro-hardness values are increased more than twice for typical ion nitrided samples.

  15. SS/RCS surface tension propellant acquisition/expulsion tankage technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of published propellant physical property data together with bubble point tests of fine-mesh screen in propellants, was conducted. The effort consisted of: (1) the collection and evaluation of pertinent physical property data for hydrazine (N2H4), monomethylhydrazine (MMH), and nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4); (2) testing to determine the effect of dissolved pressurant gas, temperature, purity, and system cleanliness or contamination on system bubble point, and (3) the compilation and publishing of both the literature and test results. The space shuttle reaction control system (SS/RCS) is a bipropellant system using N2O4 and MMH, while the auxiliary power system (SS/APU) employs monopropellant N2H4. Since both the RCS and the APU use a surface tension device for propellant acquisition, the propellant properties of interest are those which impact the design and operation of surface tension systems. Information on propellant density, viscosity, surface tension, and contact angle was collected, compiled, and evaluated.

  16. Sickle Cell Disease: quality of life in patients with hemoglobin SS and SC disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sônia Aparecida dos Santos; Brener, Stela; Cardoso, Clareci Silva; Proietti, Anna Bárbara de Freitas Carneiro

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sickle cell disease comprises chronic, genetically determined disorders, presenting significant morbidity and high prevalence in Brazil. The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality of life of sickle cell disease patients (hemoglobin SS and SC) and their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Methods Data was collected from clinical records and semi-structured interviews consisting of clinical questionnaires and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-brief questionnaire. Results Interviews were conducted with 400 patients, aged between 18 and 72, treated in the Fundação HEMOMINAS in Belo Horizonte. The participants predominantly had sickle cell disease hemoglobin SS variant (65.5%), were female (61.8%), single (55.3), with up to 8 years of schooling (49.6%), and self-defined as mulattos (50%). Pain crises, hospitalizations, blood transfusions, and other morbidities of sickle cell disease had a significant impact on the quality of life of these patients. Conclusion Within this group, the social profile was that of low income and unemployed with sickle cell disease considered to be a significant impediment to finding a job. Evaluating quality of life as a determining factor of health is essential for the creation of specific policies and measures, appropriate for the specific characteristics and social context of sickle cell disease. PMID:24255615

  17. An ssDNA library immobilized SELEX technique for selection of an aptamer against ractopamine.

    PubMed

    Duan, Nuo; Gong, Wenhui; Wu, Shijia; Wang, Zhouping

    2017-04-08

    An improved SELEX technique was developed for selecting aptamers against ractopamine (RAC) by immobilizing ssDNA library on the magnetic beads. After sixteen selection rounds, a highly enriched ssDNA pool was sequenced and nine families were grouped according to their homology and secondary structures analysis. One representative aptamer candidate from each family was picked out for binding affinity identification by graphene oxide (GO) adsorption platform. The aptamer RAC-6 was demonstrated as the optimal aptamer with high specificity and dissociation constant (Kd) value of 54.22 ± 8.02 nM. To prove the potential application of aptamer RAC-6 in the quantitative determination of RAC, a fluorescent bioassay with aptamer RAC-6 was developed. The linear range for RAC was from 0.10 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL and the limit of detection was as low as 0.04 ng/mL. Furthermore, the method was validated for the analysis of RAC spiked real samples, and the recoveries were between 82.57% and 104.65%.

  18. Electrochemical Biosensor: Multistep functionalization of thiolated ssDNA on gold-coated microcantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulanto Carbajal, Jorge

    Bio-chemical sensors are an emerging and vibrant area of research. The use of micromechanical cantilevers is relatively new as biomechanical recognition detectors. Reactions on a gold coated and chemically functionalized surface produce a mechanical deflection of the cantilever which is used as the input signal of the detector. Within the area of biosensors, DNA-sensors have a wide range of applications such as DNA hybridization detectors, DNA mismatch sequence detectors and protein detectors. We designed and built a microcantilever sensor system which allows for control and characterization of surface conditions. This includes controlled functionalization which can be a dominant factor in signal generation and reproducibility in these systems. Additionally, we developed a multistep functionalization protocol which consists of a sequence of short incubations and characterizations of thiolated ssDNA on a gold-coated cantilever. Multistep functionalization is a new protocol that is used to control the ssDNA surface density on a gold-coated cantilever. Repeatable responses and feasible biosensors are obtained using this protocol.

  19. A Pseudomonas T6SS effector recruits PQS-containing outer membrane vesicles for iron acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jinshui; Zhang, Weipeng; Cheng, Juanli; Yang, Xu; Zhu, Kaixiang; Wang, Yao; Wei, Gehong; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Luo, Zhao-Qing; Shen, Xihui

    2017-01-01

    Iron sequestration by host proteins contributes to the defence against bacterial pathogens, which need iron for their metabolism and virulence. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant lacking all three known iron acquisition systems retains the ability to grow in media containing iron chelators, suggesting the presence of additional pathways involved in iron uptake. Here we screen P. aeruginosa mutants defective in growth in iron-depleted media and find that gene PA2374, proximal to the type VI secretion system H3 (H3-T6SS), functions synergistically with known iron acquisition systems. PA2374 (which we have renamed TseF) appears to be secreted by H3-T6SS and is incorporated into outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) by directly interacting with the iron-binding Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), a cell–cell signalling compound. TseF facilitates the delivery of OMV-associated iron to bacterial cells by engaging the Fe(III)-pyochelin receptor FptA and the porin OprF. Our results reveal links between type VI secretion, cell–cell signalling and classic siderophore receptors for iron acquisition in P. aeruginosa. PMID:28348410

  20. The Dwarf Novae UZ Serpentis and SS Aurigae During Quiescence: Exposed White Dwarfs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, J.; Sion, E. M.

    2000-12-01

    UZ Serpentis and SS Aurigae are both U Geminorum-type dwarf novae with similar orbital periods, outburst amplitudes, and outburst recurrence times. Since dwarf novae above the period gap have higher accretion rates, their accretion disks may remain optically thick even during quiescence. Hence the detection of the white dwarf is more difficult. UZ Ser and SS Aur offer the possiblity of extending the range of systems for which the underlying white dwarf accreter has been analyzed with model atmospheres. We have applied the Massa-Fitzpatrick (2000) flux calibration correction to the archival IUE NEWSIPS SWP spectra of these two systems, obtained during dwarf nova quiescence. We have carried out high gravity model atmosphere using the codes TLUSTY195, SYNSPEC42, ROTIN and accretion disk synthetic spectra from the grid of Wade and Hubeny (1998). We have determined the physical properties of the white dwarf accreters, including temperature, gravity chemical abundances estimates, and the accretion rate during quiescence. We discuss our results in the context of the overall picture of accretion physics in dwarf novae and the effects of accretion on the white dwarf. This research was supported in part by NSF grant AST 99-01955, NASA ADP grant NAG5-8388 and by summer research funding from the NASA- Delaware Space Grant Colleges Consortium.

  1. Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of 316LN SS in Acidified Sodium Chloride Solution at Applied Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonguzhali, A.; Pujar, M. G.; Mallika, C.; Mudali, U. Kamachi

    2015-05-01

    The influence of acidified 1 M NaCl solution by addition of 2 ml/L of HCl on the cyclic plastic deformation of AISI Type 316LN SS containing 0.07 wt.% and 0.22 wt.% N was investigated as a function of the applied potentials. The corrosion fatigue (CF) behavior of stainless steel (SS) was explained vis-a-vis the dislocation behavior, the propensity to form microcracks, and the evolution of the current transients based on the studies carried out at both room-temperature and boiling conditions. CF experiments were conducted using round tensile specimens at a stress ratio of 0.5 and a frequency of 0.1 Hz. Two different kinds of damage mechanisms were observed (I) the damage mechanism in the stable-passive state was correlated with the localization of the anodic dissolution due to a depassivation-repassivation process, whereas (II) the cyclic stress induced pitting corrosion in the metastable pitting state, which resulted in formation of microcracks. The study of the microcracking process and its evolution is a key to the physical mechanism by which the fatigue life of stainless steels would be affected in an aqueous corrosive solution under the applied potential.

  2. Constraints on the physical properties of optical bullets in SS 433

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John C.; Cassinelli, Joseph P.; Collins, George W., II

    1991-01-01

    The present study discusses possible mechanisms for continuously heating the H-alpha emitting bullets of SS 433 out to distances of 5 x 10 to the 14th cm and for turning off this emission at 10 to the 15th. Various observational contraints are used to establish bounds on permissible solutions in terms of the two key bullet parameters, mass, and angular radius seen from the central source. The analysis is carried out for the mathematically simplest case of uniform spherical bullets. For radiative heat of such bullets by starlight, solutions are found to exist only for the very massive bullets with about 0.03 radians, which are highly implausible on the grounds of the large implied mean kinetic luminosity of about 10 to the 41st ergs/s. It is concluded that collisional interaction is the most likely mechanism for heating the optical bullets of SS 433. The effects of these constraints being fragmented rather than uniform, and being elongated rather than spherical are discussed.

  3. Bioceramic dip-coating on Ti-6Al-4V and 316L SS implant materials.

    PubMed

    Aksakal, Bunyamin; Hanyaloglu, C

    2008-05-01

    The focus of the present study is based on more economical and rapid bioceramic coating on the most common implant substrates such as Ti-6Al-4V and 316L SS used often in orthopedics. For ceramic dip coating of implant substrates, Hydroxyapatite (HA) powder, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, P2O5, Na2CO3 and KH2PO4 are used to provide the gel. Ceramic films on sandblasted substrates have been deposited by using a newly manufactured dip-coating apparatus. Sample characterization is evaluated by SEM and XRD analysis. A smooth and homogeneous coating films have been obtained and average of 20 MPa bonding strength has been achieved for both Ti-6Al-4V and 316L SS alloys after sintering at 750 degrees C under flowing argon. The level of importance of the process parameters on coating was determined by using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The current process appears to be cheap, easy, and flexible to shape variations and high production rates for orthopedic applications.

  4. Angle closure glaucoma detection using fractal dimension index on SS-OCT images.

    PubMed

    Ni, Soe Ni; Marzilianol, Pina; Wong, Hon-Tym

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high resolution, rapid and non-invasive screening tool for angle closure glaucoma. In this paper, we propose a new strategy for automatic and landmark invariant quantification of the anterior chamber angle of the eye using swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) images. Seven hundred and eight swept source optical coherence tomography SS-OCT images from 148 patients with average age of (59.48 ± 8.97) were analyzed in this study. The angle structure is measured by fractal dimension (FD) analysis to quantify the complexity or changes of angle recess. We evaluated the FD index with biometric parameters for classification of open angle and angle closure glaucoma. The proposed fractal dimension index gives a better representation of the angle configuration for capturing the nature of the angle dynamics involved in different forms of open and closed angle glaucoma (average FD (standard deviation): 1.944 (0.045) for open and 1.894 (0.043) for closed angle). It showed that the proposed approach has promising potential to become a computer aided diagnostic tool for angle closure glaucoma (ACG) disease.

  5. Parameter Optimization Of Natural Hydroxyapatite/SS316l Via Metal Injection Molding (MIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, N.; Ibrahim1, M. H. I.; Amin, A. M.; Asmawi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Metal injection molding (MIM) are well known as a worldwide application of powder injection molding (PIM) where as applied the shaping concept and the beneficial of plastic injection molding but develops the applications to various high performance metals and alloys, plus metal matrix composites and ceramics. This study investigates the strength of green part by using stainless steel 316L/ Natural hydroxyapatite composite as a feedstock. Stainless steel 316L (SS316L) was mixed with Natural hydroxyapatite (NHAP) by adding 40 wt. % Low Density Polyethylene and 60 %wt. Palm Stearin as a binder system at 63 wt. % powder loading consist of 90 % wt. of SS316 L and 10 wt. % NHAP prepared thru critical powder volume percentage (CPVC). Taguchi method was functional as a tool in determining the optimum green strength for Metal Injection Molding (MIM) parameters. The green strength was optimized with 4 significant injection parameter such as Injection temperature (A), Mold temperature (B), Pressure (C) and Speed (D) were selected throughout screening process. An orthogonal array of L9 (3)4 was conducted. The optimum injection parameters for highest green strength were established at A1, B2, C0 and D1 and where as calculated based on Signal to Noise Ratio.

  6. Identification of SHCBP1 as a novel downstream target gene of SS18-SSX1 and its functional analysis in progression of synovial sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Changliang; Zhao, Hui; Chen, Wei; Song, Yan; Wang, Xiaoying; Li, Ji; Qiao, Yong; Wu, Dongjin; Ma, Shengzhong; Wang, Xiuwen; Gao, Chunzheng

    2016-01-01

    The SS18-SSX1 fusion gene has been shown to play important roles in the development of synovial sarcoma (SS), but the underlying molecular mechanisms and its downstream target genes are still not clear. Here SHC SH2-domain binding protein 1 (SHCBP1) was identified and validated to be a novel downstream target gene of SS18-SSX1 by using microarray assay, quantitative real-time (qPCR) and western blot. Expression of SHCBP1 was firstly confirmed in SS cell line and SS tissues. The effects of SHCBP1 overexpression or knockdown on SS cell proliferation and tumorigenicity were then studied by cell proliferation, DNA replication, colony formation, flow cytometric assays, and its in vivo tumorigenesis was determined in the nude mice. Meanwhile, the related signaling pathways of SHCBP1 were also examined in SS cells. The results indicated that SHCBP1 was significantly increased in SS cells and SS tissues compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. The expression of SHCBP1 was demonstrated to be positively correlated with the SS18-SSX1 level. Overexpression and ablation of SHCBP1 promoted and inhibited, respectively, the proliferation and tumorigenicity of SS cells in vitro. SHCBP1 knockdown also significantly inhibited SS cell growth in nude mice, and lowered the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways and cyclin D1 expression. Our findings disclose that SHCBP1 is a novel downstream target gene of SS18-SSX1, and demonstrate that the oncogene SS18-SSX1 promotes tumorigenesis by increasing the expression of SHCBP1, which normally acts as a tumor promoting factor. PMID:27572315

  7. Sequence analysis of mitochondrial ND1 gene can reveal the genetic structure and origin of Bactrocera dorsalis s.s.

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., is one of the most important quarantine pests in many countries, including China. Although the oriental fruit fly has been investigated extensively, its origins and genetic structure remain disputed. In this study, the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) gene was used as a genetic marker to examine the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow of B. dorsalis s.s. throughout its range in China and southeast Asia. Results Haplotype networks and phylogenetic analysis indicated two distinguishable lineages of the fly population but provided no strong support for geographical subdivision in B. philippinensis. Demographic analysis revealed rapid expansion of B. dorsalis s.s. populations in China and Southeast Asia in the recent years. The greatest amount of genetic diversity was observed in Manila, Pattaya, and Bangkok, and asymmetric migration patterns were observed in different parts of China. The data collected here further show that B. dorsalis s.s. in Yunnan, Guangdong, and Fujian Provinces, and in Taiwan might have different origins within southeast Asia. Conclusions Using the mitochondrial ND1 gene, the results of the present study showed B. dorsalis s.s. from different parts of China to have different genetic structures and origins. B. dorsalis s.s. in China and southeast Asia was found to have experienced rapid expansion in recent years. Data further support the existence of two distinguishable lineages of B. dorsalis s.s. in China and indicate genetic diversity and gene flow from multiple origins. The sequences in this paper have been deposited in GenBank/NCBI under accession numbers KC413034–KC413367. PMID:24655832

  8. Serotoninergic neuronal systems and ethanol sensitivity in long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.A.; Weiner, N.

    1986-03-01

    LS and SS mice selectively bred for differences in CNS sensitivity to ethanol (EtOH) exhibit markedly different sleep times (LS = 120 min; SS = 13 min) and differ considerably in hypothermic response following EtOH< 4 g/kg i.p. Basal levels of serotonin (5HT), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and 5HT turnover (defined as 5-hydroxy-tryptophan accumulation after inhibition of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) in 6 brain regions (hypthalamus (HYP), dorsal raphe (DR), pontine-medullary raphe (PMR), striatum (STR), hippocampus (HIP) and cortex (CTX)) differ minimally between the two lines. 5 HT turnover in STR, HIP, CTX and PMR of either LS or SS mice or in HYP or DR of SS mice was not altered at either 20 or 120 min after EtOH, 4 g/kg. However, in LS mice, 5HT turnover was decreased 23% in HYP at 20 min and 30-34% in HYP and DR at 120 min. LS mice become 1.2 and 2.2/sup 0/ more hypothermic than SS mice at 20 and 120 min after EtOH, 4 g/kg. When approximately equi-effective hypothermic doses of EtOH were administered to LS (3.5 g/kg) and SS (5.0 g/kg) mice, differences in 5HT turnover were still apparent. Pentobarbital administration (65 mg/kg) both decreased brain 5HT turnover 30-60% and produced comparable degrees of hypothermia in LS and SS mice. These data suggest that the apparent increase in sensitivity to inhibition by EtOH of 5HT neurons of HYP and DR of LS mice may contribute to the greater degree of hypothermia induced in this line.

  9. The fluorescence properties of the phenylated fullerenes C 70Ph 4, C 70Ph 6, C 70Ph 8, and C 70Ph 10 in room temperature solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwell, Martin; Gustavsson, Thomas; Marguet, Sylvie; Vaissière, Benoı̂t de La; Wachter, Norbert K.; Birkett, Paul R.; Mialocq, Jean-Claude; Leach, Sydney

    2001-12-01

    The emission and excitation spectra of four phenylated [70] fullerenes, C 70Ph 4, C 70Ph 6, C 70Ph 8, and C 70Ph 10 in cyclohexane and toluene solutions have been measured. The fluorescence spectra and related excited state properties are found to depend strongly on the number of attached phenyl groups, but with no systematic trends. Quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were measured for C 70Ph 6, C 70Ph 8, and C 70Ph 10, allowing the determination of S1 → S0 radiative transition rates kR. It is found that kR for C 70Ph 10 is about six times larger than for the other compounds. This is consistent with measured absorbtivities for these compounds. The particular character of C 70Ph 10 is also manifested by its higher intersystem crossing rate kISC.

  10. Alkaline pH sensor molecules.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Takashi; Maruyama, Ichiro N

    2015-11-01

    Animals can survive only within a narrow pH range. This requires continual monitoring of environmental and body-fluid pH. Although a variety of acidic pH sensor molecules have been reported, alkaline pH sensor function is not well understood. This Review describes neuronal alkaline pH sensors, grouped according to whether they monitor extracellular or intracellular alkaline pH. Extracellular sensors include the receptor-type guanylyl cyclase, the insulin receptor-related receptor, ligand-gated Cl- channels, connexin hemichannels, two-pore-domain K+ channels, and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Intracellular sensors include TRP channels and gap junction channels. Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying alkaline pH sensing is crucial for understanding how animals respond to environmental alkaline pH and how body-fluid pH is maintained within a narrow range.

  11. Introgression of Brown Norway CYP4A genes on to the Dahl salt-sensitive background restores vascular function in SS-5(BN) consomic rats.

    PubMed

    Lukaszewicz, Kathleen M; Falck, John R; Manthati, Vijaya L; Lombard, Julian H

    2013-03-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that the Dahl SS (salt-sensitive) rat has vascular dysfunction due, in part, to the up-regulation of the CYP4A/20-HETE (cytochrome P450 ω-hydroxylase 4A)/20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) system. To assess the role of vascular 20-HETE, SS rats were compared with SS-5(BN) consomic rats, carrying CYP4A alleles on chromosome 5 from the normotensive BN (Brown Norway) introgressed on to the SS genetic background. Cerebral arteries from SS-5(BN) rats had less CYP4A protein than arteries from SS rats fed either NS (normal-salt, 0.4% NaCl) or HS (high-salt, 4.0% NaCl) diet. ACh (acetylcholine)-induced dilation of MCAs (middle cerebral arteries) from SS and SS-5(BN) rats was present in SS-5(BN) rats fed on either an NS or HS diet, but absent in SS rats. In SS rats fed on either diet, ACh-induced dilation was restored by acute treatment with the CYP4A inhibitor DDMS (N-methyl-sulfonyl-12,12-dibromododec-11-enamide) or the 20-HETE antagonist 20-HEDE [20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z),15(Z)-dienoic acid]. The restored response to ACh in DDMS-treated SS rats was inhibited by L-NAME (N(G)nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) and unaffected by indomethacin or MS-PPOH [N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl)hexanamide]. Vascular relaxation responses to the NO donor C(5)FeN(6)Na(2)O were intact in both SS and SS-5(BN) rats and unaffected by the acute addition of DDMS, indicating that the vascular dysfunction of the SS rat is due to a reduced bioavailability of NO instead of failure of the VSMCs (vascular smooth muscle cells) to respond to the vasodilator. Superoxide levels in cerebral arteries of SS-5(BN) rats [evaluated semi-quantitatively by DHE (dihydroethidium) fluorescence] were lower than those in the arteries of SS rats. These findings indicate that SS rats have an up-regulation of the CYP4A/20-HETE pathway resulting in elevated ROS (reactive oxygen species) and reduced NO bioavailability causing vascular dysfunction.

  12. Behaviour of mantle transition zone discontinuities beneath the Indian Ocean from PP and SS precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Anne-Sophie; Thomas, Christine

    2015-04-01

    As part of the RHUM-RUM project we investigate the upwelling plume beneath the island La Réunion, located in the Indian Ocean 200 km east of Madagascar. This plume belongs to one of the most active hotspot regions in the world and is still active today. Understanding the depth origin and dimensions of such a plume helps to better understand mantle processes and the heat flux of the Earth. If the plume originates at the core-mantle boundary the Earth is cooled down differently compared with an indirect cooling of plumes originating in the upper mantle. Here we use underside reflections of PP and SS waves off the seismic discontinuities at 410 km and 660 km depth that arrive as precursors to the main phase in order to investigate the topography of these discontinuities that mark the top and bottom of the mantle transition zone. If hotter or colder material intersects the mantle transition zone, the discontinuities at 410 km and 660 km depth are deflected, hence the topography of the mantle transition zone can be an indicator for an upwelling plume. The 410 km discontinuity, which exists due to the phase change of olivine to spinel, should be depressed significantly in the presence of hot upwelling material. Because of the opposite Clapeyron slope of the phase change of spinel to magnesiowuestite and perovskite at 660 km depth, the topography of this discontinuity should be elevated. For this study we analyse over 200 events with Mw ≥ 5.8 and bounce points distributed over the entire Indian Ocean. Array seismology methods, such as vespagrams and slowness-backazimuth analysis, are used to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio and detect and identify precursors. Using different source-receiver combinations enables us to get a dense coverage of bounce points of PP and SS waves in the Indian Ocean and especially around La Réunion, also with crossing ray paths. The differential travel times of PP and SS arrivals and their precursors of robust stacks are converted into

  13. Reprint of "Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia".

    PubMed

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A. nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles.

  14. The eSS rat, a nonobese model of disordered glucose and lipid metabolism and fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background eSS is a rat model of type 2 diabetes characterized by fasting hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and early hypertriglyceridemia. Diabetic symptoms worsen during the second year of life as insulin release decreases. In 12-month-old males a diffuse hepatic steatosis was detected. We report the disturbances of lipid metabolism of the model with regard to the diabetic syndrome. Methods The study was conducted in eight 12-month-old eSS male rats and seven age/weight matched eumetabolic Wistar rats fed with a complete commercial diet al libitum. Fasting plasmatic glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density and high-density lipoprotein, and nonesterified fatty acids levels were measured. Very low density and intermediate-density lipoproteins were analyzed and hepatic lipase activity was determined. Results eSS rats developed hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, indicating insulin resistance. Compared with controls, diabetic rats exhibited high plasmatic levels of NEFA, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (Chol) and LDL-Chol while high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol values were reduced. eSS rats also displayed TG-rich VLDL and IDL particles without changes in hepatic lipase activity. Conclusion The nonobese eSS rats develop a syndrome characterized by glucose and lipid disorders and hepatic steatosis that may provide new opportunities for studying the pathogenesis of human type 2 diabetes. PMID:20236525

  15. High resolution upper mantle discontinuity images across the Pacific Ocean from SS precursors using local slant stack filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhao; Ventosa, Sergi; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    SS precursor observations are a powerful tool to study the topography and character of transition zone discontinuities, especially in regions such as ocean basins where few seismic stations exist, precluding other high resolution approaches. Still, the available coverage is limited by the distribution of sources and stations, but also by the level of noise and by the fact that, in some distance ranges, interfering seismic phases mask the weak signal from the SS precursors. We introduce an array data processing tool, the local slant-stack filter, to address these challenges and clean up the otherwise noisy SS precursor record sections. We show that these filters are a powerful tool for extracting the weak yet coherent SS precursor signals while removing interfering seismic phases as well as random noise, yielding robust precursor traveltime measurements with spatial resolution higher than what can be achieved by the conventional common midpoint stacking method. The effectiveness of the filters are demonstrated by application to synthetic and real data. We systematically apply this filtering method to an SS precursor data set recorded by the U.S. Transportable Array that samples a vast region of the Pacific Ocean and its northwest margin, and present maps of 410 and 660 discontinuity topography. We discuss correlations observed between our discontinuity images and several fine-scale heterogeneities revealed by mantle shear wave tomography in the vicinity of Hawaii and the Pacific Superswell.

  16. Effects of new antiarrhythmic agent SS-68 on excitation conduction, electrical activity in Purkinje fibers and pulmonary veins: Assessment of safety and side effects risk.

    PubMed

    Bogus, Saida K; Kuzmin, Vladislav S; Abramochkin, Denis V; Suzdalev, Konstantin F; Galenko-Yaroshevsky, Pavel A

    2017-03-02

    The compound SS-68 has been selected among numerous new derivatives of indole and demonstrated antiarrhythmic effects in animal models. The present study concerns several aspects of SS-68 safety and efficacy as a potential antiarrhythmic drug. The first estimation of atrioventricular conduction in mammalian heart under SS-68 has been carried out; effects of SS-68 in Purkinje fibers and myocardium of pulmonary veins have been investigated. The drug weakly affects cardiac atrioventricular conduction: only high concentrations of SS-68 (≥10 μmol/L) significantly decrease this parameter. Also, the drug weakly affects Purkinje fibers automaticity, but effectively alters action potential waveform in Purkinje fibers in a concentration-dependent manner. SS-68 (0.1-100 μmol/L) failed to induce any early or delayed afterdepolarizations in Purkinje fibers both in basal conditions and under provocation of proarrhythmic activity by norepinephrine (NE). Moreover, 10 μmol/L SS-68 suppressed NE-induced extra-beats and rapid firing in Purkinje fibers. In pulmonary veins only high concentrations of SS-68 significantly increased action potential duration, while lower concentrations (0.1-1 μmol/L) were ineffective. Also, 0.1-100 μmol/L SS-68 was unable to elicit arrhythmogenic alternations of action potential waveform in pulmonary veins. In conclusion, SS-68 has no proarrhythmic effects, such as afterdepolarizations or abnormal automaticity in used experimental models.

  17. The pH of antiseptic cleansers

    PubMed Central

    Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Varothai, Supenya; Nuchkull, Piyavadee

    2014-01-01

    Background Daily bathing with antiseptic cleansers are proposed by some physicians as an adjunctive management of atopic dermatitis (AD). As atopic skin is sensitive, selection of cleansing products becomes a topic of concern. Objective Our purpose is to evaluate the pH of various antiseptic body cleansers to give an overview for recommendation to patients with AD. Methods Commonly bar and liquid cleansers consisted of antiseptic agents were measured for pH using pH meter and pH-indicator strips. For comparison, mild cleansers and general body cleansers were also measured. Results All cleansing bars had pH 9.8-11.3 except syndet bar that had neutral pH. For liquid cleansers, three cleansing agents had pH close to pH of normal skin, one of antiseptic cleansers, one of mild cleansers and another one of general cleansers. The rest of antiseptic cleansers had pH 8.9-9.6 while mild cleansers had pH 6.9-7.5. Syndet liquid had pH 7 and general liquid cleansers had pH 9.6. Conclusion The pH of cleanser depends on composition of that cleanser. Adding antiseptic agents are not the only factor determining variation of pH. Moreover, benefit of antiseptic properties should be considered especially in cases of infected skin lesions in the selection of proper cleansers for patients with AD. PMID:24527408

  18. Capillary zone electrophoresis in non-aqueous solutions: pH of the background electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Porras, Simo P; Kenndler, Ernst

    2004-05-28

    Although the establishment of a pH scale and the determination of the pH in water is not problematic, it is not a straightforward task in non-aqueous solvents. As capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) in organic solvents has gained increasing interest, it seems to be valuable to re-discuss the concept of the pH in such media, especially pointing to those aspects, which make pH measurement uncertain in non-aqueous solvents. In this review, the relevant aspects when dealing with primary standard (PS) and secondary standard (SS) as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), and the usage of the operational pH are discussed with special emphasis to non-aqueous solvents. Here, different liquid junction potentials, incomplete dissociation of the electrolytes (especially in solvents with low or moderate relative permittivity) and the occurrence of homo- and heteroconjugation must be taken into account. Problems arising in capillary zone electrophoresis practice are addressed, e.g. when the background electrolyte (BGE) consists of organic solvents, but the measuring electrode (normally the glass electrode) is calibrated with aqueous buffers, and the liquid junction potentials between the solvents do not cancel each other. The alternative concept of establishing a certain pH is described, using mixtures of reference acids or bases with known pKa in the organic solvent, and their respective salts, at a certain concentration ratio, relying to the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Special discussion is directed to those organic solvents most common in capillary zone electrophoresis, methanol (MeOH) and acetonitrile (ACN), but other solvents are included as well. The potential significance of small amounts of water present in the organic solvent on changes in pKa values, and thus on the pH of the buffering components is pointed out.

  19. Fetal scalp pH testing

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal scalp blood; Scalp pH testing; Fetal blood testing - scalp; Fetal distress - fetal scalp testing; Labor - fetal scalp testing ... a baby. In these cases, testing the scalp pH can help the doctor decide whether the fetus ...

  20. Acid loading test (pH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  1. A confirmation of the 13-day binary period in SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedogni, R.; Braccesi, A.; Marano, B.; Messina, A.; Crampton, D. C.

    Spectroscopic observations made in the same period at different longitudes are reported which have confirmed the 13-day period in the stationary lines of the moving-emission-line object SS 433. The radial velocities were derived from spectra obtained in August 1980 in the range 5400-6900 A at the Loiane 152-cm telescope at Bologna, and compared with velocities obtained at the same time with the 1.8-m telescope in Victoria, nine hours away in longitude. The data clearly show a 13-day periodicity with amplitude 75 km/sec which is in substantial phase agreement at the two stations, thus ruling out the possibility of a 1-day periodicity. The data also indicate a peculiar velocity of about + 30 km/sec for the system.

  2. Reweldability test of irradiated SS316 by the TIG welding method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Oyamada, Rokuro

    1996-10-01

    Stainless steel is a candidate material for the structural material in fusion reactors. Rewelding of irradiated materials will have a large impact on the design and the maintenance of in-vessel components. In the present work, the welding specimens made of type 316 stainless steel were irradiated in JMTR (Japan materials testing reactor) to a fast neutron fluence of ˜2.0 × 10 20 n/cm 2 ( E > 1 MeV) at a temperature of ˜200°C. The rewelding of unirradiated and/or irradiated stainless steel was performed by the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding method and the weldments of unirradiated and/or irradiated SS316 were characterized by tensile testing (test temp.: 20°C and 200°C), hardness, metallographical observation and SEM/XMA analyses.

  3. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of a Cellulolytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain SS35 from Rhinoceros Dung

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shuchi; Moholkar, Vijayanand S.; Goyal, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose hydrolyzing bacteria were isolated from rhinoceros dung and tested for clear zone formation around the colonies on the agar plates containing the medium amended with carboxymethylcellulose as a sole carbon source. Isolates were further screened on the basis of carboxymethylcellulase production in liquid medium. Out of 36 isolates, isolate no. 35 exhibited maximum enzyme activity of 0.079 U/mL and was selected for further identification by using conventional biochemical tests and phylogenetic analyses. This was a Gram-positive, spore forming bacterium with rod-shaped cells. The isolate was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SS35 based on nucleotide homology and phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA and gyrase A gene sequences. PMID:23762763

  4. A PIONIER and Incisive Look at the Interacting Binary SS Lep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blind, N.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Berger, J.-P.; Lebouquin, J.-B.; Mérand, A.

    2011-09-01

    Symbiotic stars are excellent laboratories to study a broad range of poorly understood physical processes, such as mass loss of red giants, accretion onto compact objects, and evolution of nova-like outbursts. As their evolution is strongly influenced by the mass transfer episodes, understanding the history of these systems requires foremost to determine which process is at play: Roche lobe overflow, stellar wind accretion, or some more complex mixture of both. We report here an interferometric study of the symbiotic system SS Leporis, performed with the unique PIONIER instrument. By determining the binary orbit and revisiting the parameters of the two stars, we show that the giant does not fill its Roche lobe, and that the mass transfer most likely occurs via the accretion of an important part of the giant's wind.

  5. The White Dwarf in SS Cygni and Related Topics: FUSE + HST Spectral Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sion, Edward M.; Godon, Patrick; Myszka, Janine; Blair, William P.

    2010-11-01

    We have carried out a combined Hubble Space Telescope (HST/GHRS) and Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) analysis of the prototype dwarf nova SS Cygni during quiescence. The FUSE and HST spectra were obtained at comparable times after outburst and have matching flux levels where the two spectra overlap. From the best-fit model solutions to the combined HST +FUSE spectral energy distribution, we find that the white dwarf is reaching a temperature Teff~45-55,000 K in quiescence, assuming log(g) = 8.3 with a solar composition accreted atmosphere. We discuss two challenges to understanding the cooling of a white dwarf in response to heating by a dwarf nova accretion event. We present the most recent distribution of white dwarf temperatures versus orbital period in the context of the time-averaged accretion rate and long term compressional heating models.

  6. Periodicity Analysis of X-ray Light Curves of SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun-yi, Wang; Xiang-long, Lu; Qiu-wen, Zhao; Dian-qiao, Dong; Bao-qiang, Lao; Yang, Lu; Yan-heng, Wei; Xiao-cong, Wu; Tao, An

    2017-01-01

    SS 433 is sofar the unique X-ray binary that has the simultaneously detected orbital period, super-orbital period, and nutation period, as well as a bidirectional spiral jet. The study on its X-ray light variability is helpful for understanding the dynamic process of the system, and the correlations between the different wavebands. In this paper, two time-series analysis techniques, i.e., the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and weighted wavelet Z-transform, are employed to search for the periods in the Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope) (15-50 keV) and RXTE/ASM (Rose X-ray Timing Explorer/All Sky Monitor) (1.5-3, 3- 4, and 5-12 keV) light curves of SS 433, and the Monte Carlo simulation is performed for the obtained periodical components. For the 15-50 keV energy band, five significant periodical components are detected, which are P1(∼6.29 d), P2 (∼6.54 d), P3 (∼13.08 d), P4 (∼81.50 d), and P5 (∼162.30 d). For the 3-5 and 5-12 keV energy bands, the periodical components P3 (∼13 d) and P5 (∼162 d) are detected in both energy bands. However, for the 1.5-3 keV energy band, no significant periodic signal is detected. P5 is the strongest periodic signal in the power spectrum for all the energy bands of 3-5, 5-12, and 15-50 keV, and it is consistent with the previous result obtained from the study of optical light curves. Furthermore, in combination with the radio spiral jet of SS 433, it is suggested that the X-ray and optical variability of P5 (∼162 d) is probably related to the precession of its relativistic jet. The high correlation between the X-ray and optical light curves may also imply that the X-ray and optical radiations are of the same physical origin. P3 shows a good agreement with the orbital period (∼13.07 d) obtained by the previous study, and P2 and P4 are respectively the high-frequency harmonics of P3 and P5. P1 is detected only in the power spectrum of the 15-50 keV energy band, and it is consistent with the nutation period of the system. As

  7. Quantifying the Interfacial Strength of Oxide Scale and SS 441 Substrate Used in SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-08-15

    Under a typical SOFC working environment, oxide scale will grow on the metallic interconnects in oxidant environment. The growth of the oxide scale induces the growth stresses in the oxide scale and on the scale/substrate interface combined with the thermal stresses induced by thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the oxide scale and the substrate, which may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation during stack cooling, even leading to serious cell performance degradation. Therefore, the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of the metallic interconnect in SOFC operating environments. As a powerful contender of ferritic interconnects used in SOFC, its interfacial strength between the oxide scale and SS 441 substrate is very important for its application. In this paper, we applied an integrated experimental/analytical methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between oxide scale and metallic interconnect. The predicted interfacial strength is discussed in detailed

  8. Genomic Characterization of Novel Circular ssDNA Viruses from Insectivorous Bats in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Francisco Esmaile de Sales; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; Varela, Ana Paula Muterle; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Delwart, Eric; Franco, Ana Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Circoviruses are highly prevalent porcine and avian pathogens. In recent years, novel circular ssDNA genomes have recently been detected in a variety of fecal and environmental samples using deep sequencing approaches. In this study the identification of genomes of novel circoviruses and cycloviruses in feces of insectivorous bats is reported. Pan-reactive primers were used targeting the conserved rep region of circoviruses and cycloviruses to screen DNA bat fecal samples. Using this approach, partial rep sequences were detected which formed five phylogenetic groups distributed among the Circovirus and the recently proposed Cyclovirus genera of the Circoviridae. Further analysis using inverse PCR and Sanger sequencing led to the characterization of four new putative members of the family Circoviridae with genome size ranging from 1,608 to 1,790 nt, two inversely arranged ORFs, and canonical nonamer sequences atop a stem loop. PMID:25688970

  9. PREFACE: The 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dengqing; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013) run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and hosted by Harbin Institute of Technology (China) from 7-9 January 2013. The conference has been organized in collaboration with the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and follows a one day seminar on Ropes, Cables, Belts and Chains: Theory and Applications and the MoSS2006 symposium held at the University of Northampton (UK) in 2004 and 2006, respectively, the MoSS2008 symposium held at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (USA) in 2008 and the MoSS2010 symposium hosted by Mondragon University and held in San Sebastian (Spain) in 2010. The remit of the Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures series involves a broad range of scientific areas. Applications of slender structures include terrestrial, marine and space systems. Moving elastic elements such as ropes, cables, belts and tethers are pivotal components of many engineering systems. Their lengths often vary when the system is in operation. The applications include vertical transportation installations and, more recently, space tether propulsion systems. Traction drive elevator installations employ ropes and belts of variable length as a means of suspension, and also for the compensation of tensile forces over the traction sheave. In cranes and mine hoists, cables and ropes are subject to length variation in order to carry payloads. Tethers experiencing extension and retraction are important components of offshore and marine installations, as well as being proposed for a variety of different space vehicle propulsion systems based on different applications of momentum exchange and electrodynamic interactions with planetary magnetic fields. Furthermore, cables and slender rods are used extensively in civil engineering

  10. [Subviral molecules of RNA associated with plant ss(+)RNA viruses].

    PubMed

    Pelczyk, Marta; Obrepalska-Steplowska, Aleksandra; Pospieszny, Henryk

    2006-01-01

    Plant ss(+)RNA viruses besides their genome RNAs often are associated with additional subviral RNA molecules which occur naturally or are generated de novo during infection. There are such molecules like: satellite, defective, defective interfering and chimeric RNAs. Subviral RNAs can not replicate and encapsidate by oneself. Helper viruses supply the protein complexes that are necessary to these processes. The subviral molecules are characterized by small size. Recombination, deletion and accumulation of mutation are the main ways of arising subviral elements, although the origin of satRNAs is unknown. The unique feature of subviral RNAs is their ability to modify of infection progress caused by helper virus. They can attenuate or enhance the intensity of disease symptoms. The overall influence on disease development depends on three-component complex consisting of: plant host-virus' strain--subviral RNA. This article is a synthetic review of information concerning subviral RNA molecules of plant viruses, their structure, functions and origin.

  11. Good Science, Good Sense and Good Sensibilities: The Three Ss of Carol Newton.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adrian J; Hawkins, Penny

    2016-11-11

    The Three Rs principle of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement developed by William M. S. Russell and Rex L. Burch in the 1950s has achieved worldwide recognition as a means of reducing the impact of science on animals and improving their welfare. However, application of the Three Rs is still far from universal, and evidence-based methods to implement the Three Rs are still lacking in many areas of laboratory animal science. The purpose of this paper is to create interest in a less well-known but equally useful principle that complements the Three Rs, which was proposed by the American biomathematician Carol M. Newton in the 1970s: the Three Ss-Good Science, Good Sense and Good Sensibilities.

  12. Observation of tree-level B decays with ss production from gluon radiation.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H

    2008-05-02

    We report on our search for decays proceeding via a tree-level b-->c quark transition in which a gluon radiates into an ss[over ] pair. We present observations of the decays B;{-}-->D_{s};{+}K;{-}pi;{-} and B[over ];{0}-->D_{s};{+}K_{S};{0}pi;{-} and evidence for B;{-}-->D_{s};{+}K;{-}K;{-} and set upper limits on the branching fractions for B[over ];{0}-->D_{s};{+}K_{S};{0}pi;{-} and B;{-}-->D_{s};{+}K;{-}K;{-} using 383x10;{6} Upsilon(4S)-->BB[over ] events collected by the BABAR detector at SLAC. We present evidence that the invariant mass distributions of D_{s};{+}K;{-} pairs from B;{-}-->D_{s};{+}K;{-}pi;{-} decays are inconsistent with the phase-space model, suggesting the presence of charm resonances lying below the D_{s};{+}K;{-} threshold.

  13. PEG-SS-PPS: reduction-sensitive disulfide block copolymer vesicles for intracellular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Cerritelli, Simona; Velluto, Diana; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2007-06-01

    Under appropriate conditions, block copolymeric macroamphiphiles will self-assemble in water to form vesicles, referred to as polymersomes. We report here polymersomes that can protect biomolecules in the extracellular environment, are taken up by endocytosis, and then suddenly burst within the early endosome, releasing their contents prior to exposure to the harsh conditions encountered after lysosomal fusion. Specifically, block copolymers of the hydrophile poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and the hydrophobe poly(propylene sulfide) (PPS) were synthesized with an intervening disulfide, PEG17-SS-PPS30. Polymersomes formed from this block copolymer were demonstrated to disrupt in the presence of intracellular concentrations of cysteine. In cellular experiments, uptake, disruption, and release were observed within 10 min of exposure to cells, well within the time frame of the early endosome of endolysosomal processing. This system may be useful in cytoplasmic delivery of biomolecular drugs such as peptides, proteins, oligonucleotides, and DNA.

  14. Studies on microbiologically influenced corrosion of SS304 by a novel manganese oxidizer, Bacillus flexus.

    PubMed

    Anandkumar, B; George, R P; Tamilvani, S; Padhy, N; Mudali, U Kamachi

    2011-01-01

    A manganese oxidizing bacterium was isolated from the surface of steel scraps and biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing analysis confirmed the isolate as Bacillus flexus. Potentiodynamic polarization curves showed ennoblement of open circuit potential, increased passive current, a lowering of breakdown potential, active re-passivation potential and enhanced cathodic current in the presence of B. flexus. Adhesion studies with B. flexus on SS304 specimens with different surface treatments demonstrated decreased adhesion on passivated and FeCl(3) treated specimens due to the removal of MnS inclusions. The present study provides evidence that surface treatment of stainless steels can reduce adhesion of this manganese oxidizing bacterium and decrease the probability of microbiologically influenced corrosion.

  15. Discriminative feeding behaviour of Anopheles gambiae s.s. on endemic plants in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Manda, H.; Gouagna, L. C.; Nyandat, E.; Kabiru, E. W.; Jackson, R. R.; Foster, W. A.; Githure, J. I.; Beier, J. C.; Hassanali, A.

    2009-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) is known to feed on plant sugars, but this is the first experimental study to consider whether it discriminates between plant species. Thirteen perennial plant species were selected on the basis of their local availability within the vicinity of human dwellings and larval habitats of An. gambiae s.s. in western Kenya. Groups of 100 or 200 mosquitoes were released into cages either with a cutting of one plant type at a time (single-plant assay) or with cuttings of all 13 plants simultaneously (choice assay), respectively, and left overnight. In the choice assay, direct observations of the percentages of mosquitoes perching or feeding on each plant were recorded over four 1-h periods each night. For both types of assay, mosquitoes were recaptured and the percentage that had fed on plants was assessed by testing them individually for the presence of fructose. To identify which plants the choice-assay mosquitoes had fed on, gas chromatography (GC) profiles of samples of mosquito homogenates were compared with GC profiles of extracts from relevant parts of each plant. Four of the plants that were observed to have been fed on most frequently in the choice assay (Parthenium hysterophorus L., Tecoma stans L., Ricinus communis L., and Senna didymobotrya Fresen) were also shown to have been ingested most often by mosquitoes in both types of assay, suggesting that An. gambiae is differentially responsive to this range of plants, regardless of whether the plants were presented singly or mixed together. Significantly more females than males fed on plants, with the exception of P. hysterophorus L., one of the plants most frequently fed on. For most plant species (ten of 13), GC profiles indicated that An. gambiae obtained sugars primarily from flowers. The exceptions were P. hysterophorus L., Lantana camara L. and R. communis L., on which An. gambiae fed more often from leaves and stems than from flowers. PMID:17373953

  16. The Spectrum of SS 433 in the H and K Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Edward L.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Jaffe, Daniel Thomas; Kaplan, Kyle; Kim, Hwiyun; Mace, Gregory N.; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2017-01-01

    SS 433 is an X-ray binary and the source of sub-relativistic, precessing, baryonic jets. We present high-resolution spectrograms of SS 433 in the infrared H and K bands. The spectrum is dominated by hydrogen and helium emission lines. The precession phase of the emission lines from the jet continues to be described by a constant period. The limit on any secularly changing period is |dP/dt| ≤ 10-5. The He I λ2.0587 μm line has complex and variable P-Cygni absorption features produced by an inhomogeneous wind with a maximum outflow velocity near 900 km s-1. The He II emission lines in the spectrum also arise in this wind. The higher members of the hydrogen Brackett lines show a double-peaked profile with symmetric wings extending more than ±1500 km s-1 from the line center. The lines display radial velocity variations in phase with the radial velocity variation expected of the compact star, and they show a distortion during disk eclipse that we interpret as rotational distortion. We fit the line profiles with a model in which the emission comes from the surface of a symmetric, Keplerian accretion disk around the compact object. The outer edge of the disk has velocities that vary from 110 to 190 km s-1. These comparatively low velocities place a strong constraint on the mass of the compact star: Its mass must be less than 2.2 M⊙ and is probably less than 1.6 M⊙.

  17. Pulsar-driven Jets In Sne, Grbs, Lmxbs, Ss 433, And The Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleditch, John

    2011-05-01

    The model of pulsar emission through superluminally induced polarization currents, (SLIP), predicts that pulsations produced by such currents at many light cylinder radii by a rotating, magnetized body, will drive pulsations close to the axis of rotation. In SN 1987A, the possible Rosetta Stone for 99% of SNe, GRBs, ms pulsars, and SS 433, such highly collimated (>1 in 10,000) 2.14 ms pulsations, and the similarly collimated jets of particles which they drove, including 1e-6 solar masses with velocities 0.95 c, were responsible for its very early light curve (days 3-20), its "Mystery Spot," observed slightly later (0.5 to 0.3 c, at days 30-50 and after), and still later, in less collimated form, its bipolarity. The axially driven pulsations enforce a toroidal geometry onto all early SNRs, rendering even SNe Ia unsuitable as standard candles. The numbers for Sco X-1's jet are identical, while those for SS 433 are lower (0.26 c), because of the absence of velocity "boosting" via collisions of heavy elements with lighter ones, due to the nearly pure hydrogen content of the supercritical accretion. SLIP also drives positrons from SNe to high energies, possibly accounting for the excess seen by PAMELA at scores of GeV, and predicts that almost all pulsars with very sharp single pulses have been detected because the Earth is in a favored direction where their fluxes diminish only as 1/distance, and this has been verified in the laboratory as well as for the Parkes Multibeam Survey. SLIP also predicts that GRB afterglows will be 100% pulsed at 500 Hz in their proper frame. Finally, SLIP jets from SNe of the first stars may allow galaxies to form without the need for dark matter. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy through the Los Alamos Directed Research Grant DR20080085.

  18. The Accretion Flow and Boundary Layer Structure in the Dwarf Nova SS Aur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabizadeh, Armin; Balman, Solen; Godon, Patrick; Sion, Edward; Hertfelder, Marius

    2016-07-01

    We present X-ray analysis of dwarf novae SS Aur (51 ksec) using XMM-Newton Observatory archival data obtained in quiescence for a better understanding of the accretion flow structure. We find X-ray orbital modulations. We report power spectral analysis for EPIC (X-ray) and OM (UV) light curves suggesting high levels of red noise with no significant QPO or periodicities. We simultaneously fitted EPIC pn, MOS1 and MOS2 data using a model for interstellar medium absorption (tbabs) and a multi-temperature plasma emission model (cevmkl) as expected from low accretion rate quiescent dwarf novae. However, the composite model fit yields unacceptable reduced χ ^{2} values due to the existence of soft excess. The soft excess is well modeled using a blackbody model (kT˜˜24 eV) giving a better reduced χ ^{2} value over 3σ significance level. This may indicate the existence of optically thick boundary layer emission. We will discuss the origin of this excess. The best fitting model is a combination of a blackbody, a cevmkl and a power law with an interstellar absorption which yields a reduced χ ^{2} of 1.05. The fit also shows some oxygen and iron over abundances. SS Aur has a maximum thermal plasma temperature of ˜22 keV. The X-ray luminosity in the 0.1 to 50.0 keV energy band is ˜2.0×10 ^{33} ergs ^{-1}. Finally, we discuss these characteristics in the light of standard disk models and accretion flows and geometry in nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables.

  19. MicNeSs: genotyping microsatellite loci from a collection of (NGS) reads.

    PubMed

    Suez, Marie; Behdenna, Abdelkader; Brouillet, Sophie; Graça, Paula; Higuet, Dominique; Achaz, Guillaume

    2016-03-01

    Microsatellites are widely used in population genetics to uncover recent evolutionary events. They are typically genotyped using capillary sequencer, which capacity is usually limited to 9, at most 12 loci for each run, and which analysis is a tedious task that is performed by hand. With the rise of next-generation sequencing (NGS), a much larger number of loci and individuals are available from sequencing: for example, on a single run of a GS Junior, 28 loci from 96 individuals are sequenced with a 30X cover. We have developed an algorithm to automatically and efficiently genotype microsatellites from a collection of reads sorted by individual (e.g. specific PCR amplifications of a locus or a collection of reads that encompass a locus of interest). As the sequencing and the PCR amplification introduce artefactual insertions or deletions, the set of reads from a single microsatellite allele shows several length variants. The algorithm infers, without alignment, the true unknown allele(s) of each individual from the observed distributions of microsatellites length of all individuals. MicNeSs, a python implementation of the algorithm, can be used to genotype any microsatellite locus from any organism and has been tested on 454 pyrosequencing data of several loci from fruit flies (a model species) and red deers (a nonmodel species). Without any parallelization, it automatically genotypes 22 loci from 441 individuals in 11 hours on a standard computer. The comparison of MicNeSs inferences to the standard method shows an excellent agreement, with some differences illustrating the pros and cons of both methods.

  20. An atlas of H-alpha-emitting regions in M33: A systematic search for SS433 star candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calzetti, Daniela; Kinney, Anne L.; Ford, Holland; Doggett, Jesse; Long, Knox S.

    1995-01-01

    We report finding charts and accurate positions for 432 compact H-alpha emitting regions in the Local Group galaxy M 33 (NGC 598), in an effort to isolate candidates for an SS433-like stellar system. The objects were extracted from narrow band images, centered in the rest-frame H-alpha (lambda 6563 A) and in the red continuum at 6100 A. The atlas is complete down to V approximately equal to 20 and includes 279 compact HII regions and 153 line emitting point-like sources. The point-like sources undoubtedly include a variety of objects: very small HII regions, early type stars with intense stellar winds, and Wolf-Rayet stars, but should also contain objects with the characteristics of SS433. This extensive survey of compact H-alpha regions in M 33 is a first step towards the identification of peculiar stellar systems like SS433 in external galaxies.

  1. Microstructure and Optical Properties of SS/Mo/Al2O3 Spectrally Selective Solar Absorber Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang-Hu; Guo, Zhi-Ming; Geng, Qing-Fen; Ma, Peng-Jun; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Surface-textured Mo thin film is fabricated by magnetron sputtering through the adjustment of deposition parameters, which exhibits a high absorptance of 0.80 and a low emittance of 0.09. The single-layer Mo deposited on stainless steel (SS) is characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), ultra-high resolution scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and optical measurement. The controlled surface roughness combined with larger aspect ratio contributes much to the high absorptance and low emittance. Based on the SS/Mo coating, a spectrally selective coating (SS/Mo/Al2O3) is designed and fabricated. The coating shows an amorphous structure and exhibits an absorptance of 0.90 and an emittance of 0.08. Tauc-Lorentz and Drude free-electron models are used to modeling the optical properties of Al2O3 and Mo layers by phase-modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  2. Hematological observations on Arabian SS patients with a homozygosity or heterozygosity for a beta S chromosome with haplotype #31.

    PubMed

    Kutlar, A; Hattori, Y; Bakioglu, I; Kutlar, F; Kamel, K; Huisman, T H

    1985-01-01

    Hematological and hemoglobin composition data are presented for seven Arabian SS patients with mild disease and with high Hb F levels varying between 21 and 34%. Four patients were homozygous for a beta S chromosome with a specific haplotype (#31). The data for these four patients were similar to those for three other SS patients (and for five patients reported earlier, Ref. 2) who were heterozygous for the same beta S chromosome (#31) and for a beta S chromosome with another haplotype (mainly #19). These data offer additional evidence indicating that the increased gamma chain production is specific for the beta S chromosome with haplotype #31. The similarities in hematological data and Hb F levels between these two groups of SS patients and the normal Hb F value in Hb S heterozygotes with beta S chromosome (#31) support the suggestion that the increased Hb F production mainly occurs in response to the anemia of the sickle cell disease.

  3. Microstructure and Optical Properties of SS/Mo/Al2O3 Spectrally Selective Solar Absorber Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang-Hu; Guo, Zhi-Ming; Geng, Qing-Fen; Ma, Peng-Jun; Liu, Gang

    2016-11-01

    Surface-textured Mo thin film is fabricated by magnetron sputtering through the adjustment of deposition parameters, which exhibits a high absorptance of 0.80 and a low emittance of 0.09. The single-layer Mo deposited on stainless steel (SS) is characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), ultra-high resolution scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and optical measurement. The controlled surface roughness combined with larger aspect ratio contributes much to the high absorptance and low emittance. Based on the SS/Mo coating, a spectrally selective coating (SS/Mo/Al2O3) is designed and fabricated. The coating shows an amorphous structure and exhibits an absorptance of 0.90 and an emittance of 0.08. Tauc-Lorentz and Drude free-electron models are used to modeling the optical properties of Al2O3 and Mo layers by phase-modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  4. 36 CFR 17.4 - Notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... has determined in accordance with these regulations that a freehold or leasehold interest will be...-bounds, or other suitable method, (2) a statement of the interest to be conveyed, including restrictions... where the Government's appraisal may be inspected, (4) information as to any preference rights of...

  5. 43 CFR 17.4 - Assurances required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... other participants. Any such assurance shall include provisions which give the United States a right to... school system (1) is subject to a final order of a court of the United States for the desegregation of... school system which the responsible official of the Department of Health, Education, and...

  6. Elevated Expression of KiSS-1 in Placenta of Chinese Women with Early-Onset Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Chong; Wang, Chunhui; Zhao, Jiao; Liu, Caixia; Shang, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a heterogeneous syndrome affecting 2% to 8% of all pregnancies and is the world’s leading cause of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. In many cases of PE, shallow trophoblast invasion results in inappropriate maternal spiral artery remodeling and impaired placental function. Multiple genes have been implicated in trophoblast invasion, among which are KiSS-1 and GPR54. The gene product of KiSS-1 is metastin, which is a ligand for the receptor GPR54. Both metastin and GPR54 are expressed in the placenta of normal pregnancy and have been implicated in modulating trophoblast invasion through inhibiting migration of trophoblast cells. We have previously reported that the expression level of KiSS-1 was higher in trophoblasts from women with preeclampsia as compared to normal controls. Here, using quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, we extend our analysis to demonstrate that elevated KiSS-1 expression occurs only in early-onset preeclampsia (ePE) and not late-onset preeclampsia (lPE). However, no difference in the expression levels of GPR54 is observed between ePE, lPE, and normal controls. Further, we show that KiSS-1 expression is also increased in placenta of intrauterine death and birth asphyxia in comparison to normal newborns of ePE and lPE. Our findings suggest that aberrant upregulation of KiSS-1 expression may contribute to the underlying mechanism of ePE as well as birth asphyxia. PMID:23145030

  7. Biodegradable mixed MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles for triggered intracellular release of paclitaxel and reversing multidrug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Kai; Yan, Yan; Wang, Pengchong; Shi, Xianpeng; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Ke; Xing, Jianfeng; Dong, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a type of multifunctional mixed micelles were prepared by a novel biodegradable amphiphilic polymer (MPEG-SS-2SA) and a multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agent (d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate, TPGS). The mixed micelles could achieve rapid intracellular drug release and reversal of MDR. First, the amphiphilic polymer, MPEG-SS-2SA, was synthesized through disulfide bonds between poly (ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (MPEG) and stearic acid (SA). The structure of the obtained polymer was similar to poly (ethylene glycol)-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE). Then the mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, were prepared by MPEG-SS-2SA and TPGS through the thin film hydration method and loaded paclitaxel (PTX) as the model drug. The in vitro release study revealed that the mixed micelles could rapidly release PTX within 24 h under a reductive environment because of the breaking of disulfide bonds. In cell experiments, the mixed micelles significantly inhibited the activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex II, also reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the content of adenosine triphosphate, thus effectively inhibiting the efflux of PTX from cells. Moreover, in the confocal laser scanning microscopy, cellular uptake and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays, the MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles achieved faster release and more uptake of PTX in Michigan Cancer Foundation-7/PTX cells and showed better antitumor effects as compared with the insensitive control. In conclusion, the biodegradable mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, could be potential vehicles for delivering hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs in MDR cancer therapy. PMID:27785018

  8. Microstructural, thermo-optical, mechanical and tribological behaviours of vacuum heat treated ultra thin SS304 foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palai, Debajyoti; Bhattacharya, Manjima; Basu Mallick, Amitava; Bera, Parthasarathi; Sharma, Anand Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar; Dey, Arjun

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this present study was to evaluate the effect of vacuum (i.e., 10-5 mbar) heat treatment at 300 to 1100 °C on morphological, thermo-optical, mechanical and tribological properties of 75 μm thin SS304 foils. Microstructural, morphological and surface properties of the foils were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), profilometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle (WCA) measurement techniques, respectively. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed to identify the phase of SS304 foils after different heat treatment temperatures. Thermo-optical properties such as solar absorptance (α s), reflectance (ρ s) and IR emittance (ɛ ir) were also evaluated. The nanomechanical properties i.e., nanohardness (H) and Young’s modulus (E) of as-received and heat treated SS304 foils were evaluated by the nanoindentation technique. Tribological and tensile properties i.e., yield strength (σ y) and percentage of elongation of different heat treated foils were also investigated by single pass scratch tests and universal testing machine, respectively. Noteworthy grain growth of SS304 was observed beyond vacuum heat treatment temperature of 700 °C. As a consequence, the magnitudes of both H and E data of SS304 were significantly decreased beyond the vacuum heat treatment temperature of 700 °C. Further, the hardness data followed the well known Hall-Petch relationship. On the other hand, the tribological property of SS304 was significantly deteriorated beyond the vacuum heat treatment temperature of 700 °C. The tensile strength of the foils was also altered after the heat treatment.

  9. Investigating the presence of predatory bacteria on algal bloom samples using a T6SS gene marker.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, J.; Sison-Mangus, M.; Mehic, S.; McMahon, E.

    2015-12-01

    Predation is considered to be a major driving force in evolution and ecology, which has been observed affecting individual organisms, communities, and entire ecosystems. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is an intermembranal protein complex identified in certain bacteria, which appears to have evolved strictly as a mechanism of predation. The effects of bacteria on phytoplankton physiology are still understudied, however, studies have shown that the interactions between bacteria that inhabit the phycosphere of phytoplankton can possibly result in coevolution of native host and microbiota. It is unclear if bacteria can prey upon other bacteria to gain advantages during periods of high phytoplankton density. Here, we investigate the predatory interactions between bacteria and analyze environmental samples for the presence of predatory bacterial genes in an effort to understand bacteria-bacteria and phytoplankton interactions during algal blooms. DNA were extracted from bacterial samples collected weekly from size-fractionated samples using 3.0 um and 0.2 um membrane filters at the Santa Cruz wharf. PCR amplification and gel visualization for the presence of T6SS gene was carried out on bloom and non-bloom samples. Moreover, we carried out a lab- based experiment to observe bacteria-bacteria interaction that may hint for the presence of predatory behavior between bacterial taxa. We observed what appeared to be a predatory biofilm formation between certain bacterial species. These bacteria, however, did not contain the T6SS genes. On the contrary the T6SS gene was discovered in some of the bloom samples gathered from the Santa Cruz wharf. It is still unclear if the predatory mechanisms facilitate the abundance of certain groups of bacteria that contain the T6SS genes during algal blooms, but our evidence suggest that bacterial predation through T6SS mechanism is present during bloom events.

  10. Computational imaging analysis of fibrin matrices with the inclusion of erythrocytes from homozygous SS blood reveals agglomerated and amorphous structures.

    PubMed

    Averett, Rodney D; Norton, David G; Fan, Natalie K; Platt, Manu O

    2017-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is a single point mutation disease that is known to alter the coagulation system, leading to hypercoagulable plasma conditions. These hypercoagulable conditions can lead to complications in the vasculature, caused by fibrin clots that form undesirably. There is a need to understand the morphology and structure of fibrin clots from patients with sickle cell disease, as this could lead to further discovery of treatments and life-saving therapies. In this work, a computational imaging analysis method is presented to evaluate fibrin agglomeration in the presence of erythrocytes (RBCs) homozygous for the sickle cell mutation (SS). Numerical algorithms were used to determine agglomeration of fibrin fibers within a matrix with SS RBCs to test the hypothesis that fibrin matrices with the inclusion of SS RBCs possess a more agglomerated structure than native fibrin matrices with AA RBCs. The numerical results showed that fibrin structures with SS RBCs displayed an overall higher degree of agglomeration as compared to native fibrin structures. The computational algorithm was also used to evaluate fibrin fiber overlap (aggregation) and anisotropy (orientation) in normal fibrin matrices compared to fibrin matrices polymerized around SS RBCs; however, there was no statistical difference. Ultrasound measurements of stiffness revealed rigid RBCs in the case of samples derived from homozygous SS blood, and densely evolving matrices, when compared to normal fibrin with the inclusion of AA RBCs. An agglomeration model is suggested to quantify the fibrin aggregation/clustering near RBCs for both normal fibrin matrices and for the altered structures. The results of this work are important in the sense that the understanding of aggregation and morphology in fibrin clots with incorporation of RBCs from persons living with sickle cell anemia may elucidate the complexities of comorbidities and other disease complications.

  11. KiSS-1 system and reproduction: comparative aspects and roles in the control of female gonadotropic axis in mammals.

    PubMed

    Roa, Juan; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    In late 2003, inactivating mutations of the G protein-coupled receptor GPR54 were found in patients suffering hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. This observation led to the proposal that this receptor and its putative ligands (kisspeptins, encoded by the KiSS-1 gene) are essential in the control of reproduction; a contention that has been now substantiated by an ever growing number of experimental studies. However, most (if not all) of this work has been carried out in mammals (human, sheep and laboratory rodents). Moreover, characterization of gonadotropin responses to kisspeptin was conducted in males, whereas its actions on the female gonadotropic axis initially received much less attention. Notwithstanding, recent experimental data have unveiled very prominent roles of the KiSS-1 system in the control of key aspects of female reproduction, which include not only the timing puberty onset and its modulation by metabolic factors, but also the dynamic regulation of the gonadotropic axis in adulthood. On the latter, the KiSS-1 neuron has been proposed as key intermediary element for the negative and positive feedback effects of sex steroids on gonadotropin secretion. Moreover, expression of KiSS-1 (mRNA and peptide) and its receptor have been recently reported in the ovary, adding further complexity to the potential actions of this system in the female. In sum, compelling experimental evidence, obtained in mammals, has recently defined the pivotal role of the KiSS-1/GPR54 system in the control of essential aspects of female reproduction, from puberty to ovulation. While characterization of its role in non-mammalian species remains largely unexplored, the presence of GPR54 in GnRH neurons and the changes in its expression during pubertal development, reported recently in fish species, are suggestive of a conserved function of the KiSS-1/GPR54 system in the control of reproduction during evolution.

  12. Toward Understanding the Functional Role of Ss-riok-1, a RIO Protein Kinase-Encoding Gene of Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wang; Lok, James B.; Stoltzfus, Jonathan D.; Gasser, Robin B.; Fang, Fang; Lei, Wei-Qiang; Fang, Rui; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long; Hu, Min

    2014-01-01

    Background Some studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammals have shown that RIO protein kinases (RIOKs) are involved in ribosome biogenesis, cell cycle progression and development. However, there is a paucity of information on their functions in parasitic nematodes. We aimed to investigate the function of RIOK-1 encoding gene from Strongyloides stercoralis, a nematode parasitizing humans and dogs. Methodology/Principal Findings The RIOK-1 protein-encoding gene Ss-riok-1 was characterized from S. stercoralis. The full-length cDNA, gDNA and putative promoter region of Ss-riok-1 were isolated and sequenced. The cDNA comprises 1,828 bp, including a 377 bp 5′-UTR, a 17 bp 3′-UTR and a 1,434 bp ORF encoding a protein of 477 amino acids containing a RIOK-1 signature motif. The genomic sequence of the Ss-riok-1 coding region is 1,636 bp in length and has three exons and two introns. The putative promoter region comprises 4,280 bp and contains conserved promoter elements, including four CAAT boxes, 12 GATA boxes, eight E-boxes (CANNTG) and 38 TATA boxes. The Ss-riok-1 gene is transcribed throughout all developmental stages with the highest transcript abundance in the infective third-stage larva (iL3). Recombinant Ss-RIOK-1 is an active kinase, capable of both phosphorylation and auto-phosphorylation. Patterns of transcriptional reporter expression in transgenic S. stercoralis larvae indicated that Ss-RIOK-1 is expressed in neurons of the head, body and tail as well as in pharynx and hypodermis. Conclusions/Significance The characterization of the molecular and the temporal and spatial expression patterns of the encoding gene provide first clues as to functions of RIOKs in the biological processes of parasitic nematodes. PMID:25101874

  13. Impact of cagPAI and T4SS on the Inflammatory Response of Human Neutrophils to Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Zauco, Norma Angélica; Torres, Javier; Pérez-Figueroa, Gloria Erandi; Álvarez-Arellano, Lourdes; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Gómez, Alejandro; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Maldonado-Bernal, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori contains a pathogenicity island, cagPAI, with genes homologous to components of the type IV secretion system (T4SS) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The T4SS components assemble a structure that transfers CagA protein and peptidoglycan into host epithelial cells, causing the increased release of interleukin 8 (IL8) from the cells. The Toll-like receptors on neutrophils recognize H. pylori, initiating signaling pathways that enhance the activation of NF-κB. However, the roles of cagPAI and T4SS in the inflammatory response of neutrophils are unknown. We evaluated the participation of cagPAI and T4SS in the response of human neutrophils to H. pylori infection. Neutrophils were isolated from the blood of healthy donors and infected with H. pylori cagPAI+, cagPAI–, and cagPAI mutant strains virB4– and virD4–. Whereas cagPAI+ strain 26695 induced the greatest IL8 production, a proinflammatory response, cagPAI– strain 8822 induced the greatest IL10 production, an anti-inflammatory response. In contrast, the virB4– and virD4– mutant strains produced significantly more of the two proinflammatory cytokines IL1β and tumor necrosis factor αthan the cagPAI+ strain 26695. We observed that H. pylori downregulated the expression of TLRs 2 and 5 but upregulated TLR9 expression in a cagPAI and T4SS-independent manner. These results show for the first time that the response of human neutrophils to H. pylori may vary from a pro-inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory response, depending on cagPAI and the integrity of T4SS. PMID:23755130

  14. Ab initio determination of mode coupling in HSSH - The torsional splitting in the first excited S-S stretching state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbst, Eric; Winnewisser, G.; Yamada, K. M. T.; Defrees, D. J.; Mclean, A. D.

    1989-01-01

    A mechanism for the enhanced splitting detected in the millimeter-wave rotational spectra of the first excited S-S stretching state of HSSH (disulfane) has been studied. The mechanism, which involves a potential coupling between the first excited S-S stretching state and excited torsional states, has been investigated in part by the use of ab initio theory. Based on an ab initio potential surface, coupling matrix elements have been calculated, and the amount of splitting has then been estimated by second-order perturbation theory. The result, while not in quantitative agreement with the measured splitting, lends plausibility to the assumed mechanism.

  15. Corrosion Inhibition by Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray leaves extract for 304 SS in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdausi, S.; Kurniawan, F.

    2016-04-01

    The inhibition effect of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray leaves extract on the corrosion phenomena of 304 SS in 1 M HCl has been studied by polarization potentiodynamic. The powder of T. diversifolia was extracted by demineralized water which was cultivated in East Java, Indonesia. The extract was characterized by FTIR spectrophotometer. The presence of T. diversifolia can inhibit the corrosion rate of 304 SS. The efficiency inhibition value of 2 g/L T. diversifolia leaves extract reached up to 77.27% at room temperature.

  16. On-Flow Synthesis of Co-Polymerizable Oligo-Microspheres and Application in ssDNA Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Se Hee; Lee, Jae Ha; Lee, Ho Won; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Jeong, Ok Chan; Ahn, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated droplet-based microfluidic platform for copolymerizable microspheres with acrydite modified DNA probe. The copolymerizable 3-D polyacrylamide microspheres were successfully produced from microcontinuous-flow synthesis with on-channel solidification. DNA copolymerization activity, surface presentation and thermostability were assessed by using fluorescent labeled complementary probe. The binding performance was only visible on the surface area of oligo-microspheres. We show that the resulting oligo-microspheres can be directly integrated into a streamlined microsphere-PCR protocol for amplifying ssDNA. Our microspheres could be utilized as a potential material for ssDNA analysis such as DNA microarray and automatic DNA SELEX process. PMID:27447941

  17. Rapid bioremediation of Alizarin Red S and Quinizarine Green SS dyes using Trichoderma lixii F21 mediated by biosorption and enzymatic processes.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Liyana Amalina; Sathishkumar, Palanivel; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd; Hadibarata, Tony; Ameen, Fuad

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a newly isolated ascomycete fungus Trichoderma lixii F21 was explored to bioremediate the polar [Alizarin Red S (ARS)] and non-polar [Quinizarine Green SS (QGSS)] anthraquinone dyes. The bioremediation of ARS and QGSS by T. lixii F21 was found to be 77.78 and 98.31 %, respectively, via biosorption and enzymatic processes within 7 days of incubation. The maximum biosorption (ARS = 33.7 % and QGSS = 74.7 %) and enzymatic biodegradation (ARS = 44.1 % and QGSS = 23.6 %) were observed at pH 4 and 27 °C in the presence of glucose and yeast extract. The laccase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase produced by T. lixii F21 were involved in the molecular conversions of ARS and QGSS to phenolic and carboxylic acid compounds, without the formation of toxic aromatic amines. This study suggests that T. lixii F21 may be a good candidate for the bioremediation of industrial effluents contaminated with anthraquinone dyes.

  18. Potential of Computer-aided Diagnosis of High Spectral and Spatial (HiSS) MRI in the Classification of Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bhooshan, Neha; Giger, Maryellen; Medved, Milica; Li, Hui; Wood, Abbie; Yuan, Yading; Lan, Li; Marquez, Angelica; Karczmar, Greg; Newstead, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the performance of CADx analysis of pre-contrast HiSS MRI to that of clinical DCE-MRI in the diagnostic classification of breast lesions. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four malignant and seven benign lesions were scanned using 2D HiSS and clinical 4D DCE-MRI protocols. Lesions were automatically segmented. Morphological features were calculated for HiSS whereas both morphological and kinetic features were calculated for DCE-MRI. After stepwise feature selection, Bayesian artificial neural networks merged selected features, and ROC analysis evaluated the performance with leave-one-lesion-out validation. Results: AUC values of 0.92 ± 0.06 and 0.90 ± 0.05 were obtained using CADx on HiSS and DCE-MRI, respectively, in the task of classifying benign and malignant lesions. While we failed to show that the higher HiSS performance was significantly better than DCE-MRI, non-inferiority testing confirmed that HiSS was not worse than DCE-MRI. Conclusion: CADx of HiSS (without contrast) performed similarly to CADx on clinical DCE-MRI; thus, computerized analysis of HiSS may provide sufficient information for diagnostic classification. The results are clinically important for patients in whom contrast agent is contra-indicated. Even in the limited acquisition mode of 2D single slice HiSS, by using quantitative image analysis to extract characteristics from the HiSS images, similar performance levels were obtained as compared to those from current clinical 4D DCE-MRI. As HiSS acquisitions become possible in 3D, CADx methods can also be applied. Since HiSS and DCE-MRI are based on different contrast mechanisms, the use of the two protocols in combination may increase diagnostic accuracy. PMID:24023011

  19. The structure of the XPF-ssDNA complex underscores the distinct roles of the XPF and ERCC1 helix- hairpin-helix domains in ss/ds DNA recognition.

    PubMed

    Das, Devashish; Folkers, Gert E; van Dijk, Marc; Jaspers, Nicolaas G J; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Kaptein, Robert; Boelens, Rolf

    2012-04-04

    Human XPF/ERCC1 is a structure-specific DNA endonuclease that nicks the damaged DNA strand at the 5' end during nucleotide excision repair. We determined the structure of the complex of the C-terminal domain of XPF with 10 nt ssDNA. A positively charged region within the second helix of the first HhH motif contacts the ssDNA phosphate backbone. One guanine base is flipped out of register and positioned in a pocket contacting residues from both HhH motifs of XPF. Comparison to other HhH-containing proteins indicates a one-residue deletion in the second HhH motif of XPF that has altered the hairpin conformation, thereby permitting ssDNA interactions. Previous nuclear magnetic resonance studies showed that ERCC1 in the XPF-ERCC1 heterodimer can bind dsDNA. Combining the two observations gives a model that underscores the asymmetry of the human XPF/ERCC1 heterodimer in binding at an ss/ds DNA junction.

  20. Ectopic Overexpression of SsCBF1, a CRT/DRE-Binding Factor from the Nightshade Plant Solanum lycopersicoides, Confers Freezing and Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lili; Li, Zhenjun; Li, Jingfu; Wang, Aoxue

    2013-01-01

    The C-repeat (CRT)/dehydration-responsive element (DRE) binding factor (CBF/DREB1) transcription factors play a key role in cold response. However, the detailed roles of many plant CBFs are far from fully understood. A CBF gene (SsCBF1) was isolated from the cold-hardy plant Solanum lycopersicoides. A subcellular localization study using GFP fusion protein indicated that SsCBF1 is localized in the nucleus. We delimited the SsCBF1 transcriptional activation domain to the C-terminal segment comprising amino acid residues 193–228 (SsCBF1193–228). The expression of SsCBF1 could be dramatically induced by cold, drought and high salinity. Transactivation assays in tobacco leaves revealed that SsCBF1 could specifically bind to the CRT cis-elements in vivo to activate the expression of downstream reporter genes. The ectopic overexpression of SsCBF1 conferred increased freezing and high-salinity tolerance and late flowering phenotype to transgenic Arabidopsis. RNA-sequencing data exhibited that a set of cold and salt stress responsive genes were up-regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that SsCBF1 behaves as a typical CBF to contribute to plant freezing tolerance. Increased resistance to high-salinity and late flowering phenotype derived from SsCBF1 OE lines lend more credence to the hypothesis that plant CBFs participate in diverse physiological and biochemical processes related to adverse conditions. PMID:23755095

  1. Periodicity Analysis of X-ray Light Curves of SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. Y.; Lu, X. L.; Zhao, Q. W.; Dong, D. Q.; Lao, B. Q.; Lu, Y.; Wei, Y. H.; Wu, X. C.; An, T.

    2016-03-01

    SS 433 is the only X-ray binary to date that was detected to have a pair of well-collimated jets, and its orbital period, super orbital period, and nutation period were all detected at the same time. The study on the periodic X-ray variabilities is helpful for understanding its dynamic process of the central engine and the correlation with other bands. In the present paper, two time series analysis techniques, Lomb-Scargle periodogram and weighted wavelet Z-transform, are employed to search for the periodicities from the Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope)(15--50 keV) and RXTE/ASM (Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer/All-Sky Monitor)(1.5--3, 3--5 and 5--12 keV) light curves of SS 433, and the Monte Carlo simulation is performed. For the 15--50 keV energy band, five significant periodic signals are detected, which are P_1(˜6.29 d), P_2 (˜6.54 d), P_3 (˜13.08 d), P_4 (˜81.50 d), and P_5 (˜162.30 d). For the 3--5 and 5--12 keV energy bands, periodic signals P_3 (˜13 d) and P_5 (˜162 d) are detected in both energy bands. However, for the 1.5--3 keV energy band, no significant periodic signal is detected. P_5 has the strongest periodic signal in the power spectrum for all the energy bands of 3--5, 5--12, and 15--50 keV, and it is consistent with that obtained by previous study in optical band. Further, due to the existence of relativistic radio jets, the X-ray and optical band variability of P_5 (˜162 d) is probably related to the precession of the relativistic jets. High coherence between X-ray and optical light curves may also imply that the X-ray and optical emissions are of the same physical origin. P_3 shows a good agreement with the orbital period (˜13.07 d) first obtained by previous study, and P_2 and P_4 are the high frequency harmonic components of P_3 and P_5, respectively. P_1 is detected from the power spectrum of 15--50 keV energy band only, and it is consistent with the systematic nutation period. As the power of energy band decreases (from hard X-ray to

  2. Dynamic rockfall risk assessment along the SS113 coastal road (Northern Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrolembo, V. Brunella; Penna, Ivanna; Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls are natural hazards that usually affect only small areas. However, due to the big amount of material that can be moved and the associated kinetic energy they can cost serious damages to infrastructures and people. Even fairly small rockfall fragments are a significant hazard if deposited on a highway or along a rail-road track since they are not easily detected and can cause accidents or derailments. Rockfalls can also cause the closure of streets resulting in long term indirect economic losses due to transportation delays as well as to the impact on the commercial and tourist activities. In letterature there are numerous examples of rockfall risk assessments along transportation corridors, most of them are based on the use of standard risk estimation methods. The latters are static approaches founded on a macroscopic view of road traffic, assumed as uniform in space and time, thus characterized by average values of parameters. Lately, a new dynamic approach has been developed within the 'risk analysis group' at the University of Lausanne (Voumard, 2013). It consists of a kinematic interpretation of road traffic where vehicles are parametrized as single entities with different characteristics, speed, dimensions and behaviour. We apply this new approach to estimate the dynamic risk due to rockfall occurrence on the SS113 national road running along the northern coast of Sicily. In this work we focus our attention on a ≈10 km section along which the SS113 road and a railway connect all the costal villages going through very steep cliffs and very close to the sea with evident problems of erosion and maintenance. The area is a tourist destination and many hotels and facilities are found along the road. Moreover the area was already hit in the past by numerous rockfalls resulting in the closure of the road for periods running from a few days up to a few years with big direct and indirect damages to the local socio-economic activities. In order to achieve a

  3. Highlights from the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength or FAMuSS Study

    PubMed Central

    Pescatello, Linda S.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Hubal, Monica J.; Thompson, Paul D.; Hoffman, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength study or FAMuSS was to identify genetic factors that dictated the response of health-related fitness phenotypes to resistance exercise training (RT). The phenotypes examined were baseline muscle strength and muscle, fat, and bone volume and their response to RT. FAMuSS participants were 1300 young (24 years), healthy men (42%) and women (58%) that were primarily of European-American descent. They were genotyped for ~500 polymorphisms and completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess energy expenditure and time spent in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity habitual physical activity and sitting. Subjects then performed a 12-week progressive, unilateral RT program of the nondominant arm with the dominant arm used as a comparison. Before and after RT, muscle strength was measured with the maximum voluntary contraction and one repetition maximum, while MRI measured muscle, fat, and bone volume. We will discuss the history of how FAMuSS originated, provide a brief overview of the FAMuSS methods, and summarize our major findings regarding genotype associations with muscle strength and size, body composition, cardiometabolic biomarkers, and physical activity. PMID:24455711

  4. Efficient Generation of Orthologous Point Mutations in Pigs via CRISPR-assisted ssODN-mediated Homology-directed Repair

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kankan; Tang, Xiaochun; Liu, Yan; Xie, Zicong; Zou, Xiaodong; Li, Mengjing; Yuan, Hongming; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Jiao, Huping; Pang, Daxin

    2016-01-01

    Precise genome editing in livestock is of great value for the fundamental investigation of disease modeling. However, genetically modified pigs carrying subtle point mutations were still seldom reported despite the rapid development of programmable endonucleases. Here, we attempt to investigate single-stranded oligonucleotides (ssODN) mediated knockin by introducing two orthologous pathogenic mutations, p.E693G for Alzheimer's disease and p.G2019S for Parkinson's disease, into porcine APP and LRRK2 loci, respectively. Desirable homology-directed repair (HDR) efficiency was achieved in porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs) by optimizing the dosage and length of ssODN templates. Interestingly, incomplete HDR alleles harboring partial point mutations were observed in single-cell colonies, which indicate the complex mechanism of ssODN-mediated HDR. The effect of mutation-to-cut distance on incorporation rate was further analyzed by deep sequencing. We demonstrated that a mutation-to-cut distance of 11 bp resulted in a remarkable difference in HDR efficiency between two point mutations. Finally, we successfully obtained one cloned piglet harboring the orthologous p.C313Y mutation at the MSTN locus via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Our proof-of-concept study demonstrated efficient ssODN-mediated incorporation of pathogenic point mutations in porcine somatic cells, thus facilitating further development of disease modeling and genetic breeding in pigs. PMID:27898095

  5. Voyage on the SS "School Library Leadership": Collaboration in Teaching and Learning at the University of Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Judith L.; Ballard, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the SS "School Library Leadership" maiden voyage, which departed from the University of Vermont (UVM) during the 2010 fall semester. Twelve intrepid sailors followed their sense of adventure into uncharted waters with cocaptains Judy Kaplan and Susan Ballard in an online collaboration that provided a powerful…

  6. Weighted ssGBLUP improves genomic selection accuracy for bacterial cold water disease resistance in a rainbow trout population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare methods for genomic evaluation in a Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population for survival when challenged by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD). The used methods were: 1)regular ssGBLUP that assume...

  7. Determination of the elastic properties of short ssDNA molecules by mechanically folding and unfolding DNA hairpins.

    PubMed

    Alemany, Anna; Ritort, Felix

    2014-12-01

    The characterization of elastic properties of biopolymers is crucial to understand many molecular reactions determined by conformational bending fluctuations of the polymer. Direct measurement of such elastic properties using single-molecule methods is usually hindered by the intrinsic tendency of such biopolymers to form high-order molecular structures. For example, single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acids (ssDNA) tend to form secondary structures such as local double helices that prevent the direct measurement of the ideal elastic response of the ssDNA. In this work, we show how to extract the ideal elastic response in the entropic regime of short ssDNA molecules by mechanically pulling two-state DNA hairpins of different contour lengths. This is achieved by measuring the force dependence of the molecular extension and stiffness on mechanically folding and unfolding the DNA hairpin. Both quantities are fit to the worm-like chain elastic model giving values for the persistence length and the interphosphate distance. This method can be used to unravel the elastic properties of short ssDNA and RNA sequences and, more generally, any biopolymer that can exhibit a cooperative two-state transition between mechanically folded and unfolded states (such as proteins).

  8. Chimeric advanced drug delivery nano systems (chi-aDDnSs) for shikonin combining dendritic and liposomal technology.

    PubMed

    Kontogiannopoulos, Konstantinos N; Assimopoulou, Andreana N; Hatziantoniou, Sophia; Karatasos, Kostas; Demetzos, Costas; Papageorgiou, Vassilios P

    2012-01-17

    The interest of drug delivery has focused on the creation of new formulations with improved properties, taking much attention to the drug release from the carrier. Liposomes have already been commercialized, while dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers are emerging as potentially ideal drug delivery vehicles. Chimeric advanced drug delivery nano systems (chi-aDDnSs) are mixed nanosystems combining different biomaterials that can offer advantages as drug carriers. Alkannin and shikonin (A/S) are naturally occurring hydroxynaphthoquinones with a well-established spectrum of wound healing, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and recently established antitumor activity. In this work three generations of hyperbranched aliphatic polyesters were used for the first time to form complexes with shikonin, as well as liposomal chi-aDDnSs. Characterization of the shikonin-loaded chi-aDDnSs was performed by measuring their particle size distribution, ζ-potential, drug encapsulation efficiency and the in vitro release profile. The analysis revealed sufficient drug encapsulation and appropriately featured release profiles. Chi-aDDnSs were also examined for their physical stability at 4°C. The results are considered promising and could be used as a road map for designing in vivo experiments.

  9. Complete genome sequence of SS52, a strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 recovered from supershedder cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 cause foodborne infections and cattle are the primary reservoir. Some animals, known as supershedders, excrete orders of magnitude more E. coli O157:H7 in the feces than normal. We here report the complete genome sequence of the SS52 supershedder stra...

  10. Thermal Analysis of Compressible CO2 Flow for PFE TeSS Nozzle of Fire Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Y. Michael; Lee, Wen-Chin; Keener, John F.; Smith, F. D.

    2002-01-01

    A thermal analysis of the compressible CO2 flow for the Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) system has been performed. A SINDA/FLUINT model has been developed for this analysis. The model includes the PFE tank and the TeSS nozzle, and both have initial temperature of 72 F. In order to investigate the thermal effect on the nozzle due to discharging CO2, the PFE TeSS nozzle pipe has been divided into three segments. This model also includes heat transfer predictions for PFE tank inner and outer wall surfaces. The simulation results show that the CO2 discharge rates have fulfilled the minimum flow requirements that the PFE system discharges 3.0 Ibm CO2 in 10 seconds and 5.5 Ibm of CO2 in 45 seconds during its operation. At 45 seconds, the PFE tank wall temperature is 63 F, and the TeSS nozzle cover wall temperatures for the three segments are 47 F, 53 F and 37 F, respectively. Thermal insulation for personal protection is used for the first two segments of the TeSS nozzle. The simulation results also indicate that at 50 seconds, the remaining CO2 in the tank may be near the triple point (gas, liquid and solid) state and, therefore, restricts the flow.

  11. [Story of three SS dentists during World War II: Pr Hugo Blaschke, Dr Hermann Pook and Dr Willy Frank].

    PubMed

    Riaud, Xavier

    2006-12-01

    This story of three SS dentists shows very clearly that the medical code of ethics, under a totalitarian regime, ends where ideology begins. Professor Hugo Blaschke provided dental care to the most eminent Nazi leaders, but he also was the senior SS dentist. He was in charge of dental care in the Waffen-SS, and therefore, he had responsibility for the stocks of dental gold collected from the mouths of those who died in the concentration camps, in order to make dentures for his soldiers. Dr Hermann Pook was the dentist in charge of all the other dentists practising in the concentration camps. He was responsible for gathering statistics on the dental care provided for prisoners in the camps. His instructions were very clear: "No conservation or restorative treatment. Only extractions, and with no anaesthesia!" He was also in charge of gathering the gold that was collected in the camps, for the financial department of the SS. Dr Willy Frank, an Auschwitz dentist, took part in the selection of some of the convoys for the gas chambers. His participation in the collection of gold from the mouths of the dead was also established. These three men were sentenced to prison for War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity.

  12. SS316 structure fabricated by selective laser melting and integrated with strain isolated optical fiber high temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Jinesh; Havermann, Dirk; Polyzos, Dimitrios; MacPherson, William N.; Hand, Duncan P.; Maier, Robert R. J.

    2015-09-01

    Smart metal having integrated high temperature sensing capability is reported. The SS316 structure is made by additive layer manufacturing via selective laser melting (SLM). Sensor component is embedded in to the structure during the SLM build process. The strain isolated in-fiber Fabry-Perot cavity sensor measures temperature up to 1100 °C inside the metal.

  13. Electrochemical and in vitro bioactivity of polypyrrole/ceramic nanocomposite coatings on 316L SS bio-implants.

    PubMed

    Madhan Kumar, A; Nagarajan, S; Ramakrishna, Suresh; Sudhagar, P; Kang, Yong Soo; Kim, Hyongbum; Gasem, Zuhair M; Rajendran, N

    2014-10-01

    The present investigation describes the versatile fabrication and characterization of a novel composite coating that consists of polypyrrole (PPy) and Nb2O5 nanoparticles. Integration of the two materials is achieved by electrochemical deposition on 316L stainless steel (SS) from an aqueous solution of oxalic acid containing pyrrole and Nb2O5 nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectral (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the existence of Nb2O5 nanoparticles in PPy matrix with hexagonal structure. Surface morphological analysis showed that the presence of Nb2O5 nanoparticles strongly influenced the surface nature of the nanocomposite coated 316L SS. Micro hardness results revealed the enhanced mechanical properties of PPy nanocomposite coated 316L SS due to the addition of Nb2O5 nanoparticles. The electrochemical studies were carried out using cyclic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. In order to evaluate the biocompatibility, contact angle measurements and in vitro characterization were performed in simulated body fluid (SBF) and on MG63 osteoblast cells. The results showed that the nanocomposite coatings exhibit superior biocompatibility and enhanced corrosion protection performance over 316L SS than pure PPy coatings.

  14. Polymorphisms rs12998 and rs5780218 in KiSS1 Suppressor Metastasis Gene in Mexican Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cruz Quevedo, Edhit Guadalupe; Mimendi Aguilar, Gabriela Monserrat; Juárez Aguilar, Luis Anselmo; Gutierrez Rubio, Susan Andrea; Flores Martínez, Silvia Esperanza; Dávalos Rodríguez, Ingrid Patricia; Sánchez Corona, José; Torres Morán, Martha Isabel; Rosales Gómez, Roberto Carlos; Morán Moguel, María Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Aims. KiSS1 is a metastasis suppressor gene associated with inhibition of cellular chemotaxis and invasion attenuating the metastasis in melanoma and breast cancer cell lines. Along the KiSS-1 gene at least 294 SNPs have been described; however the association of these polymorphisms as genetic markers for metastasis in breast cancer studies has not been investigated. Here we describe two simple PCR-RFLPs protocols to identify the rs5780218 (9DelT) and the rs12998 (E20K) KiSS1 polymorphisms and the allelic, genotypic, and haplotypic frequencies in Mexican general population (GP) and patients with benign breast disease (BBD) or breast cancer (BC). Results. The rs5780218 polymorphism was individually associated with breast cancer (P = 0.0332) and the rs12998 polymorphism shows statistically significant differences when GP versus case (BC and BBD) groups were compared (P < 0.0001). The H1 Haplotype (G/-) occurred more frequently in BC group (0.4256) whereas H2 haplotype (G/T) was the most prevalent in BBD group (0.4674). Conclusions. Our data indicated that the rs5780218 polymorphism individually confers susceptibility for development of breast cancer in Mexican population and a possible role as a genetic marker in breast cancer metastasis for H1 haplotype (Wt/variant) in KiSS1 gene must be analyzed in other populations. PMID:25810563

  15. Effects of Heat Treatments on Microstructure Changes in The Interface of Cu/SS316L Joint Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Q.; Yoshiie, T.; Edwards, Danny J.

    2000-09-01

    In both joints iron and chromium diffused from the stainless steel into the copper alloy, producing a narrow zone of about a 15 ?m containing FeCr precipitates and small voids. Failure in some bending tests occurred by a crack propagating through this zone in a direction parallel to the interface, indicating that the formation of these precipitates may not be conducive to good joint properties. The results of annealing experiments showed that temperatures # 673 K did not change the initial microstructure or composition of CuAl25/SS316L and CuNiBe/SS316L joints. Although there are no data from annealing experiments longer than 100 hours, it is expected that the microstructure and composition of CuAl25/SS316L and CuNiBe/SS316L are stable under the thermal operating conditions of fusion reactors. However, irradiation may lead to significant changes because of radiation-enhanced segregation, precipitation or dissolution near and at the interface that could alter the properties. In addition, the preexisting voids near the interface of the joints may coarsen under irradiation and enhance the sensitivity of joints to failure. Given the uncertainties in the response to irradiation, neutron irradiation experiments should be performed at appropriate temperatures to investigate the response of the different materials.

  16. SUBARU AND GEMINI OBSERVATIONS OF SS 433: NEW CONSTRAINT ON THE MASS OF THE COMPACT OBJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, K.; Ueda, Y.; Fabrika, S.; Barsukova, E. A.; Sholukhova, O.; Medvedev, A.; Goranskij, V. P.

    2010-02-01

    We present results of optical spectroscopic observations of the mass donor star in SS 433 with Subaru and Gemini, with an aim to best constrain the mass of the compact object. Subaru/Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph observations were performed on four nights of 2007 October 6-8 and 10, covering the orbital phase of phi = 0.96 - 0.26. We first calculate the cross-correlation function (CCF) of these spectra with that of the reference star HD 9233 in the wavelength range of 4740-4840 A. This region is selected to avoid 'strong' absorption lines accompanied with contaminating emission components, which most probably originate from the surroundings of the donor star, such as the wind and gas stream. The same analysis is applied to archive data of Gemini/GMOS taken at phi = 0.84 - 0.30 by Hillwig and Gies. From the Subaru and Gemini CCF results, the amplitude of the radial velocity curve of the donor star is determined to be 58.3 +- 3.8 km s{sup -1} with a systemic velocity of 59.2 +- 2.5 km s{sup -1}. Together with the radial velocity curve of the compact object, we derive the mass of the donor star and compact object to be M{sub O} = 12.4 +- 1.9 M{sub sun} and M{sub X} = 4.3 +- 0.6 M{sub sun}, respectively. We conclude, however, that these values should be taken as upper limits. From the analysis of the averaged absorption line profiles of strong lines (mostly ions) and weak lines (mostly neutrals) observed with Subaru, we find evidence for heating effects from the compact object. Using a simple model, we find that the true radial velocity amplitude of the donor star could be as low as 40 +- 5 km s{sup -1} in order to produce the observed absorption-line profiles. Taking into account the heating of the donor star may lower the derived masses to M{sub O} = 10.4{sup +2.3}{sub -1.9} M{sub sun} and M{sub X} = 2.5{sup +0.7}{sub -0.6} M{sub sun}. Our final constraint, 1.9 M{sub sun} <=M{sub X}<= 4.9 M{sub sun}, indicates that the compact object in SS 433 is most likely a

  17. Activity of Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing status of insecticide resistant mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa is a threatening alert to the existing control efforts. All sibling species of An. gambiae complex have evolved insecticide resistance in wild populations for different approved classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. An alternative compound for vector control is absolutely urgently needed. In this study, the larvicidal activity and chemical composition of the Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oils were investigated. Methods C. osmophloeum leaf essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 6 hours, and their chemical compositions identified using GC-MS. These oils were evaluated against An. gambiae s.s. in both laboratory and semi-field situations. The WHO test procedures for monitoring larvicidal efficacy in malaria vectors were used. Results The composition of C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil has been found to have 11 active compounds. The most abundant compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde (70.20%) and the least abundant was caryophyllene oxide (0.08%). The larvicidal activity was found to be dosage and time dependant both in laboratory and semi-field environments with mortality ranging from 0% to 100%. The LC50 value was found to vary from 22.18 to 58.15 μg/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it was 11.91 to 63.63 μg/ml. The LC90 value was found to range between 57.71 to 91.54 μg/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments was 52.07 to 173.77 μg/ml. Mortality ranged from 13% to 100% in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it ranged between 43% to 100% within mortality recording time intervals of 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Conclusions The larvicidal activity shown by C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil is a promising alternative to existing larvicides or to be incorporated in integrated larval source management compounds for An. gambiae s.s control. The efficacy

  18. Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatni, M. Rameez; Yao, Junjie; Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    pH is a tightly regulated indicator of metabolic activity. In mammalian systems, imbalance of pH regulation may result from or result in serious illness. Even though the regulation system of pH is very robust, tissue pH can be altered in many diseases such as cancer, osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus. Traditional high-resolution optical imaging techniques, such as confocal microscopy, routinely image pH in cells and tissues using pH sensitive fluorescent dyes, which change their fluorescence properties with the surrounding pH. Since strong optical scattering in biological tissue blurs images at greater depths, high-resolution pH imaging is limited to penetration depths of 1mm. Here, we report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of commercially available pH-sensitive fluorescent dye in tissue phantoms. Using both opticalresolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), and acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy (AR-PAM), we explored the possibility of recovering the pH values in tissue phantoms. In this paper, we demonstrate that PAM was capable of recovering pH values up to a depth of 2 mm, greater than possible with other forms of optical microscopy.

  19. KiSS1/GPR54 and estrogen-related gene expression profiles in primary breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kozłowski, Leszek; Milewski, Robert; Wołczyński, Sławomir

    2012-01-01

    The estrogen receptor α (ERα)-mediated pathway plays a critical role in breast cancer development and progression. KiSS1 was previously described as a metastasis suppressor gene in certain carcinomas. However, the role of KiSS1/GPR54 in breast cancer remains controversial. Whether the function of the KiSS1/GPR54 system depends on estrogen signaling in the breast cancer cell remains to be determined. This study aimed to determine the expression profiles of the KiSS1/GPR54, ERα, ERβ, aromatase and cyclin D1 genes in human breast cancer tissues, and to identify a possible link between the expression levels of the studied genes and the selected clinical and pathological features. The study subjects comprised 59 females treated surgically for primary breast cancer. Total RNA was extracted from frozen breast cancer tissues, and expression levels were examined to determine any correlations. We observed strong positive correlations between the expression levels of the studied genes. The expression of ERα correlated positively with progesterone receptors (PRs), and in these tumors we also observed positive correlations between KiSS1, GPR54 and cyclin D1 mRNAs and the ERα protein. ER-positive breast tumors exhibited higher KiSS1 and GPR54 levels than the ER-negative tumors. The expression levels of the ERα and GPR54 transcripts were higher in the moderately differentiated tumors (G2) compared to the poorly differentiated high-grade (G3) cancers. We also found that HER-2/neu status in breast cancer is negatively associated with GPR54 mRNA expression. Decreasing GPR54 mRNA expression levels in HER-2/neu (+) tumors may be associated with the deregulation of the classical estrogen-mediated signaling pathway in breast tumors, and therefore, with promotion of tumor invasiveness. Our findings indicate that genes involved in the KiSS1/GPR54 system, as well as in the estrogen signaling pathway, may be utilizable molecular factors in pathogenesis studies of breast cancer. PMID

  20. On the Nature of the Compact Object in SS 433. Observational Evidence of X-Ray Photon Index Saturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seifina, Elena; Titarchuk, Lev

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray spectral properties observed from black hole , candidate (BHC) binary SS 433. We have analyzed Rossi X-ray Time Explorer (RXTE) data from this source, coordinated with Green Bank Interferometer/RATAN-600. We show that SS 433 undergoes a X-ray spectral transition from the low hard state (LHS) to the intermediate state (IS). We show that the X-ray broad-band energy spectra during all spectral states are well fit by a sum of so called "Bulk Motion Comptonization (BMC) component" and by two (broad and narrow) Gaussians for the continuum and line emissions respectively. In addition to these spectral model components we also find a strong feature that we identify as a" blackbody-like (BB)" component which color temperature is in the range of 4-5 keV in 24 IS spectra during the radio outburst decay in SS 433. Our observational results on the "high temperature BB" bump leads us to suggest the presence of gravitationally redshifted annihilation line emission in this source. In fact this spectral feature has been recently reproduced in Monte Carlo simulations by Laurent and Titarchuk. We have also established the photon index saturation at about 2.3 in index vs mass accretion correlation. This index-mass accretion correlation allows us to evaluate the low limit of black hole (BH) mass of compact object in SS 433, M(sub bh) approximately > 2 solar masses, using the scaling method using BHC GX 339-4 as a reference source. Our estimate of the BH mass in SS 433 is consistent with recent BH mass measurement using the radial-velocity measurements of the binary system by Hillwig & Gies who find that M(sub x)( = (4.3 +/- 0.8) solar masses. This is the smallest BH mass found up to now among all BH sources. Moreover, the index saturation effect versus mass accretion rate revealed in SS 433, like in a number of other BH candidates, is the strong observational evidence for the presence of a BH in SS 433.

  1. ssRNA viruses from biotrophic Oomycetes form a new phylogenetic group between Nodaviridae and Tombusviridae.

    PubMed

    Grasse, Wolfgang; Spring, Otmar

    2017-02-02

    Plasmopara halstedii virus (PhV) is one of the few characterized oomycete viruses. Although it is fully sequenced and well-studied in its genetic diversity, the exact classification and phylogenetic relationships of PhV remain uncertain. The only known virus with characteristics similar to PhV is the Sclerophthora macrospora Virus A (SmV-A). Both viruses infect obligate biotrophic oomycetes. While RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) of oomycetes viruses have high similarity to the corresponding enzymes from viruses classified in the family Nodaviridae, the coat proteins (CP) seem to be completely different from those of other viruses of this family. In contrast, the coat proteins of PhV and SmV-A have high similarity to viruses classified in the Tombusviridae, Circoviridae and a new group of hybrid DNA-RNA viruses (so-called chimeric viruses or cruciviruses). Because phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of either RdRp or CP result in different affinities, an alternative, genome-based approach combining the sequences of both proteins was used. This analysis placed the two oomycete viruses together with Tombunodavirus UC1 in a new, independent group between families Nodaviridae and Tombusviridae.

  2. Overexpression of KiSS-1 reduces colorectal cancer cell invasion by downregulating MMP-9 via blocking PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqin; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xiang; Lin, Suyong; Chen, Zhihua

    2016-04-01

    Metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) depends critically on MMP-9. KiSS-1 is a human malignant melanoma metastasis-suppressor gene. Thus, the interaction between MMP-9 and KiSS-1 has drawn considerable attention in recent years. In the present study, it was hypothesized that KiSS-1 gene could repress the metastatic potential of colorectal cancer cells by inhibiting the expression of MMP-9. Stable transfection of KiSS-1 specific siRNA and KiSS-1 expression vector in human CRC cell line HCT-116 was achieved by lentivirus infection. Moreover, the cell proliferation, invasiveness, and apoptosis were evaluated by CCK-8 method, transwell experiment, and fluorescence activated cell sorter, respectively. We also investigated the expression of MMP-9, PI3K, Akt, pAKt, and NF-кB subunit p65 using western blotting. KiSS-1 overexpression significantly decreased the cell proliferation and invasiveness of HCT-119 cells, while apoptosis was enhanced. The result of western blotting showed that synthesis of MMP-9, PI3K, p65, and phosphorylation of Akt were significantly blocked by overexpression of KiSS-1. Concatenated treatment of KiSS-1 overexpression vector with PI3K and Akt agonists attenuated the effect of KiSS-1 on the biological activity of CRC cells and also released the expression of MMP-9, PI3K, p65, and phosphorylation of Akt from the influence of overexpression of KiSS-1. Overexpression of KiSS-1 suppressed the invasiveness of CRC cells, and the gene exerted its function by reducing the expression of MMP-9 via blocking of tge PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of KiSS-1 gene expression in metastatic melanoma by specificity protein-1 and its coactivator DRIP-130.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D C; Stafford, L J; Li, D; Bar-Eli, M; Liu, M

    2007-03-15

    Loss of the metastasis suppressor gene, KiSS-1 has been strongly correlated to the progression of metastases in numerous types of cancers. The mechanism through which KiSS-1 is lost during metastasis, however, is still not completely known. Previous studies have shown that genetic material on human chromosome 6q16.3-q23 is essential for KiSS-1 expression in normal tissues. Additionally, microcell-mediated transfer of this chromosome in cancerous tissue results in rescued expression of KiSS-1 and reduced metastatic phenotype. Here, we show that loss of Sp1-coactivator protein DRIP-130, which is encoded by human chromosome 6q16.3-q23, results in reduced KiSS-1 promoter activation in highly malignant melanoma cells. Co-expression of Sp1 and DRIP-130 not only rescues KiSS-1 expression, but also induces an inhibition of the invasive and migratory behavior in highly metastatic melanoma cells, similar to the overexpression of KiSS-1 metastasis suppressor gene in those cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that KiSS-1 expression is regulated by Sp1 elements within the first 100-bp region of the KiSS-1 promoter and that targeted deletion of a single GC-rich region spanning -93 to -58 interrupts Sp1- and DRIP-130-modulated transcriptional control of KiSS-1 expression. Our results thus suggest that DRIP-130 is a key regulator in KiSS-1 transactivation in normal tissue, and that the loss of DRIP-130 expression, as a result of the gross loss of human chromosome 6q16.3-q23, provokes increased tumor metastasis.

  4. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding the 60-kD component of the human SS-A/Ro ribonucleoprotein autoantigen.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Chetrit, E; Gandy, B J; Tan, E M; Sullivan, K F

    1989-01-01

    SS-A/Ro is a nucleocytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particle that is a common target of autoimmune response in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Previously, SS-A/Ro has been shown to be composed of at least two polypeptide antigens of 60 and 52 kD noncovalently associated with a set of small RNAs, designated Y1-Y5. A serum from an SS patient was selected to screen a lambda gt11 cDNA library constructed from human T cell lymphoblastic leukemia (MOLT-4) mRNA. An immunoreactive clone was isolated that possessed a 1.8-kb cDNA insert. In vitro transcription and translation of the cDNA resulted in the synthesis of a 57.5-kD polypeptide which was specifically immunoprecipitated by SS-A/Ro antisera. The identity of the cDNA encoded protein as the 60-kD SS-A/Ro antigen was established by proteolytic peptide mapping of the cDNA-encoded protein and the 60-kD HeLa cell antigen. The sequence of the cDNA shows that the 60-kD SS-A/Ro protein possesses both RNA binding protein consensus sequences and a single zinc-finger motif. Recombinant SS-A/Ro antigen produced in bacteria proved to be a sensitive and specific reagent for detection of anti-SS-A/Ro antibodies in patient sera. The availability of the 60-kD SS-A/Ro cDNA will enable detailed analysis of the molecular structure and function of the SS-A/Ro RNP particle and its role in autoimmune pathology. Images PMID:2649513

  5. Highlights on Novel Technologies for the Detection of Antibodies to Ro60, Ro52, and SS-B

    PubMed Central

    Infantino, M.; Bentow, C.; Seaman, A.; Benucci, M.; Atzeni, F.; Sarzi-Puttini, P.; Olivito, B.; Meacci, F.; Manfredi, M.; Mahler, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to compare a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CIA, QUANTA Flash) on BIO-FLASH with a multiplex flow immunoassay (MFI) on BioPlex 2200 for the detection of antibodies to Ro60, Ro52, and SS-B. Methods. The study included 241 samples, from patients suffering from systemic autoimmune diseases (n = 108) as well as disease controls (n = 133). All samples were tested for anti-Ro52, anti-Ro60, and anti-SS-B (La) antibodies on QUANTA Flash (INOVA Diagnostics, San Diego, USA) and BioPlex 2200 (Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc., Hercules, USA). Discrepant samples were tested by two independent methods: BlueDot/ANA and QUANTRIX Microarray (both D-tek, Belgium). Results. The overall qualitative agreements were 95.4% (95% confidence interval, CI 92.0–97.7%) for anti-Ro52, 98.8% (95% CI 96.4–99.7%) for anti-Ro60, and 91.7% (95% CI 87.5–94.9%) for anti-SS-B antibodies. There were 34 discrepant samples among all assays (20 anti-SS-B, 11 anti-Ro52, 3 anti-Ro60). 30/33 of retested samples (by D-tek dot blot) agreed with the QUANTA Flash results. Similar findings were obtained with QUANTRIX Microarray kit. Conclusion. QUANTA Flash and BioPlex 2200 show good qualitative agreement. The clinical performances were similar for anti-Ro52 and anti-Ro60 autoantibodies while differences were observed for anti-SS-B (La) antibodies. PMID:24376466

  6. Increased litter size and suckling intensity inhibit KiSS-1 mRNA expression in rat arcuate nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Atefeh; Shirazi, Mohammad Reza Jafarzadeh; Zamiri, Mohammad Javad; Tamadon, Amin; Akhlaghi, Amir; Tanideh, Nader; Niazi, Ali; Moghadam, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): The effect of litter size and suckling intensity on the expression of KiSS-1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of rats were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Thirty two pregnant and four non-lactating ovariectomized (as control group) rats were used in this experiment. Lactating rats were allotted to eight equal groups. In three groups, litter size was adjusted to 5, 10, or 15 pups upon parturition and allowed to suckle their pups continuously by 8 days postpartum. In the other three groups, litter size was adjusted to five upon birth; the pups were separated from the dams for 6 hr on day 8 postpartum, after which the pups were allowed to suckle their dams for 2.5, 5, or 7.5 min prior to killing the dams. Two groups of lactating rats with either 10 or 15 pups were separated from their pups for 6 hr on day 8 postpartum, after which the pups were allowed to suckle their dams for 5 min before the dams were killed on day 8 postpartum. The ARC was removed and the expression of KiSS-1 mRNA was evaluated, using real-time PCR. Results: The expression of KiSS-1 mRNA in the ARC was decreased as the litter size and intensity of suckling stimulus were increased. The effect of suckling intensity on the expression of KiSS-1 mRNA was more pronounced than that of litter size. Conclusion: Increased litter size and suckling intensity decreased KiSS-1 mRNA expression in the ARC which may contribute to lactation anestrus in rat. PMID:25422754

  7. Rhizobium-legume symbiosis in the absence of Nod factors: two possible scenarios with or without the T3SS.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Shin; Tittabutr, Panlada; Teulet, Albin; Thouin, Julien; Fardoux, Joël; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Gully, Djamel; Arrighi, Jean-François; Furuta, Noriyuki; Miwa, Hiroki; Yasuda, Michiko; Nouwen, Nico; Teaumroong, Neung; Giraud, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of alternative Nod factor (NF)-independent symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia was first demonstrated in some Aeschynomene species that are nodulated by photosynthetic bradyrhizobia lacking the canonical nodABC genes. In this study, we revealed that a large diversity of non-photosynthetic bradyrhizobia, including B. elkanii, was also able to induce nodules on the NF-independent Aeschynomene species, A. indica. Using cytological analysis of the nodules and the nitrogenase enzyme activity as markers, a gradient in the symbiotic interaction between bradyrhizobial strains and A. indica could be distinguished. This ranged from strains that induced nodules that were only infected intercellularly to rhizobial strains that formed nodules in which the host cells were invaded intracellularly and that displayed a weak nitrogenase activity. In all non-photosynthetic bradyrhizobia, the type III secretion system (T3SS) appears required to trigger nodule organogenesis. In contrast, genome sequence analysis revealed that apart from a few exceptions, like the Bradyrhizobium ORS285 strain, photosynthetic bradyrhizobia strains lack a T3SS. Furthermore, analysis of the symbiotic properties of an ORS285 T3SS mutant revealed that the T3SS could have a positive or negative role for the interaction with NF-dependent Aeschynomene species, but that it is dispensable for the interaction with all NF-independent Aeschynomene species tested. Taken together, these data indicate that two NF-independent symbiotic processes are possible between legumes and rhizobia: one dependent on a T3SS and one using a so far unknown mechanism.

  8. Rhizobium–legume symbiosis in the absence of Nod factors: two possible scenarios with or without the T3SS

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Shin; Tittabutr, Panlada; Teulet, Albin; Thouin, Julien; Fardoux, Joël; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Gully, Djamel; Arrighi, Jean- François; Furuta, Noriyuki; Miwa, Hiroki; Yasuda, Michiko; Nouwen, Nico; Teaumroong, Neung; Giraud, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of alternative Nod factor (NF)-independent symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia was first demonstrated in some Aeschynomene species that are nodulated by photosynthetic bradyrhizobia lacking the canonical nodABC genes. In this study, we revealed that a large diversity of non-photosynthetic bradyrhizobia, including B. elkanii, was also able to induce nodules on the NF-independent Aeschynomene species, A. indica. Using cytological analysis of the nodules and the nitrogenase enzyme activity as markers, a gradient in the symbiotic interaction between bradyrhizobial strains and A. indica could be distinguished. This ranged from strains that induced nodules that were only infected intercellularly to rhizobial strains that formed nodules in which the host cells were invaded intracellularly and that displayed a weak nitrogenase activity. In all non-photosynthetic bradyrhizobia, the type III secretion system (T3SS) appears required to trigger nodule organogenesis. In contrast, genome sequence analysis revealed that apart from a few exceptions, like the Bradyrhizobium ORS285 strain, photosynthetic bradyrhizobia strains lack a T3SS. Furthermore, analysis of the symbiotic properties of an ORS285 T3SS mutant revealed that the T3SS could have a positive or negative role for the interaction with NF-dependent Aeschynomene species, but that it is dispensable for the interaction with all NF-independent Aeschynomene species tested. Taken together, these data indicate that two NF-independent symbiotic processes are possible between legumes and rhizobia: one dependent on a T3SS and one using a so far unknown mechanism. PMID:26161635

  9. Combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of HVOF spray coated SS 410 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarendra, H. J.; Prathap, M. S.; Karthik, S.; Abhishek, A. M.; Madhu surya, K. C.; Gujjar gowda, S.; Anilkumar, T.

    2016-09-01

    The hydro turbine materials surface is degraded due to the slurry erosion and cavitation. The solid particles carried by water impacting the material results in slurry erosion. The damage occurred due to slurry erosion is the concern, when considered individually. The erosion damage is observed to be severe when slurry erosion and cavitation are combined. The hydro turbine material, martensitic stainless (SS 410) is surface modified with 80Ni-Cr by High Velocity Oxy Fuel spray process. The coated material subjected to post thermal treatment at a temperature of 950 ° C, soaked at 1 h, 2 h and 3 h are subjected to combined slurry and cavitation erosion test. The cavitation is created by using Cavitation Inducers. The tests are conducted by using silica sand as the erodent with three different sizes of 150, 200 and 300 μm. The results are compared with the as-received specimen. The results confirmed the effect of heat treatment on the end results, as the coated thermal treated specimens showed better erosion resistance against the as-received specimen. The eroded specimens are characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope. The thermal treated HVOF coated specimens shown the better erosion resistance.

  10. Computaional Modeling of the Stability of Crevice Corrosion of Wetted SS316L

    SciTech Connect

    F. Cui; F.J. Presuel-Moreno; R.G. Kelly

    2006-04-17

    The stability of localized corrosion sites on SS 316L exposed to atmospheric conditions was studied computationally. The localized corrosion system was decoupled computationally by considering the wetted cathode and the crevice anode separately and linking them via a constant potential boundary condition at the mouth of the crevice. The potential of interest for stability was the repassivation potential. The limitations on the ability of the cathode that are inherent due to the restricted geometry were assessed in terms of the dependence on physical and electrochemical parameters. Physical parameters studied include temperature, electrolyte layer thickness, solution conductivity, and the size of the cathode, as well as the crevice gap for the anode. The current demand of the crevice was determined considering a constant crevice solution composition that simulates the critical crevice solution as described in the literature. An analysis of variance showed that the solution conductivity and the length of the cathode were the most important parameters in determining the total cathodic current capacity of the external surface. A semi-analytical equation was derived for the total current from a restricted geometry held at a constant potential at one end. The equation was able to reproduce all the model computation results both for the wetted external cathode and the crevice and give good explanation on the effects of physicochemical and kinetic parameters.

  11. Molecular cloning, expression, and chromosome 19 localization of a human Ro/SS-A autoantigen.

    PubMed Central

    McCauliffe, D P; Lux, F A; Lieu, T S; Sanz, I; Hanke, J; Newkirk, M M; Bachinski, L L; Itoh, Y; Siciliano, M J; Reichlin, M

    1990-01-01

    Ro/SS-A antibodies are found in a number of human autoimmune disorders including Sjogren's syndrome and several systemic lupus erythematosus-related disorders. These heterogeneous autoantibodies are known to recognize several distinct cellular antigens. With synthetic oligonucleotides corresponding to amino acid sequence information we have isolated a full-length cDNA clone which encodes a human Ro ribonucleoprotein autoantigen. The 1,890-base pair clone contains an open reading frame that encodes a 417-amino acid, 48-kD polypeptide that migrates aberrantly at 60 kD by SDS-PAGE. Rabbit antibodies raised against this protein's recently described amino-terminal epitope react with a previously identified 52-kD human Ro protein and immunoprecipitate the human cytoplasmic RNAs. Ultraviolet light cross-linking studies suggest that this Ro protein binds each of the four major human cytoplasmic RNAs. The deduced amino acid sequence is 63% homologous to an Onchocerca volvulus antigen. Southern filter hybridization analysis indicates that this gene is not highly polymorphic and exists as a single copy in the human genome. Chromosomal localization studies place this gene on the short arm of chromosome 19 near the gene encoding the low density lipoprotein receptor. Images PMID:2332496

  12. Cherenkov and scintillation light separation on the CheSS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caravaca, Javier; Land, Benjamin; Descamps, Freija; Orebi Gann, Gabriel D.

    2016-09-01

    Separation of the scintillation and Cherenkov light produced in liquid scintillators enables outstanding capabilities for future particle detectors, the most relevant being: particle directionality information in a low energy threshold detector and improved particle identification. The CheSS experiment uses an array of small, fast photomultipliers (PMTs) and state-of-the-art electronics to demonstrate the reconstruction of a Cherenkov ring in liquid scintillator using two techniques: based on the photon density and using the photon hit time information. A charged particle ionizing a scintillation medium produces a prompt Cherenkov cone and late isotropic scintillation light, typically delayed by several ns. The fast response of our PMTs and DAQ provides a precision well below the ns level, making possible the time separation. Furthermore, the usage of the new developed water-based liquid scintillators (WbLS) enhances the separation since it allows tuning of the Cherenkov/Scintillation ratio. Latest results on the separation for pure liquid scintillators and WbLS will be presented.

  13. Anterior Chamber Angle Shape Analysis and Classification of Glaucoma in SS-OCT Images

    PubMed Central

    Ni Ni, Soe; Tian, J.; Marziliano, Pina; Wong, Hong-Tym

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography is a high resolution, rapid, and noninvasive diagnostic tool for angle closure glaucoma. In this paper, we present a new strategy for the classification of the angle closure glaucoma using morphological shape analysis of the iridocorneal angle. The angle structure configuration is quantified by the following six features: (1) mean of the continuous measurement of the angle opening distance; (2) area of the trapezoidal profile of the iridocorneal angle centered at Schwalbe's line; (3) mean of the iris curvature from the extracted iris image; (4) complex shape descriptor, fractal dimension, to quantify the complexity, or changes of iridocorneal angle; (5) ellipticity moment shape descriptor; and (6) triangularity moment shape descriptor. Then, the fuzzy k nearest neighbor (fkNN) classifier is utilized for classification of angle closure glaucoma. Two hundred and sixty-four swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) images from 148 patients were analyzed in this study. From the experimental results, the fkNN reveals the best classification accuracy (99.11 ± 0.76%) and AUC (0.98 ± 0.012) with the combination of fractal dimension and biometric parameters. It showed that the proposed approach has promising potential to become a computer aided diagnostic tool for angle closure glaucoma (ACG) disease. PMID:25197561

  14. PN Sequence Preestimator Scheme for DS-SS Signal Acquisition Using Block Sequence Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Kwangmin; Yoon, Dongweon; Park, Sang Kyu

    2005-12-01

    An [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-sequence (PN sequence) preestimator scheme for direct-sequence spread spectrum (DS-SS) signal acquisition by using block sequence estimation (BSE) is proposed and analyzed. The proposed scheme consists of an estimator and a verifier which work according to the PN sequence chip clock, and provides not only the enhanced chip estimates with a threshold decision logic and one-chip error correction among the first [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] received chips, but also the reliability check of the estimates with additional decision logic. The probabilities of the estimator and verifier operations are calculated. With these results, the detection, the false alarm, and the missing probabilities of the proposed scheme are derived. In addition, using a signal flow graph, the average acquisition time is calculated. The proposed scheme can be used as a preestimator and easily implemented by changing the internal signal path of a generally used digital matched filter (DMF) correlator or any other correlator that has a lot of sampling data memories for sampled PN sequence. The numerical results show rapid acquisition performance in a relatively good CNR.

  15. High-Salt Intake Suppressed MicroRNA-133a Expression in Dahl SS Rat Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tong-Shuai; Zhang, Jie; Mu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Ren, Ke-Yu; Wang, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Salt-sensitive individuals show earlier and more serious cardiac damage than nonsalt-sensitive ones. Some studies have suggested that microRNA-133a could reduce cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. The current study aims to investigate the different functions of high-salt intake on salt-sensitive (SS) rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and the involvement of microRNA-133a in these roles. After high-salt intervention, the left ventricular mass (LVW) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) of the salt-sensitive high salt (SHS) group were obviously higher than those of the salt-sensitive low salt (SLS) group. However, the difference between the Sprague-Dawley high salt (DHS) group and the Sprague-Dawley low salt (DLS) group was not significant. Compared with SLS group, collagen I and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the heart of SHS group were significantly higher, whereas no statistical difference was observed between the DHS group and the DLS group. Compared with low-salt diet, microRNA-133a in the heart of both strains were significantly decreased, but that in the SHS group decreased more significantly. These results suggest that high salt intervention could down-regulate the expression of myocardial microRNA-133a, which may be one of the mechanisms involved in myocardial fibrosis in salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:24937684

  16. The Effect of Surface Morphology on Corrosion Performance of SS 316 LVM Biomedical Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloei, Alisina; Guo, Mengnan; Rotermund, Harm H.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, in order to investigate the relationship between surface roughness and the corrosion resistance of the SS 316 LVM wires, samples have been prepared with different surface roughness by using different grits of SiC papers. In order to simulate the environment of implanted biomedical devices, a three-electrode electrochemical cell with 0.9% (by mass) NaCl solution has been used to test the corrosion resistance of the samples by potentiodynamic method and anodic polarization tests. SEM, EDS, and XPS have been performed to analyze the surfaces appearance and chemical elements on the surface before and after the corrosion. AFM was also used to get 3D images of the surface and to show the change in roughness of the samples after corrosion testing. Background-subtracted contrast-enhanced microscopy has been performed in situ to detect the pitting process happening on the surface of stainless steel samples. It was concluded that a relatively smoother surface can result in higher corrosion resistance and larger potential of stable pitting, whereas a rougher surface can easily go into stable pitting with lower pitting potentials. Rougher surfaces also showed a shorter time for the formation of stable pits. Microscopy observations illustrated more corrosion on rougher surfaces, and EDS showed more chloride ion remained on these surfaces.

  17. Acute on chronic liver failure in a patient with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS).

    PubMed

    Im, Dana DaEun; Essien, Utibe; DePasse, Jacqueline W; Chiappa, Victor

    2015-07-01

    A man in his late 40s with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) presented to the emergency department with 2 weeks of diffuse oedema, increased abdominal girth and dyspnoea. His anasarca was thought to be indicative of an acute decompensation of his known liver cirrhosis with transfusion-induced haemosiderosis. While his anasarca improved with diuresis, his direct hyperbilirubinaemia suddenly worsened without any signs of haemolysis, biliary disease or obstruction. He also developed an acute worsening in serum creatinine (1.17-7.0 mg/dL in 7 days) despite subsequent treatment for presumed hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Given his clinical decline, the patient's goals of care were transitioned to comfort measures only. His clinical presentation and rapid liver and renal deterioration were most typical of sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis (SCIC). SCIC can lead to rapid deterioration in renal function and can be mistaken for HRS. When SCIC is suspected, consideration of exchange transfusions should be made early.

  18. Discovery of Fast, Large-amplitude Optical Variability of V648 Car (=SS73-17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeloni, R.; Di Mille, F.; Ferreira Lopes, C. E.; Masetti, N.

    2012-09-01

    We report on the discovery of large-amplitude flickering from V648 Car (= SS73-17), a poorly studied object listed among the very few hard X-ray-emitting symbiotic stars. We performed millimagnitude precision optical photometry with the Swope Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and found that V648 Car shows large U-band variability over timescales of minutes. To our knowledge, it exhibits some of the largest flickering of a symbiotic star ever reported. Our finding supports the hypothesis that symbiotic white dwarfs producing hard X-rays are predominantly powered by accretion, rather than quasi-steady nuclear burning, and have masses close to the Chandrasekhar limit. No significant periodicity is evident from the flickering light curve. The All Sky Automated Survey long-term V light curve suggests the presence of a tidally distorted giant accreting via Roche lobe overflow, and a binary period of ~520 days. On the basis of the outstanding physical properties of V648 Car as hinted at by its fast and long-term optical variability, as well as by its nature as a hard X-ray emitter, we therefore call for simultaneous follow-up observations in different bands, ideally combined with time-resolved optical spectroscopy.

  19. The Blattodea s.s. (Insecta, Dictyoptera) of the Guiana Shield

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Dominic A.; Chan, Kimberly; Kaplan, Kayla L.; Wilson, Megan M.; Ware, Jessica L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblatta berenbaumae. The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodea s.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under–sampling. Indeed, based on previously published data and current fieldwork, we believe that most regions of the Guiana Shield are under–sampled for cockroaches. Despite this, French Guiana (151 spp.) and Suriname (136 spp.) rank as the second and sixth most species dense faunas of cockroaches in the neotropics. PMID:25684997

  20. Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrum of SS Cygni in Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauche, Christopher W.

    2004-07-01

    We have fitted the Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating (LETG) spectrum of SS Cygni in outburst with a single-temperature blackbody suffering the photoelectric opacity of a neutral column density and the scattering opacity of an outflowing wind. We find that this simple model is capable of reproducing the essential features of the observed spectrum with the blackbody temperature Tbl~250+/-50 kK, hydrogen column density NH~5.0+2.9-1.5×1019cm-2, fractional emitting area f~5.6+60-4.5×10-3, boundary layer luminosity Lbl~5+18-3×1033ergss-1, wind velocity v~2500kms-1, wind mass-loss rate Mw~1.1×1016gs-1, and arbitrary values of the wind ionization fractions of 20 ions of O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe. Given that in outburst the accretion disk luminosity Ldisk~1×1035ergss-1, Lbl/Ldisk~0.05+0.18-0.03, which can be explained if the white dwarf (or an equatorial belt thereon) is rotating with an angular velocity Ωwd~0.7+0.1-0.2 Hz, hence Vrotsini~2300kms-1. This paper is dedicated to the memory and accomplishments of my colleague and friend Janet Akyüz Mattei, who died on 2004 March 22 after a long battle with acute myelogenous leukemia. Her passing is a great loss to the astronomical community, both amateur and professional.

  1. Washing of Pb contaminated soil using [S,S] ethylenediamine disuccinate and horizontal permeable barriers.

    PubMed

    Finzgar, N; Kos, B; Lestan, D

    2004-11-01

    The feasibility of in situ washing of soil contaminated with Pb (6.83 mmol kg(-1)) using biodegradable chelator, [S,S] stereoisomere of ethylenediamine disuccinate ([S,S]-EDDS) and horizontal permeable barriers was examined in soil columns. After 4-cycles of 10 mmol kg(-1) soil [S,S]-EDDS applications, followed by irrigation, 24.7% of total initial Pb was washed from the contaminated soil and accumulated into the barrier. Sequential extractions indicated that washing removed most of the Pb from the organic soil fraction. Barriers were positioned 20 cm deep in the soil and consisted of a 2 cm layer of nutrient enriched vermiculite. Barriers reduced leaching of Pb in the first cycle of [S,S]-EDDS addition by more than 500-times compared to columns with no barrier. After four cycles of chelator addition, a total of 0.24% of the initial Pb was leached from the columns with barriers. Four cycles of in situ soil washing in soil columns were less effective than simulated ex situ soil washing with 40 mmol kg(-1) [S,S]-EDDS, where 51.0% of the Pb was removed after 48-h extraction. Ex situ soil washing with 10 mmol kg(-1) [S,S]-EDDS was equally effective as the first cycle of in situ soil washing (15.5% and 14.5% of removed Pb, respectively).

  2. DISCOVERY OF FAST, LARGE-AMPLITUDE OPTICAL VARIABILITY OF V648 Car (=SS73-17)

    SciTech Connect

    Angeloni, R.; Di Mille, F.; Ferreira Lopes, C. E.

    2012-09-01

    We report on the discovery of large-amplitude flickering from V648 Car (= SS73-17), a poorly studied object listed among the very few hard X-ray-emitting symbiotic stars. We performed millimagnitude precision optical photometry with the Swope Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and found that V648 Car shows large U-band variability over timescales of minutes. To our knowledge, it exhibits some of the largest flickering of a symbiotic star ever reported. Our finding supports the hypothesis that symbiotic white dwarfs producing hard X-rays are predominantly powered by accretion, rather than quasi-steady nuclear burning, and have masses close to the Chandrasekhar limit. No significant periodicity is evident from the flickering light curve. The All Sky Automated Survey long-term V light curve suggests the presence of a tidally distorted giant accreting via Roche lobe overflow, and a binary period of {approx}520 days. On the basis of the outstanding physical properties of V648 Car as hinted at by its fast and long-term optical variability, as well as by its nature as a hard X-ray emitter, we therefore call for simultaneous follow-up observations in different bands, ideally combined with time-resolved optical spectroscopy.

  3. Deformation temperature, strain rate, and irradiation microstructure effects on localized plasticity in 304L SS

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.I.; Brimhall, J.L.; Vetrano, J.S.; Bruemmer, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    The present study examines the deformation behavior of ion-irradiated, low-carbon 304L stainless steel to investigate the influence of irradiation microstructure, deformation temperature and strain rate on localized plasticity. Dislocation loop character, size and density are linked to changes in deformation character. Lower doses produce small faulted loops and stacking fault tetrahedra that impede dislocation mobility. Dislocations are pinned at defects and require higher stress to break free from the defects. Larger defects take the form of faulted Frank loops that can interact with glide dislocations to form microtwins at lower temperatures and faster strain rates. Deformation at higher temperatures and slower strain rates promotes interactions between glide dislocations and loops leading to loop annihilation. Dislocation free zones or ``channels`` form where further plastic deformation is highly localized. Results are compared to limited observations for neutron-irradiated materials. These irradiation-induced changes can be an important concern for light-water reactor (LWR) stainless steel (SS) structural components due to a reduced damage tolerance, and potential susceptibility to environmental cracking such as irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC).

  4. Probing the mechanism of recognition of ssDNA by the Cdc13-DBD.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Aimee M; Wuttke, Deborah S

    2008-03-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Cdc13 tightly and specifically binds the conserved G-rich single-stranded overhang at telomeres and plays an essential role in telomere end-protection and length regulation. The 200 residue DNA-binding domain of Cdc13 (Cdc13-DBD) binds an 11mer single-stranded representative of the yeast telomeric sequence [Tel11, d(GTGTGGGTGTG)] with a 3 pM affinity and specificity for three bases (underlined) at the 5' end. The structure of the Cdc13-DBD bound to Tel11 revealed a large, predominantly aromatic protein interface with several unusual features. The DNA adopts an irregular, extended structure, and the binding interface includes a long ( approximately 30 amino acids) structured loop between strands beta2-beta3 (L(2-3)) of an OB-fold. To investigate the mechanism of ssDNA binding, we studied the free and bound states of Cdc13-DBD using NMR spectroscopy. Chemical shift changes indicate that the basic topology of the domain, including L(2-3), is essentially intact in the free state. Changes in slow and intermediate time scale dynamics, however, occur in L(2-3), while conformational changes distant from the DNA interface suggest an induced fit mechanism for binding in the 'hot spot' for binding affinity and specificity. These data point to an overall binding mechanism well adapted to the heterogeneous nature of yeast telomeres.

  5. Cloning and characterisation of a nuclear, site specific ssDNA binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Smidt, M P; Russchen, B; Snippe, L; Wijnholds, J; Ab, G

    1995-01-01

    Estradiol inducible, liver-specific expression of the apoVLDL II gene is mediated through the estrogen receptor and a variety of other DNA-binding proteins. In the present study we report the cloning and characterisation of a single-strand DNA binding protein that interacts with the lower strand of a complex regulatory site, which includes the major estrogen responsive element and a site that resembles the rat albumin site D (apoVLDL II site D). Based on its binding specificity determined with electro-mobility shift assays, the protein is named single-strand D-box binding factor (ssDBF). Analysis of the deduced 302 amino acid sequence revealed that the protein belongs to the heteronuclear ribonucleoprotein A/B family (hnRNP A/B) and resembles other known eukaryotic single-strand DNA binding proteins. Transient transfection experiments in a chicken liver cell-line showed that the protein represses estrogen-induced transcription. A protein with similar binding characteristics is present in liver nuclear extract. The relevance of the occurrence of this protein to the expression of the apoVLDL II gene is discussed. Images PMID:7630716

  6. Fusion welding studies using laser on Ti-SS dissimilar combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugarajan, B.; Padmanabham, G.

    2012-11-01

    Laser welding investigations were carried out on dissimilar Ti-SS combination. The study is aimed to improve the weld strength and ductility by minimizing harmful intermetallics and taking advantage of high cooling rates in laser welding. Results of continuous wave 3.5 kW CO2 laser welding of totally dissimilar combination of Titanium and stainless steel (304) have been discussed. Bead on plate welding experiments were conducted to identify the laser welding parameters using depth of penetration as criteria. The welding of dissimilar combination has been attempted both autogenously and with interlayers such as Vanadium (V) and Tantalum (Ta) in the form of laser cladding as well as strip. Autogenous welds were carried out by varying the laser power, welding speed and position of the laser beam with respect to the joint centre. The resultant welds are characterized by macrostructure analysis, SEM/EDAX and XRD and as welded tensile test in UTM. The autogenous welds have exhibited extensive cracking even when welded at high speeds or by manipulating the beam position with respect to the joint. Similarly Vandaium as interlayer could not achieve crack free joint. A joint with 40 MPa strength could be made with Ta as interlayer. Results and analysis of these variants of laser welded joints are reported and discussed.

  7. A hybrid microbial fuel cell stack based on single and double chamber microbial fuel cells for self-sustaining pH control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Li, Jun; Ye, Dingding; Zhang, Liang; Zhu, Xun; Liao, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Proton accumulation in the anode chamber is the major problem that affects the operational stability and electricity generation performance of double chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, a hybrid microbial fuel cell stack (DS-DS stack) based on single (SCMFCs) and double chamber MFCs (DCMFCs) is proposed for self-sustaining pH control in the MFC stack. It is found that the aerobic microbial oxidation of acetate by the biofilm that is attached to the air cathode of SCMFCs is responsible for the self-sustaining removal of accumulated H+ in the effluent of DCMFCs. Compared with the stack that solely consists of SCMFCs (SS-SS stack) or DCMFCs (DD-DD stack), the hybrid stack exhibits the highest electricity output performance and the most effective conversion of acetate into electricity at high power levels. Furthermore, the hybrid stack demonstrates the operation time of 15.7 ± 1.1 h when the operating voltage is above 0.8 V. This value is much higher than that of the DD-DD (8.5 ± 2.4 h) and SS-SS (8.1 ± 1.4 h) stacks, which suggests that the hybrid stack had a good operational stability.

  8. Proteome of Salmonella enterica serotype Tyhimurium Grown in Low Mg2+/pH Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Ansong, Charles; Smallwood, Heather S.; Rommereim, Leah M.; McDermott, Jason E.; Brewer, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Gustin, Jean K.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2009-09-04

    To determine the impact of a low Mg2+/pH defined growth medium (MgM) on the proteome of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, we cultured S. Typhimurium cells in the medium under two different conditions termed MgM Shock and MgM Dilution and then comparatively analyzed the bacterial cells harvested from these conditions by a global proteomic approach. Proteomic results showed that MgM Shock and MgM Dilution differentially affected the S. Typhimurium proteome. MgM Shock induced a group of proteins whose induction usually occurred at low O2 level, while MgM Dilution induced those related to the type III secretion system (T3SS) of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2) and those involved in thiamine or biotin biosynthesis. The metabolic state of the S. Typhimurium cells grown under MgM Shock condition also differed significantly from that under MgM Dilution condition. Western blot analysis not only confirmed the proteomic results, but also showed that the abundances of SPI2-T3SS proteins SsaQ and SseE and biotin biosynthesis proteins BioB and BioD increased after S. Typhimurium infection of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Deletion of the gene encoding BioB reduced the bacterial ability to replicate inside the macrophages, suggesting a biotin-limited environment encountered by S. Typhimurium within RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  9. Improved reliability of pH measurements.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Petra; Werner, Barbara

    2002-11-01

    Measurements of pH are performed on a large scale at laboratory level, and in industry. To meet the quality-control requirements and other technical specifications there is a need for traceability in measurement results. The prerequisite for the international acceptance of analytical data is reliability. To measure means to compare. Comparability entails use of recognised references to which the standard buffer solutions used for calibration of pH meter-electrode assemblies can be traced. The new recommendation on the measurement of pH recently published as a provisional document by the International Union on Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) enables traceability for measured pH values to a conventional reference frame which is recognised world-wide. The primary method for pH will be described. If analytical data are to be accepted internationally it is necessary to demonstrate the equivalence of the national traceability structures, including national measurement standards. For the first time key comparisons for pH have been performed by the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM, set up by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, BIPM) to assess the equivalence of the national measurement procedures used to determine the pH of primary standard buffer solutions. The results of the first key comparison on pH CCQM-K9, and other international initiatives to improve the consistency of the results of measurement for pH, are reported.

  10. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, C.J.

    1983-11-15

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe. 1 fig.

  11. pH Meter probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Charles J.

    1983-01-01

    An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe.

  12. Loss of the metastasis suppressor gene KiSS1 is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Koji; Toiyama, Yuji; Shimura, Tadanobu; Okigami, Masato; Kawamoto, Aya; Hiro, Junichiro; Saigusa, Susumu; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Uchida, Keiichi; Kusunoki, Masato

    2013-09-01

    Cancer research is currently focused on blocking the metastatic process at its early steps. Some particularly attractive targets are metastasis suppressor genes, which control cancer cell dissemination. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the expression of KiSS1, a metastasis suppressor gene, and disease progression in colorectal cancer patients. One-hundred and seventy-five patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer were enrolled in this study. We analyzed KiSS1 mRNA expression by real-time reverse transcription PCR in colorectal cancer tissue and paired adjacent normal mucosa. KiSS1 protein expression in early- and advanced-stage colorectal cancer samples was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. Decreased KiSS1 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and was an independent prognostic factor. Logistic regression analysis revealed that decreased KiSS1 expression was an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that KiSS1 was highly expressed in the cell cytoplasm of early-stage colorectal cancer cells. The loss of KiSS1 appears to correlate with the progression of lymph node metastasis. An assessment of KiSS1 expression may assist in the accurate colorectal cancer diagnosis and may contribute to predict clinical outcomes.

  13. The Rsm regulon of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101: role of small RNAs in regulation of lipopeptide biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 inhibits growth of oomycete and fungal pathogens, and induces resistance in plants against pathogens and insects. To unravel regulatory pathways of secondary metabolite production in SS101, we conducted a genome-wide search for sRNAs and performed tra...

  14. Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Self-Efficacy/Social Support for Activity for Persons with Intellectual Disability Scale (SE/SS-AID) in a Spanish Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; Paz-Lourido, Berta; Lee, Miyoung; Peterson-Besse, Jana J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study we aimed to develop a Spanish version of the Self-Efficacy/Social Support Scales for Activity for persons with Intellectual Disability (SE/SS-AID). Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 117 individuals with intellectual disability (ID). The SE/SS-AID scales were translated into Spanish and their…

  15. Effects of a new antiarrhythmic drug SS-68 on electrical activity in working atrial and ventricular myocardium of mouse and their ionic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bogus, Saida K; Abramochkin, Denis V; Galenko-Yaroshevsky, Pavel A; Suzdalev, Konstantin F

    2015-08-01

    SS-68 is a derivative of indole, which demonstrated strong antiarrhythmic effects not associated with significant QT prolongation in dog models of atrial fibrillation. Therefore, SS-68 was proposed as a new antiarrhythmic drug and the present study is the first describing its effects on action potentials (APs) configuration and elucidating the ionic mechanisms of these effects. Sharp microelectrodes were used to record APs in isolated preparations of mouse atrial and ventricular myocardium. In both types of myocardium 10(-6) M SS-68 produced reduction of AP duration, 3 × 10(-6) M failed to alter AP waveform and 10(-5) - 3 × 10(-5) M prolonged APs. Sensitivity of main ionic currents to SS-68 was determined using whole-cell patch clamp. Transient potassium current Ito was slightly inhibited by SS-68 with IC50 = 1.43 × 10(-4) M. IKur was more sensitive with IC50 = 1.84 × 10(-5) M. Background inward rectifier showed very low sensitivity to SS-68 - only 10(-4) M SS-68 caused significant reduction of IK1. ICaL was significantly inhibited by 10(-6)M - 3 × 10(-5) M SS-68. The IC50 value for the ICaL was 1.84 × 10(-6) M. Thus, main ionic currents of mouse cardiomyocytes are inhibited by SS-68 in the following order of potency: ICaL > IKur > Ito > IK1. While lower concentration of SS-68 shorten APs via suppression of ICaL, higher concentrations inhibit K(+)-currents leading to APs prolongation.

  16. pH. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on the effect of pH on plant growth. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about soil pH and its effect on plants. The following topics are among those discussed: acidity and alkalinity; the…

  17. pH [Measure of Acidity].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Paula

    This autoinstructional program deals with the study of the pH of given substances by using litmus and hydrion papers. It is a learning activity directed toward low achievers involved in the study of biology at the secondary school level. The time suggested for the unit is 25-30 minutes (plus additional time for further pH testing). The equipment…

  18. Middle School and pH?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herricks, Susan

    2007-01-01

    A local middle school requested that the Water Center of Advanced Materials for Purification of Water With Systems (WaterCAMPWS), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center, provide an introduction to pH for their seventh-grade water-based service learning class. After sorting through a multitude of information about pH, a…

  19. Inexpensive and Disposable pH Electrodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldcamp, Michael J.; Conklin, Alfred; Nelson, Kimberly; Marchetti, Jessica; Brashear, Ryan; Epure, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Inexpensive electrodes for the measurement of pH have been constructed using the ionophore tribenzylamine for sensing H[superscript +] concentrations. Both traditional liquid-membrane electrodes and coated-wire electrodes have been constructed and studied, and both exhibit linear, nearly Nernstian responses to changes in pH. Measurements of pH…

  20. Simulation of debris flow events in Sicily by cellular automata model SCIDDICA_SS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancelliere, A.; Lupiano, V.; Peres, D. J.; Stancanelli, L.; Avolio, M.; Foti, E.; Di Gregorio, S.

    2013-12-01

    Debris flow models are widely used for hazard mapping or for evaluating the effectiveness of risk mitigation measures. Several models analyze the dynamics of debris flow runout solving Partial Differential Equations. In use of such models, difficulties arise in estimating kinematic geotechnical soil parameters for real phenomena. In order to overcome such difficulties, alternative semi-empirical approaches can be employed, such as macroscopic Cellular Automata (CA). In particular, for CA simulation purposes, the runout of debris flows emerges from local interactions in a dynamical system, subdivided into elementary parts, whose state evolves within a spatial and temporal discretum. The attributes of each cell (substates) describe physical characteristics. For computational reasons, the natural phenomenon is splitted into a number of elementary processes, whose proper composition makes up the CA transition function. By simultaneously applying this function to all the cells, the evolution of the phenomenon can be simulated in terms of modifications of the substates. In this study, we present an application of the macroscopic CA semi-empirical model SCIDDICA_SS3 to the Peloritani Mountains area in Sicily island, Italy. The model was applied using detailed data from the 1 October 2009 debris flow event, which was triggered by a rainfall event of about 250 mm falling in 9 hours, that caused the death of 37 persons. This region is characterized by river valleys with large hillslope angles (30°-60°), catchment basins of small extensions (0.5-12 km2) and soil composed by metamorphic material, which is easy to be eroded. CA usage implies a calibration phase, that identifies an optimal set of parameters capable of adequately play back the considered case, and a validation phase, that tests the model on a sufficient (and different) number of cases similar in terms of physical and geomorphological properties. The performance of the model can be measured in terms of a fitness

  1. COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF CATHODIC LIMITATIONS ON LOCALIZED CORROSION OF WETTED SS 316L, AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    F. Cui; F.J. Presuel-Moreno; R.G. Kelly

    2005-10-13

    The ability of a SS316L surface wetted with a thin electrolyte layer to serve as an effective cathode for an active localized corrosion site was studied computationally. The dependence of the total net cathodic current, I{sub net}, supplied at the repassivation potential E{sub rp} (of the anodic crevice) on relevant physical parameters including water layer thickness (WL), chloride concentration ([Cl{sup -}]) and length of cathode (Lc) were investigated using a three-level, full factorial design. The effects of kinetic parameters including the exchange current density (i{sub o,c}) and Tafel slope ({beta}{sub c}) of oxygen reduction, the anodic passive current density (i{sub p}) (on the cathodic surface), and E{sub rp} were studied as well using three-level full factorial designs of [Cl{sup -}] and Lc with a fixed WL of 25 {micro}m. The study found that all the three parameters WL, [Cl{sup -}] and Lc as well as the interactions of Lc x WL and Lc x [Cl{sup -}] had significant impact on I{sub net}. A five-factor regression equation was obtained which fits the computation results reasonably well, but demonstrated that interactions are more complicated than can be explained with a simple linear model. Significant effects on I{sub net} were found upon varying either i{sub o,c}, {beta}{sub c}, or E{sub rp}, whereas i{sub p} in the studied range was found to have little impact. It was observed that I{sub net} asymptotically approached maximum values (I{sub max}) when Lc increased to critical minimum values. I{sub max} can be used to determine the stability of coupled localized corrosion and the critical Lc provides important information for experimental design and corrosion protection.

  2. The effect of coatings on retention and permeation in SS 316L APT tritium production tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertz, K. L.; Causey, R. A.; Cowgill, D. F.

    2004-01-01

    The accelerator production of tritium (APT) design calls for thousands of thin-walled tubes to be filled with 3He gas. The reaction of the spallation neutrons with this gas will result in the bombardment of the interior of these tubes with energetic tritons and protons. For APT to be able to meet its tritium production goals, it is necessary that the holdup of the tritium in the tube walls be minimized. To examine the tritium retention characteristics of stainless steel, one of the tube reference materials, accelerator implantation experiments were performed. In these experiments, deuterium was used in place of tritium to eliminate the problem of tritium contamination. Deuterons with energies up to 200 keV and protons with energies up to 600 keV were implanted into stainless steel (SS 316L) samples to fluences as high as 5 × 10 22 D/m 2 and 5 × 10 22 p/m 2. Thermal desorption spectroscopy showed that approximately 3% of the deuterium was retained within the sample. Approximately 0.5% of the deuterium permeated through to the back surface of the sample where a zirconium getter trapped the deuterium. The deuterium trapped in the zirconium layer was measured by nuclear reaction analysis. Eight-micron thick copper and nickel coatings were applied to the implantation side of the stainless steel substrate in an attempt to reduce the retention and permeation of the deuterium. The copper-coated stainless steel was not successful in reducing the retention and permeation, however the nickel coated stainless steel reduced both the retention and permeation substantially.

  3. SS-A/Ro52 promotes apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 production

    SciTech Connect

    Jauharoh, Siti Nur Aisyah; Saegusa, Jun; Sugimoto, Takeshi; Ardianto, Bambang; Kasagi, Shimpei; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kurimoto, Chiyo; Tokuno, Osamu; Nakamachi, Yuji; Kumagai, Shunichi; Kawano, Seiji

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52{sup low} HeLa cells are resistant to apoptosis upon various stimulations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52 is upregulated by IFN-{alpha}, etoposide, or IFN-{gamma} and anti-Fas Ab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52-mediated apoptosis is independent of p53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52 selectively regulates Bcl-2 expression. -- Abstract: SS-A/Ro52 (Ro52), an autoantigen in systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjoegren's syndrome, has E3 ligase activity to ubiquitinate proteins that protect against viral infection. To investigate Ro52's role during stress, we transiently knocked it down in HeLa cells by siRo52 transfection. We found that Ro52{sup low} HeLa cells were significantly more resistant to apoptosis than wild-type HeLa cells when stimulated by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}- or diamide-induced oxidative stress, IFN-{alpha}, IFN-{gamma} and anti-Fas antibody, etoposide, or {gamma}-irradiation. Furthermore, Ro52-mediated apoptosis was not influenced by p53 protein level in HeLa cells. Depleting Ro52 in HeLa cells caused Bcl-2, but not other Bcl-2 family molecules, to be upregulated. Taken together, our data showed that Ro52 is a universal proapoptotic molecule, and that its proapoptotic effect does not depend on p53, but is exerted through negative regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These findings shed light on a new physiological role for Ro52 that is important to intracellular immunity.

  4. Pulsar-driven Jets in Supernovae, Gamma-ray Bursts, and SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleditch, John

    2010-05-01

    The model of pulsar emission through superluminally induced polarization currents (SLIP) predicts that pulsations produced by such currents, induced at many light cylinder radii by a rotating, magnetized body, as would be the case for a neutron star born within any star of more than 1.4 solar masses, will drive pulsations close to the axis of rotation. In SN 1987A, such highly collimated (less than 1 in 10,000) 2.14 ms pulsations, and the similarly collimated jets of particles which they drove, including 1e-6 solar masses with velocities of up to 0.95 c, were responsible for the features of its very early light (days 3 - 20), its "Mystery Spot," observed slightly later (days 30 - 50 and after), and still later, in less collimated form, its bipolarity. SLIP also explains why the 2.14 ms pulsations were more or less consistently observed between years 5.0 and 6.5, and why they eventually disappeared after year 9.0. There is no reason to suggest that this mechanism is not universally applicable to all SNe with gaseous remnants remaining, and thus SN 1987A is the Rosetta Stone for 99% of SNe, gamma-ray bursts, and millisecond pulsars, and possibly SS 433. The axially driven pulsations enforce a toroidal geometry onto all early SNRs, rendering even Ia's unsuitable as standard candles. SLIP predicts that almost all pulsars with very sharp single pulses have been detected because the Earth is in a favored direction where their fluxes diminish only as 1/distance, and this has been verified in the laboratory as well as for the Parkes Multibeam Survey. SLIP also specifically predicts that gamma-ray-burst afterglows will be essentially 100% pulsed at 500 Hz in their proper frame. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy through the Los Alamos Directed Research Grant DR20080085.

  5. High-Resolution X-Ray Spectra of the Symbiotic Star SS73 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eze, R. N. C.; Luna, G. J. M.; Smith, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    SS73 17 was an innocuous Mira-type symbiotic star until the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory and Swift discovered its bright hard X-ray emission, adding it to the small class of "hard X-ray emitting symbiotics." Suzaku observations in 2006 then showed it emits three bright iron lines as well, with little to no emission in the 0.3-2.0 keV bandpass. We present here follow-up observations with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating and Suzaku that confirm the earlier detection of strong emission lines of Fe K(alpha) fluorescence, Fe XXV and Fe XXVI but also show significantly more soft X-ray emission. The high-resolution spectrum also shows emission lines of other highly ionized ions as Si xiv and possibly S XVI. In addition, a re-analysis of the 2006 Suzaku data using the latest calibration shows that the hard (15-50 keV) X-ray emission is brighter than previously thought and remains constant in both the 2006 and 2008 data. The G ratio calculated from the Fe xxv lines shows that these lines are thermal, not photoionized, in origin.With the exception of the hard X-ray emission, the spectra from both epochs can be fit using thermal radiation assuming a differential emission measure based on a cooling-flow model combined with a full and partial absorber. We show that acceptable fits can be obtained for all the data in the 1-10 keV band varying only the partial absorber. Based on the temperature and accretion rate, the thermal emission appears to be arising from the boundary layer between the accreting white dwarf and the accretion disk.

  6. Determination Of Ph Including Hemoglobin Correction

    DOEpatents

    Maynard, John D.; Hendee, Shonn P.; Rohrscheib, Mark R.; Nunez, David; Alam, M. Kathleen; Franke, James E.; Kemeny, Gabor J.

    2005-09-13

    Methods and apparatuses of determining the pH of a sample. A method can comprise determining an infrared spectrum of the sample, and determining the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. The hemoglobin concentration and the infrared spectrum can then be used to determine the pH of the sample. In some embodiments, the hemoglobin concentration can be used to select an model relating infrared spectra to pH that is applicable at the determined hemoglobin concentration. In other embodiments, a model relating hemoglobin concentration and infrared spectra to pH can be used. An apparatus according to the present invention can comprise an illumination system, adapted to supply radiation to a sample; a collection system, adapted to collect radiation expressed from the sample responsive to the incident radiation; and an analysis system, adapted to relate information about the incident radiation, the expressed radiation, and the hemoglobin concentration of the sample to pH.

  7. Endoscopic sensing of alveolar pH

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, D.; Tanner, M. G.; McAughtrie, S.; Yu, F.; Mills, B.; Choudhary, T. R.; Seth, S.; Craven, T. H.; Stone, J. M.; Mati, I. K.; Campbell, C. J.; Bradley, M.; Williams, C. K. I.; Dhaliwal, K.; Birks, T. A.; Thomson, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Previously unobtainable measurements of alveolar pH were obtained using an endoscope-deployable optrode. The pH sensing was achieved using functionalized gold nanoshell sensors and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The optrode consisted of an asymmetric dual-core optical fiber designed for spatially separating the optical pump delivery and signal collection, in order to circumvent the unwanted Raman signal generated within the fiber. Using this approach, we demonstrate a ~100-fold increase in SERS signal-to-fiber background ratio, and demonstrate multiple site pH sensing with a measurement accuracy of ± 0.07 pH units in the respiratory acini of an ex vivo ovine lung model. We also demonstrate that alveolar pH changes in response to ventilation. PMID:28101415

  8. Role of pH controlled DNA secondary structures in the reversible dispersion/precipitation and separation of metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Maji, Basudeb; Samanta, Suman K; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2014-04-07

    Single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) oligomers (dA20, d[(C3TA2)3C3] or dT20) are able to disperse single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in water at pH 7 through non-covalent wrapping on the nanotube surface. At lower pH, an alteration of the DNA secondary structure leads to precipitation of the SWNTs from the dispersion. The structural change of dA20 takes place from the single-stranded to the A-motif form at pH 3.5 while in case of d[(C3TA2)3C3] the change occurs from the single-stranded to the i-motif form at pH 5. Due to this structural change, the DNA is no longer able to bind the nanotube and hence the SWNT precipitates from its well-dispersed state. However, this could be reversed on restoring the pH to 7, where the DNA again relaxes in the single-stranded form. In this way the dispersion and precipitation process could be repeated over and over again. Variable temperature UV-Vis-NIR and CD spectroscopy studies showed that the DNA-SWNT complexes were thermally stable even at ∼90 °C at pH 7. Broadband NIR laser (1064 nm) irradiation also demonstrated the stability of the DNA-SWNT complex against local heating introduced through excitation of the carbon nanotubes. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed the formation of a stable DNA-SWNT complex at pH 7 and also the generation of DNA secondary structures (A/i-motif) upon acidification. The interactions of ss-DNA with SWNTs cause debundling of the nanotubes from its assembly. Selective affinity of the semiconducting SWNTs towards DNA than the metallic ones enables separation of the two as evident from spectroscopic as well as electrical conductivity studies.

  9. F-15B in flight showing Supersonic Natural Laminar Flow (SS-NLF) experiment attached vertically to t

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In-flight photo of the F-15B equipped with the Supersonic Natural Laminar Flow (SS-NLF) experiment. During four research flights, laminar flow was achieved over 80 percent of the test wing at speeds approaching Mach 2. This was accomplished as the sole result of the shape of the wing, without the use of suction gloves, such as on the F-16XL. Laminar flow is a condition in which air passes over a wing in smooth layers, rather than being turbulent The greater the area of laminar flow, the lower the amount of friction drag on the wing, thus increasing an aircraft's range and fuel economy. Increasing the area of laminar flow on a wing has been the subject of research by engineers since the late 1940s, but substantial success has proven elusive. The SS-NLF experiment was intended to provide engineers with the data by which to design natural laminar flow wings.

  10. Scale Model Acoustic Test Validation of IOP-SS Water Prediction using Loci-STREAM-VoF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Tanner; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) is a 5% scale test of the Space Launch System (SLS), which is currently being designed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). SMAT consists of a 5% scale representation of the ignition overpressure sound-suppression system (IOP-SS) that is being tested to quantify the water flow and induced air entrainment in and around the mobile launcher exhaust hole. This data will be compared with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations using the newly developed Loci-STREAM Volume of Fluid (VoF) methods. Compressible and incompressible VoF methods have been formulated, and are currently being used to simulate the water flow of SMAT IOP-SS. The test data will be used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess and validate the VoF methods.

  11. Nano-cavities observed in a 316SS PWR Flux Thimble Tube Irradiated to 33 and 70 dpa

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Danny J.; Garner, Francis A.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Efsing, Pal G.

    2009-02-28

    The radiation-induced microstructure of a cold-worked 316SS flux thimble tube from an operating pressurized water reactor (PWR) was examined. Two irradiated conditions, 33 dpa at 290ºC and 70 dpa at 315ºC were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The original dislocation network had completely disappeared and was replaced by fine dispersions of Frank loops and small nano-cavities at high densities. The latter appear to be bubbles containing high levels of helium and hydrogen. An enhanced distribution of these nano-cavities was found at grain boundaries and may play a role in the increased susceptibility of the irradiated 316SS to intergranular failure of specimens from this tube during post-irradiation slow strain rate testing in PWR water conditions.

  12. Discovery of the double Doppler-shifted emission-line systems in the X-ray spectrum of SS 433

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotani, Taro; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Takashi; Doty, John; Matsuoka, Masaru; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Nagase, Fumiaki; Ricker, George; White, Nick E.

    1994-01-01

    We have used the CCD X-ray spectrometers on ASCA and resolved the X-ray emission line from the jet of SS 433 both into Doppler-shifted components with two distinct velocities, and into emission from different ionization states of iron, i.e., Fe XXV and Fe XXVI. This is the first direct detection of the two Doppler shifted beams in the X-ray spectra of SS 433 and allows the radial velocity of the jet along the line of sight to be determined with an accuracy comparable to the optical spectroscopy. We also found pairs of emission lines from other atomic species, such as ionized silicon and sulfur, with the Doppler shifts consistent with each other. This confirms the origin of the X-ray emission in the high temperature plasma in the jets.

  13. Effect of exposure time on corrosion resistance of prepassivated UNS S31603 SS in the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Acuiia, N.; Herniindet-Duque, G.

    1998-12-31

    The effect of exposure time, in the Gulf of Mexico, on the UNS S3 1603 stainless steel (SS) pitting corrosion resistance (PCR), was studied for 30 days using both open circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP) techniques. Biofilm formation and corrosion attack were subsequently observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that microorganisms colonizing the steel specimen`s surface during the first three days of testing, modified the OCP towards electropositive values, increasing the risk of pitting corrosion. It was also observed, that the SS specimens were most sensitive to pitting corrosion within the first fifteen days of exposure in seawater, decreasing this sensitivity during the last week, probably due to a decay in the biological activity and better behavior of the passive film.

  14. Enantioselective Diels-Alder approach to C-3-oxygenated angucyclinones from (SS)-2-(p-tolysulfinyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone.

    PubMed

    Carreño, M C; Urbano, A; Di Vitta, C

    2000-03-03

    Chiral racemic vinylcyclohexenes 2, bearing oxygenated substituents and/or a methyl group at the C-5 position of the cyclohexene ring, were submitted to Diels-Alder reactions with enantiomerically pure (SS)-(2-p-tolylsulfinyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone [(+)-1]. The domino cycloaddition/pyrolytic sulfoxide elimination process led to the formation of enantiomerically enriched angularly tetracyclic quinones anti-6 and syn-7, which were obtained from the kinetic resolution of the racemic diene. In all cases, (SS)-(2-p-tolylsulfinyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone reacted from the less hindered face of the more reactive s-cis conformation, to form products in good enantiomeric excesses. Steric effects and torsional interactions in the corresponding approaches account for the observed pi-facial diastereoselectivities at both partners. The usefulness of this methodology is illustrated with the four-step totally asymmetric synthesis of the C-3-oxygenated angucyclinone derivative (-)-8-deoxytetrangomycin 10 in 26% overall yield and with 50% enantiomeric purity.

  15. [A case of neonatal lupus syndrome and congenital atrioventricular block associated with maternal antibodies antiRo/SS-A].

    PubMed

    De Leonibus, C; Lembo, C; Giliberti, P; Rojo, S; Foglia, M C; Giordano, L; Fratta, A

    2012-04-01

    The neonatal lupus erythematosus syndrome (LEN) is a disease due to the transplacental passage of maternal antiextractable nuclear antigens (ENA) antibodies, particularly anti-Ro/SS-A and anti-La/SS-B. The disease affects neonates born from mothers with autoimmune diseases. It is characterized by erythematous annular polycylic skin lesions, slightly scaling with prevalent face localization, hematologic and liver diseases and only in 2% of cases with extracutaneous lesions including complete atrioventricular block. The Authors describe a case of LEN characterized by isolated atrioventricular block at birth and endocardial fibroelastosis without skin lesions in a preterm infant female. She was born from asymptomatic, ANA (Anti-Nuclear Antibodies) and ENA (anti-Extractable Nuclear Antigen) positive mother, with a previous miscarriage at the 5th week of gestation.

  16. Hold your horSSEs: controlling structure-selective endonucleases MUS81 and Yen1/GEN1

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Miguel G.; Matos, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Repair of DNA lesions through homologous recombination promotes the establishment of stable chromosomal interactions. Multiple helicases, topoisomerases and structure-selective endonucleases (SSEs) act upon recombining joint molecules (JMs) to disengage chromosomal connections and safeguard chromosome segregation. Recent studies on two conserved SSEs – MUS81 and Yen1/GEN1– uncovered multiple layers of regulation that operate to carefully tailor JM-processing according to specific cellular needs. Temporal restriction of SSE function imposes a hierarchy in pathway usage that ensures efficient JM-processing while minimizing reciprocal exchanges between the recombining DNAs. Whereas a conserved strategy of fine-tuning SSE functions exists in different model systems, the precise molecular mechanisms to implement it appear to be significantly different. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the cellular switches that are in place to control MUS81 and Yen1/GEN1 functions. PMID:26284109

  17. The effect of pH on the corrosion behavior of intermetallic compounds Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) and Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) + 2Mo in sodium chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Priyotomo, Gadang Nuraini, Lutviasari; Kaneno, Yasuyuki

    2015-12-29

    The corrosion behavior of the intermetallic compounds, Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) (L1{sub 2}: single phase) and Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) + 2Mo (L1{sub 2} and (L12 + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region), has been investigated using an immersion test, electrochemical method and surface analytical method (SEM; scanning electron microscope and EDAX: Energy Dispersive X-ray) in 0.5 kmol/m{sup 3} NaCl solutions at various pH. The corrosion behavior of nickel alloy C-276 was studied under the same experimental conditions as a reference. It was found that the uniform attack was observed on Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) for the immersion test at lower pH, while the pitting attack was observed on this compound for this test at neutral solution. Furthermore, Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti)+2Mo had the preferential dissolution of L1{sub 2} compared to (L1{sub 2} + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region at lower pH, while pitting attack occurred in (L1{sub 2} + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region at neutral solution. For both intermetallic compounds, the magnitude of pitting and uniform attack decrease with increasing pH of solutions. From the immersion test and polarization curves, the corrosion resistance of Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti)+2Mo is lower than that of Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti), while the nickel alloy C-276 is the highest one at various pH of solutions. On the other hand, in the lower pH of solutions, the corrosion resistance of tested materials decreased significantly compared to those in neutral and higher pH of solutions.

  18. CZT detectors for high-energy flare spectroscopy: the Room Temperature Semiconductor Spectrometer (RTeSS) on the JAWSAT satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestrand, Thomas W.; Cutlip, H. H.; Forrest, D. J.; Levenson, Ken A.; Marci, J. R.; Ryan, James M.

    1998-07-01

    We report on the design and construction of a solar flare spectrometer that will employ four 15 X 15 X 15 mm CZT detectors with coplanar electrodes. The compact spectrometer, which will provide measurements in the 40 - 800 keV energy range, is being constructed for flight on the Joint Air Force Academy/Weber State University Satellite (JAWSAT). JAWSAT is scheduled for a Minuteman II launch into a 650 km sun-synchronous orbit early during the next solar maximum. The terminator orbit will allow our Room Temperature Semiconductor Spectrometer (RTeSS) to monitor solar hard x-ray and gamma-ray emission nearly continuously during the 23rd solar sunspot maximum. The primary scientific objective of the RTeSS is measurement of the broad line complex near 450 keV that is generated in solar flare spectra by the interaction of energetic alpha particles with helium in the solar atmosphere. The RTeSS spectral resolution of approximately 4% FWHM at 662 keV is well matched to the line splitting expected for likely alpha particle angular distributions and should allow us to place important constraints on the acceleration and the transport of flare ions. The primary technological objective of the RTeSS program is to test the feasibility of using CZT detectors for the construction of solar flare spectrometers that are capable of high resolution observations when operating at room temperature. If successful in low earth orbit, CZT solar flare spectrometers could lead to significant savings in mass, volume, and power consumption over conventional high-resolution spectrometers.

  19. Adaptive Dimensionality Reduction with Semi-Supervision (AdDReSS): Classifying Multi-Attribute Biomedical Data.

    PubMed

    Lee, George; Romo Bucheli, David Edmundo; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    Medical diagnostics is often a multi-attribute problem, necessitating sophisticated tools for analyzing high-dimensional biomedical data. Mining this data often results in two crucial bottlenecks: 1) high dimensionality of features used to represent rich biological data and 2) small amounts of labelled training data due to the expense of consulting highly specific medical expertise necessary to assess each study. Currently, no approach that we are aware of has attempted to use active learning in the context of dimensionality reduction approaches for improving the construction of low dimensional representations. We present our novel methodology, AdDReSS (Adaptive Dimensionality Reduction with Semi-Supervision), to demonstrate that fewer labeled instances identified via AL in embedding space are needed for creating a more discriminative embedding representation compared to randomly selected instances. We tested our methodology on a wide variety of domains ranging from prostate gene expression, ovarian proteomic spectra, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and breast histopathology. Across these various high dimensional biomedical datasets with 100+ observations each and all parameters considered, the median classification accuracy across all experiments showed AdDReSS (88.7%) to outperform SSAGE, a SSDR method using random sampling (85.5%), and Graph Embedding (81.5%). Furthermore, we found that embeddings generated via AdDReSS achieved a mean 35.95% improvement in Raghavan efficiency, a measure of learning rate, over SSAGE. Our results demonstrate the value of AdDReSS to provide low dimensional representations of high dimensional biomedical data while achieving higher classification rates with fewer labelled examples as compared to without active learning.

  20. Validation of the flow-through chamber (FTC) and steady-state (SS) methods for clearance rate measurements in bivalves

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Poul S.; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    Summary To obtain precise and reliable laboratory clearance rate (filtration rate) measurements with the ‘flow-through chamber method’ (FTC) the design must ensure that only inflow water reaches the bivalve's inhalant aperture and that exit flow is fully mixed. As earlier recommended these prerequisites can be checked by a plot of clearance rate (CR) versus increasing through-flow (Fl) to reach a plateau, which is the true CR, but we also recommend to plot percent particles cleared versus reciprocal through-flow where the plateau becomes the straight line CR/Fl, and we emphasize that the percent of particles cleared is in itself neither a criterion for valid CR measurement, nor an indicator of appropriate ‘chamber geometry’ as hitherto adapted in many studies. For the ‘steady-state method’ (SS), the design must ensure that inflow water becomes fully mixed with the bivalve's excurrent flow to establish a uniform chamber concentration prevailing at its incurrent flow and at the chamber outlet. These prerequisites can be checked by a plot of CR versus increasing Fl, which should give the true CR at all through-flows. Theoretically, the experimental uncertainty of CR for a given accuracy of concentration measurements depends on the percent reduction in particle concentration (100×P) from inlet to outlet of the ideal ‘chamber geomety’. For FTC, it decreases with increasing values of P while for SS it first decreases but then increases again, suggesting the use of an intermediate value of P. In practice, the optimal value of P may depend on the given ‘chamber geometry’. The fundamental differences between the FTC and the SS methods and practical guidelines for their use are pointed out, and new data on CR for the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, illustrate a design and use of the SS method which may be employed in e.g. long-term growth experiments at constant algal concentrations. PMID:23213362

  1. Cellulase Ss (CelS) is synonymous with the major cellobiohydrolase (subunit S8) from the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Morag, E; Bayer, E A; Hazlewood, G P; Gilbert, H J; Lamed, R

    1993-11-01

    The controversy regarding the identity of a major cellulosomal component type from two different strains of Clostridium thermocellum has been resolved. The principal cellobiohydrolase, subunit S8, from the cellulosome of strain YS has been demonstrated to be synonymous with cellulase component Ss (CelS) from the cellulosome of ATCC strain 27405. This component is not related to any other cellulosomal subunit or cloned endoglucanase in this organism.

  2. Small molecule probes finely differentiate between various ds- and ss-DNA and RNA by fluorescence, CD and NMR response.

    PubMed

    Crnolatac, Ivo; Rogan, Iva; Majić, Boris; Tomić, Sanja; Deligeorgiev, Todor; Horvat, Gordan; Makuc, Damjan; Plavec, Janez; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Piantanida, Ivo

    2016-10-12

    Two small molecules showed intriguing properties of analytical multipurpose probes, whereby one chromophore gives different signal for many different DNA/RNA by application of several highly sensitive spectroscopic methods. Dyes revealed pronounced fluorescence ratiomeric differentiation between ds-AU-RNA, AT-DNA and GC-DNA in approximate order 10:8:1. Particularly interesting, dyes showed specific fluorimetric response for poly rA even at 10-fold excess of any other ss-RNA, and moreover such emission selectivity is preserved in multicomponent ss-RNA mixtures. The dyes also showed specific chiral recognition of poly rU in respect to the other ss-RNA by induced CD (ICD) pattern in visible range (400-500 nm), which was attributed to the dye-side-chain contribution to binding (confirmed by absence of any ICD band for reference compound lacking side-chain). Most intriguingly, minor difference in the side-chain attached to dye chromophore resulted in opposite sign of dye-ICD pattern, whereby differences in NMR NOESY contacts and proton chemical shifts between two dye/oligo rU complexes combined with MD simulations and CD calculations attributed observed bisignate ICD to the dimeric dye aggregate within oligo rU.

  3. A novel measure of compulsive food restriction in anorexia nervosa: validation of the Self-Starvation Scale (SS).

    PubMed

    Godier, Lauren R; Park, Rebecca J

    2015-04-01

    The characteristic relentless self-starvation behaviour seen in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been described as evidence of compulsivity, with increasing suggestion of transdiagnostic parallels with addictive behaviour. There is a paucity of standardised self-report measures of compulsive behaviour in eating disorders (EDs). Measures that index the concept of compulsive self-starvation in AN are needed to explore the suggested parallels with addictions. With this aim a novel measure of self-starvation was developed (the Self-Starvation Scale, SS). 126 healthy participants, and 78 individuals with experience of AN, completed the new measure along with existing measures of eating disorder symptoms, anxiety and depression. Initial validation in the healthy sample indicated good reliability and construct validity, and incremental validity in predicting eating disorder symptoms. The psychometric properties of the SS scale were replicated in the AN sample. The ability of this scale to predict ED symptoms was particularly strong in individuals currently suffering from AN. These results suggest the SS may be a useful index of compulsive food restriction in AN. The concept of 'starvation dependence' in those with eating disorders, as a parallel with addiction, may be of clinical and theoretical importance.

  4. Q36R polymorphism of KiSS-1 gene in Brazilian head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Mariângela Torreglosa; Galbiatti, Ana Lívia Silva; Pavarino, Erika Cristina; Maniglia, José Victor; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria

    2012-05-01

    The KiSS-1 metastasis-suppressor gene (KiSS-1) product (metastin, kisspeptin) is reported to act after binding with the natural ligand of a G-protein coupled receptor and this gene product inhibits chemotaxis, invasion, and metastasis of cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Q36R polymorphism of KiSS-1 in patients with head and neck cancer and to compare the results with healthy individuals and its association with clinicopathological parameters. Gender, age, smoking and alcohol consumption were analyzed for 744 individual (252 head and neck cancer patients and in 522 control individuals). The molecular analysis of these individuals was made after extraction of genomic DNA using the SSCP-PCR technique. This study did not reveal any significant differences in genotype frequencies between healthy individuals and patients with head and neck cancer or with the clinical parameters. This study showed an increase frequency of the Q36R polymorphism in pharyngeal cancer.

  5. Enzyme-Free Amplification by Nano Sticky Balls for Visual Detection of ssDNA/RNA Oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shan; Chu, Lok Ting; Yeung, Pak Piu; Zhao, Zichen; Bao, Yuanye; Chan, Miu Shan; Lo, Pik Kwan; Chen, Ting-Hsuan

    2015-10-21

    Visual detection of nucleic acids provides simple and rapid screening for infectious diseases or environmental pathogens. However, sensitivity is the current bottleneck, which may require enzymatic amplification for targets in low abundance and make them incompatible with detection at resource-limited sites. Here we report an enzyme-free amplification that provides a sensitive visual detection of ssDNA/RNA oligonucleotides on the basis of nano "sticky balls". When target oligonucleotides are present, magnetic microparticles (MMPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were linked together, allowing the collection of AuNPs after magnetic attraction. Subsequently, the collected AuNPs, which carry many oligonucleotides, were used as the sticky balls to link a second pair of MMPs and polymer microparticles (PMPs). Thus, because the magnetic field can attract the MMPs as well as the linked PMPs to the sidewall, the reduction of suspended PMPs yields a change of light transmission visible by the naked eye. Our results demonstrate that the limit of detection is 10 amol for ssDNAs (228 fM in 45 μL) and 75 amol for ssRNAs (1.67 pM in 45 μL). This method is also compatible with the serum environment and detection of a microRNA, miR-155, derived from human breast cancer cells. With significantly improved sensitivity for visual detection, it provides great potential for point-of-care applications at resource-limited sites.

  6. Amino acid sequence, S-S bridge arrangement and distribution in plant tissues of thionins from Viscum album.

    PubMed

    Orrù, S; Scaloni, A; Giannattasio, M; Urech, K; Pucci, P; Schaller, G

    1997-09-01

    The complete primary structure of a cytotoxic 5 kDa polypeptide, viscotoxin A1, isolated from Viscum album L., has been determined by combining classical Edman degradation methodology with advanced mass spectrometric procedures. The same integrated approach allowed correction of the sequence of viscotoxin A2 and definition of the pattern of the disulfide bridges. The arrangement of the cysteine pairing was determined as Cys3-Cys40, Cys4-Cys32 and Cys16-Cys26. The primary structure of viscotoxin A1 shares a high degree of similarity with the known viscotoxins and more generally with the plant alpha- and beta-thionins. The pattern of S-S bridges determined for viscotoxin A2 and A1 is similar to that inferred by X-ray and NMR analysis in crambin and related to that present in alpha-purothionin and beta-hordothionin, thus indicating a highly conserved organization of the S-S pairings within the entire family. This arrangement of S-S bridges describes a peculiar structural motif, indicated as 'concentric motif', which is suggested to stabilize a common structure occurring in various small proteins able to interact with cell membranes. The distribution of the new variant toxin in different mistletoe subspecies was investigated. Viscotoxin A1 is abundant in the seeds of the three European subspecies of V. album whereas it represents a minor component in the shoots.

  7. Identification of ssDNA aptamers specific to clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans strains with different cariogenicity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Liu, Jiaojiao; Su, Donghua; Hu, Danyang; Hou, Shuai; Hu, Tongnan; Yang, Jiyong; Luo, Yanping; Xi, Qing; Chu, Bingfeng; Wang, Chenglong

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic bacterium, is considered to be a major etiological factor for dental caries. In this study, plaques from dental enamel surfaces of caries-active and caries-free individuals were obtained and cultivated for S. mutans isolation. Morphology examination, biochemical characterization, and polymerase chain reaction were performed to identify S. mutans The cariogenicity of S. mutans strains isolated from clinical specimens was evaluated by testing the acidogenicity, aciduricity, extracellular polysaccharide production, and adhesion ability of the bacteria. Finally, subtractive SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) technology targeting whole intact cells was used to screen for ssDNA aptamers specific to the strains with high cariogenicity. After nine rounds of subtractive SELEX, sufficient pool enrichment was achieved as shown by radioactive isotope analysis. The enriched pool was cloned and sequenced randomly, followed by MEME online and RNA structure software analysis of the sequences. Results from the flow cytometry indicated that aptamers H1, H16, H4, L1, L10, and H19 could discriminate highly cariogenic S. mutans strains from poorly cariogenic strains. Among these, Aptamer H19 had the strongest binding capacity with cariogenic S. mutans strains with a dissociation constant of 69.45 ± 38.53 nM. In conclusion, ssDNA aptamers specific to highly cariogenic clinical S. mutans strains were successfully obtained. These ssDNA aptamers might be used for the early diagnosis and treatment of dental caries.

  8. RecA-ssDNA filaments supercoil in the presence of single-stranded DNA-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Weixian; Larson, Ronald G. . E-mail: rlarson@umich.edu

    2007-06-08

    Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we find that RecA-single-stranded DNA (RecA-ssDNA) filaments, in the presence of single-stranded DNA-binding (SSB) protein, organize into left-handed bundles, which differ from the previously reported disordered aggregates formed when SSB is excluded from the reaction. In addition, we see both left- and right-handedness on bundles of two filaments. These two-filament supercoils, individual filaments, and other smaller bundles further organize into more complicated bundles, showing overall left-handedness which cannot be explained by earlier arguments that presumed supercoiling is absent in RecA-ssDNA filaments. This novel finding and our previous results regarding supercoiling of RecA-double-stranded DNA (RecA-dsDNA) filaments are, however, consistent with each other and can possibly be explained by the intrinsic tendency of RecA-DNA filaments, in their fully coated form, to order themselves into helical bundles, independent of the DNA inside the filaments (ssDNA or dsDNA). RecA-RecA interactions may dominate the bundling process, while the original conformation of DNA inside filaments and other factors (mechanical properties of filaments, concentration of filaments, and Mg{sup 2+} concentration) could contribute to the variation in the appearance and pitch of supercoils. The tendency of RecA-DNA filaments to form ordered supercoils and their presence during strand exchange suggest a possible biological importance of supercoiled filaments.

  9. Loss of heterozygosity at the SS receptor type 5 locus in human GH- and TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Filopanti, M; Ballarè, E; Lania, A G; Bondioni, S; Verga, U; Locatelli, M; Zavanone, L M; Losa, M; Gelmini, S; Peri, A; Orlando, C; Beck-Peccoz, P; Spada, A

    2004-11-01

    SS receptor types 2 and 5 (sst2 and sst5) are involved in the control of secretion and proliferation of normal and tumoral somatotrophs and thyrotrophs. The mechanisms leading to reduced responsiveness to SS analogues in patients with pituitary tumors are poorly understood. The aim of the study was to verify the possible loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the sst5 gene locus in somatotroph and thyrotroph adenomas by screening leukocyte and tumor DNA for two single nucleotide polymorphisms, i.e. C1004T leading to P335L change and T-461C in the 5'-upstream region. Among the 13 informative samples, 1 GH- and 1 TSH-secreting adenoma showed LOH at sst5 gene locus with the retention of Leu335 variant. By analyzing other polymorphic markers spanning from telomere to 16p13.3-13.2 boundaries, DNA deletion of at least 1 megabase was found in both tumors. LOH in thyrotroph adenoma was associated with unusual tumor aggressiveness that required a second surgery and resistance to SS analogs, while no obvious phenotype was identified in the case of the somatotroph adenoma. In conclusions, LOH at the sst5 gene locus is a rare phenomenon, occurring in about 10% of pituitary tumors, that seems to be associated with an aggressive phenotype, at least in thyrotroph adenomas. Further studies are required to confirm this association and to identify the genes, in addition to sst5, lost in these tumors.

  10. Optimization of Heat Treatments for Reversion of Strain-Induced Martensite in 304L SS Explosive Clad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanthi, T. N.; Sudha, C.; Parida, P. K.; Dasgupta, Arup; Saroja, S.

    2016-02-01

    Explosive clad joints of 304L SS and Ti-5Ta-2Nb alloy, fabricated for an important application in the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing industry showed formation of deformation induced metastable α' martensite and fcc Ti phase in SS and TiTaNb alloy respectively. A biphasic structure consisting of metastable phases is not preferred for industrial applications due to degradation of corrosion and mechanical properties of the structural materials during service. Hence, it is essential to carry out post cladding heat treatments. The results reported in this paper provide evidence for the presence of α' phase in 304L SS in `as clad' joints and its reversion process during thermal exposure. The temperature window in the range of 400-700 °C and time was optimized based on complete transformation of the metastable phases to parent phases, and avoiding the formation of brittle Fe-Ti intermetallics at the interface. A systematic increase in the fraction of austenite phase associated with the reversion phenomena has been studied using electron back scattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Orientation relationship between product fcc and parent bcc phases was found to obey the K-S relationship. The reverted γ phase was found to nucleate within the martensite laths. A temperature of 550 °C for duration of about 10 h was found to be optimum for the post cladding treatments of the explosive clad joints.

  11. The Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS) and the Vocal Handicap Index (VHI): a comparison of structure and content.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J A; Webb, A; Carding, P N; Steen, I N; MacKenzie, K; Deary, I J

    2004-04-01

    Self report measures of voice function are in frequent use, but have had inadequate psychometric evaluation. We aimed to perform a substantial factor analysis of two measures of voice impairment, the Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS) and the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). Both the 30-item questionnaires were completed by 319 dysphonic voice clinic attenders (99M, 220F). Principal components analysis confirmed that both instruments reflected general voice abnormality. The VoiSS comprised three factors - impairment (15 items), emotional (8 items) and related physical symptoms (7 items) - each with a good internal consistency. Analysis of the VHI suggested that it contains only two subscales. When a three-factor solution was imposed on the data, analysis failed to support the currently advised three 10-item subscale interpretations. Instead, we found a physical (voice impairment) domain (8 items), a psychosocial domain (14 items) and a factor with 8 items related to difficulty in being heard. The VHI requires further statistical refinement to identify its subscale structure. The VoiSS was developed from 800 subjects and is psychometrically the most robust and extensively validated self report voice measure available.

  12. Intrathecal Delivery of ssAAV9-DAO Extends Survival in SOD1(G93A) ALS Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wan; Duan, Weisong; Wang, Ying; Wen, Di; Liu, Yakun; Li, Zhongyao; Hu, Haojie; Cui, Hongying; Cui, Can; Lin, Huiqian; Li, Chunyan

    2016-12-26

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset, irreversible neurodegenerative disease that leads to progressive paralysis and inevitable death 3-5 years after diagnosis. The mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown, but new evidence indicates that accumulating levels of D-serine result from the downregulation of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and that this is a novel mechanism that leads to motoneuronal death in ALS via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated cell toxicity. Here, we explored a new therapeutic approach to ALS by overexpressing DAO in the lumbar region of the mouse spinal cord using a single stranded adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (ssAAV9) vector. A single intrathecal injection of ssAAV9-DAO was made in SOD1(G93A) mice, a well-established mouse model of ALS. Treatment resulted in moderate expression of exogenous DAO in motorneurons in the lumbar spinal cord, reduced immunoreactivity of D-serine, alleviated motoneuronal loss and glial activation, and extended survival. The potential mechanisms underlying these effects were associated with the down-regulation of NF-κB and the restoration of the phosphorylation of Akt. In conclusion, administering ssAAV9-DAO may be an effective complementary approach to gene therapy to extend lifespans in symptomatic ALS.

  13. A novel silica nanotube reinforced ionic incorporated hydroxyapatite composite coating on polypyrrole coated 316L SS for implant application.

    PubMed

    Prem Ananth, K; Joseph Nathanael, A; Jose, Sujin P; Oh, Tae Hwan; Mangalaraj, D

    2016-02-01

    An attempt has been made to deposit a novel smart ion (Sr, Zn, Mg) substituted hydroxyapatite (I-HAp) and silica nanotube (SiNTs) composite coatings on polypyrrole (PPy) coated surgical grade 316L stainless steel (316L SS) to improve its biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. The I-HAp/SiNTS/PPy bilayer coating on 316L SS was prepared by electrophoretic deposition technique. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies were carried out. These results confirmed the significant improvement of the corrosion resistance of the 316L SS alloy by the I-HAp/SiNTs/PPy bilayer composite coating. The adhesion strength and hardness test confirmed the anticipated mechanical properties of the composite. A low contact angle value revealed the hydrophilic nature. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was used for the leach out analysis of the samples. Added to this, the bioactivity of the composite was analyzed by observing the apatite formation in the SBF solution for 7, 14, 21 and 28days of incubation. An enhancement of in vitro osteoblast attachment and cell viability was observed, which could lead to the optimistic orthopedic and dental applications.

  14. Morphological and Mechanical Properties of Hydroxyapatite Bilayer Coatings Deposited on 316L SS by Sol-Gel Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidane, Djahida; Khireddine, Hafit; Yala, Sabeha; Ziani, Salima; Bir, Fatima; Chicot, Didier

    2015-10-01

    The present paper reports on the influence of the addition of TiO2 and SiO2 oxides as sub-layer, on the morphological and mechanical properties of the hydroxyapatite (HAP) bioceramic coatings deposited on 316L stainless steel by sol-gel method in order to improve the properties of hydroxyapatite and expand its clinical application. The stability of the sols suspensions was evaluated by measuring the time dependence of the viscosity. Annealed properties of the coatings were analyzed by XPS, XRD, SEM, and EDS. The Vickers microhardness of the coatings is obtained under the same indentation load of 10 g. The hydroxyapatite coating deposited on the surface of the 316L SS substrate exhibits a porous carbonated apatitic structure. The results clearly demonstrate that HAP-TiO2 and HAP-SiO2 bilayer coatings where hydroxyapatite is deposited on the surface of TiO2- and SiO2-coated 316L SS substrate systems were highly homogeneous and uniform and show higher microhardness compared to HAP-coated 316L SS. A gap of nearly 10 pct is observed. The addition of TiO2 and SiO2 as sub-layer of a hydroxyapatite coating results in changes in surface morphology as well as an increase of the microhardness.

  15. Sealworm Pseudoterranova decipiens s.s. infection of European smelt Osmerus eperlanus in German coastal waters: ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Thomas; Benninghoff, Tim; Karl, Horst; Landry, Thomas; Klimpel, Sven

    2013-02-28

    European smelt Osmerus eperlanus (n = 501) from the German Wadden Sea (North Sea) near the city of Cuxhaven were examined for their infestation with parasitic anisakid nematodes, especially with sealworms of the genus Pseudoterranova. The distribution of third-stage larvae (L3) in the musculature and viscera of the fish was analyzed. In total, we isolated 543 L3 from the hosts' body cavity and musculature. A subsample of 105 larvae were identified as the (sibling) species P. decipiens s.s. using direct sequencing of the highly variable ribosomal ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 genetic marker. The mean abundance was 1.1, the mean intensity was 2.3 P. decipiens s.s. and the prevalence was 47.3%. Total length and total weight, but not Fulton's condition factor (K), were significantly different in infected compared to uninfected smelt. No correlation was found between the total length of infected fish and the intensity of anisakid nematodes. The vast majority of P. decipiens s.s. was found in the musculature of the smelt. More than half (55.7%) of all nematodes were located in the 3 parts of the epaxial musculature, whereas 18.4 and 26.0% were found in the hypaxial musculature and the compartments of the tail muscles, respectively.

  16. EFFECT OF SURFACE CONDITION ON SPALLATION BEHAVIOR OF OXIDE SCALE ON SS 441 SUBSTRATE USED IN SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-03-01

    As operating temperature of SOFC decreases, ferritic stainless steel has attracted a great deal of attention for its use as an interconnect in SOFCs because of its gas-tightness, low electrical resistivity, ease of fabrication, and cost-effectiveness. However, oxidation reaction of the metallic interconnects in a typical SOFC working environment is unavoidable. The growth stresses in the oxide scale and on the scale/substrate interface combined with the thermal stresses induced by thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the oxide scale and the substrate may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation during stack cooling, which can lead to serious cell performance degradation. Therefore, the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of the metallic interconnect in SOFC operating environments. In this paper, we investigated the effect of the surface conditions on the interfacial strength of oxide scale and SS441 substrate experimentally. Contrary to the conventional sense, it was found that rough surface of SS441 substrate will decrease the interfacial adhesive strength of the oxide scale and SS441 substrate

  17. Fast launch speeds in radio flares, from a new determination of the intrinsic motions of SS 433's jet bolides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffrey, Robert M.; Blundell, Katherine M.; Trushkin, Sergei A.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.

    2016-09-01

    We present new high-resolution, multi-epoch, Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio images of the Galactic microquasar SS 433. We are able to observe plasma knots in the milliarcsecond-scale jets more than 50 d after their launch. This unprecedented baseline in time allows us to determine the bulk launch speed of the radio-emitting plasma during a radio flare, using a new method which we present here, and which is completely independent of optical spectroscopy. We also apply this method to an earlier sequence of 39 short daily VLBA observations, which cover a period in which SS 433 moved from quiescence into a flare. In both data sets we find, for the first time at radio wavebands, clear evidence that the launch speeds of the milliarcsecond-scale jets rise as high as 0.32c during flaring episodes. By comparing these images of SS 433 with photometric radio monitoring from the RATAN-600 telescope, we explore further properties of these radio flares.

  18. Attention to future actions: the influence of instructed S-R versus S-S mappings on attentional control.

    PubMed

    Tibboel, Helen; Liefooghe, Baptist; De Houwer, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Even though there is ample evidence that planning future actions plays a role in attentional processing (e.g., Downing Visual Cognition 11:689-703, 2000; Soto et al., Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12:248-342, 2008), it is not clear to what extent planning in itself (rather than the prior experience of the planned actions) controls attention. We suggest that attention can be biased towards stimuli that are associated with instructions for tasks that will be performed in the future even if those tasks have not yet been experienced. We performed two experiments in which participants receive instructions in which some objects were associated with a response (i.e., instructed S-R objects; "Experiment 1") or a stimulus property (i.e., instructed S-S objects; "Experiment 2"), whereas control objects were not. However, before participants were required to perform the S-R task ("Experiment 1") or perform an S-S memory task ("Experiment 2"), they performed a visual probe task in which target objects and control objects served as irrelevant cues. Our results show that attention was biased towards the S-R objects (compared to control stimuli) but not to S-S objects. These findings suggest that future plans can bias attention toward specific stimuli, but only when these stimuli are associated with a specific action. We discuss these findings in light of research concerning automatic effects of instructions and theories that view attention as a selection-for-action mechanism.

  19. Differential Regulation of the Extracellular Cysteine/Cystine Redox State (EhCySS) by Lung Fibroblasts from Young and Old Mice

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with progressive oxidation of plasma cysteine (Cys)/cystine (CySS) redox state, expressed as EhCySS. Cultured cells condition their media to reproduce physiological EhCySS, but it is unknown whether aged cells produce a more oxidized extracellular environment reflective of that seen in vivo. In the current study, we isolated primary lung fibroblasts from young and old female mice and measured the media EhCySS before and after challenge with Cys or CySS. We also measured expression of genes related to redox regulation and fibroblast function. These studies revealed that old fibroblasts produced a more oxidizing extracellular EhCySS than young fibroblasts and that old fibroblasts had a decreased capacity to recover from an oxidative challenge due to a slower rate of reduction of CySS to Cys. These defects were associated with 10-fold lower expression of the Slc7a11 subunit of the xCT cystine-glutamate transporter. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (Sod3) was the only antioxidant or thiol-disulfide regulating enzyme among 36 examined that was downregulated in old fibroblasts by more than 2-fold, but there were numerous changes in extracellular matrix components. Thus, aging fibroblasts not only contribute to remodeling of the extracellular matrix but also have a profound effect on the extracellular redox environment. PMID:27642492

  20. Exhaled breath condensate pH assays.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael D; Hunt, John

    2012-08-01

    Airway pH is central to the physiologic function and cellular biology of the airway. The causes of airway acidification include (1) hypopharyngeal gastric acid reflux with or without aspiration through the vocal cords, (2) inhalation of acid fog or gas (such as chlorine), and (3) intrinsic airway acidification caused by altered airway pH homeostasis in infectious and inflammatory disease processes. The recognition that relevant airway pH deviations occur in lung diseases is opening doors to new simple and inexpensive therapies. This recognition has resulted partly from the ability to use exhaled breath condensate as a window on airway acid-base balance.

  1. Auv Multibeam Bathymetry and Sidescan Survey of the SS Montebello wreck Offshore Cambria CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; Conlin, D.; Thompson, D.; Paull, C. K.

    2010-12-01

    An MBARI Mapping AUV survey of the SS Montebello wreck offshore Cambria, CA collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and sidescan imagery of the vessel and the surrounding seafloor. The Montebello was an oil tanker that was torpedoed and sunk about 11 km offshore in 275 m water depth by a Japanese submarine on December 23, 1941. The Montebello was loaded with 3,000,000 gallons of crude oil, and there is no evidence that significant leakage of that cargo occurred at the time of the sinking or in the 69 years since. The California Department of Fish and Game’s Office of Spill Prevention and Response (OSPR) commissioned the AUV survey as part of a multi-agency Montebello Task Force effort to assess the potential pollution threat. The survey data will be used to determine the extent and general character of the wreckage for a pending Task Force report and to guide any future ROV dive or assessment activity . The AUV surveyed the wreck site from altitudes of 75 and 25 m; the low-altitude high-resolution survey consists of a grid with a 50 m line spacing both parallel and orthogonal to the ship. The 200 kHz multibeam bathymetry images the wreck from both above and from the sides with an 0.5 m lateral resolution. The combination of soundings from all of the survey lines results in a three-dimensional distribution of soundings that delineates the external morphology and some of the internal structure of the wreck. 410 kHz chirp sidescan sonar data also image the site from both directions. The bathymetry data indicate that the Montebello was pitched forward down when it impacted the bottom, crushing and breaking off the bow section. Both forward and aft deckhouses are largely intact, and in fact the multibeam images the individual decks within those structures. About half of the forward mast remains, both amidships masts and the smokestack are missing. A good deal of the deck piping and equipment appears intact, and aside from the bow, the ship’s sides appear

  2. Molecular and Functional Characterization of ssDNA Aptamers that Specifically Bind Leishmania infantum PABP

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Pérez, Natalia; Ramos, Edurne; García-Hernández, Marta; Pinto, Celia; Soto, Manuel; Martín, M. Elena; González, Víctor M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A poly (A)-binding protein from Leishmania infantum (LiPABP) has been recently cloned and characterized in our laboratory. Although this protein shows a very high homology with PABPs from other eukaryotic organisms including mammals and other parasites, exist divergences along the sequence that convert them in potential diagnostic markers and/or therapeutics targets. Aptamers are oligonucleotide ligands that are selected in vitro by their affinity and specificity for the target as a consequence of the particular tertiary structure that they are able to acquire depending on their sequence. Development of high-affinity molecules with the ability to recognize specifically Leishmania proteins is essential for the progress of this kind of study. Results We have selected a ssDNA aptamer population against a recombinant 6xHIS–LiPABP protein (rLiPABP) that is able to recognize the target with a low Kd. Cloning, sequencing and in silico analysis of the aptamers obtained from the population yielded three aptamers (ApPABP#3, ApPABP#7 and ApPABP#11) that significantly bound to PABP with higher affinity than the naïve population. These aptamers were analyzed by ELONA and slot blot to establish affinity and specificity for rLiPABP. Results demonstrated that the three aptamers have high affinity and specificity for the target and that they are able to detect an endogenous LiPABP (eLiPABP) protein amount corresponding to 2500 L. infantum promastigotes in a significant manner. The functional analysis of the aptamers also revealed that ApPABP#11 disrupts the binding of both Myc-LiPABP and eLiPABP to poly (A) in vitro. On the other hand, these aptamers are able to bind and purify LiPABP from complex mixes. Conclusion Results presented here demonstrate that aptamers represent new reagents for characterization of LiPABP and that they can affect LiPABP activity. At this respect, the use of these aptamers as therapeutic tool affecting the physiological role of PABP has to be

  3. Single-Shot Laser Ablation Split-Stream (SS-LASS) Analysis Depth Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Stearns, M. A.; Viete, D. R.; Cottle, J. M.; Hacker, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Laser ablation depth profiling of geochronometers—such as zircon, monazite, titanite and rutile—has become popular in recent years as a tool to both determine date vs. depth or trace-element (TE) composition vs. depth; the former allows the dating of thin rims and, potentially, inversion of Pb-loss profiles for thermal histories, whereas the latter can yield insight into changes in PTX or mineral parageneses and inversion of trace-element profiles for thermal histories. In this study, we combine both techniques, enabling simultaneous acquisition of U-Th/Pb isotopic ratios and trace-element compositions, by joining a 193 nm excimer laser to a multi-collector ICP-MS and single-collector ICP-MS. The simultaneous acquisition allows direct shot-by-shot linkage between time and petrology, expanding our ability to understand the evolution of complex geologic systems. We construct each depth profile by capturing the analyte with a succession of individual laser pulses (each ~100 nm deep) . This has two main advantages over a typical time-dependent analysis of a multi-shot routine composed of tens to hundreds of shots and a several μm deep hole. 1) The reference material is analyzed between each shot for a more-accurate standardization of each aliquot of ablated material. 2) There is no mixing of material ablated from successive laser pulses during transmission to the ICP. The method is limited by count rate, which depends on spot size, excavation rate, instrument sensitivity, etc., and, for single-collector ICP, the switching time, which limits the number of elements that can be analyzed and their total counts. We explore the latter theoretically and experimentally to provide insight on both the ideal number of elements to measure and the dwell time in any given sample. Examples of the utility of SS-LASS include the comparison of apparent Pb loss to diffusion profiles of trace elements in rims of metamorphic rutile and titanite, as well as the determination of the

  4. Synthesis and antioxidant evaluation of (S,S)- and (R,R)-secoisolariciresinol diglucosides (SDGs).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Om P; Simmons, Nicholas; Tyagi, Sonia; Pietrofesa, Ralph; Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Valiulin, Roman A; Heretsch, Philipp; Nicolaou, K C; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2013-10-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucosides (SDGs) (S,S)-SDG-1 (major isomer in flaxseed) and (R,R)-SDG-2 (minor isomer in flaxseed) were synthesized from vanillin via secoisolariciresinol (6) and glucosyl donor 7 through a concise route that involved chromatographic separation of diastereomeric diglucoside derivatives (S,S)-8 and (R,R)-9. Synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1 and (R,R)-SDG-2 exhibited potent antioxidant properties (EC50=292.17±27.71 μM and 331.94±21.21 μM, respectively), which compared well with that of natural (S,S)-SDG-1 (EC50=275.24±13.15 μM). These values are significantly lower than those of ascorbic acid (EC50=1129.32±88.79 μM) and α-tocopherol (EC50=944.62±148.00 μM). Compounds (S,S)-SDG-1 and (R,R)-SDG-2 also demonstrated powerful scavenging activities against hydroxyl [natural (S,S)-SDG-1: 3.68±0.27; synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1: 2.09±0.16; synthetic (R,R)-SDG-2: 1.96±0.27], peroxyl [natural (S,S)-SDG-1: 2.55±0.11; synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1: 2.20±0.10; synthetic (R,R)-SDG-2: 3.03±0.04] and DPPH [natural (S,S)-SDG-1: EC50=83.94±2.80 μM; synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1: EC50=157.54±21.30 μM; synthetic (R,R)-SDG-2: EC50=123.63±8.67 μM] radicals. These results confirm previous studies with naturally occurring (S,S)-SDG-1 and establish both (S,S)-SDG-1 and (R,R)-SDG-2 as potent antioxidants and free radical scavengers for potential in vivo use.

  5. Supramolecular ssDNA templated porphyrin and metalloporphyrin nanoassemblies with tunable helicity.

    PubMed

    Sargsyan, Gevorg; Leonard, Brian M; Kubelka, Jan; Balaz, Milan

    2014-02-10

    Free-base and nickel porphyrin-diaminopurine conjugates were formed by hydrogen-bond directed assembly on single-stranded oligothymidine templates of different lengths into helical multiporphyrin nanoassemblies with highly modular structural and chiroptical properties. Large red-shifts of the Soret band in the UV/Vis spectroscopy confirmed strong electronic coupling among assembled porphyrin-diaminopurine units. Slow annealing rates yielded preferentially right-handed nanostructures, whereas fast annealing yielded left-handed nanostructures. Time-dependent DFT simulations of UV/Vis and CD spectra for model porphyrin clusters templated on the canonical B-DNA and its enantiomeric form, were employed to confirm the origin of observed chiroptical properties and to assign the helicity of porphyrin nanoassemblies. Molar CD and CD anisotropy g factors of dialyzed templated porphyrin nanoassemblies showed very high chiroptical anisotropy. The DNA-templated porphyrin nanoassemblies displayed high thermal and pH stability. The structure and handedness of all assemblies was preserved at temperatures up to +85 °C and pH between 3 and 12. High-resolution transition electron microscopy confirmed formation of DNA-templated nickel(II) porphyrin nanoassemblies and their self-assembly into helical fibrils with micrometer lengths.

  6. Genetic diversity and gene flow of humans, Plasmodium falciparum, and Anopheles farauti s.s. of Vanuatu: inferred malaria dispersal and implications for malaria control.

    PubMed

    Lum, J K; Kaneko, A; Taleo, G; Amos, M; Reiff, D M

    2007-08-01

    A comparison of the patterns of gene flow within and between islands and the genetic diversities of the three species required for malaria transmission (humans, Plasmodium falciparum, and Anopheles farauti s.s.) within the model island system of Vanuatu, shows that the active dispersal of An. farauti s.s. is responsible for within island movement of parasites. In contrast, since both P. falciparum and An. farauti s.s. populations are largely restricted to islands, movement of parasites between islands is likely due to human transport. Thus, control of vectors is crucial for controlling malaria within islands, while control of human movement is essential to control malaria transmission across the archipelago.

  7. KiSS-1 methylation and protein expression patterns contribute to diagnostic and prognostic assessments in tissue specimens for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Moya, Patricia; Esteban, Sergio; Fernandez-Suarez, Antonio; Maestro, Marisa; Morente, Manuel; Sánchez-Carbayo, Marta

    2013-02-01

    KISS1 is a metastasis suppressor lost in several solid malignancies. We evaluated the clinical relevance of KiSS-1 methylation and its protein expression in colorectal cancer. The epigenetic silencing of KiSS-1 by hypermethylation was tested in colon cancer cells (n = 5) before and after azacytidine treatment. KiSS-1 methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR in colorectal cancer cells, and normal, benign, and tumor tissues (n = 352) were grouped in a training set (n = 62) and two independent validation cohorts (n = 100 and n = 190). KiSS-1 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on tissue arrays. KiSS-1 hypermethylation correlated with transcript and protein expression loss, being increased in vitro by azacytidine. Methylation rates were 53.1, 70.0, and 80.0 % in the training and validation sets, respectively. In the training set, KiSS-1 methylation rendered a diagnostic accuracy of 72.7 % (p = 0.002). Combination of KiSS-1 methylation and serum CEA (p = 0.001) increased the prognostic utility of CEA alone (p = 0.022). In the first validation set, KiSS-1 methylation correlated with tumor grade (p = 0.011), predicted recurrence (p = 0.009), metastasis (p = 0.004), disease-free (p = 0.034), and overall survival (p = 0.015). In the second validation cohort, KiSS-1 methylation predicted disease-specific survival (p = 0.030). In the training set, cytoplasmic KiSS-1 expression was significantly higher in nonneoplastic biopsies as compared to colorectal tumors (p < 0.0005). In the validation set, loss of cytoplasmic expression correlated with tumor stage (p = 0.007), grade (p = 0.035), recurrence (p = 0.017), and disease-specific survival (p = 0.022). KiSS-1 was revealed epigenetically modified in colorectal cancer. The diagnostic and prognostic utility of KiSS-1 methylation and expression patterns suggests their assessment for the clinical management of colorectal

  8. Coping with PH over the Long Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... Process: Some First Steps Adoption Success Story Watch Classroom Recordings Empowered Patient Online Toolkit Tab 1: Very ... Kathy Groebner Education Programs Patients and Caregivers PHA Classroom PHA on the Road: PH Patients and Families ...

  9. Effect of two mouthwashes on salivary ph.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, Paola A; Morelatto, Rosana A; Benavidez, Tomás E; Baruzzi, Ana M; López de Blanc, Silvia A

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effect of two mouthwashes on salivary pH and correlate it with age, buffer capacity and saliva flow rate in healthy volunteers, a crossover phase IV clinical study involving three age-based groups was designed. Two commercial mouthwashes (MW), Cool Mint ListerineR (MWa) and Periobacter R (MWb) were used. The unstimulated saliva of each individual was first characterized by measuring flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity. Salivary pH was evaluated before rinsing with a given MW, immediately after rinsing, 5 minutes later, and then every 10 min (at 15, 25, 35 min) until the baseline pH was recovered. Paired t-test, ANOVA with a randomized block design, and Pearson correlation tests were used. Averages were 0.63 mL/min, 7.06, and 0.87 for flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity, respectively. An immediate significant increase in salivary pH was observed after rinsing, reaching average values of 7.24 (MWb) and 7.30 (MWa), which declined to an almost stable value 15 minutes. The great increase in salivary pH, after MW use shows that saliva is a dynamic system, and that the organism is capable of responding to a stimulus with changes in its composition. It is thus evident that pH of the external agent alone is not a good indicator for its erosive potential because biological systems tend to neutralize it. The results of this study enhance the importance of in vivo measurements and reinforce the concept of the protective action of saliva.

  10. The electrochemistry in 316SS crevices exposed to PWR-relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vankeerberghen, M.; Weyns, G.; Gavrilov, S.; Henshaw, J.; Deconinck, J.

    2009-04-01

    The chemical and electrochemical conditions within a crevice of Type 316 stainless steel in boric acid-lithium hydroxide solutions under PWR-relevant conditions were modelled with a computational electrochemistry code. The influence of various variables: dissolved hydrogen, boric acid, lithium hydroxide concentration, crevice length, and radiation dose rate was studied. It was found with the model that 25 ccH 2/kg (STP) was sufficient to remain below an electrode potential of -230 mV she, commonly accepted sufficient to prevent stress corrosion cracking under BWR conditions. In a PWR plant various operational B-Li cycles are possible but it was found that the choice of the cycle did not significantly influence the model results. It was also found that a hydrogen level of 50 ccH 2/kg (STP) would be needed to avoid substantial lowering of the pH inside a crevice.

  11. Which is the better proxy for paleo-current strength: Sortable-silt mean size (SS>¯) or sortable-silt mean grain diameter (dSS)? A case study from the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegzes, Andrea D.; Jansen, Eystein; Telford, Richard J.

    2015-10-01

    The coarseness of the 10-63 μm terrigenous silt (i.e., sortable-silt) fraction tends to vary independently of sediment supply in current-sorted muds in the world's oceans, with coarser sediments representing relatively greater near-bottom flow speeds. Traditionally, the coarseness of this size fraction is described using an index called sortable-silt mean size (SS>¯), which is an arithmetic average calculated from the differential volume or mass distribution of grains within the 10-63 μm terrigenous silt fraction, where the relative weights of the individual size bins become increasingly disproportionate, with respect to the actual number of grains within those size bins, toward the coarse end of the size range. This not only increases the absolute value of the apparent "mean size" within the 10-63 μm terrigenous silt fraction, but it may also affect the apparent pattern of relative changes in the coarseness of the sortable-silt fraction along the core. In addition, it makes SS>¯ more prone to biases due to, for example, analytical errors. Here we present a detailed analysis of grain-size distributions over three selected Holocene time intervals from two complementary sediment cores (JM97-948/2A and MD95-2011), extracted from the center of a high-accumulation area along the flow path of the main branch of the Atlantic Inflow into the Nordic Seas and show that differential-number-based statistics, which likely better describes variations in the actual coarseness of the sortable-silt fraction, may provide a more robust alternative to SS>¯.

  12. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes

    PubMed Central

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    Extremely acidic (pH < 3) and extremely alkaline (pH > 9) environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from seven diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A total of 946 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity) across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis followed by indicator OTU analysis (IOA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain's Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea) in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments, respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations. PMID:23335919

  13. A fluorimetry-based ssYFP secretion assay to monitor vasopressin-induced exocytosis in LLC-PK1 cells expressing aquaporin-2

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paula; Hasler, Udo; McKee, Mary; Lu, Hua A. J.; Bouley, Richard; Brown, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP)-induced exocytosis was dissected in native and aquaporin-2 (AQP2)-expressing renal LLC-PK1 cells by a fluorimetric exocytosis assay based on soluble secreted yellow fluorescent protein (ssYFP). YFP was targeted to the secretory pathway by addition of an 18-amino acid signal peptide from hen egg white lysozyme. Immunofluorescence labeling, together with analysis of Alexa 555-dextran internalization, revealed that ssYFP is exclusively located in the secretory pathway. Immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy showed significant colocalization of ssYFP and AQP2. Fluorimetry and Western blot analysis demonstrated similar constitutive ssYFP secretion in native LLC-PK1 and AQP2-expressing cells. In AQP2-expressing cells, a twofold increase in ssYFP secretion was observed within 15 min of VP stimulation. This transient burst of ssYFP secretion was abolished by the PKA inhibitor H-89 and was not observed in native cells. The endocytotic inhibitor methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which also promotes membrane accumulation of AQP2, had no effect on ssYFP secretion. Although cells expressing phosphorylation-deficient AQP2-S256A showed significantly lower baseline levels of constitutive secretion, VP induced a significant increase in exocytosis. Our data indicate that 1) this assay can monitor exocytosis in cultured epithelial cells, 2) VP has an acute stimulatory effect on ssYFP secretion in AQP2-expressing, but not native, cells, and 3) phosphorylation of AQP2 at S256 may be involved in the regulation of constitutive AQP2 exocytosis and play only a minor role in the VP-induced burst. These results support the idea that, in addition to its role in reducing AQP2 endocytosis, VP increases AQP2 exocytosis. PMID:18799651

  14. Comparison of the Booster Interface Temperature in Stainless Steel (SS) V-Channel Versus the Aluminum (Al) Y-Channel Primer Chamber Assemblies (PCAs). Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Technical Fellow for Propulsion, requested a technical assessment of the performance improvement achieved by the introduction of the stainless steel (SS) V-channel compared to the aluminum (Al) Y-channel Primer Chamber Assembly (PCA) design. The SS V-channel PCA was developed for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project. The principle focus of the assessment was to measure the transient temperature at the booster interface with both designs. This document contains the Appendices to the Volume I main report.

  15. Comparing Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) Baseline Activation Terms for Implementation in the Symbolic and Subsymbolic Robotic Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Comparing Adaptive Control of Thought–Rational (ACT-R) Baseline Activation Terms for Implementation in the Symbolic and Subsymbolic Robotic ...Baseline Activation Terms for Implementation in the Symbolic and Subsymbolic Robotic Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS) Craig T. Lennon...Implementation in the Symbolic and Subsymbolic Robotic Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  16. Neutralized nanoparticle composed of SS-cleavable and pH-activated lipid-like material as a long-lasting and liver-specific gene delivery system.

    PubMed

    Ukawa, Masami; Akita, Hidetaka; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Ishiba, Ryohei; Tange, Kota; Arai, Masaya; Kubo, Kazuhiro; Higuchi, Yuriko; Shimizu, Kazunori; Konishi, Satoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Charge-neutralized lipid envelope-type nanoparticles formed with SS-cleavable and pH-activated lipid-like materials (ssPalm) accumulate rapidly in the liver without forming aggregates in the blood circulation, and result in a liver-specific gene expression for a long duration (>2 weeks) with neither immunological responses nor hepatotoxicity after intraveneous administration, when it carries pDNA free from CpG-motifs.

  17. Early development of podocyte injury independently of hyperglycemia and elevations in arterial pressure in nondiabetic obese Dahl SS leptin receptor mutant rats.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Kasi C; Taylor, Lateia; Johnson, Ashley C; Didion, Sean P; Geurts, Aron M; Garrett, Michael R; Williams, Jan M

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the effect of obesity on the development of renal injury within the genetic background of the Dahl salt-sensitive rat with a dysfunctional leptin receptor derived from zinc-finger nucleases (SS(LepR)mutant strain). At 6 wk of age, body weight was 35% higher in the SS(LepR)mutant strain compared with SSWT rats and remained elevated throughout the entire study. The SS(LepR)mutant strain exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and increased plasma insulin levels at 6 wk of age, suggesting insulin resistance while SSWT rats did not. However, blood glucose levels were normal throughout the course of the study. Systolic arterial pressure (SAP) was similar between the two strains from 6 to 10 wk of age. However, by 18 wk of age, the development of hypertension was more severe in the SS(LepR)mutant strain compared with SSWT rats (201 ± 10 vs. 155 ± 3 mmHg, respectively). Interestingly, proteinuria was substantially higher at 6 wk of age in the SS(LepR)mutant strain vs. SSWT rats (241 ± 27 vs. 24 ± 2 mg/day, respectively) and remained elevated until the end of the study. The kidneys from the SS(LepR)mutant strain displayed significant glomerular injury, including podocyte foot process effacement and lipid droplets compared with SSWT rats as early as 6 wk of age. By 18 wk of age, plasma creatinine levels were twofold higher in the SS(LepR)mutant strain vs. SSWT rats, suggesting the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Overall, these results indicate that the SS(LepR)mutant strain develops podocyte injury and proteinuria independently of hyperglycemia and elevated arterial pressure that later progresses to CKD.

  18. Expression of hypothalamic KiSS-1 system and rescue of defective gonadotropic responses by kisspeptin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Juan M; Navarro, Victor M; Fernández-Fernández, Rafael; Roa, Juan; Vigo, Eva; Pineda, Rafael; Dieguez, Carlos; Aguilar, Enrique; Pinilla, Leonor; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2006-09-01

    Hypogonadotropism is a common feature of uncontrolled diabetes, for which the ultimate mechanism remains to be elucidated. Kisspeptins, ligands of G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) encoded by the KiSS-1 gene, have recently emerged as major gatekeepers of the gonadotropic axis. Alteration in the hypothalamic KiSS-1 system has been reported in adverse metabolic conditions linked to suppressed gonadotropins, such as undernutrition. However, its potential contribution to defective gonadotropin secretion in diabetes has not been evaluated. We report herein analyses of luteinizing hormone (LH) responses to kisspeptin and hypothalamic expression of the KiSS-1 gene in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats. In addition, functional studies involving kisspeptin replacement or continuous administration of leptin and insulin to diabetic male rats are presented. Kisspeptin administration evoked robust LH and testosterone bursts and enhanced postgonadectomy LH concentrations, despite prevailing attenuation of gonadotropic axis in diabetic animals. In addition, hypothalamic KiSS-1 mRNA levels were unambiguously decreased in diabetic male rats, and the postorchidectomy rise in KiSS-1 mRNA was severely blunted. Repeated administration of kisspeptin to diabetic rats evoked persistent LH and testosterone responses and partially rescued prostate and testis weights. In addition, central infusion of leptin, but not insulin, was sufficient to normalize hypothalamic KiSS-1 mRNA levels, as well as LH and testosterone concentrations. In summary, we provide evidence for altered expression of the hypothalamic KiSS-1 system in a model of uncontrolled diabetes. This observation, together with the ability of exogenous kisspeptin to rescue defective LH responses in diabetic rats, unravel the physiopathological implication, and potential therapeutic intervention, of the KiSS-1 system in altered gonadotropin secretion of type 1 diabetes.

  19. Project ExPreSS: Social studies and science remediation program for the Georgia High School Graduation Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearouse, Randy

    Over half of the states now require students to pass a high stakes exit exam before being allowed to graduate from high school. No Child Left Behind requires that standardized testing be included to determine whether or not a school makes Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). The purpose of this study is to examine the results of the Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) of students who participated in the remedial program Project ExPreSS with those students who did not participate. Using a quantitative research design, the question that will be answered is whether Project ExPreSS makes a difference in passing the GHSGT in science and social studies among three groups: all Georgia students, African American students in one Georgia school system, and all students in one Georgia school system. A chi-square test was conducted and a determination was made that there is a statistically significant relationship between project participation and pass-fail status in all but one area. The majority of students in this study were 17--18 years of age and were taking the science or social studies section of the GHSGT for the second time. The findings of this study will be important not only for Georgia and the school system examined, but also for other states and systems that give High Stakes Exit Exams (HSEEs). The results indicate that highly focused remedial programs like Project ExPreSS make a difference for students who may not be successful on their first attempt at passing a HSEE.

  20. Structure and diversity of ssDNA Microviridae viruses in two peri-alpine lakes (Annecy and Bourget, France).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xu; Guidoni, Baptiste; Jacas, Louis; Jacquet, Stéphan

    2015-10-01

    Microviridae is a subset of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses infecting bacteria. This group of phages has been previously observed to be very abundant (representing >90% of the total known viral metagenomic sequences) in Lake Bourget. However, this observation was made only during one period (in summer) and from a single sample collected at a single depth (near surface). This result suggests the importance of these viruses, poorly examined thus far, especially in fresh waters. In this study, performed on the two largest natural lakes in France (e.g. Lakes Annecy and Bourget), Microviridae structure was determined each month throughout the year (2011) using PCR-DGGE, with primers that target the major-capsid-protein-encoding gene VP1; cloning/sequencing was used to investigate their diversity. Our results confirm that Microviridae are diverse in peri-alpine lakes and are mainly represented by gokushoviruses. We also found for the first time ssDNA viruses belonging to Alpavirinae, another subfamily within Microviridae recently proposed by Krupovic and Forterre (2011), generally prophages infecting members of the Phylum Bacteroidetes. Our data also support highly variable community composition and dynamics of individual components whose patterns were different between lakes, suggesting distinct host communities and/or abiotic influences between the two ecosystems. We point out that most of the major observed ssDNA Microviridae viruses display boom-bust patterns (with a sharp increase/decline) in their dynamics, with high relative abundances, suggesting brutal control of hosts and rapid regulation of the host community structure.