Science.gov

Sample records for 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides

  1. Using the knowns to discover the unknowns: MS-based dereplication uncovers structural diversity in 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycoside production in the Solanaceae.

    PubMed

    Heiling, Sven; Khanal, Santosh; Barsch, Aiko; Zurek, Gabriela; Baldwin, Ian T; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2016-02-01

    Exploring the diversity of plant secondary metabolism requires efficient methods to obtain sufficient structural insights to discriminate previously known from unknown metabolites. De novo structure elucidation and confirmation of known metabolites (dereplication) remain a major bottleneck for mass spectrometry-based metabolomic workflows, and few systematic dereplication strategies have been developed for the analysis of entire compound classes across plant families, partly due to the complexity of plant metabolic profiles that complicates cross-species comparisons. 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides (HGL-DTGs) are abundant defensive secondary metabolites whose malonyl and glycosyl decorations are induced by jasmonate signaling in the ecological model plant Nicotiana attenuata. The multiple labile glycosidic bonds of HGL-DTGs result in extensive in-source fragmentation (IS-CID) during ionization. To reconstruct these IS-CID clusters from profiling data and identify precursor ions, we applied a deconvolution algorithm and created an MS/MS library from positive-ion spectra of purified HGL-DTGs. From this library, 251 non-redundant fragments were annotated, and a workflow to characterize leaf, flower and fruit extracts of 35 solanaceous species was established. These analyses predicted 105 novel HGL-DTGs that were restricted to Nicotiana, Capsicum and Lycium species. Interestingly, malonylation is a highly conserved step in HGL-DTG metabolism, but is differentially affected by jasmonate signaling among Nicotiana species. This MS-based workflow is readily applicable for cross-species re-identification/annotation of other compound classes with sufficient fragmentation knowledge, and therefore has the potential to support hypotheses regarding secondary metabolism diversification. PMID:26749139

  2. Jasmonate and ppHsystemin Regulate Key Malonylation Steps in the Biosynthesis of 17-Hydroxygeranyllinalool Diterpene Glycosides, an Abundant and Effective Direct Defense against Herbivores in Nicotiana attenuata[W

    PubMed Central

    Heiling, Sven; Schuman, Meredith C.; Schoettner, Matthias; Mukerjee, Purba; Berger, Beatrice; Schneider, Bernd; Jassbi, Amir R.; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2010-01-01

    We identified 11 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides (HGL-DTGs) that occur in concentrations equivalent to starch (mg/g fresh mass) in aboveground tissues of coyote tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) and differ in their sugar moieties and malonyl sugar esters (0-2). Concentrations of HGL-DTGs, particularly malonylated compounds, are highest in young and reproductive tissues. Within a tissue, herbivore elicitation changes concentrations and biosynthetic kinetics of individual compounds. Using stably transformed N. attenuata plants silenced in jasmonate production and perception, or production of N. attenuata Hyp-rich glycopeptide systemin precursor by RNA interference, we identified malonylation as the key biosynthetic step regulated by herbivory and jasmonate signaling. We stably silenced N. attenuata geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (ggpps) to reduce precursors for the HGL-DTG skeleton, resulting in reduced total HGL-DTGs and greater vulnerability to native herbivores in the field. Larvae of the specialist tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) grew up to 10 times as large on ggpps silenced plants, and silenced plants suffered significantly more damage from herbivores in N. attenuata's native habitat than did wild-type plants. We propose that high concentrations of HGL-DTGs effectively defend valuable tissues against herbivores and that malonylation may play an important role in regulating the distribution and storage of HGL-DTGs in plants. PMID:20081114

  3. Diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Upreti, Mani; Prakash, Indra

    2011-01-01

    Three novel diterpene glycosides were isolated for the first time from the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, along with several known steviol glycosides, namely stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F, rubusoside and dulcoside A. The new compounds were identified as 13-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-15-en-19-oic acid, 13-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-16β-hydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid and 13-methyl-16-oxo-17-nor-ent-kauran-19-oic acid-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester on the basis of extensive 2D NMR and MS spectroscopic data as well as chemical studies. PMID:21527882

  4. A new diterpene glycoside from Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Prakash, Indra

    2011-01-01

    From the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, a new diterpene glycoside was isolated besides the known steviol glycosides including stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F, rubusoside and dulcoside A. The new compound was identified as 13-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-(2-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (1) on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (NMR and MS) and chemical studies. PMID:21464800

  5. Synthesis and sensory evaluation of ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Campbell, Mary; San Miguel, Rafael Ignacio; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of the three ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from Stevia rebaudiana, namely rubusoside, stevioside, and rebaudioside-A has been carried out using Pd(OH)₂ and their corresponding dihydro derivatives have been isolated as the products. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and chemical studies. Also, we report herewith the sensory evaluation of all the reduced compounds against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose for the sweetness property of these molecules. PMID:22836210

  6. Diterpene glycosides from Stevia phlebophylla A. Gray.

    PubMed

    Ceunen, Stijn; Wim, De Borggraeve; Compernolle, Frans; Mai, Anh Hung; Geuns, Jan M C

    2013-09-20

    The rare Mexican species Stevia phlebophylla A. Gray was long considered to be the only known Stevia species, beside the well-known S. rebaudiana, containing the highly sweet diterpenoid steviol glycosides. We report a re-evaluation of this claim after phytochemically screening leaves obtained from two herbarium specimens of S. phlebophylla for the presence of steviol glycosides. Despite extensive MS analyses, no steviol glycosides could be unambiguously verified. Instead, the main chromatographic peak eluting at retention times similar to those of steviol glycosides was identified as a new compound, namely 16β-hydroxy-17-acetoxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid-(6-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (1) on the basis of extensive NMR and MS data as well as the characterization of its acid hydrolysate. Seven more compounds were detected by ESIMS which are possibly structurally related to 1. It can therefore be concluded that S. phlebophylla is unlikely to contain significant amounts of steviol glycosides, if any. PMID:23831634

  7. Additional minor diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Prakash, Indra

    2011-08-01

    From the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, two additional new diterpenoid glycosides were isolated and their structures were characterized as 13-[(2-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1) and 13-[(2-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2) on the basis of extensive spectral data (NMR and MS) and chemical studies. PMID:21922898

  8. Minor diterpene glycosides from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Rodenburg, Douglas L; Alves, Kamilla; Fronczek, Frank R; McChesney, James D; Wu, Chongming; Nettles, Brian J; Venkataraman, Sylesh K; Jaksch, Frank

    2014-05-23

    Two new diterpene glycosides in addition to five known glycosides have been isolated from a commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. Compound 1 (rebaudioside KA) was shown to be 13-[(O-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester and compound 2, 12-α-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester. Five additional known compounds were identified, rebaudioside E, rebaudioside M, rebaudioside N, rebaudioside O, and stevioside, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of stevioside afforded the known ent-kaurane aglycone 13-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (steviol) (3). The isolated metabolite 1 possesses the ent-kaurane aglycone steviol (3), while compound 2 represents the first example of the isomeric diterpene 12-α-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid existing as a glycoside in S. rebaudiana. The structures of the isolated metabolites 1 and 2 were determined based on comprehensive 1D- and 2D-NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) studies. A high-quality crystal of compound 3 has formed, which allowed the acquisition of X-ray diffraction data that confirmed its structure. The structural similarities between the new metabolites and the commercially available stevioside sweeteners suggest the newly isolated metabolites should be examined for their organoleptic properties. Accordingly rebaudiosides E, M, N, O, and KA have been isolated in greater than gram quantities. PMID:24758242

  9. Two minor diterpene glycosides from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Rhea, Joshua; Milanowski, Dennis; Mocek, Ulla; Prakash, Indra

    2011-02-01

    Two new new diterpene glycosides, 13-[(2-O-(6-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] kaur-16-en-18-oic acid beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1) and 13-[(2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] kaur-16-en-18-oic acid beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2) were isolated from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, along with the known steviol glycosides stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F and dulcoside A. The structures of the two new compounds were established on the basis of extensive 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC), MS and chemical studies. PMID:21425668

  10. Clerodane and Ent-kaurane Diterpene Glycosyl and Glycoside Derivatives from the Leaves of Casearia sylvestris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five new clerodane diterpene glycosides caseariasides A-E (1-4) and three new ent-kaurane diterpene glucosides sylvestrisides C-E (6-8) were isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris. Their structures were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analyses....

  11. Additional minor diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Two additional novel minor diterpene glycosides were isolated from the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The structures of the new compounds were identified as 13-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oxy} ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid {β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-O-β-D-glucupyranosyl-ester} (1), and 13-{β-D-6-deoxy-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oxy} ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid {β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-gluco-pyranosyl-ester} (2), on the basis of extensive 1D (1H- and 13C-) 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and MS spectroscopic data as well as chemical studies. PMID:24184820

  12. New Labdane Diterpenes and Their Glycoside Derivatives from the Roots of Isodon adenantha.

    PubMed

    Wu, La-Bin; Xiao, Chao-Jiang; Jiang, Xue; Qiu, Lin; Dong, Xiang; Jiang, Bei

    2015-08-01

    Two new labdane-type diterpenes (adenanthic acids A and B; 1 and 2, resp.) and three new labdane diterpene glycosides (adenanthosides A-C; 3-5, resp.) were isolated from the roots of Isodon adenantha, together with 23 known constituents including seven diterpenoids (6-12), eight triterpenoids (13-20), one lignan glycoside (21), six steroids (22-27), and one ceramide (28). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including extensive 2D-NMR techniques. Cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities of the samples were measured by the MTT method and the filter paper disc agar diffusion method. But none of them showed significant activities. PMID:26265575

  13. A New Diterpene Glycoside: 15α-Hydroxy-Rebaudioside M Isolated from Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Ma, Gil; Bunders, Cynthia; Devkota, Krishna P; Charan, Romila D; Ramirez, Catherine; Snyder, Tara M; Priedemann, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    In a continued search for novel diterpenoid glycosides, we recently isolated and characterized a Rebaudioside M derivative with a hydroxyl group at position 15 in the central diterpene core from an extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Here we report the complete structure elucidation of 15α-hydroxy-Rebaudioside M (2) on the basis of NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC-DEPT, HMBC, 1D TOCSY, NOESY) and mass spectral data. Steviol glycoside with a hydroxyl group at C-15 in the central diterpene core has not been previously reported. PMID:26410999

  14. Structures of some novel α-glucosyl diterpene glycosides from the glycosylation of steviol glycosides.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Four new minor diterpene glycosides with a rare α-glucosyl linkage were isolated from a cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase glucosylated stevia extract containing more than 98% steviol glycosides. The new compounds were identified as 13-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-(4-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-[(4-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester] (1), 13-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-[(4-O-(4-O-(4-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester] (2), 13-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-(4-O-(4-O-(4-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), and 13-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-(4-O-(4-O-(4-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl- β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-[(4-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester] (4) on the basis of extensive NMR and mass spectral (MS) data as well as hydrolysis studies. PMID:25486243

  15. New abietane-type diterpene glycosides from the roots of Tripterygium wilfordii.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Mei; Wan, Da-Wu; Li, Rong-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Two new abietane diterpene glycosides, wilfordosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the roots of Tripterygium wilfordii. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were established using spectroscopic methods including extensive 1D and 2D NMR analysis, in combination with chemical reactions. PMID:25588600

  16. New non-glycosidic diterpenes from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, Brian D; Attygalle, Athula B; Starratt, Alvin N; Xiang, Bosong; Schroeder, Frank C; Brandle, James E; Meinwald, Jerrold

    2003-10-01

    Six new labdane-type, non-glycosidic diterpenes, sterebins I-N (1-6), were isolated from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. Their structures, analogous to those of the previously described sterebins A-H, were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical studies. PMID:14575446

  17. Direct analysis of Stevia leaves for diterpene glycosides by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Ayanna U; Tata, Alessandra; Wu, Chunping; Perry, Richard H; Haas, George; West, Leslie; Cooks, R Graham

    2009-05-01

    The analysis of Stevia leaves has been demonstrated without any sample preparation using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry. Direct rapid analysis was achieved using minimal amounts of sample ( approximately 0.15 cm x 0.15 cm leaf fragment). Characteristic constituents of the Stevia plant are observed in both the positive and negative ion modes including a series of diterpene 'sweet' glycosides. The presence of the glycosides was confirmed via tandem mass spectrometry analysis using collision-induced dissociation and further supported by exact mass measurements using an LTQ-Orbitrap. The analysis of both untreated and hexane-extracted dry leaves proved that DESI can be successfully used to analyze untreated leaf fragments as identical profiles were obtained from both types of samples. Characterization and semi-quantitative determination of the glycosides was achieved based on the glycoside profile within the full mass spectrum. In addition, the presence of characteristic glycosides in an all-natural commercial Stevia dietary supplement was confirmed. This study provides an example of the application of DESI to direct screening of plant materials, in this case diterpene glycosides. PMID:19381377

  18. Structures of the novel diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Prakash, Indra

    2011-06-01

    From the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, two new diterpenoid glycosides were isolated besides the known steviol glycosides including stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F, rubusoside, and dulcoside A. The structures of the two new compounds were identified as 13-[(2-O-6-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (1), and 13-[(2-O-6-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (2), on the basis of extensive NMR and MS spectral data as well as chemical studies. PMID:21489412

  19. Two new ent-kaurane-type diterpene glycosides from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ando, Hiromi; Maekawa, Ken-Ichiro; Arie, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2015-12-01

    Two new ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides; 12α-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-7β-hydroxykaurenolide (1) and 7β-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-12α-hydroxykaurenolide (2), a new steroid; (24S)-stigmasta-7,22E,25-trien-3-one (12), and known compounds (3-11, 13-14) were isolated from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds. The absolute structures of 1 and 2 were determined by acid hydrolysis and application of a modified Moscher's method. Furthermore, isolated compounds (1-14), and a derivative, 1a, were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on macrophage activation by an inhibitory assay of nitric oxide (NO) production. PMID:26420344

  20. Structures of the novel α-glucosyl linked diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Upreti, Mani; Prakash, Indra

    2011-09-27

    From the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, two new minor diterpene glycosides having α-glucosyl linkage were isolated besides the known steviol glycosides including stevioside, steviolbioside, rebaudiosides A-F, rubusoside and dulcoside A. The structures of the two compounds were identified as 13-[(2-O-(3-α-O-d-glucopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (1), and 13-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-(4-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (2), on the basis of extensive NMR and MS spectral data as well as chemical studies. PMID:21798525

  1. Isolation and structural characterization of a new minor diterpene glycoside from Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Zamora, Julian

    2014-12-01

    From the commercial extract of the leaves of the sweet plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni obtained from Sinochem Qingdao Co. Ltd., a new diterpene glycoside having three β-D-glucopyranosyl units of which two of them were connected in a relatively rare linkage of 3-β-D-glucobiosyl substitution at C-19 position of the aglycone steviol. The structure of the new compound has been characterized as 13-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-[(3-O-β-D- glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (1) on the basis of extensive 1D (1H and 13C) and 2D NMR (TOCSY, HMQC, and HMBC), and High Resolution mass spectroscopic data as well as hydrolysis studies. PMID:25632456

  2. Rebaudiosides R and S, Minor Diterpene Glycosides from the Leaves of Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Rodenburg, Douglas L; Alves, Kamilla; Perera, Wilmer H; Fronczek, Frank R; Bowling, John; McChesney, James D

    2016-05-27

    Two new diterpene glycosides have been isolated from a commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. Compound 1 was shown to be 13-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-xylopyranosyl)oxy]ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (rebaudioside R), while compound 2 was determined to be 13-[(2-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid 2-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (rebaudioside S). Six additional known compounds were identified, dulcoside B, 13-[(2-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester, eugenol diglucoside, rebaudioside G, 13-[(2-O-6-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester, and rebaudioside D (3), respectively. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined based on comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) studies. A high-quality crystal of compound 3 allowed confirmation of its structure by X-ray diffraction. PMID:27119206

  3. Stevia rebaudiana ethanolic extract exerts better antioxidant properties and antiproliferative effects in tumour cells than its diterpene glycoside stevioside.

    PubMed

    López, Víctor; Pérez, Sergio; Vinuesa, Arturo; Zorzetto, Christian; Abian, Olga

    2016-04-01

    Steviol glycosides are currently being used as natural sweeteners by the food industry and Stevia rebaudiana has long been used as a sweet plant in South America for patients suffering from diabetes. In this study, a Stevia rebaudiana ethanolic extract (SREE) was prepared, analysed and tested for antioxidant activity in terms of free radical scavenging properties and antiproliferative effects in cervix (HeLa), pancreatic (MiaPaCa-2) and colonic (HCT116) cancer cells. The antiproliferative mechanism was confirmed by testing the effects on cyclin D1-CDK4. Bioassays were also performed for the diterpene glycoside stevioside. Our results demonstrate that the extract acts as an antioxidant being able to scavenge free radicals, but this activity was not due to stevioside. The extract also induced cell death in the three cell lines, being more active against cervix cancer cells (HeLa); however, the concentration of stevioside needed to produce antiproliferative effects was higher than the amount of steviol glycosides found in a lower dose of extract inducing cell death. In addition, the extract clearly inhibited CDK4 whereas stevioside did not, concluding that the antiproliferative activity of stevia may be due to inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases performed by other compounds of the extract. PMID:27071804

  4. A New ent-Labdane Diterpene Glycoside form the Leaves of Casearia sylvestris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sylvestin (1), a new ent-labdane glycoside, was isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris. The structure was determined on the basis of 1D and 2 D NMR and HR-ESI-MS analyses. The diterpenoid of ent-labdane type was isolated for the first time from C. sylvestris....

  5. Hydrogenation of the Exocyclic Olefinic Bond at C-16/C-17 Position of ent-Kaurane Diterpene Glycosides of Stevia rebaudiana Using Various Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Prakash, Indra

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of the exocyclic double bond present between C16 and C17 carbons of the four ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides namely rebaudioside A, rebaudioside B, rebaudioside C, and rebaudioside D isolated from Stevia rebaudiana has been carried out using Pt/C, Pd(OH)2, Rh/C, Raney Ni, PtO2, and 5% Pd/BaCO3 to their corresponding dihydro derivatives with 17α and 17β methyl group isomers. Reactions were performed using the above-mentioned catalysts with the solvents methanol, water, and ethanol/water (8:2) under various conditions. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data, including a comparison with reported spectral data. PMID:23896597

  6. Hydrogenation of the exocyclic olefinic bond at C-16/C-17 position of ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides of Stevia rebaudiana using various catalysts.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Prakash, Indra

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of the exocyclic double bond present between C16 and C17 carbons of the four ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides namely rebaudioside A, rebaudioside B, rebaudioside C, and rebaudioside D isolated from Stevia rebaudiana has been carried out using Pt/C, Pd(OH)2, Rh/C, Raney Ni, PtO2, and 5% Pd/BaCO3 to their corresponding dihydro derivatives with 17α and 17β methyl group isomers. Reactions were performed using the above-mentioned catalysts with the solvents methanol, water, and ethanol/water (8:2) under various conditions. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data, including a comparison with reported spectral data. PMID:23896597

  7. Acyclic diterpene glycosides, capsianosides VIII, IX, X, XIII, XV and XVI from the fruits of Paprika Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum BAILEY and Jalapeño Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kiyota, Naoko; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2006-10-01

    Paprika and Jalapeño are used as vegetables and spices. We have obtained six new acyclic diterpene glycosides, called capsianosides XIII (2), XV (3), IX (4), XVI (5), X (6) and VIII (7) together with known capsianoside II (1) from the fruits of the Paprika and Jalapeño. The structures of these compounds have been elucidated by the (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra and two-dimensional NMR methods. PMID:17015971

  8. Isolation, NMR Spectral Analysis and Hydrolysis Studies of a Hepta Pyranosyl Diterpene Glycoside from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Chen, Steven; Yu, Oliver; Mao, Guohong

    2013-01-01

    From the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a minor steviol glycoside, 13-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-[(2-O-(3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl) ester] (1); also known as rebaudioside O having seven sugar units has been isolated. Its structural characterization has been achieved by the extensive 1D (1H and 13C), and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC) as well as mass spectral data. Further, hydrolysis studies were performed on rebaudioside O using acid and enzymatic methods to identify aglycone and sugar residues in its structure as well as their configurations. PMID:24970189

  9. Isolation, NMR Spectral Analysis and Hydrolysis Studies of a Hepta Pyranosyl Diterpene Glycoside from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Chen, Steven; Yu, Oliver; Mao, Guohong

    2013-01-01

    From the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a minor steviol glycoside, 13-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-[(2-O-(3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester] (1); also known as rebaudioside O having seven sugar units has been isolated. Its structural characterization has been achieved by the extensive 1D (1H and 13C), and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC) as well as mass spectral data. Further, hydrolysis studies were performed on rebaudioside O using acid and enzymatic methods to identify aglycone and sugar residues in its structure as well as their configurations. PMID:24970189

  10. Effect of harvest timing on leaf production and yield of diterpene glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana Bert: a specialty perennial crop for Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stevia rebaundiana (Bertoni), a perennial shrub of the Asteraceae, is one of the most important sources of non-caloric natural sweeteners. Stevia’s plant extracts and glycosides have been used for several years in Paraguay and Brazil. Several studies suggest that Stevia and its glycosides exert ben...

  11. Synthesis of ent-kaurane diterpene monoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Klucik, Josef; Upreti, Mani; Prakash, Indra

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis of two ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides, steviol 19-O-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (steviol glucuronide, 5), and 13-hydroxy ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (7) has been achieved from a common starting material, steviol, using phase transfer catalyst. Also, synthesis of an additional 17-nor-ent-kaurane glycoside, namely 13-methyl-16-oxo-17-nor-ent-kauran-19-oic acid-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (10) was performed using the starting material isosteviol and similar synthetic methodology. Synthesis of all three steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR as well as mass spectral (MS) data. PMID:21968534

  12. Leaf Ests from Stevia rebaudiana: a resource for gene discovery in diterpene synthesis.

    PubMed

    Brandle, J E; Richman, A; Swanson, A K; Chapman, B P

    2002-11-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are providing a new approach to gene discovery in plant secondary metabolism. Stevia rebaudiana Bert. leaves produce high concentrations of diterpene steviol glycosides and should be a rich source of transcripts involved in diterpene synthesis. In order to create a resource for gene discovery and increase our understanding of steviol glycoside biosynthesis, we sequenced 5,548 ESTs from a S. rebaudiana leaf cDNA library. The EST collection was fully annotated based on database search results. ESTs involved in diterpene synthesis were identified using published sequences as electronic probes, by keyword searches of search results, and by differential representation. A significant portion of the ESTs were specific for standard leaf metabolic pathways; energy and primary metabolism represented 17.6% and 13.1% of total transcripts respectively. Diterpene metabolism in S. rebaudiana represented 1.1% of total transcripts. This study identified candidate genes for 70% of the known steps in the steviol glycoside pathway. One candidate, kaurene oxidase, was the 8th most abundant EST in the collection. Identification of many candidate genes specific to the I -deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate pathway suggests that the primary source of isopentenyl diphosphate, a precursor of geranylgeranyl diphosphate, is via the non-mevalonic acid pathway. The use of ESTs has greatly facilitated the identification of candidate genes and increased our understanding of diterpene metabolism. PMID:12374295

  13. Cytotoxic diterpenes from Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Monira; Islam, S K N; Gray, Alexander I; Stimson, William H

    2003-07-01

    Four new labdane-derived diterpenes, iso-dulcinol (1), 4-epi-scopadulcic acid B (2), dulcidiol (4), and scopanolal (5), together with two known diterpenes, dulcinol/scopadulciol (3) and scopadiol (6), were isolated from the aerial parts of Scoparia dulcis. The structures were determined by extensive NMR studies. The crude extracts as well as the pure diterpenes showed cytotoxicity against a panel of six human stomach cancer cell lines. PMID:12880314

  14. Geranyllinalool Synthases in Solanaceae and Other Angiosperms Constitute an Ancient Branch of Diterpene Synthases Involved in the Synthesis of Defensive Compounds1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Falara, Vasiliki; Alba, Juan M.; Kant, Merijn R.; Schuurink, Robert C.; Pichersky, Eran

    2014-01-01

    Many angiosperm plants, including basal dicots, eudicots, and monocots, emit (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene, which is derived from geranyllinalool, in response to biotic challenge. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) geranyllinalool synthase (GLS) belonging to the e/f clade of the terpene synthase (TPS) family and two Fabaceae GLSs that belong to the TPS-g clade have been reported, making it unclear which is the main route to geranyllinalool in plants. We characterized a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) TPS-e/f gene, TPS46, encoding GLS (SlGLS) and its homolog (NaGLS) from Nicotiana attenuata. The Km value of SlGLS for geranylgeranyl diphosphate was 18.7 µm, with a turnover rate value of 6.85 s–1. In leaves and flowers of N. attenuata, which constitutively synthesize 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool glycosides, NaGLS is expressed constitutively, but the gene can be induced in leaves with methyl jasmonate. In tomato, SlGLS is not expressed in any tissue under normal growth but is induced in leaves by alamethicin and methyl jasmonate treatments. SlGLS, NaGLS, AtGLSs, and several other GLSs characterized only in vitro come from four different eudicot families and constitute a separate branch of the TPS-e/f clade that diverged from kaurene synthases, also in the TPS-e/f clade, before the gymnosperm-angiosperm split. The early divergence of this branch and the GLS activity of genes in this branch in diverse eudicot families suggest that GLS activity encoded by these genes predates the angiosperm-gymnosperm split. However, although a TPS sequence belonging to this GLS lineage was recently reported from a basal dicot, no representative sequences have yet been found in monocot or nonangiospermous plants. PMID:25052853

  15. Geranyllinalool synthases in solanaceae and other angiosperms constitute an ancient branch of diterpene synthases involved in the synthesis of defensive compounds.

    PubMed

    Falara, Vasiliki; Alba, Juan M; Kant, Merijn R; Schuurink, Robert C; Pichersky, Eran

    2014-09-01

    Many angiosperm plants, including basal dicots, eudicots, and monocots, emit (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene, which is derived from geranyllinalool, in response to biotic challenge. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) geranyllinalool synthase (GLS) belonging to the e/f clade of the terpene synthase (TPS) family and two Fabaceae GLSs that belong to the TPS-g clade have been reported, making it unclear which is the main route to geranyllinalool in plants. We characterized a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) TPS-e/f gene, TPS46, encoding GLS (SlGLS) and its homolog (NaGLS) from Nicotiana attenuata. The Km value of SlGLS for geranylgeranyl diphosphate was 18.7 µm, with a turnover rate value of 6.85 s(-1). In leaves and flowers of N. attenuata, which constitutively synthesize 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool glycosides, NaGLS is expressed constitutively, but the gene can be induced in leaves with methyl jasmonate. In tomato, SlGLS is not expressed in any tissue under normal growth but is induced in leaves by alamethicin and methyl jasmonate treatments. SlGLS, NaGLS, AtGLSs, and several other GLSs characterized only in vitro come from four different eudicot families and constitute a separate branch of the TPS-e/f clade that diverged from kaurene synthases, also in the TPS-e/f clade, before the gymnosperm-angiosperm split. The early divergence of this branch and the GLS activity of genes in this branch in diverse eudicot families suggest that GLS activity encoded by these genes predates the angiosperm-gymnosperm split. However, although a TPS sequence belonging to this GLS lineage was recently reported from a basal dicot, no representative sequences have yet been found in monocot or nonangiospermous plants. PMID:25052853

  16. Steviol glycosides: chemical diversity, metabolism, and function.

    PubMed

    Ceunen, Stijn; Geuns, Jan M C

    2013-06-28

    Steviol glycosides are a group of highly sweet diterpene glycosides discovered in only a few plant species, most notably the Paraguayan shrub Stevia rebaudiana. During the past few decades, the nutritional and pharmacological benefits of these secondary metabolites have become increasingly apparent. While these properties are now widely recognized, many aspects related to their in vivo biochemistry and metabolism and their relationship to the overall plant physiology of S. rebaudiana are not yet understood. Furthermore, the large size of the steviol glycoside pool commonly found within S. rebaudiana leaves implies a significant metabolic investment and poses questions regarding the benefits S. rebaudiana might gain from their accumulation. The current review intends to thoroughly discuss the available knowledge on these issues. PMID:23713723

  17. Erythroxan diterpenes from Fagonia glutinosa.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Kader, M S; Omar, A A; Stermitz, F R

    1997-08-01

    Further investigation of the ether extract of the aerial parts of Fagonia glutinosa utilizing the brine shrimp bioassay resulted in the isolation of two new cytotoxic erythroxan diterpenes: 1 alpha, 10 alpha-epoxy-2-oxofagonene (1) and 1 beta, 10 beta-epoxy-2-oxofagonene (2). In addition, two inactive diterpenes, 2-oxofagonene (3) and its previously reported isomer 2-oxo-5-epi-fagonene (4), were also isolated. PMID:9270385

  18. Analysis of Stevia glycosides by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mauri, P; Catalano, G; Gardana, C; Pietta, P

    1996-02-01

    The determination of diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana leaves using capillary electrophoresis is described. Analyses were performed on fused silica capillaries with 20 mM sodium tetraborate buffer, pH 8.3, and 30 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate. The effect of the organic solvent injected with the sample solution on the electrophoretic solution has been confirmed, and an absolute amount of 1.6 nL per injected sample was optimal. Rebaudioside A and steviolbioside were isolated by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and their structure was assessed by mass spectrometry. PMID:8900944

  19. Isolation, characterization and sensory evaluation of a Hexa beta-D-glucopyranosyl diterpene from Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Markosyan, Avetik

    2013-11-01

    From the extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a diterpene glycoside was isolated which was identified as 13-[(2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-(2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (1). The complete 1H and 13C NMR assignment of 1 is reported for the first time, from extensive NMR (1H and 13C, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and mass spectral data. Also, we report the sensory evaluation of 1 against sucrose for the sweetness property of this molecule. PMID:24427932

  20. Seasonal Variation of Cistus ladanifer L. Diterpenes

    PubMed Central

    Alías, Juan Carlos; Sosa, Teresa; Valares, Cristina; Escudero, José Carlos; Chaves, Natividad

    2012-01-01

    The exudate of Cistus ladanifer L. consists mainly of two families of secondary metabolites: flavonoids and diterpenes. The amount of flavonoids present in the leaves has a marked seasonal variation, being maximum in summer and minimum in winter. In the present study, we demonstrate that the amount of diterpenes varies seasonally, but with a different pattern: maximum concentration in winter and minimum in spring-summer. The experiments under controlled conditions have shown that temperature influences diterpene production, and in particular, low temperatures. Given this pattern, the functions that these compounds perform in C. ladanifer are probably different. PMID:27137636

  1. Anxiolytic Activity of Diterpene Alkaloid Songorine.

    PubMed

    Nesterova, Yu V; Povet'eva, T N; Suslov, N I; Shults, E E; Ziuz'kov, G N; Aksinenko, S G; Afanas'eva, O G; Krapivin, A V; Kharina, T G

    2015-09-01

    Antianxiety action of diterpene alkaloid songorine was studied using Vogel conflict test. Songorine in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg demonstrated high anxiolytic activity comparable to that of phenazepam and produced no sedative effect. PMID:26468026

  2. Diterpenes: Advances in Neurobiological Drug Research.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Torequl; da Silva, Claucenira Bandeira; de Alencar, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros; Paz, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim; Almeida, Fernanda Regina de Castro; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    A significant number of studies have been performed with diterpene effect on the brain. Our study aims to make a systematic revision on them. The initial purpose of this review was to screen diterpenes with neurological activity, in particular those that have already been studied and published in different journals (databases until August 2015). The second purpose was to make an action-wise discussion as results viewed on them by taking into drug discovery and development account. Diterpenes considered in this review were selected on the basis of updated information on them and having sufficient information on their screenings. We identified several examples of diterpenes having an interest in further study. We have included the possible sources of them as observed in evidence, their known molecular neurobiological mechanisms, and the active constituents responsible for such activities with the doses and test systems. Results suggest diterpenes to have neurobiological activities like neuro-protection, anti-epileptic, anxiolytic, anti-Alzheimer's disease, anti-Parkinson's disease, anti-cerebral ischemia, anti-neuropathic pain, anti-neuro-inflammatory, and many more. In conclusion, diterpenes may be the prominent candidates in neurobiological drug research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27020718

  3. Iridoid glycosides and cucurbitacin glycoside from Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ik Hwi; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kawahara, Nobuo; Goda, Yukihiro

    2006-12-01

    Three iridoid glycosides, picrorosides A (1), B (2) and C (3), and a cucurbitacin glycoside, scrophoside A (4), were isolated from the rhizomes of Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora (Scrophulariaceae), along with two known iridoid glycosides, picrosides I (5) and II (6), and three known cucurbitacin glycosides (7-9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of both chemical and spectroscopic data. PMID:17070880

  4. Naturally occurring cardiac glycosides.

    PubMed

    Radford, D J; Gillies, A D; Hinds, J A; Duffy, P

    1986-05-12

    Cardiac glycoside poisoning from the ingestion of plants, particularly of oleanders, occurs with reasonable frequency in tropical and subtropical areas. We have assessed a variety of plant specimens for their cardiac glycoside content by means of radioimmunoassays with antibodies that differ in their specificity for cardiac glycosides. Significant amounts of immunoreactive cardiac glycoside were found to be present in the ornamental shrubs: yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana); oleander (Nerium oleander); wintersweet (Carissa spectabilis); bushman's poison (Carissa acokanthera); sea-mango (Cerbera manghas); and frangipani (Plumeria rubra); and in the milkweeds: redheaded cotton-bush (Asclepias curassavica); balloon cotton (Asclepias fruiticosa); king's crown (Calotropis procera); and rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandifolia). The venom gland of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) also contained large quantities of cardiac glycosides. The competitive immunoassay method permits the rapid screening of specimens that are suspected to contain cardiac glycosides. Awareness of the existence of these plant and animal toxins and their dangers allows them to be avoided and poisoning prevented. The method is also useful for the confirmation of the presence of cardiac glycosides in serum in cases of poisoning. PMID:3086679

  5. Cardiac glycoside overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in the leaves of the digitalis (foxglove) plant. This plant is the original source of this medicine. People ... Digitoxin (Crystodigin) Digoxin (Lanoxicaps, Lanoxin) Besides the foxglove plant, cardiac glycosides also occur naturally in plants such ...

  6. Chemical Methods for the Synthesis and Modification of Neoclerodane Diterpenes

    PubMed Central

    Lozama, Anthony; Prisinzano, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Diterpenes are a structural class of molecules that are derived from four isoprene subunits and are widespread throughout nature. A number of neoclerodane diterpenes have been found to have biological activity but a limited number of chemical investigations have been conducted. Recently, the neoclerodane diterpene, salvinorin A (12) has been investigated due to its unique pharmacological profile. This review will discuss the chemical methods used to chemically modify and synthesize 12. PMID:19679471

  7. Therapeutic Potential of Essential Oils Focusing on Diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Torequl; da Mata, Ana Maria Oliveira Ferreira; de Aguiar, Raí Pablo Sousa; Paz, Marcia Fernanda Correia Jardim; de Alencar, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia

    2016-09-01

    Among all plant derivates, essential oils (EOs) have gained the attention of many scientists. Diterpenes, a family of components present in some EO, are becoming a milestone in the EOs world. The goal of this review is to describe a scenario of diterpenes taking into health-consumption deportment. Previous studies revealed that diterpenes have antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiprotozoal, cytotoxic, anticancer, antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, chemopreventive, antiinflammatory, antinociceptive, immunostimulatory, organoprotective, antidiabetic, lipid-lowering, antiallergic, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, and antitoxin activities. In conclusion, diterpenes may be an immense featuring concern in pharmaceutical consumption from a drug discovery point of view. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27307034

  8. Methylerythritol and mevalonate pathway contributions to biosynthesis of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes and leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Wölwer-Rieck, Ursula; May, Bianca; Lankes, Christa; Wüst, Matthias

    2014-03-19

    The biosynthesis of the diterpenoid steviol glycosides rebaudioside A and stevioside in nonrooted cuttings of Stevia rebaudiana was investigated by feeding experiments using the labeled key precursors [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone (d2-MVL) and [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose (d2-DOX). Labeled glycosides were extracted from the leaves and stems and were directly analyzed by LC-(-ESI)-MS/MS and by GC-MS after hydrolysis and derivatization of the resulting isosteviol to the corresponding TMS-ester. Additionally, the incorporation of the proffered d2-MVL and d2-DOX into volatile monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes on leaves and stems was investigated by headspace-solid phase microextraction-GC-MS (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Incorporation of the labeled precursors indicated that diterpenes in leaves and monoterpenes and diterpenes in glandular trichomes are predominately biosynthesized via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, whereas both the MEP and mevalonate (MVA) pathways contribute to the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes at equal rates in glandular trichomes. These findings give evidence for a transport of MEP pathway derived farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol. Contrarily, the transport of MVA pathway derived geranyl diphosphate and geranylgeranyl diphosphate precursors from the cytosol to the plastid is limited. PMID:24579920

  9. Diterpenes from the berries of Juniperus excelsa.

    PubMed

    Topçu, G; Erenler, R; Cakmak, O; Johansson, C B; Celik, C; Chai, H B; Pezzuto, J M

    1999-04-01

    From the hexane extract of berries of Juniperus excelsa, one new and four known diterpenes were isolated besides a known sesquiterpene. The structures of the known diterpenes were identified as isopimaric, isocommunic, (-)ent-trans communic and sandracopimaric acids, along with the sesquiterpene 4a-hydroxycedrol and the new compound which was elucidated as 3 alpha-acetoxylabda-8(17),13(16),14-trien-19-oic acid (juniperexcelsic acid). Cytotoxic activity of the hexane extract was investigated against a panel of cell line and found highly active against LNCaP, KB-V (+VLB) and KB-V (-VLB) cell lines. Furthermore, the hexane and methanol extracts, and the new compound were found to be moderately active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:10234860

  10. Diterpenes from the endangered goldenrod Solidago shortii.

    PubMed

    Williams, Russell B; Du, Lin; Norman, Vanessa L; Goering, Matt G; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; Woodbury, Scott; Albrecht, Matthew A; Powell, Douglas R; Cichewicz, Robert H; Eldridge, Gary R; Starks, Courtney M

    2014-06-27

    Species extinction is tantamount to loss of chemical diversity, and so it is important to seize all opportunities to study species on the brink of extinction. Such studies are often hampered by the limited material available, but that obstacle is surmountable through collaboration with botanical gardens and advances in instrumentation. The goldenrod Solidago shortii is one example of an endangered species native to the United States. From S. shortii, one known diterpene (1), two new diterpenes (2 and 3), and three new hydrolysis products (4-6) are described. This work was made possible through collaboration with the Missouri Botanical Garden and with the use of highly sensitive microcryoprobe NMR technology for structure elucidation and VCD spectroscopy for the determination of absolute configuration. PMID:24922615

  11. Two diterpene rhamnosides, mimosasides B and C, from Mimosa hostilis.

    PubMed

    Ohsaki, Ayumi; Yokoyama, Ritsuko; Miyatake, Haruka; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu

    2006-12-01

    Two new diterpene rhamnosides, mimosasides B and C (1, 2) were isolated together with mimosaside A (3), a known diterpene rhamnoside (4), four known flavones (5-8), five known flavanones (9-13), and four known chalcones (14-17) from the leaves and twigs of a Brazilian medicinal plant, Mimosa hostilis. PMID:17139112

  12. Spatial organisation of four enzymes from Stevia rebaudiana that are involved in steviol glycoside synthesis.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Tania V; Richman, Alex S; Menassa, Rima; Brandle, Jim E

    2006-05-01

    The sweet steviol glycosides found in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. are derived from the diterpene steviol which is produced from a branch of the gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthetic pathway. An understanding of the spatial organisation of the two pathways including subcellular compartmentation provides important insight for the metabolic engineering of steviol glycosides as well as other secondary metabolites in plants. The final step of GA biosynthesis, before the branch point for steviol production, is the formation of (-)-kaurenoic acid from (-)-kaurene, catalysed by kaurene oxidase (KO). Downstream of this, the first committed step in steviol glycoside synthesis is the hydroxylation of kaurenoic acid to form steviol which is then sequentially glucosylated by a series of UDP-glucosyltransferases (UGTs) to produce the variety of steviol glycosides. The subcellular location of KO and three of the UGTs involved in steviol glycoside biosynthesis was investigated by expression of GFP fusions and cell fractionation which revealed KO to be associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and the UGTs in the cytoplasm. It has also been shown by expressing the Stevia UGTs in Arabidopsis that the pathway can be partially reconstituted by recruitment of a native Arabidopsis glucosyltransferase. PMID:16786291

  13. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

    2013-02-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  14. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    DOEpatents

    Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

    2011-04-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  15. Efficient heterocyclisation by (di)terpene synthases.

    PubMed

    Mafu, S; Potter, K C; Hillwig, M L; Schulte, S; Criswell, J; Peters, R J

    2015-09-11

    While cyclic ether forming terpene synthases are known, the basis for such heterocyclisation is unclear. Here it is reported that numerous (di)terpene synthases, particularly including the ancestral ent-kaurene synthase, efficiently produce isomers of manoyl oxide from the stereochemically appropriate substrate. Accordingly, such heterocyclisation is easily accomplished by terpene synthases. Indeed, the use of single residue changes to induce production of the appropriate substrate in the upstream active site leads to efficient bifunctional enzymes producing isomers of manoyl oxide, representing novel enzymatic activity. PMID:26214384

  16. Diterpene alkaloids and diterpenes from Spiraea japonica and their anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuan; Mao, Xin-Ying; Huang, Lie-Jun; Fan, Yi-Min; Gu, Wei; Yan, Chen; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Yuan, Chun-Mao; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Five new naturally occurring natural products, including two atisine-type diterpene alkaloids (1 and 2), two atisane-type diterpenes (3 and 4), and a new natural product spiramine C2 (5), along with nine known ones (6-14), were isolated from the ethanolic extracts of the whole plant of Spiraea japonica var. acuminata Franch. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The anti-tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) activities of all the compounds were evaluated by the conventional half-leaf method. Six compounds (2, 3, 6, 7, 11, and 12) exhibited moderate activities at 100 μg/mL with inhibition rates in the range of 69.4-92.9%, which were higher than that of the positive control, ningnanmycin. Their preliminary structure-activity relationships were also discussed. PMID:26625838

  17. Glycoside vs. Aglycon: The Role of Glycosidic Residue in Biological Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Křen, Vladimír

    A large number of biologically active compounds are glycosides. Sometimes the glycosidic residue is crucial for their activity, in other cases glycosylation only improves pharmacokinetic parameters. Recent developments in molecular glycobiology brought better understanding of aglycon vs. glycoside activities, and made possible the development of new, more active or more effective glycodrugs based on these findings - a very illustrative recent example is vancomycin. The new enzymatic methodology "glycorandomization" enabled preparation of glycoside libraries and opened up paths to the preparation of optimized or entirely novel glycoside antibiotics. This chapter deals with an array of glycosidic compounds currently used in medicine but also covers the biological activity of some glycosidic metabolites of known drugs. The chapter discusses glycosides of vitamins, polyphenolic glycosides (flavonoids), alkaloid glycosides, glycosides of antibiotics, glycopeptides, cardiac glycosides, steroid and terpenoid glycosides etc. The physiological role of the glycosyl moiety and structure-activity relations (SAR) in the glycosidic moiety (-ies) are also discussed.

  18. New Antiplasmodial Diterpenes from Gutierrezia sarothrae.

    PubMed

    Su, Qingxi; Dalal, Seema; Goetz, Michael; Cassera, Maria B; Kingston, David G I

    2016-06-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of the plant Gutierrezia sarothrae (Asteraceae) using an assay for antiplasmodial activity against the drug-resistant Dd2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum led to the isolation of the two new diterpenes 3α-angeloyloxy-15-hydroxylabda-7,13-dien-16,15-olid-18-oic acid (1) and 3α-angeloyloxy-15-methoxylabda-7,13-dien-16,15-olid-18-oic acid (2). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, mass spectrometry, and comparison with the data of related compounds reported in the literature. Compound 1 exhibited moderate antiplasmodial activity with an IC50 values of 10.4 ± 4.3 μM. PMID:27534100

  19. Trichodermaerin: a diterpene lactone from Trichoderma asperellum.

    PubMed

    Chantrapromma, Suchada; Jeerapong, Chotika; Phupong, Worrapong; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2014-04-01

    The title compound, C20H28O3, known as 'trichodermaerin' [systematic name: (4E)-4,9,15,16,16-penta-methyl-6-oxa-tetra-cyclo-[10.3.1.0(1,10).0(5,9)]hexa-dec-4-ene-7,13-dione], is a diterpene lactone which was isolated from Trichoderma asperellum. The structure has a tetra-cycic 6-5-7-5 ring system, with the cyclo-hexa-none ring adopting a twisted half-chair conformation and the cyclo-pentane ring adopting a half-chair conformation, whereas the cyclo-heptene and tetra-hydro-furan-anone rings are in chair and envelope (with the methyl-substituted C atom as the flap) conformations, respectively. The three-dimensional architecture is stabilized by C-H⋯O inter-actions. PMID:24826124

  20. The total synthesis of Isodon diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Lazarski, Kiel E; Moritz, Benjamin J; Thomson, Regan J

    2014-09-26

    Families of structurally related molecules often provide stimulating targets for organic chemists that are engaged in the development of new methods and strategies for natural product synthesis. While typically focused on specific molecules, these synthetic investigations often lead to generalizable concepts and significant opportunities for learning in a greater sense. Historically well-investigated families of natural products, such as the prostanoids, indole alkaloids, and macrolide antibiotics, provide ample evidence for the enduring value of these collective activities. In this Minireview, we turn our attention to the polycyclic family of diterpenes isolated from the Isodon genus of plants and provide an account of the recent methods and strategies utilized for their total synthesis. PMID:25159338

  1. Fusicoccanes: diterpenes with surprising biological functions.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Albertus H; de Vries-van Leeuwen, Ingrid J

    2012-06-01

    Fusicoccin is the best-studied member of a class of diterpenes sharing a 5-8-5 ring structure, called fusicoccanes. Fusicoccin was and still is a 'tool in plant physiology', targeting the main engine of plasma membrane transport, the P-type H(+)-ATPase, assisted by members of the 14-3-3 family. The key position of 14-3-3 proteins in cell biology, combined with a broader specificity of other fusicoccanes as shown by crystallography studies, make fusicoccanes a versatile tool in plant and animal biology. In this review, we examine recent evidence that fusicoccanes act on animal cells, describe the discovery of the fungal biosynthetic pathway and emphasize that lower (liverworts) and higher plants produce fusicoccanes with intriguing biological activities. PMID:22465041

  2. Defensive Diterpene from the Aeolidoidean Phyllodesmium longicirrum.

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, Alexander; Hertzer, Cora; Kehraus, Stefan; Nietzer, Samuel; Rohde, Sven; Schupp, Peter J; Wägele, Heike; König, Gabriele M

    2016-03-25

    Phyllodesmium is a tropical marine slug genus with about 30 described species. None of them have a protective shell, and all of them feed on octocorals that are generally known to provide defensive compounds and thus help to defend the naked slugs against sympatric predators, such as fish, crabs, cephalopods, and echinoderms. Phyllodesmium longicirrum is the species that grows the biggest and that is least protected by camouflage on its respective food, usually a soft coral of the genus Sarcophyton. Investigation of the lipophilic extract of a single specimen of P. longicirrum from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) led to the isolation of four new polycyclic diterpenes. Compound 1 showed significant deterrent activity in a fish feeding assay. PMID:26649919

  3. Stevisalioside A, a novel bitter-tasting ent-atisene glycoside from the roots of Stevia salicifolia.

    PubMed

    Mata, R; Rodríguez, V; Pereda-Miranda, R; Kaneda, N; Kinghorn, A D

    1992-05-01

    A new acetylated ent-atisene glycoside, stevisalioside A [1], has been isolated as a bitter-tasting principle from Stevia salicifolia roots. The structure was established by the interpretation of spectral data, with the nmr assignments of this compound being based on 1H-1H COSY, 1H-13C HETCOR, and selective INEPT experiments. A rearrangement product 4 of the aglycone moiety obtained by alkaline hydrolysis supported the structure of 1. This is the first report of the occurrence of an atisane-type diterpene from the genus Stevia. PMID:1517738

  4. Monoterpene glycosides from Paeonia delavayi.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Chen, You-Wei; Yang, Li-Yuan; Li, Shao-Lan; Li, Zhi-Ying

    2007-01-01

    A new monoterpene glycoside, 4-O-methyl-4''-hydroxy-3''-methoxy-paeoniflorin (1), was isolated from the root cortex of Paeonia delavayi along with the known paeoniflorin, oxypaeoniflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin, benzoyloxypaeoniflorin, albiflorin and a paeonilactone-A. PMID:17067761

  5. Diterpene Constituents of Euphorbia exigua L. and Multidrug Resistance Reversing Activity of the Isolated Diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Rédei, Dóra; Boros, Klára; Forgo, Peter; Molnár, Joseph; Kele, Zoltán; Pálinkó, István; Pinke, Gyula; Hohmann, Judit

    2015-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the MeOH extract obtained from the aerial parts of the annual weed Euphorbia exigua L. resulted in the isolation of two novel (1, 2) and one known (3) jatrophane diterpenes. Their structures were established by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI-MS. The isolated compounds were evaluated for multidrug resistance (MDR) reversing activity on human MDR gene-transfected L5178 mouse lymphoma cells; and all three compounds were found to modulate the intracellular drug accumulation. PMID:26265573

  6. Diterpene Cyclases and the Nature of the Isoprene Fold

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Rong; Zhang, Yonghui; Mann, Francis M.; Huang, Cancan; Mukkamala, Dushyant; Hudock, Michael P.; Mead, Matthew; Prisic, Sladjana; Wang, Ke; Lin, Fu-Yang; Chang, Ting-Kai; Peters, Reuben; Oldfield, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The structures and mechanism of action of many terpene cyclases are known, but there are no structures of diterpene cyclases. Here, we propose structural models based on bioinformatics, site-directed mutagenesis, domain swapping, enzyme inhibition and spectroscopy that help explain the nature of diterpene cyclase structure, function, and evolution. Bacterial diterpene cyclases contain ∼20 α-helices and the same conserved “QW” and DxDD motifs as in triterpene cyclases, indicating the presence of a βγ barrel structure. Plant diterpene cyclases have a similar catalytic motif and βγ-domain structure together with a third, α-domain, forming an αβγ structure, and in H+-initiated cyclases, there is an EDxxD-like Mg2+/diphosphate binding motif located in the γ-domain. The results support a new view of terpene cyclase structure and function and suggest evolution from ancient (βγ) bacterial triterpene cyclases to (βγ) bacterial and thence to (αβγ) plant diterpene cyclases. PMID:20602361

  7. Detoxification of hostplant's chemical defence rather than its anti-predator co-option drives β-glucosidase-mediated lepidopteran counteradaptation.

    PubMed

    Poreddy, Spoorthi; Mitra, Sirsha; Schöttner, Matthias; Chandran, Jima; Schneider, Bernd; Baldwin, Ian T; Kumar, Pavan; Pandit, Sagar S

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary plant-herbivore arms race sometimes gives rise to remarkably unique adaptation strategies. Here we report one such strategy in the lepidopteran herbivore Manduca sexta against its hostplant Nicotiana attenuata's major phytotoxins, 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycoside, lyciumoside IV and its malonylated forms. We show that alkalinity of larval regurgitant non-enzymatically demalonylates the malonylated forms to lyciumoside IV. Lyciumoside IV is then detoxified in the midgut by β-glucosidase 1-catalysed deglycosylation, which is unusual, as typically the deglycosylation of glycosylated phytochemicals by insects results in the opposite: toxin activation. Suppression of deglucosylation by silencing larval β-glucosidase 1 by plant-mediated RNAi causes moulting impairments and mortality. In the native habitat of N. attenuata, β-glucosidase 1 silencing also increases larval unpalatability to native predatory spiders, suggesting that the defensive co-option of lyciumoside IV may be ecologically advantageous. We infer that M. sexta detoxifies this allelochemical to avoid its deleterious effects, rather than co-opting it against predators. PMID:26443324

  8. Detoxification of hostplant's chemical defence rather than its anti-predator co-option drives β-glucosidase-mediated lepidopteran counteradaptation

    PubMed Central

    Poreddy, Spoorthi; Mitra, Sirsha; Schöttner, Matthias; Chandran, Jima; Schneider, Bernd; Baldwin, Ian T.; Kumar, Pavan; Pandit, Sagar S.

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary plant–herbivore arms race sometimes gives rise to remarkably unique adaptation strategies. Here we report one such strategy in the lepidopteran herbivore Manduca sexta against its hostplant Nicotiana attenuata's major phytotoxins, 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycoside, lyciumoside IV and its malonylated forms. We show that alkalinity of larval regurgitant non-enzymatically demalonylates the malonylated forms to lyciumoside IV. Lyciumoside IV is then detoxified in the midgut by β-glucosidase 1-catalysed deglycosylation, which is unusual, as typically the deglycosylation of glycosylated phytochemicals by insects results in the opposite: toxin activation. Suppression of deglucosylation by silencing larval β-glucosidase 1 by plant-mediated RNAi causes moulting impairments and mortality. In the native habitat of N. attenuata, β-glucosidase 1 silencing also increases larval unpalatability to native predatory spiders, suggesting that the defensive co-option of lyciumoside IV may be ecologically advantageous. We infer that M. sexta detoxifies this allelochemical to avoid its deleterious effects, rather than co-opting it against predators. PMID:26443324

  9. NaJAZh Regulates a Subset of Defense Responses against Herbivores and Spontaneous Leaf Necrosis in Nicotiana attenuata Plants[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Youngjoo; Baldwin, Ian T.; Gális, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins function as negative regulators of jasmonic acid signaling in plants. We cloned 12 JAZ genes from native tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata), including nine novel JAZs in tobacco, and examined their expression in plants that had leaves elicited by wounding or simulated herbivory. Most JAZ genes showed strong expression in the elicited leaves, but NaJAZg was mainly expressed in roots. Another novel herbivory-elicited gene, NaJAZh, was analyzed in detail. RNA interference suppression of this gene in inverted-repeat (ir)JAZh plants deregulated a specific branch of jasmonic acid-dependent direct and indirect defenses: irJAZh plants showed greater trypsin protease inhibitor activity, 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides accumulation, and emission of volatile organic compounds from leaves. Silencing of NaJAZh also revealed a novel cross talk in JAZ-regulated secondary metabolism, as irJAZh plants had significantly reduced nicotine levels. In addition, irJAZh spontaneously developed leaf necrosis during the transition to flowering. Because the lesions closely correlated with the elevated expression of programmed cell death genes and the accumulations of salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the leaves, we propose a novel role of the NaJAZh protein as a repressor of necrosis and/or programmed cell death during plant development. PMID:22496510

  10. A new tigliane-type diterpene from Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lin-Feng; Liang, Qian; Liu, Tie; He, Ming-Yu; Zhao, Ping; Xu, Wen-Hui

    2016-07-01

    One new tigliane-type diterpene, 4-deoxy-4(β)H-8-hydroperoxyphorbol-12-benzoate-13-isobutyrate (1), together with two known diterpenoids, 3-acetyl-5,8-dibenzoyl-14α-propanoyl-13,17-epoxy-7-myrsinaone diterpene with C9-C10 cyclised to form an additional lactone ring (2), Euphodendriane A (3) have been isolated from the whole plants of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. Their structures were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis (NMR and HR-ESI-MS) and comparison with data reported in the literature. This is the first isolation of 8-hydroperoxy tigliane diterpene (1) from the genus of Euphorbia. All compounds were evaluated for their antifungal activities. PMID:26729599

  11. Interaction of coffee compounds with serum albumins. Part II: Diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Guercia, Elena; Forzato, Cristina; Navarini, Luciano; Berti, Federico

    2016-05-15

    Cafestol and 16-O-methylcafestol are diterpenes present in coffee, but whilst cafestol is found in both Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica, 16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC) was reported to be specific of only C. canephora. The interactions of such compounds, with serum albumins, have been studied. Three albumins have been considered, namely human serum albumin (HSA), fatty acid free HSA (ffHSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The proteins interact with the diterpenes at the interface between Sudlow site I and the fatty acid binding site 6 in a very peculiar way, leading to a significant change in the secondary structure. The diterpenes do not displace reference binding drugs of site 2, but rather they enhance the affinity of the site for the drugs. They, therefore, may alter the pharmacokinetic profile of albumin - bound drugs. PMID:26776001

  12. Monoterpene glycosides, phenylpropanoids, and acacetin glycosides from Dracocephalum foetidum.

    PubMed

    Selenge, Erdenechimeg; Murata, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Shiho; Sasaki, Kenroh; Batkhuu, Javzan; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko

    2014-05-01

    Chemical investigation of the acetone extract from the aerial parts of the Mongolian medicinal plant Dracocephalum foetidum resulted in the isolation of three limonene glycosides, a caffeic acid trimer, four rosmarinic acid glucosides, and five acacetin acyl glycosides, together with 13 known natural products. The chemical structures of all of the compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses. Among these compounds three showed hyaluronidase inhibitory activity. In addition, one other compound showed stronger 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than the positive control Trolox, whereas three other compounds demonstrated a similar activity to that of Trolox. PMID:24582463

  13. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in Marrubium vulgare and Leonurus cardiaca.

    PubMed

    Knöss, W; Zapp, J

    1998-05-01

    Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes has been investigated in different parts of field-grown plants of MARRUBIUM VULGARE (Lamiaceae) and LEONURUS CARDIACA (Lamiaceae). Furanic labdane diterpenes were produced and accumulated only in the aerial parts. Greatest amounts were measured in leaves and flowers. Up to 4 mg furanic labdane diterpenes per g fresh weight were found. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in plantlets seemingly depends on a developmental programme. No furanic labdane diterpenes were detected in plantlets during the first four to five weeks following germination. At this time the leaves became more differentiated and the number of trichomes on leaves was obviously increasing. Young leaves and buds contained most furanic labdane diterpenes. It was proven that at least a part of the non-volatile furanic labdane diterpenes is stored in peltate glandular trichomes. NMR signals of marrubiin were investigated with correlated spectra. Some (1)H- and (13)C-NMR assignments reported in literature were revised. PMID:17253250

  14. A new diterpene from the processed roots of Euphorbia Kansui.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Fa; Wang, Jin-Hui; Cong, Yue; Li, Xian

    2008-01-01

    A new diterpene has been isolated from the processed roots of Euphorbia Kansui. By means of physico-chemical evidences and spectral analysis, the structure was identified as 4-O-acetyl-5-O-benzoyl-3beta-hydroxy-20-deoxyingenol (1). PMID:18253876

  15. Total synthesis of the Isodon diterpene sculponeatin N.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Benjamin J; Mack, Daniel J; Tong, Liuchuan; Thomson, Regan J

    2014-03-10

    The total synthesis of sculponeatin N, a bioactive polycyclic diterpene isolated from Isodon sculponeatus, is reported. Key features of the synthesis include diastereoselective Nazarov and ring-closing metathesis reactions, and a highly efficient formation of the bicyclo[3.2.1]octane ring system by a reductive radical cyclization. PMID:24519748

  16. Evolution of Conifer Diterpene Synthases: Diterpene Resin Acid Biosynthesis in Lodgepole Pine and Jack Pine Involves Monofunctional and Bifunctional Diterpene Synthases1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Dawn E.; Zerbe, Philipp; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet; Madilao, Lina L.; Yuen, Macaire; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are major components of pine (Pinus spp.) oleoresin. They play critical roles in conifer defense against insects and pathogens and as a renewable resource for industrial bioproducts. The core structures of DRAs are formed in secondary (i.e. specialized) metabolism via cycloisomerization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) by diterpene synthases (diTPSs). Previously described gymnosperm diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the initial bicyclization of GGPP followed by rearrangement of a (+)-copalyl diphosphate intermediate at two discrete class II and class I active sites. In contrast, similar diterpenes of gibberellin primary (i.e. general) metabolism are produced by the consecutive activity of two monofunctional class II and class I diTPSs. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we discovered 11 diTPS from jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Three of these were orthologous to known conifer bifunctional levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthases. Surprisingly, two sets of orthologous PbdiTPSs and PcdiTPSs were monofunctional class I enzymes that lacked functional class II active sites and converted (+)-copalyl diphosphate, but not GGPP, into isopimaradiene and pimaradiene as major products. Diterpene profiles and transcriptome sequences of lodgepole pine and jack pine are consistent with roles for these diTPSs in DRA biosynthesis. The monofunctional class I diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis form a new clade within the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d3 subfamily that evolved from bifunctional diTPS rather than monofunctional enzymes (TPS-c and TPS-e) of gibberellin metabolism. Homology modeling suggested alterations in the class I active site that may have contributed to their functional specialization relative to other conifer diTPSs. PMID:23370714

  17. Hierarchical classification of glycoside hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Naumoff, D G

    2011-06-01

    This review deals with structural and functional features of glycoside hydrolases, a widespread group of enzymes present in almost all living organisms. Their catalytic domains are grouped into 120 amino acid sequence-based families in the international classification of the carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy database). At a higher hierarchical level some of these families are combined in 14 clans. Enzymes of the same clan have common evolutionary origin of their genes and share the most important functional characteristics such as composition of the active center, anomeric configuration of cleaved glycosidic bonds, and molecular mechanism of the catalyzed reaction (either inverting, or retaining). There are now extensive data in the literature concerning the relationship between glycoside hydrolase families belonging to different clans and/or included in none of them, as well as information on phylogenetic protein relationship within particular families. Summarizing these data allows us to propose a multilevel hierarchical classification of glycoside hydrolases and their homologs. It is shown that almost the whole variety of the enzyme catalytic domains can be brought into six main folds, large groups of proteins having the same three-dimensional structure and the supposed common evolutionary origin. PMID:21639842

  18. Flavonol Glycosides from Gaura Biennis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytochemical investigation of the native American plant Gaura biennis led to the isolation of three new flavonol glycosides (1-3), along with eight known ones. Their structures were established primarily by spectroscopic data as quercetin 3-O-(2"-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-6"-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-ß-D- gluco...

  19. Biosynthesis of uterotonic diterpenes from Montanoa tomentosa (zoapatle).

    PubMed

    Villa-Ruano, Nemesio; Betancourt-Jiménez, Martha Guadalupe; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo

    2009-12-15

    Montanoa tomentosa (zoapatle) is a Central American plant used in Mexico in traditional herbal medicine to ease childbirth labor and to cure certain female disorders. Recently, crude extracts of M. tomentosa have been reported to have an aphrodisiacal effect on male rats. The bioactive molecules are the uterotonic diterpenes kaurenoic acid (KA), grandiflorenic acid (GF), and monoginoic acid (MO). Roots of M. tomentosa contain all three diterpenes, whereas in leaves only kaurenoic and GF are present. However, despite the pharmacological importance of these compounds, specific information about their biosynthesis and localization in the plant is not available. In this investigation, we followed the metabolic transformation of a tritium-labeled diterpene-precursor via geranylgeranyl diphosphate into each of the three diterpenes. Inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis were used to elucidate the sequence of conversion of the intermediates. Our results suggest the biosynthetic conversion of KA into GF by a putative cytochrome P450-like desaturase. Partial characterization of the enzyme revealed that it requires NADPH and O2 but is inhibited by 50 microM paclobutrazol, suggesting a cytochrome P450 desaturase like enzyme (EC 1.14.14.-). Optimal reaction conditions are 32 degrees C and a pH of 7.6, respectively. Apparent kinetics parameters for KA gave a K(m,app) of 36.31 microM, and a V(max, app) of 13.6 nmol KA mg(1)protein h(-1). Based on the data presented, a putative biosynthetic pathway is proposed for the uterotonic diterpenes of M. tomentosa. PMID:19581023

  20. Steviol and steviol-glycoside: glucosyltransferase activities in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni--purification and partial characterization.

    PubMed

    Shibata, H; Sawa, Y; Oka, T; Sonoke, S; Kim, K K; Yoshioka, M

    1995-08-20

    The leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni contain sweet compounds which are glycosides of diterpene derivative steviol (ent-13-hydroxykaur-16-en-19-oic acid). Its main constituents are stevioside (triglucosylated steviol; 13-O-beta-sophorosyl-19-O-beta-glucosyl-steviol) and rebaudioside-A (tetraglucosylated steviol; 2'-O-beta-glucosyl-13-O-beta-sophorosyl-19-O-beta-glucosyl-stev iol). From the extracts of S. rebaudiana Bertoni, two glucosyltransferases (GTases I and IIB) acting on steviol and steviol-glycosides were isolated, and another distinct activity (GTase IIA) acting on steviol was detected. Purified GTase I (subunit M(r) 24,600) catalyzed glucose transfer from UDP-glucose to steviol and steviolmonoside (steviol-13-O-glucopyranoside), but not to other steviol-glycosides. Apparent Km values were 71.4 microM for steviol and 360 microM for UDP-glucose. GTase IIB (subunit M(r) 30,700) showed a broad substrate specificity, acting on steviol, steviolmonoside, steviolbioside (13-O-beta-sophorosyl-steviol), and stevioside. Apparent Km values were 182 microM for steviol, 44 microM for steviolbioside, 95 microM for stevioside, and 385 microM for UDP-glucose. The two enzymes had a similar optimum pH at 6.5. They also acted effectively on ubiquitous flavonol aglycones, quercetin, and kaempferol and utilized kaempferol at a higher rate than steviol and steviol-glycosides. The apparent Km values of GTase I and IIB for kaempferol were 12 and 31 microM, respectively. PMID:7646064

  1. Cyanogenetic glycosides and simple glycosides from the linseed meal.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing-Yun; Song, Li; Zhang, Ji-Fa; Shen, Zhu-Fang; Liu, Quan; Liu, Shuai-Nan; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Yao, Chun-Suo

    2015-10-01

    Three new cyanogenetic triglycosides linustatins A-C (1-3), and two new simple glycosides linustatins D and E (4 and 5) were isolated from the 70% ethanol extract of flaxseed meal (Linum usitatissimum L.). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. All of the isolates showed moderate activities against aldose reductase and weak activities against α-glucosidase, DPP-IV, and FBPase at the same concentrations as the positive control drugs. PMID:26307006

  2. Gene Discovery of Modular Diterpene Metabolism in Nonmodel Systems1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zerbe, Philipp; Hamberger, Björn; Yuen, Macaire M.S.; Chiang, Angela; Sandhu, Harpreet K.; Madilao, Lina L.; Nguyen, Anh; Hamberger, Britta; Bach, Søren Spanner; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce over 10,000 different diterpenes of specialized (secondary) metabolism, and fewer diterpenes of general (primary) metabolism. Specialized diterpenes may have functions in ecological interactions of plants with other organisms and also benefit humanity as pharmaceuticals, fragrances, resins, and other industrial bioproducts. Examples of high-value diterpenes are taxol and forskolin pharmaceuticals or ambroxide fragrances. Yields and purity of diterpenes obtained from natural sources or by chemical synthesis are often insufficient for large-volume or high-end applications. Improvement of agricultural or biotechnological diterpene production requires knowledge of biosynthetic genes and enzymes. However, specialized diterpene pathways are extremely diverse across the plant kingdom, and most specialized diterpenes are taxonomically restricted to a few plant species, genera, or families. Consequently, there is no single reference system to guide gene discovery and rapid annotation of specialized diterpene pathways. Functional diversification of genes and plasticity of enzyme functions of these pathways further complicate correct annotation. To address this challenge, we used a set of 10 different plant species to develop a general strategy for diterpene gene discovery in nonmodel systems. The approach combines metabolite-guided transcriptome resources, custom diterpene synthase (diTPS) and cytochrome P450 reference gene databases, phylogenies, and, as shown for select diTPSs, single and coupled enzyme assays using microbial and plant expression systems. In the 10 species, we identified 46 new diTPS candidates and over 400 putatively terpenoid-related P450s in a resource of nearly 1 million predicted transcripts of diterpene-accumulating tissues. Phylogenetic patterns of lineage-specific blooms of genes guided functional characterization. PMID:23613273

  3. Iridoid glycosides from Barleria lupulina.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Park, Yong Joo; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Yip, M L Richard; Clardy, Jon; Senger, Donald; Cao, Shugeng

    2015-02-27

    Phytochemical investigation of an extract of the aerial part of Barleria lupulina resulted in the identification of four new iridoid glycosides (1-4), together with 14 known analogues (5-18). The structures of 1-4 were determined through 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis, HRMS, and acid hydrolysis. This is the first report of iridoid glycosides with a formate group. The free-radical scavenging activity of compounds 9, 12, and 15-17 was assessed using the DPPH assay. Compounds 16 and 17 scavenged DPPH radicals weakly with IC50 values of 97.5 and 78.6 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:25611215

  4. Steroidal glycosides from Ruscus ponticus.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Assunta; Muzashvili, Tamar; Perrone, Angela; Pizza, Cosimo; Kemertelidze, Ether; Piacente, Sonia

    2011-05-01

    A comparative metabolite profiling of the underground parts and leaves of Ruscus ponticus was obtained by an HPLC-ESIMS(n) method, based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray positive ionization multistage ion trap mass spectrometry. The careful study of HPLC-ESIMS(n) fragmentation pattern of each chromatographic peak, in particular the identification of diagnostic product ions, allowed us to get a rapid screening of saponins belonging to different classes, such as dehydrated/or not furostanol, spirostanol and pregnane glycosides, and to promptly highlight similarities and differences between the two plant parts. This approach, followed by isolation and structure elucidation by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, led to the identification of eleven saponins from the underground parts, of which two dehydrated furostanol glycosides and one new vespertilin derivative, and nine saponins from R. ponticus leaves, never reported previously. The achieved results highlighted a clean prevalence of furostanol glycoside derivatives in R. ponticus leaves rather in the underground parts of the plant, which showed a wider structure variety. In particular, the occurrence of dehydrated furostanol derivatives, for the first time isolated from a Ruscus species, is an unusual finding which makes unique the saponins profile of R. ponticus. PMID:21354581

  5. Bioactive diterpenes from the fruits of Detarium microcarpum.

    PubMed

    Cavin, Anne-Laure; Hay, Anne-Emmanuelle; Marston, Andrew; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen; Scopelliti, Rosario; Diallo, Drissa; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2006-05-01

    A fruit pulp extract of Detarium microcarpum showed inhibition of the growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum and of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of four new clerodane diterpenes, 3,4-epoxyclerodan-13E-en-15-oic acid (1), 5alpha,8alpha(2-oxokolavenic acid) (2), 3,4-dihydroxyclerodan-13E-en-15-oic acid (4), and 3,4-dihydroxyclerodan-13Z-en-15-oic acid (5). Also isolated were 2-oxokolavenic acid (3) and copalic acid (6). Structure elucidation of the compounds was carried out by spectroscopic data interpretation and by the X-ray crystallography of 2 and 4. Three of the new clerodane diterpenes (1, 2, and 5) showed both antifungal activity and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, and 3 showed a slight inhibition of this enzyme. PMID:16724838

  6. Antimicrobial activity of diterpenes from Viguiera arenaria against endodontic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Tatiane C; Simão, Marília R; Ambrósio, Sérgio R; Furtado, Niege A J C; Veneziani, Rodrigo C S; Heleno, Vladimir C G; Da Costa, Fernando B; Gomes, Brenda P F A; Souza, Maria Gorete M; Borges dos Reis, Erika; Martins, Carlos H G

    2011-01-01

    Six pimarane-type diterpenes isolated from Viguiera arenaria Baker and two semi-synthetic derivatives were evaluated in vitro against a panel of representative microorganisms responsible for dental root canal infections. The microdilution method was used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella buccae, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces viscosus, Peptostreptococcus micros, Enterococcus faecalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The compounds ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid, its sodium salt and ent-8(14),15-pimaradien-3β-ol were the most active, displaying MIC values ranging from 1 to 10 μg mL-1. The results also allow us to conclude that minor structural differences among these diterpenes significantly influence their antimicrobial activity, bringing new perspectives to the discovery of new chemicals for use as a complement to instrumental endodontic procedures. PMID:21233793

  7. Synthesis of Neoclerodane Diterpenes and Their Pharmacological Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovell, Kimberly M.; Prevatt-Smith, Katherine M.; Lozama, Anthony; Prisinzano, Thomas E.

    Salvinorin A is a neoclerodane diterpene that has been shown to be an agonist at kappa opioid receptors. Its unique structure makes it an attractive target for synthetic organic chemists due to its seven chiral centers and diterpene scaffold. This molecule is also interesting to pharmacologists because it is a non-serotonergic hallucinogen, and the first opioid ligand discovered that lacks a basic nitrogen. There have been several total synthesis approaches to salvinorin A, and these will be detailed within this chapter. Additionally, research efforts have concentrated on structure modification of the salvinorin A scaffold through semi-synthetic methods. Most modifications have focused on the manipulation of the acetate at C-2 and the furan ring. However, chemistry has also been developed to generate analogs at the C-1 ketone, the C-4 methyl ester, and the C-17 lactone. The synthetic methodologies developed for the salvinorin A scaffold will be described, as well as specific analogs with interesting biological activities.

  8. A New Cytotoxic Clerodane Diterpene from Casearia graveolens Twigs.

    PubMed

    Meesakul, Pornphimol; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Sripisut, Tawanun; Maneerat, Wisanu; Machan, Theeraphan; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2016-01-01

    The first phytochemical investigation of Casearia graveolens twigs led to the isolation and identification of a new clerodane diterpene, caseariagraveolin (1), together with six known compounds (2-7). Their structures were elucidated by intensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Compound 1 showed strong cytotoxicity against oral cavity and breast cancer cell lines with IC₅₀ values of 2.48 and 6.63 µM, respectively. PMID:26996007

  9. Sinuladiterpenes A-F, new cembrane diterpenes from Sinularia flexibilis.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kuang-Liang; Khalil, Ashraf Taha; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Shen, Ya-Ching

    2009-12-01

    Chromatographic investigation of the octocoral Sinularia flexibilis afforded six new cembrane diterpenes, sinuladiterpenes A-F (1-6, resp.), in addition to four known cembranolides, 11-episinulariolide acetate, 11-dehydrosinulariolide, 11-episinulariolide, and sinulariolide. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, especially 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS. Compound 2 exhibited significant in vitro cytotoxic activity against human colon adenocarcinoma (WiDr) cell line. PMID:20020460

  10. Cassane diterpenes from the seed kernels of Caesalpinia sappan.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hai Xuan; Nguyen, Nhan Trung; Dang, Phu Hoang; Thi Ho, Phuoc; Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Van Can, Mao; Dibwe, Dya Fita; Ueda, Jun-Ya; Awale, Suresh

    2016-02-01

    Eight structurally diverse cassane diterpenes named tomocins A-H were isolated from the seed kernels of Vietnamese Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Their structures were determined by extensive NMR and CD spectroscopic analysis. Among the isolated compounds, tomocin A, phanginin A, F, and H exhibited mild preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells under nutrition-deprived condition without causing toxicity in normal nutrient-rich conditions. PMID:26769396

  11. Antimicrobial Diterpenes from Azorella Species Against Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Donoso, Viviana; Bacho, Mitchell; Núiñez, Solange; Rovirosa, Juana; San-Martin, Aurelio; Leiva, Sergio

    2015-11-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of mulinane and azorellane diterpenes isolated from the Andean plants Azorella compacta and A. trifoliolata and semisynthetic derivatives against reference and multidrug-resistant strains. The results revealed that the semisynthetic compound 7-acetoxy-mulin-9,12-diene (5) exhibited antibacterial activity against reference and multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and moderate antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 14468. PMID:26749825

  12. New clerodane diterpenes from Tinospora sagittata var. yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Yong; Li, Wen-Juan; Jiao, Li-Xiang; Guo, Jun-Ming; Tian, Kai; Yang, Chun-Tao; Huang, Xiang-Zhong

    2014-03-01

    Four new clerodane diterpenes, namely sagittatayunnanosides A-D (1-4), were isolated from the roots of Tinospora sagittata var. yunnanensis, together with two known compounds, tinospinoside C (5) and tinospinoside E (6). The structures of the four new compounds were well elucidated by extensive analyses of the MS, IR, and 1D and 2D NMR data. The cytotoxic and antifouling activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated. PMID:24634023

  13. Facile synthesis of aminooxy glycosides by gold(III)-catalyzed glycosidation.

    PubMed

    Thadke, Shivaji A; Neralkar, Mahesh; Hotha, Srinivas

    2016-07-22

    The O-glycosidation of hydroxysuccinimides and hydroxyphthalimides with a variety of aldose derived propargyl 1,2-orthoesters under the gold(III)-catalyzed glycosidation conditions is reported. A wide range of hydroxysuccinimidyl and hydroxyphthalimidyl glycosides were synthesized from corresponding glycosyl orthoesters including glucosyl, mannosyl, galactosyl, ribofuranosyl, arabinofuranosyl, lyxofuranosyl and xylofuranosyl using gold catalysis repertoire. The protocol is identified to be compatible for the synthesis of aminooxy glycosides of higher oligosaccharides as well. PMID:27162194

  14. Bioconversion of steroid glycosides by Nocardia restricta.

    PubMed

    Belic, I; Kastelic-Suhadolc, T; Kralj, B

    1985-09-01

    The bioconversion of steroid alkaloid tomatine by Nocardia restricta yields the conjugate with lactic acid. We studied the bioconversion of some steroid glycosides without a nitrogen atom in the molecule to determine the effect of the nitrogen atom. The glycosides were of three different types: sterol glycosides, bufadienolide rhamnoside and steroid saponine. The results of bioconversions showed that Nocardia restricta converts steroid glycosides differently according to the sugar bound to the steroid aglycone. It can be concluded that in the absence of a nitrogen atom in the steroid molecule no conjugation with lactic acid by Nocardia restricta occurs. PMID:4046605

  15. Diterpene synthesis in Stevia rebaudiana: recruitment and up-regulation of key enzymes from the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Richman, A S; Gijzen, M; Starratt, A N; Yang, Z; Brandle, J E

    1999-08-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves accumulate a mixture of at least eight different glycosides derived from the tetracyclic diterpene steviol. These natural products taste intensely sweet and have similar biosynthetic origins to those of gibberellic acid (GA). The initial steps leading to the formation of GA result from the two-step cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to (-)-kaurene via the action of two terpene cyclases (-)-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) and (-)-kaurene synthase (KS). Steviol biosynthesis probably uses the same mechanism although the genes and enzymes from S. rebaudiana that are involved in the cyclization of GGDP have not been characterized. We have isolated both the CPS and KS genes from S. rebaudiana and found that recombinant CPS and KS were catalytically active, suggesting that the CPS and KS genes participate in steviol biosynthesis. The genes coding for CPS and KS are usually present in single copies in most plant species and their expression is normally low and limited to rapidly growing tissues. The KS gene has been duplicated in the S. rebaudiana genome and both the KS and CPS genes are highly expressed in mature leaves, a pattern opposite to that found with GA biosynthesis. This pattern may, at least in part, lead to temporal and spatial separation of GA and steviol biosynthesis and probably helps to prevent over-expression from interfering with normal GA metabolism. Our results show that CPS and KS are part of the steviol glycoside biosynthetic pathway and that Stevia rebaudiana has recruited two genes to secondary metabolism from a highly regulated pathway involved in hormone biosynthesis. PMID:10504563

  16. Cloning of Casbene Synthases from Euphorbiaceae Plants and Implications for Diterpene Biosynthesis in This Family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large number of diterpenes have been isolated from Euphorbiaceae plants, many of which are of interest due to toxicity or potential therapeutic activity. Specific Euphorbiaceae diterpenes of medical interest include the latent HIV-1 activator prostratin (and related 12-deoxyphorbol esters), the an...

  17. New adduct of abietane-type diterpene from Salvia leriifolia Benth.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Amjad; Adhikari, Achyut; Iqbal Choudhary, M; Ayatollahi, Syed Abdulmajid; Atta-Ur-Rahman

    2016-07-01

    A new adduct of abietane-type diterpene, salvialeriicone (1), was isolated from Salvia leriifolia Benth., along with a new chemical entity nor-abietane diterpene, 2-isopropyl-8,8-dimethyl-7,8-dihydrophenanthrene-1,4,5(6H)-trione (2). Their structures were determined using mass spectrometry, and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:27266891

  18. Neuroprotective bibenzyl glycosides of Stemona tuberosa roots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Yong; Sung, Sang Hyun; Kim, Young Choong

    2006-04-01

    Three new bibenzyl glycosides characterized as stilbostemin B 3'-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), stilbostemin H 3'-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), and stilbostemin I 2"-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3) were isolated from the roots of Stemona tuberosa. All three bibenzyl glycosides significantly protected human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells from 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:16643052

  19. Two New Triterpene Glycosides from Centella asiatica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Centella asiatica resulted in the isolation and characterization of one new ursane type triterpene glycoside; asiaticoside G along with nine known compounds, that were characterized as ursane type triterpenes and /or their glycoside; asiatic acid (2), mad...

  20. Phenylpropanoid glycosides from Orobanche caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lie-Chwen; Chiou, Wen-Fei; Chou, Cheng-Jen

    2004-01-01

    Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides, caerulescenoside ( 1), and 3'-methyl crenatoside ( 2), as well as five known phenylpropanoid glycosides [acteoside ( 3), isoacteoside ( 4), campneoside II ( 5), crenatoside ( 6), and desrhamnosyl acteoside ( 7)] were isolated from the whole plant of Orobanche caerulescens. The antioxidative effects of compounds 1 - 7 on human low-density lipoprotein were evaluated. All these compounds suppress concentration-dependently conjugated diene formation with IC (50) values of 1.25 +/- 0.06, 2.97 +/- 0.31, 0.31 +/- 0.01, 1.01 +/- 0.05, 1.15 +/- 0.04, 1.69 +/- 0.15, and 0.64 +/- 0.03 microM, respectively. Comparison of their antioxidative activities with that of resveratrol (IC (50) : 6.75 +/- 1.05 microM), a natural phenolic antioxidant isolated from grape, demonstrated that the prolonged effect on lag-time and the damping effect on oxidative rate by compounds 1 - 7 were all more potent. PMID:14765293

  1. Phenolic glycosides from Kaempferia parviflora.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Kikuzaki, Hiroe

    2008-11-01

    Three phenolic glycosides were isolated together with two known flavonol glycosides from the H2O-soluble fraction of rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora. Their structures were determined to be rel-(5aS,10bS)-5a,10b-dihydro-1,3,5a,9-tetrahydroxy-8-methoxy-6H-benz[b]indeno[1,2-d]furan-6-one 5a-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside] (1), its rel-5aS,10bR isomer (2), and (2R,3S,4S)-3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl]-3'-O-methyl-ent-epicatechin-(2alpha-->O-->3,4alpha-->4)-(5aS,10bS)-5a,10b-dihydro-1,3,5a,9-tetrahydroxy-8-methoxy-6H-benz[b]indeno[1,2-d]furan-6-one 5a-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (3). The structures were elucidated on the basis of analyses of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. PMID:18922550

  2. Structural Characterization of the Degradation Products of a Minor Natural Sweet Diterpene Glycoside Rebaudioside M under Acidic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Indra; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Markosyan, Avetik

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of rebaudioside M, a minor sweet component of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, under conditions that simulated extreme pH and temperature conditions has been studied. Thus, rebaudioside M was treated with 0.1 M phosphoric acid solution (pH 2.0) and 80 °C temperature for 24 h. Experimental results indicated that rebaudioside M under low pH and higher temperature yielded three minor degradation compounds, whose structural characterization was performed on the basis of 1D (1H-, 13C-) & 2D (COSY, HSQC, HMBC) NMR, HRMS, MS/MS spectral data as well as enzymatic and acid hydrolysis studies. PMID:24424316

  3. Structural characterization of the degradation products of a minor natural sweet diterpene glycoside Rebaudioside M under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Markosyan, Avetik

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of rebaudioside M, a minor sweet component of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, under conditions that simulated extreme pH and temperature conditions has been studied. Thus, rebaudioside M was treated with 0.1 M phosphoric acid solution (pH 2.0) and 80 °C temperature for 24 h. Experimental results indicated that rebaudioside M under low pH and higher temperature yielded three minor degradation compounds, whose structural characterization was performed on the basis of 1D (1H-, 13C-) & 2D (COSY, HSQC, HMBC) NMR, HRMS, MS/MS spectral data as well as enzymatic and acid hydrolysis studies. PMID:24424316

  4. A new labdane diterpene from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum.

    PubMed

    Zou, Qiong-Yu; Wu, Hai-Feng; Tang, Yu-Lian; Chen, Di-Zhao

    2016-01-01

    A new labdane diterpene, (Z)-12,14-labdadien-15(16)-olide-17-oic acid (1), and a new natural cadinane sesquiterpene, 4-isopropyl-6-methyl-1-naphthalenemethanol (2), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum, together with three other products, galangin (3), kaempferol (4) and quercetin (5). Their structures were elucidated by using extensive spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1 and 2 showed no remarkable cytotoxic activity against HeLa and HepG2 cancer cell lines with IC50>50 μg mL(- 1). PMID:26189919

  5. Metabolic flux analysis of diterpene biosynthesis pathway in rice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung-Jin; Kim, Bo-Ra; Kim, Soo-Un

    2005-09-01

    Relative transcript levels of eight rice diterpene cyclases at the branch points of gibberellins and phytoalexins biosynthesis pathway were measured by reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Metabolic flux analysis by the distribution ratio of common substrate showed that UV-irradiation of etiolated rice seedlings decreased the flux for primary metabolism of gibberellins biosynthesis by half (from 62 to 27%) and 41% of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate was used for induction of pimaradiene intermediate as the major phytoalexin. In comparison, light-illumination used almost all geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (96%) for gibberellin biosynthesis to stimulate the plant growth and strongly repressed the metabolic flux for phytoalexins biosynthesis. PMID:16215852

  6. Discovery of a Novel Diterpene in Brown Propolis from the State of Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, Shigemi; Arai, Yasuko; Hotta, Sho; Mitsui, Taichi; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Ichihara, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Propolis is a resinous substance collected by honeybees from certain plant sources. The components of propolis depend on the vegetation of the area in which apiculture is practiced. In Brazil, there are several types of propolis including 'green,' 'red' and 'brown'. Brazilian brown propolis from the state of Parana characteristically includes diterpenes, and we discovered a novel clerodane diterpene, rel-(5S,6S,8R,9R,10S,18R,19S)-18,19-epoxy-2-oxocleroda-3,12(E),14- triene-6,18,19-triol 18,19-diacetate 6-benzoate (3) and five known diterpenes (1, 2, 4, 5 and 6). The chemical structure of the novel diterpene 3 was determined using 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analyses. Furthermore, the activities of the isolated diterpenes on growth inhibition of several human cancer cell lines (LNCaP, MCF-7, DLD-1 and A549) were evaluated in vitro; diterpene 3 exhibited a potent inhibition of cell growth, and its activity was approximately 15 times higher than that of the other diterpenes. PMID:27032202

  7. Two new glycosides from Conyza bonariensis.

    PubMed

    Zahoor, Aqib; Siddiqui, Imran Nafees; Khan, Afsar; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin; Ahmed, Amir; Hassan, Zahid; Khan, Saleha Suleman; Iqbal, Shazia

    2010-07-01

    Studies on Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. led to the isolation of two new glycosides trivially named as erigeside E and F (1-2), along with two new source compounds; benzyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3) and 2-phenylethyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4). Compounds 1, 3, and 4 are aromatic glycosides, while compound 2 is an alkyl glycoside. Their structures were elucidated through mass spectrometric, and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic techniques, including 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC, HSQC and HMBC. PMID:20734949

  8. Phytophthora austrocedri Elicitates Changes in Diterpene Profile of Austrocedrus chilensis.

    PubMed

    Olate, Verónica Rachel; Vélez, María Laura; Greslebin, Alina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The populations of the Andean Cupressaceae Austrocedrus chilensis have been severely affected by a disease caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Phytophthora austrocedri. A study was undertaken to disclose changes in the resin composition of P. austrocedri-infected individuals, including naturally infected and artificially inoculated trees, compared with healthy A. chilensis trees. GC-MS and (1)H-NMR studies showed a clear differentiation among healthy and infected resins, with the diterpene isopimara-8(9),15-dien-19-ol as a relevant constituent in resins from infected trees. The effect of resin fractions from P. austrocedri infected trees on the pathogen was assessed by measuring the mycelial growth in agar plates. The most active fractions from resin obtained from infected trees inhibited fungal growth by nearly 50% at 1 mg/dish (35.37 µg/cm(2)). The main constituent in the active fractions were 18-hydroxymanool and the aldehyde torulosal. Both compounds are oxidation products of manool and can be a chemical response of the tree to the pathogen or be formed from the pathogen as a biotransformation product of manool by microbial oxidation. While the diterpene profiles from A. chilensis tree resins can easily differentiate healthy and P. austrocedri infected individuals, the possible conversion of manool to the antifungal derivatives 4 and 6 by the microorganism remains to be established. PMID:26295220

  9. Expanding the Landscape of Diterpene Structural Diversity through Stereochemically Controlled Combinatorial Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Andersen‐Ranberg, Johan; Kongstad, Kenneth Thermann; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Pateraki, Irini; Bach, Søren Spanner; Hamberger, Britta; Zerbe, Philipp; Staerk, Dan; Bohlmann, Jörg; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Plant‐derived diterpenoids serve as important pharmaceuticals, food additives, and fragrances, yet their low natural abundance and high structural complexity limits their broader industrial utilization. By mimicking the modularity of diterpene biosynthesis in plants, we constructed 51 functional combinations of class I and II diterpene synthases, 41 of which are “new‐to‐nature”. Stereoselective biosynthesis of over 50 diterpene skeletons was demonstrated, including natural variants and novel enantiomeric or diastereomeric counterparts. Scalable biotechnological production for four industrially relevant targets was accomplished in engineered strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:26749264

  10. Activity of macrocyclic jatrophane diterpenes from Euphorbia kansui in a TrkA fibroblast survival assay.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qin; Ip, Fanny C F; Ip, Nancy Y; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Min, Zhi-Da

    2004-09-01

    Three new macrocyclic diterpenes, kansuinins F (1), G (2), and H (3), together with four known jatrophane diterpenes, kansuinins D (4), E (5), and A (6) and 3beta,5alpha,7beta,15beta-tetraacetoxy-9alpha-nicotinoyloxyjatropha-6(17)-11E-dien-14-one, were isolated from the roots of Euphorbia kansui. Compounds 1 and 2 were assigned as 6(17)-en-11,12-epoxy-14-one-type jatrophane diterpenes, and compound 3 as a 6(17)-en-11,14-epoxy-12-one jatrophane diterpene. The structures of compounds 1-3 and the relative configurations of compounds 4 and 5 were determined by spectral data analysis. Kansuinin E (5) exhibited a specific survival effect on fibroblasts that expressed TrkA, a high-affinity receptor for nerve growth factor. PMID:15387657

  11. Antiviral agents of plant origin. III. Scopadulin, a novel tetracyclic diterpene from Scoparia dulcis L.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Kawasaki, M; Miwa, Y; Taga, T; Morita, N

    1990-04-01

    The structure and stereochemistry of scopadulin, a novel aphidicolane-type diterpene isolated from Scoparia dulcis L. have been established from spectral data and single-crystal X-ray analysis of its acetone solvate. PMID:2379289

  12. Extreme promiscuity of a bacterial and a plant diterpene synthase enables combinatorial biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Meirong; Potter, Kevin C; Peters, Reuben J

    2016-09-01

    Diterpenes are widely distributed across many biological kingdoms, where they serve a diverse range of physiological functions, and some have significant industrial utility. Their biosynthesis involves class I diterpene synthases (DTSs), whose activity can be preceded by that of class II diterpene cyclases (DTCs). Here, a modular metabolic engineering system was used to examine the promiscuity of DTSs. Strikingly, both a bacterial and plant DTS were found to exhibit extreme promiscuity, reacting with all available precursors with orthogonal activity, producing an olefin or hydroxyl group, respectively. Such DTS promiscuity enables combinatorial biosynthesis, with remarkably high yields for these unoptimized non-native enzymatic combinations (up to 15mg/L). Indeed, it was possible to readily characterize the 13 unknown products. Notably, 16 of the observed diterpenes were previously inaccessible, and these results provide biosynthetic routes that are further expected to enable assembly of more extended pathways to produce additionally elaborated 'non-natural' diterpenoids. PMID:27060773

  13. Triterpene glycosides from the Far Eastern sea cucumber Cucumaria conicospermium.

    PubMed

    Avilov, Sergey A; Antonov, Alexandr S; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Stonik, Valentin A; Riguera, Ricardo; Jimenez, Carlos

    2003-07-01

    Four new triterpene glycosides, cucumariosides A(2)-5 (1), A(3)-2 (2), A(3)-3 (3), and isokoreoside A (4), along with the previously isolated koreoside A (5), have been found in the sea cucumber Cucumariaconicospermium. Glycoside 1 was isolated as a native substance, while glycosides 2-5 were identified through their desulfated derivatives. Their structures have been deduced by extensive spectral analysis (NMR and MS) and chemical evidence. All the glycosides contain the same branched pentasaccharide carbohydrate chain but differ in the number and positions of the sulfate groups. Glycoside 1 has one, glycosides 2 and 3 have two, and glycosides 4 and 5 have three sulfate groups. Glycosides 2-5 are non-holostane derivatives; their aglycons lack the 18(20)-lactone and are characterized by shortened side chains, which is a very rare feature among the sea cucumber glycosides. PMID:12880305

  14. Diterpene alkaloids with an aza-ent-kaurane skeleton from Isodon rubescens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Yang, Jing; Wang, Wei-Guang; Li, Yan; Wu, Ji-Zhou; Pu, Jian-Xin; Sun, Han-Dong

    2015-02-27

    Two compounds belonging to a new group of diterpene alkaloids, kaurines A and B (1 and 2), and an alkaloid bearing a succinimide moiety (3) were obtained from Isodon rubescens. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopy and quantum-chemical computational (13)C NMR and ECD data analysis. These alkaloids differ from known diterpene alkaloids and diterpenoids and are presumably biosynthesized from ent-kaurane diterpenoids. PMID:25590529

  15. Structure and mechanism of the diterpene cyclase ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Köksal, Mustafa; Hu, Huayou; Coates, Robert M.; Peters, Reuben J.; Christianson, David W.

    2011-09-20

    The structure of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase reveals three {alpha}-helical domains ({alpha}, {beta} and {gamma}), as also observed in the related diterpene cyclase taxadiene synthase. However, active sites are located at the interface of the {beta}{gamma} domains in ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase but exclusively in the {alpha} domain of taxadiene synthase. Modular domain architecture in plant diterpene cyclases enables the evolution of alternative active sites and chemical strategies for catalyzing isoprenoid cyclization reactions.

  16. Prediction of anticancer activity of diterpenes isolated from the paraiban flora through a PLS model and molecular surfaces.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Luciana; Scotti, Marcus T; Ishiki, Hamilton; Junior, Francisco J B M; dos, Santos Paula F; Tavares, Josean F; da Silva, Marcelo S

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to predict the anticancer potential of 3 atisane, and 3 trachylobane diterpene compounds extracted from the roots of Xylopia langsdorffiana. The prediction of anticancer activity as expressed against PC-3 tumor cells was made using a PLS model built with 26 diterpenes in the training set. Significant statistical measures were obtained. The six investigated diterpenes were applied to the model and their activities against PC-3 cells were calculated. All the diterpenes were active, with atisane diterpenes showing the higher pICso values. In human prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells, the apoptosis mechanism is related to an inhibition of IKK/NF-KB. Antioxidant potential implies a greater electronic molecular atmosphere (increased donor electron capacity), which can reduce radical reactivity, and facilitate post donation charge accommodation. Molecular surfaces indicated a much greater electronic cloud over atisane diterpenes. PMID:25026699

  17. Capillary electrophoretic separation of phenolic diterpenes from rosemary.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-López, Rubén; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; Tena, María Teresa

    2002-04-12

    The major phenolic diterpenes responsible for the antioxidant properties of rosemary extracts, namely carnosol and carnosic acid, were separated by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) using a 56 cm long uncoated fused-silica capillary and a 50 mM disodium tetraborate buffer of pH 10.1. The effect of the buffer type, pH and concentration, and the capillary length on the separation, was studied. Carnosol and carnosic acid were identified in the electrophoregrams of rosemary extracts through their migration times and UV spectra obtained by CZE analysis of pure compounds isolated from a rosemary extract by HPLC fractionation. The CZE method had good reproducibility (relative standard deviation less than 5%) and was applied to compare the contents of carnosol and carnosic acid in solid and oil-dispersed commercial extracts of rosemary and in rosemary leaves. The separation of carnosol and carnosic acid was accomplished in less than 11 min. PMID:12058938

  18. Vibrational spectra and DFT calculations of sonderianin diterpene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, I. M. M.; Santos, H. S.; Sena, D. M.; Cruz, B. G.; Teixeira, A. M. R.; Freire, P. T. C.; Braz-Filho, R.; Sousa, J. W.; Albuquerque, M. R. J. R.; Bandeira, P. N.; Bernardino, A. C. S. S.; Gusmão, G. O. M.; Bento, R. R. F.

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, the natural product sonderianin diterpene (C21H26O4), a diterpenoid isolated from Croton blanchetianus, with potential application in the drug industry, was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Vibrational spectra were supported by Density Functional Theory calculations. Infrared and Raman spectra of sonderianin were recorded at ambient temperature in the regions from 400 cm-1 to 3600 cm-1 and from 40 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1, respectively. DFT calculations with the hybrid functional B3LYP and the basis set 6-31 G(d,p) were performed with the purpose of obtaining information on the structural and vibrational properties of this organic compound. A comparison with experimental spectra allowed us to assign all of the normal modes of the crystal. The assignment of the normal modes was carried out by means of potential energy distribution.

  19. Antimalarial and Antiproliferative Cassane Diterpenes of Caesalpinia sappan.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guoxu; Wu, Haifeng; Chen, Deli; Zhu, Nailiang; Zhu, Yindi; Sun, Zhonghao; Li, Pengfei; Yang, Junshan; Yuan, Jingquan; Xu, Xudong

    2015-10-23

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan led to the isolation of 12 new cassane-type diterpenes, caesalsappanins A-L (1-12). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and HRESIMS analysis, and the absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. All isolated compounds were tested against a chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain for antiplasmodial activities and against a small panel of human cancer cell lines for antiproliferative activities. Compounds 7 and 8 displayed antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-resistant K1 strain of P. falciparum with IC50 values of 0.78 and 0.52 μM and selectivity indices of 17.6 and 16.4, respectively. Compound 10 showed antiproliferative activity against the KB cancer cell line with an IC50 value of 7.4 μM. PMID:26398312

  20. Molecular Signaling Pathways Behind the Biological Effects of Salvia Species Diterpenes in Neuropharmacology and Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Akaberi, M; Iranshahi, M; Mehri, S

    2016-06-01

    The genus Salvia, from the Lamiaceae family, has diverse biological properties that are primarily attributable to their diterpene contents. There is no comprehensive review on the molecular signaling pathways of these active components. In this review, we investigated the molecular targets of bioactive Salvia diterpenes responsible for the treatment of nervous and cardiovascular diseases. The effects on different pathways, including apoptosis signaling, oxidative stress phenomena, the accumulation of amyloid beta plaques, and tau phosphorylation, have all been considered to be mechanisms of the anti-Alzheimer properties of Salvia diterpenes. Additionally, effects on the benzodiazepine and kappa opioid receptors and neuroprotective effects are noted as neuropharmacological properties of Salvia diterpenes, including tanshinone IIA, salvinorin A, cryptotanshinone, and miltirone. Tanshinone IIA, as the primary diterpene of Salvia miltiorrhiza, has beneficial activities in heart diseases because of its ability to scavenge free radicals and its effects on transcription factors, such as nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Additionally, tanshinone IIA has also been proposed to have cardioprotective properties including antiarrhythmic activities and effects on myocardial infarction. With respect to the potential therapeutic effects of Salvia diterpenes, comprehensive clinical trials are warranted to evaluate these valuable molecules as lead compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26988179

  1. New kaurene diterpenoid glycosides from fenugreek seeds.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xu; Kang, Li-Ping; Yu, He-Shui; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Two new kaurene diterpenoid glycosides, named Graecumoside A (1) and B (2), were isolated from fenugreek seeds, along with three known flavonoid-C-glycosides, isoorientin (3), isovitexin (4) and vitexin (5). By combined analyses of 1D- and 2D-NMR, and MS spectroscopy, the structures of two new compounds were elucidated as 3-O-β- D-glucopyranosyl kaur-5, 16-dien-3β, 6, 13β-trihydroxy-7-oxo-18-oic acid methyl ester and 3-O-β-neohesperidosyl kaur-5, 16-dien-3β, 6, 13β-trihydroxy-7-oxo-18-oic acid methyl ester, respectively. The kaurene diterpenoid glycosides were first isolated and identified from fenugreek seeds. PMID:22950814

  2. Five new phenolic glycosides from Hedyotis scandens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Cai; Li, Tao; Deng, Fang-Ye; Li, Yao-Lan; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2013-03-01

    Five new phenolic glycosides, hedyotosides A-E (1-5), including a new cyanogenic glycoside (1), along with 10 known compounds (6-15) were isolated from the whole plants of Hedyotis scandens. The structures of compounds 1-5 were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses and acid hydrolysis. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) with cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Compounds 6 and 15 showed anti-RSV effects with IC(50) values of 20 and 25 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:23333151

  3. A New Flavonoid Glycoside from Lysionotus pauciflorus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Wen, Yaya; Tu, Yanbei; Du, Hongjian; Li, Qin; Zhu, Chao; Li, Yanfang

    2016-05-01

    Ten flavonoids (1-10), including a new glycoside (nevadensin-7-sambubioside, 7), together with a phenylpropanoid glycoside (11) were isolated from Lysionotus pauciflorus. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic methods and comparing with literature data. Five compounds (1, 3, 4, 8, and 9) were obtained from the family Gesneriaceae for the first time. The new compound was evaluated in vitro for anticholinesterase activities against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), but was found to be inactive. PMID:27319133

  4. Elemanolide sesquiterpenes and eudesmane sesquiterpene glycosides from Centaurea hierapolitana.

    PubMed

    Karamenderes, Canan; Bedir, Erdal; Pawar, Rahul; Baykan, Sura; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2007-03-01

    Two elemanolide sesquiterpenes and two eudesmane-type sesquiterpene glycosides named hierapolitanins A-D, were isolated, together with five known compounds, two flavones; hispidulin and jaceosidin, a flavon-C-glycoside, shaftoside, a flavonol glycoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and a neolignan, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol from the aerial parts of Centaurea hierapolitana Boiss. (Asteraceae). Structure elucidations were based on spectroscopic evidence. PMID:17126864

  5. Antiplatelet and anticoagulant effects of diterpenes isolated from the marine alga, Dictyota menstrualis.

    PubMed

    de Andrade Moura, Laura; Marqui de Almeida, Ana Carolina; Domingos, Thaisa Francielle Souza; Ortiz-Ramirez, Fredy; Cavalcanti, Diana Negrão; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Fuly, André Lopes

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent a major cause of disability and death worldwide. Therapeutics are available, but they often have unsatisfactory results and may produce side effects. Alternative treatments based on the use of natural products have been extensively investigated, because of their low toxicity and side effects. Marine organisms are prime candidates for such products, as they are sources of numerous and complex substances with ecological and pharmacological effects. In this work, we investigated, through in vitro experiments, the effects of three diterpenes (pachydictyol A, isopachydictyol A and dichotomanol) from the Brazilian marine alga, Dictyota menstrualis, on platelet aggregation and plasma coagulation. Results showed that dichotomanol inhibited ADP- or collagen-induced aggregation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), but failed to inhibit washed platelets (WP). In contrast, pachydictyol A and isopachydictyol A failed to inhibit the aggregation of PRP, but inhibited WP aggregation induced by collagen or thrombin. These diterpenes also inhibited coagulation analyzed by the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time and on commercial fibrinogen. Moreover, diterpenes inhibited the catalytic activity of thrombin. Theoretical studies using the Osiris Property Explorer software showed that diterpenes have low theoretical toxicity profiles and a drug-score similar to commercial anticoagulant drugs. In conclusion, these diterpenes are promising candidates for use in anticoagulant therapy, and this study also highlights the biotechnological potential of oceans and the importance of bioprospecting to develop medicines. PMID:24796305

  6. Two new secoiridoid glycosides from Verbena officinalis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Xin, Fei; Sha, Yi; Fang, Jin; Li, Yu-Shan

    2010-08-01

    Two new secoiridoid glycosides, verbenoside A (1) and verbenoside B (2), have been isolated from the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences, especially 1D, 2D NMR, and MS experiments. PMID:20706899

  7. Twisting of glycosidic bonds by hydrolases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patterns of scissile bond twisting have been found in crystal structures of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) that are complexed with substrates and inhibitors. To estimate the increased potential energy in the substrates that results from this twisting, we have plotted torsion angles for the scissile bond...

  8. New triterpene glycosides from Ziziphi Spinosae Semen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Ding, Bo; Luo, Dan; Chen, Liu-Yuan; Hou, Yun-Long; Dai, Yi; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2013-10-01

    Four new dammarane-type triterpene glycosides, named jujubosides I-IV (1-4), were isolated from Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, along with seven known saponins (5-11). The structures of new compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. All compounds were evaluated for the effects on neonatal rat cardiomyocyte injury induced by hydrogen peroxide in vitro. PMID:23912064

  9. A new isoflavone glycoside from Pueraria alopecuroides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junlin; Fan, Qingfei; Zhang, Huanli; Song, Qishi

    2016-01-01

    A new isoflavone glycoside, (-)-tuberosin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), along with 10 known compounds 1a-10, was isolated from Pueraria alopecuroides. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR and HREIMS. These compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:26525177

  10. New xanthone glycosides from Securidaca inappendiculata.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Dong; An, Ning; Xu, Li-Zhen; Yang, Shi-Lin

    2002-06-01

    Three new xanthone glycosides, securixanside A (1), securixanside B (2), and securixanside C (3) were isolated from the stems of Securidaca inappendiculata. These compounds were characterized by spectrometric and chemical methods, including FABMS and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments. PMID:12067160

  11. A new sterol glycoside from Securidaca inappendiculata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Jie; Yang, Xue-Dong; Xu, Li-Zhen; Zou, Zhong-Mei; Yang, Shi-Lin

    2005-08-01

    From the roots of Securidaca inappendiculata, one new sterol glycoside securisteroside (1) has been isolated, along with two known sterols, spinasterol (2) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-spinasterol (3). The new sterol was characterized by chemical and spectrometric methods, including EIMS, FABMS and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments. PMID:16087640

  12. [Determination of phenylethanoid glycosides in Orobanche coerulescens].

    PubMed

    Han, Guo-qing; Li, Cai-feng; Wang, Xiao-qin; Li, Min-hui; Li, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Orobanche caerulescens is an important medicinal resource in Orobanchaceae. The present study aims to establish methods for determination of acteoside, crenatoside, and total phenylethanoid glycosides in O. caerulescens, and determine the content in 15 samples to evaluate the resource utilization of this medicinal plant. The content of acteoside and crenatoside were quantitatively determined by HPLC, while total phenylpropanoid glycosides was estimated by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. According to the results, the content of acteoside was the highest in O. caerulescens, followed by crenatoside. The contents of acteoside, crenatoside, and total phenylethanoid glycosides were between 1.15% - 15.60%, 0.83% - 4.47%, and 6.78% - 27.43%, respectively, which had significant differences. The acquisition time has great influence on the content of main components of O. caerulescens. The content of phenylethanoid glycosides is higher in the samples which were collected at the flowering stage. The two determination methods were proved to be simple, accurate and reliable, and can be used to evaluate the quality and resource utilization of O. caerulescens. PMID:27071260

  13. A new withanolide glycoside from physalis peruviana

    PubMed

    Ahmad; Malik; Afza; Yasmin

    1999-03-01

    A new withanolide glycoside, 17beta-hydroxy-14, 20-epoxy-1-oxo-[22R]-3beta-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-witha-5, 24-dienolide (1), has been isolated from the whole plant of Physalis peruviana. Its identity was determined using a combination of spectroscopic data including 2D NMR techniques and chemical transformations. PMID:10096867

  14. Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Aminin, Dmitry L.; Menchinskaya, Ekaterina S.; Pisliagin, Evgeny A.; Silchenko, Alexandra S.; Avilov, Sergey A.; Kalinin, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata). They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-κB, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), Akt (protein kinase B), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases), FAK (focal adhesion kinase), MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics. PMID:25756523

  15. Enzymatic Processing of Bioactive Glycosides from Natural Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weignerová, Lenka; Křen, Vladimír

    A number of biologically active natural products are glycosides. Often, the glycosidic residue is crucial for their activity. In other cases, glycosylation only improves their pharmacokinetic parameters. Enzymatic modification of these glycosides - both extension of the glycoside moiety and its selective trimming - is advantageous due to their selectivity and mildness of the reaction conditions in the presence of reactive and sensitive complex aglycones. Enzymatic reactions enable the resulting products to be used as "natural products", e.g., in nutraceuticals. This chapter concentrates on naturally occurring glycosides used in medicine but also in the food and flavor industry (e.g., sweeteners). Both "classical" and modern methods will be discussed.

  16. Three New Cytotoxic ent-Kaurane Diterpenes from Isodon excisoides.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li-Ping; Li, Chun; Yang, Han-Ze; Lu, Yan-Qing; Yu, Hong-Yan; Gao, Hui-Min; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Three types of ent-kaurane diterpenoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Isodon excisoides, including three new diterpenoids, 1α,7α,14β-trihydroxy-20-acetoxy-ent-kaur-15-one (1); 1α,7α,14β,18-tetrahydroxy-20-acetoxy-ent-kaur-15-one (2); and 1α-acetoxy-14β-hydroxy-7α,20-epoxy-ent-kaur-16-en-15-one (3); together with six known diterpenes henryin (4); kamebanin (5); reniformin C (6); kamebacetal A (7); kamebacetal B (8); and oridonin (9). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry in conjunction with published data for their analogs, as well as their fragmentation patterns. Compounds 5 and 9 were isolated from Isodon excisoides for the first time. To explore the structure-activity relationships of the isolated compounds, they were tested for their cytotoxic effects against five human cancer cell lines: HCT-116, HepG2, A2780, NCI-H1650, and BGC-823. Most of the isolated compounds showed certain cytotoxic activity against the five cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 1.09-8.53 µM. Among the tested compounds, compound 4 exhibited the strongest cytotoxic activity in the tested cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 1.31-2.07 µM. Compounds 1, 6, and 7 exhibited selective cytotoxic activity. PMID:26402664

  17. Carnosol: A Phenolic Diterpene With Cancer Chemopreventive Potential

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Kyung-Soo; Kundu, Juthika; Chae, In Gyeong; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is an unbeaten health challenge for the humankind. After striving for decades to find a cancer cure, attention has now been shifted to reduce the morbidity and mortality from cancer by halting the course of tumor development. Numerous bioactive phytochemicals, especially those present in edible and non-edible plant species, have been reported to reduce the risk of many cancers. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that carnosol, a phenolic diterpene present in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), holds the promise of preventing certain types of cancer. A remarkable progress has been made in delineating the biochemical mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive effects of carnosol. Results from in vitro cell culture studies as well as animal model experiments have revealed that carnosol inhibits experimentally induced carcinogenesis and exhibits potent anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing properties. Moreover, carnosol enhances the sensitivity of chemoresistant cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. The purpose of this review is to shed light on the detailed mechanistic aspects of cancer chemoprevention with carnosol. PMID:25337578

  18. Carnosol: a phenolic diterpene with cancer chemopreventive potential.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kyung-Soo; Kundu, Juthika; Chae, In Gyeong; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Cancer is an unbeaten health challenge for the humankind. After striving for decades to find a cancer cure, attention has now been shifted to reduce the morbidity and mortality from cancer by halting the course of tumor development. Numerous bioactive phytochemicals, especially those present in edible and non-edible plant species, have been reported to reduce the risk of many cancers. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that carnosol, a phenolic diterpene present in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), holds the promise of preventing certain types of cancer. A remarkable progress has been made in delineating the biochemical mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive effects of carnosol. Results from in vitro cell culture studies as well as animal model experiments have revealed that carnosol inhibits experimentally induced carcinogenesis and exhibits potent anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing properties. Moreover, carnosol enhances the sensitivity of chemoresistant cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. The purpose of this review is to shed light on the detailed mechanistic aspects of cancer chemoprevention with carnosol. PMID:25337578

  19. Antimicrobial evaluation of clerodane diterpenes from Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula.

    PubMed

    Sashidhara, Koneni V; Singh, Suriya P; Shukla, P K

    2009-03-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula has led to the isolation of seven clerodane diterpenoids and five alkaloids. (-)-14, 15-bisnor-3, 11E-kolavadien-13-one (1), (-)-16-oxocleroda-3,13(14)E-dien-15-oic acid (2), (-)-16alpha-hydroxycleroda-3,13 (14)Z-dien-15,16-olide (3), (+)-(4-->2)-abeo-16(R/S)-2, 13Z-kolavadien-15, 16-olide-3-al (4), (-)-3beta, 16beta-dihydroxycleroda-4(18), 13(14)Z-dien-15,16-olide (5), (-)-3, 12E-kolavadien-15-oic acid-16-al (6), (-)-labd-13E-en-8-ol-15-oic acid (7), liriodenine (8), (-)-anonaine (9), (+)-isoboldine (10), (-)-asimilobine (11) and hordenine (12) have been isolated. This is the first report of 1, 6 and 10 from this plant species while 12 is reported for first time from this genus. Clerodane derivatives 1-7 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Diterpene 3 was found to be most potent agent with MIC value of 6.25 microg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and Sporothrix schenckii. PMID:19413108

  20. Antimicrobial activity of the diterpenes flexibilide and sinulariolide derived from Sinularia flexibilis Quoy and Gaimard 1833 (Coelenterata: Alcyonacea, Octocorallia).

    PubMed

    Aceret, T L; Coll, J C; Uchio, Y; Sammarco, P W

    1998-07-01

    The soft coral Sinularia flexibilis is rarely overgrown by bacteria and algae. Various studies have shown that it contains diterpenes that protect it from competitors and predators. However, of the many diterpenoids isolated from S. flexibilis, only sinulariolide has been studied for antibiotic properties. Samples of soft corals were collected from Orpheus Island and freeze-dried for chemical extraction and isolation of pure diterpenes. Antimicrobial activity of the diterpenes was determined using the disc assay method with antibiotics as controls and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the diterpenes were determined using the Tube Dilution Technique. Two out of the five diterpenes tested (sinulariolide and flexibilide), showed marked antimicrobial activity and inhibited growth of Gram-positive bacteria. Flexibilide was effective even at concentrations as low as 5 ppm, whereas sinulariolide was effective at concentrations of 10 ppm. These compounds show potential as antibiotics. PMID:9827024

  1. Advance on the Flavonoid C-glycosides and Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianbo; Capanoglu, Esra; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Miron, Anca

    2016-07-29

    The dietary flavonoids, especially their glycosides, are the most vital phytochemicals in diets and are of great general interest due to their diverse bioactivity. Almost all natural flavonoids exist as their O-glycoside or C-glycoside forms in plants. The dietary flavonoid C-glycosides have received less attention than their corresponding O-glycosides. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding flavonoid C-glycosides and their influence on human health. Among the flavonoid C-glycosides, flavone C-glycosides, especially vitexin, isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin and their multiglycosides are more frequently mentioned than others. Flavonoid C-monoglycosides are poorly absorbed in human beings with very few metabolites in urine and blood and are deglycosylated and degraded by human intestinal bacteria in colon. However, flavonoid C-multiglycosides are absorbed unchanged in the intestine and distributed to other tissues. Flavonoid C-glycosides showed significant antioxidant activity, anticancer and antitumor activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-diabetes activity, antiviral activity, antibacterial and antifungal activity, and other biological effects. It looks like that the C-glycosylflavonoids in most cases showed higher antioxidant and anti-diabetes potential than their corresponding O-glycosylflavonoids and aglycones. However, there is a lack of in vivo data on the biological benefits of flavonoid C-glycosides. It is necessary to investigate more on how flavonoid C-glycosides prevent and handle the diseases. PMID:26462718

  2. Bioactive brominated diterpenes from the marine red alga Jania Rubens (L.) Lamx.

    PubMed

    Awad, Nagwa E

    2004-04-01

    Seven brominated diterpenes of the parguerene and isoparguerene series were isolated for the first time from the red alga Jania rubens (L.) Lamx., collected from the Red Sea coast at Hurghada, Egypt. The diterpenes were identified as isoparguerol (1), isoparguerol-16-acetate (2), isoparguerol-7,16-diacetate (3), parguerol-16-acetate (4), parguerol-7,16-diacetate (5), deoxyparguerol (6) and deoxyparguerol-7-acetate (7). The isolated diterpenes had a marked antitumour activity. Isoparguerol derivatives were slightly more effective than parguerol derivatives. Moreover, the data implied that the cytotoxicity of these compounds were dependent on the number of acetoxy groups. Also, anthelmintic activities of the isolated compounds on earthworms (Allolobophora caliginosa) were studied. PMID:15162360

  3. Theoretical research into anticancer activity of diterpenes isolated from the paraiban flora.

    PubMed

    Ishiki, Hamilton; Junior, Francisco J B Mendonça; Santos, Paula F; Tavares, Josean F; Tavares, Josean F; Silva, Marcelo S; Scotti, Marcus T

    2014-07-01

    Many studies of the scientific literature discuss the anticancer activity of diterpenes inhibiting the Akt/IKK/NF-kappaB pro-survival signaling cascade, mainly by the activation of serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the anticancer potential of three atisane, three kaurane and three trachylobane diterpenes extracted from the roots of Xylopia langsdorffiana. Thus, we investigated the reactivity (H-L(GAP) parameter), HOMO atmosphere favorable to neutralize the radical reactivity, and the docking of compounds with PP2A. With all approaches, this theoretical study showed that atisane diterpenes have favorable characteristics for antitumor activity, like electron donating ability and greater hydrophilic interactions with the enzyme, by inhibition of Akt/IKK/NF-kappaB, and activation of PP2A. PMID:25230491

  4. Production of bioactive cyathane diterpenes by a bird's nest fungus Cyathus gansuensis growing on cooked rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Botao; Han, Junjie; Xu, Wei; Chen, Yuhui; Liu, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Cyathane diterpenes are important bioactive substances produced by some edible and medicinal fungi. Seven new cyathane type diterpenes, named as cyathins J-P (1-7), together with two known diterpenes (8 and 9), were isolated from the solid culture of the bird's nest fungus Cyathus gansuensis growing on cooked rice. The structures of the new secondary metabolites were elucidated by NMR experiments. Bioactivity screening indicated that compounds 1, 2, 4, and 8 showed moderate inhibitory activity against NO production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages with an IC50 value of 42, 78, 80, and 16 μM, respectively. The fungus C. gansuensis is a promising source of bioactive secondary metabolites and has application potential in preparing healthy food. PMID:24444922

  5. Highly oxygenated pseudopterane and cembranolide diterpenes from the Caribbean sea feather Pseudopterogorgia bipinnata.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A D; Shi, J G; Huang, S D

    1999-09-01

    A chemical study of the sea feather Pseudopterogorgia bipinnata from Colombia has produced four known metabolites, namely, kallolide A (1), bipinnatin A (2), bipinnatin C (3), and bipinnatin J (4), in addition to nine previously undescribed diterpenes possessing an uncommonly high level of oxygenation. One of them, bipinnapterolide A (5), is a new representative of the pseudopterane family of diterpenes possessing the rare 2,3-epoxy-1,4-dione moiety. The other metabolites, bipinnatins G-I (6-8) and bipinnatolides F-J (9-13), are highly oxygenated cembranolide diterpenes. Their chemical structures including relative stereochemistry were established by detailed analysis of the spectral data in addition to X-ray diffraction analysis and NMR spectral comparisons with known pseudopterane and cembranolide models. PMID:10514303

  6. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity of labdane and cis-clerodane type diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Demetzos, C; Dimas, K; Hatziantoniou, S; Anastasaki, T; Angelopoulou, D

    2001-10-01

    Two labdane type diterpenes, labd-13(E)-ene,-8alpha,15-diol (1) and labd-13(E)-ene,-8alpha,15-yl acetate (2) were isolated from the hexane extract of Cistus creticus subsp. eriocephalus (Viv.) Greuter & Burdet leaves, while (+)-19-acetoxy-cis-clerodan-3-en-15-oic acid (3) was isolated from the hexane extract of Cistus monspeliensis L. leaves. The compounds were examined for their in vitro cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against nine human leukemic cell lines, three of which exhibited a multidrug resistant phenotype. They were also evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity in vivo on the back of hairless mice. The cytostatic and cytotoxic activity of the tested diterpenes followed the order 1>2>3. Topical application of the diterpenes on barrier disrupted skin did not seem to have a significant contribution to the repair rate of the skin barrier. PMID:11582537

  7. [Effects of ginkgo diterpene lactones meglumine injection's activated carbon adsorption technology on officinal components].

    PubMed

    Zhou, En-li; Wang, Ren-jie; Li, Miao; Wang, Wei; Xu, Dian-hong; Hu, Yang; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Bi, Yu-an; Xiao, Wei

    2015-10-01

    With the diversion rate of ginkgolide A, B, K as comprehensive evaluation indexes, the amount of activated carbon, ad- sorption time, mix rate, and adsorption temperature were selected as factors, orthogonal design which based on the evaluation method of information entropy was used to optimize activated carbon adsorption technology of ginkgo diterpene lactones meglumine injection. Opti- mized adsorption conditions were as follows: adsorbed 30 min with 0.2% activated carbon in 25 °C, 40 r ·min⁻¹, validation test re- sult display. The optimum extraction condition was stable and feasible, it will provide a basis for ginkgo diterpene lactone meglumine injection' activated carbon adsorption process. PMID:27062815

  8. Hikiokoshins A-I, diterpenes from the leaves of Isodon japonicus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naonobu; Tsuji, Eri; Sakai, Kanae; Gonoi, Tohru; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2014-06-01

    Diterpenes, hikiokoshins A-I, and twelve known diterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Isodon japonicus (Burm. f.) H. Hara (Lamiaceae). The hikiokoshins A-I possess various skeletons such as ternifonane {hikiokoshin A}, ent-6,7:8,15-diseco-6,8-cyclokauran-7,20-olide {hikiokoshin B}, ent-6,7-secokauran-7,20-olide {hikiokoshin C}, and ent-7,20-epoxykaurane {hikiokoshins D-I}. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Antimicrobial activities of hikiokoshins A and B were evaluated. PMID:24702849

  9. New pregnane glycosides from Gymnema sylvestre.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Yang, Yu; Zhang, Yang; Ren, Fengxia; Xu, Jinlong; Yu, Nengjiang; Zhao, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Four new pregnane glycosides 1-4 were isolated from the ethanol extract of the stem of Gymnema sylvestre and named gymsylvestrosides A-D. Hydrolysis of compound 1 under the catalysis of Aspergilus niger β-glucosidase afforded compound 5 (gymsylvestroside E). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods such as HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, as well as HMQC-TOCSY experiment. Compounds 1-4 were screened for Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:25685911

  10. A New Cucurbitane Glycoside from Siraitia grosvenorii.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Meneni, Srinivasa Rao

    2015-09-01

    A systematic phytochemical study of the commercial extract of Luo Han Guo (Siraitia grosvenorii) resulted in the isolation of an additional minor new cucurbitane glycoside, mogroside V Al (1). The structure of the new compound was characterized on the basis of 1D (1H and 13C NMR) and 2D (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY) NMR and high resolution mass spectral (HRMS) data, as well as hydrolysis studies. PMID:26594748

  11. Oleandrin: A cardiac glycosides with potent cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arvind; De, Tanmoy; Mishra, Amrita; Mishra, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides are used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Current trend shows use of some cardiac glycosides in the treatment of proliferative diseases, which includes cancer. Nerium oleander L. is an important Chinese folk medicine having well proven cardio protective and cytotoxic effect. Oleandrin (a toxic cardiac glycoside of N. oleander L.) inhibits the activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B chain (NF-κB) in various cultured cell lines (U937, CaOV3, human epithelial cells and T cells) as well as it induces programmed cell death in PC3 cell line culture. The mechanism of action includes improved cellular export of fibroblast growth factor-2, induction of apoptosis through Fas gene expression in tumor cells, formation of superoxide radicals that cause tumor cell injury through mitochondrial disruption, inhibition of interleukin-8 that mediates tumorigenesis and induction of tumor cell autophagy. The present review focuses the applicability of oleandrin in cancer treatment and concerned future perspective in the area. PMID:24347921

  12. Alkyl and phenolic glycosides from Saussurea stella.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-Min; Wang, Ru-Feng; Chen, Hu-Biao; Shang, Ming-Ying; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2013-07-01

    One alkyl glycoside, saussurostelloside A (1), two phenolic glycosides, saussurostellosides B1 (2) and B2 (3), and 27 known compounds, including eleven flavonoids, seven phenolics, six lignans, one neolignan, one phenethyl glucoside and one fatty acid, were isolated from an ethanol extract of Saussurea stella (Asteraceae). Their structures were elucidated by NMR, MS, UV, and IR spectroscopic analysis. Of the known compounds, (+)-medioresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (7), picraquassioside C (10), and diosmetin-3'-O-β-D-glucoside (27) were isolated from the Asteraceae family for the first time, while (+)-pinoresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (6), di-O-methylcrenatin (11), protocatechuic acid (14), 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (17), formononetin (28), and phenethyl glucoside (29) were isolated from the Saussurea genus for the first time. The anti-inflammatory activities of three new compounds (1-3), five lignans ((-)-arctiin (4), (+)-pinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucoside (5), (+)-pinoresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (6), (+)-medioresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (7) and (+)-syringaresinol-4-O-β-D-glucoside (8)), one neolignan (picraquassioside C (10)), and one phenolic glycoside (di-O-methylcrenatin (11)) were evaluated by testing their inhibition of the release of β-glucuronidase from PAF-stimulated neutrophils. Only compound 5 showed moderate inhibition of the release of β-glucuronidase, with an inhibition ratio of 39.1%. PMID:23567860

  13. Enzymatic 13C Labeling and Multidimensional NMR Analysis of Miltiradiene Synthesized by Bifunctional Diterpene Cyclase in Selaginella moellendorffii*

    PubMed Central

    Sugai, Yoshinori; Ueno, Yohei; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Oogami, Shingo; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Matsumoto, Sadamu; Natsume, Masahiro; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Kawaide, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Diterpenes show diverse chemical structures and various physiological roles. The diversity of diterpene is primarily established by diterpene cyclases that catalyze a cyclization reaction to form the carbon skeleton of cyclic diterpene. Diterpene cyclases are divided into two types, monofunctional and bifunctional cyclases. Bifunctional diterpene cyclases (BDTCs) are involved in hormone and defense compound biosyntheses in bryophytes and gymnosperms, respectively. The BDTCs catalyze the successive two-step type-B (protonation-initiated cyclization) and type-A (ionization-initiated cyclization) reactions of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP). We found that the genome of a lycophyte, Selaginella moellendorffii, contains six BDTC genes with the majority being uncharacterized. The cDNA from S. moellendorffii encoding a BDTC-like enzyme, miltiradiene synthase (SmMDS), was cloned. The recombinant SmMDS converted GGDP to a diterpene hydrocarbon product with a molecular mass of 272 Da. Mutation in the type-B active motif of SmMDS abolished the cyclase activity, whereas (+)-copalyl diphosphate, the reaction intermediate from the conversion of GGDP to the hydrocarbon product, rescued the cyclase activity of the mutant to form a diterpene hydrocarbon. Another mutant lacking type-A activity accumulated copalyl diphosphate as the reaction intermediate. When the diterpene hydrocarbon was enzymatically synthesized from [U-13C6]mevalonate, all carbons were labeled with 13C stable isotope (>99%). The fully 13C-labeled product was subjected to 13C-13C COSY NMR spectroscopic analyses. The direct carbon-carbon connectivities observed in the multidimensional NMR spectra demonstrated that the hydrocarbon product by SmMDS is miltiradiene, a putative biosynthetic precursor of tanshinone identified from the Chinese medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza. Hence, SmMDS functions as a bifunctional miltiradiene synthase in S. moellendorffii. In this study, we demonstrate that one-dimensional and

  14. Dolabelladienols A–C, New Diterpenes Isolated from Brazilian Brown Alga Dictyota pfaffii

    PubMed Central

    Pardo-Vargas, Alonso; Oliveira, Ingrid de Barcelos; Stephens, Paulo Roberto Soares; Cirne-Santos, Claudio Cesar; Paixão, Izabel Christina Nunes de Palmer; Ramos, Freddy Alejandro; Jiménez, Carlos; Rodríguez, Jaime; Resende, Jackson Antonio Lamounier Camargos; Teixeira, Valeria Laneuville; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The marine brown alga Dictyota pfaffii from Atol das Rocas, in Northeast Brazil is a rich source of dolabellane diterpene, which has the potential to be used in future antiviral drugs by inhibiting reverse transcriptase (RT) of HIV-1. Reexamination of the minor diterpene constituents yielded three new dolabellane diterpenes, (1R*,2E,4R*,7S,10S*,11S*,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17)-dolabelladiene (1), (1R*,2E,4R*,7R*,10S*,11S*,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17)-dolabelladiene (2), (1R*,2E,4R*,8E,10S*,11S,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8-dolabelladiene (3), termed dolabelladienols A–C (1–3) respectively, in addition to the known dolabellane diterpenes (4–6). The elucidation of the compounds 1–3 was assigned by 1D and 2D NMR, MS, optical rotation and molecular modeling, along with the relative configuration of compound 4 and the absolute configuration of 5 by X-ray diffraction. The potent anti-HIV-1 activities displayed by compounds 1 and 2 (IC50 = 2.9 and 4.1 μM), which were more active than even the known dolabelladienetriol 4, and the low cytotoxic activity against MT-2 lymphocyte tumor cells indicated that these compounds are promising anti-HIV-1 agents. PMID:25056631

  15. Dolabelladienols A-C, new diterpenes isolated from Brazilian brown alga Dictyota pfaffii.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Vargas, Alonso; de Barcelos Oliveira, Ingrid; Stephens, Paulo Roberto Soares; Cirne-Santos, Claudio Cesar; de Palmer Paixão, Izabel Christina Nunes; Ramos, Freddy Alejandro; Jiménez, Carlos; Rodríguez, Jaime; Resende, Jackson Antonio Lamounier Camargos; Teixeira, Valeria Laneuville; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2014-07-01

    The marine brown alga Dictyota pfaffii from Atol das Rocas, in Northeast Brazil is a rich source of dolabellane diterpene, which has the potential to be used in future antiviral drugs by inhibiting reverse transcriptase (RT) of HIV-1. Reexamination of the minor diterpene constituents yielded three new dolabellane diterpenes, (1R*,2E,4R*,7S,10S*,11S*,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17)-dolabelladiene (1), (1R*,2E,4R*,7R*,10S*,11S*,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17)-dolabelladiene (2), (1R*,2E,4R*,8E,10S*,11S,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8-dolabelladiene (3), termed dolabelladienols A-C (1-3) respectively, in addition to the known dolabellane diterpenes (4-6). The elucidation of the compounds 1-3 was assigned by 1D and 2D NMR, MS, optical rotation and molecular modeling, along with the relative configuration of compound 4 and the absolute configuration of 5 by X-ray diffraction. The potent anti-HIV-1 activities displayed by compounds 1 and 2 (IC50 = 2.9 and 4.1 μM), which were more active than even the known dolabelladienetriol 4, and the low cytotoxic activity against MT-2 lymphocyte tumor cells indicated that these compounds are promising anti-HIV-1 agents. PMID:25056631

  16. Spiro Fused Diterpene-Indole Alkaloids from a Creek-Bottom-Derived Aspergillus terreus

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shengxin; Du, Lin; Gerea, Alexandra L.; King, Jarrod B.; You, Jianlan

    2013-01-01

    Four metabolites, teraspiridoles A–D (2–5), formed from the merger of diterpene and modified indole scaffold were obtained from an Aspergillus terreus isolate. The structures and absolute configurations of these natural products were established using NMR, mass spectrometry, Marfey’s method, VCD, and ECD data. Teraspiridole B (3) exhibited weak inhibition of planaria regeneration/survival. PMID:23924243

  17. Synthesis of an Advanced Intermediate of the Jatrophane Diterpene Pl-4: A Dibromide Coupling Approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of an advanced intermediate toward the synthesis of the jatrophane diterpene Pl-4 is described. The key step is a regioselective chelation-controlled lithiation of the (Z)-configured bromide in the corresponding vinyl dibromide precursor. The method outlined within this Article is suitable for the facile access of sterically hindered internal vinyl halides for further coupling reactions. PMID:23895274

  18. Diterpenes from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis): Defining their potential for anti-cancer activity.

    PubMed

    Petiwala, Sakina M; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2015-10-28

    Recently, rosemary extracts standardized to diterpenes (e.g. carnosic acid and carnosol) have been approved by the European Union (EU) and given a GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) status in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Incorporation of rosemary into our food system and through dietary selection (e.g. Mediterranean Diet) has increased the likelihood of exposure to diterpenes in rosemary. In consideration of this, a more thorough understanding of rosemary diterpenes is needed to understand its potential for a positive impact on human health. Three agents in particular have received the most attention that includes carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmanol with promising results of anti-cancer activity. These studies have provided evidence of diterpenes to modulate deregulated signaling pathways in different solid and blood cancers. Rosemary extracts and the phytochemicals therein appear to be well tolerated in different animal models as evidenced by the extensive studies performed for approval by the EU and the FDA as an antioxidant food preservative. This mini-review reports on the pre-clinical studies performed with carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmanol describing their mechanism of action in different cancers. PMID:26170168

  19. The Identification of Perillyl Alcohol Glycosides with Improved Antiproliferative Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A facile route to perillyl alcohol (POH) differential glycosylation and the corresponding synthesis of a set of 34 POH glycosides is reported. Subsequent in vitro studies revealed a sugar dependent antiproliferative activity and the inhibition of S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation as a putative mechanism of representative POH glycosides. The most active glycoside from this cumulative study (4′-azido-d-glucoside, PG9) represents one of the most cytotoxic POH analogues reported to date. PMID:25121720

  20. Crispene A, B, C and D, Four New Clerodane Type Furanoid Diterpenes from Tinospora crispa (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hossen, Farhad; Ahasan, Rubaida; Haque, Mohammad Rashedul; Begum, Bilkis; Hasan, Choudhury Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tinospora crispa (L.) is used to alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus in folk medicine. It is also used for hypertension and to treat malaria, remedy for diarrhea, and as vermifuge. Materials and Methods: Stems of T. crispa were collected, sun dried for several days followed by oven dried for 24 h at a considerably low temperature and then ground into coarse powder. The powdered stems were soaked in methanol at room temperature for 14 days with occasional shaking. The extract was collected by filtration, and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure in a rotary evaporator to obtain a solid residue which was then subjected to fractionation using the modified Kupchan partitioning method into n-hexane, CCl4, CHCl3 and aqueous soluble fractions. The n-hexane soluble fraction was chromatographed over sephadex (LH-20) and the column was eluted with n-hexane: CH2Cl2:MeOH (2:5:1) followed by CH2Cl2:MeOH (9:1) and MeOH (100%) in order to increase the polarities. The column fractions were then concentrated and subjected to thin layer chromatography screening and the fractions with a satisfactory resolution of compounds were rechromatographed over silica gel to isolate the pure compounds. Results: Four new furanoid diterpenes of clerodane types, Crispene A, B, C, and D (1–4), including one known furanoid diterpene glucoside, borapetoside E (5), were isolated from the stems of T. crispa. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of their spectral data with closely related compounds. Conclusion: We have reported four new furanoid diterpenes of clerodane types, including one known furanoid diterpene glucoside. This is the first report of any clerodane diterpene having olefinic bond between C-6 and C-7. SUMMARY Crispene A, B, C, and D, four new furanoid diterpenes of clerodane types from Tinospora crispaCrispene C, an unusual furanoid diterpene with olifinic bond between C-6 and C

  1. Assembly of naturally occurring glycosides, evolved tactics, and glycosylation methods.

    PubMed

    Yu, Biao; Sun, Jiansong; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2012-08-21

    Glycosylation of proteins and lipids is critical to many life processes. Secondary metabolites (or natural products), such as flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, and antibiotics, are also frequently modified with saccharides. The resulting glycosides include diverse structures and functions, and some of them have pharmacological significance. The saccharide portions of the glycosides often have specific structural characteristics that depend on the aglycones. These molecules also form heterogeneous "glycoform" mixtures where molecules have similar glycosidic linkages but the saccharides vary in the length and type of monosaccharide unit. Thus, it is difficult to purify homogeneous glycosides in appreciable amounts from natural sources. Chemical synthesis provides a feasible access to the homogeneous glycosides and their congeners. Synthesis of a glycoside involves the synthesis of the aglycone, the saccharide, the connection of these two parts, and the overall manipulation of protecting groups. However, most synthetic efforts to date have focused on the aglycones, treating the attachment of saccharides onto the aglycones as a dispensable topic. The synthesis of the aglycone and the synthesis of the saccharide belong to two independent categories of chemistry, and different types of the aglycones and saccharides pose as specific synthetic subjects in their own disciplines. The only reaction that integrates the broad chemistry of glycoside synthesis is the glycosidic bond formation between the saccharide and the aglycone. Focusing on this glycosylation reaction in this Account, we string together our experience with the synthesis of the naturally occurring glycosides. We briefly describe the synthesis of 18 glycosides, including glycolipids, phenolic glycosides, steroid glycosides, and triterpene glycosides. Each molecule represents a prototypical structure of a family of the natural glycosides with interesting biological activities, and we emphasize the general

  2. QSAR studies of macrocyclic diterpenes with P-glycoprotein inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Inês J; Ferreira, Maria-José U; Molnár, Joseph; Fernandes, Miguel X

    2013-02-14

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) represents a major limitation for cancer chemotherapy. There are several mechanisms of MDR but the most important is associated with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression. The development of modulators of P-gp that are able to re-establish drug sensitivity of resistant cells has been considered a promising approach for overcoming MDR. Macrocyclic lathyrane and jatrophane-type diterpenes from Euphorbia species were found to be strong MDR reversing agents. In this study we applied quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methodology in order to identify the most relevant molecular features of macrocyclic diterpenes with P-gp inhibitory activity and to determine which structural modifications can be performed to improve their activity. Using experimental biological data at two concentrations (4 and 40 μg/ml), we developed a QSAR model for a set of 51 bioactive diterpenic compounds which includes lathyrane and jatrophane-type diterpenes and another model just for jatrophanes. The cross-validation correlation values for all diterpenes QSAR models developed for biological activities at compound concentrations of 4 and 40 μg/ml were 0.758 and 0.729, respectively. Regarding the prediction ability, we get R²(pred) values of 0.765 and 0.534 for biological activities at compound concentrations of 4 and 40 μg/ml, respectively. Applying the cross-validation test to jatrophanes QSAR models, we obtained 0.680 and 0.787 for biological activities at compound concentrations of 4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations, respectively. For the same concentrations, the obtained R²(pred) values for jatrophanes models were 0.541 and 0.534, respectively. The obtained models were statistically valid and showed high prediction ability. PMID:23228414

  3. Phenylethanoid glycosides and phenolic glycosides from stem bark of Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhenzhen; Yan, Renyi; Yang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    An investigation of the hydrophilic constituents of the stem bark of Magnolia officinalis was performed and which led to isolation and identification of twenty-one previously unreported glycosides. These included eleven phenylethanoid glycosides, magnolosides F-P, and ten phenolic glycosides, magnolosides Q-Z, along with eight known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical hydrolysis methods, as well as by comparison with literature data. Most of the phenylethanoid glycosides contained an allopyranose moiety, which is rare in the plant kingdom. Magnolosides I and K as well as 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol 1-O-[4-O-caffeoyl-2-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-6-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-β-d-glucopyranoside showed more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory effects (IC50 values of 0.13, 0.27, and 0.29mM, respectively) than the positive control, acarbose (IC50 value of 1.09mM) in vitro. Magnolosides H, E and D also showed moderate cytotoxicity against MGC-803 and HepG2 cells with IC50 values of 13.59-17.16μM and 29.53-32.46μM, respectively. PMID:27086163

  4. Glycosidic constituents from in vitro Anoectochilus formosanus.

    PubMed

    Du, X M; Sun, N Y; Irino, N; Shoyama, Y

    2000-11-01

    The glycosidic constituents of whole plants of Anoectochilus formosanus propagated by tissue culture were investigated. A new compound, 2-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxymethyl)-5-hydroxymethylfuran, along with the known compounds, 3-(R)-3-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxybutanolide (kinsenoside), 3-(R)-3-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxybutanoic acid, 1-O-isopropyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (R)-(+)-3,4-dihydroxy-butanoic acid y-lactone, 4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)benzyl alcohol, (6R,9S)-9-hydroxy-megastigma-4,7-dien-3-one-9-O-beta-glucopy ranoside, and corchoionoside C were isolated. PMID:11086921

  5. Syntheses of dopa glycosides using glucosidases.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Ramaiah; Ponrasu, Thangavel; Divakar, Soundar

    2009-02-01

    Syntheses of L: -dopa 1a glucoside 10a,b and DL: -dopa 1b glycosides 10-18 with D: -glucose 2, D: -galactose 3, D: -mannose 4, D: -fructose 5, D: -arabinose 6, lactose 7, D: -sorbitol 8 and D: -mannitol 9 were carried out using amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus mold, beta-glucosidase isolated from sweet almond and immobilized beta-glucosidase. Invariably, L: -dopa and DL: -dopa gave low to good yields of glycosides 10-18 at 12-49% range and only mono glycosylated products were detected through glycosylation/arylation at the third or fourth OH positions of L: -dopa 1a and DL: -dopa 1b. Amyloglucosidase showed selectivity with D: -mannose 4 to give 4-O-C1beta and D: -sorbitol 8 to give 4-O-C6-O-arylated product. beta-Glucosidase exhibited selectivity with D: -mannose 4 to give 4-O-C1beta and lactose 7 to give 4-O-C1beta product. Immobilized beta-glucosidase did not show any selectivity. Antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (ACE) activities of the glycosides were evaluated glycosides, out of which L: -3-hydroxy-4-O-(beta-D: -galactopyranosyl-(1'-->4)beta-D: -glucopyranosyl) phenylalanine 16 at 0.9 +/- 0.05 mM and DL: -3-hydroxy-4-O-(beta-D: -glucopyranosyl) phenylalanine 11b,c at 0.98 +/- 0.05 mM showed the best IC(50) values for antioxidant activity and DL: -3-hydroxy-4-O-(6-D: -sorbitol)phenylalanine 17 at 0.56 +/- 0.03 mM, L: -dopa-D: -glucoside 10a,b at 1.1 +/- 0.06 mM and DL: -3-hydroxy-4-O-(D: -glucopyranosyl)phenylalanine 11a-d at 1.2 +/- 0.06 mM exhibited the best IC(50) values for ACE inhibition. PMID:18712474

  6. Phenolic glycosides of forage legume Onobrychis viciifolia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Sun, Y; Foo, L Y; McNabb, W C; Molan, A L

    2000-09-01

    A chemical examination of the extractives of the leaves of sainfoin was undertaken as part of a programme directed at understanding the factors which may contribute to its nutritive value as animal feed. Among the low molecular weight phenolic compounds characterized were seven cinnamic acid derivatives and nine flavonoid glycosides all of which were identified by NMR spectroscopy. Included among these compounds were two new natural hydroxycinnamic esters namely methyl 6-O-p-trans-coumaroyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and methyl 6-O-p-cis-coumaroyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and a novel flavonoid chrysoeriol-4'-O-(6''-O-acetyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside. PMID:11021646

  7. Two new sesquiterpenoid glycosides from Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cai-Yan; Geng, Chang-An; Ma, Yun-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Zhou, Jun; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Two new sesquiterpenoid glycosides, nicotabalactonecoside (1) and nicotabadiolcoside (2), along with four known terpenoids (3-6) were isolated from the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were determined as dihydrodeacetylphytuberin-2-one 11-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and 1,2-dehydro-4-epieremophil-9-ene-11,12-diol 12-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by extensive spectroscopic analyses (HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1D, and 2D NMR) and chemical method. Compound 1 is an unusual phytuberin-type sesquiterpenoid with a 6/5/5 tricyclic system. PMID:24911395

  8. Sesquiterpenoid tropolone glycosides from Liriosma ovata.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Pawar, Rahul S; Grundel, Erich; Mazzola, Eugene P; Ridge, Clark D; Masaoka, Takashi; Le Grice, Stuart F J; Wilson, Jennifer; Beutler, John A; Krynitsky, Alexander J

    2015-02-27

    Two new sesquiterpenoid tropolone glycosides, liriosmasides A (1) and B (2), along with two known compounds, secoxyloganin and oplopanpheside C, were isolated from a methanol extract of the roots of Liriosma ovata. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR and by high-resolution mass spectrometry involving an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbital ion trap mass spectrometric (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS) method. Compound 1 showed weak inhibitory activity against HIV RNase H. PMID:25587934

  9. A new phenylethanoid glycoside from Incarvillea compacta.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-Feng; Zhu, Yin-Di; Zhang, Li-Jing; Zou, Qiong-Yu; Chen, Li; Shen, Ting; Wang, Xin-Feng; Ma, Guo-Xu; Hu, Bo-Ran; Hu, Wei-Cheng; Xu, Xu-Dong

    2016-06-01

    A new phenylethanoid glycoside, 3'''-O-methylcampneoside I (1), was isolated from the 90% ethanolic extract of the roots of Incarvillea compacta, together with three known compounds, campneoside I (2), ilicifolioside A (3), and campneoside II (4). Their structures were determined spectroscopically and compared with previously reported spectral data. Compound 1 existed as epimers and displayed better 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-free radical scavenging activity using di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) as the positive control. In addition, pretreatment of human HepG2 cells with compound 1 significantly increased the viability on CCl4-induced cell death. PMID:26630368

  10. In vitro metabolism of the glycosidic sweeteners, stevia mixture and enzymatically modified stevia in human intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Koyama, E; Kitazawa, K; Ohori, Y; Izawa, O; Kakegawa, K; Fujino, A; Ui, M

    2003-03-01

    Stevia mixture, sweeteners extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, consists mainly of stevioside and rebaudioside A (glycosides of the diterpene derivative steviol). The aim of this study was to investigate human intestinal metabolism of stevia mixture and its alpha-glucose derivative (known in Japan as enzymatically modified stevia) by LC/MS/ESI analysis. Degradation was examined by incubating stevia mixture, enzymatically modified stevia, stevioside, rebaudioside A, alpha-monoglucosylstevioside, alpha-monoglucosylrebaudioside A and the aglycone, steviol with pooled human faecal homogenates (obtained from five healthy volunteers) for 0, 8 and 24 h under anaerobic conditions. Stevia mixture, enzymatically modified stevia, stevioside and rebaudioside A (0.2 mg/ml) were completely eliminated within 24 h, whereas no degradation of steviol (0.08 and 0.2 mg/ml) appeared to be found during the incubation period. Stevia mixture, stevioside and rebaudioside A appeared to be hydrolyzed to steviol by human intestinal microflora: this observation is consistent with previous rat metabolism studies. Similarly, enzymatically modified stevia appeared to be metabolized via stevia components and, finally, to steviol. This study suggests that there are apparently no species differences in intestinal metabolism of stevia mixture between rats and humans. PMID:12504168

  11. Monoterpenoids and their glycosides from the leaf of thyme.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Junichi; Ishikawa, Toru; Urabe, Atushi; Satoh, Mitsuru

    2004-12-01

    From the polar portion of the methanol extract of thyme (leaf of Thymus vulgaris; Labiatae), which has been used as an important stomachic, carminative, a component of prepared cough tea, and a spice, seven monoterpenoid glycosides were isolated together with two known monoterpenoids and three known monoterpenoid glucosides. Structures of the seven monoterpenoid glycosides were determined by spectral analysis. PMID:15561194

  12. Phytosteryl glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption: mechanisms in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytosteryl glycosides occur in natural foods but little is known about their metabolism and bioactivity. Purified acylated steryl glycosides (ASG) were compared with phytosteryl esters (PSE) in mice. Animals on a phytosterol-free diet received ASG or PSE by gavage in purified soybean oil along with...

  13. Diterpenes from the roots of Euphorbia kansui and their in vitro effects on the cell division of Xenopus (part 2).

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Yan; Wang, Nai-Li; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Miyata, Syohei; Kitanaka, Susumu

    2003-08-01

    Four new ingenane-type diterpenes, 3-O-(2,3-dimethylbutanoyl)-13-O-dodecanoyl-20-O-acetylingenol (1), 3-O-(2,3-dimethylbutanoyl)-13-O-dodecanoyl-20-deoxyingenol (2), 3-O-(2E,4Z-decadienoyl)-20-deoxyingenol (3), and 3-O-(2E,4E-decadienoyl)-20-deoxyingenol (4), two new jatrophane-type diterpenes, kansuinins D (9) and E (10), and four known ingenane-type diterpenes were isolated from the root of Euphorbia kansui. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analysis, and individual Xenopus cells at the blastular stage were cultured with the diterpenes to test for biological activity. 20-Deoxyingenol diterpenes 3 and 4 induced the greatest cell cleavage arrest (0.5 micro g/ml of each compound resulted in >75% cleavage arrest), but cell cleavage inhibitory activity became weak when C-16 had an acyl residue. In contrast, the jatrophane diterpene kansuinin D (9) showed no activity. PMID:12913231

  14. New approaches on the analyses of thermolabile coffee diterpenes by gas chromatography and its relationship with cup quality.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Fábio Junior Moreira; Oigman, Silvia Siag; de Souza, Rodrigo Octavio Mendonça Alves; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

    2015-07-01

    A new gas chromatography method using pulsed split injector (PS-GC) was validated to quantify thermolabile diterpenes cafestol, kahweol and isokahweol in methanolysed Arabica coffee oils. Linearity was 0.99 from 8 to 69mgmL(-1), recovery ranged from 99% to 101% and precision of less than 4% was obtained. Besides, Soxhlet extraction time was evaluated and Tukey׳s test indicated that the mass of diterpenes obtained in 4h is equivalent to a 16h period, which represents a space-time yield four times higher. The microwave assisted methanolysis proved to be efficient to quantitatively convert the natural diterpene esters in their respective alcohols and fatty acid methyl esters, accompanied by PS-GC. Also, the intact diterpene esters were analyzed by GC for the first time by the comparison between cold on-column (COC) and PS injection techniques. In all these stages, the molecular integrity of the thermolabile furokaurane diterpenes was maintained. The methanolysed oils from 13 samples of green Brazilian Arabica coffees were analyzed by PS-GC and the diterpenes composition varied from 8 to 12% w/w in oil and 0.7-1% in coffee beans. The ratio between cafestol and kahweol was successfully used to predict the quality of coffee even before the roasting and brewing processes. PMID:25882422

  15. New cucurbitacin glycosides from Picrorhiza kurrooa.

    PubMed

    Stuppner, H; Wagner, H

    1989-12-01

    From the roots of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle and Benth., seven cucurbitacin glycosides have been isolated and structurally elucidated mainly by NMR and mass spectroscopy. Four of them (4, 5, 6, 7) are new and two, the 2-O-glycoside of cucurbitacin B (25-acetoxy-2-beta-glucosyloxy-16,20-dihydroxy-9-methyl-19-norl anosta-5, 23-diene-3,11,22-trione) and the 2-O-glucoside of 23,24 didydrocucurbitacin B (25-acetoxy-2-beta-glucosyloxy-16,20-dihydroxy-9-methyl-19-norl anost-5-ene-3, 11-22-trione) were so far not reported as constituents of this plant. The four new cucurbitacins could be identified as 2-beta-glucosyloxy-3,16,20,25-tetrahydroxy-9-methyl-19-norlanos ta-5, 23-diene-22-one, 2-beta-glucosyloxy-3,16,20,25-tetrahydroxy-9-methyl-19-norlanos t-5-ene-22-one, the 2-O-glucoside of cucurbitacin Q (25-acetoxy-2-beta-glucosyloxy-3,16,20-trihydroxy-9-methyl-19-n orlanosta-5, 23-diene-11,22-dione), and the 2-O-glucoside of deacetoxycucurbitacin B (2-beta-glucosyloxy-16,20-dihydroxy-9-methyl-19-norlanosta-5 , 24-diene-3,11,22-trione). PMID:2616673

  16. Bioactive Isopimarane Diterpenes from the Fungus, Epicoccum sp. HS-1, Associated with Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xuekui; Qi, Jun; Liu, Yayue; Jia, Airong; Zhang, Yonggang; Liu, Changheng; Gao, Cuiling; She, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    One new isopimarane diterpene (1), together with two known compounds, 11-deoxydiaporthein A (2) and iso-pimara-8(14),15-diene (3) were isolated from the culture of Epicoccum sp., which was associated with Apostichopus japonicus. Their structures were determined by the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR, as well as mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of Compound 1 was deduced by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment using CuKα radiation. In the bioactivity assay, both Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 4.6 ± 0.1 and 11.9 ± 0.4 μM, respectively. This was the first report on isopimarane diterpenes with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:25738327

  17. Mode of Action of Diterpene and Characterization of Related Metabolites from the Soft Coral, Xenia elongata

    PubMed Central

    Andrianasolo, Eric H.; Haramaty, Liti; White, Eileen; Lutz, Richard; Falkowski, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and biological investigation of the cultured marine soft coral Xenia elongata led to the isolation of two new diterpenes (2, 3). Their structures were elucidated using a combination of NMR and mass spectrometry. Biological evaluations and assessments were determined using the specific apoptosis induction assay based on genetically engineered mammalian cell line D3 deficient in Bak and Bax and derived from a mouse epithelial cell. The diterpenes induce apoptosis in low micromolar concentrations. The results indicate that the previously isolated compound (1) affects cell in a manner similar to that of HSP90 and HDAC inhibitors and in a manner opposite of PI3 kinase/mTOR inhibitors. Compound (3) inhibits selectively HDAC6 in high micromolar concentrations. PMID:24562393

  18. Mode of action of diterpene and characterization of related metabolites from the soft coral, Xenia elongata.

    PubMed

    Andrianasolo, Eric H; Haramaty, Liti; White, Eileen; Lutz, Richard; Falkowski, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Chemical and biological investigation of the cultured marine soft coral Xenia elongata led to the isolation of two new diterpenes (2, 3). Their structures were elucidated using a combination of NMR and mass spectrometry. Biological evaluations and assessments were determined using the specific apoptosis induction assay based on genetically engineered mammalian cell line D3 deficient in Bak and Bax and derived from a mouse epithelial cell. The diterpenes induce apoptosis in low micromolar concentrations. The results indicate that the previously isolated compound (1) affects cell in a manner similar to that of HSP90 and HDAC inhibitors and in a manner opposite of PI3 kinase/mTOR inhibitors. Compound (3) inhibits selectively HDAC6 in high micromolar concentrations. PMID:24562393

  19. Bioactive isopimarane diterpenes from the fungus, Epicoccum sp. HS-1, associated with Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xuekui; Qi, Jun; Liu, Yayue; Jia, Airong; Zhang, Yonggang; Liu, Changheng; Gao, Cuiling; She, Zhigang

    2015-03-01

    One new isopimarane diterpene (1), together with two known compounds, 11-deoxydiaporthein A (2) and iso-pimara-8(14),15-diene (3) were isolated from the culture of Epicoccum sp., which was associated with Apostichopus japonicus. Their structures were determined by the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR, as well as mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of Compound 1 was deduced by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment using CuKα radiation. In the bioactivity assay, both Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 4.6 ± 0.1 and 11.9 ± 0.4 μM, respectively. This was the first report on isopimarane diterpenes with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:25738327

  20. Cardiovascular activity of labdane diterpenes from Andrographis paniculata in isolated rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Awang, Khalijah; Abdullah, Nor Hayati; Hadi, A Hamid A; Fong, Yew Su

    2012-01-01

    The dichloromethane (DCM) extract of Andrographis paniculata Nees was tested for cardiovascular activity. The extract significantly reduced coronary perfusion pressure by up to 24.5 ± 3.0 mm Hg at a 3 mg dose and also reduced heart rate by up to 49.5 ± 11.4 beats/minute at this dose. Five labdane diterpenes, 14-deoxy-12-hydroxyandrographolide (1), 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (2), 14-deoxyandrographolide (3), andrographolide (4), and neoandrographolide (5), were isolated from the aerial parts of this medicinal plant. Bioassay-guided studies using animal model showed that compounds, (2) and (3) were responsible for the coronary vasodilatation. This study also showed that andrographolide (4), the major labdane diterpene in this plant, has minimal effects on the heart. PMID:22536026

  1. Antileishmanial activity of natural diterpenes from Cistus sp. and semisynthetic derivatives thereof.

    PubMed

    Fokialakis, Nikolas; Kalpoutzakis, Eleftherios; Tekwani, Babu Lal; Skaltsounis, Alexios Leandros; Duke, Stephen Oscar

    2006-08-01

    Eleven cis-clerodane diterpenes, seven labdane type diterpenes and one triterpene isolated from Cistus monspeliensis and the resin "Ladano" of Cistus creticus subsp. creticus were evaluated against Leishmania donovani promastigotes, the causative agent for visceral leishmaniasis. In addition, eleven semisynthetic manoyl oxide, seventeen labdane type derivatives and a triterpene were also evaluated for their antileishmanial activity. 18-Acetoxy-cis-clerod-3-en-15-ol, 15,18-diacetoxy-cis-clerod-3-ene and 13-(E)-8a-hydroxylabd-13-en-15-ol 2-chloroethylcarbamate exhibited the most potent and selective leishmanicidal activity with IC50 values of 3.3 microg/ml, 3.4 microg/ml and 3.5 microg/ml, respectively. PMID:16880643

  2. Cassane diterpenes with oxygen bridge from the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xudong; Yuan, Jingquan; Zhou, Xingyang; Li, Weiping; Zhu, Nailiang; Wu, Haifeng; Li, Pengfei; Sun, Zhonghao; Yang, Junshan; Ma, Guoxu

    2016-07-01

    The seeds of the medicinal plant Caesalpinia sappan yielded fourteen cassane-type diterpenes, including six new rearranged ones named as caesalppans A-F (1-6). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. The isolated new compounds 1-6 possess lactone-type cassane diterpenoid skeleton with an oxygen bridge between C-19 and C-20, and were tested cytotoxic activity against four cancer cell lines using the MTT method. PMID:27316975

  3. Gastroprotective effect and cytotoxicity of natural and semisynthetic labdane diterpenes from Araucaria araucana resin.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Astudillo, Luis; Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Jaime A; Theoduloz, Cristina; Yáñez, Tania; Palenzuela, José Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The resin of the tree Araucaria araucana (Araucariaceae) is used by the Mapuche Amerindians in southern Chile and Argentina to treat ulcers and has been shown to display a gastroprotective effect in animal models. A study was undertaken to isolate, identify and assess the gastroprotective effect of the resin constituents and its semisynthetic derivatives as well as to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the products in cell cultures. Eleven diterpenes (ten labdane and a pimarane) were isolated from a resin sample collected in Chile. The labdane derivatives 15-acetoxylabd-8(17)-en-19-ol as well as 15,19-diacetoxylabd-8(17)-en are reported for the first time as natural products. Six diterpenes previously described from other plant sources are reported for the first time for the A. araucana resin. The structure of all compounds was elucidated by spectroscopic means. Some 24 diterpenes isolated/prepared in amounts over 10 mg were evaluated for gastroprotective effects in the ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer model in mice at 100 mg/kg. The highest gastroprotective activities were provided by 15-hydroxyimbricatolal, 15-acetoxyimbricatolal, 15-acetoxylabd-8(17)-en-19-oic acid methyl ester and 15-acetoxy-19-labdanoic acid, all of them being as active as the reference drug lansoprazole at 20 mg/kg. The cytotoxicity of 30 diterpenes as well as lansoprazole was assessed towards human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) and 26 compounds were evaluated on the human gastric epithelial cell line AGS by means of the neutral red uptake assay. A concentration-dependent cell viability inhibition was found with IC50 values ranging from 27 up to > 1000 microM. The relationship between the cytotoxicity data and lipophilicity of the products is also discussed. PMID:16163822

  4. Subcellular Compartmentation of the Diterpene Carnosic Acid and Its Derivatives in the Leaves of Rosemary1

    PubMed Central

    Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Alegre, Leonor

    2001-01-01

    The potent antioxidant properties of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extracts have been attributed to its major diterpene, carnosic acid. Carnosic acid has received considerable attention in food science and biomedicine, but little is known about its function in the plant in vivo. We recently found that highly oxidized diterpenes increase in rosemary plants exposed to drought and high light stress as a result of the antioxidant activity of carnosic acid (S. Munné-Bosch, K. Schwarz, L. Alegre [1999] Plant Physiol 121: 1047–1052). To elucidate the significance of the antioxidant function of carnosic acid in vivo we measured the relative amounts of carnosic acid and its metabolites in different compartments of rosemary leaves. Subcellular localization studies show that carnosic acid protects chloroplasts from oxidative stress in vivo by following a highly regulated compartmentation of oxidation products. Carnosic acid scavenges free radicals within the chloroplasts, giving rise to diterpene alcohols, mainly isorosmanol. This oxidation product is O-methylated within the chloroplasts, and the resulting form, 11,12-di-O-methylisorosmanol, is transferred to the plasma membrane. This appears to represent a mechanism of a way out for free radicals from chloroplasts. Carnosic acid also undergoes direct O-methylation within the chloroplasts, and its derived product, 12-O-methylcarnosic acid, accumulates in the plasma membrane. O-methylated diterpenes do not display antioxidant activity, but they may influence the stability of the plasma membrane. This study shows the relevance of the compartmentation of carnosic acid metabolism to the protection of rosemary plants from oxidative stress in vivo. PMID:11161064

  5. Studies on chemical constituents of the leaves of Smallantus sonchifolius (yacon): structures of two new diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Dou, De-Qiang; Tian, Fang; Qiu, Ying-Kun; Xiang, Zheng; Xu, Bi Xia; Kang, Ting Guo; Dong, Feng

    2010-01-01

    The extract from the leaves of Smallantus sonchifolius (yacon) was found to show potent anti-diabetic activity. Two new diterpenes, named ent-kaurane-3beta,16beta,17, 19-tetrol (1) and ent-kaurane-16beta,17,18,19-tetrol (2), were isolated from the extract, together with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. PMID:20013471

  6. Palladium-catalyzed Transformations of Salvinorin A, a Neoclerodane Diterpene from Salvia divinorum

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Andrew P.; Day, Victor W.; Navarro, Hernán A.

    2013-01-01

    Transformations that selectively modify the furan ring present in a variety of naturals products would be useful in the synthesis of biological probes but remain largely underexplored. The neoclerodane diterpene salvinorin A, isolated from Salvia divinorum, is an example of a furan-containing natural product. Following selective bromination of salvinorin A, Suzuki-Miyaura and Sonogashira couplings were accomplished in moderate to good yields without hydrolyzing the labile C-2 acetate or altering the stereochemistry of the epimerizable centers. PMID:24246026

  7. Numerosol A–D, New Cembranoid Diterpenes from the Soft Coral Sinularia numerosa

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yen-Ju; Yang, Yuan-Chien; Wang, Shang-Kwei; Duh, Chang-Yih

    2014-01-01

    Four new cembrane-type diterpenes; numerosol A–D (1–4); along with a known steroid; gibberoketosterol (5); were isolated from the Taiwanese soft coral Sinularia numerosa. The structures of these metabolites were determined by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data. Gibberoketosterol (5) exhibited cytotoxicity against P-388 (mouse lymphocytic leukemia) cell line with an ED50 of 6.9 μM. PMID:24897385

  8. A marine diterpene with a novel tetracyclic framework from the West Indian gorgonian octocoral Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A D; Ramírez, C

    2000-02-24

    [structure: see text] Colombiasin A (1) was isolated from an extract of the West Indian gorgonian octocoral Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae that showed strong inhibitorial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Structure elucidation by interpretation of 2D-NMR spectroscopic data, IR, UV, and accurate mass measurements (HREI-MS) revealed that colombiasin A belongs to a previously undescribed class of C20 rearranged diterpenes possessing an intricate tetracyclic framework. PMID:10814363

  9. Investigation on traditional medicines of Guarany Indio and studies on diterpenes from Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2011-01-01

      In interviews on the traditional herbal medicines of Tupi-Guarany Indians at the herbal market of Asuncion and questionnaire from their users, it was clarified that various useful medicinal plants are available in Paraguay and most of them are generally used without drying. In the search for bioactive substances from those plants, a β-glucuronidase-inhibitory diterpene called scoparic acid A (SA) was isolated from Scoparia dulcis L. together with scoparic acid B, scoparic acid C, and the aphidicolin-like tetracyclic diterpenes scopadulcic acid A (SDA) and scopadulcic acid B (SDB). HPLC analysis of diterpenes in the individual plants of Paraguayan and Asian S. dulcis revealed the presence of three chemotypes based on major component, i.e., SA type, SDB type, and SDX type containing mainly scopadiol and scopadulciol (SDC). SA and SDB were elucidated to be mainly biosynthesized in the leaves via 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol- 4-phosphate pathway, and a leaf organ culture system containing methyl jasmonate 10 µM was found to enhance the production of diterpenes by activation of Ca-signal transduction systems such as calmodulin and protein kinase C. On the other hand, SDB and SDC were found to show multifaceted pharmacological effects such as inhibitory effects on gastric acid excretion, bone resorption, replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), etc. In addition, SDC was suggested to be applicable to cancer gene therapy using ganciclovir or acyclovir and the HSV-1 thymidine kinase gene called the suicide gene. PMID:21881299

  10. Nine new diterpenes from the leaves of plantation-grown Cunninghamia lanceolata.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuangshuang; Ling, Junhong; Li, Zhanlin; Wang, Silong; Hu, Jiangchun; Wang, Nan

    2015-04-01

    Nine new diterpenes named lanceolatanol hydroperoxide (1), epilanceolatanol hydroperoxide (2), lanceolatanoic acid hydroperoxide (3), epilanceolatanoic acid hydroperoxide (4), lanceolatanol (5), lanceolatanoic acid (6), 11-acetoxylanceolatanoic acid (7), 11-acetoxylanceolatanoic acid methyl ester (8) and epoxyhinokiol (13) were characterized from the leaves of plantation-grown Cunninghamia lanceolata along with twelve known compounds. The compounds were evaluated for their growth inhibitory activities against the human prostate cell line (PC-3). PMID:25736997

  11. A new highly oxygenated daphnane diterpene esters from the flower buds of Daphne genkwa.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-Long; Wang, Rui; Li, Jian-Yong; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the flower buds of Daphne genkwa yielded eight highly oxygenated daphnane-type diterpene esters, including a new one, genkwanine N 20-palmitate (1) and seven known ones (2-8). The molecular structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including UV, IR, NMR, and MS, and comparison with literature data. Furthermore, compound 1 showed potential cytotoxic activity in vitro, against A549 and Hep G2 tumour cell lines. PMID:25674674

  12. 13-Epi-9-deacetoxyxenicin, a Cytotoxic Diterpene from the Soft Coral Asterospicularia laurae (Alcyonacea)

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Bruce F.; Cusack, Bernard J.; Dangel, Alissa

    2003-01-01

    An investigation of the soft coral Asterospicularia laurae collected on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, afforded the cytotoxic diterpene 13-epi-9-deacetoxyxenicin (1) in addition to the known metabolites 13-epi-9-deacetylxenicin (2) and gorgosterol. 13-Epi-9-deacetoxyxenicin readily underwent an autoxidation reaction in solution to afford a single product, the hydroperoxide 3. Structures, stereochemistry, and NMR assignments were established by high resolution NMR spectroscopy and by comparison with published data for known compounds.

  13. Corallolides A and B: Bioactive Diterpenes Featuring a Novel Carbon Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Claudia A.; Rodríguez, Abimael D.

    2009-01-01

    Corallolides A (1) and B (2) are naturally occurring diterpenes isolated from the Caribbean gorgonian octocoral Pseudopterogorgia bipinnata collected near Providencia Island, Colombia. Their tricyclic structures are based on a uniquely substituted bicyclo[9.2.1]tetradecane ring system that was established through detailed spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 were shown to exhibit anti-parasitic and anti-tuberculosis activity, respectively. PMID:19637917

  14. Clerodane type diterpene as a novel antifungal agent from Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Asish K; Chand, Hemender R; John, Jyothis; Deshpande, Mukund V

    2015-04-13

    Bioactivity-guided chemical examination of methanolic extract of leaves of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula led to the isolation of the active constituent, a diterpene 1 which was identified as 16α-hydroxycleroda-3,13(14)Z-dien-15,16-olide on the basis of its spectral data. Among the tested strains, diterpene 1 was found to exhibit antifungal activities having MIC90 values of 50.3, 100.6 and 201.2 μM against Candida albicans NCIM3557, Cryptococcus neoformans NCIM3542 (human pathogens) and Neurospora crassa NCIM870 (saprophyte), respectively. Initial, structure-activity-relationship (SAR) data generated by synthesizing some derivatives revealed that the double bond between C3-C4 and the free hydroxyl group at C16 are crucial for the antifungal activity of the diterpene 1. The mode of action of 1 in C. albicans is due to compromised cell membrane permeability and also probably due to disruption of cell wall structures. The red blood cell haemolysis of all the compounds (1-4) did not show any significant haemolysis and was found to be less than 15% for all the compounds when tested at highest concentration, i.e. 1200 μM. Interestingly, all the tested compounds inhibited Y-H transition in dimorphic C. albicans NCIM3557 at much lower concentration than their MIC90 values. Determination of ROS generation by diterpene 1 using DCFH-DA and DHR123 (dihydrorhodamine) staining of C. albicans NCIM3557 indicated production of intracellular ROS as a mechanism of antifungal activity. PMID:25747495

  15. Cardiac and vascular responses of isolated rat tissues treated with diterpenes from Sinularia flexibilis (coelenterata: octocorallia).

    PubMed

    Aceret, T L; Brown, L; Miller, J; Coll, J C; Sammarco, P W

    1996-10-01

    The marine environment is a rich source of compounds with cardiovascular activity. This study characterizes the cardiac and vascular responses in isolated rat tissues of flexibilide, dihydroflexibilide and sinulariolide, three diterpenes isolated from the soft coral Sinularia flexibilis. On rat left ventricular papillary muscles, dihydroflexibilide and flexibilide showed similar potencies (-log EC50 = 4.69 +/- 0.05 and 4.66 +/- 0.06, respectively); the maximal response to dihydroflexibilide of 1.4 +/- 0.2 mN was 35 +/- 7% that of calcium chloride in the same muscles. All diterpenes relaxed rat thoracic aortic rings precontracted with KC1 (100 mM) with similar potencies (flexibilide, -log EC50 = 4.17 +/- 0.06). Flexibilide was further characterized and shown to increase force in isolated rat left atria by 0.8 +/- 0.5 mN at 1 x 10(-4) M, to increase rate of contraction in isolated rat right atria by 18 +/- 5 beta/min at 3 x 10(-5) M and to completely relax endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aortic rings (-log EC50 = 4.14 +/- 0.05). Toxicity as indicated by the occurrence of ectopic beats was not observed with the diterpenes at concentrations which produced complete relaxation of blood vessels, maximal positive inotropic activity and minor positive chronotropic responses. Thus, these compounds may be useful lead compounds in the search for improved treatment of cardiovascular disease, especially heart failure. PMID:8931257

  16. ent-Kaurane diterpenes from the stem bark of Annona vepretorum (Annonaceae) and cytotoxic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Lívia M; Bomfim, Larissa M; Rocha, Suellen L A; Nepel, Angelita; Soares, Milena B P; Barison, Andersson; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2014-08-01

    This work describes a novel ent-kaurane diterpene, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-al along with five known ent-kaurane diterpenes, ent-3β,19-dihydroxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-acetoxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaurenoic acid and kaurenoic acid, as well as caryophyllene oxide, humulene epoxide II, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol from the stem bark of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae). Cytotoxic activities towards tumor B16-F10, HepG2, K562 and HL60 and non-tumor PBMC cell lines were evaluated for ent-kaurane diterpenes. Among them, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-al was the most active compound with higher cytotoxic effect over K562 cell line (IC50 of 2.49 μg/mL) and lower over B16-F10 cell line (IC50 of 21.02 μg/mL). PMID:24969014

  17. Biosynthesis of the labdane diterpene marrubiin in Marrubium vulgare via a non-mevalonate pathway.

    PubMed

    Knöss, W; Reuter, B; Zapp, J

    1997-09-01

    The biosynthesis of the furanic labdane diterpene marrubiin has been studied in plantlets and shoot cultures of Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae). The use of [2-14C]acetate, [2-14C]pyruvate, [2-14C]mevalonic acid and [U-14C]glucose incorporation experiments showed that the labelling of sterols in etiolated shoot cultures of M. vulgare was in accordance with their biosynthesis via the acetate-mevalonate pathway. In contrast, the incorporation rates of these precursors into the diterpene marrubiin could not be explained by biosynthesis of this compound via the acetate-mevalonate pathway. Cultivation of etiolated shoot cultures of M. vulgare on medium containing [1-13C]glucose and subsequent 13C-NMR spectroscopy of marrubiin led to the conclusion that the biosynthesis of marrubiin follows a non-mevalonate pathway. All isoprenic units of 13C-labelled marrubiin were enriched in those carbons that correspond to positions 1 and 5 of a putative precursor isopentenyl diphosphate. This labelling pattern from [1-13C]glucose is consistent with an alternative pathway via trioses, which has already been shown to occur in Eubacteria and Gymnospermae. The labdane skeleton is a precursor of many other skeletal types of diterpenes. Therefore it becomes obvious that in connection with the few known examples of a non-mevalonate pathway to isoprenoids the formation of some isoprenoids in plants via a non-mevalonate pathway might be quite common. PMID:9291117

  18. Effects of tripterygium glycosides on restenosis following endovascular treatment

    PubMed Central

    HAN, BING; GE, CHANG-QING; ZHANG, HONG-GUANG; ZHOU, CHEN-GUANG; JI, GUO-HUI; YANG, ZHENG; ZHANG, LIANG

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism and associated factors of restenosis following intravascular stent implantation remain to be elucidated. The present two-part experimental and clinical study aimed to investigate the effects of tripterygium glycosides on in-stent restenosis subsequent to intra-arterial therapy. Following endovascular stent implantation in rabbit iliac arteries, post-stent outcomes were evaluated in cyclosporine groups, low-dose and high-dose tripterygium glycosides groups and controls. Post-operative angiography indicated that vessel diameters were similar between groups; however, at 28 days after receiving the therapeutic agents, vessels of the cyclosporine and tripterygium glycosides groups were significantly larger than those of the controls. Furthermore, three groups of patients had comparable baseline levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-18 and C-reactive protein, and intima-media thickness. However, 1 month after stent implantation, levels of IL-10 and IL-18 were markedly reduced in the high- and low-dose tripterygium glycosides groups compared with controls. At 6 months after surgery, the stent patency rate in patients with bare stents was significantly lower than in patients receiving tripterygium glycosides (P≤0.009). In addition, the ankle-brachial index was also higher than in those without tripterygium glycosides (P<0.001). Results of the experimental and clinical studies suggest that tripterygium glycosides may inhibit and possibly aid in the prevention of in-stent restenosis formation following endovascular treatment of lower-extremity artery disease. PMID:27108914

  19. Effects of tripterygium glycosides on restenosis following endovascular treatment.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Ge, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Guang; Zhou, Chen-Guang; Ji, Guo-Hui; Yang, Zheng; Zhang, Liang

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism and associated factors of restenosis following intravascular stent implantation remain to be elucidated. The present two‑part experimental and clinical study aimed to investigate the effects of tripterygium glycosides on in‑stent restenosis subsequent to intra‑arterial therapy. Following endovascular stent implantation in rabbit iliac arteries, post‑stent outcomes were evaluated in cyclosporine groups, low‑dose and high‑dose tripterygium glycosides groups and controls. Post‑operative angiography indicated that vessel diameters were similar between groups; however, at 28 days after receiving the therapeutic agents, vessels of the cyclosporine and tripterygium glycosides groups were significantly larger than those of the controls. Furthermore, three groups of patients had comparable baseline levels of interleukin (IL)‑10, IL‑18 and C‑reactive protein, and intima‑media thickness. However, 1 month after stent implantation, levels of IL‑10 and IL‑18 were markedly reduced in the high‑ and low‑dose tripterygium glycosides groups compared with controls. At 6 months after surgery, the stent patency rate in patients with bare stents was significantly lower than in patients receiving tripterygium glycosides (P≤0.009). In addition, the ankle‑brachial index was also higher than in those without tripterygium glycosides (P<0.001). Results of the experimental and clinical studies suggest that tripterygium glycosides may inhibit and possibly aid in the prevention of in‑stent restenosis formation following endovascular treatment of lower‑extremity artery disease. PMID:27108914

  20. [Membranotropic effect of some triterpene glycosides possessing immunostimulating properties].

    PubMed

    Lee, I A; Popov, A M; Kostetskiĭ, E Ia; Sanina, N M; Mazeĭka, A N; Boguslavskiĭ, V M

    2008-01-01

    The peculiarities of the interaction between cell membrane lipids and triterpene glycosides from holothurians Apostichopus japonicus S. and Cucumaria japonica (holotoxin A1 and cucumarioside A2-2, respectively) were studied in comparison with plant saponins from Quillaja saponaria, known as hemolytic, adjuvant, and structure-forming components of immunostimulating complexes. Similar to Quillaja saponins, the sea glycosides, holotoxin A1 and cucumarioside A2-2 were shown to possess a high hemolytic activity (2.6 and 3 microg/ml, respectively) and sterol-depending membranotropic effect mediated by the formation of nonbilayer sterol-lipid-glycoside complexes. At the same time, cucumarioside A2-2 bound exogenic cholesterol only in the presence of membrane lipids, such as phosphatidylcholine or monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, in contrast to Quillaja saponins and holotoxin A1, which bound cholesterol in the molar ratios 1:2 and 1:8, respectively. Moreover, in all cases, tree-component complexes containing cholesterol, lipid, and glycoside exhibited a lower hemolytic activity compared with two-component sterol-glycoside complexes. It was concluded that the hydrophobic medium of cell membranes performs a potentiative role in the effective interaction between triterpene glycosides and "sterol receptors". A method for decreasing the toxicity of membranotropic holothurian glycosides possessing the immunomodulating properties was suggested. PMID:18634319

  1. Steviol glycoside safety: are highly purified steviol glycoside sweeteners food allergens?

    PubMed

    Urban, Jonathan D; Carakostas, Michael C; Taylor, Steve L

    2015-01-01

    Steviol glycoside sweeteners are extracted from the plant Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family. Many plants from this family can induce hypersensitivity reactions via multiple routes of exposure (e.g., ragweed, goldenrod, chrysanthemum, echinacea, chamomile, lettuce, sunflower and chicory). Based on this common taxonomy, some popular media reports and resources have issued food warnings alleging the potential for stevia allergy. To determine if such allergy warnings are warranted on stevia-based sweeteners, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all available data related to allergic responses following the consumption of stevia extracts or highly purified steviol glycosides. Hypersensitivity reactions to stevia in any form are rare. The few cases documented in the peer-reviewed literature were reported prior to the introduction of high-purity products to the market in 2008 when many global regulatory authorities began to affirm the safety of steviol glycosides. Neither stevia manufacturers nor food allergy networks have reported significant numbers of any adverse events related to ingestion of stevia-based sweeteners, and there have been no reports of stevia-related allergy in the literature since 2008. Therefore, there is little substantiated scientific evidence to support warning statements to consumers about allergy to highly purified stevia extracts. PMID:25449199

  2. Determination of phenylethanoid glycosides and iridoid glycosides from therapeutically used Plantago species by CE-MEKC.

    PubMed

    Gonda, Sándor; Nguyen, Nhat Minh; Batta, Gyula; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Máthé, Csaba; Vasas, Gábor

    2013-09-01

    CE methods are valuable tools for medicinal plant quality management, screening, and analysis. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to optimize and validate a CE-MEKC method for simultaneous quantification of four chief bioactive metabolites from Plantago species. The two most important secondary metabolite groups were aimed to be separated. Different electrolyte and surfactant types were tested. Surfactant concentration, BGE pH, electrolyte concentration, and buffering capacity were optimized. The final BGE consisted of 15 mM sodium tetraborate, 20 mM TAPS, and 250 mM DOC at pH 8.50. Acceptable precision, good stability, and accuracy were achieved, with high resolution for phenylethanoid glycosides. Analytes were separated within 20 min. The method was shown to be suitable for the quantification of the iridoid glycosides aucubin and catalpol, and the phenylethanoid glycosides acteoside (verbascoside) and plantamajoside from water extracts of different samples. The method was shown to be applicable to leaf extracts of Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, and Plantago asiatica, the main species with therapeutic applications, and a biotechnological product, plant tissue cultures (calli) of P. lanceolata. Baseline separation of the main constituents from minor peaks was achieved, regardless of the matrix type. PMID:23784714

  3. New steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Liu, Tao; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Two new steroidal glycosides were isolated from Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-12-one-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments. PMID:22694659

  4. Astonishing diversity of natural surfactants: 6. Biologically active marine and terrestrial alkaloid glycosides.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, Valery M

    2005-11-01

    This review article presents 209 alkaloid glycosides isolated and identified from plants, microorganisms, and marine invertebrates that demonstrate different biological activities. They are of great interest, especially for the medicinal and/or pharmaceutical industries. These biologically active glycosides have good potential for future chemical preparation of compounds useful as antioxidants, anticancer, antimicrobial, and antibacterial agents. These glycosidic compounds have been subdivided into several groups, including: acridone; aporphine; benzoxazinoid; ergot; indole; enediyne alkaloidal antibiotics; glycosidic lupine alkaloids; piperidine, pyridine, pyrrolidine, and pyrrolizidine alkaloid glycosides; glycosidic quinoline and isoquinoline alkaloids; steroidal glycoalkaloids; and miscellaneous alkaloid glycosides. PMID:16459921

  5. Use of cardiac glycosides and risk of glioma.

    PubMed

    Seliger, Corinna; Meier, Christoph R; Jick, Susan S; Uhl, Martin; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Hau, Peter; Leitzmann, M F

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac glycosides induce apoptotic effects on glioma cells, but whether cardiac glycosides protect against risk for glioma is unknown. We therefore explored the relation between glycoside use and glioma risk using a large and validated database. We performed a case-control analysis using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink involving 2005 glioma cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2012 that were individually matched to 20,050 controls on age, gender, general practice, and number of years of active history in the database. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between cardiac glycosides and the risk of glioma adjusting for body mass index and smoking. We also examined use of common heart failure and arrhythmia medications to differentiate between a specific glycoside effect and a generic effect of treatment for congestive heart failure or arrhythmia. Cardiac glycoside use was inversely related to glioma incidence. After adjustment for congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, diabetes, and common medications used to treat those conditions, the OR of glioma was 0.47 (95 % CI 0.27-0.81, Bonferroni-corrected p value = 0.024) for use versus non-use of cardiac glycosides, based on 17 exposed cases. In contrast, no associations were noted for other medications used to treat congestive heart failure or arrhythmias. The OR of glioma in people with congestive heart failure was 0.65 (95 % CI 0.40-1.04), and for arrhythmia it was 1.01 (95 % CI 0.78-1.31). These data indicate that cardiac glycoside use is independently associated with reduced glioma risk. PMID:26721242

  6. Three new sulphur glycosides from the seeds of Descurainia sophia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei-Sheng; Li, Chun-Ge; Zheng, Xiao-Ke; Li, Ling-Ling; Chen, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Yan-Li; Cao, Yan-Gang; Gong, Jian-Hong; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2016-08-01

    Three new sulphur glycosides, raphanuside B-D (1-3), together with a known sulphur glycoside, raphanuside (4) were isolated from the decoction of the seeds of Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl, and the compound 4 was reported for the first time from this plant. Their structures were identified by means of UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) and HR-ESI-MS spectroscopic data. PMID:26795632

  7. Steroidal glycosides from the roots of Asclepias curassavica.

    PubMed

    Warashina, Tsutomu; Noro, Tadataka

    2008-03-01

    Twenty-six new acylated-oxypregnane glycosides were obtained along with three known cardenolide glycosides from the roots of Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae). The new compounds were confirmed to contain 12-O-benzoylsarcostin, 12-O-benzoyldeacylmetaplexigenin, kidjolanin, and 12-O-benzoyltayloron, and one new acylated-oxypregnane, 12-O-(E)-cinnamoyltayloron, as their aglycones, using both spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:18310942

  8. Phenolic glycosides from sugar maple (Acer saccharum) bark.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao; Wan, Chunpeng; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Seeram, Navindra P

    2011-11-28

    Four new phenolic glycosides, saccharumosides A-D (1-4), along with eight known phenolic glycosides, were isolated from the bark of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for cytotoxicity effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116 and Caco-2) and nontumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cell lines. PMID:22032697

  9. Stability of steviol glycosides in several food matrices.

    PubMed

    Jooken, Etienne; Amery, Ruis; Struyf, Tom; Duquenne, Barbara; Geuns, Jan; Meesschaert, Boudewijn

    2012-10-24

    As steviol glycosides are now allowed as a food additive in the European market, it is important to assess the stability of these steviol glycosides after they have been added to different food matrices. We analyzed and tested the stability of steviol glycosides in semiskimmed milk, soy drink, fermented milk drink, ice cream, full-fat and skimmed set yogurt, dry biscuits, and jam. The fat was removed by centrifugation from the dairy and soy drink samples. Proteins were precipitated by the addition of acetonitrile and also removed by centrifugation. Samples of jam were extracted with water. Dry biscuits were extracted with ethanol. The resulting samples were concentrated with solid-phase extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 stationary phase and a gradient of acetonitrile/aqueous 25 mM phosphoric acid. The accuracy was checked using a standard addition on some samples. For assessing the stability of the steviol glycosides, samples were stored in conditions relevant to each food matrix and analyzed periodically. The results indicate that steviol glycosides can be analyzed with good precision and accuracy in these food categories. The recovery was between 96 and 103%. The method was also validated by standard addition, which showed excellent agreement with the external calibration curve. No sign of decomposition of steviol glycosides was found in any of the samples. PMID:23020306

  10. Abietane diterpenes induce cytotoxic effects in human pancreatic cancer cell line MIA PaCa-2 through different modes of action.

    PubMed

    Fronza, Marcio; Lamy, Evelyn; Günther, Stefan; Heinzmann, Berta; Laufer, Stefan; Merfort, Irmgard

    2012-06-01

    Abietane diterpenes, especially those containing quinone moieties, are often reported to have cytotoxic effects on cancer cell lines. They deserve greater attention because several cancer chemotherapeutic agents also possess the quinone structural feature. To date, very little is known about their cytotoxic molecular modes of action. In the present study, five diterpenes, 7 alpha-acetoxyroyleanone, horminone, royleanone, 7-ketoroyleanone and sugiol which have been previously isolated from the medicinal plant Peltodon longipes were shown to possess cytotoxic activity against the human pancreatic cancer cell line MIA PaCa-2. 7 alpha-Acetoxyroyleanone, horminone and royleanone were demonstrated to possess alkylating properties using the nucleophile 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine. However, no clear correlation between the alkylating properties and cytotoxicity of these diterpenes was observed. Furthermore, the relaxation activity of human DNA topoisomerases I and II was found to be influenced by these compounds, with 7-ketoroyleanone and sugiol being the most active. These two diterpenes preferentially inhibited topoisomerase I and exhibited lower IC(50) values than the classical topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin. Molecular docking studies revealed possible interactions of diterpenes with topoisomerase I, indicating that these compounds do not form the drug-enzyme-DNA covalent ternary complex as observed with camptothecin. A binding pocket located at the surface of the DNA-interaction site was proposed. Moreover, the ability of the five diterpenes to generate DNA-strand breaks in single cells was confirmed using the alkaline comet assay. As expected, these diterpenes also influenced cell cycle progression and arrested cells in different phases of the cell cycle, primarily the G1/G0 and S-phases. Interestingly, the diterpenes only exhibited a slight ability to induce apoptotic cell death and failed to generate intracellular reactive oxygen species. These results provide

  11. Ceylonamides A-F, Nitrogenous Spongian Diterpenes That Inhibit RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis, from the Marine Sponge Spongia ceylonensis.

    PubMed

    El-Desoky, Ahmed H; Kato, Hikaru; Angkouw, Esther D; Mangindaan, Remy E P; de Voogd, Nicole J; Tsukamoto, Sachiko

    2016-08-26

    Seven new spongian diterpenes, ceylonamides A-F (1-6) and 15α,16-dimethoxyspongi-13-en-19-oic acid (7), were isolated from the Indonesian marine sponge Spongia ceylonensis along with eight known spongian diterpenes, 8-15. Compounds 1-6 were determined to be nitrogenous spongian diterpenes. The isolated compounds were examined for the inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264 macrophages. Ceylonamide A (1) exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 13 μM, followed by ceylonamide B (2) (IC50, 18 μM). An examination of the structure-activity relationships of the isolated compounds revealed that the position of the carbonyl group of the γ-lactam ring and bulkiness of the substituent at its nitrogen atom were important for inhibitory activity. PMID:27526327

  12. Unveiling the mode of action of antibacterial labdane diterpenes from Alpinia nigra (Gaertn.) B. L. Burtt seeds.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Indukuri, Kiran; Bondalapati, Somasekhar; Saikia, Anil K; Rangan, Latha

    2013-08-01

    The labdane diterpene, (E)-labda-8(17), 12-diene-15, 16-dial (compound A) and its epoxide analogue, (E)-8β, 17-Epoxylabd-12-ene-15, 16-dial (compound B) were isolated from the seeds of Alpinia nigra for the first time. The antibacterial activities of both compounds were evaluated against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria, and flow cytometric analysis revealed that these compounds caused significant damage to the bacterial cell membranes. Further, field emission scanning electron microscope imaging and cell leakage analysis confirmed that the labdane diterpenes were responsible for bacterial cell membrane damage and disintegration. Our findings provide new insight into the broad-spectrum effects of two natural labdane diterpenes that may be useful in the future development of herbal antibiotic products. PMID:23792320

  13. Analysis of diterpenic compounds by GC-MS/MS: contribution to the identification of main conifer resins.

    PubMed

    Azemard, Clara; Menager, Matthieu; Vieillescazes, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    The three principal types of molecules composing diterpenic resins are the abietanes, pimaranes and labdanes. The study of their fragmentation was performed by gas chromatography coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer, on standards and resins used in paint varnishes: colophony and sandarac. We found that the general fragmentation pattern was mostly governed by the location of the double bonds on the different cycles and the presence of functional groups, and not by the nature of the C13 group in the case of abietanes and pimaranes. As for the labdanes, the loss of their alkyl chain is very specific. This study develops an analytical strategy using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments to validate the proposed mechanisms of fragmentation and to find the ions of interest for the identification of diterpenic molecules. Graphical Abstract Analysis of diterpenic compounds by GC-MS/MS. PMID:27449645

  14. 15-O-Acetyl-3-O-benzoylcharaciol and helioscopinolide A, two diterpenes isolated from Euphorbia helioscopia suppress microglia activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Jingling; Xu, Jing; Cui, Chun-Ai; Guo, Yuanqiang; Jin, Da-Qing

    2016-01-26

    Microglia activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases by producing neurotoxic factors. In the present study, we found that two diterpenes isolated from Euphorbia helioscopia, 15-O-Acetyl-3-O-benzoylcharaciol and helioscopinolide A suppressed NO and PGE2 production by inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia cells. The diterpenes also inhibited the production of ROS and proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the mechanism involved the NF-κB but not Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Moreover, the two diterpenes also attenuate microglia activation-mediated neuronal death. These results suggest that 15-O-Acetyl-3-O-benzoylcharaciol and helioscopinolide A may provide potential therapeutic strategy for various neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:26683904

  15. Antioxidant flavonol glycosides from Schinus molle.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Mohamed S; Moharram, Fatma A; Haggag, Eman G; Ibrahim, Magda T; Badary, Osama A

    2006-03-01

    Chromatographic separation of aqueous MeOH extract of the leaves of Schinus molle L. has yielded two new acylated quercetin glycosides, named isoquercitrin 6''-O-p-hydroxybenzoate (12) and 2''-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-hyperin 6''-O-gallate (13), together with 12 known polyphenolic metabolites for the first time from this species, namely gallic acid (1), methyl gallate (2), chlorogenic acid (3), 2''-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-hyperin (4), quercetin 3-O-beta-D-neohesperidoside (5), miquelianin (6), quercetin 3-O-beta-D-galacturonopyranoside (7), isoquercitrin (8), hyperin (9), isoquercitrin 6''-gallate (10), hyperin 6''-O-gallate (11) and (+)-catechin (14). Their structures were established on the basis of chromatographic properties, chemical, spectroscopic (UV, 1H, 13C NMR) and ESI-MS (positive and negative modes) analyses. Compounds 4-9 and 11 exhibited moderate to strong radical scavenging properties on lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion generations with the highest activities shown by 6 and 7 in comparison with that of quercetin as a positive control in vitro. PMID:16521111

  16. Resin Glycosides from the Morning Glory Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel; Castañeda-Gómez, Jhon

    Resin glycosides are part of a very extensive family of secondary metabolites known as glycolipids or lipo-oligosaccharides and are constituents of complex resins (glycoresins) (1) unique to the morning glory family, Convolvulaceae (2). These active principles are responsible for the drastic purgative action of all the important Convolvulaceous species used in traditional medicine throughout the world since ancient times. Several commercial purgative crude drugs can be prepared from the roots of different species of Mexican morning glories. Their incorporation as therapeutic agents in Europe is an outstanding example of the assimilation of botanical drugs from the Americas as substitutes for traditional Old World remedies (3). Even though phytochemical investigations on the constituents of these drugs were initiated during the second half of the nineteenth century, the structure of their active ingredients still remains poorly known for some examples of these purgative roots. During the last two decades, the higher resolution capabilities of modern analytical isolation techniques used in conjunction with powerful spectroscopic methods have facilitated the elucidation of the active principles of these relevant herbal products.

  17. Cyanogenic glycosides: synthesis, physiology, and phenotypic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Gleadow, Roslyn M; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) are bioactive plant products derived from amino acids. Structurally, these specialized plant compounds are characterized as α-hydroxynitriles (cyanohydrins) that are stabilized by glucosylation. In recent years, improved tools within analytical chemistry have greatly increased the number of known CNglcs by enabling the discovery of less abundant CNglcs formed by additional hydroxylation, glycosylation, and acylation reactions. Cyanogenesis--the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide from endogenous CNglcs--is an effective defense against generalist herbivores but less effective against fungal pathogens. In the course of evolution, CNglcs have acquired additional roles to improve plant plasticity, i.e., establishment, robustness, and viability in response to environmental challenges. CNglc concentration is usually higher in young plants, when nitrogen is in ready supply, or when growth is constrained by nonoptimal growth conditions. Efforts are under way to engineer CNglcs into some crops as a pest control measure, whereas in other crops efforts are directed toward their removal to improve food safety. Given that many food crops are cyanogenic, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms regulating cyanogenesis so that the impact of future environmental challenges can be anticipated. PMID:24579992

  18. Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Darren M; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac glycosides are an important cause of poisoning, reflecting their widespread clinical usage and presence in natural sources. Poisoning can manifest as varying degrees of toxicity. Predominant clinical features include gastrointestinal signs, bradycardia and heart block. Death occurs from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia. A wide range of treatments have been used, the more common including activated charcoal, atropine, β-adrenoceptor agonists, temporary pacing, anti-digoxin Fab and magnesium, and more novel agents include fructose-1,6-diphosphate (clinical trial in progress) and anticalin. However, even in the case of those treatments that have been in use for decades, there is debate regarding their efficacy, the indications and dosage that optimizes outcomes. This contributes to variability in use across the world. Another factor influencing usage is access. Barriers to access include the requirement for transfer to a specialized centre (for example, to receive temporary pacing) or financial resources (for example, anti-digoxin Fab in resource poor countries). Recent data suggest that existing methods for calculating the dose of anti-digoxin Fab in digoxin poisoning overstate the dose required, and that its efficacy may be minimal in patients with chronic digoxin poisoning. Cheaper and effective medicines are required, in particular for the treatment of yellow oleander poisoning which is problematic in resource poor countries. PMID:26505271

  19. 4α-Acetoxyamijidictyol - A New Antifeeding Dolastane Diterpene from the Brazilian Brown Alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis.

    PubMed

    Miguel Bianco, Éverson; Martins Francisco, Thiago; Basílio Pinheiro, Carlos; Bagueira de Vasconcellos Azeredo, Rodrigo; Laneuville Teixeira, Valéria; Crespo Pereira, Renato

    2015-11-01

    Chemical investigation of the CH2 Cl2 crude extract from the brown alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis (Dictyotaceae) led to isolation of one new (1) and four previously reported dolastane diterpenes (2-5). Their structures were characterized by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic techniques, including a full single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis for 1, 2, and 4. In addition, the new structure 1 was assayed as chemical defense inhibiting the feeding by the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. This study constitutes an additional report broadening the known spectrum of action and defensive roles of secondary metabolites of the C. cervicornis and Dictyotales species. PMID:26567945

  20. Henrin A: A New Anti-HIV Ent-Kaurane Diterpene from Pteris henryi

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wan-Fei; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Jing-Jie; Song, Xun; Ku, Chuen-Fai; Zou, Juan; Li, Ji-Xin; Rong, Li-Jun; Pan, Lu-Tai; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Henrin A (1), a new ent-kaurane diterpene, was isolated from the leaves of Pteris henryi. The chemical structure was elucidated by analysis of the spectroscopic data including one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectra, and was further confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The compound was evaluated for its biological activities against a panel of cancer cell lines, dental bacterial biofilm formation, and HIV. It displayed anti-HIV potential with an IC50 value of 9.1 µM (SI = 12.2). PMID:26610490

  1. 6(17)-Epoxylathyrane diterpenes from Euphorbia sogdiana Popov with cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Yazdiniapour, Zeinab; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of Euphorbia sogdiana Popov, Euphorbiaceae, afforded the isolation of three new diterpenes based on the rare 6(17)-epoxylathyrane skeleton (1-3), along with a lathyrane (4), a myrsinane (5) and a tigliane (6) diterpenoids, previously isolated from Euphorbia aellenii. Their chemical structures were established through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometric methods. The epoxylathyranes 1-4 were tested to evaluate their cytotoxic activity against Jurkat T-leukemia and EJ-138 bladder cancer cells and their chemical analogy allowed to propose some structure activity relationships. PMID:26586622

  2. Synthesis of new ent-labdane diterpene derivatives from andrographolide and evaluation on cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Meng-han; Zhang, Da-yong; Wu, Yang-chang; Wu, Xiao-ming; Hua, Wei-yi

    2015-06-01

    There are many reports for andrographolide modification regarding antitumor effects. Transformation of the five-membered lactone ring to furan aromatic ring still results in compounds with good cytotoxicity. To determine further the importance of the five-membered lactone ring and to obtain better lead compounds, we transformed the five-membered lactone ring in andrographolide. New types of ent-labdane diterpene derivatives were made, whose cytotoxic activities were measured in vitro. Preliminary SAR was summarized and two compounds, 7 and 26, with good cytotoxic activity were obtained, which have the potential to be developed into new antitumor drugs. PMID:25913115

  3. Characterization of the bactericidal activity of the natural diterpene kaurenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Wilkens, Marcela; Alarcón, Carolina; Urzúa, Alejandro; Mendoza, Leonora

    2002-05-01

    Kaurenoic acid is a diterpene with selective antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The compound is bacteriolytic for Bacillus cereus. This activity was only partially affected by the composition and pH of the culture medium. Loss of the ability to retain the Gram stain and morphological alterations were produced in B. cereus cells exposed to kaurenoic acid. On the other hand, LPS mutants of Salmonella typhi were resistant to the compound, but spheroplasts of Escherichia coli became more sensitive to kaurenoic acid. PMID:12058325

  4. Henrin A: A New Anti-HIV Ent-Kaurane Diterpene from Pteris henryi.

    PubMed

    Li, Wan-Fei; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Jing-Jie; Song, Xun; Ku, Chuen-Fai; Zou, Juan; Li, Ji-Xin; Rong, Li-Jun; Pan, Lu-Tai; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Henrin A (1), a new ent-kaurane diterpene, was isolated from the leaves of Pteris henryi. The chemical structure was elucidated by analysis of the spectroscopic data including one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectra, and was further confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The compound was evaluated for its biological activities against a panel of cancer cell lines, dental bacterial biofilm formation, and HIV. It displayed anti-HIV potential with an IC50 value of 9.1 µM (SI = 12.2). PMID:26610490

  5. Crispene E, a cis-clerodane diterpene inhibits STAT3 dimerization in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mantaj, Julia; Rahman, S M Abdur; Bokshi, Bishwajit; Hasan, Choudhury M; Jackson, Paul J M; Parsons, Richard B; Rahman, Khondaker M

    2015-04-01

    Crispene E, a new clerodane-type diterpene, inhibited STAT3 dimerization in a cell-free fluorescent polarisation assay and was found to have significant toxicity against STAT3-dependent MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cell line and selectively inhibited the expression of STAT3 and STAT3 target genes cyclin D1, Fascin and bcl-2. Molecular docking studies suggest the molecule inhibits STAT3 by interacting with its SH2 domain. The compound has been isolated from Tinospora crispa and characterized using standard spectroscopic techniques. PMID:25721973

  6. Cytotoxic activity of labdane type diterpenes against human leukemic cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dimas, K; Demetzos, C; Marsellos, M; Sotiriadou, R; Malamas, M; Kokkinopoulos, D

    1998-04-01

    Nine labdane type diterpenes isolated from the plant Cistus creticus subsp. creticus and from the resin "Ladano" which is excreted on the surface of the leaves and stems of this plant, were examined for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against 14 human leukemic cell lines. Compound 1, (13E)-labd-13-ene-8 alpha,15-diol, exhibited cytotoxic activity against 13 of the cell lines tested, while compound 2, (13E)-labd-7,13-dienol, was active only against HL60 cells. Further compound 1 was examined for its effect on the uptake of [3H]-thymidine as a marker of DNA synthesis. PMID:9581515

  7. Base substitution mutations in uridinediphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferase 76G1 gene of Stevia rebaudiana causes the low levels of rebaudioside A: mutations in UGT76G1, a key gene of steviol glycosides synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Heng; Huang, Su-Zhen; Han, Yu-Lin; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Gu, Chun-Sun; Zhao, Yan-Hai

    2014-07-01

    Steviol glycosides, extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert) Bertoni, are calorie-free sugar substitute of natural origin with intensely sweet (Boileau et al., 2012). Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the two main kinds of the diterpenic glycosides. We analyzed the concentration of stevioside and rebaudioside A in Stevia leaves of about 500 samples (hybrid progenies) and discovered a mutation plant "Z05" with very low levels of rebaudioside A. Because UGT76G1, a uridinediphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferases, is responsible for the conversion from stevioside to rebaudioside A (Richman et al., 2005), so mutation identification was done by sequencing the candidate gene, UGT76G1. In this study molecular analysis of two strains revealed a heterozygotic nonsense mutation of c.389T > G (p.L121X) in UGT76G1. Meanwhile, we found some amino acid substitutions significant change the protein structure. And the difference of enzyme activity between two strains proved the lack of functionality of UGT76G1 of the mutation "Z05". So the nonsense mutation and amino acid substitution mutation resulted in the low levels of rebaudioside A. PMID:24811677

  8. Pregnane steroidal glycosides and their cytostatic activities.

    PubMed

    García, Víctor P; Bermejo, Jaime; Rubio, Sara; Quintana, José; Estévez, Francisco

    2011-05-01

    Four new steroidal glycosides such as 3-O-6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside-12-β-tigloyl-14-β-hydroxy-17-β-pregnane (1), 3-O-6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside-12-β-(2'-amino)-benzoyl-14-β-hydroxy-17-β-pregnane (2), 3-O-6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside-12-β-14-β-dihydroxy-17-α-pregnane (3) and 3-O-6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside-12-β-14-β-dihydroxy-17-β-pregnane (4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Ceropegia fusca Bolle (Asclepiadaceae), a crassulacean acid metabolism plant, an endemic species to the Canary Islands that has been used in traditional medicine as a cicatrizant, vulnerary and disinfectant. The dichloromethane extract exhibited significant cytostatic activity against HL-60, A-431 and SK-MEL-1 cells, human leukemic, epidermoid carcinoma and melanoma cells, respectively. As shown in Table I, compounds 1 and 2 showed very similar IC(50) values. The acetylation of 1 to give the diacetate 5 increases 5-fold the cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells. Compounds 3 and 4 did not show cytotoxicity at the assayed concentrations. With respect to the compounds containing only the steroid ring (6-8), the presence of a charged O-amino-benzoyl but not a tigloyl group improved the cytotoxicity. PMID:21147757

  9. Absorption and metabolism of glycosidic sweeteners of stevia mixture and their aglycone, steviol, in rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Eriko; Sakai, Norifumi; Ohori, Yuji; Kitazawa, Ken; Izawa, Osamu; Kakegawa, Kunio; Fujino, Akiharu; Ui, Michio

    2003-06-01

    Stevia mixture, sweeteners extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, consists mainly of the glycosides of the diterpene derivative steviol. The aims of this study were to investigate the absorption (in rats) and the hepatic metabolism (in rats and humans) of both stevia mixture and steviol. Absorption was investigated both in vivo and ex vivo. In ex vivo experiments using the rat everted sac method, no absorption of stevia mixture was observed, but significant absorption of steviol was noted (equivalent to approximately 70% of the absorption reference- salicylic acid- value). In the in vivo experiment, rats received a single oral administration of either steviol or stevia mixture; a peak steviol concentration in plasma was observed 15 min after its oral administration, demonstrating rapid absorption. However, after oral administration of stevia mixture, the steviol concentration in plasma increased steadily over 8 h, suggesting that stevia mixture components are first degraded and then absorbed as steviol in the rat intestine. Steviol metabolism in humans and rats was examined by incubating steviol with liver microsomes from the two species. Oxidative (monohydroxy and dihydroxy) metabolites of steviol were observed by LC-ESI/MS after incubation with both human and rat liver microsomes. The intrinsic clearance of steviol in human liver microsomes was 4-times lower than that found in rat liver microsomes. In conclusion, this study suggests that there are no major species differences in steviol hepatic metabolism between rats and humans. Absorption from the human intestine can be predicted to occur in an analogous manner to that from the rat intestine. PMID:12738193

  10. Boesenberols, Pimarane Diterpenes with TRAIL-Resistance-Overcoming Activity from Boesenbergia pandurata.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Utpal K; Ishikawa, Naoki; Arai, Midori A; Ahmed, Firoj; Koyano, Takashi; Kowithayakorn, Thaworn; Ishibashi, Masami

    2016-08-26

    TRAIL is a potent and selective inducer of apoptosis in most cancer cells while sparing normal cells, which makes it an attractive target for the development of new cancer therapies. In a screening program on natural resources with the ability to abrogate TRAIL resistance, the bioassay-guided fractionation of Boesenbergia pandurata rhizomes resulted in the isolation of 17 pimarane diterpenes and a monoterpene. Among these, compounds 1-8, named boesenberols A-H, are new pimarane diterpenes. All compounds exhibited TRAIL-resistance-overcoming activity in TRAIL-resistant AGS cells. Subtoxic doses of the major compound 9 sensitized AGS cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by up-regulating apoptosis-inducing proteins, such as DR4, DR5, p53, Fas, CHOP, Bak, and cleaved caspases-3, -8, and -9, and down-regulating the levels of cell survival proteins, such as Bcl-2, c-FLIP, and GSK-3β, in TRAIL-resistant AGS cells. Furthermore, compound 9 did not decrease the viability of noncancerous (HEK293) cells at concentrations up to 30 μM. PMID:27508308

  11. Semi-synthesis of oxygenated dolabellane diterpenes with highly in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Vargas, Alonso; Ramos, Freddy A; Cirne-Santos, Claudio Cesar; Stephens, Paulo Roberto; Paixão, Izabel Christina Palmer; Teixeira, Valeria Laneuville; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2014-09-15

    Research on dolabellane diterpenes of brown algae Dictyota spp. has shown that these diterpenoids have strong anti-HIV-1 activity, but there are not data about antiviral activity of dolabellane diterpenes isolated from octocorals, which are antipodes of those isolated from the brown algae. Dolabellanes 13-keto-1(R),11(S)-dolabella-3(E),7(E),12(18)-triene (1) and β-Araneosene (2) were isolated from the Caribbean octocoral Eunicea laciniata, and both showed low anti-HIV-1 activity and low toxicity. Since it was shown that oxygenated dolabellanes from algae have better anti-HIV-1 activity, in this work some derivatives of the main dolabellane of E. laciniata1 were obtained by epoxidation (3), epoxide opening (4), and allylic oxidation (5). The derivatives showed significant improvement in the anti-HIV-1potency (100-fold), being compounds 3 and 5 the most active ones. Their high antiviral activities, along with their low cytotoxicity, make them promissory antiviral compounds; and it is worth noting that the absolute configuration at the ring junction in the dolabellane skeleton does not seem to be determinant in the antiviral potency of these diterpeneoids. PMID:25176328

  12. Improving the MDR reversal activity of 6,17-epoxylathyrane diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Cátia; Duarte, Noélia; Reis, Mariana A; Spengler, Gabriella; Madureira, Ana Margarida; Molnár, Joseph; Ferreira, Maria-José U

    2014-11-15

    Aiming to optimize macrocyclic lathyrane-type diterpenes as effective Pgp modulators, the phytochemical study of the methanolic extract of Euphorbia boetica aerial parts was carried out. Two new macrocyclic 6,17-epoxylathyrane-type diterpenes, named epoxyboetiranes A (1) and B (2), along with three known analogues (3-5) were isolated. Epoxyboetirane A (1), a triacetate isolated in large amounts, was hydrolyzed to give epoxylathyrol (6). In order to study the effect of the substitution pattern of the macrocyclic scaffold on MDR reversal, 6 was acylated with aroyl, phenylacetyl, cinnamoyl and alkanoyl chlorides/anhydrides, yielding eight new esters, epoxyboetiranes C-J (7-14). The ability of compounds 1-14 as P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1) modulators was evaluated through combination of transport and chemosensitivity assays, using L5178Y mouse T lymphoma cell line transfected with the human MDR1 gene. In the transport assay, excepting 1, 3 and 6, the compounds, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, displayed strong MDR reversing activity in a dose-dependent mode, exhibiting all the new acyl derivatives (7-14) a many fold increase in the activity when compared with 1. Apart from 11 and 12, all compounds exhibited remarkable synergistic effects in combination with doxorubicin. An ATPase assay, using membrane vesicles from mammalian cells overexpressing Pgp, was also performed with two representatives of the modulators (4 and 5). The results suggest that both compounds compete with substrates for the Pgp drug-binding sites. PMID:25438763

  13. Structure and Function of Fusicoccadiene Synthase, a Hexameric Bifunctional Diterpene Synthase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengbin; Chou, Wayne K W; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Cane, David E; Christianson, David W

    2016-04-15

    Fusicoccin A is a diterpene glucoside phytotoxin generated by the fungal pathogen Phomopsis amygdali that causes the plant disease constriction canker, first discovered in New Jersey peach orchards in the 1930s. Fusicoccin A is also an emerging new lead in cancer chemotherapy. The hydrocarbon precursor of fusicoccin A is the tricyclic diterpene fusicoccadiene, which is generated by a bifunctional terpenoid synthase. Here, we report X-ray crystal structures of the individual catalytic domains of fusicoccadiene synthase: the C-terminal domain is a chain elongation enzyme that generates geranylgeranyl diphosphate, and the N-terminal domain catalyzes the cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to form fusicoccadiene. Crystal structures of each domain complexed with bisphosphonate substrate analogues suggest that three metal ions and three positively charged amino acid side chains trigger substrate ionization in each active site. While in vitro incubations reveal that the cyclase domain can utilize farnesyl diphosphate and geranyl diphosphate as surrogate substrates, these shorter isoprenoid diphosphates are mainly converted into acyclic alcohol or hydrocarbon products. Gel filtration chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments indicate that full-length fusicoccadiene synthase adopts hexameric quaternary structure, and small-angle X-ray scattering data yield a well-defined molecular envelope illustrating a plausible model for hexamer assembly. PMID:26734760

  14. The Therapeutic Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Diterpenes for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is one of the most economically important species of the family Lamiaceae. Native to the Mediterranean region, the plant is now widely distributed all over the world mainly due to its culinary, medicinal, and commercial uses including in the fragrance and food industries. Among the most important group of compounds isolated from the plant are the abietane-type phenolic diterpenes that account for most of the antioxidant and many pharmacological activities of the plant. Rosemary diterpenes have also been shown in recent years to inhibit neuronal cell death induced by a variety of agents both in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic potential of these compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is reviewed in this communication by giving special attention to the chemistry of the compounds along with the various pharmacological targets of the disease. The multifunctional nature of the compounds from the general antioxidant-mediated neuronal protection to other specific mechanisms including brain inflammation and amyloid beta (Aβ) formation, polymerisation, and pathologies is discussed. PMID:26941822

  15. Four new bioactive lobane diterpenes of the soft coral Lobophytum pauciflorum from Mindoro, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Edrada, R A; Proksch, P; Wray, V; Witte, L; van Ofwegen, L

    1998-03-01

    The marine soft coral Lobophytum pauciflorum collected from Mindoro Island, Philippines, yielded four new lobane diterpene derivatives: the acetate congeners of epoxylobatrienol and lobatrienediol (2 and 7, respectively), a methoxyl congener of lobatetraene (10), and an oxepin congener of lobatrienetriol (11), and six known derivatives (1, 3-6, and 8). The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously established on the basis of NMR spectroscopic (1H, 13C, COSY, 1H-detected direct, and long-range 13C-1H correlations) and mass spectrometric (EIMS) data. All of the compounds were active against the phytopathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum. Compound 1 was found to be active against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The isolated lobane diterpenes were also active in the brine shrimp lethality test. In the latter bioassay, compounds 8 and 10 were the most active congeners with LC50's of 0.64 and 4.18 micrograms/mL, respectively. PMID:9548875

  16. New myrsinol-related polyfunctional pentacyclic diterpene esters from roots of Euphorbia prolifera.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Sorg, B; Hecker, E

    1995-03-01

    Five Euphorbia substances, SPr1-SPr5, were isolated from the roots of Euphorbia prolifera. They were found to have similar structures but were inactive in a mouse ear inflammation assay. By nmr analysis and after single-crystal X-ray crystallography the structure of SPr5 was established as a hexaester (tetraacetate-benzoate-propionate) of a hitherto unknown polyfunctional pentacyclic diterpene parent alcohol, structurally related to myrsinol. As judged from its nmr spectra, SPr4 is an analogue of SPr5, carrying an isobutyrate substituent in place of a benzoate ester functionality. SPr1-SPr3 were partially characterized by their mass spectra as esters of diterpene parent alcohols possibly related to the myrsinol structure. SPr1-SPr5 may represent one of the product lines branching off the proposed main route of biogenesis of the oligocyclic diterpenoid skin irritants and tumor promoters occurring in many, but not all, of the species in the plant families Thymelaeaceae and Euphorbiaceae. PMID:7775985

  17. The Therapeutic Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Diterpenes for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is one of the most economically important species of the family Lamiaceae. Native to the Mediterranean region, the plant is now widely distributed all over the world mainly due to its culinary, medicinal, and commercial uses including in the fragrance and food industries. Among the most important group of compounds isolated from the plant are the abietane-type phenolic diterpenes that account for most of the antioxidant and many pharmacological activities of the plant. Rosemary diterpenes have also been shown in recent years to inhibit neuronal cell death induced by a variety of agents both in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic potential of these compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is reviewed in this communication by giving special attention to the chemistry of the compounds along with the various pharmacological targets of the disease. The multifunctional nature of the compounds from the general antioxidant-mediated neuronal protection to other specific mechanisms including brain inflammation and amyloid beta (Aβ) formation, polymerisation, and pathologies is discussed. PMID:26941822

  18. Sesquiterpene glycosides from the roots of Codonopsis pilosula

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yueping; Liu, Yufeng; Guo, Qinglan; Xu, Chengbo; Zhu, Chenggen; Shi, Jiangong

    2015-01-01

    Three new sesquiterpene glycosides, named codonopsesquilosides A−C (1−3), were isolated from an aqueous extract of the dried roots of Codonopsis pilosula. Their structures including absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. These glycosides are categorized as C15 carotenoid (1), gymnomitrane (2), and eudesmane (3) types of sesquiterpenoids, respectively. Compound 1 is the first diglycoside of C15 carotenoids to be reported. Compound 2 represents the second reported example of gymnomitrane-type sesquiterpenoids from higher plants. The absolute configurations were supported by comparison of the experimental circular dichroism (CD) spectra with the calculated electronic CD (ECD) spectra of 1−3, their aglycones, and model compounds based on quantum-mechanical time-dependent density functional theory. The influences of the glycosyls on the calculated ECD spectra of the glycosidic sesquiterpenoids, as well as some nomenclature and descriptive problems with gymnomitrane-type sesquiterpenoids are discussed. PMID:26904398

  19. Automated assembly of oligosaccharides containing multiple cis-glycosidic linkages.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Heung Sik; Hurevich, Mattan; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Automated glycan assembly (AGA) has advanced from a concept to a commercial technology that rapidly provides access to diverse oligosaccharide chains as long as 30-mers. To date, AGA was mainly employed to incorporate trans-glycosidic linkages, where C2 participating protecting groups ensure stereoselective couplings. Stereocontrol during the installation of cis-glycosidic linkages cannot rely on C2-participation and anomeric mixtures are typically formed. Here, we demonstrate that oligosaccharides containing multiple cis-glycosidic linkages can be prepared efficiently by AGA using monosaccharide building blocks equipped with remote participating protecting groups. The concept is illustrated by the automated syntheses of biologically relevant oligosaccharides bearing various cis-galactosidic and cis-glucosidic linkages. This work provides further proof that AGA facilitates the synthesis of complex oligosaccharides with multiple cis-linkages and other biologically important oligosaccharides. PMID:27580973

  20. [Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of quercetin and its glycosides].

    PubMed

    Yan, Shu-xia; Li, Xian; Sun, Chong-de; Chen, Kun-song

    2015-12-01

    Quercetin and its glycosides are important flavonols in traditional herbal drugs and plant-derived food, and they have diverse hiological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities. Numerous studies have demonstrated that quercetin and its glycosides were effective in the prevention and treatment of non-infectious chronic disease such as diabetes, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. They can regulate glucose and lipid metaholism through different mechanisms. They can decrease blood glucose via protecting pancreatic/p cells or/and improving insulin sensitivity. Also, they have lipid-lowering effects, which may be the result of regulation of lipid catabolism or/and anabolism. Their distributions, as well as the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects are reviewed in this paper. In addition, further bioactivities as well as their dose-activity relationship, structure-activity relationship, bioavailability, and future clinical application of quercetin and its glycosides are discussed and proposed. PMID:27141664

  1. Analysis of labdane-type diterpenes from Cistus creticus (subsp. creticus and subsp. eriocephalus), by GC and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Anastasaki, T; Demetzos, C; Perdetzoglou, D; Gazouli, M; Loukis, A; Harvala, C

    1999-12-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of labdane-type diterpenes of the hexane extracts and of the essential oils of the leaves, fruits and resin "Ladano", of Cistus creticus subsp. creticus and Cistus creticus subsp. eriocephalus, have been carried out by GC and GC-MS analysis using two capillary chromatographic columns, i.e., HP-5MS and CP-Wax. The methanolic extract of the fruits of C. creticus subsp. creticus was examined and seven labdane diterpenes were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Data on the investigation of labdane diterpenes by GC and GC-MS is limited and most of them have never been analysed by this method. The results obtained by this analysis could be useful for identifying them in crude plant extracts. Manoyl oxides were studied further for the percentage content of their isomers. The hexane extracts of the two subspecies as well as the manoyl oxide isomers isolated from the methanolic extract of the fruits of C. creticus subsp. creticus, were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Global numerical differences of these C. creticus subspecies, based on labdane diterpenes content in the hexane extracts as well as in the essential oils, were established by statistical methods. Phenotypic differences are discussed. PMID:10630116

  2. Nickel-catalyzed proton-deuterium exchange (HDX) procedures for glycosidic linkage analysis of complex carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The structural analysis of complex carbohydrates typically requires the assignment of three parameters: monosaccharide composition, the position of glycosidic linkages between monosaccharides, and the position and nature of non-carbohydrate substituents. The glycosidic linkage positions are often de...

  3. Synthesis and Photochromic Properties of Configurationally Varied Azobenzene Glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Vijayanand; Johannes, Eugen; Kobarg, Hauke; Sönnichsen, Frank D; Lindhorst, Thisbe K

    2014-01-01

    Spatial orientation of carbohydrates is a meaningful parameter in carbohydrate recognition processes. To vary orientation of sugars with temporal and spatial resolution, photosensitive glycoconjugates with favorable photochromic properties appear to be opportune. Here, a series of azobenzene glycosides were synthesized, employing glycoside synthesis and Mills reaction, to allow “switching” of carbohydrate orientation by reversible E/Z isomerization of the azobenzene N=N double bond. Their photochromic properties were tested and effects of azobenzene substitution as well as the effect of anomeric configuration and the orientation of the sugars 2-hydroxy group were evaluated. PMID:25050228

  4. One new cycloartane triterpene glycoside from Beesia calthaefolia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Yuan; Mu, Li-Hua; Dong, Xian-zhe; Hu, Yuan; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    One new cycloartane triterpene glycoside (1) was isolated from the whole plant of Beesia calthaefolia. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis. Its inhibitory effect was measured by the classical pathway of the complement system, and compared with those of known related cycloartane glycosides 2 and 3, previously isolated by us from the same plant. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited inhibitory activity of complement system with IC50 of 395.3 and 214 μM, respectively. The results suggested that OH at C-12, C-18 and C-15 along with the polarity could affect the inhibitory activity. PMID:26305784

  5. Cytotoxic cardenolide glycosides from the seeds of Antiaris toxicaria.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-Hua; Mei, Wen-Li; Zhao, You-Xing; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Wang, Hui; Li, Xiao-Na; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2011-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract from the seeds of Antiaris toxicaria led to the isolation of three new cardiac glycosides named toxicarioside J, toxicarioside K, and toxicarioside L, together with a known glucostrophalloside. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including HRESIMS, UV, IR, and 1D, 2D NMR techniques. The cytotoxic activities of these cardiac glycosides against human gastric (SGC-7901) and human hepatoma (SMMC-7721) cell lines were evaluated, and all of them exhibited significant cytotoxicity. PMID:21509716

  6. Structural investigation of resin glycosides from Ipomoea lonchophylla.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, J K; Ward, A; Oelrichs, P B

    1997-05-01

    A fraction from Ipomoea lonchophylla, which was toxic to mice, contained an inseparable mixture of resin glycosides with differing numbers of C5 ester groups on the hexasaccharide chain. After alkaline hydrolysis of the esters, the structure of the major component (1) was elucidated using high-field NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, chemical studies, and comparison with known resin glycosides. Compound 1 was identified as 3,11-dihydroxytetradecanoic acid 11-O-beta-quinovopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)- [alpha-rhamnopyranosyl- (1-->4)]-quinovopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta -fucopyranoside. PMID:9170289

  7. Fractionation of glycoside precursors of aroma in grapes and wine.

    PubMed

    Mateo, J J; Gentilini, N; Huerta, T; Jiménez, M; Di Stefano, R

    1997-08-22

    The glycosides in mono-, di- and trihydroxylated terpene and norisoprenoid alcohols and also those in the related shikimate pathway have been isolated on C18 reversed-phase cartridges and then fractionated into classes of different polarity at increasing percentages of methanol. The benzyl alcohol glycosides are the most polar, while those of terpene monohydroxylated alcohols and geranic acid are the least polar. The terpene diols, linalool furanoid and pyranoid oxides and also norisoprenoid precursors show intermediate polarity and separate into well defined fractions according to their polarity. PMID:9299735

  8. Flavonol Glycosides from the Leaves of Allium macrostemon.

    PubMed

    Nakane, Risa; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-08-01

    Twelve flavonoids were isolated from Allium macrostemon leaves. Five compounds were identified as kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside (1), kaempferol 3,4'-di-O-glucoside (2), quercetin 3-O-glucoside (3), kaempferol 3-0-glucoside (4) and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside (5) by UV spectra, LC-MS, acid hydrolysis and HPLC comparisons with authentic standards. Other flavonoids were characterized as kaempferol glycosides (6-8, 10 and 11) and quercetin glycosides (9 and 12). Other compounds, such as steroidal saponins, have been already found from the bulbs of A. macrostemon. However, flavonoids were reported for the first time from the leaves. PMID:26434122

  9. Analytical methods for monoterpene glycosides in grape and wine. II. Qualitative and quantitative determination of monoterpene glycosides in grape.

    PubMed

    Voirin, S G; Baumes, R L; Sapis, J C; Bayonove, C L

    1992-03-20

    Free and glycosidically bound terpenes of five Vitis vinifera grape cultivars (muscat of Alexandria, muscat of Frontignan, muscat of Hamburg, muscat Ottonel and Gewürztraminer) were investigated. The free and bound fractions were separated by selective retention on Amberlite XAD-2 resin. The glycosidic fractions were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using either enzymic hydrolysis and subsequent analysis of the released aglycones or trimethylsilyl (TMS) and trifluoroacetyl derivatives. The known monoterpenyl, benzyl and 2-phenylethyl beta-D-glucopyranosides, beta-rutinosides, 6-O-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosides and 6-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosides were determined. A number of other glycosides were detected and the structures of some of them, mainly apiosylglucosides and glucosides with aglycones in higher oxidation state than linalol, were tentatively identified using the mass spectra of their TMS and TFA derivatives and the results obtained from the analysis of their aglycones. PMID:1577909

  10. Steviol glycosides in purified stevia leaf extract sharing the same metabolic fate.

    PubMed

    Purkayastha, Sidd; Markosyan, Avetik; Prakash, Indra; Bhusari, Sachin; Pugh, George; Lynch, Barry; Roberts, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    The safety of steviol glycosides is based on data available on several individual steviol glycosides and on the terminal absorbed metabolite, steviol. Many more steviol glycosides have been identified, but are not yet included in regulatory assessments. Demonstration that these glycosides share the same metabolic fate would indicate applicability of the same regulatory paradigm. In vitro incubation assays with pooled human fecal homogenates, using rebaudiosides A, B, C, D, E, F and M, as well as steviolbioside and dulcoside A, at two concentrations over 24-48 h, were conducted to assess the metabolic fate of various steviol glycoside classes and to demonstrate that likely all steviol glycosides are metabolized to steviol. The data show that glycosidic side chains containing glucose, rhamnose, xylose, fructose and deoxy-glucose, including combinations of α(1-2), β-1, β(1-2), β(1-3), and β(1-6) linkages, were degraded to steviol mostly within 24 h. Given a common metabolite structure and a shared metabolic fate, safety data available for individual steviol glycosides can be used to support safety of purified steviol glycosides in general. Therefore, steviol glycosides specifications adopted by the regulatory authorities should include all steviol glycosides belonging to the five groups of steviol glycosides and a group acceptable daily intake established. PMID:26924787

  11. Flavonol glycosides from distilled petals of Rosa damascena Mill.

    PubMed

    Schiber, Andreas; Mihalev, Kiril; Berardini, Nicolai; Mollov, Plamen; Carle, Reinhold

    2005-01-01

    Flavonol glycosides were extracted from petals of Rosa damascena Mill. after industrial distillation for essential oil recovery and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Among the 22 major compounds analyzed, only kaempferol and quercetin glycosides were detected. To the best of our knowledge, the presence of quercetin 3-O-galactoside and quercetin 3-O-xyloside has so far not been reported within the genus Rosa. In addition, based on their fragmentation patterns, several acylated quercetin and kaempferol glycosides, some of them being disaccharides, were identified for the first time. The kaempferol glycosides, along with the kaempferol aglycone, accounted for 80% of the total compounds that were quantified, with kaempferol 3-O-glucoside being the predominant component. The high flavonol content of approximately 16 g/kg on a dry weight basis revealed that distilled rose petals represent a promising source of phenolic compounds which might be used as functional food ingredients, as natural antioxidants or as color enhancers. PMID:16042335

  12. Curation of characterized glycoside hydrolases of fungal origin.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Caitlin; Powlowski, Justin; Wu, Min; Butler, Greg; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Fungi produce a wide range of extracellular enzymes to break down plant cell walls, which are composed mainly of cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose. Among them are the glycoside hydrolases (GH), the largest and most diverse family of enzymes active on these substrates. To facilitate research and development of enzymes for the conversion of cell-wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars, we have manually curated a comprehensive set of characterized fungal glycoside hydrolases. Characterized glycoside hydrolases were retrieved from protein and enzyme databases, as well as literature repositories. A total of 453 characterized glycoside hydrolases have been cataloged. They come from 131 different fungal species, most of which belong to the phylum Ascomycota. These enzymes represent 46 different GH activities and cover 44 of the 115 CAZy GH families. In addition to enzyme source and enzyme family, available biochemical properties such as temperature and pH optima, specific activity, kinetic parameters and substrate specificities were recorded. To simplify comparative studies, enzyme and species abbreviations have been standardized, Gene Ontology terms assigned and reference to supporting evidence provided. The annotated genes have been organized in a searchable, online database called mycoCLAP (Characterized Lignocellulose-Active Proteins of fungal origin). It is anticipated that this manually curated collection of biochemically characterized fungal proteins will be used to enhance functional annotation of novel GH genes. Database URL: http://mycoCLAP.fungalgenomics.ca/. PMID:21622642

  13. Radioimmunoassay of aescine, a mixture of triterpene glycosides.

    PubMed

    Lehtola, T; Huhtikangas, A

    1990-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed for the determination of picogram amounts of aescine, an anti-inflammatory and anti-oedematous glycoside mixture from unpurified extracts of Aesculus hippocastanum. Practically no interference is observed for various potentially crossreacting compounds. This RIA covers the range 100 pg-50 ng, within which acceptable accuracy and precision are obtained. PMID:2332511

  14. Triterpenoid glycosides from the leaves of Meliosma henryi.

    PubMed

    Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Morjani, Hamid; Harakat, Dominique; Madoulet, Claudie; Dumontet, Vincent; Lavaud, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Seven triterpenoid glycosides, named meliosmosides A-G, were isolated from the leaves of Meliosma henryi Diels (Sabiaceae). Their structures were elucidated by different spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as HRESIMS analysis. Isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against KB cell line. PMID:25468712

  15. [Pharmacological properties od steroid glycosides from Ruscus ponticus].

    PubMed

    Abuladze, G V; Mulkidzhanian, K G; Novikova, Zh N

    2002-01-01

    Some pharmacological properties of the sum of steroidal glycosides (ruscoponin preparation) extracted from underground parts of Ruscus ponticus were studied. The drug exhibits a pronounced antiexudative effect (related to the alpha 1-adrenergic activity) on the models of formalin edema and pouch granuloma in rats and a thermal rectum inflammation in mice. The drug exhibited no hepato-, nephro-, and gastrotoxicity. PMID:12227103

  16. Marruboside, a new phenylethanoid glycoside from Marrubium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Sahpaz, Sevser; Hennebelle, Thierry; Bailleul, François

    2002-06-01

    A new phenylethanoid glycoside, marruboside, has been isolated from the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare L. Its structure was established as 3,4-dihydroxy-beta-phenylethoxy-O-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)]-4-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. PMID:12049220

  17. Curation of characterized glycoside hydrolases of Fungal origin

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Caitlin; Powlowski, Justin; Wu, Min; Butler, Greg; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Fungi produce a wide range of extracellular enzymes to break down plant cell walls, which are composed mainly of cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose. Among them are the glycoside hydrolases (GH), the largest and most diverse family of enzymes active on these substrates. To facilitate research and development of enzymes for the conversion of cell-wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars, we have manually curated a comprehensive set of characterized fungal glycoside hydrolases. Characterized glycoside hydrolases were retrieved from protein and enzyme databases, as well as literature repositories. A total of 453 characterized glycoside hydrolases have been cataloged. They come from 131 different fungal species, most of which belong to the phylum Ascomycota. These enzymes represent 46 different GH activities and cover 44 of the 115 CAZy GH families. In addition to enzyme source and enzyme family, available biochemical properties such as temperature and pH optima, specific activity, kinetic parameters and substrate specificities were recorded. To simplify comparative studies, enzyme and species abbreviations have been standardized, Gene Ontology terms assigned and reference to supporting evidence provided. The annotated genes have been organized in a searchable, online database called mycoCLAP (Characterized Lignocellulose-Active Proteins of fungal origin). It is anticipated that this manually curated collection of biochemically characterized fungal proteins will be used to enhance functional annotation of novel GH genes. Database URL: http://mycoCLAP.fungalgenomics.ca/ PMID:21622642

  18. Glycosidation of Methanol with Ribose: An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Erin; Cook, Katie; Pritchard, Meredith R.; Stripe, Wayne; Bruch, Martha; Bendinskas, Kestutis

    2010-01-01

    This exercise provides students hands-on experience with the topics of glycosidation, hemiacetal and acetal formation, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ([superscript 1]H NMR) spectroscopy, and kinetic and thermodynamic product formation. In this laboratory experiment, the methyl acetal of ribose is synthesized, and the kinetic and thermodynamic…

  19. Isoflavonoid glycosides from the roots of Baphia bancoensis.

    PubMed

    Yao-Kouassi, Philomène A; Magid, Abdulmagid Alabdul; Richard, Bernard; Martinez, Agathe; Jacquier, Marie-José; Caron, Catherine; Debar, Elisabeth Le Magrex; Gangloff, Sophie C; Coffy, Antoine A; Zèches-Hanrot, Monique

    2008-12-01

    Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the roots of Baphia bancoensis led to the isolation and characterization of three new isoflavonoid glycosides (1-3). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic studies andchemical evidence. Antibacterial activity of isolated compounds was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:19007285

  20. A new abietene diterpene and other constituents from Kaempferia angustifolia Rosc.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sook Wah; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Rahmani, Mawardi; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Ali, Abdul Manaf

    2011-01-01

    A new abietene diterpene, kaempfolienol (5S,6S,7S,9S,10S,11R,13S-abiet-8(14)-enepenta-6,7,9,11,13-ol, 1), was isolated from a rhizome extract of Kaempferia angustifolia Rosc. along with the known compounds crotepoxide, boesenboxide, zeylenol, 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone, (24S)-24-methyl-5α-lanosta-9(11),25-dien-3β-ol, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. The structures of all compounds were elucidated on the basis of mass spectroscopic and NMR data. Zeylenol (2), the major constituent of the plant, was derivatized into diacetate, triacetate and epoxide derivatives through standard organic reactions. The cytotoxic activity of compounds 1, 2 and the zeylenol derivatives was evaluated against the HL-60, MCF-7, HT-29 and HeLa cell lines. PMID:21475124

  1. Antitumor agents, 119. Kansuiphorins A and B, two novel antileukemic diterpene esters from Euphorbia kansui.

    PubMed

    Wu, T S; Lin, Y M; Haruna, M; Pan, D J; Shingu, T; Chen, Y P; Hsu, H Y; Nakano, T; Lee, K H

    1991-01-01

    The extract of the roots of Euphorbia kansui, which has been widely used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of cancer, demonstrated antileukemic activity against the P-388 lymphocytic leukemia in mice. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the active extract led to the isolation and characterization of two novel antileukemic diterpene esters, kansuiphorin A [1] [13-hydroxyingenol-3-(2,3-dimethylbutanoate)-13-dodecanoate- 20- hexadecanoate] and kansuiphorin B [2] [6,7-epoxy-13-hydroxyingenol-3-(2,3-dimethylbutanoate)-13-do decanoate-20- hexadecanoate], whose structures were established from spectral evidence and chemical transformation. Kansuiphorins A and B demonstrated potent antileukemic activity with T/C greater than or equal to 176 and 177% at 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively. The selectivity of kansuiphorin A, which inhibits the growth of particular cell types within the disease-oriented human cancer cell line panels, is discussed. PMID:1955882

  2. Fuscoside E: a strong anti-inflammatory diterpene from Caribbean octocoral Eunicea fusca.

    PubMed

    Reina, Eduardo; Puentes, Carlos; Rojas, Juan; García, Josué; Ramos, Freddy A; Castellanos, Leonardo; Aragón, Marcela; Ospina, Luis F

    2011-10-01

    The screen of 10 soft coral extracts collected from the Colombian Caribbean Sea in the TPA-induced ear edema model allowed us to identify Eunicea fusca extract among others as an interesting source of active compounds. The new diterpene, fuscoside E (1), along with the known fuscoside B (2), fuscol (3), (+)-germacrene D (4) and a mixture of six sterols (5-10), were isolated from this soft coral. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy techniques. Fuscoside E (1) absolute stereochemistry was determined by chiroptical methods. Fuscoside E (1) and B (2) showed strong anti-inflammatory in the above mentioned bioassay. Additionally, fuscoside E (1) and the sterol mixture (5-10) presented antifouling activity against bacterial strains involved in surface colonization. PMID:21865038

  3. Extracellular Localization of the Diterpene Sclareol in Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea L., Lamiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Caissard, Jean-Claude; Olivier, Thomas; Delbecque, Claire; Palle, Sabine; Garry, Pierre-Philippe; Audran, Arthur; Valot, Nadine; Moja, Sandrine; Nicolé, Florence; Magnard, Jean-Louis; Legrand, Sylvain; Baudino, Sylvie; Jullien, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Sclareol is a high-value natural product obtained by solid/liquid extraction of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.) inflorescences. Because processes of excretion and accumulation of this labdane diterpene are unknown, the aim of this work was to gain knowledge on its sites of accumulation in planta. Samples were collected in natura or during different steps of the industrial process of extraction (steam distillation and solid/liquid extraction). Samples were then analysed with a combination of complementary analytical techniques (gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer, polarized light microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy, two-photon fluorescence microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy). According to the literature, it is hypothesized that sclareol is localized in oil pockets of secretory trichomes. This study demonstrates that this is not the case and that sclareol accumulates in a crystalline epicuticular form, mostly on calyces. PMID:23133579

  4. Analgesic potential of marrubiin derivatives, a bioactive diterpene present in Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Meyre-Silva, C; Yunes, R A; Schlemper, V; Campos-Buzzi, F; Cechinel-Filho, V

    2005-04-01

    Marrubiin, a furane labdane diterpene, is the main analgesic compound present in Marrubium vulgare, a medicinal plant used in Brazil and other countries to treat several ailments. Considering its important pharmacological action, as well as its high yield, some structural modifications were performed in order to obtain more active compounds. Success was obtained in reducing the lactonic function, in the formation of marrubiinic acid and two esterified derivatives, which exhibited significant analgesic effect against the writhing test in mice. Marrubiinic acid showed better activity and excellent yield, and its analgesic effect was confirmed in other experimental models of pain in mice, suggesting its possible use as a model to obtain new and potent analgesic agents. PMID:15848207

  5. The natural diterpene tonantzitlolone A and its synthetic enantiomer inhibit cell proliferation and kinesin-5 function.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Tobias J; Sasse, Florenz; Schmidt, Christoph F; Lakämper, Stefan; Kirschning, Andreas; Scholz, Tim

    2016-04-13

    Tonantzitlolone A, a diterpene isolated from the Mexican plant Stillingia sanguinolenta, shows cytostatic activity. Both the natural product tonantzitlolone A and its synthetic enantiomer induce monoastral spindle formation in cell experiments which indicates inhibitory activity on kinesin-5 mitotic motor molecules. These inhibitory effects on kinesin-5 could be verified in in vitro single-molecule motility assays, where both tonantzitlolones interfered with kinesin-5 binding to its cellular interaction partner microtubules in a concentration-dependent manner, yet with a larger effect of the synthetic enantiomer. In contrast to kinesin-5 inhibition, both tonantzitlolone A enantiomers did not affect conventional kinesin-1 function; hence tonantzitlolones are not unspecific kinesin inhibitors. The observed stronger inhibitory effect of the synthetic enantiomer demonstrates the possibility to enhance the overall moderate anti-proliferative effect of the lead compound tonantzitlolon A by chemical modification. PMID:26896705

  6. Antiangiogenic properties of cafestol, a coffee diterpene, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuaiyu; Yoon, Yeo Cho; Sung, Mi-Jeong; Hur, Haeng-Jeon; Park, Jae-Ho

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cafestol inhibits tube formation and migration of VEGF-stimulated HUVEC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cafestol inhibits phosphorylation of FAK and Akt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cafestol decreases NO production. -- Abstract: As angiogenesis plays important roles in tumor growth and metastasis, searching for antiangiogenic compounds is a promising tactic for treating cancers. Cafestol, a diterpene found mainly in unfiltered coffee, provides benefit through varied biological activity, including antitumorigenic, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of cafestol on angiogenesis and to uncover the associated mechanism. We show that cafestol inhibits angiogenesis of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. This inhibition affects the following specific steps of the angiogenic process: proliferation, migration, and tube formation. The inhibitory effects of cafestol are accompanied by decreasing phosphorylation of FAK and Akt and by a decrease in nitric oxide production. Overall, cafestol inhibits angiogenesis by affecting the angiogenic signaling pathway.

  7. Diterpenes from the Trunk of Abies holophylla and Their Potential Neuroprotective and Anti-inflammatory Activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung Sub; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Choi, Sang Un; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Kang Ro

    2016-02-26

    Eleven new abietane-type diterpenes, holophyllins D-N (1-11), and 17 known analogues (12-28), were isolated from a MeOH extract of the trunk of Abies holophylla. The chemical structures of 1-11 were determined through spectroscopic data analysis, including NMR ((1)H and (13)C NMR, DEPT, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HRFABMS methods. All isolated compounds (1-28) were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-116), for their potential neuroprotective effects through induction of nerve growth factor in C6 glioma cells, and for their effects on nitric oxide levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine microglia BV2 cells. PMID:26812172

  8. Metabolic engineering of plant monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpenes--current status and future opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lange, B Markus; Ahkami, Amirhossein

    2013-02-01

    Terpenoids (a.k.a. isoprenoids) represent the most diverse class of natural products found in plants, with tens of thousands of reported structures. Plant-derived terpenoids have a multitude of pharmaceutical and industrial applications, but the natural resources for their extraction are often limited and, in many cases, synthetic routes are not commercially viable. Some of the most valuable terpenoids are not accumulated in model plants or crops, and genetic resources for breeding of terpenoid natural product traits are thus poorly developed. At present, metabolic engineering, either in the native producer or a heterologous host, is the only realistic alternative to improve yield and accessibility. In this review article, we will evaluate the state of the art of modulating the biosynthetic pathways for the production of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes in plants. PMID:23171352

  9. In vitro antimicrobial activity of plant-derived diterpenes against bovine mastitis bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ariana P; Estrela, Fernanda T; Moraes, Thaís S; Carneiro, Luiza J; Bastos, Jairo K; dos Santos, Raquel A; Ambrósio, Sérgio R; Martins, Carlos H G; Veneziani, Rodrigo C S

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the antibacterial activity of three diterpenes isolated from natural sources against a panel of microorganisms responsible for bovine mastitis. ent-Copalic acid (CA) was the most active metabolite, with promising MIC values (from 1.56 to 6.25 µg mL-1) against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC and clinical isolate), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. We conducted time-kill assays of CA against S. aureus, a commensal organism considered to be a ubiquitous etiological agent of bovine mastitis in dairy farms worldwide. In the first 12 h, CA only inhibited the growth of the inoculums (bacteriostatic effect), but its bactericidal effect was clearly noted thereafter (between 12 and 24 h). In conclusion, CA should be considered for the control of several Gram-positive bacteria related to bovine mastitis. PMID:23884123

  10. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2013-09-24

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains ({alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}). The class I active site is within the C-terminal {alpha} domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal {gamma} and {beta} domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg{sup 2+} complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This 'loop-in' conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the 'loop-out' conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities.

  11. Characterization and Inhibition of a Class II Diterpene Cyclase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Francis M.; Prisic, Sladjana; Hu, Huayou; Xu, Meimei; Coates, Robert M.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a widespread and devastating human pathogen, whose ability to infiltrate macrophage host cells from the human immune system is an active area of investigation. We have recently reported the discovery of a novel diterpene from M. tuberculosis, edaxadiene, whose ability to arrest phagosomal maturation in isolation presumably contributes to this critical process in M. tuberculosis infections. (Mann, F. M., Xu, M., Chen, X., Fulton, D. B., Russell, D. G., and Peters, R. J. (2009) J. Am. Chem. Soc., in press). Here, we present characterization of the class II diterpene cyclase that catalyzes the committed step in edaxadiene biosynthesis, i.e. the previously identified halimadienyl-diphosphate synthase (HPS; EC 5.5.1.16). Intriguingly, our kinetic analysis suggests a potential biochemical regulatory mechanism that triggers edaxadiene production upon phagosomal engulfment. Furthermore, we report characterization of potential HPS inhibitors: specifically, two related transition state analogs (15-aza-14,15-dihydrogeranylgeranyl diphosphate (7a) and 15-aza-14,15-dihydrogeranylgeranyl thiolodiphosphate (7b)) that exhibit very tight binding. Although arguably not suitable for clinical use, these nevertheless provide a basis for pharmaceutical design against this intriguing biosynthetic pathway. Finally, we provide evidence indicating that this pathway exists only in M. tuberculosis and is not functional in the closely related Mycobacterium bovis because of an inactivating frameshift in the HPS-encoding gene. Thus, we hypothesize that the inability to produce edaxadiene may be a contributing factor in the decreased infectivity and/or virulence of M. bovis relative to M. tuberculosis in humans. PMID:19574210

  12. New macrocyclic diterpenes from Euphorbia connata Boiss. with cytotoxic activities on human breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shadi, Somayeh; Saeidi, Hojjatollah; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Rahimnejad, Mohammad Reza; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Ayatollahi, Syed Majid; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Acetone:chloroform (1:2) extract of the aerial parts of Euphorbia connata Boiss. (Euphorbiaceae) was investigated for its diterpenoids. This led to the isolation of one known and two new diterpenes, belonging to the pentahydroxy-13(17)-epoxy-8,10(18)-myrsinadiene and tetrahydroxy-5,6-epoxy-14-oxo-jatropha-11(E)-ene classes. The structures were elucidated based on (13)C and (1)H NMR as well as 2D NMR, IR and MS spectra and the cytotoxicity for compounds 1-3 were evaluated by using MTT assay against two human breast cancer cell lines. Myrsinane-type compounds - 3,7,14,15-tetraacetyl-5-propanoyl-13(17)-epoxy-8,10(18)-myrsinadiene (1) and 3,7,10,14,15-pentaacetyl-5-butanoyl-13,17-epoxy-8-myrsinene (2) - exhibited moderate inhibitory effects, with IC50 values of 24.53 ± 3.39 and 26.67 ± 1.41 μM against the MDA-MB cell line, and 37.73 ± 3.41 and 34.57 ± 2.12 μM against the MCF-7 cell line, respectively. Jatrophane-type diterpene - 5,6-epoxy-8,9,15-triacetyl-3-benzoyl-14-oxo-jatropha-11(E)-ene (3) - showed weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 55.67 ± 7.09 μM against MDA-MB, and moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 24.33 ± 3.21 μM against MCF-7 cell line. PMID:25426544

  13. Diterpene synthases of the biosynthetic system of medicinally active diterpenoids in Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Dullat, Harpreet; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; Starks, Courtney; Hamberger, Björn; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose major bioactive compounds, marrubiin and other labdane-related furanoid diterpenoids, have potential applications as anti-diabetics, analgesics or vasorelaxants. Metabolite and transcriptome profiling of M. vulgare leaves identified five different candidate diterpene synthases (diTPSs) of the TPS-c and TPS-e/f clades. We describe the in vitro and in vivo functional characterization of the M. vulgare diTPS family. In addition to MvEKS ent-kaurene synthase of general metabolism, we identified three diTPSs of specialized metabolism: MvCPS3 (+)-copalyl diphosphate synthase, and the functional diTPS pair MvCPS1 and MvELS. In a sequential reaction, MvCPS1 and MvELS produce a unique oxygenated diterpene scaffold 9,13-epoxy-labd-14-ene en route to marrubiin and an array of related compounds. In contrast with previously known diTPSs that introduce a hydroxyl group at carbon C-8 of the labdane backbone, the MvCPS1-catalyzed reaction proceeds via oxygenation of an intermediate carbocation at C-9, yielding the bicyclic peregrinol diphosphate. MvELS belongs to a subgroup of the diTPS TPS-e/f clade with unusual βα-domain architecture. MvELS is active in vitro and in vivo with three different prenyl diphosphate substrates forming the marrubiin precursor 9,13-epoxy-labd-14-ene, as identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, manoyl oxide and miltiradiene. MvELS fills a central position in the biosynthetic system that forms the foundation for the diverse repertoire of Marrubium diterpenoids. Co-expression of MvCPS1 and MvELS in engineered E. coli and Nicotiana benthamiana offers opportunities for producing precursors for an array of biologically active diterpenoids. PMID:24990389

  14. Use of dietary rosemary diterpenes to inhibit rancid volatiles in lamb meat packed under protective atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, J; Serrano, R; Bañón, S

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the inhibitory effect of dietary rosemary diterpenes on the formation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) responsible for rancid flavour in raw lamb meat. The lamb diet was supplemented during the fattening stage with two levels (200 and 400 mg/kg feed) of a dietary rosemary extract (DRE) containing carnosic acid and carnosol (1 : 1, w/w). The formation of VOCs (determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction at 40°C and MS) and odour deterioration (assessed by quantitative descriptive analysis) were monitored in meat fillets (longissimus dorsi-lumborum muscle) packed in a 70/30 O2/CO2 protective atmosphere and kept at 2°C for up to 14 days. The raw meat odour deteriorated under pro-oxidizing conditions due to the development of an incipient rancidity caused by the formation of volatiles from lipid oxidation. A total of 46 volatile compounds were determined in lamb headspace: 18 aldehydes, seven alcohols, seven organic acids, six ketones, four furan compounds, two benzene compounds, one ester and one terpenoid. The use of DRE contributed to inhibit VOC formation and rancidity. Heptanal, octanal, nonanal and 2-pentyl-furan were the only VOCs affected (P0.75; P<0.001), although similar values were obtained for the coefficients of a large number of carbonyl, alcohols and furan compounds, among other volatiles, which can be considered molecular markers of rancidity in raw lamb meat. Principal component analysis confirmed that the differences in the VOC profile make it possible to identify whether or not samples have been reinforced with dietary rosemary diterpenes. Thus, VOC profiling can be regarded as a useful tool for assessing the dietary treatments used in sheep to improve the oxidative stability of lamb meat. PMID:26940773

  15. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Diterpene Gene Cluster in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Bromann, Kirsi; Toivari, Mervi; Viljanen, Kaarina; Vuoristo, Anu; Ruohonen, Laura; Nakari-Setälä, Tiina

    2012-01-01

    Fungal secondary metabolites are a rich source of medically useful compounds due to their pharmaceutical and toxic properties. Sequencing of fungal genomes has revealed numerous secondary metabolite gene clusters, yet products of many of these biosynthetic pathways are unknown since the expression of the clustered genes usually remains silent in normal laboratory conditions. Therefore, to discover new metabolites, it is important to find ways to induce the expression of genes in these otherwise silent biosynthetic clusters. We discovered a novel secondary metabolite in Aspergillus nidulans by predicting a biosynthetic gene cluster with genomic mining. A Zn(II)2Cys6–type transcription factor, PbcR, was identified, and its role as a pathway-specific activator for the predicted gene cluster was demonstrated. Overexpression of pbcR upregulated the transcription of seven genes in the identified cluster and led to the production of a diterpene compound, which was characterized with GC/MS as ent-pimara-8(14),15-diene. A change in morphology was also observed in the strains overexpressing pbcR. The activation of a cryptic gene cluster by overexpression of its putative Zn(II)2Cys6–type transcription factor led to discovery of a novel secondary metabolite in Aspergillus nidulans. Quantitative real-time PCR and DNA array analysis allowed us to predict the borders of the biosynthetic gene cluster. Furthermore, we identified a novel fungal pimaradiene cyclase gene as well as genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and a geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) synthase. None of these genes have been previously implicated in the biosynthesis of terpenes in Aspergillus nidulans. These results identify the first Aspergillus nidulans diterpene gene cluster and suggest a biosynthetic pathway for ent-pimara-8(14),15-diene. PMID:22506079

  16. Spatio-temporal variation of the diterpene steviol in Stevia rebaudiana grown under different photoperiods.

    PubMed

    Ceunen, Stijn; Geuns, Jan M C

    2013-05-01

    As part of an ongoing study on the effects of photoperiodism on the metabolism of steviol glycosides (SVglys) in Stevia rebaudiana, the spatio-temporal variations of free steviol (SV) have now been evaluated. For its quantitation, an internal standard method was used, based upon a specific fluorometric detection of SV as its methoxycoumarinyl derivative. The level of free SV in leaves did not exceed 30 μg/g dry wt and was at least 1000-fold smaller than that of its glycosidic conjugates. In other organs, free SV was mainly measured in stem tissue and apices, with relatively large amounts measured in the latter. Similarly to SVglys, the content of free SV was influenced by photoperiod and genotype. In plants grown under long-days (LD) of 16 h, more spatial variations were seen compared to those under short-days (SD) of 8h. In the former, upper leaves contained almost four times more free SV compared to lower ones near the end of vegetative growth. In addition, the correlation between SV and its glycosidic conjugates was more linear under SD. Despite the variability of SV levels, a decrease was noted in all conditions after flower opening, which can be related a decreased transcription of the biosynthetic genes involved. PMID:23402803

  17. Acasiane A and B and farnesirane A and B, diterpene derivatives from the roots of Acacia farnesiana.

    PubMed

    Lin, An-Shen; Lin, Chia-Rong; Du, Ying-Chi; Lübken, Tilo; Chiang, Michael Y; Chen, I-Hsiao; Wu, Chin-Chung; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Shu-Li; Yen, Ming-Hong; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2009-02-01

    Four new diterpenes, acasiane A ( 1), acasiane B ( 2), farnesirane A ( 3), and farnesirane B ( 4), along with three known diterpenes ( 5 - 7), two triterpenes ( 8 and 9), and eight flavonoids ( 10 - 17) were isolated from the roots of Acacia farnesiana. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by various spectroscopic and x-ray analyses. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against six human cancer cell lines (Hep G2, Hep 3B, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, A549, and Ca9 - 22) with the MTT method. Betulinic acid ( 8) displayed moderate cytotoxicity (1.70 - 5.74 microg/mL) towards five human cancer cell lines and the flavonoids had slight effects. In addition, 8, diosmetin ( 13), and 3',4',5-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone ( 15) slightly inhibited superoxide anion generation or elastase release by human neutrophils, indicating moderate anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:19101886

  18. Trichocitrin, a new fusicoccane diterpene from the marine brown alga-endophytic fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride cf-27.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao-Rui; Miao, Feng-Ping; Song, Yin-Ping; Guo, Zhan-Yong; Ji, Nai-Yun

    2016-07-01

    One new diterpene, trichocitrin (1), and four known secondary metabolites, nafuredin (2), 5-hydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-7-methoxychromone (3), 24-methylenecycloartanol (4) and citrostadienol (5), were isolated from the culture of marine brown alga-endophytic Trichoderma citrinoviride cf-27. Trichocitrin (1) represents the first Trichoderma-derived and furan-bearing fusicoccane diterpene, and its structure and relative configuration were identified by analysis of 1D/2D NMR and mass spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited 8.0- and 9.5-mm inhibition zones, respectively, against Escherichia coli at 20 μg/disc and 54.1 and 36.7% growth inhibition, respectively, of Prorocentrum donghaiense at 80 μg/mL. PMID:26728965

  19. The cumbiasins, structurally novel diterpenes possessing intricate carbocyclic skeletons from the West Indian sea whip Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae (Bayer).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A D; Ramírez, C; Shi, Y P

    2000-10-01

    From the hexane extract of the West Indian gorgonian Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae, two diterpenes, cumbiasins A (1) and B (2), having a novel tetracyclic carbon skeleton named cumbiane, have been isolated. In addition, we have isolated cumbiasin C (3), a ring cleavage product of cumbiasin B that possesses an unusual carbocyclic framework named seco-cumbiane. The structures and relative configurations of metabolites 1-3 were elucidated by interpretation of overall spectral data, which included 2D NMR correlation methods, IR, UV, and accurate mass measurements (HREI-MS and HRFAB-MS). The carbocyclic skeletons of the cumbiasins are unprecedented and represent new classes of C20 rearranged diterpenes. Cumbiasins A and B display mild in vitro anti-tuberculosis activity. PMID:11052119

  20. A novel diterpene skeleton: identification of a highly aromatic, cytotoxic and antioxidant 5-methyl-10-demethyl-abietane-type diterpene from Premna serratifolia.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Solomon; Varghese, George K

    2015-01-01

    Premna serratifolia Linn. (syn: . P. corymbosa (Burm. f.) Merr., P. integrifolia L. and P. obtusifolia R. Br.) is a member of the Verbenaceae family that is extensively used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine in India. As part of our continuous pharmacological and phytochemical studies on medicinal plants, we have screened the methanolic extracts of leaves, root bark (RB) and root wood of P. serratifolia for cytotoxic activity against two cancer cell lines: SHSY-5Y neuroblastoma and B16 melanoma cells. The RB extract that showed promising activity was fractionated using solvents of increasing polarity followed by a combination of Sephadex LH-20 column and Combiflash chromatography as well as HPLC to afford the active principle. Comprehensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, NOESY) and MS analysis revealed the identity of the isolated compound as 11,12,16-trihydroxy-2-oxo-5-methyl-10-demethyl-abieta-1[10],6,8,11,13-pentene that appears to be a novel compound based on a new diterpene skeleton. The cytotoxic activity of the isolated compound was 21 and 23 times higher than the crude extract against the SHSY-5Y and B16 cells, respectively. The novel compound also possesses in vitro antioxidant effects as evidenced by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effect where an IC50 value of 20.4 ± 1.3 μM was obtained. In comparison, the positive control, caffeic acid, showed an IC50 value of 14.4 ± 1.6 μM. PMID:25250850

  1. Biochemical characterization of the castor bean ent-kaurene synthase(-like) family supports quantum chemical view of diterpene cyclization

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Alana J.; Hershey, David M.; Chesnut, Taylor; Xu, Meimei; Peters, Reuben J.

    2014-01-01

    It has become apparent that plants have extensively diversified their arsenal of labdane-related diterpenoids (LRDs), in part via gene duplication and neo-functionalization of the ancestral ent-kaurene synthase (KS) required for gibberellin metabolism. For example, castor bean (Ricinus communis) was previously shown to produce an interesting set of biosynthetically related diterpenes, specifically ent-sandracopimaradiene, ent-beyerene, and ent-trachylobane, in addition to ent-kaurene, using four separate diterpene synthases, albeit these remain unidentified. Notably, despite mechanistic similarity of the underlying reaction to that catalyzed by KSs, ent-beyerene and ent-trachylobane synthases have not yet been identified. Given our interest in LRD biosynthesis, and the recent availability of the castor bean genome sequence, we applied a synthetic biology approach to biochemically characterize the four KS(-like) enzymes [KS(L)s] found in Ricinus communis [i.e., the RcKS(L)s]. In particular, using bacteria engineered to produce the relevant ent-copalyl diphosphate precursor and synthetic genes based on the predicted RcKS(L)s, although this ultimately required correction of a “splicing” error in one of the predicted genes, highlighting the dependence of such a synthetic biology approach on accurate gene sequences. Nevertheless, we can assign each of the four RcKS(L)s to one of the previously observed diterpene synthase activities, providing access to functionally novel enzymes. Intriguingly, the product distribution of the RcKS(L)s seems to support the distinct diterpene synthase reaction mechanism proposed by quantum chemical calculations, rather than the classically proposed pathway. PMID:24810014

  2. Darwinolide, a New Diterpene Scaffold That Inhibits Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm from the Antarctic Sponge Dendrilla membranosa.

    PubMed

    von Salm, Jacqueline L; Witowski, Christopher G; Fleeman, Renee M; McClintock, James B; Amsler, Charles D; Shaw, Lindsey N; Baker, Bill J

    2016-06-01

    A new rearranged spongian diterpene, darwinolide, has been isolated from the Antarctic Dendroceratid sponge Dendrilla membranosa. Characterized on the basis of spectroscopic and crystallographic analysis, the central seven-membered ring is hypothesized to originate from a ring-expansion of a spongian precursor. Darwinolide displays 4-fold selectivity against the biofilm phase of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared to the planktonic phase and may provide a scaffold for the development of therapeutics for this difficult to treat infection. PMID:27175857

  3. Helikaurolides A-D with a Diterpene-Sesquiterpene Skeleton from Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ascensión; Molinillo, José M G; Varela, Rosa M; Casas, Lourdes; Mantell, Casimiro; Martínez de la Ossa, Enrique J; Macías, Francisco A

    2015-10-01

    Four novel compounds (1-4) with an unprecedented skeleton that combines a sesquiterpene lactone and a kaurane diterpene acid were isolated from Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna extract, which was obtained under supercritical conditions. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. The biosynthetic routes involve sesquiterpene lactones and kauranic acid, both of which were previously isolated from this species. PMID:26368065

  4. Darwinolide, a New Diterpene Scaffold That Inhibits Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm from the Antarctic Sponge Dendrilla membranosa

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A new rearranged spongian diterpene, darwinolide, has been isolated from the Antarctic Dendroceratid sponge Dendrilla membranosa. Characterized on the basis of spectroscopic and crystallographic analysis, the central seven-membered ring is hypothesized to originate from a ring-expansion of a spongian precursor. Darwinolide displays 4-fold selectivity against the biofilm phase of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared to the planktonic phase and may provide a scaffold for the development of therapeutics for this difficult to treat infection. PMID:27175857

  5. New flav-3-en-3-ol glycosides, kaempferiaosides C and D, and acetophenone glycosides, kaempferiaosides E and F, from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora.

    PubMed

    Chaipech, Saowanee; Morikawa, Toshio; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Hayakawa, Takao; Muraoka, Osamu

    2012-07-01

    Two new flav-3-en-3-ol glycosides, kaempferiaosides C (3) and D(4), and two new acetophenone glycosides, kaempferiaosides E (5) and F (6), were isolated from the Thai natural medicine Krachai Dum, the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker. Their structures were established mainly on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. PMID:22101441

  6. Rhizovarins A-F, Indole-Diterpenes from the Mangrove-Derived Endophytic Fungus Mucor irregularis QEN-189.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shu-Shan; Li, Xiao-Ming; Williams, Katherine; Proksch, Peter; Ji, Nai-Yun; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2016-08-26

    Genome mining of the fungus Mucor irregularis (formerly known as Rhizomucor variabilis) revealed the presence of various gene clusters for secondary metabolite biosynthesis, including several terpene-based clusters. Investigation into the chemical diversity of M. irregularis QEN-189, an endophytic fungus isolated from the fresh inner tissue of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa, resulted in the discovery of 20 structurally diverse indole-diterpenes including six new compounds, namely, rhizovarins A-F (1-6). Among them, compounds 1-3 represent the most complex members of the reported indole-diterpenes. The presence of an unusual acetal linked to a hemiketal (1) or a ketal (2 and 3) in an unprecedented 4,6,6,8,5,6,6,6,6-fused indole-diterpene ring system makes them chemically unique. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, modified Mosher's method, and chemical calculations. Each of the isolated compounds was evaluated for antitumor activity against HL-60 and A-549 cell lines. PMID:27462726

  7. Antiamoebic and Antigiardial Activity of Clerodane Diterpenes from Mexican Salvia Species Used for the Treatment of Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Fernando; Bautista, Elihú; Yépez-Mulia, Lilian; García-Hernandez, Normand; Ortega, Alfredo

    2015-10-01

    Terpenoids from Salvia species have been identified to possess biological properties as antiprotozoal agents. Here, we evaluated the antiamoebic and antigiardial activities of 14 known clerodane and modified clerodane-type diterpenes isolated from five Mexican Salvia species against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia, and analyzed the effects of the functionalities in decalin ring or in the whole clerodane framework to visualize the structural requirements necessary to produce an antiprotozoal activity. Among these, linearolactone was the most active clerodane diterpene against both protozoa with IC50 values of 22.9 μM for E. histolytica and of 28.2 μM in the case of G. lamblia. In this context it may be a lead compound for the development of novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. The remaining diterpenes assayed showed moderate to weak activity against both protozoa. These findings give support to the use of Salvia species in the traditional medicine from México for the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:26190323

  8. Glycosides and xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Conyza bonariensis.

    PubMed

    Kong, L D; Abliz, Z; Zhou, C X; Li, L J; Cheng, C H; Tan, R X

    2001-10-01

    Fractionation of the xanthine oxidase inhibitory methanol extract of Conyza bonariensis afforded three glycosides, in addition to nine known compounds including amyrin, beta-sitostero1 daucosterol, syringic acid 3-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid, eugenol 4-O-glucopyranoside, and luteolin, apigenin and takakin 8-O-glucuronide. The structures of the glycosides were established by a combination of spectroscopic methods (IR, MS, 1H and 13C NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMQC and HMBC) as 4-hydroxypyridin-3-carboxylic acid 4-O-glucopyranoside, 8-hydroxy-6,7-dihydrolinalool 8-O-glucopyranoside and bonaroside [viz. 1,3,4,12-tetrahydroxy-2-(9-hexadecenoylamino)octadecane 1-O-glucopyranoside]. The in vitro enzyme assay showed that syringic acid and takakin 8-O-glucuronide displayed weak inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase with IC50 values of 500+/-41 microM and 170+/-12 microM, respectively. PMID:11576616

  9. [GH10 Family of Glycoside Hydrolases: Structure and Evolutionary Connections].

    PubMed

    Naumoff, D G

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary connections were analyzed for endo-β-xylanases, which possess the GH10 family catalytic domains. A homology search yielded thrice as many proteins as are available from the Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZy) database. Lateral gene transfer was shown to play an important role in evolution of bacterial proteins of the family, especially in the phyla Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes, and Verrucomicrobia. In the case of Verrucomicrobia, 23 lateral transfers from organisms of other phyla were detected. Evolutionary relationships were observed between the GH10 family domains and domains with the TIM-barrel tertiary structure from several other glycosidase families. The GH39 family of glycoside hydrolases showed the closest relationship. Unclassified homologs were grouped into 12 novel families of putative glycoside hydrolases (GHL51-GHL62). PMID:27028821

  10. Malonylated flavonol glycosides from the petals of Clitoria ternatea.

    PubMed

    Kazuma, Kohei; Noda, Naonobu; Suzuki, Masahiko

    2003-01-01

    Three flavonol glycosides, kaempferol 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside, and myricetin 3-O-(2",6"-di-O-alpha-rhamnosyl)-beta-glucoside were isolated from the petals of Clitoria ternatea cv. Double Blue, together with eleven known flavonol glycosides. Their structures were identified using UV, MS, and NMR spectroscopy. They were characterized as kaempferol and quercetin 3-(2(G)- rhamnosylrutinoside)s, kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin 3-neohesperidosides, 3-rutinosides, and 3-glucosides in the same tissue. In addition, the presence of myricetin 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside was inferred from LC/MS/MS data for crude petal extracts. The flavonol compounds identified in the petals of C. ternatea differed from those reported in previous studies. PMID:12482461

  11. New terpenoid glycosides obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Qu, Lu; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Five new terpenoid glycosides, named as officinoterpenosides A₁ (1), A₂ (2), B (3), C (4), and D (5), together with 11 known ones, (1S,4S,5S)-5-exo-hydrocamphor 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), isorosmanol (7), rosmanol (8), 7-methoxyrosmanol (9), epirosmanol (10), ursolic acid (11), micromeric acid (12), oleanolic acid (13), niga-ichigoside F₁ (14), glucosyl tormentate (15), and asteryunnanoside B (16), were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HRESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Among the new ones, 1 and 2, 3 and 4 are diterpenoid and triterpenoid glycosides, respectively; and 5 is a normonoterpenoid. For the known ones, 6 was isolated from the Rosmarinus genus first, and 15, 16 were obtained from this species for the first time. PMID:25200369

  12. A new phenolic glycoside and cytotoxic constituents from Celosia argentea.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shuo; Ding, Xiao; Ouyang, Ming-An; Wu, Zu-Jian; Xie, Lian-Hui

    2010-09-01

    A new phenolic glycoside, 4-O-β-D-apifuranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxyacetophenone (2) and 11 known compounds were isolated from the MeOH extract of the plant Celosia argentea. The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Among the isolated compounds, stigmasterol (10) showed moderate inhibitory activities against SGC-7901 and BEL-7404 cells. PMID:20839132

  13. Vina-Carb: Improving Glycosidic Angles during Carbohydrate Docking.

    PubMed

    Nivedha, Anita K; Thieker, David F; Makeneni, Spandana; Hu, Huimin; Woods, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Molecular docking programs are primarily designed to align rigid, drug-like fragments into the binding sites of macromolecules and frequently display poor performance when applied to flexible carbohydrate molecules. A critical source of flexibility within an oligosaccharide is the glycosidic linkages. Recently, Carbohydrate Intrinsic (CHI) energy functions were reported that attempt to quantify the glycosidic torsion angle preferences. In the present work, the CHI-energy functions have been incorporated into the AutoDock Vina (ADV) scoring function, subsequently termed Vina-Carb (VC). Two user-adjustable parameters have been introduced, namely, a CHI- energy weight term (chi_coeff) that affects the magnitude of the CHI-energy penalty and a CHI-cutoff term (chi_cutoff) that negates CHI-energy penalties below a specified value. A data set consisting of 101 protein-carbohydrate complexes and 29 apoprotein structures was used in the development and testing of VC, including antibodies, lectins, and carbohydrate binding modules. Accounting for the intramolecular energies of the glycosidic linkages in the oligosaccharides during docking led VC to produce acceptable structures within the top five ranked poses in 74% of the systems tested, compared to a success rate of 55% for ADV. An enzyme system was employed in order to illustrate the potential application of VC to proteins that may distort glycosidic linkages of carbohydrate ligands upon binding. VC represents a significant step toward accurately predicting the structures of protein-carbohydrate complexes. Furthermore, the described approach is conceptually applicable to any class of ligands that populate well-defined conformational states. PMID:26744922

  14. β-cyclodextrin assistant flavonoid glycosides enzymatic hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Sun, E.; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background: The content of icaritin and genistein in herba is very low, preparation with relatively large quantities is an important issue for extensive pharmacological studies. Objective: This study focuses on preparing and enzymic hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides /β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex to increase the hydrolysis rate. Materials and Methods: The physical property of newly prepared inclusion complex was tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis were optimized for the bioconversion of flavonoid glycosides /β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex by mono-factor experimental design. The experiments are using the icariin and genistein as the model drugs. Results: The solubility of icariin and genistein were increased almost 17 times from 29.2 μg/ml to 513.5 μg/ml at 60°C and 28 times from 7.78 μg/ml to 221.46 μg/ml at 50°C, respectively, demonstrating that the inclusion complex could significantly increase the solubility of flavonoid glycosides. Under the optimal conditions, the reaction time of icariin and genistin decreased by 68% and 145%, when compared with that without β-CD inclusion. By using this enzymatic condition, 473 mg icaritin (with the purity of 99.34%) and 567 mg genistein(with the purity of 99.46%), which was finally determined by melt point, ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR, was obtained eventually by transforming the inclusion complex(contains 1.0 g substrates). Conclusion: This study can clearly indicate a new attempt to improve the speed of enzyme-hydrolysis of poorly water-soluble flavonoid glycosides and find a more superior condition which is used to prepare icaritin and genistein. PMID:24143039

  15. Two aurone glycosides from heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Achyut Narayan; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Watal, Geeta

    2004-12-01

    Two new aurone glycosides, 6 hydroxy 5 methyl 3',4',5' trimethoxy aurone 4-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside and 6,4' dihydroxy aurone 4-O-rutinoside have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of the wood of Pterocarpus santalinus. Their structures were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, EIMS, (1)H and (13)C NMR). PMID:15541741

  16. A new lignan glycoside from the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Young; Han, Kyung-Min; Song, Myoung-Chong; Lee, Do-Gyeong; Rho, Yeong-Deok; Baek, Nam-In

    2008-01-01

    A new lignan glycoside, 6-acetyl-1-[1,3-(4,4'-dihydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-beta-truxinyl)-beta-d-fructofuranosyl]-alpha-d-glucopyranoside (1), named impecyloside, was isolated from the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica. The structure of the compound was determined by spectroscopic data including FABMS, UV, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR (DEPT) and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC). PMID:18348057

  17. Modularity of Conifer Diterpene Resin Acid Biosynthesis: P450 Enzymes of Different CYP720B Clades Use Alternative Substrates and Converge on the Same Products1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Macaire M.S.; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes of the CYP720B subfamily play a central role in the biosynthesis of diterpene resin acids (DRAs), which are a major component of the conifer oleoresin defense system. CYP720Bs exist in families of up to a dozen different members in conifer genomes and fall into four different clades (I–IV). Only two CYP720B members, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) PtCYP720B1 and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) PsCYP720B4, have been characterized previously. Both are multisubstrate and multifunctional clade III enzymes, which catalyze consecutive three-step oxidations in the conversion of diterpene olefins to DRAs. These reactions resemble the sequential diterpene oxidations affording ent-kaurenoic acid from ent-kaurene in gibberellin biosynthesis. Here, we functionally characterized the CYP720B clade I enzymes CYP720B2 and CYP720B12 in three different conifer species, Sitka spruce, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and jack pine (Pinus banksiana), and compared their activities with those of the clade III enzymes CYP720B1 and CYP720B4 of the same species. Unlike the clade III enzymes, clade I enzymes were ultimately found not to be active with diterpene olefins but converted the recently discovered, unstable diterpene synthase product 13-hydroxy-8(14)-abietene. Through alternative routes, CYP720B enzymes of both clades produce some of the same profiles of conifer oleoresin DRAs (abietic acid, neoabietic acid, levopimaric acid, and palustric acid), while clade III enzymes also function in the formation of pimaric acid, isopimaric acid, and sandaracopimaric acid. These results highlight the modularity of the specialized (i.e. secondary) diterpene metabolism, which produces conifer defense metabolites through variable combinations of different diterpene synthase and CYP720B enzymes. PMID:26936895

  18. Modularity of Conifer Diterpene Resin Acid Biosynthesis: P450 Enzymes of Different CYP720B Clades Use Alternative Substrates and Converge on the Same Products.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Katrin; Jensen, Niels Berg; Yuen, Macaire M S; Madilao, Lina; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes of the CYP720B subfamily play a central role in the biosynthesis of diterpene resin acids (DRAs), which are a major component of the conifer oleoresin defense system. CYP720Bs exist in families of up to a dozen different members in conifer genomes and fall into four different clades (I-IV). Only two CYP720B members, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) PtCYP720B1 and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) PsCYP720B4, have been characterized previously. Both are multisubstrate and multifunctional clade III enzymes, which catalyze consecutive three-step oxidations in the conversion of diterpene olefins to DRAs. These reactions resemble the sequential diterpene oxidations affording ent-kaurenoic acid from ent-kaurene in gibberellin biosynthesis. Here, we functionally characterized the CYP720B clade I enzymes CYP720B2 and CYP720B12 in three different conifer species, Sitka spruce, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and jack pine (Pinus banksiana), and compared their activities with those of the clade III enzymes CYP720B1 and CYP720B4 of the same species. Unlike the clade III enzymes, clade I enzymes were ultimately found not to be active with diterpene olefins but converted the recently discovered, unstable diterpene synthase product 13-hydroxy-8(14)-abietene. Through alternative routes, CYP720B enzymes of both clades produce some of the same profiles of conifer oleoresin DRAs (abietic acid, neoabietic acid, levopimaric acid, and palustric acid), while clade III enzymes also function in the formation of pimaric acid, isopimaric acid, and sandaracopimaric acid. These results highlight the modularity of the specialized (i.e. secondary) diterpene metabolism, which produces conifer defense metabolites through variable combinations of different diterpene synthase and CYP720B enzymes. PMID:26936895

  19. Enzymatic Biosynthesis of Novel Resveratrol Glucoside and Glycoside Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Parajuli, Prakash; Shin, Ju Yong; Lee, Jisun; Lee, Seul; Hong, Young-Soo; Park, Yong Il; Kim, Joong Su; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-12-01

    A UDP glucosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis was overexpressed, purified, and incubated with nucleotide diphosphate (NDP) d- and l-sugars to produce glucose, galactose, 2-deoxyglucose, viosamine, rhamnose, and fucose sugar-conjugated resveratrol glycosides. Significantly higher (90%) bioconversion of resveratrol was achieved with α-d-glucose as the sugar donor to produce four different glucosides of resveratrol: resveratrol 3-O-β-d-glucoside, resveratrol 4'-O-β-d-glucoside, resveratrol 3,5-O-β-d-diglucoside, and resveratrol 3,5,4'-O-β-d-triglucoside. The conversion rates and numbers of products formed were found to vary with the other NDP sugar donors. Resveratrol 3-O-β-d-2-deoxyglucoside and resveratrol 3,5-O-β-d-di-2-deoxyglucoside were found to be produced using TDP-2-deoxyglucose as a donor; however, the monoglycosides resveratrol 4'-O-β-d-galactoside, resveratrol 4'-O-β-d-viosaminoside, resveratrol 3-O-β-l-rhamnoside, and resveratrol 3-O-β-l-fucoside were produced from the respective sugar donors. Altogether, 10 diverse glycoside derivatives of the medically important resveratrol were generated, demonstrating the capacity of YjiC to produce structurally diverse resveratrol glycosides. PMID:25239890

  20. Sweet Poisons: Honeys Contaminated with Glycosides of the Neurotoxin Tutin.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Lesley; Joyce, Nigel I; Sansom, Catherine E; Cooney, Janine M; Jensen, Dwayne J; Perry, Nigel B

    2015-06-26

    Poisonings due to consumption of honeys containing plant toxins have been reported widely. One cause is the neurotoxin tutin, an oxygenated sesquiterpene picrotoxane, traced back to honeybees (Apis mellifera) collecting honeydew produced by passionvine hoppers (Scolypopa australis) feeding on sap of the poisonous shrub tutu (Coriaria spp.). However, a pharmacokinetic study suggested that unidentified conjugates of tutin were also present in such honeys. We now report the discovery, using ion trap LC-MS, of two tutin glycosides and their purification and structure determination as 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)tutin (4) and 2-[6'-(α-d-glucopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]tutin (5). These compounds were used to develop a quantitative triple quadrupole LC-MS method for honey analysis, which showed the presence of tutin (3.6 ± 0.1 μg/g honey), hyenanchin (19.3 ± 0.5), tutin glycoside (4) (4.9 ± 0.4), and tutin diglycoside (5) (4.9 ± 0.1) in one toxic honey. The ratios of 4 and 5 to tutin varied widely in other tutin-containing honeys. The glycosidation of tutin may represent detoxification by one or both of the insects involved in the food chain from plant to honey. PMID:25993882

  1. Acylated flavonol glycosides from the forage legume, Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin).

    PubMed

    Veitch, Nigel C; Regos, Ionela; Kite, Geoffrey C; Treutter, Dieter

    2011-04-01

    Ten acylated flavonol glycosides were isolated from aqueous acetone extracts of the aerial parts of the forage legume, Onobrychis viciifolia, and their structures determined using spectroscopic methods. Among these were eight previously unreported examples which comprised either feruloylated or sinapoylated derivatives of 3-O-di- and 3-O-triglycosides of kaempferol (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) or quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone). The diglycosides were acylated at the primary Glc residue of O-α-Rhap(1→6)-β-Glcp (rutinose), whereas the triglycosides were acylated at the terminal Rha residues of the branched trisaccharides, O-α-Rhap(1→2)[α-Rhap(1→6)]-β-Galp or O-α-Rhap(1→2)[α-Rhap(1→6)]-β-Glcp. Identification of the primary 3-O-linked hexose residues as either Gal or Glc was carried out by negative ion electrospray and serial MS, and cryoprobe NMR spectroscopy. Analysis of UV and MS spectra of the acylated flavonol glycosides provided additional diagnostic features relevant to direct characterisation of these compounds in hyphenated analyses. Quantitative analysis of the acylated flavonol glycosides present in different aerial parts of sainfoin revealed that the highest concentrations were in mature leaflets. PMID:21292287

  2. Two new phenolic glycosides from the stems of Clematis parviloba.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-hua; Xu, Li-zhen; Wang, Zhi-min; Zhang, Qi-wei; Yang, Shi-lin

    2010-12-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the stems of Clematis parviloba, six compounds were isolated from a 95% ethanol extract by using a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20, and semi-preparative HPLC. Two new phenolic glycosides, 2-((E)-3-carboxybut-2-en-yl)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-phenyl-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 4'-hydroxy-phenol-beta-D-[6-O-(4"-hydroxy-3", 5"-dimethoxy-benzoate)] glucopyranoside (2) were isolated, together with a known phenolic glycoside, 4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy-phenol-beta-D-[6-O-(4"-hydroxy-3", 5"-dimethoxy-benzoate)] glucopyranoside (3) as well as three known megastigmane glycosides, linarionoside A (4), linarionoside C (5), and staphylionoside K (6). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 were named as clemaparvilosides A (1) and B (2), respectively, and compounds 3-6 were obtained from Clematis genus for the first time. PMID:21348422

  3. Glycosidically bound flavor compounds of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    PubMed

    Mayorga, H; Knapp, H; Winterhalter, P; Duque, C

    2001-04-01

    The bound volatile fraction of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruit harvested in Colombia has been examined by HRGC and HRGC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysis using a nonselective pectinase (Rohapect D5L). Forty bound volatiles could be identified, with 21 of them being reported for the first time in cape gooseberry. After preparative isolation of the glycosidic precursors on XAD-2 resin, purification by multilayer coil countercurrent chromatography and HPLC of the peracetylated glycosides were carried out. Structure elucidation by NMR, ESI-MS/MS, and optical rotation enabled the identification of (1S,2S)-1-phenylpropane-1,2-diol 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and p-menth-4(8)-ene-1,2-diol 1-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2). Both glycosides have been identified for the first time in nature. They could be considered as immediate precursors of 1-phenylpropane-1,2-diol and p-menth-4(8)-ene-1,2-diol, typical volatiles found in the fruit of cape gooseberry. PMID:11308344

  4. 4-Trifluoromethylumbelliferyl glycosides as new substrates for revealing diseases connected with hereditary deficiency of lysosome glycosidases.

    PubMed

    Karpova, E A; Voznyi YaV; Dudukina, T V; Tsvetkova, I V

    1991-08-01

    The following glycosides of 4-trifluoromethylumbelliferone: alpha-D-mannopyranoside, alpha-L-fucopyranoside, alpha-D-glucopyranoside, beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha-D-galactopyranoside, beta-D-galactopyranoside, alpha-L-iduronide and beta-D-glucuronide were studied. 4-Trifluoromethylumbelliferyl glycosides were shown to be substrates for glycosidases. Some of them were cleaved even better than the corresponding methylumbelliferyl glycosides. 4-Trifluoromethylumbelliferyl glycosides were applied for revealing the corresponding enzyme deficiencies upon diagnosis of Gaucher and Hurler diseases as well as GM1 gangliosidosis and alpha-mannosidosis. 4-Trifluoromethylumbelliferone released after enzymatic hydrolysis of 4-trifluoromethylumbelliferyl glycosides exhibits more contrast yellow fluorescence in UV-light than the blue one of methylumbelliferone upon exposure of enzyme activity on solid supports. Therefore 4-trifluoromethylumbelliferyl glycosides are convenient substrates for revealing glycosidase activity directly in tissue samples, e.g. in placenta, and thus for fast prenatal diagnosis of lysosomal diseases. PMID:1781792

  5. Natural Diterpenes from Coffee, Cafestol, and Kahweol Induce Peripheral Antinoceception by Adrenergic System Interaction.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Luciana Souza; Castor, Marina Gomes Miranda E; Perez, Andrea de Castro; Duarte, Igor Dimitri Gama; Romero, Thiago Roberto Lima

    2016-01-01

    Cafestol and kahweol are diterpenes found only in the non-saponified lipid fraction of coffee. They are released during boiling and retained in the filtration process. Previous studies have shown peripheral antinociception induced by endogenous opioid peptides released by these diterpenes. Considering that the activation of the opioid system leads to a noradrenaline release, the aim of this study was to verify the participation of the noradrenergic system in the peripheral antinociception induced by cafestol and kahweol. Hyperalgesia was induced by an intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (2 µg). Cafestol or kahweol (80 µg/paw) were administered locally into the right hindpaw alone, and after the agents α 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (5, 10 and 20 µg/paw), α 2 A-adrenoceptor antagonist BRL 44 408 (40 µg/paw), α 2B-adrenoceptor antagonist imiloxan (40 µg/paw), α 2 C-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine (10, 15 and 20 µg/paw), α 2D-adrenoceptor antagonist RX 821 002 (40 µg/paw), α 1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (0.5, 1 and 2 µg/paw), or β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (150, 300 and 600 ng/paw), respectively. Noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor reboxetine (30 µg/paw) was administered prior to cafestol or kahweol low dose (40 µg/paw) and guanetidine 3 days prior to the experiment (30 mg/kg, once a day), depleting the noradrenaline storage. Intraplantar injection of cafestol or kahweol (80 µg/paw) induced a peripheral antinociception against hyperalgesia induced by PGE2. This effect was reversed by intraplantar injections of yohimbine, rauwolscine, prazosin and propranolol. Reboxetine injection intensified the antinociceptive effect of cafestol or kahweol low-dose, and guanethidine reversed almost 70 % of the cafestol or kahweol-induced peripheral antinociception. This study gives evidence that the noradrenergic system participates in cafestol and kahweol-induced peripheral antinociception with the

  6. New Abietane Diterpenes from Euphorbia Pseudocactus Berger (Euphorbiaceae) and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Monem, Azza Ramy; Abdelrahman, Enas Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Euphorbia is the largest genus in Euphorbiaceae. Terpenoids were isolated from most species of this genus. Objective: Since no previous study was reported about Euphorbia pseudocactus Berger, we started here a phytochemical investigation on this species to isolate and identify its terpenoid constituents and to estimate the antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds. Materials and Methods: The n-hexane fraction of the ethanolic extract of E. pseudocactus Berger was chromatographed on silica gel columns, the structures of the isolated compounds (1–5) were identified based on their MS, 1 D, and 2 D NMR spectral data. The antimicrobial activity of the n-hexane fraction and the isolated compounds (1–4) was investigated using diffusion plate method against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus [12600] and Bacillus subtilis [6051]) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa [10145] and Escherichia coli [11775]) bacteria, yeast (Candida albicans [7102]), and fungi (Aspergillus flavus). Results: Two triterpenes (glut-5-en-3 β-ol [1] and olean-12,15-diene-3 β-ol [2]) and three abietane diterpene (3-hydoxy-19-cyclopropenoyloxy-abietane [3], ent-abieta-9,12,14-triene-12,16-olide [4], and 12,19-dihydroxy-abieta-5-ene [5]) were isolated. Compound 1 exhibited no antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria, compound 2 and n-hexane fraction exhibited weak activity, whereas compounds 3 and 4 showed moderate activity. All samples showed no activity against the tested yeast and fungi. Discussion and Conclusion: Five compounds were isolated for the 1st time from E. pseudocactus Berger, three of them (3–5) are new natural compounds. As the major isolated compound (1) exhibited no antimicrobial activity, the observed activity of the n-hexane fraction is mainly due to its diterpenoid constituents. SUMMARY Two known triterpenes and three new diterpenes were isolated from n-hexane fraction of Euphorbia pseudocactusThe abietane diterpenoids showed higher

  7. MATE2 Mediates Vacuolar Sequestration of Flavonoid Glycosides and Glycoside Malonates in Medicago truncatula[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jian; Huhman, David; Shadle, Gail; He, Xian-Zhi; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of flavonoids, such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and isoflavones, are stored in the central vacuole, but the molecular basis of flavonoid transport is still poorly understood. Here, we report the functional characterization of a multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter (MATE2), from Medicago truncatula. MATE 2 is expressed primarily in leaves and flowers. Despite its high similarity to the epicatechin 3′-O-glucoside transporter MATE1, MATE2 cannot efficiently transport proanthocyanidin precursors. In contrast, MATE2 shows higher transport capacity for anthocyanins and lower efficiency for other flavonoid glycosides. Three malonyltransferases that are coexpressed with MATE2 were identified. The malonylated flavonoid glucosides generated by these malonyltransferases are more efficiently taken up into MATE2-containing membrane vesicles than are the parent glycosides. Malonylation increases both the affinity and transport efficiency of flavonoid glucosides for uptake by MATE2. Genetic loss of MATE2 function leads to the disappearance of leaf anthocyanin pigmentation and pale flower color as a result of drastic decreases in the levels of various flavonoids. However, some flavonoid glycoside malonates accumulate to higher levels in MATE2 knockouts than in wild-type controls. Deletion of MATE2 increases seed proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, presumably via redirection of metabolic flux from anthocyanin storage. PMID:21467581

  8. Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, Ludmila; Bragg, Jennifer; Wu, Jiajie; Yang, Xiaohan; Tuskan, Gerald A; Vogel, John

    2010-01-01

    Background Glycoside hydrolases cleave the bond between a carbohydrate and another carbohydrate, a protein, lipid or other moiety. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolases are found in a wide range of organisms, from archea to animals, and are relatively abundant in plant genomes. In plants, these enzymes are involved in diverse processes, including starch metabolism, defense, and cell-wall remodeling. Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we annotated the glycoside hydrolase genes in the grasses Brachypodium distachyon (an emerging monocotyledonous model) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). We then compared the glycoside hydrolases across species, both at the whole-genome level and at the level of individual glycoside hydrolase families. Results We identified 356 glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium and 404 in sorghum. The corresponding proteins fell into the same 34 families that are represented in rice, Arabidopsis, and poplar, helping to define a glycoside hydrolase family profile which may be common to flowering plants. Examination of individual glycoside hydrolase familes (GH5, GH13, GH18, GH19, GH28, and GH51) revealed both similarities and distinctions between monocots and dicots, as well as between species. Shared evolutionary histories appear to be modified by lineage-specific expansions or deletions. Within families, the Brachypodium and sorghum proteins generally cluster with those from other monocots. Conclusions This work provides the foundation for further comparative and functional analyses of plant glycoside hydrolases. Defining the Brachypodium glycoside hydrolases sets the stage for Brachypodium to be a monocot model for investigations of these enzymes and their diverse roles in planta. Insights

  9. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of Gene Clusters for the Biosynthesis of Indole-Diterpenes in Penicillium crustosum and P. janthinellum

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Matthew J.; Eaton, Carla J.; Stärkel, Cornelia; Tapper, Brian A.; Cox, Murray P.; Scott, Barry

    2015-01-01

    The penitremane and janthitremane families of indole-diterpenes are abundant natural products synthesized by Penicillium crustosum and P. janthinellum. Using a combination of PCR, cosmid library screening, and Illumina sequencing we have identified gene clusters encoding enzymes for the synthesis of these compounds. Targeted deletion of penP in P. crustosum abolished the synthesis of penitrems A, B, D, E, and F, and led to accumulation of paspaline, a key intermediate for paxilline biosynthesis in P. paxilli. Similarly, deletion of janP and janD in P. janthinellum abolished the synthesis of prenyl-elaborated indole-diterpenes, and led to accumulation in the latter of 13-desoxypaxilline, a key intermediate for the synthesis of the structurally related aflatremanes synthesized by Aspergillus flavus. This study helps resolve the genetic basis for the complexity of indole-diterpene natural products found within the Penicillium and Aspergillus species. All indole-diterpene gene clusters identified to date have a core set of genes for the synthesis of paspaline and a suite of genes encoding multi-functional cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, FAD dependent monooxygenases, and prenyl transferases that catalyse various regio- and stereo- specific oxidations that give rise to the diversity of indole-diterpene products synthesized by this group of fungi. PMID:26213965

  10. Effect of diterpenes isolated of the marine alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis against some toxic effects of the venom of the bothrops jararaca snake.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Thaisa Francielle Souza; Vallim, Magui Aparecida; Cavalcanti, Diana Negrão; Sanchez, Eládio Flores; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Fuly, André Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Snake venoms are composed of a complex mixture of active proteins and peptides which induce a wide range of toxic effects. Envenomation by Bothrops jararaca venom results in hemorrhage, edema, pain, tissue necrosis and hemolysis. In this work, the effect of a mixture of two secodolastane diterpenes (linearol/isolinearol), previously isolated from the Brazilian marine brown alga, Canistrocarpus cervicornis, was evaluated against some of the toxic effects induced by B. jararaca venom. The mixture of diterpenes was dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide and incubated with venom for 30 min at room temperature, and then several in vivo (hemorrhage, edema and lethality) and in vitro (hemolysis, plasma clotting and proteolysis) assays were performed. The diterpenes inhibited hemolysis, proteolysis and hemorrhage, but failed to inhibit clotting and edema induced by B. jararaca venom. Moreover, diterpenes partially protected mice from lethality caused by B. jararaca venom. The search for natural inhibitors of B. jararaca venom in C. cervicornis algae is a relevant subject, since seaweeds are a rich and powerful source of active molecules which are as yet but poorly explored. Our results suggest that these diterpenes have the potential to be used against Bothropic envenomation accidents or to improve traditional treatments for snake bites. PMID:25699595

  11. Glycosides from marine sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): structures, taxonomical distribution, biological activities and biological roles.

    PubMed

    Kalinin, Vladimir I; Ivanchina, Natalia V; Krasokhin, Vladimir B; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Stonik, Valentin A

    2012-08-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed. PMID:23015769

  12. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    PubMed Central

    Kalinin, Vladimir I.; Ivanchina, Natalia V.; Krasokhin, Vladimir B.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Stonik, Valentin A.

    2012-01-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed. PMID:23015769

  13. Cytotoxic and antifungal triterpene glycosides from the Patagonian sea cucumber Hemoiedema spectabilis.

    PubMed

    Chludil, Hugo D; Muniain, Claudia C; Seldes, Alicia M; Maier, Marta S

    2002-06-01

    Two new sulfated triterpene glycosides, hemoiedemosides A (1) and B (2), have been isolated from the Patagonian sea cucumber Hemoiedema spectabilis. Their structures have been established by a combination of spectroscopic analysis (NMR and FABMS) and chemical transformations. Both glycosides present the same aglycon and differ in the degree of sulfation of the tetrasaccharide chain. Hemoiedemoside B (2) is a new example of a small number of trisulfated triterpene glycosides from sea cucumbers belonging to the family Cucumariidae. Glycosides 1 and 2 exhibit considerable antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum, while the semisynthetic desulfated derivative 1a is less active. PMID:12088428

  14. Tandem mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of known and new steviol glycosides with structure proposals.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Benno F

    2011-06-15

    Stevia rebaudiana contains several steviol glycosides that have a sweet flavor. They are up to 450 times sweeter than sucrose, but some have an undesirable aftertaste. Up to 2010, ten different steviol glycosides have been described from the leaves or purified extracts of S. rebaudiana. In this paper, the tandem mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of these ten compounds are compiled, along with a scheme for structural elucidation. This scheme is then applied to 12 steviol glycosides that have not yet been described. The proposed structures of five steviol glycosides have been confirmed by other authors. PMID:21594932

  15. Three new alkaloids and three new phenolic glycosides from Liparis odorata.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Piao; Liu, Hongdong; Xu, Xianghong; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Dongming; Lai, Xuewen; Zhu, Genghua; Xu, Peng; Li, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Three new alkaloids, liparis alkaloid A (1), B (2), C (3), and three new phenolic glycosides, liparis glycoside H (4), I (5), J (6), together with three known phenolic glycosides (7-9) were isolated from the whole plant of Liparis odorata. Their structures were characterized on the basis of extensive 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS experiments. In addition, compounds 1-3 revealed hypolipidemic effects in the in vitro bioassays, and the ability to inhibit LPS-induced NO production of these isolated phenolic glycosides (4-9) was also evaluated. PMID:26481137

  16. Advanced Structural Determination of Diterpene Esters Using Molecular Modeling and NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nothias-Scaglia, Louis-Félix; Gallard, Jean-François; Dumontet, Vincent; Roussi, Fanny; Costa, Jean; Iorga, Bogdan I; Paolini, Julien; Litaudon, Marc

    2015-10-23

    Three new jatrophane esters (1-3) were isolated from Euphorbia amygdaloides ssp. semiperfoliata, including an unprecedented macrocyclic jatrophane ester bearing a hemiketal substructure, named jatrohemiketal (3). The chemical structures of compounds 1-3 and their relative configurations were determined by spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of compound 3 was determined unambiguously through an original strategy combining NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Conformational search calculations were performed for the four possible diastereomers 3a-3d differing in their C-6 and C-9 stereocenters, and the lowest energy conformer was used as input structure for geometry optimization. The prediction of NMR parameters ((1)H and (13)C chemical shifts and (1)H-(1)H coupling constants) by density functional theory (DFT) calculations allowed identifying the most plausible diastereomer. Finally, the stereostructure of 3 was solved by comparison of the structural features obtained by molecular modeling for 3a-3d with NMR-derived data (the values of dihedral angles deduced from the vicinal proton-proton coupling constants ((3)JHH) and interproton distances determined by ROESY). The methodology described herein provides an efficient way to solve or confirm structural elucidation of new macrocyclic diterpene esters, in particular when no crystal structure is available. PMID:26431312

  17. (+)-Dehydroabietic Acid, an Abietane-Type Diterpene, Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Fallarero, Adyary; Skogman, Malena; Kujala, Janni; Rajaratnam, Mohanathas; Moreira, Vânia M.; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Vuorela, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Potent drugs are desperately needed to counteract bacterial biofilm infections, especially those caused by gram-positive organisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, anti-biofilm compounds/agents that can be used as chemical tools are also needed for basic in vitro or in vivo studies aimed at exploring biofilms behavior and functionability. In this contribution, a collection of naturally-occurring abietane-type diterpenes and their derivatives was tested against S. aureus biofilms using a platform consisting of two phenotypic assays that have been previously published by our group. Three active compounds were identified: nordehydroabietylamine (1), (+)-dehydroabietic acid (2) and (+)-dehydroabietylamine (3) that prevented biofilm formation in the low micromolar range, and unlike typical antibiotics, only 2 to 4-fold higher concentrations were needed to significantly reduce viability and biomass of existing biofilms. Compound 2, (+)-dehydroabietic acid, was the most selective towards biofilm bacteria, achieving high killing efficacy (based on log Reduction values) and it was best tolerated by three different mammalian cell lines. Since (+)-dehydroabietic acid is an easily available compound, it holds great potential to be used as a molecular probe in biofilms-related studies as well as to serve as inspirational chemical model for the development of potent drug candidates. PMID:23739682

  18. Eubacterial Diterpene Cyclase Genes Essential for Production of the Isoprenoid Antibiotic Terpentecin

    PubMed Central

    Dairi, Tohru; Hamano, Yoshimitsu; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Itoh, Nobuya; Furihata, Kazuo; Seto, Haruo

    2001-01-01

    A gene cluster containing the mevalonate pathway genes (open reading frame 2 [ORF2] to ORF7) for the formation of isopentenyl diphosphate and a geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) synthase gene (ORF1) had previously been cloned from Streptomyces griseolosporeus strain MF730-N6, a diterpenoid antibiotic, terpentecin (TP) producer (Y. Hamano, T. Dairi, M. Yamamoto, T. Kawasaki, K Kaneda, T. Kuzuyama, N. Itoh, and H. Seto, Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 65:1627–1635, 2001). Sequence analysis in the upstream region of the cluster revealed seven new ORFs, ORF8 to ORF14, which were suggested to encode TP biosynthetic genes. We constructed two mutants, in which ORF11 and ORF12, which encode a protein showing similarities to eukaryotic diterpene cyclases (DCs) and a eubacterial pentalenene synthase, respectively, were inactivated by gene disruptions. The mutants produced no TP, confirming that these cyclase genes are essential for the production of TP. The two cyclase genes were also expressed in Streptomyces lividans together with the GGDP synthase gene under the control of the ermE* constitutive promoter. The transformant produced a novel cyclic diterpenoid, ent-clerod-3,13(16),14-triene (terpentetriene), which has the same basic skeleton as TP. The two enzymes, each of which was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity, converted GGDP into terpentetriene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a eubacterial DC. PMID:11567009

  19. Relationship between antioxidant status and oxidative stability in lamb meat reinforced with dietary rosemary diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, Jordi; Serrano, Rafael; Jordán, María José; Bañón, Sancho

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the antioxidant status of fresh meat and oxidative stability of chilled-packed meat obtained from lambs fed on a diet supplemented with two different doses of a rosemary extract containing carnosic acid and carnosol was studied. The incorporation of rosemary extract in the lamb diet led to the deposition of functional levels of the diterpenic metabolite C19H22O3 in meat, which improved its stability against oxidation. The antioxidant status could be assessed through both the radical scavenging capacity (DPPH and TEAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). In general, antioxidant status values correlated better (P < 0.05) with the changes in CIELAB colour, malondialdehyde and sensory scoring than with the changes in hexanal and protein carboxylation measured in the lamb cuts kept under protective atmosphere for up to 14 days. The FRAP and DPPH assays were more suitable than the TEAC assay for predicting meat oxidation and any resulting discolouration and rancidity. PMID:26213076

  20. Active Site and Laminarin Binding in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 55*

    PubMed Central

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S.; Yik, Eric J.; Bergeman, Lai F.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 β-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100–10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ∼30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties. PMID:25752603

  1. Active site and laminarin binding in glycoside hydrolase family 55.

    PubMed

    Bianchetti, Christopher M; Takasuka, Taichi E; Deutsch, Sam; Udell, Hannah S; Yik, Eric J; Bergeman, Lai F; Fox, Brian G

    2015-05-01

    The Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) database indicates that glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) contains both endo- and exo-β-1,3-glucanases. The founding structure in the GH55 is PcLam55A from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Ishida, T., Fushinobu, S., Kawai, R., Kitaoka, M., Igarashi, K., and Samejima, M. (2009) Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 55 β-1,3-glucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 10100-10109). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of bacterial SacteLam55A from the highly cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E with bound substrates and product. These structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, implicate Glu-502 as the catalytic acid (as proposed earlier for Glu-663 in PcLam55A) and a proton relay network of four residues in activating water as the nucleophile. Further, a set of conserved aromatic residues that define the active site apparently enforce an exo-glucanase reactivity as demonstrated by exhaustive hydrolysis reactions with purified laminarioligosaccharides. Two additional aromatic residues that line the substrate-binding channel show substrate-dependent conformational flexibility that may promote processive reactivity of the bound oligosaccharide in the bacterial enzymes. Gene synthesis carried out on ∼30% of the GH55 family gave 34 active enzymes (19% functional coverage of the nonredundant members of GH55). These active enzymes reacted with only laminarin from a panel of 10 different soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and displayed a broad range of specific activities and optima for pH and temperature. Application of this experimental method provides a new, systematic way to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic space for functional properties. PMID:25752603

  2. A new iridoid glycoside from the roots of Dipsacus asper.

    PubMed

    Ji, De; Zhang, Chunfeng; Li, Jingzhi; Yang, Haowei; Shen, Jingyang; Yang, Zhonglin

    2012-01-01

    A new iridoid glycoside, named loganic acid ethyl ester (1), together with five known compounds: chlorogenic acid (2), caffeic acid (3), loganin (4), cantleyoside (5) and syringaresinol-4',4''-O-bis-β-D-glucoside (6) were isolated from the roots of Dipsacus asper. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses. Lignan is isolated from Dipsacaceae species for the first time. Compounds 1, 4 and 5 had moderate neuroprotective effects against the Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ induced cell death in PC12 cells. PMID:22306831

  3. New Lignans and Iridoid Glycosides from Dipsacus asper Wall.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xinguang; Ma, Guoxu; Zhang, Dawei; Huang, Wenhua; Ding, Gang; Hu, Huagang; Tu, Guangzhong; Guo, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Six new compounds, including four new lignans, dipsalignan A (1), B-D (3-5), and two new bis-iridoid glycoside dimmers, dipsanosides M (7) and N (8), together with two known compounds (2) and (6), have been isolated from the roots of Dipsacus asper Wall. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data (MS, 1D, 2D NMR, and CD) and chemical methods. All the isolated compounds were tested against human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) integrase inhibition activities, and only compounds 1, 2, 7, and 8 displayed weak activities. PMID:25635380

  4. A new cucurbitacin glycoside from Kageneckia oblonga (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, O; Delporte, C; Backhouse, N; Erazo, S; Negrete, R; Maldonado, S; López-Pérez, J L; San Feliciano, A

    2000-01-01

    A novel cucurbitacin glycoside has been isolated from aerial parts of Kageneckia oblonga R. et P. and shown to be 3beta-(beta-D-glucosyloxy)-16alpha,23alpha-epoxycuc urbita-5,24-dien-11-one. The structure was established by usual spectroscopic and two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques. This compound has found to be nontoxic when tested in-vivo cell culture assays. In previous investigations we reported 23,24-dihydrocucurbitacin F and prunasine. This was the first report on cucurbitacins from the genus Kageneckia (Rosaceae). PMID:10817201

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of bibenzyl glycosides as potent tyrosinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Reiko; Oozeki, Hiromi; Muraoka, Seiichi; Tanaka, Saori; Motegi, Yukari; Nihei, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Yoichi; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Nihei, Ken-ichi

    2011-04-01

    Bibenzyl glycosides 1-6 were synthesized from 2,4-dihydoxybenzaldehyde and xylose, glucose, cellobiose or maltose. The key steps in the synthesis were the Wittig reaction and trichloroacetimidate glycosylation. Tests for tyrosinase inhibitory activity showed that all were significantly active, indicating that they are unique hydrophilic tyrosinase inhibitors. Bibenzyl xyloside 2 is a particularly potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 0.43 μM, 17 times higher than that of kojic acid). These results suggest that the hydrophilic cavity of tyrosinase might accommodate the bulky carbohydrate on the bibenzyl scaffold. PMID:21334791

  6. A new pregnane glycoside from Gomphocarpus fruticosus growing in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Amani M; Osman, Samir M; Gohar, Ahmed A

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Gomphocarpus fruticosus (L.) Ait. of Egyptian origin afforded the new pregnane glycoside lineolon-3-O-[β-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1-4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1-4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside], along with six known compounds. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic evidences derived from 1D, 2D NMR experiments, mass spectrometry and by comparing their physical and spectroscopic data to literature. These included the triterpenoids 3β-taraxerol, 3β-taraxerol acetate and betulinic acid, which are identified for the first time in G. fruticosus and the cardenolides uzarigenin, gomphoside and calotropin. PMID:26595507

  7. Two new flavonoid glycosides from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Xu, Zhi-Lin; Wu, Chun-Fu; Yang, Jing-Yu; Kano, Yoshihiro; Yuan, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Two novel flavonoid glycosides, 6"'-dihydrophaseoylspinosin (1) and 6″,6"'-diferuloylspinosin (2), were isolated from the MeOH extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, together with six known flavonoids, isovitexin-2″-O-β-(6-O-E-feruloyl)glucopyranoside (3), spinosin (4), isospinosin (5), 6"'-feruloylspinosin (6), swertisin (7), and isovitexin-2″-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (8). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, ESI-TOF-MS, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR experiments. PMID:22296152

  8. Bioactive Iridoid Glycosides from the Whole Plants of Rehmannia chingii.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Fei; Shi, Guo-Ru; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Wang, Yan; Chen, Ruo-Yun; Yu, De-Quan

    2016-02-26

    Nine new iridoid glycosides, rehmachingiiosides A-I (1-9), together with 16 known analogues, were isolated from the whole plants of Rehmannia chingii. The structures of compounds 1-9 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis and from chemical evidence. Furthermore, in two vitro assays, compounds 5 and 10 showed an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced NO production with IC50 values of 2.5 and 7.3 μM, and compounds 4, 6, and 10-12 (when evaluated at 10 μM) exhibited evidence of hepatoprotective effects against APAP-induced HepG2 cell damage. PMID:26859776

  9. Two new glycosides from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia L.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming-Xu; Zhang, Hong-Cai; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shu-Min; Liu, Li

    2012-01-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the fruits of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.), and find novel compounds, an n-butanol extract of the ethanol soluble fraction was subjected to repeated silica gel and ODS column chromatography and HPLC. Two new glycosides were isolated and their structures elucidated by NMR and HRFAB-MS spectrometry as (2E,4E,7Z)-deca-2,4,7-trienoate-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and amyl-1-O-β-D-apio-furanosyl-1,6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, respectively. PMID:23103531

  10. Flavonoid glycosides from Byrsocarpus coccineus leaves. Schum and Thonn (Connaraceae).

    PubMed

    Ahmadu, A A; Hassan, H S; Abubakar, M U; Akpulu, I N

    2007-01-01

    The bioactive ethyl acetate and N-butanol soluble parts of an ethanolic extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus leaves was subjected to column chromatography over silica gel G (60-120 microns) and repeated purification of the flavonoid rich fraction over sephadex LH-20 eluted with methanol led to the isolation of three flavonoid glycosides identified as quercetin 3-O-alpha-arabinoside (I), quercetin (II) and quercetin 3-beta-D-glucoside. Their structures were elucidated by (1)H and (13)C-NMR data and are reported here for the first time in this plant. PMID:20161886

  11. Additional new minor cucurbitane glycosides from Siraitia grosvenorii.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Continuous phytochemical studies of the crude extract of Luo Han Guo (Siraitia grosvenorii) furnished three additional new cucurbitane triterpene glycosides, namely 11-deoxymogroside V, 11-deoxyisomogroside V, and 11-deoxymogroside VI. The structures of all the isolated compounds were characterized on the basis of extensive NMR and mass spectral data as well as hydrolysis studies. The complete ¹H- and ¹³C-NMR spectral assignments of the three unknown compounds are reported for the first time based on COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, and HMBC spectroscopic data. PMID:24662081

  12. Inhibition of amyloid β aggregation by acteoside, a phenylethanoid glycoside.

    PubMed

    Kurisu, Manami; Miyamae, Yusaku; Murakami, Kazuma; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko; Irie, Kazuhiro; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of acteoside (1a), which was isolated from Orobanche minor, and its derivatives on the aggregation of a 42-mer amyloid β protein (Aβ42) in our search for anti-amyloidogenic compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. Acteoside (1a) strongly inhibited the aggregation of Aβ42 in a dose-dependent manner. The structure-activity relationship for acteoside (1a) and related compounds suggests the catechol moiety of phenylethanoid glycosides to be essential for this inhibitory activity. PMID:23748773

  13. A first new antimalarial pregnane glycoside from Gongronema napalense

    PubMed Central

    Libman, Amey; Zhang, Hongjie; Ma, Cuiying; Southavong, Bounhong; Sydara, Kongmany; Bouamanivong, Somsanith; Tan, Ghee T.; Fong, Harry H. S.; Soejarto, D. Doel

    2010-01-01

    As a part of the UIC-based ICBG project in Laos, plants were collected based on ethnomedical interviews and evaluated for antimalarial activity. A CHCl3 extract from the vine of Gongronema napalense (Wall.) Decne. (Asclepiadaceae) showed promising anti-malarial activity while exhibiting low levels of cytotoxicity and was thus followed up with further fractionation and biological evaluation. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of a new steroidal glycoside, gongroneside A, which showed antimalarial activity in vitro with an IC50 value of 1.60 and 1.39 μM against the Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 clones, respectively. PMID:23653676

  14. Evaluation of the antiproliferative activity of diterpene isonitriles from the sponge Pseudoaxinella flava in apoptosis-sensitive and apoptosis-resistant cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lamoral-Theys, Delphine; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Mangoni, Alfonso; Perinu, Cristina; Kiss, Robert; Costantino, Valeria

    2011-10-28

    One new (1) and three known (2-4) isonitrile diterpenes, isolated from the Caribbean sponge Pseudoaxinella flava, were assayed in human cancer cell lines in vitro using an MTT colorimetric assay and quantitative videomicroscopy. Compounds 1-4 displayed activity for human PC3 prostate apoptosis-sensitive cancer cell lines. Compounds 3 and 4 demonstrated similar growth inhibitory effects for three apoptosis-sensitive and three apoptosis-resistant cancer cell lines. Quantitative videomicroscopy analysis revealed that compounds 1 and 2 exerted their activity through cytotoxic effects, and compounds 3 and 4 through cytostatic effects. These results identify marine diterpene isonitriles as potential lead compounds for anticancer drug discovery. PMID:21985105

  15. [Study on limit detection of flavones in diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection materials by LC-MS and HPLC-DAD].

    PubMed

    Bi, Sen; Li, Yan-jing; Huang, Wen-zhe; Kang, Dan-yu; Ding, Gang; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Limit test of flavones in diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection materials by UV-Vis and HPLC-DAD method was studied in this essay. The HPLC-DAD method has lower LOD (about 1% of the UV-Vis), that is, the sensitivity is higher than UV-Vis method. Through the analysis of the kinds of flavonoids ingredients in the samples by LC-MS, the three compounds with highest contents are kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin. Kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin were chosen as reference compounds for HPLC analysis, and the HPLC separation analysis was carried on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) with methanol and water containing 0.4% phosphoric acid (50: 50) as mobile phase, and the flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1). The detection wavelength was set at 360 nm. This method has good specificity, precision and reproducibility. The LODs of quercetin, kaempferide and isorhamnetin were 27.6, 22.3, 29.5 μg x L(-1). The average recovery was 87.9% (RSD 3.3%), 91.7% (RSD 3.1%), 88.3 (RSD 1.3%) for quercetin, kaempferide and isorhamnetin, respectively. Based on the 10 batches of sample results and sensitivity of different HPLC, the content of total flavonoids ingredients of diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection materials was limited no more than 2 x 10(-5). This method is simple, quick and has good maneuverability, and could be used to the limit test of flavonoids in the diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection materials. PMID:26790294

  16. Involvement of an ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase in tissue-specific accumulation of specialized diterpenes in Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Garg, Anchal; Roy, Sudeep; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Vasudev, Prema G; Ghosh, Sumit

    2015-11-01

    Ent-labdane-related diterpene (ent-LRD) specialized (i.e. secondary) metabolites of the medicinal plant kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) have long been known for several pharmacological activities. However, our understanding of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway has remained largely incomplete. Since ent-LRDs accumulate in leaves, we carried out a comparative transcriptional analysis using leaf and root tissues, and identified 389 differentially expressed transcripts, including 223 transcripts that were preferentially expressed in leaf tissue. Analysis of the transcripts revealed various specialized metabolic pathways, including transcripts of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway. Two class II diterpene synthases (ApCPS1 and ApCPS2) along with one (ApCPS1') and two (ApCPS2' and ApCPS2″) transcriptional variants that were the outcomes of alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA and alternative transcriptional termination, respectively, were identified. ApCPS1 and ApCPS2 encode for 832- and 817-amino acids proteins, respectively, and are phylogenetically related to the dicotyledons ent-copalyl diphosphate synthases (ent-CPSs). The spatio-temporal patterns of ent-LRD metabolites accumulation and gene expression suggested a likely role for ApCPS1 in general (i.e. primary) metabolism, perhaps by providing precursor for the biosynthesis of phytohormone gibberellin (GA). However, ApCPS2 is potentially involved in tissue-specific accumulation of ent-LRD specialized metabolites. Bacterially expressed recombinant ApCPS2 catalyzed the conversion of (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), the general precursor of diterpenes to ent-copalyl diphosphate (ent-CPP), the precursor of ent-LRDs. Taken together, these results advance our understanding of the tissue-specific accumulation of specialized ent-LRDs of medicinal importance. PMID:26475187

  17. Reaction of Glyconitriles with Organometallic Reagents: Access to Acyl β-C-Glycosides.

    PubMed

    Guisot, Nicolas E S; Ella Obame, Idriss; Ireddy, Prathap; Nourry, Arnaud; Saluzzo, Christine; Dujardin, Gilles; Dubreuil, Didier; Pipelier, Muriel; Guillarme, Stéphane

    2016-03-18

    A new strategy for the synthesis of acyl β-C-glycosides is described. The reactivity of glyconitriles toward organometallic reagents such as organomagnesium or organolithium derivatives was studied, affording acyl β-C-glycosides in moderate to good yields. In this study, glycal formation was efficiently prevented by deprotonating the hydroxyl group in position 2 of the glyconitriles during the process. PMID:26926714

  18. Environment and Genotype Affect Sweetpotato Storage Root Periderm Resin Glycoside Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resin glycosides are complex compounds composed primarily of fatty acids and sugars that contribute to allelopathic potential and pest resistance in sweetpotato. Total periderm resin glycoside (PRG) contents of 10 sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) clones grown in three different field trials was det...

  19. New cardenolide and acylated lignan glycosides from the aerial parts of Asclepias curassavica.

    PubMed

    Warashina, Tsutomu; Shikata, Kimiko; Miyase, Toshio; Fujii, Satoshi; Noro, Tadataka

    2008-08-01

    Three new cardenolide glycosides and six new acylated lignan glycosides were obtained along with nineteen known compounds from the aerial parts of Asclepias curassavica L. (Asclepiadaceae). The structure of each compound was determined based on interpretations of NMR and MS measurements and chemical evidence. PMID:18670118

  20. Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we ann...

  1. Dalvelutinoside, a new isoflavone glycoside from the methanol extract of Dalbergia velutina roots.

    PubMed

    Kaennakam, Sutin; Siripong, Pongpun; Tip-Pyang, Santi

    2016-07-01

    A new isoflavone glycoside, dalvelutinoside (1), together with one known isoflavone (2) and five known isoflavone glycosides (3-7) were isolated from the methanol extract of the roots of Dalbergia velutina. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against KB and HeLa cell lines. PMID:26594823

  2. Two new nor-triterpene glycosides from peruvian "Uña de Gato" (Uncaria tomentosa).

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Mariko; Hashimoto, Ken-Ichiro; Yokoya, Masashi; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Sandoval, Manuel; Aimi, Norio

    2003-02-01

    Two new 27-nor-triterpene glycosides, tomentosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from Peruvian "Uña de Gato" (cat's claw, plant of origin: Uncaria tomentosa), a traditional herbal medicine in Peru. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical interconversions. This is the first report of naturally occurring pyroquinovic acid glycosides. PMID:12608878

  3. Allosteric indicator displacement enzyme assay for a cyanogenic glycoside.

    PubMed

    Jose, D Amilan; Elstner, Martin; Schiller, Alexander

    2013-10-18

    Indicator displacement assays (IDAs) represent an elegant approach in supramolecular analytical chemistry. Herein, we report a chemical biosensor for the selective detection of the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin in aqueous solution. The hybrid sensor consists of the enzyme β-glucosidase and a boronic acid appended viologen together with a fluorescent reporter dye. β-Glucosidase degrades the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin into hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde. Only the released cyanide binds at the allosteric site of the receptor (boronic acid) thereby inducing changes in the affinity of a formerly bound fluorescent indicator dye at the other side of the receptor. Thus, the sensing probe performs as allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) for cyanide in water. Interference studies with inorganic anions and glucose revealed that cyanide is solely responsible for the change in the fluorescent signal. DFT calculations on a model compound revealed a 1:1 binding ratio of the boronic acid and cyanide ion. The fluorescent enzyme assay for β-glucosidase uses amygdalin as natural substrate and allows measuring Michaelis-Menten kinetics in microtiter plates. The allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) probe can also be used to detect cyanide traces in commercial amygdalin samples. PMID:24123550

  4. Syntheses of alpha-tocopheryl glycosides by glucosidases.

    PubMed

    Ponrasu, Thangavel; Charles, Rajachristu Einstein; Sivakumar, Ramaiah; Divakar, Soundar

    2008-08-01

    Enzymatic syntheses of water-soluble alpha-tocopheryl glycosides were carried out in di-isopropyl ether using amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus mold or beta-glucosidase isolated from sweet almond. Optimum conditions for the amyloglucosidase were: alpha-tocopherol 0.5 mmol, D-glucose 0.5 mmol, 400 activity unit (AU) amyloglucosidase, 0.2 mM pH 7 phosphate buffer and 72 h; and for the beta-glucosidase: alpha-tocopherol 0.5 mmol, D: -glucose 0.5 mmol, 110 AU beta-glucosidase, 0.1 mM pH 6 phosphate buffer and 72 h. Out of 11 carbohydrates employed, amyloglucosidase reacted only with D-glucose to give 50% of 6-O-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol. However, the beta-glucosidase gave 6-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol, 6-O-(alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol, 6-O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol, 6-O-(alpha-D-mannopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol and 6-O-(beta-D-mannopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol in yields ranging from 10-25%. Water solubility of 6-O-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol was 26 g/l at 25 degrees C. alpha-Tocopheryl glycosides showed antioxidant activities with IC(50) values from 0.5 to 1 mM and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity with IC(50) values from 1.3 to 2.6 mM. PMID:18368294

  5. A new glycosidic flavonoid from Jwarhar mahakashay (antipyretic) Ayurvedic preparation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mradu; Shaw, B. P.; Mukherjee, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Jwarhar mahakashay Ayurvedic preparation (from the roots of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., Rubia cordifolia L., Cissampelos pareira L.; fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia bellirica Roxb., Vitis vinifera L., Grewia asiatica L., Salvadora persica L. and granules of Saccharum officinarum L.) has been used as a traditional antipyretic. Experimental studies confirmed its antipyretic–analgesic effect with very low ulcerogenicity and toxicity. Flavonoids, glycosides and tannins were later found to be present in the extract. Detailed chemical investigations were undertaken after hydrolysis of extract using spectroscopic and chromatography methods to determine its active chemical constituent. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed absorbance maxima at 220 and 276 nm, while fourier transform infra-red investigations indicated an end carboxylic O–H structure at 2940 cm−1 suggesting the presence of glycoside-linked flavonoids. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography also confirmed the possibility of at least one major and two minor compounds in this abstract. Detailed examination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of the principal component as 2-(1-oxopropyl)-benzoic acid, which is quite similar to the active compound found in the standard drug Aspirin (2-acetyl-oxybenzoic acid). PMID:20814525

  6. Cycloartane and oleanane-type glycosides from Astragalus pennatulus.

    PubMed

    Un, Rabia; Horo, Ibrahim; Masullo, Milena; Falco, Antonia; Senol, Serdar G; Piacente, Sonia; Alankuş-Çalıskan, Özgen

    2016-03-01

    Four new cycloartane and one new oleanane-type glycosides were isolated from Astragalus pennatulus along with five known cycloartane-type glycosides. The structures of the new compounds were established as 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3β,6α,16β-trihydroxy-24-oxo-20(R),25-epoxycycloartane (1), 3-O-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-xylopyranosyl]-3β,16β,24α-trihydroxy-20(R),25-epoxycycloartane (2), 3-O-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-xylopyranosyl]-3β,16β,25-trihydroxy-20(R),24(S)-epoxycycloartane (3), 3,25-di-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-6-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-3β,6α,16β,25-tetrahydroxy-20(R),24(S)-epoxycycloartane (4), 29-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-abrisapogenol B (5) by 1D and 2D-NMR experiments along with ESIMS and HRMS analyses. The aglycone of compound 1, 3β,6α,16β-trihydroxy-24-oxo-20(R),25-epoxycycloartane, is reported for the first time. The cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against three cancer cell lines including A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma), A375 (human melanoma) and DeFew (human B lymphoma) cells. None of the tested compounds caused a significant reduction of the cell number. PMID:26804373

  7. New Glycosides and Trypanocidal Metabolites from Vangueria edulis

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Shaymaa M. M.; Elokely, Khaled M.; Bachkeet, Enaam Y.; Bayoumi, Soad A. L.; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Klein, Michael L.; Cutler, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    A new iridoid glucoside, 10-methoxy apodanthoside (1), and a new monoterpene glycoside, (3S,6S)-cis linalool-3,7-oxide O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1″→5′)-β-D-xylofuranoside (2), were isolated from V. edulis (Rubiaceae), along with eighteen known compounds (3–20), including monoterpenes, iridoid glycosides, and a lignin, which were encountered for the first time in the genus Vangueria,. The structural elucidation of the isolates was based on the analysis of spectroscopic (1D and 2D NMR) and HR-ESI-MS data. Detailed stereochemical studies of 1 and related iridoid glucosides (compounds 3, 4 and 8) were made by matching the calculated ECD peaks with the experimental ones. All isolates were tested for their antiprotozoal, antifungal, and antiplasmodial activities. Compounds 9, 15 and 16 showed good trypanocidal activities against Trypanosoma brucei brucei with IC50 values of 8.18, 9.02 and 7.80 μg/mL, respectively and IC90 values of >10, >10 and 9.76 μg/mL, respectively. Compound 16 showed a moderate activity against Candida glabrata with an IC50 value of 8.66 μg/mL. Compound 20 showed a weak antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 3.29 (SI, >1.4) and 4.53 (SI, >1) μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26749819

  8. Angling for Uniqueness in Enzymatic Preparation of Glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Trincone, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In the early days of biocatalysis, limitations of an enzyme modeled the enzymatic applications; nowadays the enzyme can be engineered to be suitable for the process requirements. This is a general bird’s-eye view and as such cannot be specific for articulated situations found in different classes of enzymes or for selected enzymatic processes. As far as the enzymatic preparation of glycosides is concerned, recent scientific literature is awash with examples of uniqueness related to the features of the biocatalyst (yield, substrate specificity, regioselectivity, and resistance to a particular reaction condition). The invention of glycosynthases is just one of the aspects that has thrust forward the research in this field. Protein engineering, metagenomics and reaction engineering have led to the discovery of an expanding number of novel enzymes and to the setting up of new bio-based processes for the preparation of glycosides. In this review, new examples from the last decade are compiled with attention both to cases in which naturally present, as well as genetically inserted, characteristics of the catalysts make them attractive for biocatalysis. PMID:24970171

  9. Steviol Glycosides Modulate Glucose Transport in Different Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Benedetta; Zambonin, Laura; Leoncini, Emanuela; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco; Prata, Cecilia; Fiorentini, Diana; Hrelia, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a plant native to Central and South America, have been used as a sweetener since ancient times. Currently, Stevia extracts are largely used as a noncaloric high-potency biosweetener alternative to sugar, due to the growing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic disorders worldwide. Despite the large number of studies on Stevia and steviol glycosides in vivo, little is reported concerning the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects on human health. The effect of four commercial Stevia extracts on glucose transport activity was evaluated in HL-60 human leukaemia and in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The extracts were able to enhance glucose uptake in both cellular lines, as efficiently as insulin. Our data suggest that steviol glycosides could act by modulating GLUT translocation through the PI3K/Akt pathway since treatments with both insulin and Stevia extracts increased the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt. Furthermore, Stevia extracts were able to revert the effect of the reduction of glucose uptake caused by methylglyoxal, an inhibitor of the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt pathway. These results corroborate the hypothesis that Stevia extracts could mimic insulin effects modulating PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:24327825

  10. Flacourtosides A-F, phenolic glycosides isolated from Flacourtia ramontchi.

    PubMed

    Bourjot, Mélanie; Leyssen, Pieter; Eydoux, Cécilia; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Canard, Bruno; Rasoanaivo, Philippe; Guéritte, Françoise; Litaudon, Marc

    2012-04-27

    In an effort to identify novel inhibitors of chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue (DENV) virus replication, a systematic study with 820 ethyl acetate extracts of madagascan plants was performed in a virus-cell-based assay for CHIKV, and a DENV NS5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) assay. The extract obtained from the stem bark of Flacourtia ramontchi was selected for its significant activity in both assays. Six new phenolic glycosides, named flacourtosides A-F (1-6), phenolic glycosides itoside H, xylosmin, scolochinenoside D, and poliothrysoside, and betulinic acid 3β-caffeate were obtained using the bioassay-guided isolation process. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive analyses of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Even though several extracts and fractions showed significant selective antiviral activity in the CHIKV virus-cell-based assay, none of the purified compounds did. However, in the DENV RNA polymerase assay, significant inhibition was observed with betulinic acid 3β-caffeate (IC(50) = 0.85 ± 0.1 μM) and to a lesser extent for the flacourtosides A and E (1 and 5, respectively), and scolochinenoside D (IC(50) values ~10 μM). PMID:22439591

  11. Glycosides from the stem bark of Fraxinus sieboldiana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng; Wang, Sujuan; Liu, Mingtao; Gan, Maoluo; Li, Shuai; Yang, Yongchun; Wang, Yinghong; He, Wenyi; Shi, Jiangong

    2007-05-01

    A norditerpene glucopyranoside with a novel carbon skeleton (1), eight new aromatic glycosides (2-9), and 25 known glycosides have been isolated from a H2O-soluble portion of an ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Fraxinus sieboldiana. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Based on analysis of the NMR data of threo- and erythro-arylglycerols in different solvents, an application of Delta delta C8-C7 values to distinguish threo-arylglycerol and erythro-arylglycerol isomers was proposed. In the in vitro assays, compound 5 displayed TNF-alpha secretion inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 1.6 microM, compound 6 showed antioxidative activity inhibiting Fe+2-cystine-induced rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation with an IC50 value of 0.9 microM, and plantasioside (10) showed selective activity against the human colon cancer cell line (HCT-8) with an IC50 value of 3.4 microM. PMID:17461599

  12. Mass spectrometric imaging of flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids in Ginkgo biloba L.

    PubMed

    Beck, Sebastian; Stengel, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. is known to be rich in flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides. However, the distribution within specific plant organs (e.g. within leaves) is not known. By using HPLC-MS and MS/MS we have identified a number of previously known G. biloba flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids from leaves. Namely, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, laricitrin/mearnsetin and apigenin glycosides were identified. Furthermore, biflavonoids like ginkgetin/isoginkgetin were also detected. The application of MALDI mass spectrometric imaging, enabled the compilation of concentration profiles of flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids in G. biloba L. leaves. Both, flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids show a distinct distribution in leaf thin sections of G. biloba L. PMID:27233155

  13. Quantitation of sweet steviol glycosides by means of a HILIC-MS/MS-SIDA approach.

    PubMed

    Well, Caroline; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-11-27

    Meeting the rising consumer demand for natural food ingredients, steviol glycosides, the sweet principle of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Bertoni), have recently been approved as food additives in the European Union. As regulatory constraints require sensitive methods to analyze the sweet-tasting steviol glycosides in foods and beverages, a HILIC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the accurate and reliable quantitation of the major steviol glycosides stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F, steviolbioside, rubusoside, and dulcoside A by using the corresponding deuterated 16,17-dihydrosteviol glycosides as suitable internal standards. This quantitation not only enables the analysis of the individual steviol glycosides in foods and beverages but also can support the optimization of breeding and postharvest downstream processing of Stevia plants to produce preferentially sweet and least bitter tasting Stevia extracts. PMID:24206531

  14. Application of an enyne metathesis/Diels-Alder cycloaddition sequence: a new versatile approach to the syntheses of C-aryl glycosides and spiro-C-aryl glycosides.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, Ayyagari V; Palanichamy, Kalanidhi; Kaliappan, Krishna P

    2010-07-26

    An efficient approach for the synthesis of a variety of C-aryl and spiro-C-aryl glycosides is described. This diversity-oriented strategy employed here relies on a sequential enyne metathesis to generate the 1,3-diene moiety and Diels-Alder reaction with different dienophiles followed by aromatisation. Whereas cross-enyne metathesis with ethylene gas is used to install the 1,3-diene moiety at the anomeric centre for the synthesis of C-aryl glycosides, an intramolecular enyne metathesis on the sugar enyne is performed to generate the 1,3-diene moiety for the synthesis of spiro-C-aryl glycosides. Efforts to extend this strategy to the synthesis of the core structure of natural C-aryl glycoside gilvocarcin are also described. A combination of both C-aryl and spiro-C-aryl glycosides in the same moiety to combine the features thereof has also been accomplished. A tandem enyne metathesis/Diels-Alder reaction/aromatisation has also been attempted to directly access the C-aryl glycosides in one pot albeit in low yield. PMID:20549721

  15. Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Kahweol, a Coffee Diterpene

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Casimiro; Quesada, Ana R.; Medina, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have shown that unfiltered coffee consumption is associated with a low incidence of cancer. This study aims to identify the effects of kahweol, an antioxidant diterpene contained in unfiltered coffee, on angiogenesis and key inflammatory molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings The experimental procedures included in vivo angiogenesis assays (both the chicken and quail choriallantoic membrane assay and the angiogenesis assay with fluorescent zebrafish), the ex vivo mouse aortic ring assay and the in vitro analysis of the effects of treatment of human endothelial cells with kahweol in cell growth, cell viability, cell migration and zymographic assays, as well as the tube formation assay on Matrigel. Additionally, two inflammation markers were determined, namely, the expression levels of cyclooxygenase 2 and the levels of secreted monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. We show for the first time that kahweol is an anti-angiogenic compound with inhibitory effects in two in vivo and one ex vivo angiogenesis models, with effects on specific steps of the angiogenic process: endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation on Matrigel. We also demonstrate the inhibitory effect of kahweol on the endothelial cell potential to remodel extracellular matrix by targeting two key molecules involved in the process, MMP-2 and uPA. Finally, the anti-inflammatory potential of this compound is demonstrated by its inhibition of both COX-2 expression and MCP-1 secretion in endothelial cells. Conclusion/Significance Taken together, our data indicate that, indeed, kahweol behaves as an anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic compound with potential use in antitumoral therapies. These data may contribute to the explanation of the reported antitumoral effects of kahweol, including the recent epidemiological meta-analysis showing that drinking coffee could decrease the risk of certain cancers. PMID:21858104

  16. The hallucinogenic diterpene salvinorin A inhibits leukotriene synthesis in experimental models of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Antonietta; Pace, Simona; Tedesco, Federica; Pagano, Ester; Guerra, Germano; Troisi, Fabiana; Werner, Markus; Roviezzo, Fiorentina; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Werz, Oliver; Izzo, Angelo A; Capasso, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid (AA) involved in a number of autoimmune/inflammatory disorders including asthma, allergic rhinitis and cardiovascular diseases. Salvinorin A (SA), a diterpene isolated from the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum, is a well-established analgesic compound, but its anti-inflammatory properties are under-researched and its effects on LT production is unknown to date. Here, we studied the possible effect of SA on LT production and verified its actions on experimental models of inflammation in which LTs play a prominent role. Peritoneal macrophages (PM) stimulated by calcium ionophore A23187 were chosen as in vitro system to evaluate the effect of SA on LT production. Zymosan-induced peritonitis in mice and carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats were selected as LT-related models to evaluate the effect of SA on inflammation as well as on LT biosynthesis. SA inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, A23187-induced LTB4 biosynthesis in isolated PM. In zymosan-induced peritonitis, SA inhibited cell infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity, vascular permeability and LTC4 production in the peritoneal cavity without decreasing the production of prostaglandin E2. In carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats, a more sophisticated model of acute inflammation related to LTs, SA significantly inhibited LTB4 production in the inflammatory exudates, along with reducing the phlogistic process in the lung. In conclusion, SA inhibited LT production and it was effective in experimental models of inflammation in which LTs play a pivotal role. SA might be considered as a lead compound for the development of drugs useful in LTs-related diseases. PMID:26859523

  17. The in vivo trypanocidal effect of the diterpene 5-epi-icetexone obtained from Salvia gilliesii.

    PubMed

    Lozano, E; Strauss, M; Spina, R; Cifuente, D; Tonn, C; Rivarola, H W; Sosa, M A

    2016-02-01

    The search for new compounds with trypanocidal activity is crucial for the treatment of Chagas' disease. Previous in vitro studies have shown that the diterpene 5-epi-icetexone (ICTX) is active against Trypanosoma cruzi. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of ICTX on the parasites in infected mice, in an experimental model that mimics the acute phase of the disease. Swiss albino mice were infected with T. cruzi and treated daily with 10mg/kg/day ICTX (i.p.). Infected mice and mice injected with either saline or the vehicle DMSO were used as controls. Animals' survival and parasitemia were monitored once a week and histological studies were made at necropsy by the 5th week after infection. It was observed that the administration of ICTX increased the survival of mice infected, and induced a significant decrease in the parasitemia, as compared to controls. A similar protective effect was observed when animals were treated orally with benznidazole (BZN, used as a control of antiparasitic effect). By the 5th week post-infection, the presence of amastigote nests was observed within the fibers of the cardiac and skeletal muscle in controls, but not in animals treated with either ICTX or BZN. In addition, inflammatory infiltrates were observed in the tissues of controls, but not in animals treated with the drugs. We conclude that ICTX has an antiparasitic effect against T. cruzi, thus constituting an interesting option for the treatment of Chagas' disease, alone or combined with other drugs. PMID:26341064

  18. A Great Barrier Reef Sinularia sp. Yields Two New Cytotoxic Diterpenes

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Anthony D.; Nielson, Jonathan L.; Tapiolas, Dianne M.; Liptrot, Catherine H.; Motti, Cherie A.

    2012-01-01

    The methanol extract of a Sinularia sp., collected from Bowden Reef, Queensland, Australia, yielded ten natural products. These included the new nitrogenous diterpene (4R*,5R*,9S*,10R*,11Z)-4-methoxy-9-((dimethylamino)-methyl)-12,15-epoxy-11(13)-en-decahydronaphthalen-16-ol (1), and the new lobane, (1R*,2R*,4S*,15E)-loba-8,10,13(14),15(16)-tetraen-17,18-diol-17-acetate (2). Also isolated were two known cembranes, sarcophytol-B and (1E,3E,7E)-11,12-epoxycembratrien-15-ol, and six known lobanes, loba-8,10,13(15)-triene-16,17,18-triol, 14,18-epoxyloba-8,10,13(15)-trien-17-ol, lobatrientriol, lobatrienolide, 14,17-epoxyloba-8,10,13(15)-trien-18-ol-18-acetate and (17R)-loba-8,10,13(15)-trien-17,18-diol. Structures of the new compounds were elucidated through interpretation of spectra obtained after extensive NMR and MS investigations and comparison with literature values. The tumour cell growth inhibition potential of 1 and 2 along with loba-8,10,13(15)-triene-16,17,18-triol, 14,17-epoxyloba-8,10,13(15)-trien-18-ol-18-acetate, lobatrienolide, (1E,3E,7E)-11,12-epoxycembratrien-15-ol and sarcophytol-B were assessed against three human tumour cell lines (SF-268, MCF-7 and H460). The lobanes and cembranes tested demonstrated 50% growth inhibition in the range 6.8–18.5 µM, with no selectivity, whilst 1 was less active (GI50 70–175 µM). PMID:23015765

  19. Anti-Protozoal Activities of Cembrane-Type Diterpenes from Vietnamese Soft Corals.

    PubMed

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Luyen, Bui Thi Thuy; Brun, Reto; Kaiser, Marcel; Van Kiem, Phan; Van Minh, Chau; Schmidt, Thomas J; Kang, Jong Seong; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-01-01

    Based on our previous finding that certain cembranoid diterpenes possess selective toxicity against protozoan pathogens of tropical diseases such as Trypanosoma and Plasmodium, we have subjected a series of 34 cembranes isolated from soft corals living in the Vietnamese sea to an in vitro screening for anti-protozoal activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (Tbr), T. cruzi (Tc), Leishmania donovani (Ld), and Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Twelve of the tested compounds displayed significant activity against at least one of the parasites. Specifically, 7S,8S-epoxy-1,3,11-cembratriene-16-oic methyl ester (1), (1R,4R,2E,7E,11E)-cembra-2,7,11-trien-4-ol (2), crassumol D (12), crassumol E (13), and (1S,2E,4S,6E,8S,11S)-2,6,12(20)-cembrantriene-4,8,11-triol (16) from Lobophytum crassum, L. laevigatum, and Sinularia maxima showed the highest level of inhibitory activity against T. b. rhodesiense, with IC50 values of about 1 µM or less. Lobocrasol A (6) and lobocrasol C (8) from L. crassum and L. laevigatum exhibited particularly significant inhibitory effects on L. donovani with IC50 values < 0.2 µM. The best antiplasmodial effect was exerted by laevigatol A (10), with an IC50 value of about 3.0 µM. The cytotoxicity of the active compounds on L6 rat skeletal myoblast cell was also assessed and found to be insignificant in all cases. This is the first report on anti-protozoal activity of these compounds, and points out the potential of the soft corals in discovery of new anti-protozoal lead compounds. PMID:26184133

  20. Ent-Kaurane diterpenes from Annona glabra and their cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Anh, Hoang Le Tuan; Hien, Nguyen Thi Thu; Hang, Dan Thi Thuy; Ha, Tran Minh; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Hien, Truong Thi Thu; Thu, Vu Kim; Thao, Do Thi; Van Minh, Chau; Kiem, Phan Van

    2014-12-01

    A new ent-kaurane glycoside, annoglabasin H (1), and three known ent-kauranes, annoglabasin E (2), annoglabasin B (3), and 19-nor-ent-kaurent-4-ol-17-oic acid (4) were isolated from the fruits of Annona glabra. Their structures were determined by the combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods, including 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy, as well as by comparison with the NMR data reported in the literature. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated on four human cancer cell lines, LU-1, MCF-7, SK-Mel2, and KB. Compound 1 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity on all tested human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 3.7 to 4.6 μM. PMID:25632457

  1. A Pimarane Diterpene and Cytotoxic Angucyclines from a Marine-Derived Micromonospora sp. in Vietnam’s East Sea

    PubMed Central

    Mullowney, Michael W.; Ó hAinmhire, Eoghainín; Tanouye, Urszula; Burdette, Joanna E.; Pham, Van Cuong; Murphy, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    A screening of our actinomycete fraction library against the NCI-60 SKOV3 human tumor cell line led to the isolation of isopimara-2-one-3-ol-8,15-diene (1), lagumycin B (2), dehydrorabelomycin (3), phenanthroviridone (4), and WS-5995 A (5). These secondary metabolites were produced by a Micromonospora sp. isolated from sediment collected off the Cát Bà peninsula in the East Sea of Vietnam. Compound 1 is a novel Δ8,9-pimarane diterpene, representing one of approximately 20 actinomycete-produced diterpenes reported to date, while compound 2 is an angucycline antibiotic that has yet to receive formal characterization. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by combined NMR and MS analysis and the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by analysis of NOESY NMR and CD spectroscopic data. Compounds 2–5 exhibited varying degrees of cytotoxicity against a panel of cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines. Overall, this study highlights our collaborative efforts to discover novel biologically active molecules from the large, underexplored, and biodiversity-rich waters of Vietnam’s East Sea. PMID:26389922

  2. Erythroivorensin: A novel anti-inflammatory diterpene from the root-bark of Erythrophleum ivorense (A Chev.).

    PubMed

    Armah, Francis A; Annan, Kofi; Mensah, Abraham Y; Amponsah, Isaac K; Tocher, Derek A; Habtemariam, Solomon

    2015-09-01

    The stem- and root-bark of Erythrophleum ivorense (A Chev., family, Fabaceae) are routinely employed in the West African traditional medicine to treat inflammation and a variety of other disease conditions. Although the chemistry and pharmacology of cassaine-type diterpene alkaloids isolated from the stem-bark of the plant are fairly established, the root-bark has not yet been investigated. In the present study, the crude aqueous-alcohol extract of the root-bark was demonstrated to display a time- and dose (30-300 mg/kg p.o.)-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in chicks. Comprehensive chromatographic analysis coupled with spectroscopic and X-ray study further allowed the assignment of one of the major anti-inflammatory constituents as a novel cassaine-type diterpene, erythroivorensin. The other major constituents were known anti-inflammatory compounds: a triterpene, betulinic acid and a flavonoid, eriodictyol. The dose (10-100mg/kg p.o.)-dependent anti-inflammatory effects of the three compounds were either comparable or more significant than the positive control, diclofenac. PMID:26057191

  3. Diterpenes from the roots of Euphorbia kansui and their in vitro effects on the cell division of Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Yan; Wang, Nai-Li; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Miyata, Syohei; Kitanaka, Susumu

    2002-09-01

    Twelve polycyclic diterpenes have been isolated from the roots of Euphorbia kansui. Nine were assigned with an ingenol skeleton, 20-O-(2'E,4'E-decadienoyl)ingenol (1), 20-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)ingenol (2), 3-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)ingenol (3), 3-O-(2'E,4'E-decadienoyl)ingenol (4), 3-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)-5-O-acetylingenol (5), 3-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)-20-O-acetylingenol (6), 3-O-(2'E,4'E-decadienoyl)-20-O-acetylingenol (7), 20-O-(decanoyl)ingenol (8), and 5-O-(2'E,4'E-decadienoyl)ingenol (9), and three with a jatrophane skeleton, kansuinins A (12), B (11), and C (10). Compounds 1, 2, 5, 9, and 12 are new compounds, while 4 and 7 were assigned with new geometric configurations. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analysis. In vitro treatment of cultured individual Xenopus cells at the blastular stage with 1-9 arrested cleavage significantly (0.5 microg/mL of each compound resulted in >75% cleavage arrest). Of the three jatrophane diterpenes (10-12), only kansuinin B (11) showed any activity, resulting in 87% cleavage arrest at 50 microg/mL. PMID:12350140

  4. Relevance of phenolic diterpene constituents to antioxidant activity of supercritical CO(2) extract from the leaves of rosemary.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Huang; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Hsieh, Chiu-Lan; Wu, Yen-Ying; Ker, Yaw-Bee; Tsen, Hau-Yang; Peng, Robert Y

    2008-01-10

    Isolation of phenolic diterpene constituents from the freeze-dried leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis has been obtained by supercritical extraction with carbon dioxide. To determine the ideal conditions for the maximum yield of extract, nine different conditions using three levels of pressures (3000, 4000 and 5000 psi) in combination with three temperatures at 40, 60 and 80 degrees C, respectively, in combination with the analyses of the corresponding antioxidant activities and constituents which existed in extracts has been investigated. The antioxidant activity of each obtained extract was determined by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals test. GC/MS method was used as an alternative to conventional HPLC method for the determination of the principal antioxidant constituents in extract, including phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (CAL). The confirmation of CA and CAL in extract was forward performed by subjecting HPLC isolates from extract into an ion trap mass spectrometer through an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface for MS/MS analysis. These results indicate that an ideal extraction process was obtained at 5000 psi and 80 degrees C with an extraction yield of 4.27% (w/w) and rich in phenolic antioxidants CA and CAL as contents of 35.23 and 0.46 mg g(-1) in extract, respectively. PMID:17999341

  5. Indole Diterpene Alkaloids as Novel Inhibitors of the Wnt/β-catenin Pathway in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Asmaa A.; Ayoub, Nehad M.; Foudah, Ahmed I.; Gissendanner, Chris R.; Meyer, Sharon A.; El Sayed, Khalid A.

    2013-01-01

    Penitrems are indole diterpene alkaloids best known for their BK channel inhibition and tremorgenic effects in mammals. In a previous study, penitrems A–F (1–5), their biosynthetic precursors, paspaline (6) and emindole SB (7), and two brominated penitrem analogs 8 and 9 demonstrated promising in vitro antiproliferative, antimigratory, and anti-invasive effects in the MTT (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), wound-healing, and Cultrex® BME cell invasion (MDA-MB-231) assays, respectively. The study herein reports the novel ability of penitrem A to suppress total β-catenin levels in MDA-MB-231 mammary cancer cells. Nine new penitrem analogs (10–18) were semisynthetically prepared, in an attempt to identify pharmacophores correlated with BK channel inhibition and tremorgenicity of penitrems and decrease their toxicity. The degree of BK channel inhibition was assessed using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and in vivo tremorgenic EC50 was calculated using CD-1 male mice following an Up-and-Down-Procedure (UDP). Although new analogs were generally less active than parent compound 1, some showed no BK channel inhibition or tremorgenicity and retained the ability of penitrem A (1) to suppress total β-catenin levels in MDA-MB-231 cells. Paspaline (6) and emindole SB (7), both lacking BK channel inhibition and tremorgenicity, represent the simplest indole diterpene skeleton that retains the antiproliferative, antimigratory and total β-catenin suppressing effects shown by the more complex penitrem A (1). PMID:24211635

  6. A Pimarane Diterpene and Cytotoxic Angucyclines from a Marine-Derived Micromonospora sp. in Vietnam's East Sea.

    PubMed

    Mullowney, Michael W; Ó hAinmhire, Eoghainín; Tanouye, Urszula; Burdette, Joanna E; Pham, Van Cuong; Murphy, Brian T

    2015-09-01

    A screening of our actinomycete fraction library against the NCI-60 SKOV3 human tumor cell line led to the isolation of isopimara-2-one-3-ol-8,15-diene (1), lagumycin B (2), dehydrorabelomycin (3), phenanthroviridone (4), and WS-5995 A (5). These secondary metabolites were produced by a Micromonospora sp. isolated from sediment collected off the Cát Bà peninsula in the East Sea of Vietnam. Compound 1 is a novel Δ(8,9)-pimarane diterpene, representing one of approximately 20 actinomycete-produced diterpenes reported to date, while compound 2 is an angucycline antibiotic that has yet to receive formal characterization. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by combined NMR and MS analysis and the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by analysis of NOESY NMR and CD spectroscopic data. Compounds 2-5 exhibited varying degrees of cytotoxicity against a panel of cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines. Overall, this study highlights our collaborative efforts to discover novel biologically active molecules from the large, underexplored, and biodiversity-rich waters of Vietnam's East Sea. PMID:26389922

  7. Myrocin C, a new diterpene antitumor antibiotic from Myrothecium verrucaria. I. Taxonomy of the producing strain, fermentation, isolation and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, M; Hsu, Y H; Hirota, A; Shima, S; Nakayama, M

    1989-02-01

    A new diterpene antitumor antibiotic, myrocin C, has been isolated from the culture filtrate of a soil fungus, Myrothecium verrucaria strain No. 55. The antibiotic was effective against Gram-positive bacteria, fungi and yeasts, and prolonged the life span of mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. PMID:2494145

  8. Quantification of flavonol glycosides in Camellia sinensis by MRM mode of UPLC-QQQ-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yahui; Jiang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Shuxiang; Dai, Xinlong; Liu, Yajun; Tan, Huarong; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are major components of tea flavour, in which catechins and flavonol glycosides play important roles in the astringent taste of tea infusion. However, the flavonol glycosides are difficult to quantify because of the large variety, as well as the inefficient seperation on chromatography. In this paper, a total of 15 flavonol glycosides in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) were identified by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), and a quantitative method was established based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QQQ-MS/MS). It provided the limit of detection and quantification to the order of picogram, which was more sensitive than the HPLC detection of the order of nanogram. The relative standard deviations of the intra- and inter-day variations in retention time and signal intensity (peak area) of six analytes were less than 0.26% and 4%, respectively. The flavonol glycosides of four tea cultivars were relatively quantified using the signal intensity (peak area) of product ion, in which six flavonol glycosides were quantified by the authentic standards. The results showed that the flavonol mono-, di- and tri-glycoside mostly accumulated in young leaves of the four tea cultivars. Notably, the myricetin 3-O-galactoside was the major component among the six flavonol glycosides detected. PMID:26937589

  9. Discovery and functional characterization of two diterpene synthases for sclareol biosynthesis in Salvia sclarea (L.) and their relevance for perfume manufacture

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sclareol is a diterpene natural product of high value for the fragrance industry. Its labdane carbon skeleton and its two hydroxyl groups also make it a valued starting material for semisynthesis of numerous commercial substances, including production of Ambrox® and related ambergris substitutes used in the formulation of high end perfumes. Most of the commercially-produced sclareol is derived from cultivated clary sage (Salvia sclarea) and extraction of the plant material. In clary sage, sclareol mainly accumulates in essential oil-producing trichomes that densely cover flower calices. Manool also is a minor diterpene of this species and the main diterpene of related Salvia species. Results Based on previous general knowledge of diterpene biosynthesis in angiosperms, and based on mining of our recently published transcriptome database obtained by deep 454-sequencing of cDNA from clary sage calices, we cloned and functionally characterized two new diterpene synthase (diTPS) enzymes for the complete biosynthesis of sclareol in clary sage. A class II diTPS (SsLPPS) produced labda-13-en-8-ol diphosphate as major product from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) with some minor quantities of its non-hydroxylated analogue, (9 S, 10 S)-copalyl diphosphate. A class I diTPS (SsSS) then transformed these intermediates into sclareol and manool, respectively. The production of sclareol was reconstructed in vitro by combining the two recombinant diTPS enzymes with the GGPP starting substrate and in vivo by co-expression of the two proteins in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Tobacco-based transient expression assays of green fluorescent protein-fusion constructs revealed that both enzymes possess an N-terminal signal sequence that actively targets SsLPPS and SsSS to the chloroplast, a major site of GGPP and diterpene production in plants. Conclusions SsLPPS and SsSS are two monofunctional diTPSs which, together, produce the diterpenoid specialized metabolite sclareol

  10. Hypotensive action of coumarin glycosides from Daucus carota.

    PubMed

    Gilani, A H; Shaheen, E; Saeed, S A; Bibi, S; Irfanullah; Sadiq, M; Faizi, S

    2000-10-01

    Daucus carota (carrot) has been used in traditional medicine to treat hypertension. Activity-directed fractionation of aerial parts of D. carota resulted in the isolation of two cumarin glycosides coded as DC-2 and DC-3. Intravenous administration of these compounds caused a dose-dependent (1-10 mg/kg) fall in arterial blood pressure in normotensive anaesthetised rats. In the in vitro studies, both compounds caused a dose-dependent (10-200 microg/ml) inhibitory effect on spontaneously beating guinea pig atria as well as on the K+ -induced contractions of rabbit aorta at similar concentrations. These results indicate that DC-2 and DC-3 may be acting through blockade of calcium channels and this effect may be responsible for the blood pressure lowering effect of the compounds observed in the in vivo studies. PMID:11081994

  11. Pregnane-type steroidal glycosides from Gymnema griffithii Craib.

    PubMed

    Srisurichan, Suphongphan; Puthong, Songchan; Pornpakakul, Surachai

    2014-10-01

    Eight pregnane-type steroidal glycosides substituted with ortho-acetate groups were isolated from the methanolic extract of the pericarp of Gymnema griffithii fruits, and named gymnemogriffithosides A-H. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis (one and two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy), while the absolute structure of the steroidal skeleton of one of these was additionally determined using Mosher's method. All compounds were evaluated for their in vitro (i) cytotoxic effects against five human tumor cell lines (BT 474, Chago, Hep-G2, KATO-III and SW620) and (ii) α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:25053002

  12. Uncommon Glycosidases for the Enzymatic Preparation of Glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Trincone, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Most of the reports in literature dedicated to the use of glycosyl hydrolases for the preparation of glycosides are about gluco- (α- and β-form) and galacto-sidase (β-form), reflecting the high-availability of both anomers of glucosides and of β-galactosides and their wide-ranging applications. Hence, the idea of this review was to analyze the literature focusing on hardly-mentioned natural and engineered glycosyl hydrolases. Their performances in the synthetic mode and natural hydrolytic potential are examined. Both the choice of articles and their discussion are from a biomolecular and a biotechnological perspective of the biocatalytic process, shedding light on new applicative ideas and on the assortment of biomolecular diversity. The hope is to elicit new interest for the development of biocatalysis and to gather attention of biocatalyst practitioners for glycosynthesis. PMID:26404386

  13. A new triterpene glycoside from the stems of Lagerstroemia indica.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kyeong Wan; Cha, Joon Min; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2016-05-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the stems of Lagerstroemia indica resulted in the isolation and identification of a new triterpene glycoside, lagerindiside (1), along with nine known triterpenes (2-10). The structure of this new compound was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data analysis as well as chemical method. The cytotoxic activities of the isolates (1-10) were evaluated by determining their inhibitory effects on four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT15) using a sulforhodamine B bioassay. Compounds 3 and 4 showed potent cytotoxicity on the tumor cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 3.38 to 6.29 μM. PMID:27107863

  14. Antiallergic effect of flavonoid glycosides obtained from Mentha piperita L.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Toshio; Sugimoto, Yukio; Masuda, Hideki; Kamei, Chiaki

    2002-02-01

    Six flavonoid glycosides, eriocitrin (1), narirutin (2), hesperidin (3), luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (4), isorhoifolin (5), diosmin (6), rosmarinic acid (7) and 5,7-dihydroxycromone-7-O-rutinoside (8), were isolated from the aerial part of Mentha piperita L. Among these compounds, compound 4 showed a potent inhibitory effect on histamine release induced by compound 48/80 and antigen-antibody reaction. This compound was more effective than luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside in inhibiting histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. Compound 4 also caused a dose-related inhibition of the antigen-induced nasal response and significant effects were observed at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. These results indicate that compound 4 may be clinically useful in alleviating the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis. PMID:11853178

  15. New flavonolignan glycosides from the aerial parts of Zizania latifolia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Su; Baek, Nam-In; Baek, Yoon-Su; Chung, Dae-Kyun; Song, Myoung-Chong; Bang, Myun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Two new flavonolignan glycosides, tricin-4'-O-(threo-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether 7''-O-β-D-glucopyranose (4) and tricin-4'-O-(erythro-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether 7''-O-β-D-glucopyranose (5) were isolated from the roots of Zizania latifolia, together with tricin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranose (1), tricin-4'-O-(threo-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether 7-O-β-D-glucopyranose (2), and tricin-4'-O-(erythro-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether 7-O-β-D-glucopyranose (3). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic techniques, including HR-ESI/MS, 1D-NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT), 2D-NMR (gCOSY, gHSQC, gHMBC), and IR spectroscopy. PMID:25830790

  16. A new antibacterial benzophenone glycoside from Psidium guajava (Linn.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Ukwueze, Stanley E; Osadebe, Patience O; Okoye, Festus B C

    2015-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of methanol extract from the leaves of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) yielded a new benzophenone glycoside, Guajaphenone A (2) together with two known compounds, Garcimangosone D (1) and Guaijaverin (3). Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The isolated compounds were screened against standard strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using broth dilution assay method, and the MIC values determined and compared with reference antibiotic ceftriaxone. They were found to have significant antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with all of them showing better activities against S. aureus, but displaying weaker activities, in comparison to ceftriaxone. However, despite reduced effect of these compounds against the organisms, this work opens the perspective to use these molecules as 'leads' for the design of novel and selective drug candidates for some tropical infectious diseases. PMID:25631395

  17. Pregnane glycoside multidrug-resistance modulators from Cynanchum wilfordii.

    PubMed

    Hwang, B Y; Kim, S E; Kim, Y H; Kim, H S; Hong, Y S; Ro, J S; Lee, K S; Lee, J J

    1999-04-01

    The methanol-soluble extracts of the roots of Cynanchum wilfordii showed a significant multidrug-resistance-reversing activity, and four known pregnane glycosides were isolated by bioassay-directed fractionation and separation. Their structures were identified as gagaminin 3-O-beta-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-oleandropyranosyl- (1-->4)-b eta-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-cymaropyranoside (1), wilfoside K1N (2), wilfoside C1N (3), and cynauricuoside A (4). In particular, compound 1, at a concentration level of 1 microM, was found to completely reverse the multidrug-resistance of KB-V1 and MCF7/ADR cells to adriamycin, vinblastine, and colchicine. PMID:10217732

  18. Aromatic glycosides from the whole plants of Iris japonica.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guo-Ru; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Wang, Yan; Li, Li; Ni, Gang; Chen, Ruo-Yun; Yu, De-Quan

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the whole plants of Iris japonica led to the isolation of four new aromatic glycosides. Their structures including the absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods as (-)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy acetophenone 4-O-β-d-{6-O-[4-O-(7R,8S)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol-8-yl)-3-methoxybenzoyl]}-glucopyranoside (1), (-)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy acetophenone 4-O-β-d-{6-O-[4-O-(7S,8R)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol-8-yl)-3-methoxybenzoyl]}-glucopyranoside (2), (-)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy acetophenone 4-O-β-d-{6-O-[4-O-(7R,8R)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol-8-yl)-3-methoxybenzoyl]}-glucopyranoside (3), (-)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy acetophenone 4-O-β-d-{6-O-[4-O-(7S,8S)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol-8-yl)-3-methoxybenzoyl]}-glucopyranoside (4), respectively. PMID:27310650

  19. Acutifoliside, a novel benzoic acid glycoside from Salix acutifolia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanqi; Dobermann, Darja; Beale, Michael H; Ward, Jane L

    2016-08-01

    Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) profiling of a polar solvent extract of juvenile stem tissue of Salix acutifolia Willd. identified a range of phenolic metabolites. Salicortin, 1, a well-known salicinoid, was the major compound present and the study identified young stem tissue of this species as a potential source of this compound for future studies. Three further known metabolites (salicin 2, catechin 3 and tremuloidin 4) were also present. The UHPLC-MS analysis also revealed the presence of a further, less polar, unknown compound, which was isolated via HPLC peak collection. The structure was elucidated by high-resolution mass spectroscopic analysis, 1- and 2-D NMR analysis and chemical derivatisation and was shown to be a novel benzoic acid glycoside 5, which we have named as acutifoliside. PMID:26820172

  20. Acetylated flavonoid glycosides potentiating NGF action from Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yushan; Chen, Xigui; Satake, Masayuki; Oshima, Yasukatsu; Ohizumi, Yasushi

    2004-04-01

    Three new acetylated flavonoid glycosides, 5,6,4'-trihydroxyflavone 7-O-alpha-L-2,3-di-O-acetylrhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), apigenin 7-O-alpha-L-3-O-acetylrhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), and apigenin 7-O-alpha-L-2,3-di-O-acetylrhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), were isolated from Scoparia dulcis together with the known compound eugenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 2 and 3 showed an enhancing activity of nerve growth factor-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells. PMID:15104516

  1. Four new glycosides from the fruit of Xanthium sibiricum Patr.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai; Yang, Liu; Liu, Chang; Hou, Hui; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Zhibin; Yang, Bingyou; Kuang, Haixue

    2013-01-01

    Four new glycosides, namely 3β-norpinan-2-one 3-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), (6Z)-3-hydroxymethyl-7-methylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol 8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), (6E)-3-hydroxymethyl-7-methylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol 8-O-β-d-gluco-pyranoside (3), and 7-[(β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxymethy]-8,8-dimethyl-4,8-dihydrobenzo[1,4]thiazine-3,5-dione (4), were isolated from the fruits of Xanthium sibiricum Patr together with three known compounds, xanthiside (5), adenosine (6), and 2,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propan-1-one (7). The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses. PMID:24152669

  2. Two new sesquiterpenoid glycosides from the leaves of Lycium barbarum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhao, Bo; Ma, Hai-Rong; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2016-09-01

    Two new sesquiterpenoid glycosides, lyciumionosides A-B (1-2), together with four known compounds (3-6), were isolated from the leaves of Lycium barbarum. Their structures were mainly established on the basis of MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. The antiproliferative activities of compounds 1-5 were evaluated. Compound 1 showed highest inhibitory activity against A549 cells with IC50 value of 32.6 ± 2.6 μM, compound 3 showed highest inhibitory activity against PC-3 cells with IC50 value of 36.0 ± 2.9 μM, and compound 5 exhibited highest inhibitory activity against HeLa cells with IC50 value of 32.3 ± 4.2 μM. PMID:27176709

  3. Phenylpropanoid Glycosides from the Leaves of Ananas comosus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Huang, Xiao-Juan; Shu, Huo-Ming; Hui, Yang; Guo, Fei-Yan; Song, Xiao-Ping; Ji, Ming-Hui; Chen, Guang-Ying

    2015-12-01

    Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides, named β-D-(1-O-acetyl-3,6-O-diferuloyl) fructofuranosyl β-D-6'-O-acetylglucopyranoside (1) and β-D-(1-O-acetyl-3,6-O-diferuloyl) fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside (2), along with two known analogues (3-4) and four glycerides (5-8), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the leaves of Ananas comosus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses, as well as HR-ESI-MS experiments. Compounds 1-4 showed significant antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. PMID:26882684

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steryl glycosides for their analysis in foods.

    PubMed

    Münger, Linda H; Nyström, Laura

    2014-11-15

    Steryl glycosides (SG) contribute significantly to the total intake of phytosterols. The standard analytical procedure involving acid hydrolysis fails to reflect the correct sterol profile of SG due to isomerization of some of the labile sterols. Therefore, various glycosylases were evaluated for their ability to hydrolyse SG under milder conditions. Using a pure SG mixture in aqueous solution, the highest glycolytic activity, as demonstrated by the decrease in SG and increase in free sterols was achieved using inulinase preparations (decrease of >95%). High glycolytic activity was also demonstrated using hemicellulase (63%). The applicability of enzymatic hydrolysis using inulinase preparations was further verified on SG extracted from foods. For example in potato peel Δ(5)-avenasteryl glucoside, a labile SG, was well preserved and contributed 26.9% of the total SG. Therefore, enzymatic hydrolysis is suitable for replacing acid hydrolysis of SG in food lipid extracts to accurately determine the sterol profile of SG. PMID:24912717

  5. Neolignans and glycosides from the stem bark of Illicium difengpi.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lei; Du, Dan; Ding, Guang-Zhi; Si, Yi-Kang; Yu, Shi-Shan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Wen-Jie; Ma, Shuang-Gang; Xu, Song; Qu, Jing; Wang, Jia-Ming; Liu, Yu-Xi

    2010-05-28

    Five new neolignans (1-4 and 9), two pairs of neolignan epimers (5-8), and two new aromatic glycosides (10 and 11) have been isolated from the stem bark of Illicium difengpi. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, CD experiments, and chemical methods. The absolute configurations of the 3,4-diol moiety in 1 and 1,3-diol moiety in 2 were confirmed by Snatzke's method, observing the induced circular dichroism after addition of dimolybdenum tetraacetate in DMSO. Compounds 3, 4, and 11 exhibited moderate anti-inflammatory activities with IC(50) values ranging from 1.62 to 24.4 microM, while compound 3 displayed antioxidant activity with an IC(50) value of 42.3 microM. PMID:20411974

  6. A new phenylethanoid glycoside from Orobanche cernua Loefling.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zheng-Yi; Zhang, Yu-Wei; Zheng, Si-Wen; Yao, Chun-Lin; Jin, Yin-Ping; Zheng, Pei-He; Sun, Cheng-He; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2016-04-01

    A novel phenylethanoid glycoside, 3'-O-methyl isocrenatoside (1), along with two known compounds, methyl caffeate (2) and protocatechuic aldehyde (3), were isolated from the fresh whole plant of Orobanche cernua Loefling. All the isolated compounds (1-3) were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis including IR, MS and NMR data. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated. Results showed that 3'-O-methyl isocrenatoside (1) and methyl caffeate (2) exhibited significant cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 71.89, 36.97 μg/mL and 32.32, 34.58 μg/mL against the B16F10 murine melanoma and Lewis lung carcinoma cell lines, respectively. PMID:26358786

  7. Variations in human urinary O-hydroxylysyl glycoside levels and their relationship to collagen metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Segrest, Jere P.; Cunningham, Leon W.

    1970-01-01

    Two O-hydroxylysyl glycosides, Hyl-Gal-Glc and Hyl-Gal, have been isolated from normal human urine and shown to be identical to two glycosides isolated from alkaline hydrolysates of collagen. A relatively sample and reproducible analytical procedure has been devised to measure the levels of these glycosides in human urine. By the use of this procedure it was shown that a normal diet has only a small effect on 24-hr urinary excretion levels of these glycosides indicating an endogenous origin. Urinary glycoside levels appear to be highest in children, roughly paralleling collagen turnover as indicated by urinary hydroxyproline levels. Collagen turnover equivalents calculated from urinary hydroxylysyl glycoside levels were found to be significantly larger than collagen turnover equivalents calculated from urinary hydroxyproline levels. This suggests that urinary glycosides are more quantitative indicators of collagen metabolism than urinary hydroxyproline. The ratio of Hyl-Gal-Glc to Hyl-Gal was measured in urines of diseased as well as normal individuals and a bimodal distribution was found. Alkaline hydrolysates of different human connective tissue collagens showed that only bone collagen, of the collagens examined, had a low ratio of Hyl-Gal-Glc to Hyl-Gal compared to human urine. Other collagens examined had higher ratios than found in human urine. On the basis of these results it is postulated that the bimodal distribution of glycoside ratios represents two populations of collagen turnover, the lower ratio population having a high bone collagen turnover, the lower ratio population having a high bone collagen turnover relative to the second population. Examination of the types of subjects making up the two populations supports this hypothesis. These data suggest that urinary O-hydroxylysyl glycoside excretion, in addition to providing a more quantitative estimate of collagen turnover than urinary hydroxyproline, may prove to be of value as a specific means of

  8. Evolution of Diterpene Metabolism: Sitka Spruce CYP720B4 Catalyzes Multiple Oxidations in Resin Acid Biosynthesis of Conifer Defense against Insects1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hamberger, Björn; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Hamberger, Britta; Séguin, Armand; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are specialized (secondary) metabolites of the oleoresin defense of conifers produced by diterpene synthases and cytochrome P450s of the CYP720B family. The evolution of DRA metabolism shares common origins with the biosynthesis of ent-kaurenoic acid, which is highly conserved in general (primary) metabolism of gibberellin biosynthesis. Transcriptome mining in species of spruce (Picea) and pine (Pinus) revealed CYP720Bs of four distinct clades. We cloned a comprehensive set of 12 different Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) CYP720Bs as full-length cDNAs. Spatial expression profiles, methyl jasmonate induction, and transcript enrichment in terpenoid-producing resin ducts suggested a role of CYP720B4 in DRA biosynthesis. CYP720B4 was characterized as a multisubstrate, multifunctional enzyme by the formation of oxygenated diterpenoids in metabolically engineered yeast, yeast in vivo transformation of diterpene substrates, in vitro assays with CYP720B4 protein produced in Escherichia coli, and alteration of DRA profiles in RNA interference-suppressed spruce seedlings. CYP720B4 was active with 24 different diterpenoid substrates, catalyzing consecutive C-18 oxidations in the biosynthesis of an array of diterpene alcohols, aldehydes, and acids. CYP720B4 was most active in the formation of dehydroabietic acid, a compound associated with insect resistance of Sitka spruce. We identified patterns of convergent evolution of CYP720B4 in DRA metabolism and ent-kaurene oxidase CYP701 in gibberellin metabolism and revealed differences in the evolution of specialized and general diterpene metabolism in a gymnosperm. The genomic and functional characterization of the gymnosperm CYP720B family highlights that the evolution of specialized metabolism involves substantial diversification relative to conserved, general metabolism. PMID:21994349

  9. Steroidal glycosides from the underground parts of Yucca glauca and their cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Yokosuka, Akihito; Suzuki, Tomoka; Tatsuno, Satoru; Mimaki, Yoshihiro

    2014-05-01

    Six steroidal glycosides and 14 known compounds were isolated from the underground parts of Yucca glauca (Agavaceae). Their structures were determined from extensive spectroscopic analysis, including analysis of two-dimensional NMR data, and from chemical transformations. The compounds were also evaluated for cytotoxic activities against HL-60 human leukemia cells and A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Four spirostanol glycosides and three furostanol glycosides exhibited cytotoxic activities against both HL-60 and A549 cells. Two of the compounds induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. PMID:24612536

  10. Variation in cardiac glycoside content of monarch butterflies from natural populations in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Brower, L P; McEvoy, P B; Williamson, K L; Flannery, M A

    1972-08-01

    A new spectrophotometric assay has been used to determine the gross concentration of cardiac glycoside in individual monarch butterflies. Adults sampled during the fall migration in four areas of eastern North America exhibited a wide variation in cardiac glycoside concentration. The correlation between spectrophotometrically measured concentrations and emetic dose determinations supports the existence of a broad palatability spectrum in wild monarch butterflies. The cardiac gylcoside concentration is greater in females than in males and is independent of the dry weight of the butterflies; contrary to prediction, both the concentration mean and variance decrease southward. The defensive advantage of incorporating cardiac glycosides may be balanced by detrimental effects on individual viability. PMID:5043141

  11. CYP99A3: Functional identification of a diterpene oxidase from the momilactone biosynthetic gene cluster in rice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Hillwig, Matthew L.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Rice (Oryza sativa) produces momilactone diterpenoids as both phytoalexins and allelochemicals. Strikingly, the rice genome contains a biosynthetic gene cluster for momilactone production, located on rice chromosome 4, which contains two cytochromes P450 mono-oxygenases, CYP99A2 and CYP99A3, with undefined roles; although it has been previously shown that RNAi double knock-down of this pair of closely related CYP reduced momilactone accumulation. Here we attempted biochemical characterization of CYP99A2 and CYP99A3, which ultimately was achieved by complete gene recoding, enabling functional recombinant expression in bacteria. With these synthetic gene constructs it was possible to demonstrate that, while CYP99A2 does not exhibit significant activity with diterpene substrates, CYP99A3 catalyzes consecutive oxidations of the C19 methyl group of the momilactone precursor syn-pimara-7,15-diene to form, sequentially, syn-pimaradien-19-ol, syn-pimaradien-19-al and syn-pimaradien-19-oic acid. These are presumably intermediates in momilactone biosynthesis, as a C19 carboxylic acid moiety is required for formation of the core 19,6-γ-lactone ring structure. We further were able to detect syn-pimaradien-19-oic acid in rice plants, which indicates physiological relevance for the observed activity of CYP99A3. In addition, we found that CYP99A3 also oxidized syn-stemod-13(17)-ene at C19 to produce, sequentially, syn-stemoden-19-ol, syn-stemoden-19-al and syn-stemoden-19-oic acid, albeit with lower catalytic efficiency than with syn-pimaradiene. Although the CYP99A3 syn-stemodene derived products were not detected in planta, these results nevertheless provide a hint at the currently unknown metabolic fate of this diterpene in rice. Regardless of any wider role, our results strongly indicate that CYP99A3 acts as a multifunctional diterpene oxidase in momilactone biosynthesis. PMID:21175892

  12. CYP99A3: functional identification of a diterpene oxidase from the momilactone biosynthetic gene cluster in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Hillwig, Matthew L; Peters, Reuben J

    2011-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) produces momilactone diterpenoids as both phytoalexins and allelochemicals. Strikingly, the rice genome contains a biosynthetic gene cluster for momilactone production, located on rice chromosome 4, which contains two cytochrome P450 (CYP) mono-oxygenases, CYP99A2 and CYP99A3, with undefined roles; although it has been previously shown that RNA interference double knock-down of this pair of closely related CYPs reduced momilactone accumulation. Here we attempted biochemical characterization of CYP99A2 and CYP99A3, which was ultimately achieved by complete gene recoding, enabling functional recombinant expression in bacteria. With these synthetic gene constructs it was possible to demonstrate that while CYP99A2 does not exhibit significant activity with diterpene substrates, CYP99A3 catalyzes consecutive oxidations of the C19 methyl group of the momilactone precursor syn-pimara-7,15-diene to form, sequentially, syn-pimaradien-19-ol, syn-pimaradien-19-al, and syn-pimaradien-19-oic acid. These are presumably intermediates in momilactone biosynthesis, as a C19 carboxylic acid moiety is required for formation of the core 19,6-γ-lactone ring structure. We further were able to detect syn-pimaradien-19-oic acid in rice plants, which indicates physiological relevance for the observed activity of CYP99A3. In addition, we found that CYP99A3 also oxidized syn-stemod-13(17)-ene at C19 to produce, sequentially, syn-stemoden-19-ol, syn-stemoden-19-al, and syn-stemoden-19-oic acid, albeit with lower catalytic efficiency than with syn-pimaradiene. Although the CYP99A3 syn-stemodene-derived products were not detected in planta, these results nevertheless provide a hint at the currently unknown metabolic fate of this diterpene in rice. Regardless of any wider role, our results strongly indicate that CYP99A3 acts as a multifunctional diterpene oxidase in momilactone biosynthesis. PMID:21175892

  13. Solubility Enhancement of Steviol Glycosides and Characterization of Their Inclusion Complexes with Gamma-Cyclodextrin

    PubMed Central

    Upreti, Mani; Strassburger, Ken; Chen, You L.; Wu, Shaoxiong; Prakash, Indra

    2011-01-01

    Steviol glycosidesrebaudioside (reb) A, C and D have low aqueous solubilities. To improve their aqueous solubilities, inclusion complex of steviol glycosides, reb A, C and D and gamma cyclodextrin were prepared by freeze drying method and further characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of gamma cyclodextrin on chemical shifts of the steviol glycosides was also studied in proton NMR experiments as well as in solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR experiments. These results indicated that the steviol glycosides were clearly in inclusion complex formation with the gamma cyclodextrin which also results in solubility enhancement of these steviol glycosides. Phase solubility studies showed that amounts of soluble reb A, C and D increased with increasing amounts of gamma cyclodextrin indicating formation of 1:1 stoichiometric and higher order inclusion complexes. PMID:22174615

  14. Two new cycloartane glycosides from the underground parts of Aquilegia vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nishida, Makiko; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2008-11-01

    Two new cycloartane glycosides, named aquilegiosides K and L, have been isolated from the dried underground parts of Aquilegia vulgaris. Their structures were determined by two dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. PMID:18981620

  15. 6-Hydroxypelargonidin glycosides in the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Saito, Norio; Murata, Naho; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

    2003-04-01

    Two 6-hydroxypelargonidin glycosides were isolated from the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria cultivars, and determined to be 6-hydroxypelargonidin 3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside) and 3-O-[6-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside], respectively, by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, five known anthocyanidin glycosides, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside were identified in the flowers. PMID:12648544

  16. A new taraxastane-type triterpenoid glycoside from the roots of Clematis uncinata.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo-Guo; Li, Man-Mei; Zhao, Bing-Xin; Wang, Ying; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2015-01-01

    A new taraxastane-type triterpenoid glycoside, clematiunicinoside I (1), together with four known ones (2-5), was isolated from the roots of Clematis uncinata. The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and acid hydrolysis. The cytotoxic activities of all the compounds against caski cervical cancer (Caski) cells were evaluated. This is the first report of the presence of taraxastane-type triterpenoid glycoside in the genus Clematis. PMID:26651184

  17. O2 Protonation Controls Threshold Behavior for N-Glycosidic Bond Cleavage of Protonated Cytosine Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Wu, R R; Rodgers, M T

    2016-06-01

    IRMPD action spectroscopy studies of protonated 2'-deoxycytidine and cytidine, [dCyd+H](+) and [Cyd+H](+), have established that both N3 and O2 protonated conformers coexist in the gas phase. Threshold collision-induced dissociation (CID) of [dCyd+H](+) and [Cyd+H](+) is investigated here using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry techniques to elucidate the mechanisms and energetics for N-glycosidic bond cleavage. N-Glycosidic bond cleavage is observed as the major dissociation pathways resulting in competitive elimination of either protonated or neutral cytosine for both protonated cytosine nucleosides. Electronic structure calculations are performed to map the potential energy surfaces (PESs) for both N-glycosidic bond cleavage pathways observed. The molecular parameters derived from theoretical calculations are employed for thermochemical analysis of the energy-dependent CID data to determine the minimum energies required to cleave the N-glycosidic bond along each pathway. B3LYP and MP2(full) computed activation energies for N-glycosidic bond cleavage associated with elimination of protonated and neutral cytosine, respectively, are compared to measured values to evaluate the efficacy of these theoretical methods in describing the dissociation mechanisms and PESs for N-glycosidic bond cleavage. The 2'-hydroxyl of [Cyd+H](+) is found to enhance the stability of the N-glycosidic bond vs that of [dCyd+H](+). O2 protonation is found to control the threshold energies for N-glycosidic bond cleavage as loss of neutral cytosine from the O2 protonated conformers is found to require ∼25 kJ/mol less energy than the N3 protonated analogues, and the activation energies and reaction enthalpies computed using B3LYP exhibit excellent agreement with the measured thresholds for the O2 protonated conformers. PMID:27159774

  18. Kaempferol 3,7,4'-glycosides from the flowers of Clematis cultivars.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Keisuke; Kitajima, Junichi; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2013-08-01

    A new kaempferol glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-glucopyranoside-7,4'-di-O-beta-glucopyranoside (1) was isolated from the flowers of Clematis cultivars "Jackmanii Superba" and "Fujimusume", together with the known compound kaempferol 3,7,4'-tri-O-beta-glucopyranoside (2). The chemical structures of the isolated kaemferol glycosides were established by UV, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, LC-MS, and characterization of acid hydrolysates. PMID:24079175

  19. A New Resin Glycoside, Muricatin IX, from the Seeds of Ipomoea muricata.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masateru; Taketomi, Saki; Kakiki, Yuichi; Yasuda, Shin; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    A new resin glycoside, named muricatin IX (1), was isolated from the seeds of Ipomoea muricata (L.) JACQ. (Convolvulaceae). The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of spectroscopic data as well as chemical evidence. Compound 1 is the first representative of resin glycosides in which an organic acid connects the sugar moiety and the aglycone moiety to form macrocyclic ester ring. PMID:27581646

  20. Characterization and Modeling of the Collision Induced Dissociation Patterns of Deprotonated Glycosphingolipids: Cleavage of the Glycosidic Bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rožman, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Glycosphingolipid fragmentation behavior was investigated by combining results from analysis of a series of negative ion tandem mass spectra and molecular modeling. Fragmentation patterns extracted from 75 tandem mass spectra of mainly acidic glycosphingolipid species (gangliosides) suggest prominent cleavage of the glycosidic bonds with retention of the glycosidic oxygen atom by the species formed from the reducing end (B and Y ion formation). Dominant product ions arise from dissociation of sialic acids glycosidic bonds whereas product ions resulting from cleavage of other glycosidic bonds are less abundant. Potential energy surfaces and unimolecular reaction rates of several low-energy fragmentation pathways leading to cleavage of glycosidic bonds were estimated in order to explain observed dissociation patterns. Glycosidic bond cleavage in both neutral (unsubstituted glycosyl group) and acidic glycosphingolipids was the outcome of the charge-directed intramolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) mechanism. According to the suggested mechanism, the nucleophile in a form of carboxylate or oxyanion attacks the carbon at position one of the sugar ring, simultaneously breaking the glycosidic bond and yielding an epoxide. For gangliosides, unimolecular reaction rates suggest that dominant product ions related to the cleavage of sialic acid glycosidic bonds are formed via direct dissociation channels. On the other hand, low abundant product ions related to the dissociation of other glycosidic bonds are more likely to be the result of sequential dissociation. Although results from this study mainly contribute to the understanding of glycosphingolipid fragmentation chemistry, some mechanistic findings regarding cleavage of the glycosidic bond may be applicable to other glycoconjugates.

  1. Taming the Reactivity of Glycosyl Iodides To Achieve Stereoselective Glycosidation.

    PubMed

    Gervay-Hague, Jacquelyn

    2016-01-19

    that even highly functionalized aglycon acceptors add. Following the coupling event, the TMS ethers are readily removed by methanolysis, and since all of the byproducts are volatile, multiple reactions can be performed in a single reaction vessel without isolation of intermediates. In this fashion, per-O-TMS monosaccharides can be converted to biologically relevant α-linked glycolipids in one pot. The stereochemical outcome of these reactions can also be switched to β-glycoside formation by addition of silver to chelate the iodide, thus favoring SN2 displacement of the α-iodide. While iodides derived from benzyl and silyl ether-protected oligosaccharides are susceptible to interglycosidic bond cleavage when treated with TMSI, the introduction of a single acetate protecting group prevents this unwanted side reaction. Partial acetylation of armed glycosyl iodides also attenuates HI elimination side reactions. Conversely, fully acetylated glycosyl iodides are deactivated and require metal catalysis in order for glycosidation to occur. Recent findings indicate that I2 activation of per-O-acetylated mono-, di-, and trisaccharides promotes glycosidation of cyclic ethers to give β-linked iodoalkyl glycoconjugates in one step. Products of these reactions have been converted into multivalent carbohydrate displays. With these synthetic pathways elucidated, chemical reactivity can be exquisitely controlled by the judicious selection of protecting groups to achieve high stereocontrol in step-economical processes. PMID:26524481

  2. Antinematodal activities of ingenane diterpenes from Euphorbia kansui and their derivatives against the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianxiao; Li, Zhixuan; Nitoda, Teruhiko; Izumi, Minoru; Kanzakia, Hiroshi; Baba, Naomichi; Kawazu, Kazuyoshi; Nakajima, Shuhei

    2008-01-01

    Under the bioassay-guided method, two diterpenes, 3-O-(2",3"-dimethylbutanoyl)-13-O-dodecanoylingenol (1) and 3-O-(2",3"-dimethylbutanoyl)-13-O-decanoylingenol (2) isolated from Euphorbia kansui, showed a pronounced antinematodal activity against the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus at the same minimum effective dose (MED) of 5 microg per cotton ball and still displayed antinematodal activity at a dose of 2.5 microg per cotton ball. Compounds 3-6 were obtained, and the structure of the new compound 6 was elucidated based on 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses and physicochemical data. Preliminary structure-biological activity relationships of ingenane-type compounds were deduced. PMID:18386489

  3. The coffee diterpene kahweol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Kim, Ji Young; Hwang, Yong Pil; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Kwang Youl; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Hye Gwang . E-mail: hgjeong@chosun.ac.kr

    2006-12-15

    Endothelial cells produce adhesion molecules after being stimulated with various inflammatory cytokines. These adhesion molecules play an important role in the development of atherogenesis. Recent studies have highlighted the chemoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of kahweol, a coffee-specific diterpene. This study examined the effects of kahweol on the cytokine-induced monocyte/human endothelial cell interaction, which is a crucial early event in atherogenesis. Kahweol inhibited the adhesion of TNF{alpha}-induced monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF{alpha}-induced protein and mRNA expression of the cell adhesion molecules, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Furthermore, kahweol inhibited the TNF{alpha}-induced JAK2-PI3K/Akt-NF-{kappa}B activation pathway in these cells. Overall, kahweol has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities, which occurs partly by down-regulating the pathway that affects the expression and interaction of the cell adhesion molecules on endothelial cells.

  4. Gastroprotective effect of epoxy clerodane diterpene isolated from Tinospora cordifolia Miers (Guduchi) on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Antonisamy, Paulrayer; Dhanasekaran, Muniyappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Balthazar, Joseph Devadass; Agastian, Paul; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2014-06-15

    The present study evaluated the gastroprotective effect of epoxy clerodane diterpene (ECD), isolated from Tinospora cordifolia on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Administration of indomethacin exhibits extreme levels of ulcer index (UI) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Indomethacin down regulated PGE2, anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) and pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF and EGF). The ECD pretreatment considerably increased the levels of PGE2, anti-inflammatory cytokines and pro-angiogenic factors. The ulcer-healing activity of ECD was inhibited by pre-administration of the specific COX-1 inhibitor (SC560) and nonspecific NOS inhibitor (L-NAME), which indicates the involvement of PGE2 and NOS in ECD induced ulcer healing activity. These findings suggest that ECD exerts its antiulcer activity by reinforcement of defensive elements and diminishing the offensive elements. PMID:24680619

  5. Chenopodolin: a phytotoxic unrearranged ent-pimaradiene diterpene produced by Phoma chenopodicola, a fungal pathogen for Chenopodium album biocontrol.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Zonno, Maria C; Avolio, Fabiana; Santini, Antonello; Tuzi, Angela; Berestetskyi, Alexander; Vurro, Maurizio; Evidente, Antonio

    2013-07-26

    A new phytotoxic unrearranged ent-pimaradiene diterpene, named chenopodolin, was isolated from the liquid culture of Phoma chenopodicola, a fungal pathogen proposed for the biological control of Chenopodium album, a common worldwide weed of arable crops such as sugar beet and maize. The structure of chenopodolin was established by spectroscopic, X-ray, and chemical methods as (1S,2S,3S,4S,5S,9R,10S,12S,13S)-1,12-acetoxy-2,3-hydroxy-6-oxopimara-7(8),15-dien-18-oic acid 2,18-lactone. At a concentration of 2 mg/mL, the toxin caused necrotic lesions on Mercurialis annua, Cirsium arvense, and Setaria viride. Five derivatives were prepared by chemical modification of chenopodolin functionalities, and some structure-activity relationships are discussed. PMID:23786488

  6. New oleyl glycoside as anti-cancer agent that targets on neutral sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Romero-Ramírez, Lorenzo; García-Álvarez, Isabel; Casas, Josefina; Barreda-Manso, M Asunción; Yanguas-Casás, Natalia; Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel; Fernández-Mayoralas, Alfonso

    2015-09-15

    We designed and synthesized two anomeric oleyl glucosaminides as anti-cancer agents where the presence of a trifluoroacetyl group close to the anomeric center makes them resistant to hydrolysis by hexosaminidases. The oleyl glycosides share key structural features with synthetic and natural oleyl derivatives that have been reported to exhibit anti-cancer properties. While both glycosides showed antiproliferative activity on cancer cell lines, only the α-anomer caused endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cell death on C6 glioma cells. Analysis of sphingolipids and glycosphingolipds in cells treated with the glycosides showed that the α-anomer caused a drastic accumulation of ceramide and glucosylceramide and reduction of lactosylceramide and GM3 ganglioside at concentrations above a threshold of 20 μM. In order to understand how ceramide levels increase in response to α-glycoside treatment, further investigations were done using specific inhibitors of sphingolipid metabolic pathways. The pretreatment with 3-O-methylsphingomyelin (a neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitor) restored sphingomyelin levels together with the lactosylceramide and GM3 ganglioside levels and prevented the ER stress and cell death caused by the α-glycoside. The results indicated that the activation of neutral sphingomyelinase is the main cause of the alterations in sphingolipids that eventually lead to cell death. The new oleyl glycoside targets a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism with potential applications in cancer therapy. PMID:26206186

  7. Fecalase: a model for activation of dietary glycosides to mutagens by intestinal flora

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, G.; Gold, C.; Ferro-Luzzi, A.; Ames, B.N.

    1980-08-01

    Many substances in the plant kingdom and in man's diet occur as glycosides. Recent studies have indicated that many glycosides that are not mutagenic in tests such as the Salmonella test become mutagenic upon hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages. The Salmonella test utilizes a liver homogenate to approximate mammalian metabolism but does not provide a source of the enzymes present in intestinal bacterial flora that hydrolyze the wide variety of glycosides present in nature. We describe a stable cell-free extract of human feces, fecalase, which is shown to contain various glycosidases that allow the in vitro activation of many natural glycosides to mutagens in the Salmonella/liver homogenate test. Many beverages, such as red wine (but apparently not white wine) and tea, contain glycosides of the mutagen quercetin. Red wine, red grape juice, and teas were mutagenic in the test when fecalase was added, and red wine contained considerable direct mutagenic activity in the absence of fecalase. The implications of quercetin mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are discussed.

  8. Influence of steviol glycosides on the stability of vitamin C and anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Łukasz; Marszałek, Krystian; Skąpska, Sylwia

    2014-11-19

    A high level of sweetness and health-promoting properties make steviol glycosides an interesting alternative to sugars or artificial sweeteners. The radical oxygen species scavenging activity of these compounds may influence the stability of labile particles present in food. Model buffer solutions containing steviol glycosides, a selected food antioxidant (vitamin C or anthocyanins), and preservative were analyzed during storage. The addition of steviol glycosides at concentrations of 50, 125, and 200 mg/L increased the stability of both ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid (degradation rates decreased up to 3.4- and 4.5-fold, respectively); the effect was intensified by higher sweetener concentrations and higher acidity of the solutions. Glycosides used alone did not affect the stability of anthocyanins; however, they enhanced the protective effect of sugars; half-life times increased by ca. 33% in the presence of sucrose (100 g/L) and by ca. 52% when both sucrose (100 g/L) and glycosides (total 200 mg/L) were used. Steviol glycosides concentrations remained stable during experiments. PMID:25376304

  9. Transition of phenolics and cyanogenic glycosides from apricot and cherry fruit kernels into liqueur.

    PubMed

    Senica, Mateja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2016-07-15

    Popular liqueurs made from apricot/cherry pits were evaluated in terms of their phenolic composition and occurrence of cyanogenic glycosides (CGG). Analyses consisted of detailed phenolic and cyanogenic profiles of cherry and apricot seeds as well as beverages prepared from crushed kernels. Phenolic groups and cyanogenic glycosides were analyzed with the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrophotometry (MS). Lower levels of cyanogenic glycosides and phenolics have been quantified in liqueurs compared to fruit kernels. During fruit pits steeping in the alcohol, the phenolics/cyanogenic glycosides ratio increased and at the end of beverage manufacturing process higher levels of total analyzed phenolics were detected compared to cyanogenic glycosides (apricot liqueur: 38.79 μg CGG per ml and 50.57 μg phenolics per ml; cherry liqueur 16.08 μg CGG per ml and 27.73 μg phenolics per ml). Although higher levels of phenolics are characteristic for liqueurs made from apricot and cherry pits these beverages nevertheless contain considerable amounts of cyanogenic glycosides. PMID:26948641

  10. A Copal-8-ol Diphosphate Synthase from the Angiosperm Cistus creticus subsp. creticus Is a Putative Key Enzyme for the Formation of Pharmacologically Active, Oxygen-Containing Labdane-Type Diterpenes1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Falara, Vasiliki; Pichersky, Eran; Kanellis, Angelos K.

    2010-01-01

    The resin of Cistus creticus subsp. creticus, a plant native to Crete, is rich in labdane-type diterpenes with significant antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. The full-length cDNA of a putative diterpene synthase was isolated from a C. creticus trichome cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence of this protein is highly similar (59%–70% identical) to type B diterpene synthases from other angiosperm species that catalyze a protonation-initiated cyclization. The affinity-purified recombinant Escherichia coli-expressed protein used geranylgeranyl diphosphate as substrate and catalyzed the formation of copal-8-ol diphosphate. This diterpene synthase, therefore, was named CcCLS (for C. creticus copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase). Copal-8-ol diphosphate is likely to be an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the oxygen-containing labdane-type diterpenes that are abundant in the resin of this plant. RNA gel-blot analysis revealed that CcCLS is preferentially expressed in the trichomes, with higher transcript levels found in glands on young leaves than on fully expanded leaves, while CcCLS transcript levels increased after mechanical wounding. Chemical analyses revealed that labdane-type diterpene production followed a similar pattern, with higher concentrations in trichomes of young leaves and increased accumulation upon wounding. PMID:20595348

  11. A copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase from the angiosperm Cistus creticus subsp. creticus is a putative key enzyme for the formation of pharmacologically active, oxygen-containing labdane-type diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Falara, Vasiliki; Pichersky, Eran; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2010-09-01

    The resin of Cistus creticus subsp. creticus, a plant native to Crete, is rich in labdane-type diterpenes with significant antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. The full-length cDNA of a putative diterpene synthase was isolated from a C. creticus trichome cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence of this protein is highly similar (59%-70% identical) to type B diterpene synthases from other angiosperm species that catalyze a protonation-initiated cyclization. The affinity-purified recombinant Escherichia coli-expressed protein used geranylgeranyl diphosphate as substrate and catalyzed the formation of copal-8-ol diphosphate. This diterpene synthase, therefore, was named CcCLS (for C. creticus copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase). Copal-8-ol diphosphate is likely to be an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the oxygen-containing labdane-type diterpenes that are abundant in the resin of this plant. RNA gel-blot analysis revealed that CcCLS is preferentially expressed in the trichomes, with higher transcript levels found in glands on young leaves than on fully expanded leaves, while CcCLS transcript levels increased after mechanical wounding. Chemical analyses revealed that labdane-type diterpene production followed a similar pattern, with higher concentrations in trichomes of young leaves and increased accumulation upon wounding. PMID:20595348

  12. Improving the sensory and oxidative stability of cooked and chill-stored lamb using dietary rosemary diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Rafael; Ortuño, Jordi; Bañón, Sancho

    2014-09-01

    Two dietary rosemary extracts (DREs) containing diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol at 1:1 and 2:1 w:w) were tested in fattening lambs to stabilize the sensory quality of cooked and chill-stored patties. A total of 63 lambs were fed freely for 80 ± 5 d with a basal diet supplemented or not with DRE. Minced leg meat from each lamb was used to make patty batches. The patties were cooked at 72 ºC for 2 min, aerobically packed, kept at 2 ºC for up to 4 d and then reheated. Sensory traits (color, odor, flavor, and texture), CIELab color, and lipid oxidation (assessed as TBARS) were determined. In a first experiment, the lamb diet was supplemented with 600 mg of 1:1-DRE or 2:1-DRE kg(-1) feed. The 1:1-DRE diet delayed discoloration, flavor deterioration, and rancidity, while the 2:1-DRE diet was ineffective in this respect. In a second experiment, 4 supplementation levels of 1:1-DRE (0, 200, 400, and 600 mg kg(-1) feed) were compared. Flavor deterioration was delayed when the lamb diet was supplemented with at least 400 mg 1:1-DRE kg(-1) feed. The effects of the diet on the odor, flavor, and color were corroborated by differences in TBARS and CIELab. The results obtained suggest that rosemary diterpenes and/or their active secondary compounds deposited in muscle can act as endogenous antioxidants in cooked lamb. The carnosol intake seems crucial in the antioxidant actions achieved through DRE. The use of rosemary antioxidants in animal feeding would allow meat-based dishes to be preserved longer without adding preservatives. PMID:25142077

  13. GC-MS-based metabolomic study on the antidepressant-like effects of diterpene ginkgolides in mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zihong; Bai, Shunjie; Shen, Peng; Hu, Qingchuan; Wang, Xingfa; Dong, Meixue; Wang, Wei; Li, Juan; Cheng, Ke; Zhang, Shuxiao; Zou, Dezhi; Han, Yu; Wang, Haiyang; Xie, Peng

    2016-11-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), including EGb-761, have been suggested to have antidepressant activity based on previous behavioral and biochemical analyses. However, because GBE contain many constituents, the mechanisms underlying this suggested antidepressant activity are unclear. Here, we investigated the antidepressant-like effects of diterpene ginkgolides (DG), an important class of constituents in GBE, and studied their effects in the mouse hippocampus using a GC-MS-based metabolomics approach. Mice were randomly divided into five groups and injected daily until testing with 0.9% NaCl solution, one of three doses of DG (4.06, 12.18, and 36.54mg/kg), or venlafaxine. Sucrose preference (SPT) and tail suspension (TST) tests were then performed to evaluate depressive-like behaviors in mice. DG (12.18 and 36.54mg/kg) and venlafaxine (VLX) administration significantly increased hedonic behavior in mice in the SPT. DG (12.18mg/kg) treatment also shortened immobility time in the TST, suggestive of antidepressant-like effects. Significant differences in the metabolic profile in the DG (12.18mg/kg) compared with the control or VLX group indicative of an antidepressant-like effect were observed using multivariate analysis. Eighteen differential hippocampal metabolites were identified that discriminated the DG (12.18mg/kg) and control groups. These biochemical changes involved neurotransmitter metabolism, oxidative stress, glutathione metabolism, lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, and kynurenic acid, providing clues to the therapeutic mechanisms of DG. Thus, this study showed that DG has antidepressant-like activities in mice and shed light on the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of diterpene ginkgolides on behavior, providing an important drug candidate for the treatment of depression. PMID:27498146

  14. [Determination of 7 flavonol glycosides in Ginkgo biloba reference extract].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-hui; Chen, Jing; Wang, Meng-meng; Fu, Xin-tong; Chen, You-gen; Guo, Hong-zhu

    2015-10-01

    Six flavonol glycosides were isolated and calibrated from Ginkgo biloba extract, and then used to calibrate the content in 2 baiches of G. biloba reference extract, so was rutin. RSD values of rutin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside-2-glu- coside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnop-yranosyl-2-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-2-O-(6-O-p-coum-aroyl) - glucoside were around 1.1%-4.6%, nevertheless, RSD values of quercetin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside were more than 5%. According to the results, the reference extract of G. biloba can be used as the substitute to determine rutin, kaempferol-3-O- rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside-2-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-2-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside and kaempferol-3-0-rhamnopyranosyl-2-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside instead of corresponding reference substances. So reference extract in place of single component reference in assay is feasible. PMID:27062820

  15. New acylated triterpene glycosides from the roots of Polygala tenuifolia.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Minpei; Shizume, Takaaki; Mimaki, Yoshihiro

    2014-03-01

    Two new and five known acylated triterpene glycosides were isolated from the MeOH extract of the roots of Polygala tenuifolia. Based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR experiments, and the results of alkaline hydrolysis, the structures of the new compounds were assigned as 3beta-[(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2 beta,27-dihydroxyolean- 12-ene-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-( 1--3)-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 -4)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2)-3-O-(E)-3,4,5-trimeth oxycinnamoyl-beta-D-fucopyranosyl ester (1) and 3beta-[(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2beta,27-dihydroxyolean-1 2-ene-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(l---3)-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-( 1-->4)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 -2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-( 1 -3 )]-4-O-(E)-3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl-beta-D-fucopyranosyl ester (2). PMID:24689222

  16. beta-glucosidase catalyzed syntheses of pyridoxine glycosides.

    PubMed

    Charles, Rajachristu Einstein; Divakar, Soundar

    2009-01-01

    Enzymatic syntheses of pyridoxine glycosides were carried out in di-isopropyl ether organic medium using beta-glucosidase isolated from sweet almond. Optimum conditions determined for the reaction with D-glucose were 40% (w/w D-glucose) beta-glucosidase at 0.18 mM (1.8 ml) of pH 5 acetate buffer over a 72 h incubation period. Of 11 carbohydrates employed, beta-glucosidase gave 7-O-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)pyridoxine 5a, 7-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)pyridoxine 5b, 6-O-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)pyridoxine 5c, 7-O-(alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)pyridoxine 6a, 7-O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)pyridoxine 6b, 6-O-(alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)pyridoxine 6c, 7-O-(alpha-D-mannopyranosyl)pyridoxine 7a, 7-O-(beta-D-mannopyranosyl)pyridoxine 7b, and 6-O-(alpha-D-mannopyranosyl)pyridoxine 7c in yields ranging from 23 to 40%. PMID:19129657

  17. Effects of synthetic glycosides on steroid balance in Macaca fascicularis

    SciTech Connect

    Malinow, M.R.; Elliott, W.H.; McLaughlin, P.; Upson, B.

    1987-01-01

    The predominantly beta-anomer of diosgenin glucoside (DG) was synthesized and its effects on cholesterol homeostasis were tested in monkeys. Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were fed, during two 3-week periods, a semipurified diet with 0.1% cholesterol and a similar ration containing 1% DG, respectively. A Chow diet was given for 5 weeks between the experimental periods. Cholesterol and bile acid balance were analyzed during the last week of each semipurified diet. Diosgenin glucoside reduced cholesterolemia from 292 mg/dl to 172 mg/dl, decreased intestinal absorption of exogenous cholesterol from 62.4% to 26.0%, and increased secretion of endogenous cholesterol from -0.8 to 93.5 mg/day. The fecal excretion of neutral steroids rose from 40.7 to 157.3 mg/day; that of bile acids changed, nonsignificantly, from 23.1 to 16.0 mg/day. The cholesterol balance was -44 mg/day in the control period, and 88 mg/day in the DG-fed animals. No toxic signs were observed. Thus, when long-term studies demonstrate that the glucoside is well tolerated, DG and other synthetic glycosides with similar activities may be of use in the management of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.

  18. Six new C21 steroidal glycosides from Asclepias curassavica L.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Zhu; Liu, Hai-Yang; Lin, Yi-Ju; Hao, Xiao-Jiang; Ni, Wei; Chen, Chang-Xiang

    2008-07-01

    Six new C(21) steroidal glycosides, named curassavosides A-F (3-8), were obtained from the aerial parts of Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae), along with two known oxypregnanes, 12-O-benzoyldeacylmetaplexigenin (1) and 12-O-benzoylsarcostin (2). By spectroscopic methods, the structures of the six new compounds were determined as 12-O-benzoyldeacylmetaplexigenin 3-O-beta-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-digitoxopyranoside (3), 12-O-benzoylsarcostin 3-O-beta-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-digitoxopyranoside (4), sarcostin 3-O-beta-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-canaropyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-digitoxopyranoside (5), sarcostin 3-O-beta-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-canaropyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-canaropyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-digitoxopyranoside (6), 12-O-benzoyldeacylmetaplexigenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-canaropyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-d-oleandropyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-digitoxopyranoside (7), and 12-O-benzoylsarcostin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-d-canaropyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-digitoxopyranoside (8), respectively. All compounds (1-8) were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity; only compound 3 showed weak inhibitory activity against Raji and AGZY cell lines. PMID:18328519

  19. Cytotoxicity of cardenolides and cardenolide glycosides from Asclepias curassavica.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Zhu; Qing, Chen; Chen, Chang-Xiang; Hao, Xiao-Jiang; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2009-04-01

    A new cardenolide, 12beta,14beta-dihydroxy-3beta,19-epoxy-3alpha-methoxy-5alpha-card-20(22)-enolide (6), and a new doubly linked cardenolide glycoside, 12beta-hydroxycalotropin (13), together with eleven known compounds, coroglaucigenin (1), 12beta-hydroxycoroglaucigenin (2), calotropagenin (3), desglucouzarin (4), 6'-O-feruloyl-desglucouzarin (5), calotropin (7), uscharidin (8), asclepin (9), 16alpha-hydroxyasclepin (10), 16alpha-acetoxycalotropin (11), and 16alpha-acetoxyasclepin (12), were isolated from the aerial part of ornamental milkweed, Asclepias curassavica and chemically elucidated through spectral analyses. All the isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HepG2 and Raji cell lines. The results showed that asclepin (9) had the strongest cytotoxic activity with an IC(50) value of 0.02 microM against the two cancer cell lines and the new compound 13 had significant cytotoxic activity with IC(50) values of 0.69 and 1.46 microM, respectively. PMID:19251412

  20. New approaches to enzymatic glycoside synthesis through directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Kittl, Roman; Withers, Stephen G

    2010-07-01

    The expanding field of glycobiology requires tools for the synthesis of structurally defined oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates, while any potential therapeutic applications of sugar-based derivates would require access to substantial quantities of such compounds. Classical chemical approaches are not well suited for such large-scale syntheses, thus enzymatic approaches are sought. Traditional routes to the enzymatic assembly of oligosaccharides have involved the use of either Nature's own biosynthetic enzymes, the glycosyl transferases, or glycosidases run in transglycosylation mode. However, each approach has drawbacks that have limited its application. Glycosynthases are mutant glycosidases in which the catalytic nucleophile has been replaced by mutation, inactivating them as hydrolases. When used in conjunction with glycosyl fluorides of the opposite anomeric configuration to that of the substrate, these enzymes function as highly efficient transferases, frequently giving stoichiometric yields of products. Further improvements can be obtained through directed evolution of the gene encoding the enzyme in question, but this requires the ability to screen very large libraries of catalysts. In this review we survey new screening methods for the formation of glycosidic linkages using high-throughput techniques, such as FACS, chemical complementation, and robot-assisted ELISA assays. Enzymes were evolved to have higher catalytic activity with their natural substrates, to show altered substrate specificities or to be promiscuous for efficient application in oligosaccharide, glycolipid, and glycoprotein synthesis. PMID:20427037

  1. Polyketide Glycosides from Bionectria ochroleuca Inhibit Candida albicans Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges presented by Candida infections is that many of the isolates encountered in the clinic produce biofilms, which can decrease these pathogens’ susceptibilities to standard-of-care antibiotic therapies. Inhibitors of fungal biofilm formation offer a potential solution to counteracting some of the problems associated with Candida infections. A screening campaign utilizing samples from our fungal extract library revealed that a Bionectria ochroleuca isolate cultured on Cheerios breakfast cereal produced metabolites that blocked the in vitro formation of Candida albicans biofilms. A scale-up culture of the fungus was undertaken using mycobags (also known as mushroom bags or spawn bags), which afforded four known [TMC-151s C–F (1–4)] and three new [bionectriols B–D (5–7)] polyketide glycosides. All seven metabolites exhibited potent biofilm inhibition against C. albicans SC5314, as well as exerted synergistic antifungal activities in combination with amphotericin B. In this report, we describe the structure determination of the new metabolites, as well as compare the secondary metabolome profiles of fungi grown in flasks and mycobags. These studies demonstrate that mycobags offer a useful alternative to flask-based cultures for the preparative production of fungal secondary metabolites. PMID:25302529

  2. Peruvoside, a Cardiac Glycoside, Induces Primitive Myeloid Leukemia Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qian; Leong, Wa Seng; Liu, Liang; Chan, Wai-In

    2016-01-01

    Despite the available chemotherapy and treatment, leukemia remains a difficult disease to cure due to frequent relapses after treatment. Among the heterogeneous leukemic cells, a rare population referred as the leukemic stem cell (LSC), is thought to be responsible for relapses and drug resistance. Cardiac glycosides (CGs) have been used in treating heart failure despite its toxicity. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated its new usage as a potential anti-cancer drug. Ouabain, one of the CGs, specifically targeted CD34⁺CD38(-) leukemic stem-like cells, but not the more mature CD34⁺CD38⁺ leukemic cells, making this type of compounds a potential treatment for leukemia. In search of other potential anti-leukemia CGs, we found that Peruvoside, a less studied CG, is more effective than Ouabain and Digitoxin at inducing cell death in primitive myeloid leukemia cells without obvious cytotoxicity on normal blood cells. Similar to Ouabain and Digitoxin, Peruvoside also caused cell cycle arrest at G₂/M stage. It up-regulates CDKN1A expression and activated the cleavage of Caspase 3, 8 and PARP, resulting in apoptosis. Thus, Peruvoside showed potent anti-leukemia effect, which may serve as a new anti-leukemia agent in the future. PMID:27110755

  3. Antioxidant flavone glycosides from the leaves of Sasa borealis.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Suk; Lim, Ju Hee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Hyun Jin; Lee, Ik-Soo

    2007-02-01

    Sasa borealis (Poaceae) is a perennial medicinal plant which is a major source of bamboo leaves in Korea. The n-BuOH extract of S. borealis leaves exhibited significant antioxidant activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and a cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in HepG2 cells. Bioactivity-guided fractionation by column chromatography led to the isolation of two antioxidative flavonoid C-glycoside derivatives, isoorientin (2) and isoorientin 2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (4) along with tricin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and apigenin 6-C-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3). Their structures were identified on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods. The radical scavenging activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage of all the isolated compounds were also evaluated. Isoorientin (2) and isoorientin 2-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (4) showed potent free radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 9.5 and 34.5 microM, respectively, and strong cytoprotective effects against t-BOOH-induced oxidative damage in HepG2 cells, at very low concentrations of 1.1 microM isoorientin and 0.8 microM isoorientin 2-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside. This is the first report of the isolation and antioxidant activity of compounds 2 and 4 from S. borealis. PMID:17366736

  4. A new indole glycoside from the seeds of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Guang; Ko, Hae Ju; Chowdhury, Md Anisuzzaman; Lee, Dong-Sung; Woo, Eun-Rhan

    2016-06-01

    A new indole glycoside, β-D-glucopyranosyl 2-(methylthio)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate, named raphanuside A (1), as well as eight known compounds, β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (2), (3-O-sinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (3), (3-O-sinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (4), (3,4-O-disinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (5), isorhamnetin 3,4'-di-O-β-D-glucoside (6), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside (7), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside (8) and 3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (9) were isolated from the seeds of Raphanus sativus. Furthermore, compounds 1-3 and 6-9, were isolated from this plant for the first time. The structures of compounds 1-9 were identified using 1D and 2D NMR, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopic analyses. The inhibitory activity of these isolated compounds against interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in TNF-α stimulated MG-63 cells was also examined. PMID:27193305

  5. Extracellular Glycoside Hydrolase Activities in the Human Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Inui, Taichi; Walker, Lauren C; Dodds, Michael W J; Hanley, A Bryan

    2015-08-15

    Carbohydrate availability shifts when bacteria attach to a surface and form biofilm. When salivary planktonic bacteria form an oral biofilm, a variety of polysaccharides and glycoproteins are the primary carbon sources; however, simple sugar availabilities are limited due to low diffusion from saliva to biofilm. We hypothesized that bacterial glycoside hydrolase (GH) activities would be higher in a biofilm than in saliva in order to maintain metabolism in a low-sugar, high-glycoprotein environment. Salivary bacteria from 13 healthy individuals were used to grow in vitro biofilm using two separate media, one with sucrose and the other limiting carbon sources to a complex carbohydrate. All six GHs measured were higher in vitro when grown in the medium with complex carbohydrate as the sole carbon source. We then collected saliva and overnight dental plaque samples from the same individuals and measured ex vivo activities for the same six enzymes to determine how oral microbial utilization of glycoconjugates shifts between the planktonic phase in saliva and the biofilm phase in overnight dental plaque. Overall higher GH activities were observed in plaque samples, in agreement with in vitro observation. A similar pattern was observed in GH activity profiles between in vitro and ex vivo data. 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that plaque samples had a higher abundance of microorganisms with larger number of GH gene sequences. These results suggest differences in sugar catabolism between the oral bacteria located in the biofilm and those in saliva. PMID:26048943

  6. Host dependent iridoid glycoside sequestration patterns in Cionus hortulanus.

    PubMed

    Baden, Christian Ulrich; Franke, Stephan; Dobler, Susanne

    2013-08-01

    Weevils of the genus Cionus (Curculionidae, Mecininae) sequester the iridoid glycosides (IGs) aucubin and catalpol from their host plants Scrophularia or Verbascum (Scrophulariaceae). Cionus hortulanus is the only member of the genus that feeds on both plant genera. We previously showed that sequestration patterns in C. hortulanus depend on the local host. To investigate whether IG patterns are driven by their availability in the hosts or genetic differences between populations, we collected C. hortulanus from S. nodosa in the field and reared them either on S. nodosa or on V. nigrum. The differences in IG concentrations were specific for the host plant upon which the weevils developed. Similar to monophagous species of the Cionini, individuals from S. nodosa had more aucubin than catalpol and mirrored the concentrations of their host plants. Specimens from V. nigrum, on the other hand, had higher concentrations of aucubin and of catalpol than their host. On V. nigrum, the ratio of catalpol to aucubin differed significantly between plant and beetle samples due to much higher catalpol concentrations in the weevils. Our data thus contradict genetically fixed differences between populations living on either plant but rather document the host plants' influence on the beetles' metabolism. PMID:23846185

  7. Thermus thermophilus Glycoside Hydrolase Family 57 Branching Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Palomo, Marta; Pijning, Tjaard; Booiman, Thijs; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; van der Vlist, Jeroen; Kralj, Slavko; Planas, Antoni; Loos, Katja; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Leemhuis, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Branching enzyme (EC 2.4.1.18; glycogen branching enzyme; GBE) catalyzes the formation of α1,6-branching points in glycogen. Until recently it was believed that all GBEs belong to glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13). Here we describe the cloning and expression of the Thermus thermophilus family GH57-type GBE and report its biochemical properties and crystal structure at 1.35-Å resolution. The enzyme has a central (β/α)7-fold catalytic domain A with an inserted domain B between β2 and α5 and an α-helix-rich C-terminal domain, which is shown to be essential for substrate binding and catalysis. A maltotriose was modeled in the active site of the enzyme which suggests that there is insufficient space for simultaneously binding of donor and acceptor substrates, and that the donor substrate must be cleaved before acceptor substrate can bind. The biochemical assessment showed that the GH57 GBE possesses about 4% hydrolytic activity with amylose and in vitro forms a glucan product with a novel fine structure, demonstrating that the GH57 GBE is clearly different from the GH13 GBEs characterized to date. PMID:21097495

  8. Novel terpenoids from the West Indian sea whip Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae (Bayer). Elisapterosins A and B: rearranged diterpenes possessing an unprecedented cagelike framework.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A D; Ramírez, C; Rodríguez, I I; Barnes, C L

    2000-03-10

    Four diterpenes and a nor-diterpenoid, all of which possess unusual carbocyclic skeletons, were isolated from the hexane solubles of the West Indian gorgonian Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae. The structures and relative configurations of novel metabolites elisabethin D (2), elisabethin D acetate (3), 3-epi-elisabanolide (5), elisapterosin A (6), and elisapterosin B (7) were elucidated by interpretation of overall spectral data, which included 2D NMR correlation methods, IR, UV, and accurate mass measurements (HREI-MS and HRFAB-MS), chemical reactions, and X-ray diffraction analyses. The tetracyclic carbon skeleton of the elisapterosins is undescribed and constitutes a new class of C(20) rearranged diterpenes. Elisapterosin B displays strong in vitro anti-tuberculosis activity. PMID:10814100

  9. Mechanisms and energetics for N-glycosidic bond cleavage of protonated adenine nucleosides: N3 protonation induces base rotation and enhances N-glycosidic bond stability.

    PubMed

    Wu, R R; Rodgers, M T

    2016-06-21

    Our previous gas-phase infrared multiple photon dissociation action spectroscopy study of protonated 2'-deoxyadenosine and adenosine, [dAdo+H](+) and [Ado+H](+), found that both N3 and N1 protonated conformers are populated with the N3 protonated ground-state conformers predominant in the experiments. Therefore, N-glycosidic bond dissociation mechanisms of N3 and N1 protonated [dAdo+H](+) and [Ado+H](+) and the associated quantitative thermochemical values are investigated here using both experimental and theoretical approaches. Threshold collision-induced dissociation (TCID) of [dAdo+H](+) and [Ado+H](+) with Xe is studied using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry techniques. For both systems, N-glycosidic bond cleavage reactions are observed as the major dissociation pathways resulting in production of protonated adenine or elimination of neutral adenine. Electronic structure calculations are performed at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory to probe the potential energy surfaces (PESs) for N-glycosidic bond cleavage of [dAdo+H](+) and [Ado+H](+). Relative energetics of the reactants, transition states, intermediates and products along the PESs for N-glycosidic bond cleavage are determined at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,2p), B3LYP-GD3BJ/6-311+G(2d,2p), and MP2(full)/6-311+G(2d,2p) levels of theory. The predicted N-glycosidic bond dissociation mechanisms for the N3 and N1 protonated species differ. Base rotation of the adenine residue enables formation of a strong N3H(+)O5' hydrogen-bonding interaction that stabilizes the N3 protonated species and its glycosidic bond. Comparison between experiment and theory indicates that the N3 protonated species determine the threshold energies, as excellent agreement between the measured and B3LYP computed activation energies (AEs) and reaction enthalpies (ΔHrxns) for N-glycosidic bond cleavage of the N3 protonated species is found. PMID:27240654

  10. Flavonoid Glycosides of Polygonum capitatum Protect against Inflammation Associated with Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; Mo, Fei; Luo, Zhaoxun; Huang, Jian; Sun, Chaoqin; Zhang, Ran

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities, and protective effects of extracts (flavonoid glycosides) of Polygonum capitatum were investigated to detect the evidence for the utilization of the herb in the clinical therapy of gastritis caused by H. pylori. A mouse gastritis model was established using H. pylori. According to treating methods, model mice were random assigned into a model group (MG group), a triple antibiotics group (TG group, clarithromycin, omeprazole and amoxicillin), low/middle/high concentrations of flavonoid glycosides groups (LF, MF and HF groups) and low/middle/high concentrations of flavonoid glycosides and amoxicillin groups (LFA, MFA and HFA groups). A group with pathogen-free mice was regarded as a control group (CG group). The eradicate rates of H. pylori were 100%, 93%, 89% in TG, MFA and HF groups. The serum levels of IFN-gamma and gastrin were higher in a MG group than those from all other groups (P < 0.05). The serum levels of IFN-gamma and gastrin were reduced significantly in LF, MF and HF groups (P < 0.05) while little changes were observed in LFA, MFA and HFA groups. In contrast, the serum levels of IL-4 were lower and higher in MG and CG groups compared with other groups (P<0.05). The serum levels of IL-4 were increased significantly in LF, MF and HF groups (P < 0.05) while little changes were found in LFA, MFA and HFA groups. According to pathological scores, flavonoid glycosides therapy showed better protection for gastric injuries than the combination of flavonoid glycoside and amoxicillin (P < 0.05). The results suggested that flavonoid glycoside has repairing functions for gastric injuries. The results suggest that the plant can treat gastritis and protect against gastric injuries. The flavonoid glycosides from Polygonum capitatum should be developed as a potential drug for the therapy of gastritis caused by H. pylori. PMID:25993258

  11. FeCl3-promoted and ultrasound-assisted synthesis of resveratrol O-derived glycoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Marzag, Hamid; Robert, Guillaume; Dufies, Maeva; Bougrin, Khalid; Auberger, Patrick; Benhida, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Phenol derived O-glycosides were synthesized using a direct and convenient O-glycosidation, starting from acetylated sugars in the presence of FeCl3, an inexpensive, mild and benign Lewis acid catalyst. The reactions were carried out under both conventional and ultrasonic irradiation conditions. In general, improvement in rates and yields were observed when reactions were carried out under sonication compared with conventional conditions leading to the corresponding β-O-glycosides as the major anomer. Post-synthetic transformations of iodophenol intermediates led to new resveratrol O-glycoside analogs in good overall yields. PMID:24961448

  12. A recycling pathway for cyanogenic glycosides evidenced by the comparative metabolic profiling in three cyanogenic plant species.

    PubMed

    Pičmanová, Martina; Neilson, Elizabeth H; Motawia, Mohammed S; Olsen, Carl Erik; Agerbirk, Niels; Gray, Christopher J; Flitsch, Sabine; Meier, Sebastian; Silvestro, Daniele; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bjarnholt, Nanna

    2015-08-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are phytoanticipins involved in plant defence against herbivores by virtue of their ability to release toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) upon tissue disruption. In addition, endogenous turnover of cyanogenic glycosides without the liberation of HCN may offer plants an important source of reduced nitrogen at specific developmental stages. To investigate the presence of putative turnover products of cyanogenic glycosides, comparative metabolic profiling using LC-MS/MS and high resolution MS (HR-MS) complemented by ion-mobility MS was carried out in three cyanogenic plant species: cassava, almond and sorghum. In total, the endogenous formation of 36 different chemical structures related to the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin, lotaustralin, prunasin, amygdalin and dhurrin was discovered, including di- and tri-glycosides derived from these compounds. The relative abundance of the compounds was assessed in different tissues and developmental stages. Based on results common to the three phylogenetically unrelated species, a potential recycling endogenous turnover pathway for cyanogenic glycosides is described in which reduced nitrogen and carbon are recovered for primary metabolism without the liberation of free HCN. Glycosides of amides, carboxylic acids and 'anitriles' derived from cyanogenic glycosides appear as common intermediates in this pathway and may also have individual functions in the plant. The recycling of cyanogenic glycosides and the biological significance of the presence of the turnover products in cyanogenic plants open entirely new insights into the multiplicity of biological roles cyanogenic glycosides may play in plants. PMID:26205491

  13. Immunomodulatory action of monosulfated triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Cucumaria okhotensis: stimulation of activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Aminin, Dmitry L; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Stepanov, Vadim G; Kalinin, Vladimir I

    2010-12-01

    Six monosulfated triterpene glycosides, frondoside A1 (1), okhotoside B1 (2), okhotoside A1-1 (3), frondoside A (4), okhotoside A2-1 (5) and cucumarioside A2-5 (6), isolated from Cucumaria okhotensis Levin et Stepanov, stimulate spreading and lysosomal activity of mouse macrophages and ROS-formation in the macrophages. The highest macrophage spreading and stimulation of their lysosomal activity was induced by glycosides 1, 4 and 6. All glycosides similarly stimulate ROS formation in macrophages, but glycoside 2 caused minimal stimulation. PMID:21299111

  14. NaCl stress-induced changes in the essential oil quality and abietane diterpene yield and composition in common sage

    PubMed Central

    Tounekti, Taieb; Khemira, Habib

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how increasing NaCl salinity in the medium can affects the essential oils (EOs) composition and phenolic diterpene content and yield in leaves of Salvia officinalis L. The protective role of such compounds against NaCl stress was also argued with regard to some physiological characteristics of the plant (water and ionic relations as well as the leaf gas exchanges). Materials and Methods: Potted plants were exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 75, and 100 mM) for 4 weeks during July 2012. Replicates from each treatment were harvested after 0, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of adding salt to perform physiological measurements and biochemical analysis. Results: Sage EOs were rich in manool, viridiflorol, camphor, and borneol. Irrigation with a solution containing 100 mM NaCl for 4 weeks increased considerably 1.8-cineole, camphor and β-thujone concentrations, whereas lower concentrations (50 and 75 mM) had no effects. On the contrary, borneol and viridiflorol concentrations decreased significantly under the former treatment while manool and total fatty acid concentrations were not affected. Leaf extracts also contained several diterpenes such as carnosic acid (CA), carnosol, and 12-O-methoxy carnosic acid (MCA). The concentrations and total contents of CA and MCA increased after 3 weeks of irrigation with 75 or 100 mM NaCl. The 50 mM NaCl had no effect on these diterpenes. Our results suggest a protective role for CA against salinity stress. Conclusion: This study may provide ways to manipulate the concentration and yield of some phenolic diterpenes and EOs in sage. In fact, soil salinity may favor a directional production of particular components of interest. PMID:26401409

  15. Identification of a new cyathane diterpene that induces mitochondrial and autophagy-dependent apoptosis and shows a potent in vivo anti-colorectal cancer activity.

    PubMed

    He, Luwei; Han, Junjie; Li, Baowei; Huang, Li; Ma, Ke; Chen, Quan; Liu, Xinzhong; Bao, Li; Liu, Hongwei

    2016-03-23

    Diterpenes has been reported to possess multiple bioactivities consisting of anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties. This study reveals a new cyathane-type diterpene (cyathin Q) from the culture of the fungus Cyathus africanus by bioactivity-guided separation. The structure of cyathin Q was determined based on spectroscopic measurements (NMR and MS). The bioactivity evaluation shows that cyathin Q has a strong anticancer activity against HCT116 cells and Bax-deficient HCT116 in vitro and in vivo. This compound induced hallmarks of apoptotic events in HCT116 cells, including caspase activation, cytochrome c release, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and depolarization of the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential. This process is accompanied with the increased mitochondrial ROS, down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein, and up-regulation of Bim protein. We also observed the cleavage of autophagy-related protein ATG5 in cyathin Q-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our study identified a new fungal diterpene that exhibited anticancer activity via induction of mitochondria and autophagy-dependent apoptosis in HCT116 cells. PMID:26871659

  16. Lolitrem B and Indole Diterpene Alkaloids Produced by Endophytic Fungi of the Genus Epichloë and Their Toxic Effects in Livestock.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Guerre

    2016-02-01

    Different group of alkaloids are produced during the symbiotic development of fungal endophytes of the genus Epichloë in grass. The structure and toxicity of the compounds vary considerably in mammalian herbivores and in crop pests. Alkaloids of the indole-diterpene group, of which lolitrem B is the most toxic, were first characterized in endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass, and are responsible for "ryegrass staggers." Ergot alkaloids, of which ergovaline is the most abundant ergopeptide alkaloid produced, are also found in ryegrass, but generally at a lower rate than lolitrem B. Other alkaloids such as lolines and peramine are toxic for crop pests but have weak toxicological properties in mammals. The purpose of this review is to present indole-diterpene alkaloids produced in endophyte infected ryegrass from the first characterization of ryegrass staggers to the determination of the toxicokinetics of lolitrem B and of their mechanism of action in mammals, focusing on the different factors that could explain the worldwide distribution of the disease. Other indole diterpene alkaloids than lolitrem B that can be found in Epichloë infected ryegrass, and their tremorgenic properties, are presented in the last section of this review. PMID:26891327

  17. Relevance of the carnosic acid/carnosol ratio for the level of rosemary diterpene transfer and for improving lamb meat antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Jordán, María J; Castillo, Julián; Bañón, Sancho; Martínez-Conesa, Cristina; Sotomayor, José A

    2014-05-15

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate whether the relation between the concentrations of the two major diterpenes present in two typified rosemary extracts affects their levels of deposition and antioxidant capacity in different lamb tissues. The composition of the extracts expressed as percentage of weight/weight was 1:1 (14-16)% and 2:1 (25-11)% (carnosic acid-carnosol), respectively. Thirty weaned lambs were assigned randomly to three homogeneous groups. One group was fed a basal diet as a control and the diets of the other two were enriched with rosemary extracts 1:1 and 2:1, respectively. HPLC-ESI-MS/TOF identified a metabolite (C19H22O3) described for the first time in lamb tissues, along with carnosol, carnosic acid, rosmanol and carnosol-p-quinone. The results obtained corroborate the importance of the presence of carnosol in the dietary administration of rosemary extract as a way of improving the stability of the diterpene fraction during feed manufacturing and the level of deposition and antioxidant efficacy of diterpenes after ruminal fermentation. PMID:24423523

  18. Lolitrem B and Indole Diterpene Alkaloids Produced by Endophytic Fungi of the Genus Epichloë and Their Toxic Effects in Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, Guerre

    2016-01-01

    Different group of alkaloids are produced during the symbiotic development of fungal endophytes of the genus Epichloë in grass. The structure and toxicity of the compounds vary considerably in mammalian herbivores and in crop pests. Alkaloids of the indole-diterpene group, of which lolitrem B is the most toxic, were first characterized in endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass, and are responsible for “ryegrass staggers.” Ergot alkaloids, of which ergovaline is the most abundant ergopeptide alkaloid produced, are also found in ryegrass, but generally at a lower rate than lolitrem B. Other alkaloids such as lolines and peramine are toxic for crop pests but have weak toxicological properties in mammals. The purpose of this review is to present indole-diterpene alkaloids produced in endophyte infected ryegrass from the first characterization of ryegrass staggers to the determination of the toxicokinetics of lolitrem B and of their mechanism of action in mammals, focusing on the different factors that could explain the worldwide distribution of the disease. Other indole diterpene alkaloids than lolitrem B that can be found in Epichloë infected ryegrass, and their tremorgenic properties, are presented in the last section of this review. PMID:26891327

  19. Bioprospecting metagenomics of decaying wood: mining for new glycoside hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To efficiently deconstruct recalcitrant plant biomass to fermentable sugars in industrial processes, biocatalysts of higher performance and lower cost are required. The genetic diversity found in the metagenomes of natural microbial biomass decay communities may harbor such enzymes. Our goal was to discover and characterize new glycoside hydrolases (GHases) from microbial biomass decay communities, especially those from unknown or never previously cultivated microorganisms. Results From the metagenome sequences of an anaerobic microbial community actively decaying poplar biomass, we identified approximately 4,000 GHase homologs. Based on homology to GHase families/activities of interest and the quality of the sequences, candidates were selected for full-length cloning and subsequent expression. As an alternative strategy, a metagenome expression library was constructed and screened for GHase activities. These combined efforts resulted in the cloning of four novel GHases that could be successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Further characterization showed that two enzymes showed significant activity on p-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside, one enzyme had significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, and one enzyme showed significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-β-D-xylopyranoside. Enzymes were also tested in the presence of ionic liquids. Conclusions Metagenomics provides a good resource for mining novel biomass degrading enzymes and for screening of cellulolytic enzyme activities. The four GHases that were cloned may have potential application for deconstruction of biomass pretreated with ionic liquids, as they remain active in the presence of up to 20% ionic liquid (except for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate). Alternatively, ionic liquids might be used to immobilize or stabilize these enzymes for minimal solvent processing of biomass. PMID:21816041

  20. Biochemistry and toxicology of the diterpenoid glycoside atractyloside.

    PubMed

    Obatomi, D K; Bach, P H

    1998-04-01

    Atractyloside (Atr) is a diterpenoid glycoside that occurs naturally in plants (many of which are used in ethnomedicines) found in Europe, Africa, South America, Asia and the far East. It is also present in animal grazing forage. Atr (and its analogues) may be present at levels as high as 600 mg/kg dried plant material. Consumption of the plants containing Atr or carboxyatractyloside (carboxyAtr) has caused fatal renal proximal tubule necrosis and/or centrilobular hepatic necrosis in man and farm animals. Although pure Atr and crude plant extracts disrupt carbohydrate homeostasis and induce similar pathophysiological lesions in the kidney and liver, it is also possible that the toxicity of Atr may be confounded by the presence of other natural constituents in plants. Atr competitively inhibits the adenine nucleoside carrier in isolated mitochondria and thus blocks oxidative phosphorylation. This has been assumed to explain changes in carbohydrate metabolism and the toxic effects in liver and kidney. Although the acute toxicity of Atr is well described, many aspects of Atr toxicity (subchronic and chronic toxicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity) have not been investigated and pharmacokinetic and metabolism data are limited. In vitro proximal tubular cells are selectively sensitive to Atr, whereas other renal cell types are quite resistant. There are also differences in the response of liver and renal tissue to Atr. Thus, not all of the clinical, biochemical and morphological changes caused by Atr can simply be explained on the basis of inhibition of mitochondrial phosphorylation. The relevance to a wider human risk is shown by the presence of Atr analogues in dried roasted Coffea arabica beans (17.5 32 mg/kg). There are no data to help identify the risk of low dose chronic exposure in human coffee consumers, nor is there information on the levels of Atr or its analogues in other commonly consumed human foodstuffs. PMID:9651051

  1. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Phenolic Glycosides from Clematis tashiroi.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Jie; Huang, Hung-Tse; Huang, Shih-Yen; Lin, Zhi-Hu; Shen, Chien-Chang; Tsai, Wei-Jern; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2015-07-24

    From the 95% EtOH extract of dried aerial parts of Clematis tashiroi, eight new and four known phenolic (caffeic acid, coumaric acid, ferrulic acid) glycosides were isolated and characterized. The structures of the new isolates (clematisides A-H) were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation as trans-4-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl-β-D- glucopyranosyl)-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (1), trans-4-O-(6-O-trans-feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranosyll)-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (2), trans-4-O-(6-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (3), trans-4-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl p-coumaric acid (4), trans-3-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (5), trans-3-O-(6-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (6), 6-(3',4'-dihydroxystyryl)-2-pyrone-4-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), and 6-(3',4'-dihydroxystyryl)-2-pyrone-4-O-{6-O-[4-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-trans-caffeoyl}-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), respectively. In a DPPH radical-scavenging test, compounds 1, 7, and 8 showed more potent antioxidant activity than that of the positive control, vitamin E. In addition, compound 7 also showed inhibitory activity in an antinitric oxide release assay. PMID:26143931

  2. Bioprospecting metagenomics of decaying wood: mining for new glycoside hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Li L. L.; van der Lelie D.; Taghavi, S.; McCorkle, S. M.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Blewitt, M. G.; Brunecky, R.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Brumm, P.; Drinkwater, C.; Mead, D. A.; Tringe, S. G.

    2011-08-01

    To efficiently deconstruct recalcitrant plant biomass to fermentable sugars in industrial processes, biocatalysts of higher performance and lower cost are required. The genetic diversity found in the metagenomes of natural microbial biomass decay communities may harbor such enzymes. Our goal was to discover and characterize new glycoside hydrolases (GHases) from microbial biomass decay communities, especially those from unknown or never previously cultivated microorganisms. From the metagenome sequences of an anaerobic microbial community actively decaying poplar biomass, we identified approximately 4,000 GHase homologs. Based on homology to GHase families/activities of interest and the quality of the sequences, candidates were selected for full-length cloning and subsequent expression. As an alternative strategy, a metagenome expression library was constructed and screened for GHase activities. These combined efforts resulted in the cloning of four novel GHases that could be successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Further characterization showed that two enzymes showed significant activity on p-nitrophenyl-{alpha}-L-arabinofuranoside, one enzyme had significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, and one enzyme showed significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-xylopyranoside. Enzymes were also tested in the presence of ionic liquids. Metagenomics provides a good resource for mining novel biomass degrading enzymes and for screening of cellulolytic enzyme activities. The four GHases that were cloned may have potential application for deconstruction of biomass pretreated with ionic liquids, as they remain active in the presence of up to 20% ionic liquid (except for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate). Alternatively, ionic liquids might be used to immobilize or stabilize these enzymes for minimal solvent processing of biomass.

  3. Proteomic Analysis of a Novel Bacillus Jumbo Phage Revealing Glycoside Hydrolase As Structural Component

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying

    2016-01-01

    Tailed phages with genomes of larger than 200 kbp are classified as Jumbo phages and exhibited extremely high uncharted diversity. The genomic annotation of Jumbo phage is often disappointing because most of the predicted proteins, including structural proteins, failed to make good hits to the sequences in the databases. In this study, 23 proteins of a novel Bacillus Jumbo phage, vB_BpuM_BpSp, were identified as phage structural proteins by the structural proteome analysis, including 14 proteins of unknown function, 5 proteins with predicted function as structural proteins, a glycoside hydrolase, a Holliday junction resolvase, a RNA-polymerase β-subunit, and a host-coding portal protein, which might be hijacked from the host strain during phage virion assembly. The glycoside hydrolase (Gp255) was identified as phage virion component and was found to interact with the phage baseplate protein. Gp255 shows specific lytic activity against the phage host strain GR8 and has high temperature tolerance. In situ peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing activities analysis revealed that the expressed Gp255 and phage structural proteome exhibited glycoside hydrolysis activity against the tested GR8 cell extracts. This study identified the first functional individual structural glycoside hydrolase in phage virion. The presence of activated glycoside hydrolase in phage virions might facilitate the injection of the phage genome during infection by forming pores on the bacterial cell wall. PMID:27242758

  4. Taxifolin glycoside inhibits dendritic cell responses stimulated by lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Choi, Sun Eun; Lee, Min Won; Lee, Chung Soo

    2008-11-01

    Antigen-presenting dendritic cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Taxifolin is demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects. The present study was designed to assess the effect of taxifolin glycoside against stimulated responses of dendritic cells isolated from mouse bone marrow and spleen. Dendritic cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid or interleukin (IL)-1beta exhibited increased production of IL-12 p70 and tumour necrosis factor alpha, increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), and elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels. Treatment with taxifolin glycoside inhibited responses stimulated by the microbial products or IL-1beta in dendritic cells in a dose-dependent manner. Taxifolin glycoside had a significant inhibitory effect on the production of cytokines, formation of ROS and NO, and change in intracellular Ca2+ levels in dendritic cells of bone marrow and spleen. The results show that taxifolin glycoside seems to inhibit the dendritic cell responses stimulated by microbial products and IL-1beta, suggesting that taxifolin glycoside may exert an inhibitory effect against dendritic-cell-mediated immune responses. PMID:18957167

  5. Proteomic Analysis of a Novel Bacillus Jumbo Phage Revealing Glycoside Hydrolase As Structural Component.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying

    2016-01-01

    Tailed phages with genomes of larger than 200 kbp are classified as Jumbo phages and exhibited extremely high uncharted diversity. The genomic annotation of Jumbo phage is often disappointing because most of the predicted proteins, including structural proteins, failed to make good hits to the sequences in the databases. In this study, 23 proteins of a novel Bacillus Jumbo phage, vB_BpuM_BpSp, were identified as phage structural proteins by the structural proteome analysis, including 14 proteins of unknown function, 5 proteins with predicted function as structural proteins, a glycoside hydrolase, a Holliday junction resolvase, a RNA-polymerase β-subunit, and a host-coding portal protein, which might be hijacked from the host strain during phage virion assembly. The glycoside hydrolase (Gp255) was identified as phage virion component and was found to interact with the phage baseplate protein. Gp255 shows specific lytic activity against the phage host strain GR8 and has high temperature tolerance. In situ peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing activities analysis revealed that the expressed Gp255 and phage structural proteome exhibited glycoside hydrolysis activity against the tested GR8 cell extracts. This study identified the first functional individual structural glycoside hydrolase in phage virion. The presence of activated glycoside hydrolase in phage virions might facilitate the injection of the phage genome during infection by forming pores on the bacterial cell wall. PMID:27242758

  6. Occurrence of iridoid glycosides in in vitro cultures and intact plants of Scrophularia nodosa L.

    PubMed

    Sesterhenn, Katja; Distl, Melanie; Wink, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Shoot, root, and callus cultures of Scrophularia nodosa L. (Scrophulariaceae) were established and cultivated in vitro. Iridoid glycosides, such as harpagoside, aucubin, and catalpol were identified by LC-ESI-MS and their contents determined by HPLC. For comparison intact plants of S. nodosa were analysed. In shoot cultures slightly lower amounts of detectable iridoid glycosides (4.36% dry weight) were determined than in the field grown plants (4.88%). Concentration of harpagoside was highest in leaves of field plants (1.05%) and in flowers of in vitro plantlets (1.10%). For aucubin the highest amount was found in the leaves of in vitro plantlets (1.67%) whereas the levels of aucubin in the leaves of field plants were remarkably lower. Catalpol was produced as a trace compound in intact plants and shoot cultures. Callus and root cultures were apparently not able to synthesise iridoid glycosides. PMID:16972093

  7. Studies on Kochiae Fructus. V. Antipruritic effects of oleanolic acid glycosides and the structure-requirement.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Dai, Y; Ido, Y; Murakami, T; Matsuda, H; Yoshikawa, M; Kubo, M

    1998-11-01

    We examined the antipruritic effects of various oleanolic acid glycosides from natural medicines such as Kochiae Fructus (the fruit of Kochia scoparia SCHRAD.) and Momordicae Radix (the roots of Momordica cochinchinensis SPRENG.) using a compound 48/80-induced pruritic model in mice. Oleanolic acid 3-O-monodesmosides showed an antipruritic effect, while oleanolic acid 3,28-O-bisdesmosides and their common sapogenol oleanolic acid lacked the activity. This evidence indicated that the 3-O-glycoside moiety and the 28-carboxyl group in oleanolic acid glycosides were essential for exhibiting the antipruritic effect. Furthermore, it was found that the 3-O-glucuronides showed more potent activity than the corresponding 3-O-glucosides. PMID:9853421

  8. Organosolv pretreatment of Sitka spruce wood: conversion of hemicelluloses to ethyl glycosides.

    PubMed

    Bouxin, Florent P; David Jackson, S; Jarvis, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    A range of Organosolv pretreatments, using ethanol:water mixtures with dilute sulphuric acid, were applied to Sitka spruce sawdust with the aim of generating useful co-products as well as improving saccharification yield. The most efficient of the pretreatment conditions, resulting in subsequent saccharification yields of up to 86%, converted a large part of the hemicellulose sugars to their ethyl glycosides as identified by GC/MS. These conditions also reduced conversion of pentoses to furfural, the ethyl glycosides being more stable to dehydration than the parent pentoses. Through comparison with the behaviour of model compounds under the same reaction conditions it was shown that the anomeric composition of the products was consistent with a predominant transglycosylation reaction mechanism, rather than hydrolysis followed by glycosylation. The ethyl glycosides have potential as intermediates in the sustainable production of high-value chemicals. PMID:24269088

  9. Temporary reduction of radiation does not permanently reduce flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids in red lettuce.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christine; Kläring, Hans-Peter; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2013-11-01

    Applying transparent daytime screens in greenhouses in cool seasons reduces the amount of energy needed for heating, but also the solar radiation available for crops. This can reduce yield and product quality of leafy vegetables because of constrained photosynthesis and altered biosynthesis. To study this, we cultivated five-week old red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) for four weeks in growth chambers under a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 225 and 410 μmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Some plants were exchanged between radiation intensities after two weeks. We investigated the concentration of five flavonoid glycosides, three caffeic acid derivatives, reducing sugars as well as plant growth. Remarkably, no significant influence of radiation intensity on the concentration of phenolic acids or anthocyanin glycosides was observed. In contrast, quercetin and luteolin glycoside concentration was between 14 and 34% lower in plants growing under lower compared to higher PPFD. Already after two weeks of cultivation, plants grown under lower PPFD contained less quercetin and luteolin glycosides but they completely compensated if subsequently transferred to higher PPFD until harvest. Hence, marketable lettuce heads which experienced temporary shading followed by an unshaded phase did not contain lower concentrations of flavonoid glycosides or phenolic acids. Also, there was no reduction of head mass in this variant. Our results suggest that saving energy in early growth stages is feasible without losses in yield or health promoting phenolic substances. In addition, there was a close correlation between the concentration of reducing sugars and some flavonoid glycosides, indicating a close metabolic connection between their biosynthesis and the availability of carbohydrates. PMID:23735845

  10. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of enzymatically synthesized phenolic and vitamin glycosides.

    PubMed

    Charles, Rajachristu Einstein; Ponrasu, Thangavel; Sivakumar, Ramaiah; Divakar, Soundar

    2009-03-01

    Amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus mould and beta-glucosidase from sweet almond were employed for the preparation of phenolic and vitamin glycosides of vanillin, N-vanillylnonanamide, DL-dopa, dopamine, curcumin, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)), ergocalciferol (vitamin D(2)), thiamin (vitamin B(1)) and riboflavin (vitamin B(2)). Approx. 20 enzymatically prepared phenolic and vitamin glycosides were subjected to ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibition activity measurements, and 14 glycosides were tested for antioxidant activities. Both phenolic and vitamin glycosides exhibited IC(50) values for ACE inhibition in the 0.52+/-0.03-3.33+/-0.17 mM range and antioxidant activities ranging from 0.8+/-0.04 to 1.18+/-0.06 mM. Comparable ACE inhibition values were observed between free phenols and vitamin glycosides. However, antioxidant activities of glycosides were, in general, lesser than those of free phenols. Best IC(50) value for ACE inhibition were observed for 11-O-(D-fructofuranosyl)thiamin (0.52+/-0.03 mM), 3-hydroxy-4-O-(6-D-sorbitol)phenylalanine (0.56+/-0.03 mM), 4-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)vanillin (0.61+/-0.03 mM), 4-O-(D-galactopyranosyl)vanillin (0.61+/-0.03 mM) and pyridoxine-D-glucoside (0.84+/-0.04 mM). Similarly, best IC(50) values for antioxidant activity were observed for 1,7-O-(bis-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)curcumin (0.8+/-0.04 mM), 4-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)vanillin (0.9+/-0.05 mM), 3-hydroxy-4-O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1'-->4)beta-D-glucopyranosyl)phenylalanine (0.9+/-0.05 mM), 20-O-(D-glucopyranosyl)ergocalciferol (0.9+/-0.05 mM) and dopamine-D-galactoside (0.93+/-0.05 mM). PMID:18547170

  11. Quantitative determination of triterpenoid glycosides in Fatsia japonica Decne. & Planch. using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xuewei; Yu, Siran; Lian, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Zhizhen

    2014-01-01

    Fatsia japonica Decne. & Planch. is a triterpenoid glycoside-rich herb with anti-inflammatory activity for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A method for quantitative analysis of the complex triterpenoid glycosides in this medicinal plant has not been established so far. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for simultaneous qualification of 11 glycosides in F. japonica. The analysis was performed on an ODS-2 Hypersil column (250mm×4.6mm, 5μm) with a binary gradient mobile phase of water and acetonitrile. The established HPLC method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, stability, precision, accuracy, and recovery. Results showed that this method had good linearity with R(2) at 0.99992-0.99999 in the test range of 0.04-9.00μg/μL. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the standard compounds were 0.013-0.020μg/μL and 0.040-0.060μg/μL. The relative standard deviations (RSDs%) of run variations were 0.83-1.40% for intra-day and 0.84-3.59% for inter-day. The analyzed compounds in the samples were stable for at least 36h, and the spike recoveries of the detected glycosides were 99.67-103.11%. The developed HPLC method was successfully applied for the measurements of the contents of 11 triterpenoid glycoside in different parts of F. japonica. Taken together, the HPLC method newly developed in this study could be used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the bioactive triterpenoid glycosides in F. japonica and its products. PMID:24176752

  12. Differential EI Fragmentation Pathways for Peracetylated C-Glycoside Ketones as a Consequence of Bicyclic Ketal Ring Structures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several C-glycoside ketones and peracetylated C-glycoside ketones have been synthesized from 13 structurally-diverse aldoses sugars (including isotope labeled [1-**13C]Glc, [U-**13C]Glc, and [6,6’-**2H2]Glc) via an aqueous-based Knoevanagel condensation with aliphatic 1,3-diketones. Sodium adduct m...

  13. Nephrotoxicity evaluation of a new cembrane diterpene from Euphorbiae pekinensis Radix with HEK 293T cells and the toxicokinetics study in rats using a sensitive and reliable UFLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Ziying; Zhang, Ruowen; Hou, Pengyi; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2016-02-01

    (-)-(1S)-15-Hydroxy-18-carboxycembrene, the first cembrane-type diterpenoid found in the family Euphorbiaceae, isolated from Euphorbiae pekinensis Radix, was identified to be nephrotoxic using HEK 293T cells. Tests on cell morphology, cell viability and biochemical markers about oxidation stress were carried out using inverted microscope, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and commercial kits respectively, which proved the diterpene time- and dose-dependently decreased cells proliferation. Besides, a sensitive and robust UFLC-MS/MS method was developed and fully validated to investigate the in vivo behavior in rats of the diterpene after oral administration of Euphorbiae pekinensis Radix extracts at a dosage of 9g/kg. The method showed a good linearity in tested range (3-1500ng/mL) with acceptable accuracy and precision. The recovery of the diterpene was more than 85% and the matrix effect was within ±20%. The toxicokinetics parameters indicate the diterpene reached Cmax quickly and slowly eliminate. The study proved the newly found diterpene was one of the nephrotoxic substances of Euphorbiae pekinensis Radix and revealed its toxicokinetics behavior. PMID:26683989

  14. Cholestane steroid glycosides from the rhizomes of Dioscorea villosa (wild yam).

    PubMed

    Ali, Zulfiqar; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-04-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the MeOH extract of Dioscorea villosa rhizomes resulted in the isolation of two new bidesmosidic cholestane steroid glycosides, dioscoreavillosides A and B (1 and 2). In addition, the extract yielded 12 previously known furostan and spirostan steroid glycosides (3-14), along with diosgenin (15). Compounds 3-7, 9, 14, and 15 were isolated for the first time from D. villosa. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined using spectroscopic and chemical methods including 1D and 2D NMR. The antimicrobial action of most of these compounds was tested against five fungal and five bacterial strains. PMID:23454141

  15. Cholestane steroid glycosides from the root of Dioscorea villosa (wild yam)

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Zulfiqar; Smillie, Troy J.; Khan, Ikhlas A.

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the MeOH extract of Dioscorea villosa root resulted in the isolation of two new bidesmosidic cholestane steroid glycosides, dioscoreavillosides A and B (1 and 2). In addition, the extract yielded 12 previously known furostane and spirostane steroid glycosides (3-14), along with diosgenin (15). Compounds 3-7, 9, 14, and 15 were isolated for the first time from D. villosa. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined using spectroscopic and chemical methods including 1D and 2D NMR. The antimicrobial action of most of these compounds was tested against five fungal and five bacterial strains. PMID:23454141

  16. Syntheses of retinol glycosides using beta-glucosidase in SCCO(2) media.

    PubMed

    Einstein Charles, Rajachristu; Ponrasu, Thangavel; Sankar, Kadimi Udaya; Divakar, Soundar

    2009-10-01

    beta-Glucosidase isolated from sweet almond catalyzed syntheses of water soluble retinol glycosides were carried out in SCCO(2) media with carbohydrates-D-glucose 2, D-galactose 3, D-mannose 4, D-fructose 5, and D-sorbitol 6. Retinol glycosides yields were in the 9-34% range. Reaction with D-fructose 5 gave a highest yield of 34%. Excellent regioselectivity was observed with D-mannose 4 and D-sorbitol 6 which gave exclusively C1beta-mannoside and C1-D-sorbitolide. PMID:19005623

  17. Antifungal activity in triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Actinopyga lecanora.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Chaturvedi, Ashok Kumar; Shukla, Praveen Kumar; Lakshmi, Vijai

    2007-08-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of sea cucumber Actinopyga lecanora led to the isolation of a new triterpene glycoside (1), along with two known glycosides holothurin B (3) and holothurin A (4). The structure has been elucidated on the basis of extensive 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. The saponin (3) showed in vitro antifungal activity against all the twenty fungal test isolates including ATCC strain and was found to be most effective against Trychophyton mentagrophytes and Sporothrix schenckii, MIC range of 1.56 microg/ml. PMID:17587569

  18. Identification of Novel Phenyl Butenonyl C-Glycosides with Ureidyl and Sulfonamidyl Moieties as Antimalarial Agents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A new series of C-linked phenyl butenonyl glycosides bearing ureidyl(thioureidyl) and sulfonamidyl moieties in the phenyl rings were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their in vitro antimalarial activities against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 (CQ sensitive) and K1 (CQ resistant) strains. Among all the compounds screened the C-linked phenyl butenonyl glycosides bearing sulfonamidyl moiety (5a) and ureidyl moiety in the phenyl ring (7d and 8c) showed promising antimalarial activities against both 3D7 and K1 strains with IC50 values in micromolar range and low cytotoxicity offering new HITS for further exploration. PMID:25147607

  19. A steryl glycoside fraction with hemolytic activity from tubers of Momordica cochinchinensis.

    PubMed

    Ng, T B; Li, W W; Yeung, H W

    1986-10-01

    A hemolytic fraction has been obtained from fresh tubers of Momordica cochinchinensis. The fraction was strongly adsorbed on DEAE-Sepharose CL6B. It did not stain with Coomassie brilliant blue in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and it gave no immunoprecipitin arcs in immunoelectrophoresis. The hemolytic activity of the fraction was resistant to heat and proteolytic enzymes. The behavior of the fraction in thin-layer chromatography and its positive reaction in Liebermann-Burchard test indicated that the hemolytic activity of the fraction can be attributed to a steryl glycoside(s). PMID:3821135

  20. A new lignan glycoside from the stem bark of Styrax japonica S. et Z.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Ran; Moon, Hyun Teak; Lee, Dong Gun; Woo, Eun-Rhan

    2007-04-01

    A new lignan glycoside was isolated from the stem bark of Styrax japonica (Styracaceae). This lignan glycoside, named styraxjaponoside C (1), was identified by spectroscopic methods. In addition, six known compounds, arctiin (2), pinoresinol-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), matairesinoside (4), methylsyringin (5), syringin (6), and egonol (7) were isolated from this plant. The structures of 1-7 were determined on the basis of spectroscopic and physicochemical data. Compounds 2 and 5 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:17489357

  1. Two new glycosides from Dryopteris fragrans with anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bing; Bai, Rui-Feng; Li, Ping; Han, Xu-Yang; Wang, Hong; Zhu, Chong-Chong; Zeng, Zu-Ping; Chai, Xing-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the aqueous extract from Dryopteris fragrans led to the isolation of one new chromone glycoside, frachromone C (1), and one new coumarin glycoside, dryofracoulin A (2), together with one known undulatoside A (3). Their structures were elucidated by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS, and chemical analysis. Compounds 1-3 exhibited inhibition on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide induced RAW 264.7 macrophages with their IC50 values of 45.8, 65.8, and 49.8 μM, respectively. PMID:26700189

  2. Paeonicluside, a new salicylic glycoside from the Greek endemic species Paeonia clusii.

    PubMed

    Papandreou, Vasiliki; Magiatis, Prokopios; Kalpoutzakis, Eleftherios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Harvala, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    A new glycoside of salicylic aldehyde, paeonicluside, was isolated from the roots of the Greek endemic species Paeonia clusii subsp. clusii and identified as alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside of salicylic aldehyde (1). In addition, one characteristic monoterpene and two monoterpene glycosides were identified as paeoniflorigenone, paeoniflorin and benzoyl paeoniflorin, respectively. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of its spectroscopic data and chemical correlation. It is the first time that a derivative of salicylic aldehyde is isolated from the well-studied Paeonia genus. PMID:12064719

  3. Electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry of mixtures of triterpene glycosides with paracetamol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekar, A. V.; Vetrova, E. V.; Borisenko, N. I.; Yakovishin, L. A.; Grishkovets, V. I.

    2010-11-01

    Molecular complexation of paracetamol with hederagenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (α-hederin) and its 28-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-O-β-Dglucopyranosyl ether (hederasaponin C) was investigated for the first time using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The glycosides form complexes with paracetamol in a 1:1 molar ratio. The hederasaponin C complex is more stable. The structures of the glycosides and paracetamol are concluded to have an impact on the complexation process.

  4. Colochirosides A₁, A₂, A₃, and D, Four Novel Sulfated Triterpene Glycosides from the Sea Cucumber Colochirus robustus (Cucumariidae, Dendrochirotida).

    PubMed

    Silchenko, Alexandra S; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Avilov, Sergey A; Andryjaschenko, Pelageya V; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Yurchenko, Ekaterina A; Dolmatov, Igor Yu

    2016-03-01

    Four new triterpene glycosides, colochirosides A₁ (1), A₂ (2), A₃ (3) and D (4), have been isolated from the sea cucumber Colochirus robustus (Cucumariidae, Dendrochirotida). Structures of the glycosides have been elucidated by 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass-spectrometry. Colochiroside D (4) has a new type of carbohydrate chain having the only sulfate group attached to C-6 of the third (glucose) monosaccharide residue. Cytotoxic activities of glycosides 1-4 against the ascite form of mouse Ehrlich carcinoma cells and hemolytic activity against mouse erythrocytes have been studied. Hemolytic activity of the glycosides was higher than cytotoxic. Glycosides 1, 3 and 4 demonstrated strong effects, whereas compound 2 showed only moderate activity. PMID:27169187

  5. Molecular Docking Studies of Marine Diterpenes as Inhibitors of Wild-Type and Mutants HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    Miceli, Leonardo A.; Teixeira, Valéria L.; Castro, Helena C.; Rodrigues, Carlos R.; Mello, Juliana F. R.; Albuquerque, Magaly G.; Cabral, Lucio M.; de Brito, Monique A.; de Souza, Alessandra M. T.

    2013-01-01

    AIDS is a pandemic responsible for more than 35 million deaths. The emergence of resistant mutations due to drug use is the biggest cause of treatment failure. Marine organisms are sources of different molecules, some of which offer promising HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitory activity, such as the diterpenes dolabelladienotriol (THD, IC50 = 16.5 µM), (6R)-6-hydroxydichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial (HDD, IC50 = 10 µM) and (6R)-6-acetoxydichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial (ADD, IC50 = 35 µM), isolated from a brown algae of the genus Dictyota, showing low toxicity. In this work, we evaluated the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of THD, HDD and ADD as anti HIV-1 RT, using a molecular modeling approach. The analyses of stereoelectronic parameters revealed a direct relationship between activity and HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital)-LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital) gap (ELUMO–EHOMO), where antiviral profile increases with larger HOMO-LUMO gap values. We also performed molecular docking studies of THD into HIV-1 RT wild-type and 12 different mutants, which showed a seahorse conformation, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds with important residues of the binding pocket. Based on in vitro experiments and docking studies, we demonstrated that mutations have little influence in positioning and interactions of THD. Following a rational drug design, we suggest a modification of THD to improve its biological activity. PMID:24172210

  6. Ingenane-type diterpenes with a modulatory effect on IFN-γ production from the roots of Euphorbia kansui.

    PubMed

    Khiev, Piseth; Kim, Jae Wha; Sung, Song Jae; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Choung, Dong-Ho; Chin, Young-Won; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Oh, Sei-Ryang

    2012-09-01

    A new ingenane-type diterpene, (3S,5R)5-O-(2,3-dimethylbutanoyl)-13-O-dodecanoyl-20-O-deoxyingenol (1), and six known compounds,3-O-(2,3-dimethylbutanoyl)-13-O-dodecanoyl-20-O-deoxyingenol (2), 20-O-decanoylingenol (3), 20-O-acetylingenol-3-O-(2'E,4'Z) decadienoate (4), kansuiphorin A (5), 3-O-(2,3-dimethylbutanoyl)-13-O-dodecanoylingenol (6), and kansuinin F (7) were isolated and evaluated for their effect on IFN-γ production in NK92 cells. Interestingly, subjection to compounds 4 and 6 (10 nM) displayed the most significant response in IFN-γ production, comparable to that produced by the same dose of phorbol 12-myistate 13-acetate (PMA). High doses of compounds 3 (100 nM), 1 (1. 25 μM) and 5 (5.0 μM) have also been shown to activate the IFN-γ production. PMID:23054711

  7. Discovery of Tricyclic Clerodane Diterpenes as Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase Inhibitors and Structure-Activity Relationships.

    PubMed

    De Ford, Christian; Calderón, Carlos; Sehgal, Pankaj; Fedosova, Natalya U; Murillo, Renato; Olesen, Claus; Nissen, Poul; Møller, Jesper V; Merfort, Irmgard

    2015-06-26

    Tricyclic clerodane diterpenes (TCDs) are natural compounds that often show potent cytotoxicity for cancer cells, but their mode of action remains elusive. A computationally based similarity search (CDRUG), combined with principal component analysis (ChemGPS-NP) and docking calculations (GOLD 5.2), suggested TCDs to be inhibitors of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pump, which is also the target of the sesquiterpene lactone thapsigargin. Biochemical studies were performed with 11 TCDs on purified rabbit skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes, which are highly enriched with the SERCA1a isoform. Casearborin D (2) exhibited the highest affinity, with a KD value of 2 μM and giving rise to complete inhibition of SERCA1a activity. Structure-activity relationships revealed that functionalization of two acyl side chains (R1 and R4) and the hydrophobicity imparted by the aliphatic chain at C-9, as well as a C-3,C-4 double bond, play crucial roles for inhibitory activity. Docking studies also suggested that hydrophobic interactions in the binding site, especially with Phe256 and Phe834, may be important for a strong inhibitory activity of the TCDs. In conclusion, a novel class of SERCA inhibitory compounds is presented. PMID:25993619

  8. Bioguided discovery and pharmacophore modeling of the mycotoxic indole diterpene alkaloids penitrems as breast cancer proliferation, migration, and invasion inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Asmaa A.; Houssen, Wael E.; Gissendanner, Chris R.; Orabi, Khaled Y.; Foudah, Ahmed I.; El Sayed, Khalid A.

    2013-01-01

    Marine-derived fungi have proven to be important sources of bioactive natural organohalides. The genus Penicillium is recognized as a rich source of chemically diverse bioactive secondary metabolites. This study reports the fermentation, isolation and identification of a marine-derived Penicillium species. Bioassay-guided fractionation afforded the indole diterpene alkaloids penitrems A, B, D, E and F as well as paspaline and emnidole SB (1–7). Supplementing the fermentation broth of the growing fungus with KBr afforded the new 6-bromopenitrem B (8) and the known 6-bromopenitrem E (9). These compounds showed good antiproliferative, antimigratory and anti-invasive properties against human breast cancer cells. Penitrem B also showed a good activity profile in the NCI-60 DTP human tumor cell line screen. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was used to assess the BK channel inhibitory activity and toxicity of select compounds. A pharmacophore model was generated to explain the structural relationships of 1–9 with respect to their antiproliferative activity against the breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The structurally less complex biosynthetic precursors, paspaline (6) and emindole SB (7), were identified as potential hits suitable for future studies. PMID:24273638

  9. Overcoming Multidrug Resistance in Candida albicans: Macrocyclic Diterpenes from Euphorbia Species as Potent Inhibitors of Drug Efflux Pumps.

    PubMed

    Nim, Shweta; Mónico, Andreia; Rawal, Manpreet Kaur; Duarte, Noélia; Prasad, Rajendra; Di Pietro, Attilio; Ferreira, Maria-José U

    2016-08-01

    Thirteen macrocyclic diterpenes (1-13) of the jatrophane and lathyrane types, either isolated from Euphorbia species or obtained by chemical derivatization, were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the drug efflux activity of Candida albicans CaCdr1p and CaMdr1p multidrug transporters overexpressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. Their inhibitory potential was assessed through a functional assay of Nile Red accumulation monitored by flow cytometry. A chemosensitization assay, using the checkerboard method, was also performed with the active compounds in order to evaluate their type of interaction with fluconazole.In the transport assay, most compounds were found to inhibit both transporters, most likely as non-substrates, as shown by relative resistance indices close to unity. In contrast, the jatrophanes euphopubescenol (10) and euphomelliferene A (11) were selective for CaMdr1p and CaCdr1p, respectively. Moreover, when used in combination with fluconazole, compounds 12 and 13 displayed strong synergistic interactions (FICI = 0.071) against the yeast strain overexpressing CaMdr1p, decreasing the MIC80 of the antifungal agent 13-fold. Both compounds were also able to reduce the effective concentration of this antifungal agent by 4- to 8-fold against an azole-resistant clinical isolate of C. albicans (F5). PMID:27145238

  10. Characterization and Modeling of the Collision Induced Dissociation Patterns of Deprotonated Glycosphingolipids: Cleavage of the Glycosidic Bond.

    PubMed

    Rožman, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Glycosphingolipid fragmentation behavior was investigated by combining results from analysis of a series of negative ion tandem mass spectra and molecular modeling. Fragmentation patterns extracted from 75 tandem mass spectra of mainly acidic glycosphingolipid species (gangliosides) suggest prominent cleavage of the glycosidic bonds with retention of the glycosidic oxygen atom by the species formed from the reducing end (B and Y ion formation). Dominant product ions arise from dissociation of sialic acids glycosidic bonds whereas product ions resulting from cleavage of other glycosidic bonds are less abundant. Potential energy surfaces and unimolecular reaction rates of several low-energy fragmentation pathways leading to cleavage of glycosidic bonds were estimated in order to explain observed dissociation patterns. Glycosidic bond cleavage in both neutral (unsubstituted glycosyl group) and acidic glycosphingolipids was the outcome of the charge-directed intramolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) mechanism. According to the suggested mechanism, the nucleophile in a form of carboxylate or oxyanion attacks the carbon at position one of the sugar ring, simultaneously breaking the glycosidic bond and yielding an epoxide. For gangliosides, unimolecular reaction rates suggest that dominant product ions related to the cleavage of sialic acid glycosidic bonds are formed via direct dissociation channels. On the other hand, low abundant product ions related to the dissociation of other glycosidic bonds are more likely to be the result of sequential dissociation. Although results from this study mainly contribute to the understanding of glycosphingolipid fragmentation chemistry, some mechanistic findings regarding cleavage of the glycosidic bond may be applicable to other glycoconjugates. PMID:26297186

  11. Analysis of glycosidically bound aroma precursors in tea leaves. 1. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of glycosides with aglycons as aroma compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Yoshimura, T; Kubota, K; Kobayashi, A

    2000-11-01

    Twenty-six synthetic glycosides constituting aglycons of the main tea aroma compounds ((Z)-3-hexenol, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, methyl salicylate, geraniol, linalool, and four isomers of linalool oxides) were synthesized in our laboratory as authentic compounds. Those compounds were used to carry out a direct qualitative and quantitative determination of the glycosides as aroma precursors in different tea cultivars by capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analyses after trifluoroacetyl conversion of the tea glycosidic fractions. Eleven beta-D-glucopyranosides, 10 beta-primeverosides (6-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside) with aglycons as the above alcohols, and geranyl beta-vicianoside (6-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside) were identified (tentatively identified in the case of methyl salicylate beta-primeveroside) in fresh tea leaves and quantified on the basis of calibration curves that had been established by using the synthetic compounds. Primeverosides were more abundant than glucosides in each cultivar we investigated for making green tea, oolong tea, and black tea. Separation of the diastereoisomers of linalool and four isomers of linalool oxides by GC analyses is also discussed. PMID:11087494

  12. Influence of the configurational pattern of sp(2)-iminosugar pseudo N-, S-, O- and C-glycosides on their glycoside inhibitory and antitumor properties.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fernández, Elena M; Gonçalves-Pereira, Rita; Rísquez-Cuadro, Rocío; Plata, Gabriela B; Padrón, José M; García Fernández, José M; Ortiz Mellet, Carmen

    2016-06-24

    The synthesis of a complete series of cyclic carbamate-type sp(2)-iminosugar N-, S-, O- and C-octyl pseudoglycosides related to nojirimycin, mannojirimycin and galactonojirimycin, all having the α-pseudoanomeric configuration, is reported. The gem-diamine-type N-pseudoglycosides can be accessed directly from the corresponding reducing sp(2)-imisosugar precursors by reaction with octylamine in methanol, whereas per-O-acetyl or 1-fluoro derivatives were used as pseudoglycosyl donors for the preparation of S-pseudoglycosides or O- and C-pseudoglycosides, respectively. Evaluation of their inhibitory properties against a panel of glycosidases evidenced selectivity profiles that strongly depend on the configurational pattern and the nature of the glycosidic linkage. On the contrary, the antiproliferative activity determined against a panel of tumor cell lines was largely independent of the relative orientation of the hydroxyl groups in the sp(2)-iminosugar moiety. Indeed, sp(2)-iminosugar representatives exhibiting significant growth inhibition potencies were identified in all three configurationally different types of compounds studied, namely α-d-gluco, α-d-manno and α-d-galacto glycoside analogs. Interestingly, none of the compounds affected viability and mortality of normal cells at the used concentrations. Altogether, the results strongly suggest that the anticancer activity of amphiphilic sp(2)-iminosugar glycosides might be unrelated, or not solely related, to their glycosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:26850915

  13. Structure-based drug design studies of the interactions of ent-kaurane diterpenes derived from Wedelia paludosa with the Plasmodium falciparum sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺-ATPase PfATP6.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Daniel Silqueira Martins; Fonseca, Amanda Luisa da; Batista, Ronan; Comar Junior, Moacyr; Oliveira, Alaíde Braga de; Taranto, Alex Gutterres; Varotti, Fernando de Pilla

    2015-04-01

    Malaria is responsible for more deaths around the world than any other parasitic disease. Due to the emergence of strains that are resistant to the current chemotherapeutic antimalarial arsenal, the search for new antimalarial drugs remains urgent though hampered by a lack of knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of artemisinin resistance. Semisynthetic compounds derived from diterpenes from the medicinal plant Wedelia paludosa were tested in silico against the Plasmodium falciparum Ca2+-ATPase, PfATP6. This protein was constructed by comparative modelling using the three-dimensional structure of a homologous protein, 1IWO, as a scaffold. Compound 21 showed the best docking scores, indicating a better interaction with PfATP6 than that of thapsigargin, the natural inhibitor. Inhibition of PfATP6 by diterpene compounds could promote a change in calcium homeostasis, leading to parasite death. These data suggest PfATP6 as a potential target for the antimalarial ent-kaurane diterpenes. PMID:25946251

  14. Structure-based drug design studies of the interactions of ent-kaurane diterpenes derived from Wedelia paludosa with the Plasmodium falciparum sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase PfATP6

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Daniel Silqueira Martins; da Fonseca, Amanda Luisa; Batista, Ronan; Comar, Moacyr; de Oliveira, Alaíde Braga; Taranto, Alex Gutterres; Varotti, Fernando de Pilla

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is responsible for more deaths around the world than any other parasitic disease. Due to the emergence of strains that are resistant to the current chemotherapeutic antimalarial arsenal, the search for new antimalarial drugs remains urgent though hampered by a lack of knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of artemisinin resistance. Semisynthetic compounds derived from diterpenes from the medicinal plant Wedelia paludosa were tested in silico against the Plasmodium falciparum Ca2+-ATPase, PfATP6. This protein was constructed by comparative modelling using the three-dimensional structure of a homologous protein, 1IWO, as a scaffold. Compound 21 showed the best docking scores, indicating a better interaction with PfATP6 than that of thapsigargin, the natural inhibitor. Inhibition of PfATP6 by diterpene compounds could promote a change in calcium homeostasis, leading to parasite death. These data suggest PfATP6 as a potential target for the antimalarial ent-kaurane diterpenes. PMID:25946251

  15. Synthesis and biological analysis of novel glycoside derivatives of l-AEP, as targeted antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Bovill, Richard; Evans, Philip G; Howse, Gemma L; Osborn, Helen M I

    2016-08-01

    To develop targeted methods for treating bacterial infections, the feasibility of using glycoside derivatives of the antibacterial compound l-R-aminoethylphosphonic acid (l-AEP) has been investigated. These derivatives are hypothesized to be taken up by bacterial cells via carbohydrate uptake mechanisms, and then hydrolyzed in situ by bacterial borne glycosidase enzymes, to selectively afford l-AEP. Therefore the synthesis and analysis of ten glycoside derivatives of l-AEP, for selective targeting of specific bacteria, is reported. The ability of these derivatives to inhibit the growth of a panel of Gram-negative bacteria in two different media is discussed. β-Glycosides (12a) and (12b) that contained l-AEP linked to glucose or galactose via a carbamate linkage inhibited growth of a range of organisms with the best MICs being <0.75mg/ml; for most species the inhibition was closely related to the hydrolysis of the equivalent chromogenic glycosides. This suggests that for (12a) and (12b), release of l-AEP was indeed dependent upon the presence of the respective glycosidase enzyme. PMID:27268308

  16. Characterization of two-step deglycosylation via oxidation by glycoside oxidoreductase and defining their subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Seo, Joo-Hyun; Baek, Kiheon; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report a two-step deglycosylation mediated by the oxidation of glycoside which is different from traditional glycoside hydrolase (GH) mechanism. Previously, we reported a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent glycoside oxidoreductase (FAD-GO) having deglycosylation activity. Various features of the reaction of FAD-GO such as including mechanism and catalytic residue and substrate specificity were studied. In addition, classification of novel FAD-GO subfamily was attempted. Deglycosylation of glycoside was performed spontaneously via oxidation of 3-OH of glycone moiety by FAD-GO mediated oxidation reaction. His493 residue was identified as a catalytic residue for the oxidation step. Interestingly, this enzyme has broad glycone and aglycon specificities. For the classification of FAD-GO enzyme subfamily, putative FAD-GOs were screened based on the FAD-GO from Rhizobium sp. GIN611 (gi 365822256) using BLAST search. The homologs of R. sp. GIN611 included the putative FAD-GOs from Stenotrophomonas strains, Sphingobacterium strains, Agrobacterium tumefaciens str. C58, and etc. All the cloned FAD-GOs from the three strains catalyzed the deglycosylation via enzymatic oxidation. Based on their substrate specificities, deglycosylation and oxidation activities to various ginsenosides, the FAD-GO subfamily members can be utilized as novel biocatalysts for the production of various aglycones. PMID:26057169

  17. Total Synthesis of Linckosides A and B, the Representative Starfish Polyhydroxysteroid Glycosides with Neuritogenic Activities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dapeng; Yu, Biao

    2015-12-01

    Linckosides A and B, two starfish metabolites with promising neuritogenic activities, are synthesized in a longest linear sequence of 32 steps and 0.5% overall yield; this represents the first synthesis of members of the polyhydroxysteroid glycoside family, which occur widely in starfishes. PMID:26595819

  18. Theoretical Calculation of Electronic Circular Dichroism of a Hexahydroxydiphenoyl-Containing Flavanone Glycoside

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) was employed for theoretical calculation of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) of a hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP)-containing flavanone glycoside, mattucinol-7-O-[4'',6''-O-(aS)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl]-ß-d-glucopyranoside (2). It identified the roles of t...

  19. Reinvestigation of the stereochemistry of the C-glycosidic ellagitannins, vescalagin and castalagin.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yosuke; Wakamatsu, Hatsumi; Omar, Mohamed; Tanaka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The stereochemistry of the C-glycosidic ellagitannins, vescalagin and castalagin, has been reinvestigated using computational methods. DFT calculations of their (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra, as well as TDDFT calculations of the ECD spectra of their des-hexahydroxydiphenoyl analogues, revealed that the structure of the triphenoyl moiety of vescalagin and castalagin should be revised. PMID:25496565

  20. DFT STUDY OF ALPHA-MALTOSE: INFLUENCE OF HYDROXYL ORIENTATIONS ON THE GLYCOSIDIC BOND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The result of DFT geometry optimization of 68 unique alpha-maltose conformers at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory is described. Particular attention is paid to the hydroxyl group rotational positions and their influence on the glycosidic bond dihedral angles. The orientation of lone pair elect...

  1. [STEROIDAL GENINS AND GLYCOSIDES OF SPIROSTAN AND FUROSTAN SERIES AS ANTHELMINTHIC AGENTS].

    PubMed

    Islamova, Zh I; Khushbaktova, Z A; Abdullaev, N D; Syrov, V N

    2016-01-01

    It was established that steroidal genins and their glycosides of the spirostan series and (especially) furostan series show anticestodal activity against Hymeiolepis nana species. Search for anthelminthic agents in the indicated series of compounds is a promising direction of research. PMID:27455578

  2. A GH57 4-α-glucanotransferase of hyperthermophilic origin with potential for alkyl glycoside production.

    PubMed

    Paul, Catherine J; Leemhuis, Hans; Dobruchowska, Justyna M; Grey, Carl; Önnby, Linda; van Leeuwen, Sander S; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Karlsson, Eva Nordberg

    2015-09-01

    4-α-Glucanotransferase (GTase) enzymes (EC 2.4.1.25) modulate the size of α-glucans by cleaving and reforming α-1,4 glycosidic bonds in α-glucans, an essential process in starch and glycogen metabolism in plants and microorganisms. The glycoside hydrolase family 57 enzyme (GTase57) studied in the current work catalyzes both disproportionation and cyclization reactions. Amylose was converted into cyclic amylose (with a minimum size of 17 glucose monomers) as well as to a spectrum of maltodextrins, but in contrast to glycoside hydrolase family 13 cyclodextrin glucanotransferases (CGTases), no production of cyclodextrins (C6-C8) was observed. GTase57 also effectively produced alkyl-glycosides with long α-glucan chains from dodecyl-β-D-maltoside and starch, demonstrating the potential of the enzyme to produce novel variants of surfactants. Importantly, the GTase57 has excellent thermostability with a maximal activity at 95 °C and an activity half-life of 150 min at 90 °C which is highly advantageous in this manufacturing process suggesting that enzymes from this relatively uncharacterized family, GH57, can be powerful biocatalysts for the production of large head group glucosides from soluble starch. PMID:25693671

  3. Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of heptyl-β-glycosides: effect of water coalescence at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Carmina; Bustos-Jaimes, Ismael; Bárzana, Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    Alkyl glycosides can be synthesized by glycosidases in organic media with limited amounts of water. These systems, however, limit the solubility of the sugar substrates and decrease reaction yields. Herein we report the enzymatic synthesis of heptyl-β-glycosides in heptanol catalyzed by a hyperthermophilic β-glycosidase at 90°C. Our results indicate that dispersion of water in heptanol changes with time producing coalescence of water at the bottom of the reactor, playing a key role in the reaction yield. Water-soluble substrate, enzyme and products are concentrated in the aqueous phase, according to their partition coefficients, promoting side reactions that inactivate the enzyme. Reaction yield of heptyl-β-glycosides was 35% relative to lactose, at 7% water. The increase in the water phase to 12% diminished the enzyme inactivation and increased the heptyl-β-glycosides yield to 52%. Surface-active compounds, SDS and octyl glucoside, increased water dispersion but were unable to prevent coalescence. PMID:23863873

  4. 7-O-methylpelargonidin glycosides from the pale red flowers of Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi

    2013-08-01

    Two new anthocyanidin glycosides were isolated from the pale red flowers of Catharanthus roseus 'Equator Apricot with Red Eye', and identified as 7-O-methylpelargonidin 3-O-[6-O-(alpha-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-galactopyranoside] and 7-O-methylpelargonidin 3-O-(beta-galactopyranoside) by chemical and spectroscopic methods. PMID:24079176

  5. Rehabilitation of faulty kinetic determinations and misassigned glycoside hydrolase family of retaining mechanism ß-xylosidases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We obtained Cx1 from a commercial supplier, whose catalog listed it as a ß-xylosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 43. NMR experiments indicate retention of anomeric configuration in its reaction stereochemistry, opposing the assignment of GH43, which follows an inverting mechanism. Partial protein...

  6. Highly active ß-xylosidases of glycoside hydrolase family 43 operating on natural and artificial substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hemicellulose xylan constitutes a major portion of plant biomass, a renewable feedstock available for conversion to biofuels and other bioproducts. ß-xylosidase operates in the deconstruction of the polysaccharide to fermentable sugars. Glycoside hydrolase family 43 has been identified as a so...

  7. Acetylated Triterpene Glycosides and Their Biological Activity from Holothuroidea Reported in the Past Six Decades.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Franco, Christopher M M

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers have been valued for many centuries as a tonic and functional food, dietary delicacies and important ingredients of traditional medicine in many Asian countries. An assortment of bioactive compounds has been described in sea cucumbers. The most important and abundant secondary metabolites from sea cucumbers are triterpene glycosides (saponins). Due to the wide range of their potential biological activities, these natural compounds have gained attention and this has led to their emergence as high value compounds with extended application in nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, medicinal and pharmaceutical products. They are characterized by bearing a wide spectrum of structures, such as sulfated, non-sulfated and acetylated glycosides. Over 700 triterpene glycosides have been reported from the Holothuroidea in which more than 145 are decorated with an acetoxy group having 38 different aglycones. The majority of sea cucumber triterpene glycosides are of the holostane type containing a C18 (20) lactone group and either Δ(7(8)) or Δ(9(11)) double bond in their genins. The acetoxy group is mainly connected to the C-16, C-22, C-23 and/or C-25 of their aglycone. Apparently, the presence of an acetoxy group, particularly at C-16 of the aglycone, plays a significant role in the bioactivity; including induction of caspase, apoptosis, cytotoxicity, anticancer, antifungal and antibacterial activities of these compounds. This manuscript highlights the structure of acetylated saponins, their biological activity, and their structure-activity relationships. PMID:27527190

  8. High-Throughput In Vitro Glycoside Hydrolase (HIGH) Screening for Enzyme Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae-Wan; Chokhawala, Harshal A.; Hess, Matthias; Dana, Craig M.; Baer, Zachary; Sczyrba, Alexander; Rubin, Edward M.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Clark, Douglas S.

    2011-09-16

    A high-throughput protein-expression and screening method (HIGH method, see picture) provides a rapid approach to the discovery of active glycoside hydrolases in environmental samples. Finally, HIGH screening combines cloning, protein expression, and enzyme hydrolysis in one pot; thus, the entire process from gene expression to activity detection requires only three hours.

  9. Cloning, Expression and Characterization of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 39 Xylosidase from Bacillus Halodurans C-125

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 39 xylosidase (BH1068) from the alkaliphile Bacillus halodurans strain C-125 was cloned with a C-terminal His-tag and the recombinant gene product termed XylBH1068 was expressed in E. coli. Of the artificial substrates tested, XylBH1068 hydrolyzed nitro...

  10. A new phenolic glycoside and two new monoterpenoid furocoumarins from Aurantii Fructus Immaturus.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ying; Chang, Meiyan; Deng, Kezhong; Luo, Yongming

    2016-07-01

    A new phenolic glycoside, citrauranoside A (1), and two new monoterpenoid furocoumarins, citraurancoumarin A (2) and citraurancoumarin B (3), along with four known compounds (4-7) were isolated from the young fruit of Citrus aurantium L. The structures were elucidated by their comprehensive analysis including 1D, 2DNMR, IR and mass spectra. PMID:26728329

  11. Utilisation of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Kunová, Gabriela; Rada, Vojtěch; Vidaillac, Adrien; Lisova, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    In the current study, eight strains of bifidobacteria and seven strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to grow in the presence of rebaudioside A and steviol glycosides from the sweetener Natusweet M001 originating from herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Stevia is gaining popularity as a natural, non-caloric sugar substitute, and recently, it was allowed as a food additive by European Union too. Utilisation of steviol glycosides by intestinal microbiota suggests that they might have potential prebiotic effect. Based on the evaluation of bacterial density and pH values in our in vitro study, it was found that lactobacilli and bifidobacteria tested were able to utilise steviol glycosides as a carbon source only to a very limited extent. All strains tested showed significantly lower change in the absorbance A540 (P < 0.05) and pH decrease of the growth media as compared with the positive controls (medium containing glucose as a carbon source and de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth). We concluded that a suggested prebiotic effect was not confirmed either in the case of rebaudioside A or in the case of the sweetener Natusweet M001 containing a mixture of steviol glycosides. PMID:24249153

  12. Acetylated Triterpene Glycosides and Their Biological Activity from Holothuroidea Reported in the Past Six Decades

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Franco, Christopher M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers have been valued for many centuries as a tonic and functional food, dietary delicacies and important ingredients of traditional medicine in many Asian countries. An assortment of bioactive compounds has been described in sea cucumbers. The most important and abundant secondary metabolites from sea cucumbers are triterpene glycosides (saponins). Due to the wide range of their potential biological activities, these natural compounds have gained attention and this has led to their emergence as high value compounds with extended application in nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, medicinal and pharmaceutical products. They are characterized by bearing a wide spectrum of structures, such as sulfated, non-sulfated and acetylated glycosides. Over 700 triterpene glycosides have been reported from the Holothuroidea in which more than 145 are decorated with an acetoxy group having 38 different aglycones. The majority of sea cucumber triterpene glycosides are of the holostane type containing a C18 (20) lactone group and either Δ7(8) or Δ9(11) double bond in their genins. The acetoxy group is mainly connected to the C-16, C-22, C-23 and/or C-25 of their aglycone. Apparently, the presence of an acetoxy group, particularly at C-16 of the aglycone, plays a significant role in the bioactivity; including induction of caspase, apoptosis, cytotoxicity, anticancer, antifungal and antibacterial activities of these compounds. This manuscript highlights the structure of acetylated saponins, their biological activity, and their structure-activity relationships. PMID:27527190

  13. Differential El Ion Fragmentation Pathways for Peracetylated C-Glycoside Ketals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous-based Knoevenagel condensation of sugars with beta-diketones is a useful method for preparing beta-C-glycoside ketones. A mechanism has been proposed in which C-C bond formation between the anomeric sugar carbon and the bridged methylene of the diketone is followed by beta-elimination of wa...

  14. Method validation of a survey of thevetia cardiac glycosides in serum samples.

    PubMed

    Kohls, Sarah; Scholz-Böttcher, Barbara; Rullkötter, Jürgen; Teske, Jörg

    2012-02-10

    A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS) procedure was developed and validated for the identification and quantification of thevetin B and further cardiac glycosides in human serum. The seeds of Yellow Oleander (Thevetia peruviana) contain cardiac glycosides that can cause serious intoxication. A mixture of six thevetia glycosides was extracted from these seeds and characterized. Thevetin B, isolated and efficiently purified from that mixture, is the main component and can be used as evidence. Solid phase extraction (SPE) proved to be an effective sample preparation method. Digoxin-d3 was used as the internal standard. Although ion suppression occurs, the limit of detection (LOD) is 0.27 ng/ml serum for thevetin B. Recovery is higher than 94%, and accuracy and precision were proficient. Method refinement was carried out with regard to developing a general screening method for cardiac glycosides. The assay is linear over the range of 0.5-8 ng/ml serum. Finally, the method was applied to a case of thevetia seed ingestion. PMID:21376490

  15. Potential anti-inflammatory phenolic glycosides from the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided isolation and purification of the ethyl acetate extract of Moringa oleifera fruits yielded three new phenolic glycosides; 4-[(2'-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl]isothiocyanate (1), 4-[(3'-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate (2), and S-methyl-N-{4-[(a-L-rhamnosyloxy)benz...

  16. Absorption of Anthocyanins from Berries: Metabolic Products and Influence of Glycoside

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins (ACNs) are unique among the flavonoids in that they are absorbed as the intact glycoside. Berries are rich sources of anthocyanins; differences among the berries in aglycone as well as in sugar moieties provide opportunities to study factors that influence absorption/metabolism. The rel...

  17. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, and ginkgolide K after intravenous infusion of ginkgo diterpene lactones in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuyao; Ouyang, Bingchen; Aa, Jiye; Geng, Jianliang; Fei, Fei; Wang, Pei; Wang, Jiankun; Peng, Ying; Geng, Ting; Li, Yanjing; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Guangji

    2016-07-15

    Ginkgo diterpene lactones are compounds that are extracted from the Ginkgo biloba leaf and possess pharmacologic activities with neuroprotective effects. To address the poor bioavailability of ginkgo diterpene lactones, ginkgo diterpene lactone meglumine injection (GDLI) was formulated and is commercially available. In this study, a simple, sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for assessing the total amount and the amount of the prototype forms of ginkgolides A (GA), B (GB) and K (GK) in rat plasma and tissues. This method was used to calculate the concentrations of the hydrolysed carboxylic forms and assess the pharmacokinetics of the ginkgolides after intravenous (i.v.) GDLI administration in rats. Generally, all three ginkgolide forms showed dose-dependent plasma concentrations, and no obvious differences in pharmacokinetic parameters, i.e., area under the curve (AUC) of plasma concentration versus time and half-life, were observed after GDLI administration on 7 consecutive days. These ginkgolides primarily existed in the carboxylic form in the plasma, and the systemic concentrations of the carboxylic forms of GA and GB were 11- to 17- and 3- to 4-fold higher than those of their prototype forms, respectively. In contrast, dramatically increased levels of the GA and GB prototype lactones were detected in the liver and heart. GA, GB, and GK were extensively distributed in various organs/tissues; the highest levels were found in the kidneys, liver, and intestine, and the lowest levels were found in the brain. These data suggest that ginkgolides have difficulty crossing the blood-brain barrier and that their targets for protecting against cerebral ischaemia are located outside the central system. PMID:27182682

  18. A labdane diterpene exerts ex vivo and in vivo cardioprotection against post-ischemic injury: involvement of AKT-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado-Berrocal, Irene; Gómez-Gaviro, María V; Benito, Yolanda; Barrio, Alicia; Bermejo, Javier; Fernández-Santos, María Eugenia; Sánchez, Pedro L; Desco, Manuel; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; Fernández-Velasco, María; Boscá, Lisardo; de Las Heras, Beatriz

    2015-02-15

    Therapeutic approaches to protect the heart from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are an area of intense research, as myocardial infarction is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Diterpenes are bioactive natural products with great therapeutic potential. In the present study, we have investigated the in vivo cardioprotective effects of a labdane diterpene (DT1) against cardiac I/R injury and the molecular mechanisms involved. DT1 attenuates post-ischemic injury via an AKT-dependent activation of HIF-1α, survival pathways and inhibition of NF-κB signaling. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in Wistar rats occluding the left coronary artery (LCA) for 30min followed by 72h reperfusion. DT1 (5mg/kg) was intravenously administered at reperfusion. In addition, we investigated the mechanisms of cardioprotection in the Langendorff-perfused model. Cardioprotection was observed when DT1 was administered after myocardial injury. The molecular mechanisms involved the activation of the survival pathway PDK-1, AKT and AMPK, a reduced phosphorylation of PKD1/2 and sustained HIF-1α activity, leading to increased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and decreased caspase-3 activation. Pharmacological inhibition of AKT following MI and prior to DT1 challenge significantly decreased the cardioprotection afforded by DT1 therapy at reperfusion. Cardiac function after MI was significantly improved after DT1-treatment, as evidenced by hemodynamic recovery and decreased myocardial infarct size. These findings demonstrate an efficient in vivo cardioprotection by diterpene DT1 against I/R when administered at reperfusion, opening new therapeutic strategies as adjunctive therapy for the pharmacological management of I/R injury. PMID:25557296

  19. Phenylethanoid glycosides in tepals of Magnolia salicifolia and their occurrence in flowers of Magnoliaceae.

    PubMed

    Porter, Elaine A; Kite, Geoffrey C; Veitch, Nigel C; Geoghegan, Ivey A; Larsson, Sonny; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2015-09-01

    Phenylethanoid glycosides were among the major UV-absorbing components in 80% aq. CH3OH extracts of the tepals of Magnolia salicifolia (Siebold & Zucc.) Maxim. (Magnoliaceae; Magnolia subgenus Yulania). Structural characterisation of isolated compounds by spectroscopic and chemical methods revealed three previously unrecorded examples, yulanoside A, yulanoside B and 2'-rhamnoechinacoside, and the known compounds echinacoside and crassifolioside; chromatographic methods also identified verbascoside in the tepal extract. Yulanoside A is the first reported example of a phenylethanoid pentaglycoside, namely hydroxytyrosol 1-O-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-[3,4-dihydroxycinnamoyl-(→4)][α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)][α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside}. A survey of Magnolia sensu lato and Liriodendron (the two genera of Magnoliaceae) suggested that yulanoside A and its deglucosyl derivative (yulanoside B) were a feature of the tepal chemistry of Magnolia subgenus Yulania (except Magnolia acuminata, the sole member of section Tulipastrum, which did not accumulate phenylethanoid glycosides). The two species of Liriodendron and examined examples of Magnolia subgenus Magnolia sections Magnolia and Rytidospermum (subsection Oyama) also accumulated phenylethanoid glycosides in their tepals and in these species, and in subgenus Yulania, the major compounds were one or more of echinacoside, 2'-rhamnoechinacoside, crassifolioside and verbascoside. Levels of phenylethanoid glycosides were found to be much lower in species studied from Magnolia sections Gwillimia, Macrophylla and Rytidospermum (subsection Rytidospermum), although yulanoside A was detectable in M. macrophylla and this may have some bearing on the placement of section Macrophylla, which is currently uncertain. In the isolates of yulanoside B and echinacoside, minor phenylethanoid glycosides were determined to be analogues of these compounds with β-D-xylose at C-3' of the

  20. Involvement of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway in biosynthesis of aphidicolin-like tetracyclic diterpene of Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Nkembo, Marguerite Kasidimoko; Lee, Jung-Bum; Nakagiri, Takeshi; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2006-05-01

    Specific inhibitors of the MVA pathway (pravastatin) and the MEP pathway (fosmidomycin) were used to interfere with the biosynthetic flux which leads to the production of aphidicolin-like diterpene in leaf organ cultures of Scoparia dulcis. Treatment of leaf organs with fosmidomycin resulted in dose dependent inhibition of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scopadulcic acid B (SDB) and phytol production, and no effect on sterol production was observed. In response to the pravastatin treatment, a significant decrease in sterol and perturbation of SDB production was observed. PMID:16651787