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Sample records for 17-item hamilton rating

  1. Factors of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 items) at 2 weeks correlated with poor outcome at 1 year in patients with ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huaiwu; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Chunxue; Luo, Ben Yan; Shi, Yuzhi; Li, Jingjing; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Yilong; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Juan; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-02-01

    There was fewer paper about the relation between the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 Items, HDRS-17) factors and stroke outcomes. Our aim was to investigate the influence of total score and factors of HDRS-17 on outcome of ischemic stroke at 1 year. A total of 1,953 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled into a multicentered and prospective cohort study. The HDRS-17 was used to assess symptoms at 2 weeks after ischemic stroke. The Modified Ranking Scale (mRS) scores of 3-6 points and 0-2 points were regarded as poor outcome and benign outcome, respectively. At 1 year, 1,753 (89.8 %) patients had mRS score data. After adjusting for the confounders, patients with a total HDRS-17 score of ≥ 8 had a worse outcome at 1 year (OR = 1.62, 95 % CI 1.18-2.23). Symptoms of suicide (OR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.27-2.83), decreased or loss of interest of work (OR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.38-2.58), retardation (OR = 1.74, 95 % CI 1.27-2.38), psychic anxiety (OR = 1.72, 95 % CI 1.26-2.34), and agitation (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI 1.08-2.40) increased the risks for poor outcome by >60 %, respectively. Depressed mood, somatic anxiety, somatic symptoms-gastrointestinal, and early insomnia also increased the risk for poor outcome by nearly 50 %, respectively. A total HDRS-17 score of ≥ 8, and suicide, decreased or loss of interest of work, anxiety, agitation, retardation, depressed mood, somatic anxiety, somatic symptoms-gastrointestinal, and early insomnia of the HDRS-17 factors at 2 weeks after ischemic stroke increase the risk for poor outcome at 1 year.

  2. The Montgomery Asberg and the Hamilton ratings of depression: a comparison of measures.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Thomas J; Rush, A John; Bernstein, Ira; Warden, Diane; Brannan, Stephen; Burnham, Daniel; Woo, Ada; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2006-12-01

    The 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD(17)) and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) are two widely used clinician-rated symptom scales. A 6-item version of the HRSD (HRSD(6)) was created by Bech to address the psychometric limitations of the HRSD(17). The psychometric properties of these measures were compared using classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) methods. IRT methods were used to equate total scores on any two scales. Data from two distinctly different outpatient studies of nonpsychotic major depression: a 12-month study of highly treatment-resistant patients (n=233) and an 8-week acute phase drug treatment trial (n=985) were used for robustness of results. MADRS and HRSD(6) items generally contributed more to the measurement of depression than HRSD(17) items as shown by higher item-total correlations and higher IRT slope parameters. The MADRS and HRSD(6) were unifactorial while the HRSD(17) contained 2 factors. The MADRS showed about twice the precision in estimating depression as either the HRSD(17) or HRSD(6) for average severity of depression. An HRSD(17) of 7 corresponded to an 8 or 9 on the MADRS and 4 on the HRSD(6). The MADRS would be superior to the HRSD(17) in the conduct of clinical trials.

  3. Rating depression over brief time intervals with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale: standard vs. abbreviated scales.

    PubMed

    Luckenbaugh, David A; Ameli, Rezvan; Brutsche, Nancy E; Zarate, Carlos A

    2015-02-01

    Although antidepressant trials typically use weekly ratings to examine changes in symptoms over six to 12 weeks, antidepressant treatments may improve symptoms more quickly. Thus, rating scales must be adapted to capture changes over shorter intervals. We examined the use of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) to evaluate more rapid changes. Data were examined from 58 patients with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder enrolled in double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies who received a single infusion of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) or placebo over 40 min then crossed over to the other condition. HDRS subscales, a single HDRS Depressed mood item, and a visual analogue scale were used at baseline, after a brief interval (230 min), and one week post-infusion. Effect sizes for the ketamine-placebo difference were moderate (d > 0.50), but one and two-item HDRS subscales had the smallest effects. Response rates on active drug were lowest for the complete HDRS (43%); the remaining scales had higher response rates to active drug, but the shortest subscales had higher response rates to placebo. Correlations between the changes from baseline to 230 min post-ketamine across scores were similar for most subscales (r = 0.82-0.97), but correlations using the single items were lower (r < 0.74). Overall, effect sizes for drug-placebo differences and correlations between changes were lower for one- and two-item measures. Response rates were lower with the full HDRS scale. The data suggest that, to best identify rapid antidepressant effects, a scale should have more than two items, but fewer items than a full scale.

  4. An examination of the sensitivity of the six-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression in a sample of patients suffering from major depressive disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, C L; Bakish, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the sensitivity of the 6-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD6) with the more widely used 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17) in patients suffering from major depressive disorder, with or without melancholia and/or dysthymic disorder. A secondary objective was to compare the sensitivity of the HRSD6 to the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of 4 clinical trials that tested antidepressant therapies. SETTING: Outpatient treatment in a major psychiatric hospital. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and forty-three male and female outpatients meeting the criteria of the DSM-III-R or DSM-IV for major depressive disorder. OUTCOME MEASURES: HRSD17, HRSD6 and MADRS. RESULTS: The HRSD6 correlated strongly with the HRSD17, both at baseline and termination of treatment, and for the subgroups of double depression and melancholia. The HRSD6 was also correlated significantly with the MADRS at both measurement times, and for the subgroups. Paired t-tests with the HRSD6, HRSD17 and MADRS demonstrated equal sensitivity to change over the course of treatment, both in the full sample and in the dysthymic and melancholic subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The HRSD6 appears to be as sensitive to change over treatment as the HRSD17 and the MADRS. A shorter, less time-consuming measure of depression may have utility in clinical practice and research. PMID:10740991

  5. Measuring Depression at the End of Life: Is the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale a Valid Instrument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olden, Megan; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William

    2009-01-01

    Depression at the end of life is a common mental health issue with serious implications for quality of life and decision making. This study investigated the reliability and validity of one of the most frequently used measures of depression, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) in 422 patients with terminal cancer admitted to a palliative…

  6. Assessment of Anxiety in Clinical Trials with Depressed Patients Using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, C.; Guelfi, J.D.; Sheehan, D.V.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) is an outcome measure widely used in major depressive disorder (MDD) clinical trials. The objective of this analysis was to assess the validity of the anxiety/somatisation factor of the HAMD17 as a measure of anxiety in patients with MDD. Methods We pooled data from 1466 outpatients with MDD from four 8-week controlled studies of duloxetine. We performed a factor analysis of the HAMD17 to investigate the anxiety/somatisation factor. Results The HAMD17 factor analysis yielded 6 factors, but did not yield the pre-specified anxiety/somatisation factor. This latter factor showed weak correlation with the Hamilton Anxiety Scale total and subscale scores at baseline (0.46), but higher correlation coefficients over the trials up to 0.81. We identified another anxiety factor that included the hypochondriasis item in this sample. Conclusion Findings from this large sample suggest that the factor structure of the HAMD17 is unstable in MDD and that the anxiety/somatisation subscale should not be routinely used for anxiety assessment in depressed patients.

  7. Dimensional structure of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Meier, Beat; Hand, Iver; Schick, Mildred; Jahn, Holger

    2004-02-15

    Comorbid depression is frequent in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and is acknowledged as a major confound in biological and neurocognitive investigations in OCD. The aim of the present study was to assess the distribution of depressive symptoms in a large OCD sample (n=162) and to analyze the dimensional structure of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) in OCD. Major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV criteria was apparent in approximately one third of the patients. Frequent symptoms were depressed mood, reduced ability to work, anxiety symptoms and guilt feelings. HDRS scores were submitted to a varimax-rotated factor analysis. In accordance with studies conducted with depressed samples, multi-dimensional solutions suggesting three to six factors emerged. Subsequent confirmatory factor analysis revealed satisfactory fit indices for a four-factorial solution comprising core depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, anxiety and gastrointestinal problems. Aggression-related obsessions as well as the overall severity of obsessions were related to core depressive symptoms. Anxiety symptoms were associated with excessive rituals. Greater recognition of depressive sub-components may help to raise the replicability of empirical findings in OCD research as there is evidence from both depression and OCD samples that distinct depressive syndromes have different biological correlates.

  8. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: The making of a “gold standard” and the unmaking of a chronic illness, 1960–1980

    PubMed Central

    Worboys, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To show why and how the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression became the ‘Gold Standard’ for assessing therapies from the mid-1960s and how it was used to frame depression as a short-term and curable illness rather than a chronic one. Methods: My approach is that of the social construction of knowledge, identifying the interests, institutional contexts and practices that produce knowledge claims and then mapping the social processes of their circulation, validation and acceptance. Results: The circulation and validation of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was relatively slow and it became a ‘Gold Standard’ ‘from below’, from an emerging consensus amongst psychiatrists undertaking clinical trials for depression, which from the 1960s were principally with psychopharmaceuticals for short-term illness. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, drug trials and the construction of depression as non-chronic were mutually constituted. Discussion: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression framed depression and its sufferers in new ways, leading psychiatrists to understand illness as a treatable episode, rather than a life course condition. As such, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression served the interests of psychiatrists and psychiatry in its new era of drug therapy outside the mental hospital. However, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was a strange kind of ‘standard’, being quite non-standard in the widely varying ways it was used and the meanings given to its findings. PMID:23172888

  9. Analytical Mechanics in Stochastic Dynamics: Most Probable Path, Large-Deviation Rate Function and Hamilton-Jacobi Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2012-09-01

    Analytical (rational) mechanics is the mathematical structure of Newtonian deterministic dynamics developed by D'Alembert, Lagrange, Hamilton, Jacobi, and many other luminaries of applied mathematics. Diffusion as a stochastic process of an overdamped individual particle immersed in a fluid, initiated by Einstein, Smoluchowski, Langevin and Wiener, has no momentum since its path is nowhere differentiable. In this exposition, we illustrate how analytical mechanics arises in stochastic dynamics from a randomly perturbed ordinary differential equation dXt = b(Xt)dt+ɛdWt, where Wt is a Brownian motion. In the limit of vanishingly small ɛ, the solution to the stochastic differential equation other than ˙ {x} = b(x) are all rare events. However, conditioned on an occurrence of such an event, the most probable trajectory of the stochastic motion is the solution to Lagrangian mechanics with L = \\Vert ˙ {q}-b(q)\\Vert 2/4 and Hamiltonian equations with H(p, q) = \\dvbr p\\dvbr2+b(q)ṡp. Hamiltonian conservation law implies that the most probable trajectory for a "rare" event has a uniform "excess kinetic energy" along its path. Rare events can also be characterized by the principle of large deviations which expresses the probability density function for Xt as f(x, t) = e-u(x, t)/ɛ, where u(x, t) is called a large-deviation rate function which satisfies the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation. An irreversible diffusion process with ∇×b≠0 corresponds to a Newtonian system with a Lorentz force ḋ {q} = (∇ × b)× ˙ {q}+({1}/{2})∇ \\Vert b\\Vert 2. The connection between stochastic motion and analytical mechanics can be explored in terms of various techniques of applied mathematics, for example, singular perturbations, viscosity solutions and integrable systems.

  10. The Hamilton depression scale. Evaluation of objectivity using logistic models.

    PubMed

    Bech, P; Allerup, P; Gram, L F; Reisby, N; Rosenberg, R; Jacobsen, O; Nagy, A

    1981-03-01

    The consistency of the Hamilton Depression Scale (HDS) as a measure of the severity of depressive states has been examined when the scale was used weekly during a trial when imipramine. By use of logistic models (Rasch) the consistency of the HDS has been considered across patient-variables as age, sex, plasma levels of imipramine, and diagnosis. The results showed that the original 17-item HDS was without adequate consistency, i.e. the total score of the sample of items was no one-dimensional measure of depressive states. However, a melancholia subscale of the HDS contained items the total of which can be used to compare patients quantitatively, although in some part of the analysis one of these items showed ceiling effect. It was concluded that the melancholia subscale (containing the items depressed mood, guilt, work and interests, retardation, psychic anxiety, and general somatic symptoms) can form the basis for further improvements in the field of quantitative rating scales for depressive states.

  11. The Validity of the Different Versions of the Hamilton Depression Scale in Separating Remission Rates of Placebo and Antidepressants in Clinical Trials of Major Depression.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Phillip Raphael; Lemming, Ole Michael; Timmerby, Nina; Søndergaard, Susan; Andreasson, Kate; Bech, Per

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to validate the different versions of the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) both psychometrically (scalability) and clinically in discriminating antidepressants from placebo in terms of remission rates in an 8-week clinical trial in the acute treatment of major depression. The traditional HAM-D17 version was compared with the shorter HAM-D6 and the longer HAM-D21 or HAM-D24 in a fixed-dose placebo-controlled vortioxetine study. Clinical Global Impression of Severity scores were used to establish standardized cutoff scores for remission across each scale. Using these cutoff scores, we compared the ability of each scale to separate drug-placebo remission rates, evaluated by the number needed to treat for clinical evidence. The HAM-D6 was superior to HAM-D17 in separating drug-placebo remission rates at the end point, defined as number needed to treat of less than 10. More items in the longer HAM-D versions indicated smaller discriminating validity over placebo. The HAM-D6 indicated a dose effect on remission for vortioxetine in both moderate and severe major depression. The brief HAM-D6 was thus found superior to HAM-D17, HAM-D21, and HAM-D24 both in terms of scalability and in discriminating antidepressants from placebo.

  12. The Validity of the Different Versions of the Hamilton Depression Scale in Separating Remission Rates of Placebo and Antidepressants in Clinical Trials of Major Depression.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Phillip Raphael; Lemming, Ole Michael; Timmerby, Nina; Søndergaard, Susan; Andreasson, Kate; Bech, Per

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to validate the different versions of the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) both psychometrically (scalability) and clinically in discriminating antidepressants from placebo in terms of remission rates in an 8-week clinical trial in the acute treatment of major depression. The traditional HAM-D17 version was compared with the shorter HAM-D6 and the longer HAM-D21 or HAM-D24 in a fixed-dose placebo-controlled vortioxetine study. Clinical Global Impression of Severity scores were used to establish standardized cutoff scores for remission across each scale. Using these cutoff scores, we compared the ability of each scale to separate drug-placebo remission rates, evaluated by the number needed to treat for clinical evidence. The HAM-D6 was superior to HAM-D17 in separating drug-placebo remission rates at the end point, defined as number needed to treat of less than 10. More items in the longer HAM-D versions indicated smaller discriminating validity over placebo. The HAM-D6 indicated a dose effect on remission for vortioxetine in both moderate and severe major depression. The brief HAM-D6 was thus found superior to HAM-D17, HAM-D21, and HAM-D24 both in terms of scalability and in discriminating antidepressants from placebo. PMID:27525966

  13. Hamilton, Ritz, and elastodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of Ritz is applied to the equation that Hamilton called the 'Law of Varying Action'. Direct analytical solutions are obtained for the transient motion of beams, both conservative and nonconservative. The results obtained are compared to exact solutions obtained by the use of rigorously exact free-vibration modes in the differential equations of Lagrange and to an approximate solution obtained through the application of Gurtin's principles for linear elastodynamics. A brief discussion of Hamilton's law and Hamilton's principle is followed by examples of results for both free-free and cantilever beams with various loadings.

  14. Hamilton's Principle for Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brun, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a…

  15. Peeps at William Edwin Hamilton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayman, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    William Edwin Hamilton, 1834-1902, (WEH) was the elder son of Sir William Rowan Hamilton and Helen Hamilton and he inherited many of the characteristics of his famous father. One property that he did not inherit, however, was his father's genius. While the outline of the life of WEH was given by Hankins in his 1980 biography of Sir William, a copy of ``Peeps at My Life'' written by WEH during the last months of his life was not available until recently. A few years ago a copy was sent to me by Herman Berg of Detroit and in this article, the principal items in ``Peeps'' that are relevant to Ireland, and some other facets of the character of WEH, are included as they give an unusual viewpoint of a by-gone age.

  16. Quantum Hamilton-Jacobi theory.

    PubMed

    Roncadelli, Marco; Schulman, L S

    2007-10-26

    Quantum canonical transformations have attracted interest since the beginning of quantum theory. Based on their classical analogues, one would expect them to provide a powerful quantum tool. However, the difficulty of solving a nonlinear operator partial differential equation such as the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (QHJE) has hindered progress along this otherwise promising avenue. We overcome this difficulty. We show that solutions to the QHJE can be constructed by a simple prescription starting from the propagator of the associated Schrödinger equation. Our result opens the possibility of practical use of quantum Hamilton-Jacobi theory. As an application, we develop a surprising relation between operator ordering and the density of paths around a semiclassical trajectory. PMID:17995307

  17. The Inventory Of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C(28)) is more sensitive to changes in depressive symptomatology than the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD(17)) in patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Isabella; Wagner, Stefanie; Mergl, Roland; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Hautzinger, Martin; Henkel, Verena; Hegerl, Ulrich; Tadić, André

    2011-08-01

    Depression rating scales play a decisive role in the assessment of the severity of depression and the evaluation of the efficacy of antidepressant treatments. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) is regarded as the 'gold standard'; nevertheless, studies suggest that the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) is more sensitive to detect symptom changes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the IDS is more sensitive in detecting changes in depression symptoms in patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression (MIND). Biweekly IDS-C(28) and HAMD(17) data from 340 patients of a 10-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of sertraline and cognitive-behavioural therapy in patients with MIND were analysed. We investigated sensitivity to change for both scales (1) from assessment-to-assessment, (2) in relation to depression severity level, and (3) in relation to DSM-IV depression criterion symptoms. The IDS-C(28) was more sensitive in detecting changes in depression symptomatology over the treatment course as well as for different severity levels, especially in patients with a low depression severity. It assesses the DSM-IV criteria more thoroughly, is better able to track the change of cognitive symptoms and to identify residual symptoms. Both scales are well able to assess depressive symptomatology. However, the IDS-C(28) surpasses the HAMD(17) in detecting small changes especially in the core symptoms of depression. This is important for an optimal treatment by capturing early improvements, enabling prompt reactions and detecting residual symptoms.

  18. Sensitivity to changes during antidepressant treatment: a comparison of unidimensional subscales of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Isabella; Wagner, Stefanie; Mergl, Roland; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Hautzinger, Martin; Henkel, Verena; Hegerl, Ulrich; Tadić, André

    2012-06-01

    In the efficacy evaluation of antidepressant treatments, the total score of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) is still regarded as the 'gold standard'. We previously had shown that the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) was more sensitive to detect depressive symptom changes than the HAMD17 (Helmreich et al. 2011). Furthermore, studies suggest that the unidimensional subscales of the HAMD, which capture the core depressive symptoms, outperform the full HAMD regarding the detection of antidepressant treatment effects. The aim of the present study was to compare several unidimensional subscales of the HAMD and the IDS regarding their sensitivity to changes in depression symptoms in a sample of patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression (MIND). Biweekly IDS-C28 and HAMD17 data from 287 patients of a 10-week randomised, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of sertraline and cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with MIND were converted to subscale scores and analysed during the antidepressant treatment course. We investigated sensitivity to depressive change for all scales from assessment-to-assessment, in relation to depression severity level and placebo-verum differences. The subscales performed similarly during the treatment course, with slight advantages for some subscales in detecting treatment effects depending on the treatment modality and on the items included. Most changes in depressive symptomatology were detected by the IDS short scale, but regarding the effect sizes, it performed worse than most subscales. Unidimensional subscales are a time- and cost-saving option in judging drug therapy outcomes, especially in antidepressant treatment efficacy studies. However, subscales do not cover all facets of depression (e.g. atypical symptoms, sleep disturbances), which might be important for comprehensively understanding the nature of the disease depression. Therefore, the cost-to-benefit ratio must be

  19. Sensitivity to changes during antidepressant treatment: a comparison of unidimensional subscales of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Isabella; Wagner, Stefanie; Mergl, Roland; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Hautzinger, Martin; Henkel, Verena; Hegerl, Ulrich; Tadić, André

    2012-06-01

    In the efficacy evaluation of antidepressant treatments, the total score of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) is still regarded as the 'gold standard'. We previously had shown that the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) was more sensitive to detect depressive symptom changes than the HAMD17 (Helmreich et al. 2011). Furthermore, studies suggest that the unidimensional subscales of the HAMD, which capture the core depressive symptoms, outperform the full HAMD regarding the detection of antidepressant treatment effects. The aim of the present study was to compare several unidimensional subscales of the HAMD and the IDS regarding their sensitivity to changes in depression symptoms in a sample of patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression (MIND). Biweekly IDS-C28 and HAMD17 data from 287 patients of a 10-week randomised, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of sertraline and cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with MIND were converted to subscale scores and analysed during the antidepressant treatment course. We investigated sensitivity to depressive change for all scales from assessment-to-assessment, in relation to depression severity level and placebo-verum differences. The subscales performed similarly during the treatment course, with slight advantages for some subscales in detecting treatment effects depending on the treatment modality and on the items included. Most changes in depressive symptomatology were detected by the IDS short scale, but regarding the effect sizes, it performed worse than most subscales. Unidimensional subscales are a time- and cost-saving option in judging drug therapy outcomes, especially in antidepressant treatment efficacy studies. However, subscales do not cover all facets of depression (e.g. atypical symptoms, sleep disturbances), which might be important for comprehensively understanding the nature of the disease depression. Therefore, the cost-to-benefit ratio must be

  20. Hamilton׳s Rule in finite populations with synergistic interactions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter

    2016-05-21

    Much debate has appeared in the literature over the generality of the inclusive fitness approach in the modeling of evolutionary behavior. Here I focus on the capacity of the inclusive fitness approach to effectively handle non-additive or synergistic interactions. I work with a binary interaction with the matrix game [abcd] and I restrict attention to transitive (homogeneous) populations with weak selective effects. First of all I observe that the construction of "higher-order" relatedness coefficients permits these synergistic interactions to be analyzed with an inclusive fitness analysis. These coefficients are an immediate generalization of Hamilton׳s original coefficient and can be calculated with exactly the same type of recursive equations. Secondly I observe that for models in which the population is not too large and local genetic renewal is rare (e,g, rare mutation), these higher order coefficients are not needed even with non-additive interactions; in fact the synergistic interaction is entirely equivalent to a closely-related additive one. The overall conclusion is that in the study of synergistic binary social interactions (2-player games) in a finite homogeneous population with weak selection and rare genetic renewal, a standard inclusive-fitness analysis is able to predict the direction of allele-frequency change. I apply this result to analyze a recent model of Allen and Nowak (2015).

  1. Unified Symmetry of Hamilton Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xue-Jun; Qin, Mao-Chang; Mei, Feng-Xiang

    2005-11-01

    The definition and the criterion of a unified symmetry for a Hamilton system are presented. The sufficient condition under which the Noether symmetry is a unified symmetry for the system is given. A new conserved quantity, as well as the Noether conserved quantity and the Hojman conserved quantity, deduced from the unified symmetry, is obtained. An example is finally given to illustrate the application of the results. The project supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 10272021 and the Doctoral Program Foundation of Institution of Higher Education of China under Grant No. 20040007022

  2. Development and validation of the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS) in a community sample and individuals with major depression.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Sakina J; Quilty, Lena C; Sproule, Beth A; Cyriac, Anna; Michael Bagby, R; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2015-09-30

    Anhedonia, a core symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), is predictive of antidepressant non-response. In contrast to the definition of anhedonia as a "loss of pleasure", neuropsychological studies provide evidence for multiple facets of hedonic function. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS), a dynamic scale that measures desire, motivation, effort and consummatory pleasure across hedonic domains. Following item selection procedures and reliability testing using data from community participants (N=229) (Study 1), the 17-item scale was validated in an online study with community participants (N=150) (Study 2). The DARS was also validated in unipolar or bipolar depressed patients (n=52) and controls (n=50) (Study 3). Principal components analysis of the 17-item DARS revealed a 4-component structure mapping onto the domains of anhedonia: hobbies, food/drink, social activities, and sensory experience. Reliability of the DARS subscales was high across studies (Cronbach's α=0.75-0.92). The DARS also demonstrated good convergent and divergent validity. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed the DARS showed additional utility over the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) in predicting reward function and distinguishing MDD subgroups. These studies provide support for the reliability and validity of the DARS. PMID:26250147

  3. Hamilton optics: transformational theory of optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston, Roland; Ge, Wenjun

    2013-09-01

    In 1824 William Rowan Hamilton presented a memoir to the Royal Irish Academy on Optics(Trans. R. Irish. Acacamy, XV, 1828), which was the foundation for transformational optics, classical mechanics, nonimaging optics and thermodynamical foundation of nonimaging optics,etc. It is useful for us even in 2013 to revisit the Hamilton resolution.

  4. Basic Theatrical Understanding: Considerations for James Hamilton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Noel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author considers Hamilton's idea of "basic understanding" of a theatrical performance. The author finds it hard to grasp this conception. He worries, although perhaps only on the basis of misunderstanding, that Hamilton's conception of the basic understanding of theatrical performances will not do the work he wants it to do as…

  5. Hamilton's principle in stochastic mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavon, Michele

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we establish three variational principles that provide new foundations for Nelson's stochastic mechanics in the case of nonrelativistic particles without spin. The resulting variational picture is much richer and of a different nature with respect to the one previously considered in the literature. We first develop two stochastic variational principles whose Hamilton-Jacobi-like equations are precisely the two coupled partial differential equations that are obtained from the Schrödinger equation (Madelung equations). The two problems are zero-sum, noncooperative, stochastic differential games that are familiar in the control theory literature. They are solved here by means of a new, absolutely elementary method based on Lagrange functionals. For both games the saddle-point equilibrium solution is given by the Nelson's process and the optimal controls for the two competing players are precisely Nelson's current velocity v and osmotic velocity u, respectively. The first variational principle includes as special cases both the Guerra-Morato variational principle [Phys. Rev. D 27, 1774 (1983)] and Schrödinger original variational derivation of the time-independent equation. It also reduces to the classical least action principle when the intensity of the underlying noise tends to zero. It appears as a saddle-point action principle. In the second variational principle the action is simply the difference between the initial and final configurational entropy. It is therefore a saddle-point entropy production principle. From the variational principles it follows, in particular, that both v(x,t) and u(x,t) are gradients of appropriate principal functions. In the variational principles, the role of the background noise has the intuitive meaning of attempting to contrast the more classical mechanical features of the system by trying to maximize the action in the first principle and by trying to increase the entropy in the second. Combining the two variational

  6. The causal meaning of Hamilton's rule.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Samir; Martens, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Hamilton's original derivation of his rule for the spread of an altruistic gene (rb>c) assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of the rule holds under non-additive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are suitably defined, as partial regression coefficients. However, critics have questioned both the biological significance and the causal meaning of the resulting rule. This paper examines the causal meaning of the generalized Hamilton's rule in a simple model, by computing the effect of a hypothetical experiment to assess the cost of a social action and comparing it to the partial regression definition. The two do not agree. A possible way of salvaging the causal meaning of Hamilton's rule is explored, by appeal to R. A. Fisher's 'average effect of a gene substitution'.

  7. The causal meaning of Hamilton's rule.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Samir; Martens, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Hamilton's original derivation of his rule for the spread of an altruistic gene (rb>c) assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of the rule holds under non-additive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are suitably defined, as partial regression coefficients. However, critics have questioned both the biological significance and the causal meaning of the resulting rule. This paper examines the causal meaning of the generalized Hamilton's rule in a simple model, by computing the effect of a hypothetical experiment to assess the cost of a social action and comparing it to the partial regression definition. The two do not agree. A possible way of salvaging the causal meaning of Hamilton's rule is explored, by appeal to R. A. Fisher's 'average effect of a gene substitution'. PMID:27069669

  8. Application of Hamilton's Law of Varying Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    The application of Hamilton's Law to the direct solution of nonstationary as well as stationary problems in mechanics of solids is discussed. Solutions are demonstrated for conservative and monconservative, stationary and/or nonstationary particle motion. Mathematical models are developed to establish the relationships of the parameters.

  9. Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…

  10. GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. Pencil on paper, dated December 4, 1952. Also marked "PWC 103474." By J.Y. Long Company, Engineers, Oakland, California - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  11. Conformal invariance and Hamilton Jacobi theory for dissipative systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiehn, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    For certain dissipative systems, a comparison can be made between the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and the conformal invariance of action theory. The two concepts are not identical, but the conformal action theory covers the Hamilton-Jacobi theory.

  12. Difference in the binocular rivalry rate between depressive episodes and remission.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ting; Ye, Xing; Wei, Qiang; Xie, Wen; Cai, Chunlan; Mu, Jingjing; Dong, Yi; Hu, Panpan; Hu, Xinglong; Tian, Yanghua; Wang, Kai

    2015-11-01

    Binocular rivalry refers to a phenomenon in which, when different images are presented to each eye simultaneously, perception alternates spontaneously between monocular views rather than being a superposition of the two images. Recently, the involvement of serotonin systems has been reported to be related to the phenomenon. There is abundant evidence for abnormalities of the serotonin systems in depression and the antidepressants that enhance 5-HT transmission, which in turn improves mood and behavior. However, the available data with respect to rivalry rates in depression are less clear. Therefore, we aimed to explore whether perceptual rivalry was affected by a dysfunctional serotonin system in patients with depression and whether there was a rivalry rate difference between episode and remission states in depression patients. Twenty-eight patients with depression and 30 healthy controls were recruited in the study. We assessed the rivalry rate and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with depression during clinical episode and remission states. The results suggested that alternation rates for patients during episodes were significantly slower than during remission and than in healthy controls. Also, alternation rates for patients during remission were slower than in healthy controls. These results may provide further clues to serotonergic neural systems contributing to the dynamics of perception rivalry and may foster enlightenment regarding the field of binocular rivalry in psychiatric disorders other than bipolar disorder. PMID:26247392

  13. Hamilton-Jacobi approach to non-slow-roll inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, William H.

    1997-08-01

    I describe a general approach to characterizing cosmological inflation outside the standard slow-roll approximation, based on the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of scalar field dynamics. The basic idea is to view the equation of state of the scalar field matter as the fundamental dynamical variable, as opposed to the field value or the expansion rate. I discuss how to formulate the equations of motion for scalar and tensor fluctuations in situations where the assumption of slow roll is not valid. I apply the general results to the simple case of inflation from an ``inverted'' polynomial potential, and to the more complicated case of hybrid inflation.

  14. Hamilton-Jacobi meet Möbius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraggi, Alon E.; Matone, Marco

    2015-07-01

    Adaptation of the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to quantum mechanics leads to a cocycle condition, which is invariant under D-dimensional Mobius transformations with Euclidean or Minkowski metrics. In this paper we aim to provide a pedagogical presentation of the proof of the Möbius symmetry underlying the cocycle condition. The Möbius symmetry implies energy quantization and undefinability of quantum trajectories, without assigning any prior interpretation to the wave function. As such, the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, augmented with the global Möbius symmetry, provides an alternative starting point, to the axiomatic probability interpretation of the wave function, for the formulation of quantum mechanics and the quantum spacetime. The Möbius symmetry can only be implemented consistently if spatial space is compact, and correspondingly if there exist a finite ultraviolet length scale. Evidence for nontrivial space topology may exist in the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  15. The mercury emergency in Hamilton, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    George, L.; Hunter, W.; Scott, F.E.; Siracusa, L.; Buffett, C.; Ostofi, G.; Zinkewich, R.; Cole, D.C.

    1996-04-01

    In September 1993, a public health emergency occurred in Hamilton, Ontario after a break-in at an abandoned scrap-metal recycling plant. A few school children entered the plant laboratory, played with lab equipment and chemicals, then removed and distributed mercury within the community. This paper describes the emergency intervention which halted distribution and exposure. The intervention was effective as a result of the high degree of cooperation among public health department staff and staff from other city, regional, and provincial governments and agencies, school personnel, children, and their parents. The event illustrates a number of public health issues regarding both emergency response to and environmental protection from hazardous materials.

  16. Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for tachyon inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghamohammadi, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Golanbari, T.; Saaidi, Kh.

    2014-10-01

    Tachyon inflation is reconsidered by using the recent observational data obtained from Planck-2013 and BICEP2. The Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is picked out as a desirable approach in this work, which allows one to easily obtain the main parameters of the model. The Hubble parameter is supposed as a power-law and exponential function of the scalar field, and each case is considered separately. The constraints on the model, which come from observational data, are explained during the work. The results show a suitable value for the tensor spectral index and an appropriate form of the potential.

  17. 78 FR 30795 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Standard Division and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will... Division and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... 14RF, 14SF, 247F, and 568F series propellers. This proposed AD was prompted by the amount of...

  18. A Hamilton Jacobi formalism for thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeev, S. G.

    2008-09-01

    We show that classical thermodynamics has a formulation in terms of Hamilton-Jacobi theory, analogous to mechanics. Even though the thermodynamic variables come in conjugate pairs such as pressure/volume or temperature/entropy, the phase space is odd-dimensional. For a system with n thermodynamic degrees of freedom it is 2n+1-dimensional. The equations of state of a substance pick out an n-dimensional submanifold. A family of substances whose equations of state depend on n parameters define a hypersurface of co-dimension one. This can be described by the vanishing of a function which plays the role of a Hamiltonian. The ordinary differential equations (characteristic equations) defined by this function describe a dynamical system on the hypersurface. Its orbits can be used to reconstruct the equations of state. The 'time' variable associated to this dynamics is related to, but is not identical to, entropy. After developing this formalism on well-grounded systems such as the van der Waals gases and the Curie-Weiss magnets, we derive a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for black hole thermodynamics in General Relativity. The cosmological constant appears as a constant of integration in this picture.

  19. Hamilton-Jacobi Theory in Cauchy Data Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, CéAdric M.; de Leóan, Manuel; de Diego, David Martín; Vaquero, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Recently, M. de LeóAn et al. [8] have developed a geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory for classical fields in the setting of multisymplectic geometry. Our purpose in the current paper is to establish the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi theory in the Cauchy data space, and relate both approaches.

  20. WAVELENGTH CALIBRATION OF THE HAMILTON ECHELLE SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect

    Pakhomov, Yu. V.; Zhao, G.

    2013-10-01

    We present the wavelength calibration of the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory. The main problem with the calibration of this spectrograph arises from the fact that thorium lines are absent in the spectrum of the presumed ThAr hollow-cathode lamp now under operation; numerous unknown strong lines, which have been identified as titanium lines, are present in the spectrum. We estimate the temperature of the lamp's gas which permits us to calculate the intensities of the lines and to select a large number of relevant Ti I and Ti II lines. The resulting titanium line list for the Lick hollow-cathode lamp is presented. The wavelength calibration using this line list was made with an accuracy of about 0.006 Å.

  1. Lifted tensors and Hamilton-Jacobi separability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waeyaert, G.; Sarlet, W.

    2014-12-01

    Starting from a bundle τ : E → R, the bundle π :J1τ∗ → E, which is the dual of the first jet bundle J1 τ and a sub-bundle of T∗ E, is the appropriate manifold for the geometric description of time-dependent Hamiltonian systems. Based on previous work, we recall properties of the complete lifts of a type (1 , 1) tensor R on E to both T∗ E and J1τ∗. We discuss how an interplay between both lifted tensors leads to the identification of related distributions on both manifolds. The integrability of these distributions, a coordinate free condition, is shown to produce exactly Forbat's conditions for separability of the time-dependent Hamilton-Jacobi equation in appropriate coordinates.

  2. Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton on cortical surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shi, Y; Thompson, P M; Dinov, I; Toga, A W

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to construct graphical representations of cortical folding patterns by computing skeletons on triangulated cortical surfaces. In our approach, a cortical surface is first partitioned into sulcal and gyral regions via the solution of a variational problem using graph cuts, which can guarantee global optimality. After that, we extend the method of Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton [1] to subsets of triangulated surfaces, together with a geometrically intuitive pruning process that can trade off between skeleton complexity and the completeness of representing folding patterns. Compared with previous work that uses skeletons of 3-D volumes to represent sulcal patterns, the skeletons on cortical surfaces can be easily decomposed into branches and provide a simpler way to construct graphical representations of cortical morphometry. In our experiments, we demonstrate our method on two different cortical surface models, its ability of capturing major sulcal patterns and its application to compute skeletons of gyral regions. PMID:18450539

  3. A comparison of clinician-rated neuropsychological and self-rated cognitive assessments in patients with asthma and rheumatologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Frol, Alan B; Vasquez, Aracely; Getahun, Yonatan; Pacheco, Maria; Khan, David A; Brown, E Sherwood

    2013-01-01

    Although data are mixed, asthma and rheumatologic conditions may be associated with cognitive impairment. Medications may play a role because corticosteroids are associated with memory impairment. Therefore, an easily administered assessment of cognition would be useful in these patients. We assessed relationships between self-rated and clinician-rated cognitive performance and mood in patients with asthma and rheumatologic diseases. Participants included 31adults treated for asthma or rheumatologic disorders (17 receiving chronic prednisone therapy, and 14 not receiving prednisone). An objective assessment of a variety of cognitive domains was administered through clinician and patient-rated assessments of cognition. Composite scores for the objective (Global Clinical Rating [GCR]) and subjective (Neuropsychological Impairment Scale: Global Measure of Impairment [GMI]) measures of cognition were derived. Depression was assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17). A linear regression was conducted with GMI scores as dependent variable and GCR, HRSD-17 scores, and prednisone-use status, as independent variables. Significant differences between prednisone-treated patients and other patients were observed on the GCR, GMI, and HRSD-17. In the regression analysis, HRSD-17 scores, but not GCR scores, significantly predicted GMI scores. Prednisone-treated patients had higher levels of depressive symptoms and subjective and objective cognitive deficits than those not taking prednisone. In the combined patient groups, subjective cognitive assessment was more strongly related to depressive symptoms than objective cognition. Findings suggest physicians should be aware of the potential for cognitive deficits in patients taking corticosteroids and, when appropriate, should consider the use of objective neurocognitive tests or neuropsychology consultation to better characterize its presence and severity.

  4. A comparison of clinician-rated neuropsychological and self-rated cognitive assessments in patients with asthma and rheumatologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Frol, Alan B.; Vasquez, Aracely; Getahun, Yonatan; Pacheco, Maria; Khan, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Although data are mixed, asthma and rheumatologic conditions may be associated with cognitive impairment. Medications may play a role because corticosteroids are associated with memory impairment. Therefore, an easily administered assessment of cognition would be useful in these patients. We assessed relationships between self-rated and clinician-rated cognitive performance and mood in patients with asthma and rheumatologic diseases. Participants included 31adults treated for asthma or rheumatologic disorders (17 receiving chronic prednisone therapy, and 14 not receiving prednisone). An objective assessment of a variety of cognitive domains was administered through clinician and patient-rated assessments of cognition. Composite scores for the objective (Global Clinical Rating [GCR]) and subjective (Neuropsychological Impairment Scale: Global Measure of Impairment [GMI]) measures of cognition were derived. Depression was assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17). A linear regression was conducted with GMI scores as dependent variable and GCR, HRSD-17 scores, and prednisone-use status, as independent variables. Significant differences between prednisone-treated patients and other patients were observed on the GCR, GMI, and HRSD-17. In the regression analysis, HRSD-17 scores, but not GCR scores, significantly predicted GMI scores. Prednisone-treated patients had higher levels of depressive symptoms and subjective and objective cognitive deficits than those not taking prednisone. In the combined patient groups, subjective cognitive assessment was more strongly related to depressive symptoms than objective cognition. Findings suggest physicians should be aware of the potential for cognitive deficits in patients taking corticosteroids and, when appropriate, should consider the use of objective neurocognitive tests or neuropsychology consultation to better characterize its presence and severity. PMID:23484893

  5. Deformed Hamilton-Jacobi Equations and the Tunneling Radiation of the Higher-Dimensional RN-(A)dS Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhongwen; Li, Guoping; Jiang, Pengying; Pan, Yang; Zu, Xiaotao

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we derive the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equations from the generalized Klein-Gordon equation and generalized Dirac equation. Then, we study the tunneling rate, Hawking temperature and entropy of the higher-dimensional Reissner-Nordström de Sitter black hole via the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Our results show that the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equations for charged scalar particles and charged fermions have the same expressions. Besides, the modified Hawking temperatures and entropy are related to the mass and charge of the black hole, the cosmology constant, the quantum number of emitted particles, and the term of GUP effects β.

  6. Hamilton-Jacobi Ansatz to Study the Hawking Radiation of Kerr-Newman Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deyou; Yang, Shuzheng

    Taking the self-gravitation interaction and unfixed background space-time into account, we study the Hawking radiation of Kerr-Newman-Kasuya black holes using Hamilton-Jacobi method. The result shows that the tunneling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the radiation spectrum deviates from the purely thermal one, which is accordant with that obtained using Parikh and Wilczek's method and gives a correction to the Hawking radiation of the black hole.

  7. Standardized clinical outcome rating scale for depression for use in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Posternak, Michael A; Chelminski, Iwona; Friedman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The integration of research into clinical practice to conduct effectiveness studies faces multiple obstacles. One obstacle is the burden of completing research measures of outcome. A simple, reliable, and valid measure that could be rated at every visit, incorporated into a clinician's progress note, and reflect the DSM-IV definition of a major depressive episode (including partial and full remission from the episode) would enhance the ability to conduct effectiveness research. The goal of the present study was to examine the reliability and validity of such a measure. Three hundred and three psychiatric outpatients who were being treated for a DSM-IV major depressive episode were rated on the Standardized Clinical Outcome Rating for Depression (SCOR-D), 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and the Global Assessment of Functioning. We examined the correlation between the SCOR-D and the other measures, and conducted an analyses of variance to compare mean values on these measures for each rating point on the SCOR-D. The inter-rater reliability of the SCOR-D dimensional ratings and categorical determination of remission were high. The SCOR-D was highly correlated with the other scales, and there were significant differences on the other measures of depression severity between each adjacent rating level of the SCOR-D. The SCOR-D is a brief standardized outcome measure linked to the DSM-IV approach toward defining remission that can be incorporated into routine clinical practice without adding undue burden to the treating clinician with some evidence of reliability and validity. This measure could make it more feasible to conduct effectiveness studies in clinical practice.

  8. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. 3 DIRECTLY BEHIND; HINDS & CONNER AND "A" BUNGALOWS IN REAR. VISTA DEL ARROYO HOTEL ON RIGHT - Vista del Arroyo Hotel, 125 South Grand Avenue, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Hamilton's Store, rear view, with storage building in rear, restaurant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hamilton's Store, rear view, with storage building in rear, restaurant to left, officer's row in distance, view southeast - Mammoth Hot Springs-Fort Yellowstone, Grand Loop Road, Mammoth, Park County, WY

  10. VIEW OF GRIMES STREET, LOOKING ACROSS HAMILTON FIELD AT FACILITIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF GRIMES STREET, LOOKING ACROSS HAMILTON FIELD AT FACILITIES 737 THROUGH 740 (1918 CORNER-ENTRY SINGLE-FAMILY HOUSING TYPES), VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Wilikina Drive & Kunia Road, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Hamilton-Jacobi approach to cosmology with nonlinear sigma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Richard; van Holten, Jan-Willem

    2016-05-01

    We start with a short introduction of the role that constraints and Lagrange multiplers play in variational calculus. After recalling briefly the properties of the nonlinear sigma model, we show how the Hamilton-Jacobi method can be applied to find its solutions. We discuss the importance of the Hamiltonian constraint in the standard cosmological model, and finally, apply the Hamilton-Jacobi method to the solution of coupled gravitational and sigma-field equations.

  12. A possible generalization of the field-theoretical Hamilton's equations

    SciTech Connect

    Savchin, V.M. )

    1988-11-01

    The development of classical dynamics as well as many branches of physics shows that the solution or analysis of variety of problems can be greatly simplified if the basic equations admit an analytic representation in terms of Hamilton's equations. The author proposes a generalization of Hamilton's equations in field theory which is applicable to partial differential equations of physical relevance. It is shown that the equations constitute a conceivable basis for the generalization of the theory of contact transformations and of Poisson's method.

  13. Hamilton Jeffers and the Double Star Catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenn, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    Astronomers have long tracked double stars in efforts to find those that are gravitationally-bound binaries and then to determine their orbits. Court reporter and amateur astronomer Shelburne Wesley Burnham (1838-1921) published a massive double star catalogue containing more than 13,000 systems in 1906. The next keeper of the double stars was Lick Observatory astronomer Robert Grant Aitken (1864-1951), who produced a much larger catalogue in 1932. Aitken maintained and expanded Burnham’s records of observations on handwritten file cards, eventually turning them over to Lick Observatory astrometrist Hamilton Moore Jeffers (1893-1976). Jeffers further expanded the collection and put all the observations on punched cards. With the aid of Frances M. "Rete" Greeby (1921-2002), he made two catalogues: an Index Catalogue with basic data about each star, and a complete catalogue of observations, with one observation per punched card. He enlisted Willem van den Bos of Johannesburg to add southern stars, and they published the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0. As Jeffers approached retirement he became greatly concerned about the disposition of the catalogues. He wanted to be replaced by another "double star man," but Lick Director Albert E. Whitford (1905-2002) had the new 120-inch reflector, the world’s second largest telescope, and he wanted to pursue modern astrophysics instead. Jeffers was vociferously opposed to turning over the card files to another institution, and especially against their coming under the control of Kaj Strand of the U.S. Naval Observatory. In the end the USNO got the files and has maintained the records ever since, first under Charles Worley (1935-1997), and, since 1997, under Brian Mason. Now called the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS), it is completely online and currently contains more than 1,000,000 measures of more than 100,000 pairs.

  14. Complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with Bohmian trajectories: Application to the photodissociation dynamics of NOCl

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Chia-Chun

    2014-03-14

    The complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation-Bohmian trajectories (CQHJE-BT) method is introduced as a synthetic trajectory method for integrating the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the complex action function by propagating an ensemble of real-valued correlated Bohmian trajectories. Substituting the wave function expressed in exponential form in terms of the complex action into the time-dependent Schrödinger equation yields the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We transform this equation into the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. The resulting equation describing the rate of change in the complex action transported along Bohmian trajectories is simultaneously integrated with the guidance equation for Bohmian trajectories, and the time-dependent wave function is readily synthesized. The spatial derivatives of the complex action required for the integration scheme are obtained by solving one moving least squares matrix equation. In addition, the method is applied to the photodissociation of NOCl. The photodissociation dynamics of NOCl can be accurately described by propagating a small ensemble of trajectories. This study demonstrates that the CQHJE-BT method combines the considerable advantages of both the real and the complex quantum trajectory methods previously developed for wave packet dynamics.

  15. Complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with Bohmian trajectories: application to the photodissociation dynamics of NOCl.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Chun

    2014-03-14

    The complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation-Bohmian trajectories (CQHJE-BT) method is introduced as a synthetic trajectory method for integrating the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the complex action function by propagating an ensemble of real-valued correlated Bohmian trajectories. Substituting the wave function expressed in exponential form in terms of the complex action into the time-dependent Schrödinger equation yields the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We transform this equation into the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. The resulting equation describing the rate of change in the complex action transported along Bohmian trajectories is simultaneously integrated with the guidance equation for Bohmian trajectories, and the time-dependent wave function is readily synthesized. The spatial derivatives of the complex action required for the integration scheme are obtained by solving one moving least squares matrix equation. In addition, the method is applied to the photodissociation of NOCl. The photodissociation dynamics of NOCl can be accurately described by propagating a small ensemble of trajectories. This study demonstrates that the CQHJE-BT method combines the considerable advantages of both the real and the complex quantum trajectory methods previously developed for wave packet dynamics. PMID:24628169

  16. Quantitative genetic versions of Hamilton's rule with empirical applications.

    PubMed

    McGlothlin, Joel W; Wolf, Jason B; Brodie, Edmund D; Moore, Allen J

    2014-05-19

    Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness revolutionized our understanding of the evolution of social interactions. Surprisingly, an incorporation of Hamilton's perspective into the quantitative genetic theory of phenotypic evolution has been slow, despite the popularity of quantitative genetics in evolutionary studies. Here, we discuss several versions of Hamilton's rule for social evolution from a quantitative genetic perspective, emphasizing its utility in empirical applications. Although evolutionary quantitative genetics offers methods to measure each of the critical parameters of Hamilton's rule, empirical work has lagged behind theory. In particular, we lack studies of selection on altruistic traits in the wild. Fitness costs and benefits of altruism can be estimated using a simple extension of phenotypic selection analysis that incorporates the traits of social interactants. We also discuss the importance of considering the genetic influence of the social environment, or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), in the context of Hamilton's rule. Research in social evolution has generated an extensive body of empirical work focusing--with good reason--almost solely on relatedness. We argue that quantifying the roles of social and non-social components of selection and IGEs, in addition to relatedness, is now timely and should provide unique additional insights into social evolution. PMID:24686930

  17. Hamilton's rule and the causes of social evolution.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Andrew F G

    2014-05-19

    Hamilton's rule is a central theorem of inclusive fitness (kin selection) theory and predicts that social behaviour evolves under specific combinations of relatedness, benefit and cost. This review provides evidence for Hamilton's rule by presenting novel syntheses of results from two kinds of study in diverse taxa, including cooperatively breeding birds and mammals and eusocial insects. These are, first, studies that empirically parametrize Hamilton's rule in natural populations and, second, comparative phylogenetic analyses of the genetic, life-history and ecological correlates of sociality. Studies parametrizing Hamilton's rule are not rare and demonstrate quantitatively that (i) altruism (net loss of direct fitness) occurs even when sociality is facultative, (ii) in most cases, altruism is under positive selection via indirect fitness benefits that exceed direct fitness costs and (iii) social behaviour commonly generates indirect benefits by enhancing the productivity or survivorship of kin. Comparative phylogenetic analyses show that cooperative breeding and eusociality are promoted by (i) high relatedness and monogamy and, potentially, by (ii) life-history factors facilitating family structure and high benefits of helping and (iii) ecological factors generating low costs of social behaviour. Overall, the focal studies strongly confirm the predictions of Hamilton's rule regarding conditions for social evolution and their causes. PMID:24686934

  18. Hamilton's rule and the causes of social evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Andrew F. G.

    2014-01-01

    Hamilton's rule is a central theorem of inclusive fitness (kin selection) theory and predicts that social behaviour evolves under specific combinations of relatedness, benefit and cost. This review provides evidence for Hamilton's rule by presenting novel syntheses of results from two kinds of study in diverse taxa, including cooperatively breeding birds and mammals and eusocial insects. These are, first, studies that empirically parametrize Hamilton's rule in natural populations and, second, comparative phylogenetic analyses of the genetic, life-history and ecological correlates of sociality. Studies parametrizing Hamilton's rule are not rare and demonstrate quantitatively that (i) altruism (net loss of direct fitness) occurs even when sociality is facultative, (ii) in most cases, altruism is under positive selection via indirect fitness benefits that exceed direct fitness costs and (iii) social behaviour commonly generates indirect benefits by enhancing the productivity or survivorship of kin. Comparative phylogenetic analyses show that cooperative breeding and eusociality are promoted by (i) high relatedness and monogamy and, potentially, by (ii) life-history factors facilitating family structure and high benefits of helping and (iii) ecological factors generating low costs of social behaviour. Overall, the focal studies strongly confirm the predictions of Hamilton's rule regarding conditions for social evolution and their causes. PMID:24686934

  19. Quantitative genetic versions of Hamilton's rule with empirical applications.

    PubMed

    McGlothlin, Joel W; Wolf, Jason B; Brodie, Edmund D; Moore, Allen J

    2014-05-19

    Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness revolutionized our understanding of the evolution of social interactions. Surprisingly, an incorporation of Hamilton's perspective into the quantitative genetic theory of phenotypic evolution has been slow, despite the popularity of quantitative genetics in evolutionary studies. Here, we discuss several versions of Hamilton's rule for social evolution from a quantitative genetic perspective, emphasizing its utility in empirical applications. Although evolutionary quantitative genetics offers methods to measure each of the critical parameters of Hamilton's rule, empirical work has lagged behind theory. In particular, we lack studies of selection on altruistic traits in the wild. Fitness costs and benefits of altruism can be estimated using a simple extension of phenotypic selection analysis that incorporates the traits of social interactants. We also discuss the importance of considering the genetic influence of the social environment, or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), in the context of Hamilton's rule. Research in social evolution has generated an extensive body of empirical work focusing--with good reason--almost solely on relatedness. We argue that quantifying the roles of social and non-social components of selection and IGEs, in addition to relatedness, is now timely and should provide unique additional insights into social evolution.

  20. Hamilton's rule and the causes of social evolution.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Andrew F G

    2014-05-19

    Hamilton's rule is a central theorem of inclusive fitness (kin selection) theory and predicts that social behaviour evolves under specific combinations of relatedness, benefit and cost. This review provides evidence for Hamilton's rule by presenting novel syntheses of results from two kinds of study in diverse taxa, including cooperatively breeding birds and mammals and eusocial insects. These are, first, studies that empirically parametrize Hamilton's rule in natural populations and, second, comparative phylogenetic analyses of the genetic, life-history and ecological correlates of sociality. Studies parametrizing Hamilton's rule are not rare and demonstrate quantitatively that (i) altruism (net loss of direct fitness) occurs even when sociality is facultative, (ii) in most cases, altruism is under positive selection via indirect fitness benefits that exceed direct fitness costs and (iii) social behaviour commonly generates indirect benefits by enhancing the productivity or survivorship of kin. Comparative phylogenetic analyses show that cooperative breeding and eusociality are promoted by (i) high relatedness and monogamy and, potentially, by (ii) life-history factors facilitating family structure and high benefits of helping and (iii) ecological factors generating low costs of social behaviour. Overall, the focal studies strongly confirm the predictions of Hamilton's rule regarding conditions for social evolution and their causes.

  1. A generalization of Hamilton's rule--love others how much?

    PubMed

    Alger, Ingela; Weibull, Jörgen W

    2012-04-21

    According to Hamilton's (1964a, b) rule, a costly action will be undertaken if its fitness cost to the actor falls short of the discounted benefit to the recipient, where the discount factor is Wright's index of relatedness between the two. We propose a generalization of this rule, and show that if evolution operates at the level of behavior rules, rather than directly at the level of actions, evolution will select behavior rules that induce a degree of cooperation that may differ from that predicted by Hamilton's rule as applied to actions. In social dilemmas there will be less (more) cooperation than under Hamilton's rule if the actions are strategic substitutes (complements). Our approach is based on natural selection, defined in terms of personal (direct) fitness, and applies to a wide range of pairwise interactions.

  2. Quantum Hamilton mechanics: Hamilton equations of quantum motion, origin of quantum operators, and proof of quantization axiom

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.-D. . E-mail: cdyang@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2006-12-15

    This paper gives a thorough investigation on formulating and solving quantum problems by extended analytical mechanics that extends canonical variables to complex domain. With this complex extension, we show that quantum mechanics becomes a part of analytical mechanics and hence can be treated integrally with classical mechanics. Complex canonical variables are governed by Hamilton equations of motion, which can be derived naturally from Schroedinger equation. Using complex canonical variables, a formal proof of the quantization axiom p {sup {yields}} p = -ih{nabla}, which is the kernel in constructing quantum-mechanical systems, becomes a one-line corollary of Hamilton mechanics. The derivation of quantum operators from Hamilton mechanics is coordinate independent and thus allows us to derive quantum operators directly under any coordinate system without transforming back to Cartesian coordinates. Besides deriving quantum operators, we also show that the various prominent quantum effects, such as quantization, tunneling, atomic shell structure, Aharonov-Bohm effect, and spin, all have the root in Hamilton mechanics and can be described entirely by Hamilton equations of motion.

  3. Extending Fourier transformations to Hamilton's quaternions and Clifford's geometric algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitzer, Eckhard

    2013-10-01

    We show how Fourier transformations can be extended to Hamilton's algebra of quaternions. This was initially motivated by applications in nuclear magnetic resonance and electric engineering. Followed by an ever wider range of applications in color image and signal processing. Hamilton's algebra of quaternions is only one example of the larger class of Clifford's geometric algebras, complete algebras encoding a vector space and all its subspace elements. We introduce how Fourier transformations are extended to Clifford algebras and applied in electromagnetism, and in the processing of images, color images, vector field and climate data.

  4. INTERIOR DETAIL, EASTERN HEMICYCLE, SALOON. WILLIAM HAMILTON PLACED BRONZE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, EASTERN HEMICYCLE, SALOON. WILLIAM HAMILTON PLACED BRONZE AND MARBLE SCULPTURE IN SOME OF THE HEMICYCLE NICHES. ONE OF THE NICHES HOUSED A “CANNON STOVE” FOR HEATING THE ROOM IN THE COLDER MONTHS - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. VIEW SOUTH FROM HAMILTON AVENUE BUILDING 25 LEFT; BUILDING 32 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH FROM HAMILTON AVENUE BUILDING 25 LEFT; BUILDING 32 MACHINE SHOP (1890) LEFT CENTER BUILDING 31 RIGGER'S SHOP (1890) CENTER BUILDING 28 BLACKSMITH SHOP (1885) RIGHT CENTER; BUILDING 27 PATTERN SHOP (1853) RIGHT - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  6. Rehearsal and Hamilton's "Ingredients Model" of Theatrical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, David

    2009-01-01

    One among the many virtues of James Hamilton's book, "The Art of Theater," is that it challenges the hegemony of the classical paradigm in the performing arts by questioning its applicability to theatrical performances. He argues instead for an "ingredients model" of the relationship between a literary script and a theatrical work. According to…

  7. 75 FR 37293 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hamilton, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... additional controlled airspace at Hamilton Municipal Airport (75 FR 20794) Docket No. FAA-2009-0190... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR,...

  8. Moving the Education Needle: A Conversation with Scott Hamilton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Scott Hamilton is the Forrest Gump of education reform, although with a lot more IQ points and fewer chocolates. He worked for Bill Bennett in the U.S. Department of Education and for Benno Schmidt at the Edison Project. He authorized charter schools in Massachusetts, co-founded the KIPP network, quadrupled the size of Teach For America (TFA), and…

  9. 78 FR 9001 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation... Corporation Propellers ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM), DOT. SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation 14SF-7, 14SF-15, and 14SF-23 series...

  10. Coordinates Used in Derivation of Hawking Radiation via Hamilton-Jacobi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; He, Xiaokai; Liu, Wenbiao

    2009-05-01

    Coordinates used in derivation of Hawking radiation via Hamilton-Jacobi method are investigated more deeply. In the case of a 4-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole, a direct computation leads to a wrong result. In the meantime, making use of the isotropic coordinate or invariant radial distance, we can get the correct conclusion. More coordinates including Painleve and Eddington-Finkelstein are tried to calculate the semi-classical Hawking emission rate. The reason of the discrepancy between naive coordinate and well-behaved coordinates is also discussed.

  11. 78 FR 28838 - Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2013, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4... Boumansour, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC, 1401 Walnut Street, Suite 301, Boulder, CO 80302; phone: (303)...

  12. Efficient solution for finding Hamilton cycles in undirected graphs.

    PubMed

    Alhalabi, Wadee; Kitanneh, Omar; Alharbi, Amira; Balfakih, Zain; Sarirete, Akila

    2016-01-01

    The Hamilton cycle problem is closely related to a series of famous problems and puzzles (traveling salesman problem, Icosian game) and, due to the fact that it is NP-complete, it was extensively studied with different algorithms to solve it. The most efficient algorithm is not known. In this paper, a necessary condition for an arbitrary un-directed graph to have Hamilton cycle is proposed. Based on this condition, a mathematical solution for this problem is developed and several proofs and an algorithmic approach are introduced. The algorithm is successfully implemented on many Hamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian graphs. This provides a new effective approach to solve a problem that is fundamental in graph theory and can influence the manner in which the existing applications are used and improved. PMID:27516930

  13. John C. Hamilton Greeted By Astronauts and MSFC Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Aiea, Hawaii high school student, John C. Hamilton, is greeted by (left to right): Astronauts Russell L. Schweickart, and Owen K. Garriott; Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Skylab Program Manager, Leland Belew; and MSFC Director of Administration and Technical Services, David Newby, during a tour of MSFC. Hamilton was among 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. The nationwide scientific competition was sponsored by the National Science Teachers Association and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The winning students, along with their parents and sponsor teachers, visited MSFC where they met with scientists and engineers, participated in design reviews for their experiments, and toured MSFC facilities. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of additional equipment.

  14. Central Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present new, efficient central schemes for multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. These non-oscillatory, non-staggered schemes are first- and second-order accurate and are designed to scale well with an increasing dimension. Efficiency is obtained by carefully choosing the location of the evolution points and by using a one-dimensional projection step. First-and second-order accuracy is verified for a variety of multi-dimensional, convex and non-convex problems.

  15. Bäcklund transformations relating different Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozonov, A. P.; Tsiganov, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    We discuss one of the possible finite-dimensional analogues of the general Bäcklund transformation relating different partial differential equations. We show that different Hamilton-Jacobi equations can be obtained from the same Lax matrix. We consider Hénon-Heiles systems on the plane, Neumann and Chaplygin systems on the sphere, and two integrable systems with velocity-dependent potentials as examples.

  16. Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for string gas thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Anosh; Rajeev, Sarada G.

    2009-03-01

    We show that the thermodynamics of a system of strings at high energy densities under the ideal gas approximation has a formulation in terms of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The two parameters of the system, which have dimensions of energy density and number density, respectively, define a family of hypersurfaces of a codimension one, which can be described by the vanishing of a function F that plays the role of a Hamiltonian.

  17. Hamilton's forces of natural selection after forty years.

    PubMed

    Rose, Michael R; Rauser, Casandra L; Benford, Gregory; Matos, Margarida; Mueller, Laurence D

    2007-06-01

    In 1966, William D. Hamilton published a landmark paper in evolutionary biology: "The Moulding of Senescence by Natural Selection." It is now apparent that this article is as important as his better-known 1964 articles on kin selection. Not only did the 1966 article explain aging, it also supplied the basic scaling forces for natural selection over the entire life history. Like the Lorentz transformations of relativistic physics, Hamilton's Forces of Natural Selection provide an overarching framework for understanding the power of natural selection at early ages, the existence of aging, the timing of aging, the cessation of aging, and the timing of the cessation of aging. His twin Forces show that natural selection shapes survival and fecundity in different ways, so their evolution can be somewhat distinct. Hamilton's Forces also define the context in which genetic variation is shaped. The Forces of Natural Selection are readily manipulable using experimental evolution, allowing the deceleration or acceleration of aging, and the shifting of the transition ages between development, aging, and late life. For these reasons, evolutionary research on the demographic features of life history should be referred to as "Hamiltonian."

  18. The Hamiltonization of nonholonomic systems and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Oscar E.

    A nonholonomic mechanical system is a pair (L, D ), where L : TQ → R is a mechanical Lagrangian and D ⊂ TQ is a distribution which is non-integrable (in the Frobenius sense). Although such mechanical systems are manifestly not Hamiltonian (their mechanics are described by the Lagrange-d'Alembert principle, not Hamilton's principle), one can nevertheless attempt to formulate the mechanics of certain classes of nonholonomic systems as almost-Hamiltonian. In this dissertation we study various methods of so-called Hamiltonization of nonholonomic systems and discuss their application to optimal control and the quantization of nonholonomic systems. We begin by constructing second-order associated systems for a class of nonholonomic systems and solving the Inverse Problem of the Calculus of Variations to derive Hamiltonians whose canonical equations, when restricted to certain invariant submanifolds, reproduce the original nonholonomic mechanics. We also introduce the idea of conditionally variational nonholonomic systems, which arise from a comparison with the variational nonholonomic equations, and show that these systems give a straightforward Hamiltonization for certain classes of systems. Lastly, we extend a classical theorem of S. A. Chaplygin, which allows a larger class of nonholonomic systems to be Hamiltonized by reparameterizing time, to higher dimensions. Moreover, in some cases we show that the requirement that the original system possess an invariant measure can be removed. The results are then applied to show that under certain conditions the equations of motion of nonholonomic systems can be derived by considering an associated first-order optimal control problem, similar to the situation in holonomic systems. Moreover, the methods are illustrated throughout by various well known examples of nonholonomic systems. Several future directions based on the research presented are also discussed, among them the relatively new problem of quantizing a

  19. Preliminary findings of simultaneous 18F-FDG and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in patients with depressive disorders at rest: differential correlates with ratings of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Conca, A; Fritzsche, H; Peschina, W; König, P; Swoboda, E; Wiederin, H; Haas, C

    2000-02-28

    The assumption of a dynamic coupling between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebral glucose metabolic rates (rCMRGlu) has been challenged by simultaneous measurements of both. Through the use of a dual-headed gamma camera with a 511-keV collimator applying the double isotope 18F-FDG and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT technique, the uptake rates of these isotopes can be semi-quantitatively evaluated. Sixteen depressed patients, diagnosed by ICD-10 criteria and assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), were studied. Based on the severity of HRSD-rated anxiety (item 10: low=1-21; high=3-4), two eight-patient subgroups were formed and compared with 12 age- and handedness-matched healthy control subjects. As regions of interest, we selected areas implicated in the neuroanatomy of anxiety and depression: hippocampus (hippo), basal ganglia (BG) and gyri temporales superiores (G.t.s.). In the control subjects, a significant statistical coupling between rCBF and rCMRGlu was revealed by the Spearman correlation coefficient only in left hippo and left BG. Patients in the low-anxiety subgroup demonstrated a marked dynamic coupling bilaterally for the G.t.s., while patients in the high-anxiety subgroup showed a significant statistical correlation of rCBF and rCMRGlu only in the left G.t.s. These findings indicate that a dynamic coupling between blood flow and glucose metabolism exists only in distinct brain regions, and that the depressive illness has an uncoupling effect on this correlation in the left BG. Furthermore, our results suggest that the HRSD anxiety score might interact with the underlying depressive illness to influence the relationship of rCBF and rCMRGlu. PMID:10708925

  20. Hamilton-Jacobi tunneling method for dynamical horizons in different coordinate gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Criscienzo, Roberto; Hayward, Sean A.; Nadalini, Mario; Vanzo, Luciano; Zerbini, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Previous work on dynamical black hole instability is further elucidated within the Hamilton-Jacobi method for horizon tunneling and the reconstruction of the classical action by means of the null expansion method. Everything is based on two natural requirements, namely that the tunneling rate is an observable and therefore it must be based on invariantly defined quantities, and that coordinate systems which do not cover the horizon should not be admitted. These simple observations can help to clarify some ambiguities, like the doubling of the temperature occurring in the static case when using singular coordinates and the role, if any, of the temporal contribution of the action to the emission rate. The formalism is also applied to FRW cosmological models, where it is observed that it predicts the positivity of the temperature naturally, without further assumptions on the sign of energy.

  1. Hamilton's law and the stability of nonconservative continuous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1980-03-01

    The application of Hamilton's law of varying action to a nonconservative continuous system (a beam column) was demonstrated without the use of variational principles, D'Alembert's principle, differential equations, or work functions. Eigenvalues from the direct analytical solution are compared to eigenvalues from the exact solution for a wide range of the load parameter. Curves of eigenvalues vs load magnitude for the lowest four modes of the Beck problem are presented. First and second normalized modes for a tension load, no load, and the critical compressive load are plotted.

  2. Multimodal electromechanical model of piezoelectric transformers by Hamilton's principle.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Clement; Pigache, Francois

    2009-11-01

    This work deals with a general energetic approach to establish an accurate electromechanical model of a piezoelectric transformer (PT). Hamilton's principle is used to obtain the equations of motion for free vibrations. The modal characteristics (mass, stiffness, primary and secondary electromechanical conversion factors) are also deduced. Then, to illustrate this general electromechanical method, the variational principle is applied to both homogeneous and nonhomogeneous Rosen-type PT models. A comparison of modal parameters, mechanical displacements, and electrical potentials are presented for both models. Finally, the validity of the electrodynamical model of nonhomogeneous Rosen-type PT is confirmed by a numerical comparison based on a finite elements method and an experimental identification.

  3. Hamilton-Jacobi method for curved domain walls and cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skenderis, Kostas; Townsend, Paul K.

    2006-12-01

    We use Hamiltonian methods to study curved domain walls and cosmologies. This leads naturally to first-order equations for all domain walls and cosmologies foliated by slices of maximal symmetry. For Minkowski and AdS-sliced domain walls (flat and closed FLRW cosmologies) we recover a recent result concerning their (pseudo)supersymmetry. We show how domain-wall stability is consistent with the instability of AdS vacua that violate the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. We also explore the relationship to Hamilton-Jacobi theory and compute the wave-function of a 3-dimensional closed universe evolving towards de Sitter spacetime.

  4. Hamilton-Jacobi solutions for strongly coupled gravity and matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salopek, D. S.

    1998-05-01

    A Green function method is developed for solving strongly coupled gravity and matter in the semiclassical limit. In the strong-coupling limit, one assumes that Newton's constant approaches infinity, 0264-9381/15/5/009/img1. As a result, one may neglect second-order spatial gradients, and each spatial point evolves like a homogeneous universe. After constructing the Green function solution to the Hamiltonian constraint, the momentum constraint is solved using functional methods in conjunction with the superposition principle for Hamilton-Jacobi theory. Exact and approximate solutions are given for a dust field or a scalar field interacting with gravity.

  5. Hamilton{close_quote}s principle for quasigeostrophic motion

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, D.D.; Zeitlin, V.

    1998-04-01

    We show that the equation of quasigeostrophic (QG) potential vorticity conservation in geophysical fluid dynamics follows from Hamilton{close_quote}s principle for stationary variations of an action for geodesic motion in the f-plane case or its prolongation in the {beta}-plane case. This implies a new momentum equation and an associated Kelvin circulation theorem for QG motion. We treat the barotropic and two-layer baroclinic cases, as well as the continuously stratified case. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Hamilton's Principle for External Viscous FLUID-STRUCTURE Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BENAROYA, H.; WEI, T.

    2000-11-01

    Hamilton's principle is extended so as to be able to model external flow-structure interaction. This is accomplished by using Reynold's Transport theorem. In this form Hamilton's principle is hybrid in the sense that it has an analytical part as well as a part that depends on experimentally derived functions. Examples are presented. The discussion on implications and extensions is extensive. In this work, a general theory is developed for the case where the configuration is not prescribed at the end times of the variational principle. This leads to a single governing equation of motion. This limitation can be removed by prescribing the end times, as usually done. This is outlined in the present paper, and will be the subject of a future paper.A detailed discussion is also presented of the experimental work performed in parallel with and in support of the theoretical developments. As a true fluid-structural model, it is necessary to fully couple the dynamics. This has been the foundation of our formulation.

  7. A hybrid-stress element based on Hamilton principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Song; Zhang, Tao; Li, Chen-Feng; Fu, Xiang-Rong; Long, Yu-Qiu

    2010-08-01

    A novel hybrid-stress finite element method is proposed for constructing simple 4-node quadrilateral plane elements, and the new element is denoted as HH4-3 β here. Firstly, the theoretical basis of the traditional hybrid-stress elements, i.e., the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle, is replaced by the Hamilton variational principle, in which the number of the stress variables is reduced from 3 to 2. Secondly, three stress parameters and corresponding trial functions are introduced into the system equations. Thirdly, the displacement fields of the conventional bilinear isoparametric element are employed in the new models. Finally, from the stationary condition, the stress parameters can be expressed in terms of the displacement parameters, and thus the new element stiffness matrices can be obtained. Since the required number of stress variables in the Hamilton variational principle is less than that in the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle, and no additional incompatible displacement modes are considered, the new hybrid-stress element is simpler than the traditional ones. Furthermore, in order to improve the accuracy of the stress solutions, two enhanced post-processing schemes are also proposed for element HH4-3 β. Numerical examples show that the proposed model exhibits great improvements in both displacement and stress solutions, implying that the proposed technique is an effective way for developing simple finite element models with high performance.

  8. Sense of Belonging and Mental Health in Hamilton, Ontario: An Intra-Urban Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Chowhan, James

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines geographic variations in sense of community belonging in Hamilton, Ontario. It also identifies the most significant health and social factors associated with belonging in the city. The research employs data from the 2007/08 Canadian Community Health Survey for respondents aged 18 or over living in the Hamilton Census…

  9. A Celebration of Voices: The Virginia Hamilton Conference on Multicultural Literature for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the establishment of, changes in, and discussions that have taken place at the Virginia Hamilton Conference on Multicultural Literature for Youth, celebrating its 17th year of stimulating dialogue on children's books. The conference honors author Virginia Hamilton, winner of almost every major award in the field of children's…

  10. Unified formalism for the generalized kth-order Hamilton-Jacobi problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Leonardo; de Léon, Manuel; Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2014-08-01

    The geometric formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory enables us to generalize it to systems of higher-order ordinary differential equations. In this work we introduce the unified Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism for the geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory on higher-order autonomous dynamical systems described by regular Lagrangian functions.

  11. 77 FR 52135 - Hamilton Bank, Baltimore, Maryland; Approval of Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Comptroller of the Currency Hamilton Bank, Baltimore, Maryland; Approval of Conversion...) approved the application of Hamilton Bank, Baltimore, Maryland to convert to the stock form of...

  12. Surface Modification of ZnO Nanorods with Hamilton Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zeininger, Lukas; Klaumünzer, Martin; Peukert, Wolfgang; Hirsch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A new prototype of a Hamilton receptor suitable for the functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles was synthesized and characterized. The hydrogen bonding receptor was coupled to a catechol moiety, which served as anchor group for the functionalization of metal oxides, in particular zinc oxide. Synthesized zinc oxide nanorods [ZnO] were used for surface functionalization. The wet-chemical functionalization procedure towards monolayer-grafted particles [ZnO-HR] is described and a detailed characterization study is presented. In addition, the detection of specific cyanurate molecules is demonstrated. The hybrid structures [ZnO-HR-CA] were stable towards agglomeration and exhibited enhanced dispersability in apolar solvents. This observation, in combination with several spectroscopic experiments gave evidence of the highly directional supramolecular recognition at the surface of nanoparticles. PMID:25872141

  13. Particle dynamics inside shocks in Hamilton-Jacobi equations.

    PubMed

    Khanin, Konstantin; Sobolevski, Andrei

    2010-04-13

    The characteristic curves of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be seen as action-minimizing trajectories of fluid particles. For non-smooth 'viscosity' solutions, which give rise to discontinuous velocity fields, this description is usually pursued only up to the moment when trajectories hit a shock and cease to minimize the Lagrangian action. In this paper we show that, for any convex Hamiltonian, there exists a uniquely defined canonical global non-smooth coalescing flow that extends particle trajectories and determines the dynamics inside shocks. We also provide a variational description of the corresponding effective velocity field inside shocks, and discuss the relation to the 'dissipative anomaly' in the limit of vanishing viscosity. PMID:20211875

  14. Quantum interference within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Sanz, Angel S.; Miret-Artes, Salvador; Wyatt, Robert E.

    2010-10-15

    Quantum interference is investigated within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. As shown in a previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 (2009) 250401], complex quantum trajectories display helical wrapping around stagnation tubes and hyperbolic deflection near vortical tubes, these structures being prominent features of quantum caves in space-time Argand plots. Here, we further analyze the divergence and vorticity of the quantum momentum function along streamlines near poles, showing the intricacy of the complex dynamics. Nevertheless, despite this behavior, we show that the appearance of the well-known interference features (on the real axis) can be easily understood in terms of the rotation of the nodal line in the complex plane. This offers a unified description of interference as well as an elegant and practical method to compute the lifetime for interference features, defined in terms of the average wrapping time, i.e., considering such features as a resonant process.

  15. Obituary: George Hamilton Bowen Jr. (1925-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, Lee Anne; Struck, Curtis

    2011-12-01

    Our colleague and collaborator George Hamilton Bowen, Jr., passed away November 1, 2009 in Ames, Iowa. George was born June 20, 1925 in Tulsa, Oklahoma to George and Dorothy (Huntington) Bowen. He married Marjorie Brown June 19, 1948 in Redondo Beach, California; they had five children, with eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren at the time of his death. George H. Bowen's third or perhaps his fourth career was in astronomy. He was drafted into the navy in 1944, at the end of his first year as a student at Caltech, and ended his war-time service as an electronic technician on the aircraft carrier Shangri-La. He later said "In just nine months, starting from scratch (Ohm's law!), we learned an amazing amount - not by memorization, of course, but by study and real understanding of the basic function of the most advanced AC circuits then being used for instrumentation, measurements, communications, control systems, and much more." He gained a confidence that he could quickly and accurately diagnose and solve technical problems that stood him well in future work. One accomplishment he took particular pride in was figuring out how the radar control used cams and gears to solve the trigonometry for accurate pointing. He also described how the captain was alarmed when weather conditions changed so that refraction no longer showed them distant, small boats around the curvature of Earth. After the war, George Bowen returned to undergraduate and eventually graduate study at Caltech, where he was recruited to the biophysics research group headed by future Nobel Laureate Max Delbrück. George often described his joy in working with these first-rate scientists and finding himself accepted as a part of the effort. He finished his BS with honors in 1949 and his PhD in 1953 with a thesis on "Kinetic Studies on the Mechanism of Photoreactivation of Bacteriophase T2 Inactivated by Ultraviolet Light" involving work with E Coli. This work was supported by grants from the U

  16. The World She Dreamed, Generations She Shared, Visions She Wrote: A Tribute to Virginia Hamilton 1936-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muse, Daphne

    2002-01-01

    Presents a tribute to Virginia Hamilton. Notes that at a time when Black people, especially girls, were seriously beginning to struggle with self-acceptance and self-worth, Hamilton's "bold and imaginative writing was nothing short of revolutionary." (SG)

  17. Obituary: George Hamilton Bowen Jr. (1925-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, Lee Anne; Struck, Curtis

    2011-12-01

    Our colleague and collaborator George Hamilton Bowen, Jr., passed away November 1, 2009 in Ames, Iowa. George was born June 20, 1925 in Tulsa, Oklahoma to George and Dorothy (Huntington) Bowen. He married Marjorie Brown June 19, 1948 in Redondo Beach, California; they had five children, with eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren at the time of his death. George H. Bowen's third or perhaps his fourth career was in astronomy. He was drafted into the navy in 1944, at the end of his first year as a student at Caltech, and ended his war-time service as an electronic technician on the aircraft carrier Shangri-La. He later said "In just nine months, starting from scratch (Ohm's law!), we learned an amazing amount - not by memorization, of course, but by study and real understanding of the basic function of the most advanced AC circuits then being used for instrumentation, measurements, communications, control systems, and much more." He gained a confidence that he could quickly and accurately diagnose and solve technical problems that stood him well in future work. One accomplishment he took particular pride in was figuring out how the radar control used cams and gears to solve the trigonometry for accurate pointing. He also described how the captain was alarmed when weather conditions changed so that refraction no longer showed them distant, small boats around the curvature of Earth. After the war, George Bowen returned to undergraduate and eventually graduate study at Caltech, where he was recruited to the biophysics research group headed by future Nobel Laureate Max Delbrück. George often described his joy in working with these first-rate scientists and finding himself accepted as a part of the effort. He finished his BS with honors in 1949 and his PhD in 1953 with a thesis on "Kinetic Studies on the Mechanism of Photoreactivation of Bacteriophase T2 Inactivated by Ultraviolet Light" involving work with E Coli. This work was supported by grants from the U

  18. Quantitative Compactness Estimates for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, Fabio; Cannarsa, Piermarco; Nguyen, Khai T.

    2016-02-01

    We study quantitative compactness estimates in {W^{1,1}_{loc}} for the map {S_t}, {t > 0} that is associated with the given initial data {u_0in Lip (R^N)} for the corresponding solution {S_t u_0} of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation u_t+Hbig(nabla_{x} ubig)=0, qquad t≥ 0,quad xinR^N, with a uniformly convex Hamiltonian {H=H(p)}. We provide upper and lower estimates of order {1/\\varepsilon^N} on the Kolmogorov {\\varepsilon}-entropy in {W^{1,1}} of the image through the map S t of sets of bounded, compactly supported initial data. Estimates of this type are inspired by a question posed by Lax (Course on Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws. XXVII Scuola Estiva di Fisica Matematica, Ravello, 2002) within the context of conservation laws, and could provide a measure of the order of "resolution" of a numerical method implemented for this equation.

  19. An electromechanical model of neuronal dynamics using Hamilton's principle

    PubMed Central

    Drapaca, Corina S.

    2015-01-01

    Damage of the brain may be caused by mechanical loads such as penetration, blunt force, shock loading from blast, and by chemical imbalances due to neurological diseases and aging that trigger not only neuronal degeneration but also changes in the mechanical properties of brain tissue. An understanding of the interconnected nature of the electro-chemo-mechanical processes that result in brain damage and ultimately loss of functionality is currently lacking. While modern mathematical models that focus on how to link brain mechanics to its biochemistry are essential in enhancing our understanding of brain science, the lack of experimental data required by these models as well as the complexity of the corresponding computations render these models hard to use in clinical applications. In this paper we propose a unified variational framework for the modeling of neuronal electromechanics. We introduce a constrained Lagrangian formulation that takes into account Newton's law of motion of a linear viscoelastic Kelvin–Voigt solid-state neuron as well as the classic Hodgkin–Huxley equations of the electronic neuron. The system of differential equations describing neuronal electromechanics is obtained by applying Hamilton's principle. Numerical simulations of possible damage dynamics in neurons will be presented. PMID:26236195

  20. An electromechanical model of neuronal dynamics using Hamilton's principle.

    PubMed

    Drapaca, Corina S

    2015-01-01

    Damage of the brain may be caused by mechanical loads such as penetration, blunt force, shock loading from blast, and by chemical imbalances due to neurological diseases and aging that trigger not only neuronal degeneration but also changes in the mechanical properties of brain tissue. An understanding of the interconnected nature of the electro-chemo-mechanical processes that result in brain damage and ultimately loss of functionality is currently lacking. While modern mathematical models that focus on how to link brain mechanics to its biochemistry are essential in enhancing our understanding of brain science, the lack of experimental data required by these models as well as the complexity of the corresponding computations render these models hard to use in clinical applications. In this paper we propose a unified variational framework for the modeling of neuronal electromechanics. We introduce a constrained Lagrangian formulation that takes into account Newton's law of motion of a linear viscoelastic Kelvin-Voigt solid-state neuron as well as the classic Hodgkin-Huxley equations of the electronic neuron. The system of differential equations describing neuronal electromechanics is obtained by applying Hamilton's principle. Numerical simulations of possible damage dynamics in neurons will be presented.

  1. The identity of Hamilton's Ticto Barb, Pethia ticto (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Katwate, Unmesh; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2015-01-01

    While describing the fishes of Ganges, Hamilton described Cyprinus ticto (now allocated to Pethia) from south-eastern parts of Bengal. The unavailability of type material and insufficient diagnostic characters in the original description resulted in ambiguities in the identity of this species. In this paper, we clarify the identity of P. ticto through an integrative-taxonomic approach. Pethia ticto can be distinguished from all other known species of the genus by a combination of characters that includes an abbreviated lateral line with 6-12 pored scales; 23-26 scales in lateral-scale row; 9 predorsal scales; ½4/1/3½-4 scales in transverse series; and a pigmentation pattern that includes a small black humeral spot covering the third and fourth lateral-line scales, a prominent spot on the caudal peduncle on the 16th-19th scales of the lateral-line scale row, and two rows of black spots scattered on the dorsal fin. PMID:26249452

  2. Alternative method for Hamilton-Jacobi PDEs in image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagoutte, A.; Salat, H.; Vachier, C.

    2011-03-01

    Multiscale signal analysis has been used since the early 1990s as a powerful tool for image processing, notably in the linear case. However, nonlinear PDEs and associated nonlinear operators have advantages over linear operators, notably preserving important features such as edges in images. In this paper, we focus on nonlinear Hamilton-Jacobi PDEs defined with adaptive speeds or, alternatively, on adaptive morphological fiters also called semi-flat morphological operators. Semi-flat morphology were instroduced by H. Heijmans and studied only in the case where the speed (or equivalently the filtering parameter) is a decreasing function of the luminance. It is proposed to extend the definition suggested by H. Heijmans in the case of non decreasing speeds. We also prove that a central property for defining morphological filters, that is the adjunction property, is preserved while dealing with our extended definitions. Finally experimental applications are presented on actual images, including connection of thin lines by semi-flat dilations and image filtering by semi-flat openings.

  3. Quantum streamlines within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.-C.; Wyatt, Robert E.

    2008-09-28

    Quantum streamlines are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The local structures of the quantum momentum function (QMF) and the Polya vector field near a stagnation point or a pole are analyzed. Streamlines near a stagnation point of the QMF may spiral into or away from it, or they may become circles centered on this point or straight lines. Additionally, streamlines near a pole display east-west and north-south opening hyperbolic structure. On the other hand, streamlines near a stagnation point of the Polya vector field for the QMF display general hyperbolic structure, and streamlines near a pole become circles enclosing the pole. Furthermore, the local structures of the QMF and the Polya vector field around a stagnation point are related to the first derivative of the QMF; however, the magnitude of the asymptotic structures for these two fields near a pole depends only on the order of the node in the wave function. Two nonstationary states constructed from the eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator are used to illustrate the local structures of these two fields and the dynamics of the streamlines near a stagnation point or a pole. This study presents the abundant dynamics of the streamlines in the complex space for one-dimensional time-dependent problems.

  4. On Dynamics of Lagrangian Trajectories for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanin, Konstantin; Sobolevski, Andrei

    2016-02-01

    Characteristic curves of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be seen as action minimizing trajectories of fluid particles. However this description is valid only for smooth solutions. For nonsmooth "viscosity" solutions, which give rise to discontinuous velocity fields, this picture holds only up to the moment when trajectories hit a shock and cease to minimize the Lagrangian action. In this paper we discuss two physically meaningful regularization procedures, one corresponding to vanishing viscosity and another to weak noise limit. We show that for any convex Hamiltonian, a viscous regularization allows us to construct a nonsmooth flow that extends particle trajectories and determines dynamics inside the shock manifolds. This flow consists of integral curves of a particular "effective" velocity field, which is uniquely defined everywhere in the flow domain and is discontinuous on shock manifolds. The effective velocity field arising in the weak noise limit is generally non-unique and different from the viscous one, but in both cases there is a fundamental self-consistency condition constraining the dynamics.

  5. Quantum vortices within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E

    2008-06-21

    Quantum vortices are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. A quantum vortex forms around a node in the wave function in the complex space, and the quantized circulation integral originates from the discontinuity in the real part of the complex action. Although the quantum momentum field displays hyperbolic flow around a node, the corresponding Polya vector field displays circular flow. It is shown that the Polya vector field of the quantum momentum function is parallel to contours of the probability density. A nonstationary state constructed from eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator is used to illustrate the formation of a transient excited state quantum vortex, and the coupled harmonic oscillator is used to illustrate quantization of the circulation integral in the multidimensional complex space. This study not only analyzes the formation of quantum vortices but also demonstrates the local structures for the quantum momentum field and for the Polya vector field near a node of the wave function. PMID:18570490

  6. Quantum streamlines within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E

    2008-09-28

    Quantum streamlines are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The local structures of the quantum momentum function (QMF) and the Polya vector field near a stagnation point or a pole are analyzed. Streamlines near a stagnation point of the QMF may spiral into or away from it, or they may become circles centered on this point or straight lines. Additionally, streamlines near a pole display east-west and north-south opening hyperbolic structure. On the other hand, streamlines near a stagnation point of the Polya vector field for the QMF display general hyperbolic structure, and streamlines near a pole become circles enclosing the pole. Furthermore, the local structures of the QMF and the Polya vector field around a stagnation point are related to the first derivative of the QMF; however, the magnitude of the asymptotic structures for these two fields near a pole depends only on the order of the node in the wave function. Two nonstationary states constructed from the eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator are used to illustrate the local structures of these two fields and the dynamics of the streamlines near a stagnation point or a pole. This study presents the abundant dynamics of the streamlines in the complex space for one-dimensional time-dependent problems. PMID:19045012

  7. Stochastic homogenization of nonconvex Hamilton-Jacobi equations in one space dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott N.; Tran, Hung V.; Yu, Yifeng

    2016-09-01

    We prove stochastic homogenization for a general class of coercive, nonconvex Hamilton-Jacobi equations in one space dimension. Some properties of the effective Hamiltonian arising in the nonconvex case are also discussed.

  8. Some suggested approaches to solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation associated with constrained rigid body motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, P. M.; Harmon, G. R.; Cochran, J. E.; Shaw, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Some methods of approaching a solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation are outlined and examples are given to illustrate particular methods. These methods may be used for cases where the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is not separable and have been particularly useful in solving the rigid body motion of an earth satellite subjected to gravity torques. These general applications may also have usefulness in studying the motion of satellites with aerodynamic torque and in studying space vehicle motion where thrusting is involved.

  9. Holographic Wilson loops, Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and regularizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontello, Diego; Trinchero, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The minimal area for surfaces whose borders are rectangular and circular loops are calculated using the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation. This amounts to solving the HJ equation for the value of the minimal area, without calculating the shape of the corresponding surface. This is done for bulk geometries that are asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS). For the rectangular contour, the HJ equation, which is separable, can be solved exactly. For the circular contour an expansion in powers of the radius is implemented. The HJ approach naturally leads to a regularization which consists in locating the contour away from the border. The results are compared with the ɛ -regularization which leaves the contour at the border and calculates the area of the corresponding minimal surface up to a diameter smaller than the one of the contour at the border. The results for the circular loop do not coincide if the expansion parameter is taken to be the radius of the contour at the border. It is shown that using this expansion parameter the ɛ -regularization leads to incorrect results for certain solvable non-AdS cases. However, if the expansion parameter is taken to be the radius of the minimal surface whose area is computed, then the results coincide with the HJ scheme. This is traced back to the fact that in the HJ case the expansion parameter for the area of a minimal surface is intrinsic to the surface; however, the radius of the contour at the border is related to the way one chooses to regularize in the ɛ -scheme the calculation of this area.

  10. Effect of Cognitive Therapy With Antidepressant Medications vs Antidepressants Alone on the Rate of Recovery in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hollon, Steven D.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Fawcett, Jan; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Shelton, Richard C.; Zajecka, John; Young, Paula R.; Gallop, Robert

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Antidepressant medication (ADM) is efficacious in the treatment of depression, but not all patients achieve remission and fewer still achieve recovery with ADM alone. OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of combining cognitive therapy (CT) with ADM vs ADM alone on remission and recovery in major depressive disorder (MDD). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A total of 452 adult outpatients with chronic or recurrent MDD participated in a trial conducted in research clinics at 3 university medical centers in the United States. The patients were randomly assigned to ADM treatment alone or CT combined with ADM treatment. Treatment was continued for up to 42 months until recovery was achieved. INTERVENTIONS Antidepressant medication with or without CT. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Blind evaluations of recovery with a modified version of the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation. RESULTS Combined treatment enhanced the rate of recovery vs treatment with ADM alone (72.6% vs 62.5%; t451 = 2.45; P = .01; hazard ratio [HR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.06–1.68; number needed to treat [NNT], 10; 95% CI, 5–72). This effect was conditioned on interactions with severity (t451 = 1.97; P = .05; NNT, 5) and chronicity (χ2 = 7.46; P = .02; NNT, 6) such that the advantage for combined treatment was limited to patients with severe, nonchronic MDD (81.3% vs 51.7%; n = 146; t145 = 3.96; P = .001; HR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.54–3.57; NNT, 3; 95% CI, 2–5). Fewer patients dropped out of combined treatment vs ADM treatment alone (18.9% vs 26.8%; t451 = −2.04; P = .04; HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.45–0.98). Remission rates did not differ significantly either as a main effect of treatment or as an interaction with severity or chronicity. Patients with comorbid Axis II disorders took longer to recover than did patients without comorbid Axis II disorders regardless of the condition (P = .01). Patients who received combined treatment reported fewer

  11. A quantitative test of Hamilton's rule for the evolution of altruism.

    PubMed

    Waibel, Markus; Floreano, Dario; Keller, Laurent

    2011-05-01

    The evolution of altruism is a fundamental and enduring puzzle in biology. In a seminal paper Hamilton showed that altruism can be selected for when rb - c > 0, where c is the fitness cost to the altruist, b is the fitness benefit to the beneficiary, and r is their genetic relatedness. While many studies have provided qualitative support for Hamilton's rule, quantitative tests have not yet been possible due to the difficulty of quantifying the costs and benefits of helping acts. Here we use a simulated system of foraging robots to experimentally manipulate the costs and benefits of helping and determine the conditions under which altruism evolves. By conducting experimental evolution over hundreds of generations of selection in populations with different c/b ratios, we show that Hamilton's rule always accurately predicts the minimum relatedness necessary for altruism to evolve. This high accuracy is remarkable given the presence of pleiotropic and epistatic effects as well as mutations with strong effects on behavior and fitness (effects not directly taken into account in Hamilton's original 1964 rule). In addition to providing the first quantitative test of Hamilton's rule in a system with a complex mapping between genotype and phenotype, these experiments demonstrate the wide applicability of kin selection theory.

  12. A quantitative test of Hamilton's rule for the evolution of altruism.

    PubMed

    Waibel, Markus; Floreano, Dario; Keller, Laurent

    2011-05-01

    The evolution of altruism is a fundamental and enduring puzzle in biology. In a seminal paper Hamilton showed that altruism can be selected for when rb - c > 0, where c is the fitness cost to the altruist, b is the fitness benefit to the beneficiary, and r is their genetic relatedness. While many studies have provided qualitative support for Hamilton's rule, quantitative tests have not yet been possible due to the difficulty of quantifying the costs and benefits of helping acts. Here we use a simulated system of foraging robots to experimentally manipulate the costs and benefits of helping and determine the conditions under which altruism evolves. By conducting experimental evolution over hundreds of generations of selection in populations with different c/b ratios, we show that Hamilton's rule always accurately predicts the minimum relatedness necessary for altruism to evolve. This high accuracy is remarkable given the presence of pleiotropic and epistatic effects as well as mutations with strong effects on behavior and fitness (effects not directly taken into account in Hamilton's original 1964 rule). In addition to providing the first quantitative test of Hamilton's rule in a system with a complex mapping between genotype and phenotype, these experiments demonstrate the wide applicability of kin selection theory. PMID:21559320

  13. An Analysis of Relapse Rates and Predictors of Relapse in 2 Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials of Desvenlafaxine for Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fayyad, Rana S.; Guico-Pabia, Christine J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate relapse rates and predictors of relapse in 2 randomized, placebo-controlled trials of desvenlafaxine for major depressive disorder (MDD). Method: Study 1: week 8 responders to open-label desvenlafaxine 50 mg/d entered a 12-week open-label stability phase. Patients with a continuing, stable response at week 20 were randomly assigned to 6-month, double-blind treatment (desvenlafaxine 50 mg/d or placebo). Study 1 was conducted between June 2009 and March 2011 at 87 sites worldwide. Study 2: week 12 responders to open-label desvenlafaxine 200 or 400 mg/d were randomly assigned to 6-month, double-blind treatment (desvenlafaxine 200 mg/d, 400 mg/d, or placebo). Study 2 was conducted between June 2003 and August 2005 at 49 sites in Europe, the United States, and Taiwan. Relapse was assessed separately by study with log-rank test using protocol definitions of relapse and with 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) score ≥ 16 at any time during the double-blind phase. Kaplan-Meier estimates evaluated time to relapse, censoring data at months 1, 2, and 3 and overall; treatments were compared using hazard ratios. Cox proportional hazards models assessed relapse predictors. Results: Overall relapse rates for all definitions were significantly lower for desvenlafaxine versus placebo for both studies (all P ≤ .002). In study 1, rates were significantly lower for desvenlafaxine versus placebo at month 2 (P = .016) and month 3 (P = .007) using the protocol definition. In study 2, relapse rates were significantly lower for desvenlafaxine versus placebo at months 1, 2, and 3 for both definitions (P < .0001–.002). Hazard ratios were similar at months 1, 2, and 3 and overall for both studies (0.382–0.639). Conclusions: Desvenlafaxine 50 to 400 mg/d effectively prevented relapse at 6 months. Desvenlafaxine significantly prevented relapse early (month 1) versus placebo only in study 2. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers

  14. On the Hamilton-Jacobi method in classical and quantum nonconservative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, A. de Souza; Correa, R. A. C.; Moraes, P. H. R. S.

    2016-08-01

    In this work we show how to complete some Hamilton-Jacobi solutions of linear, nonconservative classical oscillatory systems which appeared in the literature, and we extend these complete solutions to the quantum mechanical case. In addition, we obtain the solution of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for an electric charge in an oscillating pulsing magnetic field. We also argue that for the case where a charged particle is under the action of an oscillating magnetic field, one can apply nuclear magnetic resonance techniques in order to find experimental results regarding this problem. We obtain all results analytically, showing that the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is a powerful tool to describe quantum mechanics.

  15. Effect of the refractive index on the hawking temperature: an application of the Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalli, I.; Mirekhtiary, S. F.

    2013-10-01

    Hawking radiation of a non-asymptotically flat 4-dimensional spherically symmetric and static dilatonic black hole (BH) via the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) method is studied. In addition to the naive coordinates, we use four more different coordinate systems that are well-behaved at the horizon. Except for the isotropic coordinates, direct computation by the HJ method leads to the standard Hawking temperature for all coordinate systems. The isotropic coordinates allow extracting the index of refraction from the Fermat metric. It is explicitly shown that the index of refraction determines the value of the tunneling rate and its natural consequence, the Hawking temperature. The isotropic coordinates in the conventional HJ method produce a wrong result for the temperature of the linear dilaton. Here, we explain how this discrepancy can be resolved by regularizing the integral possessing a pole at the horizon.

  16. Effect of the refractive index on the hawking temperature: an application of the Hamilton-Jacobi method

    SciTech Connect

    Sakalli, I. Mirekhtiary, S. F.

    2013-10-15

    Hawking radiation of a non-asymptotically flat 4-dimensional spherically symmetric and static dilatonic black hole (BH) via the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) method is studied. In addition to the naive coordinates, we use four more different coordinate systems that are well-behaved at the horizon. Except for the isotropic coordinates, direct computation by the HJ method leads to the standard Hawking temperature for all coordinate systems. The isotropic coordinates allow extracting the index of refraction from the Fermat metric. It is explicitly shown that the index of refraction determines the value of the tunneling rate and its natural consequence, the Hawking temperature. The isotropic coordinates in the conventional HJ method produce a wrong result for the temperature of the linear dilaton. Here, we explain how this discrepancy can be resolved by regularizing the integral possessing a pole at the horizon.

  17. Hawking non-thermal and thermal radiations of Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter black hole by Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. Atiqur; Hossain, M. Ilias

    2013-06-01

    The massive particles tunneling method has been used to investigate the Hawking non-thermal and purely thermal radiations of Schwarzschild Anti-de Sitter (SAdS) black hole. Considering the spacetime background to be dynamical, incorporate the self-gravitation effect of the emitted particles the imaginary part of the action has been derived from Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Using the conservation laws of energy and angular momentum we have showed that the non-thermal and purely thermal tunneling rates are related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum. The result obtained for SAdS black hole is also in accordance with Parikh and Wilczek's opinion and gives a correction to the Hawking radiation of SAdS black hole.

  18. Game theory to characterize solutions of a discrete-time Hamilton-Jacobi equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, Porfirio

    2013-12-01

    We study the behavior of solutions of a discrete-time Hamilton-Jacobi equation in a minimax framework of game theory. The solutions of this problem represent the optimal payoff of a zero-sum game of two players, where the number of moves between the players converges to infinity. A real number, called the critical value, plays a central role in this work; this number is the asymptotic average action of optimal trajectories. The aim of this paper is to show the existence and characterization of solutions of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for this kind of games.

  19. Numerical Approach of Hamilton Equations on Double Pendulum Motion with Axial Forcing Constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indiati, Intan; Saefan, Joko; Marwoto, Putut

    2016-08-01

    Double pendulum with axial forcing constraint is considered by using Hamilton equations. In this case, the total Hamiltonian is complicated because of its constraint. There is additional terms which is add to the usual Hamiltonian. Four equations of motion is obtained from the Hamilton equations since the degree of freedom is four. Solutions of the equations are solved numerically by Runge-Kutta method. The results are plotted in poincare maps. In this case, the maps is displayed in various initial value. The chaotic behavior can be indicated which depends on given time function forcing constraint.

  20. Hawking radiation of Kerr-de Sitter black holes using Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibungochouba Singh, T.; Ablu Meitei, I.; Yugindro Singh, K.

    2013-05-01

    Hawking radiation of Kerr-de Sitter black hole is investigated using Hamilton-Jacobi method. When the well-behaved Painleve coordinate system and Eddington coordinate are used, we get the correct result of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy before and after radiation but a direct computation will lead to a wrong result via Hamilton-Jacobi method. Our results show that the tunneling probability is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal but it is consistent with underlying unitary theory.

  1. 77 FR 5501 - City of Hamilton, Ohio; American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Hamilton, Ohio; American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of... Filed: November 30, 2011. d. Applicant: City of Hamilton, Ohio and American Municipal Power, Inc. e... serve a copy of the document on that resource agency. k. Description of Request: The City of...

  2. Exact treatment of the relativistic double ring-shaped Kratzer potential using the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharbi, A.; Touloum, S.; Bouda, A.

    2015-04-01

    We study the Klein-Gordon equation with noncentral and separable potential under the condition of equal scalar and vector potentials and we obtain the corresponding relativistic quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The application of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to the double ring-shaped Kratzer potential leads to its relativistic energy spectrum as well as the corresponding eigenfunctions.

  3. Derivation of the Schrodinger Equation from the Hamilton-Jacobi Equation in Feynman's Path Integral Formulation of Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown how the time-dependent Schrodinger equation may be simply derived from the dynamical postulate of Feynman's path integral formulation of quantum mechanics and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of classical mechanics. Schrodinger's own published derivations of quantum wave equations, the first of which was also based on the Hamilton-Jacobi…

  4. Light Rail Transit in Hamilton: Health, Environmental and Economic Impact Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topalovic, P.; Carter, J.; Topalovic, M.; Krantzberg, G.

    2012-01-01

    Hamilton's historical roots as an electric, industrial and transportation-oriented city provide it with a high potential for rapid transit, especially when combined with its growing population, developing economy, redeveloping downtown core and its plans for sustainable growth. This paper explores the health, environmental, social and economic…

  5. Octavia Butler and Virginia Hamilton: Black Women Writers and Science Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Gregory Jerome; Brooks, Wanda M.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that African American literature has always had science fiction elements in its focus on narratives of the alienated and marginalized "other." Contends that Octavia Butler and Virginia Hamilton are two African American writers of science fiction who examine the connections between the stories of a culture and the genre of science fiction.…

  6. Application of Hamilton's Principle to the Study of the Anharmonic Oscillator in Classical Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Gilmartin, Harvey

    1979-01-01

    Presented is a form of Hamilton's principle for classical mechanics appropriate to the study of arbitrary self-sustained vibrations in one dimension. It is applied as an approximate computational tool to the study of several examples of anharmonic oscillation. (Author/GA)

  7. 78 FR 3024 - Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, MS; Intent To Prepare a Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... of issues to consider in the planning process. DATES: To ensure consideration, we must receive your... determine how the public can use each refuge. The planning process is a way for us and the public to... our process for developing a CCP for Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee NWR in Mississippi. This notice...

  8. A theory for the gyrohorizon-compass in terms of the Rodriques-Hamilton parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelnokov, Iu. N.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the equations of motion for the gyrohorizon-compass in terms of the Rodrigues-Hamilton parameters are close to linear equations and have a near-symmetric structure. A condition is derived for which the motion of the gyrohorizon-compass is described by linear differential equations. Some aspects of the gyrohorizon-compass stability are examined.

  9. Metaphor, Ambiguity, and Motive in Evolutionary Biology: W. D. Hamilton and the "Gene's Point of View"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journet, Debra

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes the power of ambiguous metaphors to present scientific novelty. Its focus is a series of papers by the prominent population biologist W. D. Hamilton in which he redefined the meaning of biological altruism. In particular, the article draws on Kenneth Burke's dramatistic pentad to examine why suggestions of motive are so…

  10. The Code Red Project: Engaging Communities in Health System Change in Hamilton, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Patrick F.; Buist, Steve; Johnston, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The communication of determinants of health and health outcomes normally executed through academic channels often fail to reach lay audiences. In April of 2010, the results of collaboration between academe and mass media were published in the Hamilton Spectator, one of Canada's 10 largest English-language daily newspapers as a 7-day series. The…

  11. Mobile Air Monitoring: Measuring Change in Air Quality in the City of Hamilton, 2005-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matthew D.; DeLuca, Patrick F.; Corr, Denis; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the change in air pollutant concentrations between 2005 and 2010 occurring in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. After analysis of stationary air pollutant concentration data, we analyze mobile air pollutant concentration data. Air pollutants included in the analysis are CO, PM[subscript 2.5], SO[subscript 2], NO,…

  12. Air Quality in Hamilton: Who Is Concerned? Perceptions from Three Neighbourhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simone, Dylan; Eyles, John; Newbold, K. Bruce; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the factors influencing perceptions of air quality in the industrial city of Hamilton, Canada. The research employs data collected via a telephone survey of 1,002 adult residents in three neighbourhoods. Perceptions in the neighbourhoods were examined by individual socio-demographic factors (age, gender, marital and…

  13. Perceptions of Quality Life in Hamilton's Neighbourhood Hubs: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eby, Jeanette; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines perceptions of quality of life in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada from the perspective of residents and key community stakeholders. A series of eight focus groups were conducted. Six sessions were held with residents of neighbourhood "hubs", areas characterized by high levels of poverty. The following themes were highlighted as…

  14. Helping in cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits: a test of Hamilton's rule

    PubMed Central

    Hatchwell, Ben J.; Gullett, Philippa R.; Adams, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive fitness theory provides the conceptual framework for our current understanding of social evolution, and empirical studies suggest that kin selection is a critical process in the evolution of animal sociality. A key prediction of inclusive fitness theory is that altruistic behaviour evolves when the costs incurred by an altruist (c) are outweighed by the benefit to the recipient (b), weighted by the relatedness of altruist to recipient (r), i.e. Hamilton's rule rb > c. Despite its central importance in social evolution theory, there have been relatively few empirical tests of Hamilton's rule, and hardly any among cooperatively breeding vertebrates, leading some authors to question its utility. Here, we use data from a long-term study of cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus to examine whether helping behaviour satisfies Hamilton's condition for the evolution of altruism. We show that helpers are altruistic because they incur survival costs through the provision of alloparental care for offspring. However, they also accrue substantial benefits through increased survival of related breeders and offspring, and despite the low average relatedness of helpers to recipients, these benefits of helping outweigh the costs incurred. We conclude that Hamilton's rule for the evolution of altruistic helping behaviour is satisfied in this species. PMID:24686941

  15. Helping in cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits: a test of Hamilton's rule.

    PubMed

    Hatchwell, Ben J; Gullett, Philippa R; Adams, Mark J

    2014-05-19

    Inclusive fitness theory provides the conceptual framework for our current understanding of social evolution, and empirical studies suggest that kin selection is a critical process in the evolution of animal sociality. A key prediction of inclusive fitness theory is that altruistic behaviour evolves when the costs incurred by an altruist (c) are outweighed by the benefit to the recipient (b), weighted by the relatedness of altruist to recipient (r), i.e. Hamilton's rule rb > c. Despite its central importance in social evolution theory, there have been relatively few empirical tests of Hamilton's rule, and hardly any among cooperatively breeding vertebrates, leading some authors to question its utility. Here, we use data from a long-term study of cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus to examine whether helping behaviour satisfies Hamilton's condition for the evolution of altruism. We show that helpers are altruistic because they incur survival costs through the provision of alloparental care for offspring. However, they also accrue substantial benefits through increased survival of related breeders and offspring, and despite the low average relatedness of helpers to recipients, these benefits of helping outweigh the costs incurred. We conclude that Hamilton's rule for the evolution of altruistic helping behaviour is satisfied in this species.

  16. Helping in cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits: a test of Hamilton's rule.

    PubMed

    Hatchwell, Ben J; Gullett, Philippa R; Adams, Mark J

    2014-05-19

    Inclusive fitness theory provides the conceptual framework for our current understanding of social evolution, and empirical studies suggest that kin selection is a critical process in the evolution of animal sociality. A key prediction of inclusive fitness theory is that altruistic behaviour evolves when the costs incurred by an altruist (c) are outweighed by the benefit to the recipient (b), weighted by the relatedness of altruist to recipient (r), i.e. Hamilton's rule rb > c. Despite its central importance in social evolution theory, there have been relatively few empirical tests of Hamilton's rule, and hardly any among cooperatively breeding vertebrates, leading some authors to question its utility. Here, we use data from a long-term study of cooperatively breeding long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus to examine whether helping behaviour satisfies Hamilton's condition for the evolution of altruism. We show that helpers are altruistic because they incur survival costs through the provision of alloparental care for offspring. However, they also accrue substantial benefits through increased survival of related breeders and offspring, and despite the low average relatedness of helpers to recipients, these benefits of helping outweigh the costs incurred. We conclude that Hamilton's rule for the evolution of altruistic helping behaviour is satisfied in this species. PMID:24686941

  17. Large Deviations for Finite State Markov Jump Processes with Mean-Field Interaction Via the Comparison Principle for an Associated Hamilton-Jacobi Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraaij, Richard

    2016-07-01

    We prove the large deviation principle (LDP) for the trajectory of a broad class of finite state mean-field interacting Markov jump processes via a general analytic approach based on viscosity solutions. Examples include generalized Ehrenfest models as well as Curie-Weiss spin flip dynamics with singular jump rates. The main step in the proof of the LDP, which is of independent interest, is the proof of the comparison principle for an associated collection of Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Additionally, we show that the LDP provides a general method to identify a Lyapunov function for the associated McKean-Vlasov equation.

  18. A Perturbation Theory for Hamilton's Principal Function: Applications to Boundary Value Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoa, Oier Penagaricano

    This thesis introduces an analytical perturbation theory for Hamilton's principal function and Hamilton's characteristic function. Based on Hamilton's principle and the research carried out by Sir William Rowan Hamilton, a perturbation theory is developed to analytically solve two-point boundary value problems. The principal function is shown to solve the two-point boundary value problem through simple differentiation and elimination. The characteristic function is related to the principal function through a Legendre transformation, and can also be used to solve two-point boundary value problems. In order to obtain the solution to the perturbed two-point boundary value problem the knowledge of the nominal solution is sufficient. The perturbation theory is applied to the two body problem to study the perturbed dynamics in the vicinity of the Hohmann transfer. It is found that the perturbation can actually offer a lower cost two-impulse transfer to the target orbit than the Hohmann transfer. The numerical error analysis of the perturbation theory is shown for different orders of calculation. Coupling Hamilton's principal and characteristic functions yields an analytical perturbation theory for the initial value problem, where the state of the perturbed system can be accurately obtained. The perturbation theory is applied to the restricted three-body problem, where the system is viewed as a two-body problem perturbed by the presence of a third body. It is shown that the first order theory can be sufficient to solve the problem, winch is expressed in terms of Delaunay elements. The solution to the initial value problem is applied to derive a Keplerian periapsis map that can be used for low-energy space mission design problems.

  19. A bioenergetic model for zebrafish Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chizinski, C.J.; Sharma, Bibek; Pope, K.L.; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    A bioenergetics model was developed from observed consumption, respiration and growth rates for zebrafish Danio rerio across a range (18-32?? C) of water temperatures, and evaluated with a 50 day laboratory trial at 28?? C. No significant bias in variable estimates was found during the validation trial; namely, predicted zebrafish mass generally agreed with observed mass. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  20. 'From Man to Bacteria': W.D. Hamilton, the theory of inclusive fitness, and the post-war social order.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Sarah A

    2015-02-01

    W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness aimed to define the evolved limits of altruism with mathematical precision. Although it was meant to apply universally, it has been almost irretrievably entwined with the particular case of social insects that featured in his famous 1964 papers. The assumption that social insects were central to Hamilton's early work contradicts material in his rich personal archive. In fact, careful study of Hamilton's notes, letters, diaries, and early essays indicates the extent to which he had humans in mind when he decided altruism was a topic worthy of biological inquiry. For this reason, this article reconsiders the role of extra-scientific factors in Hamilton's early theorizing. In doing so, it offers an alternative perspective as to why Hamilton saw self-sacrifice to be an important subject. Although the traditional narrative prioritizes his distaste for benefit-of-the-species explanations as a motivating factor behind his foundational work, I argue that greater attention ought to be given to Hamilton's hope that science could be used to address social ills. By reconsidering the meaning Hamilton intended inclusive fitness to have, we see that while he was no political ideologue, the socio-political relevance of his theory was nevertheless integral to its development.

  1. 'From Man to Bacteria': W.D. Hamilton, the theory of inclusive fitness, and the post-war social order.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Sarah A

    2015-02-01

    W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness aimed to define the evolved limits of altruism with mathematical precision. Although it was meant to apply universally, it has been almost irretrievably entwined with the particular case of social insects that featured in his famous 1964 papers. The assumption that social insects were central to Hamilton's early work contradicts material in his rich personal archive. In fact, careful study of Hamilton's notes, letters, diaries, and early essays indicates the extent to which he had humans in mind when he decided altruism was a topic worthy of biological inquiry. For this reason, this article reconsiders the role of extra-scientific factors in Hamilton's early theorizing. In doing so, it offers an alternative perspective as to why Hamilton saw self-sacrifice to be an important subject. Although the traditional narrative prioritizes his distaste for benefit-of-the-species explanations as a motivating factor behind his foundational work, I argue that greater attention ought to be given to Hamilton's hope that science could be used to address social ills. By reconsidering the meaning Hamilton intended inclusive fitness to have, we see that while he was no political ideologue, the socio-political relevance of his theory was nevertheless integral to its development. PMID:25594921

  2. Hamilton's rule, inclusive fitness maximization, and the goal of individual behaviour in symmetric two-player games.

    PubMed

    Okasha, S; Martens, J

    2016-03-01

    Hamilton's original work on inclusive fitness theory assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of Hamilton's rule for the spread of a pro-social allele (rb > c) holds under nonadditive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are defined as partial regression coefficients rather than pay-off parameters. This article examines whether one of the key components of Hamilton's original theory can be preserved when the rule is generalized to the nonadditive case in this way, namely that evolved organisms will behave as if trying to maximize their inclusive fitness in social encounters.

  3. Hamilton's rule, inclusive fitness maximization, and the goal of individual behaviour in symmetric two-player games.

    PubMed

    Okasha, S; Martens, J

    2016-03-01

    Hamilton's original work on inclusive fitness theory assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of Hamilton's rule for the spread of a pro-social allele (rb > c) holds under nonadditive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are defined as partial regression coefficients rather than pay-off parameters. This article examines whether one of the key components of Hamilton's original theory can be preserved when the rule is generalized to the nonadditive case in this way, namely that evolved organisms will behave as if trying to maximize their inclusive fitness in social encounters. PMID:26679493

  4. Barriers to Walking: An Investigation of Adults in Hamilton (Ontario, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew F.; Scott, Darren M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates perceived barriers to walking using data collected from 179 randomly-selected adults between the ages of 18 and 92 in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A survey (Hamilton Active Living Study) asked questions about socio-demographics, walking, and barriers to walking. A series of binary logit models are estimated for twenty potential barriers to walking. The results demonstrate that different barriers are associated with different sub-groups of the population. Females, senior citizens, and those with a higher body mass index identify the most barriers to walking, while young adults, parents, driver’s license owners, and bus pass owners identify the fewest barriers. Understanding who is affected by perceived barriers can help policy makers and health promotion agencies target sub-groups of the population in an effort to increase walking. PMID:26840328

  5. Value-oriented citizenship index: New extensions of Kelman and Hamilton's theory to prevent autocracy.

    PubMed

    Morselli, Davide; Passini, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    In Crimes of obedience, Kelman and Hamilton argue that societies can be protected by the degeneration of authority only when citizenship is based on a strong values orientation. This reference to values may be the weakest point in their theory because they do not explicitly define these values. Nevertheless, their empirical findings suggest that the authors are referring to specific democratic principles and universal values (e.g., equality, fairness, harmlessness). In this article, a composite index known as the value-oriented citizenship (VOC) index is introduced and empirically analysed. The results confirm that the VOC index discriminates between people who relate to authority based on values rather than based on their role or on rules in general. The article discusses the utility of the VOC index to develop Kelman and Hamilton's framework further empirically as well as its implications for the analysis of the relationship between individuals and authority.

  6. Fronts propagating with curvature dependent speed: Algorithms based on Hamilton-Jacobi formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osher, Stanley; Sethian, James A.

    1987-01-01

    New numerical algorithms are devised (PSC algorithms) for following fronts propagating with curvature-dependent speed. The speed may be an arbitrary function of curvature, and the front can also be passively advected by an underlying flow. These algorithms approximate the equations of motion, which resemble Hamilton-Jacobi equations with parabolic right-hand-sides, by using techniques from the hyperbolic conservation laws. Non-oscillatory schemes of various orders of accuracy are used to solve the equations, providing methods that accurately capture the formation of sharp gradients and cusps in the moving fronts. The algorithms handle topological merging and breaking naturally, work in any number of space dimensions, and do not require that the moving surface be written as a function. The methods can be used also for more general Hamilton-Jacobi-type problems. The algorithms are demonstrated by computing the solution to a variety of surface motion problems.

  7. From constants of motion to superposition rules for Lie-Hamilton systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, A.; Cariñena, J. F.; Herranz, F. J.; de Lucas, J.; Sardón, C.

    2013-07-01

    A Lie system is a non-autonomous system of first-order differential equations possessing a superposition rule, i.e. a map expressing its general solution in terms of a generic finite family of particular solutions and some constants. Lie-Hamilton systems form a subclass of Lie systems whose dynamics is governed by a curve in a finite-dimensional real Lie algebra of functions on a Poisson manifold. It is shown that Lie-Hamilton systems are naturally endowed with a Poisson coalgebra structure. This allows us to devise methods for deriving in an algebraic way their constants of motion and superposition rules. We illustrate our methods by studying Kummer-Schwarz equations, Riccati equations, Ermakov systems and Smorodinsky-Winternitz systems with time-dependent frequency.

  8. In celebration of the 60th birthday of Professor Andrew D. Hamilton FRS.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sam; Wilson, Andrew J; Battersby, Alan R

    2013-10-01

    An on-line collection of articles celebrating the 60th birthday of Professor Andrew D. Hamilton FRS has been published featuring contributions from students and colleagues past and present. This article hopes to provide an insight into the rise of a star in molecular recognition, ground breaking discoveries, and on a more light-hearted note, some fond reminiscences of research in Cambridge, Princeton, Pittsburgh, Yale and Oxford.

  9. A TVD-type method for 2D scalar Hamilton-Jacobi equations on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lingyan; Song, Songhe

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, a TVD-type difference scheme which satisfies maximum principle is developed for 2D scalar Hamilton-Jacobi equations on unstructured triangular meshes. The main ideas are node-based approximations and derivative-limited reconstruction with quadratic interpolation polynomial. The solution's slope satisfies maximum principle. Numerical experiments are performed to demonstrate high-order accuracy in smooth fields and good resolution of derivative singularities. The new method is simpler than WENO.

  10. A Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Changqing; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving the nonlinear Hamilton-Jacobi equations. This method is based on the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving conservation laws. The method has the flexibility of treating complicated geometry by using arbitrary triangulation, can achieve high order accuracy with a local, compact stencil, and are suited for efficient parallel implementation. One and two dimensional numerical examples are given to illustrate the capability of the method.

  11. Compressed Semi-Discrete Central-Upwind Schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kurganov, Alexander; Levy, Doron; Petrova, Guergana

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new family of Godunov-type semi-discrete central schemes for multidimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. These schemes are a less dissipative generalization of the central-upwind schemes that have been recently proposed in series of works. We provide the details of the new family of methods in one, two, and three space dimensions, and then verify their expected low-dissipative property in a variety of examples.

  12. The nonconvex multi-dimensional Riemann problem for Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osher, Stanley

    1989-01-01

    Simple inequalities for the Riemann problem for a Hamilton-Jacobi equation in N space dimension when neither the initial data nor the Hamiltonian need be convex (or concave) are presented. The initial data is globally continuous, affine in each orthant, with a possible jump in normal derivative across each coordinate plane, x sub i = 0. The inequalities become equalities wherever a maxmin equals a minmax and thus an exact closed form solution to this problem is then obtained.

  13. High-Order Central WENO Schemes for 1D Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we derive fully-discrete Central WENO (CWENO) schemes for approximating solutions of one dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations, which combine our previous works. We introduce third and fifth-order accurate schemes, which are the first central schemes for the HJ equations of order higher than two. The core ingredient is the derivation of our schemes is a high-order CWENO reconstructions in space.

  14. Spatial and temporal variability in metal bioavailability and toxicity of sediment from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Krantzberg, G. )

    1994-10-01

    Trace metals in sediment from nearshore urban and industrialized centers of the Great Lakes are frequently at concentrations well above geological background values. Total metal content in sediment, however, is a weak predictor of sediment toxicity. This study examined the bioavailability of metals from Hamilton Harbor in Lake Ontario and considered variability in metal forms on a temporal basis. Sediment from regions within Hamilton Harbor is highly contaminated with metals; nevertheless, not all metal-contaminated sites were toxic to test organisms. Most sediment did elicit sublethal and/or lethal responses in bioassay organisms. Metal bioavailability, as measured by weak acid extractions, metal bioaccumulation by fathead minnows, and sediment toxicity, was greater in sediment collected in the fall as compared to sediment collected in the spring. Results of analyses of tissue residues in test organisms and the reduced toxicity observed in sediment collected from some stations in the spring as compared to the fall implicate trace metals and sediment oxygen demand as contributing to sediment toxicity. The suitability for colonization by benthic invertebrates of sediment in some areas of Hamilton Harbor appears to be limited by both contaminants and high sediment oxygen demand. Improving the oxygen regime of the harbor should result in improvements in the benthic invertebrate community directly, by providing a suitable oxygen regime for organisms less tolerant of temporal anoxia, and indirectly by decreasing metal bioavailability, possibly through the co-precipitation of trace metals with iron and manganese hydroxides.

  15. Hamilton-Jacobi approach to photon wave mechanics: near-field aspects.

    PubMed

    Keller, O

    2008-02-01

    After having briefly reviewed the Hamilton-Jacobi theory of classical point-particle mechanics, its extension to the quantum regime and the formal identity between the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for Hamilton's characteristic function and the eikonal equation of geometrical optics, an eikonal theory for free photons is established. The space-time dynamics of the photon is described on the basis of the six-component Riemann-Silberstein energy wave function. Form-identical eikonal equations are obtained for the positive and negative helicity dynamics. Microscopic response theory is used to describe the linear photon-matter interaction. In the presence of matter the free-photon concept is replaced by a quasi-photon concept, and there is a quasi-photon for each of the two helicity states. After having established integro-differential equations for the wave functions of the two quasi-photons, the eikonal conditions for the quasi-photons are determined. It appears that the eikonal condition contains complicated space integrals of the gradient of the eikonal over volumes of near-field domain size. In these space integrals the dynamics of the electrons (matter particles) appears via transverse transition current densities between pairs of many-body states. Generalized microscopic polarization and magnetization fields are introduced to establish the connection between the quasi-photon and macroscopic eikonal theories. PMID:18304094

  16. Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane: Properties, classification and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, A.; Blasco, A.; Herranz, F. J.; de Lucas, J.; Sardón, C.

    2015-04-01

    We study Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane, i.e. systems of first-order differential equations describing the integral curves of a t-dependent vector field taking values in a finite-dimensional real Lie algebra of planar Hamiltonian vector fields with respect to a Poisson structure. We start with the local classification of finite-dimensional real Lie algebras of vector fields on the plane obtained in González-López, Kamran, and Olver (1992) [23] and we interpret their results as a local classification of Lie systems. By determining which of these real Lie algebras consist of Hamiltonian vector fields relative to a Poisson structure, we provide the complete local classification of Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane. We present and study through our results new Lie-Hamilton systems of interest which are used to investigate relevant non-autonomous differential equations, e.g. we get explicit local diffeomorphisms between such systems. We also analyse biomathematical models, the Milne-Pinney equations, second-order Kummer-Schwarz equations, complex Riccati equations and Buchdahl equations.

  17. Variational energy principle for compressible, baroclinic flow. 2: Free-energy form of Hamilton's principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    The first and second variations are calculated for the irreducible form of Hamilton's Principle that involves the minimum number of dependent variables necessary to describe the kinetmatics and thermodynamics of inviscid, compressible, baroclinic flow in a specified gravitational field. The form of the second variation shows that, in the neighborhood of a stationary point that corresponds to physically stable flow, the action integral is a complex saddle surface in parameter space. There exists a form of Hamilton's Principle for which a direct solution of a flow problem is possible. This second form is related to the first by a Friedrichs transformation of the thermodynamic variables. This introduces an extra dependent variable, but the first and second variations are shown to have direct physical significance, namely they are equal to the free energy of fluctuations about the equilibrium flow that satisfies the equations of motion. If this equilibrium flow is physically stable, and if a very weak second order integral constraint on the correlation between the fluctuations of otherwise independent variables is satisfied, then the second variation of the action integral for this free energy form of Hamilton's Principle is positive-definite, so the action integral is a minimum, and can serve as the basis for a direct trail and error solution. The second order integral constraint states that the unavailable energy must be maximum at equilibrium, i.e. the fluctuations must be so correlated as to produce a second order decrease in the total unavailable energy.

  18. Development and characterization of cell lines derived from rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), and catla, Catla catla (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, V P Ishaq; Chandra, V; Sudhakaran, R; Kumar, S Rajesh; Sarathi, M; Babu, V Sarath; Ramesh, B; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2009-03-01

    Two new cell lines, designated RE and CB, were derived from the eye of rohu, Labeo rohita, and the brain of catla, Catla catla, respectively. The cell lines were maintained in Leibovitz's L-15 supplemented with 20% foetal bovine serum. The RE cell line was sub-cultured for more than 70 passages and the CB cell line for more than 35 passages. The RE cells are rounded and consist predominantly of epithelial cells. The CB cell line consists of predominantly fibroblastic-like cells. Both cell lines are able to grow at temperatures between 25 and 32 degrees C with an optimum of 28 degrees C. The growth rate of the cells increased as the foetal bovine serum concentration increased from 2% to 20% at 28 degrees C, with optimum growth at concentrations of 15% or 20% foetal bovine serum. The cells were successfully cryopreserved and revived at different passage levels. The cell lines were not susceptible to four marine fish viruses. Extracellular products from Aeromonas sp. were toxic to the cell lines. When the cells were transfected with plasmid eukaryotic green fluorescent protein (pEGFP [Clontech, Carlsbad, CA, USA]) vector DNA, a significant fluorescent signal was observed suggesting that these cell lines could be a useful tool for transgenic and genetic manipulation studies. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of mitochondrial 12S rRNA from rohu and catla confirmed that the cell lines originated from these fish species. The cell lines were further characterized by immunocytochemistry using confocal laser scanning microscopy. PMID:19236559

  19. Interactive visualization of volumetric white matter connectivity in DT-MRI using a parallel-hardware Hamilton-Jacobi solver.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Won-Ki; Fletcher, P Thomas; Tao, Ran; Whitaker, Ross

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to compute and visualize volumetric white matter connectivity in diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) using a Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) solver on the GPU (Graphics Processing Unit). Paths through the volume are assigned costs that are lower if they are consistent with the preferred diffusion directions. The proposed method finds a set of voxels in the DTI volume that contain paths between two regions whose costs are within a threshold of the optimal path. The result is a volumetric optimal path analysis, which is driven by clinical and scientific questions relating to the connectivity between various known anatomical regions of the brain. To solve the minimal path problem quickly, we introduce a novel numerical algorithm for solving H-J equations, which we call the Fast Iterative Method (FIM). This algorithm is well-adapted to parallel architectures, and we present a GPU-based implementation, which runs roughly 50-100 times faster than traditional CPU-based solvers for anisotropic H-J equations. The proposed system allows users to freely change the endpoints of interesting pathways and to visualize the optimal volumetric path between them at an interactive rate. We demonstrate the proposed method on some synthetic and real DT-MRI datasets and compare the performance with existing methods. PMID:17968100

  20. The robustness of Hamilton's rule with inbreeding and dominance: kin selection and fixation probabilities under partial sib mating.

    PubMed

    Roze, Denis; Rousset, François

    2004-08-01

    Assessing the validity of Hamilton's rule when there is both inbreeding and dominance remains difficult. In this article, we provide a general method based on the direct fitness formalism to address this question. We then apply it to the question of the evolution of altruism among diploid full sibs and among haplodiploid sisters under inbreeding resulting from partial sib mating. In both cases, we find that the allele coding for altruism always increases in frequency if a condition of the form rb>c holds, where r depends on the rate of sib mating alpha but not on the frequency of the allele, its phenotypic effects, or the dominance of these effects. In both examples, we derive expressions for the probability of fixation of an allele coding for altruism; comparing these expressions with simulation results allows us to test various approximations often made in kin selection models (weak selection, large population size, large fecundity). Increasing alpha increases the probability of fixation of recessive altruistic alleles (h<1/2), while it can increase or decrease the probability of fixation of dominant altruistic alleles (h>1/2). PMID:15278845

  1. On the regularizing effect for unbounded solutions of first-order Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barles, Guy; Chasseigne, Emmanuel

    2016-05-01

    We give a simplified proof of regularizing effects for first-order Hamilton-Jacobi Equations of the form ut + H (x , t , Du) = 0 in RN × (0 , + ∞) in the case where the idea is to first estimate ut. As a consequence, we have a Lipschitz regularity in space and time for coercive Hamiltonians and, for hypo-elliptic Hamiltonians, we also have an Hölder regularizing effect in space following a result of L.C. Evans and M.R. James.

  2. Numerical Schemes for the Hamilton-Jacobi and Level Set Equations on Triangulated Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Sethian, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Borrowing from techniques developed for conservation law equations, we have developed both monotone and higher order accurate numerical schemes which discretize the Hamilton-Jacobi and level set equations on triangulated domains. The use of unstructured meshes containing triangles (2D) and tetrahedra (3D) easily accommodates mesh adaptation to resolve disparate level set feature scales with a minimal number of solution unknowns. The minisymposium talk will discuss these algorithmic developments and present sample calculations using our adaptive triangulation algorithm applied to various moving interface problems such as etching, deposition, and curvature flow.

  3. Fast methods for the Eikonal and related Hamilton- Jacobi equations on unstructured meshes.

    PubMed

    Sethian, J A; Vladimirsky, A

    2000-05-23

    The Fast Marching Method is a numerical algorithm for solving the Eikonal equation on a rectangular orthogonal mesh in O(M log M) steps, where M is the total number of grid points. The scheme relies on an upwind finite difference approximation to the gradient and a resulting causality relationship that lends itself to a Dijkstra-like programming approach. In this paper, we discuss several extensions to this technique, including higher order versions on unstructured meshes in Rn and on manifolds and connections to more general static Hamilton-Jacobi equations. PMID:10811874

  4. The method of Ritz applied to the equation of Hamilton. [for pendulum systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    Without any reference to the theory of differential equations, the initial value problem of the nonlinear, nonconservative double pendulum system is solved by the application of the method of Ritz to the equation of Hamilton. Also shown is an example of the reduction of the traditional eigenvalue problem of linear, homogeneous, differential equations of motion to the solution of a set of nonhomogeneous algebraic equations. No theory of differential equations is used. Solution of the time-space path of the linear oscillator is demonstrated and compared to the exact solution.

  5. Classical field theories from Hamiltonian constraint: Canonical equations of motion and local Hamilton-Jacobi theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatloukal, Václav

    2016-04-01

    Classical field theory is considered as a theory of unparametrized surfaces embedded in a configuration space, which accommodates, in a symmetric way, spacetime positions and field values. Dynamics is defined by a (Hamiltonian) constraint between multivector-valued generalized momenta, and points in the configuration space. Starting from a variational principle, we derive local equations of motion, that is, differential equations that determine classical surfaces and momenta. A local Hamilton-Jacobi equation applicable in the field theory then follows readily. The general method is illustrated with three examples: non-relativistic Hamiltonian mechanics, De Donder-Weyl scalar field theory, and string theory.

  6. Fast methods for the eikonal and related Hamilton-Jacobi equations on unstructured meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Sethian, J.A.; Vladimirsky, A.

    1999-12-01

    The Fast Marching Method is a numerical algorithm for solving the Eikonal equation on a rectangular orthogonal mesh in O(M log M) steps, where M is the total number of grid points. The scheme relies on an upwind finite difference approximation to the gradient and a resulting causality relationship that lends itself to a Dijkstra-like programming approach. In this paper, we discuss several extensions to this technique, including higher order versions on unstructured meshes in R{sup n} and on manifolds and connections to more general static Hamilton-Jacobi equations.

  7. Fast methods for the Eikonal and related Hamilton- Jacobi equations on unstructured meshes.

    PubMed

    Sethian, J A; Vladimirsky, A

    2000-05-23

    The Fast Marching Method is a numerical algorithm for solving the Eikonal equation on a rectangular orthogonal mesh in O(M log M) steps, where M is the total number of grid points. The scheme relies on an upwind finite difference approximation to the gradient and a resulting causality relationship that lends itself to a Dijkstra-like programming approach. In this paper, we discuss several extensions to this technique, including higher order versions on unstructured meshes in Rn and on manifolds and connections to more general static Hamilton-Jacobi equations.

  8. The nonconvex multi-dimensional Riemann problem for Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardi, Martino; Osher, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    Simple inequalities are presented for the viscosity solution of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation in N space dimensions when neither the initial data nor the Hamiltonian need be convex (or concave). The initial data are uniformly Lipschitz and can be written as the sum of a convex function in a group of variables and a concave function in the remaining variables, therefore including the nonconvex Riemann problem. The inequalities become equalities wherever a 'maxmin' equals a 'minmax', and thus a representation formula for this problem is obtained, generalizing the classical Hopi formulas.

  9. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations and approximate dynamic programming on time scales.

    PubMed

    Seiffertt, John; Sanyal, Suman; Wunsch, Donald C

    2008-08-01

    The time scales calculus is a key emerging area of mathematics due to its potential use in a wide variety of multidisciplinary applications. We extend this calculus to approximate dynamic programming (ADP). The core backward induction algorithm of dynamic programming is extended from its traditional discrete case to all isolated time scales. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations, the solution of which is the fundamental problem in the field of dynamic programming, are motivated and proven on time scales. By drawing together the calculus of time scales and the applied area of stochastic control via ADP, we have connected two major fields of research. PMID:18632378

  10. Scalar particles emission from black holes with topological defects using Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusufi, Kimet

    2015-11-01

    We study quantum tunneling of charged and uncharged scalar particles from the event horizon of Schwarzschild-de Sitter and Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter black holes pierced by an infinitely long spinning cosmic string and a global monopole. In order to find the Hawking temperature and the tunneling probability we solve the Klein-Gordon equation by using the Hamilton-Jacobi method and WKB approximation. We show that Hawking temperature is independent of the presence of topological defects in both cases.

  11. Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the least-action/least-time dynamical path based on fast marching method.

    PubMed

    Dey, Bijoy K; Janicki, Marek R; Ayers, Paul W

    2004-10-01

    Classical dynamics can be described with Newton's equation of motion or, totally equivalently, using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Here, the possibility of using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation to describe chemical reaction dynamics is explored. This requires an efficient computational approach for constructing the physically and chemically relevant solutions to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation; here we solve Hamilton-Jacobi equations on a Cartesian grid using Sethian's fast marching method. Using this method, we can--starting from an arbitrary initial conformation--find reaction paths that minimize the action or the time. The method is demonstrated by computing the mechanism for two different systems: a model system with four different stationary configurations and the H+H(2)-->H(2)+H reaction. Least-time paths (termed brachistochrones in classical mechanics) seem to be a suitable chioce for the reaction coordinate, allowing one to determine the key intermediates and final product of a chemical reaction. For conservative systems the Hamilton-Jacobi equation does not depend on the time, so this approach may be useful for simulating systems where important motions occur on a variety of different time scales.

  12. MHC, parasites and antler development in red deer: no support for the Hamilton & Zuk hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Buczek, M; Okarma, H; Demiaszkiewicz, A W; Radwan, J

    2016-03-01

    The Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis proposes that the genetic benefits of preferences for elaborated secondary sexual traits have their origins in the arms race between hosts and parasites, which maintains genetic variance in parasite resistance. Infection, in turn, can be reflected in the expression of costly sexual ornaments. However, the link between immune genes, infection and the expression of secondary sexual traits has rarely been investigated. Here, we explored whether the presence and identity of functional variants (supertypes) of the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is responsible for the recognition of parasites, predict the load of lung and gut parasites and antler development in the red deer (Cervus elaphus). While we found MHC supertypes to be associated with infection by a number of parasite species, including debilitating lung nematodes, we did not find support for the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. On the contrary, we found that lung nematode load was positively associated with antler development. We also found that the supertypes that were associated with resistance to certain parasites at the same time cause susceptibility to others. Such trade-offs may undermine the potential genetic benefits of mate choice for resistant partners. PMID:26687843

  13. From classical Lagrangians to Hamilton operators in the standard model extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this article we investigate whether a theory based on a classical Lagrangian for the minimal Standard Model Extension (SME) can be quantized such that the result is equal to the corresponding low-energy Hamilton operator obtained from the field-theory description. This analysis is carried out for the whole collection of minimal Lagrangians found in the literature. The upshot is that the first quantization can be performed consistently. The unexpected observation is made that at first order in Lorentz violation and at second order in the velocity, the Lagrangians are related to the Hamilton functions by a simple transformation. Under mild assumptions, it is shown that this holds universally. That result is used successfully to obtain classical Lagrangians for two complicated sectors of the minimal SME that have not been considered in the literature so far. Therefore, it will not be an obstacle anymore to derive such Lagrangians even for involved sets of coefficients—at least to the level of approximation stated above.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic compound profiles from extracts of Dreissenid mussels and gammarid amphipods coexisting in Hamilton Harbor

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin, C.H.; McCarry, B.E.; Allan, L.; Bryant, D.W.

    1995-06-01

    Aggregates of dreissenid mussels were collected in Hamilton Harbour (western Lake Ontario) from a south shore site (Randle Reef) in an area characterized by coal tar-contaminated sediments, and from a site on the north shore exposed to particulates circulating in the harbour water column. Samples were separated into three components: dreissend mussels, gammarid amphipods (Gammarus fasciatus), and particulate material. The samples were freeze-dried, and extracted using ultrasonication in dichloromethane. The organic solvent extracts were subjected to an open-column alumina and Sephadex LH-20 gel column clean-up procedure, and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The chromatographic profiles of all sample extracts were dominated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The concentrations of the individual compounds were normalized for contaminant profile comparison of the extracts of dreissenids, amphipods, and particulates associated with aggregates of dreissenid mussels. These profiles were also compared with extracts of coal tar-contaminated sediment from the Randle Reef area, and extracts of suspended particulates obtained from sediment traps. The similarities in the PAH profiles provide evidence of exposure to a common source of contaminants. These data also show that PAH associated with suspended particulates obtained from sediment traps. The similarities in the PAH profiles provide evidence of exposure to a common source of contaminants. These data also show that PAH associated with suspended particulates in Hamilton Harbour are being accumulated by dreissenid mussels and gammarid amphipods.

  15. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman framework for optimal control in multistage energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieniutycz, Stanislaw

    2000-03-01

    We enunciate parallelism for structures of variational principles in mechanics and thermodynamics in terms of the duality for thermoeconomic problems of maximizing of production profit and net profit which can be transferred to duality for least action and least abbreviated action which appear in mechanics. With the parallelism in mind, we review theory and macroscopic applications of a recently developed discrete formalism of Hamilton-Jacobi type which arises when Bellman's method of dynamic programming is applied to optimize active (work producing) and inactive (entropy generating) multistage energy systems with free intervals of an independent variable. Our original contribution develops a generalized theory for discrete processes in which these intervals can reside in the model inhomogeneously and can be constrained. We consider applications to multistage thermal machines, controlled unit operations, spontaneous relaxations, nonlinear heat conduction, and self-propagating reaction-diffusion fronts. They all satisfy a basic functional equation that leads to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation (HJB equation) and a related discrete optimization algorithm with a maximum principle for a Hamiltonian. Correspondence is shown with the well-known HJB theory for continuous processes when the number of stages approaches an infinity. We show that a common unifying criterion, which is the criterion of a minimum generated entropy, can be proven to act locally in the majority of considered cases, although the related global statements can be invalid far from equilibrium. General limits are found which bound the consumption of the classical work potential (exergy) for finite durations.

  16. A practical approach to the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of holographic renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvang, Henriette; Hadjiantonis, Marios

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the subject of holographic renormalization for asymptotically AdS spacetimes. For many applications of holography, one has to handle the divergences associated with the on-shell gravitational action. The brute force approach uses the Fefferman- Graham (FG) expansion near the AdS boundary to identify the divergences, but subsequent reversal of the expansion is needed to construct the infinite counterterms. While in principle straightforward, the method is cumbersome and application/reversal of FG is formally unsatisfactory. Various authors have proposed an alternative method based on the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. However, this approach may appear to be abstract, difficult to implement, and in some cases limited in applicability. In this paper, we clarify the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of holographic renormalization and present a simple algorithm for its implementation to extract cleanly the infinite counterterms. While the derivation of the method relies on the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity, the actual application of our algorithm does not. The work applies to any D-dimensional holographic dual with asymptotic AdS boundary, Euclidean or Lorentzian, and arbitrary slicing. We illustrate the method in several examples, including the FGPW model, a holographic model of 3d ABJM theory, and cases with marginal scalars such as a dilaton-axion system.

  17. Structure and metamorphism of the Franciscan Complex, Mt. Hamilton area, Northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blake, M.C., Jr.; Wentworth, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Truncation of metamorphic isograds and fold axes within coherent terranes of Franciscan metagraywacke by intervening zones of melange indicate that the melange is tectonic and formed after the subduction-related metamorphism and folding. These relations are expressed in two terranes of blueschist-facies rocks of the Franciscan Complex in the Mt. Hamilton area, northern California-the Jurassic Yolla Bolly terrane and the structurally underlying Cretaceous Burnt Hills terrane. Local preservation in both terranes of basal radiolarian chert and oceanic basalt beneath continent-derived metagraywacke and argillite demonstrates thrust repetition within the coherent terranes, although these relations are scarce near Mt. Hamilton. The metagraywackes range from albite-pumpellyite blueschists to those containing well-crystallized jadeitic pyroxene, and a jadeite-in isograd can be defined in parts of the area. Primary bedding defines locally coherent structural orientations and folds within the metagraywacke units. These units are crosscut by thin zones of tectonic melange containing blocks of high-grade blueschist, serpentinite, and other exotic rocks, and a broader, but otherwise identical melange zone marks the discordant boundary between the two terranes.

  18. Expanded social fitness and Hamilton's rule for kin, kith, and kind.

    PubMed

    Queller, David C

    2011-06-28

    Inclusive fitness theory has a combination of simplicity, generality, and accuracy that has made it an extremely successful way of thinking about and modeling effects on kin. However, there are types of social interactions that, although covered, are not illuminated. Here, I expand the inclusive fitness approach and the corresponding neighbor-modulated approach to specify two other kinds of social selection. Kind selection, which includes greenbeards and many nonadditive games, is where selection depends on an actor's trait having different effects on others depending on whether they share the trait. Kith selection includes social effects that do not require either kin or kind, such as mutualism and manipulation. It involves social effects of a trait that affect a partner, with feedback to the actor's fitness. I derive expanded versions of Hamilton's rule for kith and kind selection, generalizing Hamilton's insight that we can model social selection through a sum of fitness effects, each multiplied by an appropriate association coefficient. Kinship is, thus, only one of the important types of association, but all can be incorporated within an expanded inclusive fitness.

  19. Respiratory medicine at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario: 1968 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Norman L; O’Byrne, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    The medical school at McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario) was conceived in 1965 and admitted the first class in 1969. John Evans became the founding Dean and he invited Moran Campbell to be the first Chairman of the Department of Medicine. Moran Campbell, already a world figure in respiratory medicine and physiology, arrived at McMaster in September 1968, and he invited Norman Jones to be Coordinator of the Respiratory Programme. At that time, Hamilton had a population of 300,000, with two full-time respirologists, Robert Cornett at the Hamilton General Hospital and Michael Newhouse at St Joseph’s Hospital. From the clinical perspective, the aim of the Respiratory Programme was to develop a network approach to clinical problems among the five hospitals in the Hamilton region, with St Joseph’s Hospital serving as a regional referral centre, and each hospital developing its own focus: intensive care and burns units at the Hamilton General Hospital; cancer at the Henderson (later Juravinski) Hospital; tuberculosis and rehabilitation at the Chedoke Hospital; pediatrics and neonatal intensive care at the McMaster University Medical Centre; and community care at the Joseph Brant Hospital in Burlington (Ontario). The network provided an ideal base for a specialty residency program. There was also the need to establish viable research. These objectives were achieved through collaboration, support of hospital administration, and recruitment of clinicians and faculty, mainly from our own trainees and research fellows. By the mid-1970s the respiratory group numbered more than 25; outpatient clinic visits and research had grown beyond our initial expectations. The international impact of the group became reflected in the clinical and basic research endeavours. ASTHMA: Freddy Hargreave and Jerry Dolovich established methods to measure airway responsiveness to histamine and methacholine. Allergen inhalation was shown to increase airway responsiveness for several weeks

  20. Randomised controlled cross-over comparison of continuous positive airway pressure through the Hamilton Galileo ventilator with a Dräger CF 800 device.

    PubMed

    Sutton, P J; Perkins, C L; Giles, S P; McAuley, D F; Gao, F

    2005-01-01

    In this controlled, randomised cross-over trial on 26 intensive care patients, we compared the effects on haemodynamic and respiratory profiles of continuous positive airway pressure delivered through the Hamilton Galileo ventilator or a Drager CF 800 device. We also compared the nursing time saved using the two approaches when weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. We did not find significant differences in haemodynamics, respiratory rate, physiological dead space, oxygen saturation and carbon dioxide production between the continuous positive airway pressure generated by the Galileo and Drager machines. However, there was a 10-fold reduction in nursing time using the Galileo ventilator compared with the Drager generator. We conclude that continuous positive airway pressure delivered through the Galileo ventilator is as efficient as a Drager device but consumes less nursing time.

  1. Hawking non-thermal and thermal radiations of Reissner Nordström anti-de Sitter black hole by Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilias Hossain, M.; Atiqur Rahman, M.

    2013-09-01

    We have investigated Hawking non-thermal and purely thermal Radiations of Reissner Nordström anti-de Sitter (RNAdS) black hole by massive particles tunneling method. The spacetime background has taken as dynamical, incorporate the self-gravitation effect of the emitted particles the imaginary part of the action has derived from Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We have supposed that energy and angular momentum are conserved and have shown that the non-thermal and thermal tunneling rates are related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum. The results for RNAdS black hole is also in the same manner with Parikh and Wilczek's opinion and explored the new result for Hawking radiation of RNAdS black hole.

  2. Refraction seismic studies in the Miami River, Whitewater River, and Mill Creek valleys, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, Joel S.

    1963-01-01

    Between September 17 and November 9, 1962, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Ohio Division of Water, Miami Conservancy District, and c,ty of Cincinnati, Ohio, co.,:ducted a refraction seismic study in Hamilton and Butler Counties, southwest Ohio. The area lies between Hamilton, Ohio, and the Ohio River and includes a preglacial valley now occupied by portions of the Miami River, Whitewater River, and Mill Creek. The valley is partially filled with glacial debris which yields large quantities of good-quality water. The object of the study was to determine the thickness of these glacial deposits and the shape of the preglacial valley.

  3. Massless Spin-Zero Particle and the Classical Action via Hamilton-Jacobi Equation in Gödel Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrehbakhsh, A. F.; Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R.

    2012-08-01

    In this letter we investigate the separability of the Klein-Gordon and Hamilton-Jacobi equation in Gödel universe. We show that the Klein-Gordon eigen modes are quantized and the complete spectrum of the particle's energy is a mixture of an azimuthal quantum number, m and a principal quantum number, n and a continuous wave number k. We also show that the Hamilton-Jacobi equation gives a closed function for classical action. These results may be used to calculate the Casimir vacuum energy in Gödel universe.

  4. Hamilton-Jacobi method for molecular distribution function in a chemical oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Sakaue, Takahiro; Wakou, Jun'ichi

    2013-12-01

    Using the Hamilton-Jacobi method, we solve chemical Fokker-Planck equations within the Gaussian approximation and obtain a simple and compact formula for a conditional probability distribution. The formula holds in general transient situations, and can be applied not only to a steady state but also to an oscillatory state. By analyzing the long time behavior of the solution in the oscillatory case, we obtain the phase diffusion constant along the periodic orbit and the steady distribution perpendicular to it. A simple method for numerical evaluation of these formulas are devised, and they are compared with Monte Carlo simulations in the case of Brusselator as an example. Some results are shown to be identical to previously obtained expressions.

  5. Hamilton-Jacobi method for molecular distribution function in a chemical oscillator.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Sakaue, Takahiro; Wakou, Jun'ichi

    2013-12-01

    Using the Hamilton-Jacobi method, we solve chemical Fokker-Planck equations within the Gaussian approximation and obtain a simple and compact formula for a conditional probability distribution. The formula holds in general transient situations, and can be applied not only to a steady state but also to an oscillatory state. By analyzing the long time behavior of the solution in the oscillatory case, we obtain the phase diffusion constant along the periodic orbit and the steady distribution perpendicular to it. A simple method for numerical evaluation of these formulas are devised, and they are compared with Monte Carlo simulations in the case of Brusselator as an example. Some results are shown to be identical to previously obtained expressions. PMID:24320362

  6. Nice to kin and nasty to non-kin: revisiting Hamilton's early insights on eusociality.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, Jacobus J; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    When helping behaviour is costly, Hamiltonian logic implies that animals need to direct helpful acts towards kin, so that indirect fitness benefits justify the costs. We revisit inferences about nepotism and aggression in Hamilton's 1964 paper to argue that he overestimated the general significance of nepotism, but that other issues that he raised continue to suggest novel research agendas today. We now know that nepotism in eusocial insects is rare, because variation in genetic recognition cues is insufficient. A lower proportion of individuals breeding and larger clutch sizes selecting for a more uniform colony odour may explain this. Irreversible worker sterility can induce both the fiercest possible aggression and the highest likelihood of helping random distant kin, but these Hamiltonian contentions still await large-scale testing in social animals. PMID:24132094

  7. Hybrid massively parallel fast sweeping method for static Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detrixhe, Miles; Gibou, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    The fast sweeping method is a popular algorithm for solving a variety of static Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Fast sweeping algorithms for parallel computing have been developed, but are severely limited. In this work, we present a multilevel, hybrid parallel algorithm that combines the desirable traits of two distinct parallel methods. The fine and coarse grained components of the algorithm take advantage of heterogeneous computer architecture common in high performance computing facilities. We present the algorithm and demonstrate its effectiveness on a set of example problems including optimal control, dynamic games, and seismic wave propagation. We give results for convergence, parallel scaling, and show state-of-the-art speedup values for the fast sweeping method.

  8. Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane: applications and superposition rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasco, Alfonso; Herranz, Francisco J.; de Lucas, Javier; Sardón, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    A Lie-Hamilton (LH) system is a nonautonomous system of first-order ordinary differential equations describing the integral curves of a t-dependent vector field taking values in a finite-dimensional real Lie algebra of Hamiltonian vector fields with respect to a Poisson structure. We provide new algebraic/geometric techniques to easily determine the properties of such Lie algebras on the plane, e.g., their associated Poisson bivectors. We study new and known LH systems on {{{R}}}2 with physical, biological and mathematical applications. New results cover Cayley-Klein Riccati equations, the here defined planar diffusion Riccati systems, complex Bernoulli differential equations and projective Schrödinger equations. Constants of motion for planar LH systems are explicitly obtained which, in turn, allow us to derive superposition rules through a coalgebra approach.

  9. A Penalty Method for the Numerical Solution of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) Equations in Finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, J. H.; Reisinger, C.

    2010-09-01

    We present a simple and easy to implement method for the numerical solution of a rather general class of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations. In many cases, the considered problems have only a viscosity solution, to which, fortunately, many intuitive (e.g. finite difference based) discretisations can be shown to converge. However, especially when using fully implicit time stepping schemes with their desireable stability properties, one is still faced with the considerable task of solving the resulting nonlinear discrete system. In this paper, we introduce a penalty method which approximates the nonlinear discrete system to an order of O(1/ρ), where ρ>0 is the penalty parameter, and we show that an iterative scheme can be used to solve the penalised discrete problem in finitely many steps. We include a number of examples from mathematical finance for which the described approach yields a rigorous numerical scheme and present numerical results.

  10. Classification of Hamilton-Jacobi separation in orthogonal coordinates with diagonal curvature

    SciTech Connect

    Rajaratnam, Krishan McLenaghan, Raymond G.

    2014-08-15

    We find all orthogonal metrics where the geodesic Hamilton-Jacobi equation separates and the Riemann curvature tensor satisfies a certain equation (called the diagonal curvature condition). All orthogonal metrics of constant curvature satisfy the diagonal curvature condition. The metrics we find either correspond to a Benenti system or are warped product metrics where the induced metric on the base manifold corresponds to a Benenti system. Furthermore, we show that most metrics we find are characterized by concircular tensors; these metrics, called Kalnins-Eisenhart-Miller metrics, have an intrinsic characterization which can be used to obtain them on a given space. In conjunction with other results, we show that the metrics we found constitute all separable metrics for Riemannian spaces of constant curvature and de Sitter space.

  11. Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for inflation with non-minimal derivative coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikhahmadi, Haidar; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Aghamohammadi, Ali; Saaidi, Khaled

    2016-10-01

    In inflation with nonminimal derivative coupling there is not a conformal transformation to the Einstein frame where calculations are straightforward, and thus in order to extract inflationary observables one needs to perform a detailed and lengthy perturbation investigation. In this work we bypass this problem by performing a Hamilton-Jacobi analysis, namely rewriting the cosmological equations considering the scalar field to be the time variable. We apply the method to two specific models, namely the power-law and the exponential cases, and for each model we calculate various observables such as the tensor-to-scalar ratio, and the spectral index and its running. We compare them with 2013 and 2015 Planck data, and we show that they are in a very good agreement with observations.

  12. High-Order Central WENO Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present new third- and fifth-order Godunov-type central schemes for approximating solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation in an arbitrary number of space dimensions. These are the first central schemes for approximating solutions of the HJ equations with an order of accuracy that is greater than two. In two space dimensions we present two versions for the third-order scheme: one scheme that is based on a genuinely two-dimensional Central WENO reconstruction, and another scheme that is based on a simpler dimension-by-dimension reconstruction. The simpler dimension-by-dimension variant is then extended to a multi-dimensional fifth-order scheme. Our numerical examples in one, two and three space dimensions verify the expected order of accuracy of the schemes.

  13. Matched asymptotic expansion of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation for aeroassisted plane-change maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, Anthony J.; Melamed, Nahum

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we develop a general procedure for constructing a matched asymptotic expansion of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation based on the method of characteristics. The development is for a class of perturbation problems whose solution exhibits two-time-scale behavior. A regular expansion for problems of this type is inappropriate since it is not uniformly valid over a narrow range of the independent variable. Of particular interest here is the manner in which matching and boundary conditions are enforced when the expansion is carried out to first order. Two cases are distinguished - one where the left boundary condition coincides with or lies to the right of the singular region and one where the left boundary condition lies to the left of the singular region. A simple example is used to illustrate the procedure, and its potential application to aeroassisted plane change is described.

  14. Thompson and Hamilton type IV Freiberg's disease with involvement of multiple epiphyses of both feet.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy reported left second and third toe pain after axial loading injury to his left foot. Radiographs showed collapse of the second metatarsal heads and epiphysial irregularities of the fifth metatarsal heads and the condyle of the proximal phalanx of the hallux of both feet. The patient was diagnosed to have Thompson and Hamilton type IV Freiberg's disease. He was screened for epiphysial dysplasia of the other sites. He had on and off bilateral hip and knee pain. Radiographs showed bilateral symmetrical epiphysial abnormalities with morphological change as focal concavity in bilateral femoral heads and fragmentation of the patellar articular surface with preservation of the patellofemoral joint space. PMID:25721826

  15. The classical limit of minimal length uncertainty relation: revisit with the Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaobo; Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang

    2016-05-01

    The existence of a minimum measurable length could deform not only the standard quantum mechanics but also classical physics. The effects of the minimal length on classical orbits of particles in a gravitation field have been investigated before, using the deformed Poisson bracket or Schwarzschild metric. In this paper, we first use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to derive the deformed equations of motion in the context of Newtonian mechanics and general relativity. We then employ them to study the precession of planetary orbits, deflection of light, and time delay in radar propagation. We also set limits on the deformation parameter by comparing our results with the observational measurements. Finally, comparison with results from previous papers is given at the end of this paper.

  16. On a Lagrange-Hamilton formalism describing position and momentum uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuch, Dieter

    1993-01-01

    According to Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, in quantum mechanics it is not possible to determine, simultaneously, exact values for the position and the momentum of a material system. Calculating the mean value of the Hamiltonian operator with the aid of exact analytic Gaussian wave packet solutions, these uncertainties cause an energy contribution additional to the classical energy of the system. For the harmonic oscillator, e.g., this nonclassical energy represents the ground state energy. It will be shown that this additional energy contribution can be considered as a Hamiltonian function, if it is written in appropriate variables. With the help of the usual Lagrange-Hamilton formalism known from classical particle mechanics, but now considering this new Hamiltonian function, it is possible to obtain the equations of motion for position and momentum uncertainties.

  17. Variation in helper effort among cooperatively breeding bird species is consistent with Hamilton's Rule

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jonathan P.; Freckleton, Robert P.; Hatchwell, Ben J.

    2016-01-01

    Investment by helpers in cooperative breeding systems is extremely variable among species, but this variation is currently unexplained. Inclusive fitness theory predicts that, all else being equal, cooperative investment should correlate positively with the relatedness of helpers to the recipients of their care. We test this prediction in a comparative analysis of helper investment in 36 cooperatively breeding bird species. We show that species-specific helper contributions to cooperative brood care increase as the mean relatedness between helpers and recipients increases. Helper contributions are also related to the sex ratio of helpers, but neither group size nor the proportion of nests with helpers influence helper effort. Our findings support the hypothesis that variation in helping behaviour among cooperatively breeding birds is consistent with Hamilton's rule, indicating a key role for kin selection in the evolution of cooperative investment in social birds. PMID:27554604

  18. Filtered schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi equations: A simple construction of convergent accurate difference schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberman, Adam M.; Salvador, Tiago

    2015-03-01

    We build a simple and general class of finite difference schemes for first order Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) Partial Differential Equations. These filtered schemes are convergent to the unique viscosity solution of the equation. The schemes are accurate: we implement second, third and fourth order accurate schemes in one dimension and second order accurate schemes in two dimensions, indicating how to build higher order ones. They are also explicit, which means they can be solved using the fast sweeping method. The accuracy of the method is validated with computational results for the eikonal equation and other HJ equations in one and two dimensions, using filtered schemes made from standard centered differences, higher order upwinding and ENO interpolation.

  19. Numerical Schemes for the Hamilton-Jacobi and Level Set Equations on Triangulated Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Sethian, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Borrowing from techniques developed for conservation law equations, numerical schemes which discretize the Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J), level set, and Eikonal equations on triangulated domains are presented. The first scheme is a provably monotone discretization for certain forms of the H-J equations. Unfortunately, the basic scheme lacks proper Lipschitz continuity of the numerical Hamiltonian. By employing a virtual edge flipping technique, Lipschitz continuity of the numerical flux is restored on acute triangulations. Next, schemes are introduced and developed based on the weaker concept of positive coefficient approximations for homogeneous Hamiltonians. These schemes possess a discrete maximum principle on arbitrary triangulations and naturally exhibit proper Lipschitz continuity of the numerical Hamiltonian. Finally, a class of Petrov-Galerkin approximations are considered. These schemes are stabilized via a least-squares bilinear form. The Petrov-Galerkin schemes do not possess a discrete maximum principle but generalize to high order accuracy.

  20. A Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman approach for termination of seizure-like bursting.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dan; Moehlis, Jeff

    2014-10-01

    We use Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman methods to find minimum-time and energy-optimal control strategies to terminate seizure-like bursting behavior in a conductance-based neural model. Averaging is used to eliminate fast variables from the model, and a target set is defined through bifurcation analysis of the slow variables of the model. This method is illustrated for a single neuron model and for a network model to illustrate its efficacy in terminating bursting once it begins. This work represents a numerical proof-of-concept that a new class of control strategies can be employed to mitigate bursting, and could ultimately be adapted to treat medically intractible epilepsy in patient-specific models. PMID:24965911

  1. Second-order quantized Hamilton dynamics coupled to classical heat bath

    SciTech Connect

    Heatwole, Eric M.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2005-06-15

    Starting with a quantum Langevin equation describing in the Heisenberg representation a quantum system coupled to a quantum bath, the Markov approximation and, further, the closure approximation are applied to derive a semiclassical Langevin equation for the second-order quantized Hamilton dynamics (QHD) coupled to a classical bath. The expectation values of the system operators are decomposed into products of the first and second moments of the position and momentum operators that incorporate zero-point energy and moderate tunneling effects. The random force and friction as well as the system-bath coupling are decomposed to the lowest classical level. The resulting Langevin equation describing QHD-2 coupled to classical bath is analyzed and applied to free particle, harmonic oscillator, and the Morse potential representing the OH stretch of the SPC-flexible water model.

  2. Variation in helper effort among cooperatively breeding bird species is consistent with Hamilton's Rule.

    PubMed

    Green, Jonathan P; Freckleton, Robert P; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2016-01-01

    Investment by helpers in cooperative breeding systems is extremely variable among species, but this variation is currently unexplained. Inclusive fitness theory predicts that, all else being equal, cooperative investment should correlate positively with the relatedness of helpers to the recipients of their care. We test this prediction in a comparative analysis of helper investment in 36 cooperatively breeding bird species. We show that species-specific helper contributions to cooperative brood care increase as the mean relatedness between helpers and recipients increases. Helper contributions are also related to the sex ratio of helpers, but neither group size nor the proportion of nests with helpers influence helper effort. Our findings support the hypothesis that variation in helping behaviour among cooperatively breeding birds is consistent with Hamilton's rule, indicating a key role for kin selection in the evolution of cooperative investment in social birds. PMID:27554604

  3. Gauge symmetry of the N-body problem in the Hamilton-Jacobi approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efroimsky, Michael; Goldreich, Peter

    2003-12-01

    In most books the Delaunay and Lagrange equations for the orbital elements are derived by the Hamilton-Jacobi method: one begins with the two-body Hamilton equations in spherical coordinates, performs a canonical transformation to the orbital elements, and obtains the Delaunay system. A standard trick is then used to generalize the approach to the N-body case. We reexamine this step and demonstrate that it contains an implicit condition which restricts the dynamics to a 9(N-1)-dimensional submanifold of the 12(N-1)-dimensional space spanned by the elements and their time derivatives. The tacit condition is equivalent to the constraint that Lagrange imposed ``by hand'' to remove the excessive freedom, when he was deriving his system of equations by variation of parameters. It is the condition of the orbital elements being osculating, i.e., of the instantaneous ellipse (or hyperbola) being always tangential to the physical velocity. Imposure of any supplementary condition different from the Lagrange constraint (but compatible with the equations of motion) is legitimate and will not alter the physical trajectory or velocity (though will alter the mathematical form of the planetary equations). This freedom of nomination of the supplementary constraint reveals a gauge-type internal symmetry instilled into the equations of celestial mechanics. Existence of this internal symmetry has consequences for the stability of numerical integrators. Another important aspect of this freedom is that any gauge different from that of Lagrange makes the Delaunay system noncanonical. In a more general setting, when the disturbance depends not only upon positions but also upon velocities, there is a ``generalized Lagrange gauge'' wherein the Delaunay system is symplectic. This special gauge renders orbital elements that are osculating in the phase space. It coincides with the regular Lagrange gauge when the perturbation is velocity independent.

  4. 76 FR 76707 - Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of... Improvement Act of 2002, and the Pipeline Hazardous Material Safety Administration, Brian...

  5. 76 FR 77994 - Brian Hamilton v. El Paso Natural Gas, El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice Announcing Docket Number...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hamilton v. El Paso Natural Gas, El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice Announcing Docket Number Change On December 2, 2011, the Commission issued a notice in docket number RP12-220... docket number, RP12-220-000 and give the proceeding a new docket number. This notice changes the...

  6. Charles Hamilton Houston: The Legal Scholar Who Laid the Foundation for Integrated Higher Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blight, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents the story of Charles Hamilton Houston, an African American legal scholar who led a crusade focused on equal educational opportunities and facilities for African American students. He used the courts to force Americans to listen to his message about racial subjugation, segregation, and lynch law. (SM)

  7. The spacetime models with dust matter that admit separation of variables in Hamilton-Jacobi equations of a test particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osetrin, Konstantin; Filippov, Altair; Osetrin, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of dust matter in spacetime models, admitting the existence of privilege coordinate systems are given, where the single-particle Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be integrated by the method of complete separation of variables. The resulting functional form of the 4-velocity field and energy density of matter for all types of spaces under consideration is presented.

  8. Hamilton/Jacobi perturbation methods applied to the rotational motion of a rigid body in a gravitational field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, P. M.; Harmon, G. R.; Liu, J. J. F.; Cochran, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    The formalism for studying perturbations of a triaxial rigid body within the Hamilton-Jacobi framework is developed. The motion of a triaxial artificial earth satellite about its center of mass is studied. Variables are found which permit separation, and the Euler angles and associated conjugate momenta are obtained as functions of canonical constants and time.

  9. Respiratory medicine at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario: 1968 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Norman L; O’Byrne, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    The medical school at McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario) was conceived in 1965 and admitted the first class in 1969. John Evans became the founding Dean and he invited Moran Campbell to be the first Chairman of the Department of Medicine. Moran Campbell, already a world figure in respiratory medicine and physiology, arrived at McMaster in September 1968, and he invited Norman Jones to be Coordinator of the Respiratory Programme. At that time, Hamilton had a population of 300,000, with two full-time respirologists, Robert Cornett at the Hamilton General Hospital and Michael Newhouse at St Joseph’s Hospital. From the clinical perspective, the aim of the Respiratory Programme was to develop a network approach to clinical problems among the five hospitals in the Hamilton region, with St Joseph’s Hospital serving as a regional referral centre, and each hospital developing its own focus: intensive care and burns units at the Hamilton General Hospital; cancer at the Henderson (later Juravinski) Hospital; tuberculosis and rehabilitation at the Chedoke Hospital; pediatrics and neonatal intensive care at the McMaster University Medical Centre; and community care at the Joseph Brant Hospital in Burlington (Ontario). The network provided an ideal base for a specialty residency program. There was also the need to establish viable research. These objectives were achieved through collaboration, support of hospital administration, and recruitment of clinicians and faculty, mainly from our own trainees and research fellows. By the mid-1970s the respiratory group numbered more than 25; outpatient clinic visits and research had grown beyond our initial expectations. The international impact of the group became reflected in the clinical and basic research endeavours. ASTHMA: Freddy Hargreave and Jerry Dolovich established methods to measure airway responsiveness to histamine and methacholine. Allergen inhalation was shown to increase airway responsiveness for several weeks

  10. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of desvenlafaxine succinate in the treatment of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Septien-Velez, Lucia; Pitrosky, Bruno; Padmanabhan, Sudharshan Krishna; Germain, Jean-Michel; Tourian, Karen A

    2007-11-01

    The antidepressant efficacy and safety of desvenlafaxine succinate (desvenlafaxine) were evaluated in a phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Outpatients with a primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder were treated with fixed once-daily doses of desvenlafaxine 200 or 400 mg for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. At the final on-therapy evaluation, adjusted mean change from baseline in 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total score was greater for desvenlafaxine 200 and 400 mg/day vs. placebo. Both desvenlafaxine doses showed greater efficacy than placebo on the secondary efficacy measures, including the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale scores, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores, CGI-Severity, and 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression response rate. Desvenlafaxine 200 mg/day was also significantly better than placebo on remission, Visual Analog Scale-Pain Intensity overall scores, and some Visual Analog Scale-Pain Intensity subscale scores. Desvenlafaxine 400 mg/day was significantly better than placebo on selected Visual Analog Scale-Pain Intensity subscale scores. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity, and safety assessments revealed few clinically significant changes in vital signs, laboratory tests, and electrocardiogram results. These data provide support for the efficacy and safety of desvenlafaxine in the treatment of major depressive disorder.

  11. Wave front-ray synthesis for solving the multidimensional quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Robert E; Chou, Chia-Chun

    2011-08-21

    A Cauchy initial-value approach to the complex-valued quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (QHJE) is investigated for multidimensional systems. In this approach, ray segments foliate configuration space which is laminated by surfaces of constant action. The QHJE incorporates all quantum effects through a term involving the divergence of the quantum momentum function (QMF). The divergence term may be expressed as a sum of two terms, one involving displacement along the ray and the other incorporating the local curvature of the action surface. It is shown that curvature of the wave front may be computed from coefficients of the first and second fundamental forms from differential geometry that are associated with the surface. Using the expression for the divergence, the QHJE becomes a Riccati-type ordinary differential equation (ODE) for the complex-valued QMF, which is parametrized by the arc length along the ray. In order to integrate over possible singularities in the QMF, a stable and accurate Möbius propagator is introduced. This method is then used to evolve rays and wave fronts for four systems in two and three dimensions. From the QMF along each ray, the wave function can be easily computed. Computational difficulties that may arise are described and some ways to circumvent them are presented.

  12. Killing tensors, warped products and the orthogonal separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation

    SciTech Connect

    Rajaratnam, Krishan McLenaghan, Raymond G.

    2014-01-15

    We study Killing tensors in the context of warped products and apply the results to the problem of orthogonal separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. This work is motivated primarily by the case of spaces of constant curvature where warped products are abundant. We first characterize Killing tensors which have a natural algebraic decomposition in warped products. We then apply this result to show how one can obtain the Killing-Stäckel space (KS-space) for separable coordinate systems decomposable in warped products. This result in combination with Benenti's theory for constructing the KS-space of certain special separable coordinates can be used to obtain the KS-space for all orthogonal separable coordinates found by Kalnins and Miller in Riemannian spaces of constant curvature. Next we characterize when a natural Hamiltonian is separable in coordinates decomposable in a warped product by showing that the conditions originally given by Benenti can be reduced. Finally, we use this characterization and concircular tensors (a special type of torsionless conformal Killing tensor) to develop a general algorithm to determine when a natural Hamiltonian is separable in a special class of separable coordinates which include all orthogonal separable coordinates in spaces of constant curvature.

  13. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 86-437-1818, Champion International Corporation, Hamilton, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Tubbs, R.L.

    1987-07-01

    In response to a request from employees at the Champion International Corporation paper mill located in Hamilton, Ohio, a study was made of possible excessive noise hazards arising in the small cutter area of the facility. One paper cutter, considered by workers to be louder than the others, was scheduled to have an enclosure installed for the rotary knife blade. Noise surveys were conducted in July before the installation and in November after the installation of the enclosure. Data gathered in July indicated noise levels of 108 decibels-A (dB-A), while the octave-band analysis demonstrated the majority of the sound energy to be in the midfrequency range from 250 to 4000 hertz (Hz). In November, tests showed the level to be 95dB-A with a corresponding decrease in the midfrequency sound intensities. Enclosing the rotary knife blade did reduce the potential for noise exposure, but noise measurements in excess of the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit of 85dB-A for an 8-hour day were common. The author concludes that a noise hazard existed in the small cutter area. The author recommends that engineering controls be continuously sought to further reduce the noise level from this particular machine. The use of nonmetallic drive gears should be considered, along with filling of the hollow knife blade cylinder with a lightweight acoustical material. An effective hearing-conservation program should be implemented and employees trained in the proper use of hearing protective devices.

  14. Communication and relationship skills for rapid response teams at hamilton health sciences.

    PubMed

    Cziraki, Karen; Lucas, Janie; Rogers, Toni; Page, Laura; Zimmerman, Rosanne; Hauer, Lois Ann; Daniels, Charlotte; Gregoroff, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Rapid response teams (RRT) are an important safety strategy in the prevention of deaths in patients who are progressively failing outside of the intensive care unit. The goal is to intervene before a critical event occurs. Effective teamwork and communication skills are frequently cited as critical success factors in the implementation of these teams. However, there is very little literature that clearly provides an education strategy for the development of these skills. Training in simulation labs offers an opportunity to assess and build on current team skills; however, this approach does not address how to meet the gaps in team communication and relationship skill management. At Hamilton Health Sciences (HHS) a two-day program was developed in collaboration with the RRT Team Leads, Organizational Effectiveness and Patient Safety Leaders. Participants reflected on their conflict management styles and considered how their personality traits may contribute to team function. Communication and relationship theories were reviewed and applied in simulated sessions in the relative safety of off-site team sessions. The overwhelming positive response to this training has been demonstrated in the incredible success of these teams from the perspective of the satisfaction surveys of the care units that call the team, and in the multi-phased team evaluation of their application to practice. These sessions offer a useful approach to the development of the soft skills required for successful RRT implementation. PMID:18382164

  15. Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsay, J.M.; Watral, V.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacteria are significant pathogens of laboratory zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Stress is often implicated in clinical disease and morbidity associated with mycobacterial infections but has yet to be examined with zebrafish. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of husbandry stressors on zebrafish infected with mycobacteria. Adult zebrafish were exposed to Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium chelonae, two species that have been associated with disease in zebrafish. Infected fish and controls were then subjected to chronic crowding and handling stressors and examined over an 8-week period. Whole-body cortisol was significantly elevated in stressed fish compared to non-stressed fish. Fish infected with M. marinum ATCC 927 and subjected to husbandry stressors had 14% cumulative mortality while no mortality occurred among infected fish not subjected to husbandry stressors. Stressed fish, infected with M. chelonae H1E2 from zebrafish, were 15-fold more likely to be infected than non-stressed fish at week 8 post-injection. Sub-acute, diffuse infections were more common among stressed fish infected with M. marinum or M. chelonae than non-stressed fish. This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of stress and elevated cortisol on the morbidity, prevalence, clinical disease and histological presentation associated with mycobacterial infections in zebrafish. Minimizing husbandry stress may be effective at reducing the severity of outbreaks of clinical mycobacteriosis in zebrafish facilities. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Wave front-ray synthesis for solving the multidimensional quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Robert E; Chou, Chia-Chun

    2011-08-21

    A Cauchy initial-value approach to the complex-valued quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (QHJE) is investigated for multidimensional systems. In this approach, ray segments foliate configuration space which is laminated by surfaces of constant action. The QHJE incorporates all quantum effects through a term involving the divergence of the quantum momentum function (QMF). The divergence term may be expressed as a sum of two terms, one involving displacement along the ray and the other incorporating the local curvature of the action surface. It is shown that curvature of the wave front may be computed from coefficients of the first and second fundamental forms from differential geometry that are associated with the surface. Using the expression for the divergence, the QHJE becomes a Riccati-type ordinary differential equation (ODE) for the complex-valued QMF, which is parametrized by the arc length along the ray. In order to integrate over possible singularities in the QMF, a stable and accurate Möbius propagator is introduced. This method is then used to evolve rays and wave fronts for four systems in two and three dimensions. From the QMF along each ray, the wave function can be easily computed. Computational difficulties that may arise are described and some ways to circumvent them are presented. PMID:21861551

  17. Wave front-ray synthesis for solving the multidimensional quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, Robert E.; Chou, Chia-Chun

    2011-08-21

    A Cauchy initial-value approach to the complex-valued quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (QHJE) is investigated for multidimensional systems. In this approach, ray segments foliate configuration space which is laminated by surfaces of constant action. The QHJE incorporates all quantum effects through a term involving the divergence of the quantum momentum function (QMF). The divergence term may be expressed as a sum of two terms, one involving displacement along the ray and the other incorporating the local curvature of the action surface. It is shown that curvature of the wave front may be computed from coefficients of the first and second fundamental forms from differential geometry that are associated with the surface. Using the expression for the divergence, the QHJE becomes a Riccati-type ordinary differential equation (ODE) for the complex-valued QMF, which is parametrized by the arc length along the ray. In order to integrate over possible singularities in the QMF, a stable and accurate Moebius propagator is introduced. This method is then used to evolve rays and wave fronts for four systems in two and three dimensions. From the QMF along each ray, the wave function can be easily computed. Computational difficulties that may arise are described and some ways to circumvent them are presented.

  18. Solving quantum trajectories in Coulomb potential by quantum Hamilton-Jacobi theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ciann-Dong

    We show that the quantum central-force problems can be modeled and solved exactly by quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formulation, from which the quantum operators z, 2, and can be derived without using the quantization principle p ? (/i)?/?x. Quantum conservation laws expressed by the Poisson bracket show that the eigenvalues of these quantum operators are just equal to the constants of motion along the eigen-trajectories defined in a complex domain. The shell structure observed in bound systems, such as the hydrogen atom, is found to stem from the structure of the quantum potential, by which the quantum forces acting on the electron can be uniquely determined, the stability of atomic configuration can be justified, and the quantum trajectories of the electron can be obtained by integrating the related quantum Lagrange equations. On solving the quantum equations of motion, the solution of the Schrödinger equation serves as the first integration of the second-order quantum Lagrange equations. The stable equilibrium points of the derived first-order nonlinear quantum dynamics are shown to be identical to the positions with maximum probability predicted by standard quantum mechanics. The internal mechanism of how the quantum dynamics evolve continuously to classical dynamics and of how the quantum conservation laws transit continuously to the classical conservation laws as n ? ? are analyzed in detail. The construction of the quantum scattering trajectory by searching for an unbound solution for the Schrödinger equation is investigated.

  19. Canonical equations of Hamilton for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Guo; Guo, Qi; Ren, Zhanmei

    2015-09-01

    We define two different systems of mathematical physics: the second order differential system (SODS) and the first order differential system (FODS). The Newton's second law of motion and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) are the exemplary SODS and FODS, respectively. We obtain a new kind of canonical equations of Hamilton (CEH), which exhibit some kind of symmetry in form and are formally different from the conventional CEH without symmetry [H. Goldstein, C. Poole, J. Safko, Classical Mechanics, third ed., Addison- Wesley, 2001]. We also prove that the number of the CEHs is equal to the number of the generalized coordinates for the FODS, but twice the number of the generalized coordinates for the SODS. We show that the FODS can only be expressed by the new CEH, but not introduced by the conventional CEH, while the SODS can be done by both the new and the conventional CEHs. As an example, we prove that the nonlinear Schrödinger equation can be expressed with the new CEH in a consistent way.

  20. Directly solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equations by Hermite WENO Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Feng; Qiu, Jianxian

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present a class of new Hermite weighted essentially non-oscillatory (HWENO) schemes based on finite volume framework to directly solve the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. For HWENO reconstruction, both the cell average and the first moment of the solution are evolved, and for two dimensional case, HWENO reconstruction is based on a dimension-by-dimension strategy which is the first used in HWENO reconstruction. For spatial discretization, one of key points for directly solving HJ equation is the reconstruction of numerical fluxes. We follow the idea put forward by Cheng and Wang (2014) [3] to reconstruct the values of solution at Gauss-Lobatto quadrature points and numerical fluxes at the interfaces of cells, and for neither the convex nor concave Hamiltonian case, the monotone modification of numerical fluxes is added, which can guarantee the precision in the smooth region and converge to the entropy solution when derivative discontinuities come up. The third order TVD Runge-Kutta method is used for the time discretization. Extensive numerical experiments in one dimensional and two dimensional cases are performed to verify the efficiency of the methods.

  1. Integrating the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equations by wavefront expansion and phase space analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Eric R.; Wyatt, Robert E.

    2000-11-01

    In this paper we report upon our computational methodology for numerically integrating the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equations using hydrodynamic trajectories. Our method builds upon the moving least squares method developed by Lopreore and Wyatt [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5190 (1999)] in which Lagrangian fluid elements representing probability volume elements of the wave function evolve under Newtonian equations of motion which include a nonlocal quantum force. This quantum force, which depends upon the third derivative of the quantum density, ρ, can vary rapidly in x and become singular in the presence of nodal points. Here, we present a new approach for performing quantum trajectory calculations which does not involve calculating the quantum force directly, but uses the wavefront to calculate the velocity field using mv=∇S, where S/ℏ is the argument of the wave function ψ. Additional numerical stability is gained by performing local gauge transformations to remove oscillatory components of the wave function. Finally, we use a dynamical Rayleigh-Ritz approach to derive ancillary equations-of-motion for the spatial derivatives of ρ, S, and v. The methodologies described herein dramatically improve the long time stability and accuracy of the quantum trajectory approach even in the presence of nodes. The method is applied to both barrier crossing and tunneling systems. We also compare our results to semiclassical based descriptions of barrier tunneling.

  2. Computing tunneling paths with the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and the fast marching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Bijoy K.; Ayers, Paul W.

    We present a new method for computing the most probable tunneling paths based on the minimum imaginary action principle. Unlike many conventional methods, the paths are calculated without resorting to an optimization (minimization) scheme. Instead, a fast marching method coupled with a back-propagation scheme is used to efficiently compute the tunneling paths. The fast marching method solves a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the imaginary action on a discrete grid where the action value at an initial point (usually the reactant state configuration) is known in the beginning. Subsequently, a back-propagation scheme uses a steepest descent method on the imaginary action surface to compute a path connecting an arbitrary point on the potential energy surface (usually a state in the product valley) to the initial state. The proposed method is demonstrated for the tunneling paths of two different systems: a model 2D potential surface and the collinear reaction. Unlike existing methods, where the tunneling path is based on a presumed reaction coordinate and a correction is made with respect to the reaction coordinate within an 'adiabatic' approximation, the proposed method is very general and makes no assumptions about the relationship between the reaction coordinate and tunneling path.

  3. Quantized Hamilton dynamics describes quantum discrete breathers in a simple way

    SciTech Connect

    Igumenshchev, Kirill; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2011-08-15

    We study the localization of energy in a nonlinear coupled system, exhibiting so-called breather modes, using quantized Hamilton dynamics (QHD). Already at the lowest order, which is only twice as complex as classical mechanics, this simple semiclassical method incorporates quantum-mechanical effects. The transition between the localized and delocalized regimes is instantaneous in classical mechanics, while it is gradual due to tunneling in both quantum mechanics and QHD. In contrast to classical mechanics, which predicts an abrupt appearance of breathers, quantum mechanics and QHD show an alternation of localized and delocalized behavior in the transient region. QHD includes zero-point energy that is reflected in a shifted energy asymptote for the localized states, providing another improvement on the classical perspective. By detailed analysis of the distribution and transfer of energy within classical mechanics, QHD, and quantum dynamics, we conclude that QHD is an efficient approach that accounts for moderate quantum effects and can be used to identify quantum breathers in large nonlinear systems.

  4. Design of wide-area time-delay supplementary controller for interconnected Network based on Hamilton function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailati, G.; Hu, Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    The transient stability of interconnected network with supplementary time-delay controller for generator excitations and static var compensator (SVC) has been investigated in this paper. Firstly, a delay-dependent stability criterion based on Hamilton function method is derived, and the criterion is in term of matrix inequalities. Secondly, a nonlinear time-delay Hamilton function model of interconnected network with SVCs is constructed. Thirdly, the wide-area time-delay supplementary controller (WATSC) for the interconnected network is designed and converted into the form of Hamiltonian system. The delay-dependent stability of the closed-loop power system is analysed. The gains of the WATSC are determined by using the theoretical analysis results. It is effective for the designed WATSC installed in the 16- machine, 68-bus power system for damping the inter-area modes. Then simulation results show that the method of the controller is effective.

  5. High-Order Semi-Discrete Central-Upwind Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present the first fifth order, semi-discrete central upwind method for approximating solutions of multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Unlike most of the commonly used high order upwind schemes, our scheme is formulated as a Godunov-type scheme. The scheme is based on the fluxes of Kurganov-Tadmor and Kurganov-Tadmor-Petrova, and is derived for an arbitrary number of space dimensions. A theorem establishing the monotonicity of these fluxes is provided. The spacial discretization is based on a weighted essentially non-oscillatory reconstruction of the derivative. The accuracy and stability properties of our scheme are demonstrated in a variety of examples. A comparison between our method and other fifth-order schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi equations shows that our method exhibits smaller errors without any increase in the complexity of the computations.

  6. Self-gravitation interaction of IR deformed Hořava-Lifshitz gravity via new Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Molin; Xu, Yin; Lu, Junwang; Yang, Yuling; Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Yabo

    2014-06-01

    The apparent discovery of logarithmic entropies has a significant impact on IR deformed Hořava-Lifshitz (IRDHL) gravity in which the original infrared (IR) property is improved by introducing three-geometry's Ricci scalar term "μ4 R" in action. Here, we reevaluate the Hawking radiation in IRDHL by using recent new Hamilton-Jacobi method (NHJM). In particular, a thorough analysis is considered both in asymptotically flat Kehagias-Sfetsos and asymptotically non-flat Park models in IRDHL. We find the NHJM offers simplifications on the technical side. The modification in the entropy expression is given by the physical interpretation of self-gravitation of the Hawking radiation in this new Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) perspectives.

  7. The role of interfacial layers in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids : a renovated Hamilton-Crosser model.

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, W.; Choi, S. U.-S.; Energy Technology

    2004-08-01

    We previously developed a renovated Maxwell model for the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids and determined that the solid/liquid interfacial layers play an important role in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids. However, this renovated Maxwell model is limited to suspensions with spherical particles. Here, we extend the Hamilton--Crosser model for suspensions of nonspherical particles to include the effect of a solid/liquid interface. The solid/liquid interface is described as a confocal ellipsoid with a solid particle. The new model for the three-phase suspensions is mathematically expressed in terms of the equivalent thermal conductivity and equivalent volume fraction of anisotropic complex ellipsoids, as well as an empirical shape factor. With a generalized empirical shape factor, the renovated Hamilton-Crosser model correctly predicts the magnitude of the thermal conductivity of nanotube-in-oil nanofluids. At present, this new model is not able to predict the nonlinear behavior of the nanofluid thermal conductivity.

  8. On cell problems for Hamilton-Jacobi equations with non-coercive Hamiltonians and their application to homogenization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamuki, Nao; Nakayasu, Atsushi; Namba, Tokinaga

    2015-12-01

    We study a cell problem arising in homogenization for a Hamilton-Jacobi equation whose Hamiltonian is not coercive. We introduce a generalized notion of effective Hamiltonians by approximating the equation and characterize the solvability of the cell problem in terms of the generalized effective Hamiltonian. Under some sufficient conditions, the result is applied to the associated homogenization problem. We also show that homogenization for non-coercive equations fails in general.

  9. Two-dimensional model for an αΩ-dynamo with meridional circulation and an associated Hamilton-Jacobi equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E. P.

    2015-08-01

    A two-dimensional model for an αΩ-dynamo is constructed, taking into account meridional flows. A Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the resulting system of magnetic-field generation equatons is constructed using an asymptotic method analogous to the WKB method. This equation makes it possible to analytically study the influence of meridional flows on the duration of the solar magnetic-activity cycle and the evolution of magnetic waves.

  10. Hamilton and Zuk meet heterozygosity? Song repertoire size indicates inbreeding and immunity in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia).

    PubMed

    Reid, Janem; Arcese, Peter; Cassidy, Alicel E V; Marr, Amyb; Smith, Jamesn M; Keller, Lukasf

    2005-03-01

    Hamilton and Zuk's influential hypothesis of parasite-mediated sexual selection proposes that exaggerated secondary sexual ornaments indicate a male's addictive genetic immunity to parasites. However, genetic correlated of ornaments and immunity have rarely been explicitly identified. Evidence supporting Hamilton and Zuk's hypothesis has instead been gathered by looking for positive phenotypic correlations between ornamentation and immunity; such correlations are assumed to reflect causal, addictive relationships between these traits. We show that in a song sparrows, Melospiza melodia, male's song repertoire size, a secondary sexual trait, increased with his cell-mediated immune response (CMI) to an experimental challenge. However, this phenotypic correlation could be explained because both repertoire size and CMI declined with a male's inbreeding level. Repertoire size therefore primarily indicated a male's relative heterozygosity, a non-addictive genetic predictor of immunity. Caution may therefore be required when interpreting phenotypic correlations as support for Hamilton and Zuk's addictive model of sexual selection. However, our results suggest that female song sparrows choosing with large repertoires would on average acquire more outbred and therefore more heterozygous mates. Such genetic dominance effects on ornamentation are likely to influence evolutionary trajectories of female choice, and should be explicitly incorporated into genetic models of sexual selection. PMID:15799943

  11. Hydrology of the Cave Springs area near Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradfield, Arthur D.

    1992-01-01

    The hydrology of Cave Springs, the second largest spring in East Tennessee,was investigated from July 1987 to September 1989. Wells near the spring supply about 5 million gallons per day of potable water to people in Hamilton County near Chattanooga. Discharge from the spring averaged about 13.5 cubic feet per second (8.72 million gallons per day) during the study period. Withdrawals by the Hixson Utility District from wells upgradient from the outflow averaged 8.6 cubic feet per second (5.54 million gallons per day). Aquifer tests using wells intersecting a large solution cavity supplying water to the spring showed a drawdown of less than 3 feet with a discharge of 9,000 gallons per minute or 20 cubic feet per second. Temperature and specific conductance of ground water near the spring outflow were monitored hourly. Temperatures ranged from 13.5 to 18.2 degrees celsius, and fluctuated seasonally in response to climate. Specific-conductance values ranged from 122 to 405 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, but were generally between 163 to 185 microsiemensper centimeter. The drainage area of the basin recharging the spring system was estimated to be 1O squaremiles. A potentiometric map of the recharge basin was developed from water levels measured at domestic and test wells in August 1989. Aquifer tests at five test wells in the study area indicated that specific-capacity values for these wells ranged from 4.1 to 261 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. Water-quality characteristics of ground water in the area were used in conjunction with potentiometric-surface maps to delineate the approximate area contributing recharge to Cave Springs.

  12. Mixed siliciclastic and carbonate sedimentation within Spar Mountain Member of Ste. Genevieve Limestone, Hamilton County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Pryor, W.A.

    1985-02-01

    The Spar Mountain Member of the Ste. Genevieve Limestone (middle Mississippian) in Hamilton County, Illinois, consists of 40-60 ft (12-18 m) of interbedded limestones, shales, and sandstones. Five cores and 1400 electric logs were used to delineate two shallowing-upward carbonate cycles and 2 major clastic pulses within the Spar Mountain. Eight lithofacies representing 6 depositional environments were identified. They are: (A) echinoderm-brachiopod dolostone to packstone (outer ramp), (B) ooid-peloidal grainstone (intermediate ramp), (C) skeletal grainstone (intermediate ramp), (D) ooid-molluscan-intraclastic wackestone to grainstone (inner ramp), (E) pelletal-skeletal wackestone (inner ramp), (F) quartzarenite (channelized nearshore), (G) quartz-sublithic arenite to wacke (delta platform), and (H) quartz mudstone (prodelta, delta platform). Deposition occurred on a southwest-dipping carbonate ramp, with siliciclastic sediments originating from the northeast. The sequence of facies and their inferred depositional environments record 2 major progradational episodes. Oolitic facies are interpreted to be of tidal-bar belt origin and quartzarenite facies are interpreted to be of delta-distributary channel origin. Their distribution is partially controlled by antecedent and syndepositional topography. Many of these paleotopographic highes are positive features today and yield pinch-out stratigraphic relationships. Paleogeographic reconstructions demonstrate that the primary control on facies distribution was the position of the delta proper along strike. However, depositional topography also influenced sedimentation, particularly in the sand-sized fraction. Using this concept, better prediction of underlying porous buildups (ooid shoals) is possible if thickness of the overlying siliciclastic is known. Within buildups, a complex diagenetic history complicates the distribution of porosity.

  13. Disaggregate demand for conventional and alternative fuelled vehicles in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potoglou, Dimitrios

    The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, it offers insight on how households' car-ownership behaviour is affected by urban form and availability of local-transit at the place of residence, after controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Second, it addresses the importance of vehicle attributes, household and individual characteristics as well as economic incentives and urban form to potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Data for the empirical analyses of the aforementioned research activities were obtained through an innovative Internet survey, which is also documented in this thesis, conducted in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton. The survey included a retrospective questionnaire of households' number and type of vehicles and a stated choices experiment for assessing the potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Established approaches and emerging trends in automobile demand modelling identified early on in this thesis suggest a disaggregate approach and specifically, the estimation of discrete choice models both for explaining car ownership and vehicle-type choice behaviour. It is shown that mixed and diverse land uses as well as short distances between home and work are likely to decrease the probability of households to own a large number of cars. Regarding the demand for alternative fuelled vehicles, while vehicle attributes are particularly important, incentives such as free parking and access to high occupancy vehicle lanes will not influence the choice of hybrids or alternative fuelled vehicles. An improved understating of households' behaviour regarding the number of cars as well as the factors and trade-offs for choosing cleaner vehicles can be used to inform policy designed to reduce car ownership levels and encourage adoption of cleaner vehicle technologies in urban areas. Finally, the Internet survey sets the ground for further research on implementation and evaluation of this data collection method.

  14. Theoretical considerations on the validity of the Stewart-Hamilton principle in measuring cycle-averaged flows via histogram of indicator in the pulsating compartment.

    PubMed

    Eterović, D; Dujić, Z

    1994-02-01

    It has been heuristically shown that the Stewart-Hamilton principle, adapted to external counting observables of system indicator histogram, A(t), its cycle-averaged equilibrium count rate, A(equ), and indicator volume of distribution in the body, V(body), is F/V(body) = A(equ)/integral of o infinity A(t)dt, where F is the cycle-averaged cardiac output. Since the method lacks the theoretical plausibility, it remained unclear whether it is an approximation and what conditions warrant its usability. This paper presents an exact derivation of the above equation. To fulfill it the generalizations of the stationary theory of indicator kinetics were set up that allowed for the conditions of pulsatile flows and volumes and the dependence of the distribution of transit times of indicator on the phase of the cardiac cycle. The assumptions utilized were that the tracer enters the compartment well mixed and convectively carried by the blood in concentrations that do not vary in the single cycle to a material extent. The method yields the cardiac output, even when the flow to a compartment is only a part of it, provided that the fraction of indicator that traversed the system equals the fraction of cardiac output that perfuses the compartment. It was shown that, when applied to a regurgitant ventricle, the method obtains the forward flow and that separate application of the method to each of the ventricles provides the theoretical basis for evaluation of the central-circulatory shunts. PMID:8177163

  15. Restoration of four-dimensional diffeomorphism covariance in canonical general relativity: An intrinsic Hamilton-Jacobi approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, Donald; Renn, Jürgen; Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    Classical background independence is reflected in Lagrangian general relativity through covariance under the full diffeomorphism group. We show how this independence can be maintained in a Hamilton-Jacobi approach that does not accord special privilege to any geometric structure. Intrinsic space-time curvature-based coordinates grant equal status to all geometric backgrounds. They play an essential role as a starting point for inequivalent semiclassical quantizations. The scheme calls into question Wheeler’s geometrodynamical approach and the associated Wheeler-DeWitt equation in which 3-metrics are featured geometrical objects. The formalism deals with variables that are manifestly invariant under the full diffeomorphism group. Yet, perhaps paradoxically, the liberty in selecting intrinsic coordinates is precisely as broad as is the original diffeomorphism freedom. We show how various ideas from the past five decades concerning the true degrees of freedom of general relativity can be interpreted in light of this new constrained Hamiltonian description. In particular, we show how the Kuchař multi-fingered time approach can be understood as a means of introducing full four-dimensional diffeomorphism invariants. Every choice of new phase space variables yields new Einstein-Hamilton-Jacobi constraining relations, and corresponding intrinsic Schrödinger equations. We show how to implement this freedom by canonical transformation of the intrinsic Hamiltonian. We also reinterpret and rectify significant work by Dittrich on the construction of “Dirac observables.”

  16. Contaminant and genotoxicity profiles of sediments and zebra mussels as indicators of chemical contamination in Hamilton Harbour

    SciTech Connect

    McCarry, B.E.; Allan, L.M.; Marvin, C.H.; Villella, J.; Bryant, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    Samples of bottom sediments, suspended sediments and Zebra mussels were collected from Hamilton Harbour, an embayment of western Lake Ontario. In addition, sediment samples were collected from creeks which flow into the Harbour. These sediment samples were extracted with dichloromethane and the organic extract was cleaned up prior to analysis for PAH and thia-arenes by GC-MS. These extracts were also subjected to genotoxicity bioassays (Ames assays) in two strains of Salmonella typhimurium (a TA98-like strain, YG1024-S9 and a TA100-like strain, YG1025 + S9). The sediment and Zebra mussels samples collected near sites of heavy coal tar contamination showed PAH, thia-arene and genotoxicity profiles that are very similar to the corresponding profiles for coal tar. These observations are consistent with the resuspension and distribution of coal tar-contaminated bottom sediments in the water column. The sediment samples collected in a major creek entering the Harbor and the sediment and Zebra mussels samples collected in Windemere Arm near the mouth of this creek showed very different chemical and genotoxicity profiles. Thus, the chemical and genotoxicity burdens on Hamilton Harbour posed by the resuspension of coal tar-contaminated sediments and the inputs from urban activity into a major creek and the Harbor can be differentiated.

  17. High-Order Semi-Discrete Central-Upwind Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bran R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present high-order semi-discrete central-upwind numerical schemes for approximating solutions of multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. This scheme is based on the use of fifth-order central interpolants like those developed in [1], in fluxes presented in [3]. These interpolants use the weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) approach to avoid spurious oscillations near singularities, and become "central-upwind" in the semi-discrete limit. This scheme provides numerical approximations whose error is as much as an order of magnitude smaller than those in previous WENO-based fifth-order methods [2, 1]. Thee results are discussed via examples in one, two and three dimensions. We also pregnant explicit N-dimensional formulas for the fluxes, discuss their monotonicity and tl!e connection between this method and that in [2].

  18. Risk and efficacy of human-enabled interspecific hybridization for climate-change adaptation: Response to Hamilton and Miller (2016)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Luikart, Gordon; Lowe, Winsor H.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2016-01-01

    Hamilton and Miller (2016) provide an interesting and provocative discussion of how hybridization and introgression can promote evolutionary potential in the face of climate change. They argue that hybridization—mating between individuals from genetically distinct populations—can alleviate inbreeding depression and promote adaptive introgression and evolutionary rescue. We agree that deliberate intraspecific hybridization (mating between individuals of the same species) is an underused management tool for increasing fitness in inbred populations (i.e., genetic rescue; Frankham 2015; Whiteley et al. 2015). The potential risks and benefits of assisted gene flow have been discussed in the literature, and an emerging consensus suggests that mating between populations isolated for approximately 50–100 generations can benefit fitness, often with a minor risk of outbreeding depression (Frankham et al. 2011; Aitken & Whitlock 2013; Allendorf et al. 2013).

  19. Business establishment mobility behavior in urban areas: a microanalytical model for the City of Hamilton in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maoh, Hanna; Kanaroglou, Pavlos

    2007-09-01

    We present a microanalytical firm mobility model for the City of Hamilton, Canada, developed with data from the Statistics Canada Business Register. Contributing to the scarce literature on firm migration behavior, we explore and model the determinants of mobility among small and medium size firms who retained less than 200 employees between 1996 and 1997. Our exploratory results suggest that short distance moves are more common and tend to occur among smaller firms. Econometric modeling results support these assertions and indicate that the willingness to move can be explained by a firm’s internal characteristics (e.g. age, size, growth and industry type) as well as location factors related to the urban environment where the firm is located. The modeling results will serve as input for the development of an agent-based firmographic decision support system that can be used to inform the planning process in the study area.

  20. Relations between rainfall amount, soil moisture and landslides in Hamilton County, Ohio, measured by strain survey and tensiometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, B.; Mayer, L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The movement of water through fill material and natural colluvium in a cut slope is being monitored at two sites with past landslide activity adjacent to I-275 in Hamilton County, Ohio. Quadrilaterals and an array of wooden stakes were placed immediately adjacent to the slide area to monitor movement of the slope at Site 1. To correlate any movement with soil moisture levels, rain gauges were installed. Changes in line-length measurements over a 3-month period are < 14 mm, and most differences average about 4 mm. Since measurement errors of up to 5--6 mm can be expected using a steel tape, more measurements over time will be needed to determine if significant displacement is occurring. Tensiometers were placed at 12 and 36 inches depth in the soil from mid-September through early November 1992, in order to measure matric suction. The 36 inch tensiometer indicated that the soil remained saturated at that depth. The 12 inch tensiometer measured 8 centibars, which occurred following a week of rain-free weather. Gravimetric measurements of soil samples show that surface soil moisture ranges from 14--39% immediately following a storm to 7--29% following at least 10 days of dry weather. At Site 2, quadrilaterals were set up in mid-August 1992; resurveys of the quadrilaterals shows very little, if any, movement. Movement of 38 mm occurred in one quadrilateral; movement in other quadrilaterals averaged close to 5 mm. The slide is not steadily moving, and may be following a pattern, where slides in Hamilton County were more likely to move in late winter or early spring.

  1. Prevalence of the Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in Blacklegged Ticks, Ixodes scapularis at Hamilton-Wentworth, Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Scott, John D.; Anderson, John F.; Durden, Lance A.; Smith, Morgan L.; Manord, Jodi M.; Clark, Kerry L.

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease has emerged as a major health concern in Canada, where the etiological agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), a spirochetal bacterium, is typically spread by the bite of certain ticks. This study explores the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, collected at Dundas, Ontario (a locality within the region of Hamilton-Wentworth). Using passive surveillance, veterinarians and pet groomers were asked to collect blacklegged ticks from dogs and cats with no history of travel. Additionally, I. scapularis specimens were submitted from local residents and collected by flagging. Overall, 12 (41%) of 29 blacklegged ticks were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing, two borrelial amplicons were characterized as B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), a genospecies pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Notably, three different vertebrate hosts each had two engorged I. scapularis females removed on the same day and, likewise, one cat had three repeat occurrences of this tick species. These multiple infestations suggest that a population of I. scapularis may be established in this area. The local public health unit has been underreporting the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected I. scapularis in the area encompassing Dundas. Our findings raise concerns about the need to erect tick warning signs in parkland areas. Veterinarians, medical professionals, public health officials, and the general public must be vigilant that Lyme disease-carrying blacklegged ticks pose a public health risk in the Dundas area and the surrounding Hamilton-Wentworth region. PMID:27226771

  2. Negative correlation between nuptial throat colour and blood parasite load in male European green lizards supports the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bajer, Katalin; Mészáros, Boglárka; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2013-06-01

    During female mate choice, conspicuous male sexual signals are used to infer male quality and choose the best sire for the offspring. The theory of parasite-mediated sexual selection (Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis) presumes that parasite infection can influence the elaboration of sexual signals: resistant individuals can invest more energy into signal expression and thus advertise their individual quality through signal intensity. By preferring these males, females can provide resistance genes for their offspring. Previous research showed that nuptial throat colour of male European green lizard, Lacerta viridis, plays a role in both inter- and intrasexual selections as a condition-dependent multiple signalling system. The aim of this study was to test the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis on male European green lizards. By blood sampling 30 adult males during the reproductive season, we found members of the Haemogregarinidae family in all but one individual (prevalence = 96 %). The infection intensity showed strong negative correlation with the throat and belly colour brightness in line with the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. In addition, we found other correlations between infection intensity and other fitness-related traits, suggesting that parasite load has a remarkable effect on individual fitness. This study shows that throat patch colour of the European green lizards not only is a multiple signalling system but also possibly acts as an honest sexual signal of health state in accordance with the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis.

  3. Negative correlation between nuptial throat colour and blood parasite load in male European green lizards supports the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bajer, Katalin; Mészáros, Boglárka; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2013-06-01

    During female mate choice, conspicuous male sexual signals are used to infer male quality and choose the best sire for the offspring. The theory of parasite-mediated sexual selection (Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis) presumes that parasite infection can influence the elaboration of sexual signals: resistant individuals can invest more energy into signal expression and thus advertise their individual quality through signal intensity. By preferring these males, females can provide resistance genes for their offspring. Previous research showed that nuptial throat colour of male European green lizard, Lacerta viridis, plays a role in both inter- and intrasexual selections as a condition-dependent multiple signalling system. The aim of this study was to test the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis on male European green lizards. By blood sampling 30 adult males during the reproductive season, we found members of the Haemogregarinidae family in all but one individual (prevalence = 96%). The infection intensity showed strong negative correlation with the throat and belly colour brightness in line with the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. In addition, we found other correlations between infection intensity and other fitness-related traits, suggesting that parasite load has a remarkable effect on individual fitness. This study shows that throat patch colour of the European green lizards not only is a multiple signalling system but also possibly acts as an honest sexual signal of health state in accordance with the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. PMID:23644520

  4. 'Morals can not be drawn from facts but guidance may be': the early life of W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Sarah A

    2015-12-01

    W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness saw the evolution of altruism from the point of view of the gene. It was at heart a theory of limits, redefining altruistic behaviours as ultimately selfish. This theory inspired two controversial texts published almost in tandem, E.O. Wilson's Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975) and Richard Dawkins's The Selfish Gene (1976). When Wilson and Dawkins were attacked for their evolutionary interpretations of human societies, they claimed a distinction between reporting what is and declaring what ought to be. Can the history of sociobiological theories be so easily separated from its sociopolitical context? This paper draws upon unpublished materials from the 1960s and early 1970s and documents some of the ways in which Hamilton saw his research as contributing to contemporary concerns. It pays special attention to the 1969 Man and Beast Smithsonian Institution symposium in order to explore the extent to which Hamilton intended his theory to be merely descriptive versus prescriptive. From this, we may see that Hamilton was deeply concerned about the political chaos he perceived in the world around him, and hoped to arrive at a level of self-understanding through science that could inform a new social order.

  5. 'Morals can not be drawn from facts but guidance may be': the early life of W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Sarah A

    2015-12-01

    W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness saw the evolution of altruism from the point of view of the gene. It was at heart a theory of limits, redefining altruistic behaviours as ultimately selfish. This theory inspired two controversial texts published almost in tandem, E.O. Wilson's Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975) and Richard Dawkins's The Selfish Gene (1976). When Wilson and Dawkins were attacked for their evolutionary interpretations of human societies, they claimed a distinction between reporting what is and declaring what ought to be. Can the history of sociobiological theories be so easily separated from its sociopolitical context? This paper draws upon unpublished materials from the 1960s and early 1970s and documents some of the ways in which Hamilton saw his research as contributing to contemporary concerns. It pays special attention to the 1969 Man and Beast Smithsonian Institution symposium in order to explore the extent to which Hamilton intended his theory to be merely descriptive versus prescriptive. From this, we may see that Hamilton was deeply concerned about the political chaos he perceived in the world around him, and hoped to arrive at a level of self-understanding through science that could inform a new social order. PMID:26530161

  6. DNA fingerprinting reveals elevated mutation rates in herring gulls inhabiting a genotoxically contaminated site

    SciTech Connect

    Yauk, C.L.; Quinn, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    The authors used multi-locus DNA fingerprinting to examine families of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from a genotoxically contaminated site (Hamilton Harbour) and from a pristine location (Kent Island, Bay of Fundy) to show significant differences in mutation rates between the locations. Overall the authors identified 17 mutant bands from 15 individuals of the 35 examined from Hamilton Harbour, and 7 mutant fragments from 7 individuals, of the 43 examined from Kent Island; a mutation frequency of 0.429 per nestling for Hamilton Harbour and 0.163 for Kent Island. The total number of individuals with mutant bands was significantly higher at Hamilton Harbour than at Kent Island (X{sup 2}=6.734; df = 1; P < 0.01). Ongoing analysis of other less contaminated sites also reveals lower mutation rates than those seen in Hamilton Harbour. With multi-locus DNA fingerprinting many regions of the genome can be surveyed simultaneously. The tandemly repeated arrays of nucleotides examined with DNA fingerprinting are known to have elevated rates of mutation. Furthermore, the mutations seen with DNA fingerprinting are predominantly heritable. Other biomarkers currently used in situ are not able to monitor direct and heritable DNA mutation, or measure biological endpoints that frequently result in spontaneous abortion creating difficulty in observing significantly elevated levels in viable offspring. The authors suggest that multilocus DNA fingerprinting can be used as a biomarker to identify potentially heritable risks before the onset of other types of ecological damage. This approach provides a direct measure of mutation in situ and in vivo in a vertebrate species under ambient conditions.

  7. Hawking radiation of Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole by Hamilton-Jacobi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. Atiqur; Hossain, M. Ilias

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the Hawking radiation of Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) black hole by massive particles tunneling method. We consider the spacetime background to be dynamical, incorporate the self-gravitation effect of the emitted particles and show that the tunneling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum when energy and angular momentum are conserved. Our result is also in accordance with Parikh and Wilczek's opinion and gives a correction to the Hawking radiation of SdS black hole.

  8. Neil Hamilton Fairley KBE FRCP FRS (1891-1966): an outstanding tropical physician in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Cook, G C

    2014-11-01

    In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, British physicians led the way in tropical medicine research. Several years later scientific advances had slowed, and Fairley's numerous contributions were thus most welcome. Neil Hamilton Fairley was born of Scottish parents at Victoria, Australia. After qualification at Melbourne, he joined the Australian Army Medical Service (AAMS) and after several minor research projects, made valuable contributions to the understanding of tropical sprue at Bombay (now Mumbai), India. However, Fairley's major researches were carried out during World War II (1939-45). Together with J S K Boyd he demonstrated the great value of sulphaguanidine in bacillary dysentery. Working in northern Australia and the south-Pacific region, he both contributed to elucidation of the Plasmodium vivax life-cycle, and more importantly demonstrated the value of alternative anti-malarial compounds to quinine (which was not readily available). Back in London after the war, Fairley briefly occupied the Wellcome Chair of Tropical Medicine, strongly supported London's clinical tropical medicine, and was subsequently knighted in 1950.

  9. Two new species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) in Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Kartika; Palm, Harry W

    2013-01-25

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, two new species of philometrid nematodes, Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. and Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) are described from Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia. Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. was isolated from the fins of E. coioides. The new species can be distinguished from the most closely related S. eichleri Parukhin, 1971 by a larger total body length and the site of infection in the host. The new species differs from S. centropomi (Caballero, 1974) also in the larger body size of the gravid females and the site of infection in the host. S. en-dangae sp. nov. differs from S. pacifica (Moravec, Santana-Pineros, Gonzales-Solis & Torres-Huerta, 2007) in the struc-ture and arrangement of the spines on the middle part of the body, the infection site of the worm, the type host and the zoogeographical host distribution. Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. differs from all other Philometra spp. congeners so far recorded from Ephinepelus groupers in the total body length and the site of infection. This is the first opercula-infecting species of Philometra described from the fish family Serranidae.

  10. Toxicity of neem pesticides on a fresh water loach, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Hamilton Buchanan) of Darjeeling district in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Debashri; Barat, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, M K

    2007-01-01

    Static renewal bioassay tests were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of two neem based biopesticides, applied widely on tea plantation namely, Nimbecidine and Neem Gold either separately as well as, in combination to the fingerlings (mean body length- 4.46 +/- 0.15 cm; mean body weight- 0.49 +/- 0.15g) of a fresh water loach, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Hamilton Buchanan) acclimatized to laboratory conditions prior to experiment. The 96 hours LC50 values for Nimbecidine and Neem Gold and the combination of the two were 0.0135 mgl(-1), 0.0525mgl(-1) and 0.0396 mgl(-1), respectively. The regular water quality analysis showed, that with increasing doses of biopesticides, dissolved oxygen level was lower and other parameters like pH, free carbon dioxide, total alkalinity total hardness, chloride ions of water increased. The fish under toxicity stress suffered several abnormalities such as erratic and rapid movement, body imbalance and surface floating responding proportionately to the increase in concentrations of the toxicant biopesticides. The 96 hours LC50 values proved Nimbecidine more toxic than Neem Gold and the combination of the two biopesticides.

  11. Performance on the Hamilton search task, and the influence of lateralization, in captive orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica).

    PubMed

    Cussen, Victoria A; Mench, Joy A

    2014-07-01

    Psittacines are generally considered to possess cognitive abilities comparable to those of primates. Most psittacine research has evaluated performance on standardized complex cognition tasks, but studies of basic cognitive processes are limited. We tested orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica) on a spatial foraging assessment, the Hamilton search task. This task is a standardized test used in human and non-human primate studies. It has multiple phases, which require trial and error learning, learning set breaking, and spatial memory. We investigated search strategies used to complete the task, cognitive flexibility, and long-term memory for the task. We also assessed the effects of individual strength of motor lateralization (foot preference) and sex on task performance. Almost all (92%) of the parrots acquired the task. All had significant foot preferences, with 69% preferring their left foot, and showed side preferences contralateral to their preferred limb during location selection. The parrots were able to alter their search strategies when reward contingencies changed, demonstrating cognitive flexibility. They were also able to remember the task over a 6-month period. Lateralization had a significant influence on learning set acquisition but no effect on cognitive flexibility. There were no sex differences. To our knowledge, this is the first cognitive study using this particular species and one of the few studies of cognitive abilities in any Neotropical parrot species.

  12. The effects of environmental enrichment and age-related differences on inhibitory avoidance in zebrafish (Danio rerio Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Manuel, Remy; Gorissen, Marnix; Stokkermans, Mitchel; Zethof, Jan; Ebbesson, Lars O E; van de Vis, Hans; Flik, Gert; van den Bos, Ruud

    2015-04-01

    The inhibitory avoidance paradigm allows the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory formation in zebrafish (Danio rerio Hamilton). For zebrafish, the physiology and behavior associated with this paradigm are as yet poorly understood. We therefore assessed the effects of environmental enrichment and fish age on inhibitory avoidance learning. Fish raised in an environmentally enriched tank showed decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased exploration. Enrichment greatly reduced inhibitory avoidance in 6-month (6M)- and 12-month (12 M)-old fish. Following inhibitory avoidance, telencephalic mRNA levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna), neurogenic differentiation (neurod), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript 4 (cart4), and cannabinoid receptor 1 (cnr1) were lower in enriched-housed fish, while the ratios of mineralocorticoid receptor (nr3c2)/glucocorticoid receptor α [nr3c1(α)] and glucocorticoid receptor β [nr3c1(β)]/glucocorticoid receptor α [nr3c1(α)] were higher. This was observed for 6M-old fish only, not for 24-month (24 M) old fish. Instead, 24 M-old fish showed delayed inhibitory avoidance, no effects of enrichment, and reduced expression of neuroplasticity genes. Overall, our data show strong differences in inhibitory avoidance behavior between zebrafish of different ages and a clear reduction in avoidance behavior following housing under environmental enrichment.

  13. Two new species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) in Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Kartika; Palm, Harry W

    2013-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, two new species of philometrid nematodes, Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. and Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) are described from Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia. Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. was isolated from the fins of E. coioides. The new species can be distinguished from the most closely related S. eichleri Parukhin, 1971 by a larger total body length and the site of infection in the host. The new species differs from S. centropomi (Caballero, 1974) also in the larger body size of the gravid females and the site of infection in the host. S. en-dangae sp. nov. differs from S. pacifica (Moravec, Santana-Pineros, Gonzales-Solis & Torres-Huerta, 2007) in the struc-ture and arrangement of the spines on the middle part of the body, the infection site of the worm, the type host and the zoogeographical host distribution. Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. differs from all other Philometra spp. congeners so far recorded from Ephinepelus groupers in the total body length and the site of infection. This is the first opercula-infecting species of Philometra described from the fish family Serranidae. PMID:24699571

  14. Genetic characterization of Clupisoma garua (Hamilton 1822) from six Indian populations using mtDNA cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Darpan; Lakra, W S; Nautiyal, Prakash; Goswami, Mukunda; Shyamakant, Komal; Malakar, Abhishekh

    2014-02-01

    Clupisoma garua (Hamilton, 1822) is a commercially important freshwater fish and a potential candidate species for aquaculture. This study investigates the genetic diversity and population structure of six Indian populations of C. garua using cytochrome b (cyt b) sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We sequenced cyt b gene of 64 individuals collected from five distant rivers: Ganga, Gomti, Betwa, Gandak and Brahmaputra. Sequencing of 1054 bp cyt b mtDNA fragment revealed the presence of 19 haplotypes with a haplotype diversity value of 1.000 and a nucleotide diversity value of 0.0258 ± 0.00164. The Gandak river fish population showed highest nucleotide diversity. The fixation index analysis indicated significant genetic divergence among populations from different geographical areas. Both the neighbor-joining tree and median-joining network analysis of the haplotype data showed distinct patterns of phylo-geographic structure. The hierarchical analysis of molecular variance revealed that intra-group variation among populations was highly significant. The results of this study suggest that C. garua populations, especially geographically isolated groups, have developed significant genetic structures within the population. In addition, tests of neutrality suggest that C. garua may have experienced a population expansion. The study results establish cyt b as polymorphic and a potential marker to determine the population structure of C. garua. Information of genetic variation and population structure generated from this study would be useful for planning effective strategies for the conservation and rehabilitation of Schilibid cat fishes.

  15. Generalized hamilton-jacobi-bellman formulation -based neural network control of affine nonlinear discrete-time systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the use of nonlinear networks towards obtaining nearly optimal solutions to the control of nonlinear discrete-time (DT) systems. The method is based on least squares successive approximation solution of the generalized Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (GHJB) equation which appears in optimization problems. Successive approximation using the GHJB has not been applied for nonlinear DT systems. The proposed recursive method solves the GHJB equation in DT on a well-defined region of attraction. The definition of GHJB, pre-Hamiltonian function, HJB equation, and method of updating the control function for the affine nonlinear DT systems under small perturbation assumption are proposed. A neural network (NN) is used to approximate the GHJB solution. It is shown that the result is a closed-loop control based on an NN that has been tuned a priori in offline mode. Numerical examples show that, for the linear DT system, the updated control laws will converge to the optimal control, and for nonlinear DT systems, the updated control laws will converge to the suboptimal control. PMID:18269941

  16. Toxicity of neem pesticides on a fresh water loach, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Hamilton Buchanan) of Darjeeling district in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Debashri; Barat, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, M K

    2007-01-01

    Static renewal bioassay tests were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of two neem based biopesticides, applied widely on tea plantation namely, Nimbecidine and Neem Gold either separately as well as, in combination to the fingerlings (mean body length- 4.46 +/- 0.15 cm; mean body weight- 0.49 +/- 0.15g) of a fresh water loach, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Hamilton Buchanan) acclimatized to laboratory conditions prior to experiment. The 96 hours LC50 values for Nimbecidine and Neem Gold and the combination of the two were 0.0135 mgl(-1), 0.0525mgl(-1) and 0.0396 mgl(-1), respectively. The regular water quality analysis showed, that with increasing doses of biopesticides, dissolved oxygen level was lower and other parameters like pH, free carbon dioxide, total alkalinity total hardness, chloride ions of water increased. The fish under toxicity stress suffered several abnormalities such as erratic and rapid movement, body imbalance and surface floating responding proportionately to the increase in concentrations of the toxicant biopesticides. The 96 hours LC50 values proved Nimbecidine more toxic than Neem Gold and the combination of the two biopesticides. PMID:17717997

  17. Genetic characterization of Clupisoma garua (Hamilton 1822) from six Indian populations using mtDNA cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Darpan; Lakra, W S; Nautiyal, Prakash; Goswami, Mukunda; Shyamakant, Komal; Malakar, Abhishekh

    2014-02-01

    Clupisoma garua (Hamilton, 1822) is a commercially important freshwater fish and a potential candidate species for aquaculture. This study investigates the genetic diversity and population structure of six Indian populations of C. garua using cytochrome b (cyt b) sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We sequenced cyt b gene of 64 individuals collected from five distant rivers: Ganga, Gomti, Betwa, Gandak and Brahmaputra. Sequencing of 1054 bp cyt b mtDNA fragment revealed the presence of 19 haplotypes with a haplotype diversity value of 1.000 and a nucleotide diversity value of 0.0258 ± 0.00164. The Gandak river fish population showed highest nucleotide diversity. The fixation index analysis indicated significant genetic divergence among populations from different geographical areas. Both the neighbor-joining tree and median-joining network analysis of the haplotype data showed distinct patterns of phylo-geographic structure. The hierarchical analysis of molecular variance revealed that intra-group variation among populations was highly significant. The results of this study suggest that C. garua populations, especially geographically isolated groups, have developed significant genetic structures within the population. In addition, tests of neutrality suggest that C. garua may have experienced a population expansion. The study results establish cyt b as polymorphic and a potential marker to determine the population structure of C. garua. Information of genetic variation and population structure generated from this study would be useful for planning effective strategies for the conservation and rehabilitation of Schilibid cat fishes. PMID:23676141

  18. Characterization of mitochondrial ATPase 6/8 genes in wild Labeo calbasu (Hamilton, 1822) and mapping of natural genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Sah, Rama S; Kumar, Rajesh; Jena, J K

    2016-09-01

    We characterized mitochondrial ATP synthase (ATPase) 6 and 8 genes in Labeo calbasu (Hamilton, 1822) and determined genetic variation in wild populations across the natural distribution in Indian rivers. A total of 206 individuals were sampled from 11 riverine sites belonging to distinct geographical locations covering five major river basins. Sequencing of 842 base pairs of ATPase 6/8 revealed 21 haplotypes with haplotype diversity ranging from 0.1250 (River Satluj) to 0.8846 (River Bhagirathi). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data revealed significant genetic differentiation among sites (FST = 0.192, p < 0.0001) which was indicative of moderate level of genetic structuring in the wild L. calbasu populations. The patterns of genetic divergence and haplotype network of mtDNA revealed distinct clades present in Indian rivers. The analysis of data demonstrated the potential of ATPase 6/8 genes in determining the genetic diversity and indicated considerable sub-structuring in wild calbasu populations present in different rivers.

  19. Impact of environmental and genetic factors on the scale shape of zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton 1822): a geometric morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Staszny, A; Havas, Enikő; Kovács, R; Urbányi, B; Paulovits, G; Bencsik, Dóra; Ferincz, A; Müller, T; Specziár, A; Bakos, Katalin; Csenki, Zs

    2013-12-01

    Intraspecific morphological variability may reflect either genetic divergence among groups of individuals or response of individuals to environmental circumstances within the frame of phenotypic plasticity. Several studies were able to discriminate wild fish populations based on their scale shape. Here we examine whether the variations in the scale shape in fish populations could be related to genetic or environmental factors, or to both of them. In the first experiment, two inbred lines of zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton 1822) reared under identical environmental conditions were compared. Secondly, to find out what effect environmental factors might have, offsprings were divided into two groups and reared on different diets for 12 weeks. Potential recovery of scales from an environmental effect was also assessed. Experimental groups could successfully be distinguished according to the shape of scales in both experiments, and the results showed that both genetic and environmental factors may notably influence scale shape. It was concluded that scale shape analysis might be used as an explanatory tool to detect potential variability of environmental influences impacting genetically homogeneous groups of fish. However, due to its sensitivity to environmental heterogeneity, the applicability of this technique in identifying intraspecific stock membership of fish could be limited.

  20. Measurement of bridge scour at the SR-32 crossing of the Sacramento River at Hamilton City, California, 1987-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, J.C.; Harris, Carroll D.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the State Route 32 crossing of the Sacramento River near Hamilton City, California, is being made to determine those channel and bridge factors that contribute to scour at the site. Three types of scour data have been measured-channel bed (natural) scour, constriction (general) scour, and local (bridge-pier induced) scour. During the years 1979-93, a maximum of 3.4 ft of channel bed scour, with a mean of 1.4 ft, has been measured. Constriction scour, which may include channel bed scour, has been measured at the site nine times during the years 1987-92. The calculated amount of constriction scour ranged from 0.2 to 3.0 ft, assuming the reference is the mean bed elevation. Local scour was measured four times at the site in 1991 and 1992 and ranged from -2.1 (fill) to 11.6 ft , with the calculated amounts dependent on the bed reference elevation and method of computation used. Surveys of the channel bed near the bridge piers indicate the horizontal location of lowest bed elevation (maximum depth of scour) may vary at least 17 ft between different surveys at the same pier and most frequently is located downstream from the upstream face of the pier.

  1. Separation of variables in the special diagonal Hamilton-Jacobi equation: Application to the dynamical problem of a particle constrained on a moving surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. L.; Chan, F. K.

    1973-01-01

    For a time-dependent, n-dimensional, special diagonal Hamilton-Jacobi equation a necessary and sufficient condition for the separation of variables to yield a complete integral of the form was established by specifying the admissible forms in terms of arbitrary functions. A complete integral was then expressed in terms of these arbitrary functions and also the n irreducible constants. As an application of the results obtained for the two-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equation, analysis was made for a comparatively wide class of dynamical problems involving a particle moving in Euclidean three-dimensional space under the action of external forces but constrained on a moving surface. All the possible cases in which this equation had a complete integral of the form were obtained and these are tubulated for reference.

  2. Implicit trustworthiness ratings of self-resembling faces activate brain centers involved in reward.

    PubMed

    Platek, Steven M; Krill, Austen L; Wilson, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of Hamilton's (Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behavior I, II. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 17-52) theory of inclusive fitness, self-facial resemblance is hypothesized as a mechanism for self-referent phenotypic matching by which humans can detect kin. To understand the mechanisms underlying pro-sociality toward self-resembling faces, we investigated the neural correlates of implicit trustworthiness ratings for self-resembling faces. Here we show that idiosyncratic trustworthiness ratings of self-resembling faces predict brain activation in the ventral inferior, middle and medial frontal gyri, substrates involved in reward processing. These findings demonstrate that neural reward centers are implicated in evaluating implicit pro-social behaviors toward self-resembling faces. These findings suggest that humans have evolved to use neurocomputational architecture dedicated to face processing and reward evaluation for the differentiation of kin, which drives implicit idiosyncratic affectively regulated social interactions.

  3. Spatial analysis of air pollution and childhood asthma in Hamilton, Canada: comparing exposure methods in sensitive subgroups

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Variations in air pollution exposure within a community may be associated with asthma prevalence. However, studies conducted to date have produced inconsistent results, possibly due to errors in measurement of the exposures. Methods A standardized asthma survey was administered to children in grades one and eight in Hamilton, Canada, in 1994–95 (N ~1467). Exposure to air pollution was estimated in four ways: (1) distance from roadways; (2) interpolated surfaces for ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter and nitrous oxides from seven to nine governmental monitoring stations; (3) a kriged nitrogen dioxide (NO2) surface based on a network of 100 passive NO2 monitors; and (4) a land use regression (LUR) model derived from the same monitoring network. Logistic regressions were used to test associations between asthma and air pollution, controlling for variables including neighbourhood income, dwelling value, state of housing, a deprivation index and smoking. Results There were no significant associations between any of the exposure estimates and asthma in the whole population, but large effects were detected the subgroup of children without hayfever (predominately in girls). The most robust effects were observed for the association of asthma without hayfever and NO2LUR OR = 1.86 (95%CI, 1.59–2.16) in all girls and OR = 2.98 (95%CI, 0.98–9.06) for older girls, over an interquartile range increase and controlling for confounders. Conclusion Our findings indicate that traffic-related pollutants, such as NO2, are associated with asthma without overt evidence of other atopic disorders among female children living in a medium-sized Canadian city. The effects were sensitive to the method of exposure estimation. More refined exposure models produced the most robust associations. PMID:19338672

  4. Population genetic structure and phylogeography of cyprinid fish, Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) inferred from allozyme and microsatellite DNA marker analysis.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Anshumala; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Bhaskar, Ranjana; Mandal, Anup; Narain, Lalit; Lakra, W S

    2011-06-01

    We examined population structure of Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) from different riverine locations in India using 10 polymorphic allozyme and eight microsatellite loci. For analysis, 591 different tissue samples were obtained from commercial catches covering a wide geographic range. Allozyme variability (An = 1.28-1.43, Ho = 0.029-0.071) was much lower than for microsatellites (An = 4.625-6.125, Ho = 0.538-0.633). Existence of rare alleles was found at three allozyme (MDH-2, GPI and PGDH) and at two microsatellite loci (R-3 and MFW-15). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05, after the critical probability levels were adjusted for sequential Bonferroni adjustment) could be detected at three loci (EST-1, -2 and XDH) whereas, after correction for null alleles, two microsatellite loci (MFW-1,-15) deviated from HWE in the river Yamuna. Fst for all the samples combined over all allozyme loci was found to be 0.059 suggesting that 5.9% of the total variation was due to genetic differentiation while microsatellite analysis yielded 0.019 which was concordant to mean Rst (0.02). Hierarchical partition of genetic diversity (AMOVA) showed that greater variability (approx. 95%) was due to within population component than between geographical regions. Based on distribution of genetic differentiation detected by both markers, at least five different genetic stocks of L. dero across its natural distribution could be identified. These results are useful for the evaluation and conservation of L. dero in natural water bodies. PMID:21132388

  5. Population genetic structure and phylogeography of cyprinid fish, Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) inferred from allozyme and microsatellite DNA marker analysis.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Anshumala; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Bhaskar, Ranjana; Mandal, Anup; Narain, Lalit; Lakra, W S

    2011-06-01

    We examined population structure of Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) from different riverine locations in India using 10 polymorphic allozyme and eight microsatellite loci. For analysis, 591 different tissue samples were obtained from commercial catches covering a wide geographic range. Allozyme variability (An = 1.28-1.43, Ho = 0.029-0.071) was much lower than for microsatellites (An = 4.625-6.125, Ho = 0.538-0.633). Existence of rare alleles was found at three allozyme (MDH-2, GPI and PGDH) and at two microsatellite loci (R-3 and MFW-15). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05, after the critical probability levels were adjusted for sequential Bonferroni adjustment) could be detected at three loci (EST-1, -2 and XDH) whereas, after correction for null alleles, two microsatellite loci (MFW-1,-15) deviated from HWE in the river Yamuna. Fst for all the samples combined over all allozyme loci was found to be 0.059 suggesting that 5.9% of the total variation was due to genetic differentiation while microsatellite analysis yielded 0.019 which was concordant to mean Rst (0.02). Hierarchical partition of genetic diversity (AMOVA) showed that greater variability (approx. 95%) was due to within population component than between geographical regions. Based on distribution of genetic differentiation detected by both markers, at least five different genetic stocks of L. dero across its natural distribution could be identified. These results are useful for the evaluation and conservation of L. dero in natural water bodies.

  6. Hamilton Way Community Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-20

    This case study describes an energy efficient showcase community in the Hartford, Connecicut, area, aiming for a minimum 40% source energy savings focusing on the thermal enclosure and air tightness of the homes.

  7. Evaluation of anhedonia with the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) in adult outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Nakonezny, Paul A; Morris, David W; Greer, Tracy L; Byerly, Matthew J; Carmody, Thomas J; Grannemann, Bruce D; Bernstein, Ira H; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2015-06-01

    Anhedonia or inability to experience pleasure not only is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), but also is identified as an important component of the positive valence system in the NIMH Research Domain Criteria. The Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) has been developed for the assessment of hedonic experience or positive valence, but has not been well-studied in depressed outpatient populations. The current study examined the reliability and validity of the SHAPS using a sample of adult outpatients with treatment resistant MDD. Data for the current study were obtained from 122 adult outpatients with a diagnosis of MDD and non-response to adequate treatment with an SSRI and who participated in Project TReatment with Exercise Augmentation for Depression (TREAD). A Principal Components Analysis was used to define the dimensionality of the SHAPS. Convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated via correlations of the SHAPS total score with "gold standard" measures of depression severity and quality of life. The SHAPS was found to have high internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α = .82). A Principal Components Analysis suggests that the SHAPS is mainly "unidimensional" and limited to hedonic experience among adult outpatients with MDD. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed by examining the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient between the SHAPS total score and the HRSD17 (rs = 0.22, p < .03), IDS-C30 (rs = 0.26, p < .01), IDS-SR30 (rs = 0.23, p < .02), QIDS-C16 (rs = 0.22, p < .03), QIDS-SR16 (rs = 0.17, p < .10), QLES-Q (rs = -0.32, p < .002), and the pleasure/enjoyment item (sub-item 21) of the IDS-C (rs = 0.44, p < .0001) and IDS-SR (rs = 0.38, p < .0002). The self-administered SHAPS showed modest sensitivity (76%) and specificity (54%) with the self-administered pleasure/enjoyment single item (sub-item 21) of IDS-SR30. The current study shows that the SHAPS is a reliable and valid

  8. Effects of paroxetine-mediated inhibition of GRK2 expression on depression and cardiovascular function in patients with myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiuqing; Wang, Qing; Guo, Rui; Xu, Lingling; Chen, Qin M; Hou, Yinglong

    2016-01-01

    Background Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor utilized in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Recent studies have identified paroxetine as a G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2) inhibitor capable of reversing cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in experimental models of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We determine the clinical importance of paroxetine on cardiac functions in patients having AMI with depression (AMID) in comparison with fluoxetine, an unrelated selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that does not inhibit GRK2. Methods Diagnosis of depression was based on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale and Self-rating Depression Scale in AMI patients after hospital admission. AMID patients were randomly assigned to paroxetine or fluoxetine for treatment of depression. Heart rate variability and cardiac function were evaluated. GRK2 protein levels were measured using peripheral lymphocytes and Western blot. Results GRK2 expression in AMID patients was significantly higher than that in AMI patients without depression. In AMID patients, GRK2 levels were positively correlated with the 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale and the Self-rating Depression Scale scores, and negatively correlated with heart rate variability. Treatment of AMID patients with paroxetine significantly reduced the expression of GRK2, normalized the autonomic nervous system function, and improved cardiac performance. In contrast, fluoxetine normalized the autonomic nervous system but did not reduce the expression of GRK2 nor improved cardiac performance. Conclusion This study suggests that paroxetine is effective for improving cardiac function in patients with AMID and such effect correlates with GRK2 reduction.

  9. Female sexual dysfunction: A comparative study in drug naive 1st episode of depression in a general hospital of South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Payel; Manohar, Shivananda; Raman, Rajesh; Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Darshan, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women's sexual dysfunction is found to be highly prevalent in western and Indian literature. Limited studies are available on drug naive depression in western literature and in Indian population. Aim: To determine the prevalence rate and symptom profile of female sexual dysfunctions in patients with untreated depression. Design: A cross-sectional study in the psychiatry out-patient department of general hospital in South India. Materials and Methods: Following written informed consent female sexual functioning index (FSFI) and Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) – female version and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD - 17 item) on 30 cases and 30 controls was administered. Sociodemographic data, pattern and type of sexual dysfunctions were enquired. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, contingency co-efficient analysis and stepwise multiple regression. Results: The mean score of HAMD 17 item in study group was 19.13. The study showed that female sexual dysfunction was 70.3% in study group compared to 43.3% in control FSFI scores above 16 in HAMD had dysfunction of 76% with FSFI in study group. With ASEX-F sexual dysfunction was 73.3% in study compared to 20% in control. Scores above 16 in HAMD had 80% of sexual dysfunction with ASEX-F in study group. Conclusion: The study found that ASEX-F co-related better with HAMD 17 item. Following the onset of depression, the incidence of sexual dysfunction started at an early age in women. PMID:26600576

  10. First detection and confirmation of spring viraemia of carp virus in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Garver, K A; Dwilow, A G; Richard, J; Booth, T F; Beniac, D R; Souter, B W

    2007-11-01

    In June 2006, 150 wild common carp were sampled from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada. Tissue pools consisting of kidney, spleen and encephalon were screened for viruses as a condition facilitating the export of live carp to France. Cytopathic effect (CPE), indicative of a viral infection, became evident after 8 days of incubation at 15 degrees C. Eighteen of 30 tissue pools (five fish per pool) eventually demonstrated viral CPE. The viral pathogen was initially cultured and isolated on the epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line and subsequently shown to produce CPE in the fathead minnow and bluegill fin cell lines. Electron microscopy demonstrated the virus to be a rhabdovirus. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and nucleotide sequence analysis identified the isolate as spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Phylogenetic analysis of a 533 bp region of the glycoprotein gene grouped the Canadian isolate in SVCV genogroup Ia together with isolates from Asia and the USA. Sequence comparisons revealed the Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario isolate to be most similar to an isolate obtained from common carp in the Calumet Sag Channel in Illinois in 2003 (98.9% nucleotide identity). This is the first report of the detection of SVCV in Canada. PMID:17958610

  11. First detection and confirmation of spring viraemia of carp virus in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Garver, K A; Dwilow, A G; Richard, J; Booth, T F; Beniac, D R; Souter, B W

    2007-11-01

    In June 2006, 150 wild common carp were sampled from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada. Tissue pools consisting of kidney, spleen and encephalon were screened for viruses as a condition facilitating the export of live carp to France. Cytopathic effect (CPE), indicative of a viral infection, became evident after 8 days of incubation at 15 degrees C. Eighteen of 30 tissue pools (five fish per pool) eventually demonstrated viral CPE. The viral pathogen was initially cultured and isolated on the epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line and subsequently shown to produce CPE in the fathead minnow and bluegill fin cell lines. Electron microscopy demonstrated the virus to be a rhabdovirus. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and nucleotide sequence analysis identified the isolate as spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Phylogenetic analysis of a 533 bp region of the glycoprotein gene grouped the Canadian isolate in SVCV genogroup Ia together with isolates from Asia and the USA. Sequence comparisons revealed the Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario isolate to be most similar to an isolate obtained from common carp in the Calumet Sag Channel in Illinois in 2003 (98.9% nucleotide identity). This is the first report of the detection of SVCV in Canada.

  12. Predictors of functional improvement in employed adults with major depressive disorder treated with desvenlafaxine.

    PubMed

    Lam, Raymond W; Endicott, Jean; Hsu, Ming-Ann; Fayyad, Rana; Guico-Pabia, Christine; Boucher, Matthieu

    2014-09-01

    We carried out a secondary analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of desvenlafaxine for major depressive disorder (MDD) to explore the associations between depressive symptoms and subtypes, and functional outcomes, including work functioning. Employed outpatients with MDD were assigned randomly in a 2 : 1 ratio to receive desvenlafaxine 50 mg/day or placebo for 12 weeks. Analyses were carried out post-hoc with the intent-to-treat (ITT) sample (N=427) and a prospectively defined modified ITT sample (N=310), composed of patients with baseline 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score of at least 20. Functional outcomes at week 12 included items and factors from the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, Sheehan Disability Scale, and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. In the modified ITT sample, but not in the ITT sample, desvenlafaxine-treated patients showed significantly greater improvement in several functional outcomes in the responder, nonanxious, and normal-energy patient subgroups. Improvement in the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total score at week 2 predicted change at week 12 in several functional outcomes. Functional improvement at 12 weeks was greater in subgroups of patients and was also significantly predicted by early improvement in depressive symptoms in employed patients with MDD treated with desvenlafaxine.

  13. Ground-water flow directions and estimation of aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley aquifer system, Hamilton Area, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheets, Rodney A.; Bossenbroek, Karen E.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System is one of the most productive sources of potable water in the Midwest, yielding as much as 3,000 gallons per minute to wells. Many water-supply wells tapping this aquifer system are purposely placed near rivers to take advantage of induced infiltration from the rivers. The City of Hamilton's North Well Field consists of 10 wells near the Great Miami River, all completed in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. A well-drilling program and a multiple-well aquifer test were done to investigate ground-water flow directions and to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower part of the Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. Descriptions of lithology from 10 well borings indicate varying amounts and thickness of clay or till, and therefore, varying levels of potential aquifer confinement. Borings also indicate that the aquifer properties can change dramatically over relatively short distances. Grain-size analyses indicate an average bulk hydraulic conductivity value of aquifer materials of 240 feet per day; the geometric mean of hydraulic conductivity values of aquifer material was 89 feet per day. Median grain sizes of aquifer material and clay units were 1.3 millimeters and 0.1 millimeters, respectively. Water levels in the Hamilton North Well Field are affected by stream stage in the Great Miami River and barometric pressure. Bank storage in response to stream stage is evident. Results from a multiple-well aquifer test at the well field indicate, as do the lithologic descriptions, that the aquifer is semiconfined in some areas and unconfined in others. Transmissivity and storage coefficient of the semiconfined part of the aquifer were 50,000 feet squared per day and 5x10-4, respectively. The average hydraulic conductivity (450 feet per day) based on the aquifer test is reasonable for glacial outwash but is higher than calculated from grain-size analyses, implying a scale effect

  14. Highly elevated levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate and other perfluorinated acids found in biota and surface water downstream of an international airport, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    de Solla, S R; De Silva, A O; Letcher, R J

    2012-02-01

    Per- and poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs), which include perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) and sulfonates (PFSAs) and various precursors, are used in a wide variety of industrial, commercial and domestic products. This includes aqueous film forming foam (AFFF), which is used by military and commercial airports as fire suppressants. In a preliminary assessment prior to this study, very high concentrations (>1 ppm wet weight) of the PFSA, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), were discovered in the plasma of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) collected in 2008 from Lake Niapenco in southern Ontario, Canada. We presently report on a suite of C(6) to C(15) PFCAs, C(4), C(6), C(8) and C(10) PFSAs, several PFC precursors (e.g. perfluorooctane sulfonamide, PFOSA), and a cyclic perfluorinated acid used in aircraft hydraulic fluid, perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS) in surface water from the Welland River and Lake Niapenco, downstream of the John C. Munro International Airport, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Amphipods, shrimp, and water were sampled from the Welland River and Lake Niapenco, as well as local references. The same suite of PFCs in turtle plasma from Lake Niapenco was compared to those from other southern Ontario sites. PFOS dominated the sum PFCs in all substrates (e.g., >99% in plasma of turtles downstream the Hamilton Airport, and 72.1 to 94.1% at all other sites). PFOS averaged 2223(±247.1SE) ng/g in turtle plasma from Lake Niapenco, and ranged from 9.0 to 171.4 elsewhere. Mean PFOS in amphipods and in water were 518.1(±83.8)ng/g and 130.3(±43.6) ng/L downstream of the airport, and 19.1(±2.7) ng/g and 6.8(±0.5) ng/L at reference sites, respectively. Concentrations of selected PFCs declined with distance downstream from the airport. Although there was no known spill event or publicly reported use of AFFF associated with a fire event at the Hamilton airport, the airport is a likely major source of PFC contamination in the Welland River. PMID

  15. A pooled analysis of two placebo-controlled trials of desvenlafaxine in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Daniel Z; Montgomery, Stuart A; Tourian, Karen A; Brisard, Claudine; Rosas, Gregory; Padmanabhan, Krishna; Germain, Jean-Michel; Pitrosky, Bruno

    2008-07-01

    The efficacy, safety, and tolerability of desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) were evaluated in two similarly designed, phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, venlafaxine-extended-release-referenced, flexible-dose studies of outpatients with a primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Owing to a high placebo response, the individual studies were underpowered. Therefore, a post-hoc pooled analysis was performed (desvenlafaxine and placebo data were pooled; venlafaxine extended release data were not, owing to different flexible-dose regimens in the two studies). The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement item score was a secondary outcome. Analysis of the pooled data (using a mixed-effect model for repeated measures) revealed that after 8 weeks of treatment, desvenlafaxine was significantly better than placebo on 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [-14.21 vs. -11.87 for desvenlafaxine and placebo, respectively; magnitude of effect=-2.34 (P<0.001)] and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement item scores [1.95 vs. 2.32 for desvenlafaxine and placebo, respectively; magnitude of effect=-0.37 (P<0.001)]. Adverse events were comparable to those found with other drugs sharing a similar mechanism of action. These data support the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of desvenlafaxine in the treatment of major depressive disorder.

  16. Revised diagnosis of the genus Gonorhynchus McClelland (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Labeonini) with redescription of G. latius (Hamilton) and revalidation of G. wattanah (Sykes).

    PubMed

    Ciccotto, Patrick J; Page, Lawrence M

    2016-01-01

    A new diagnosis of the genus Gonorhynchus McClelland 1838 from South Asia is proposed. Seven species are contained in the genus: G. latius (Hamilton 1822), G. diplochilus (Heckel 1838), G. wattanah (Sykes 1839), G. macmahoni (Zugmayer 1912), G. burmanicus (Hora 1936), G. bicornis (Wu 1977), and G. periyarensis (Menon & Jacob 1996). Gonorhynchus latius, a senior synonym of the type species G. brevis M'Clelland 1839 is redescribed. Crossocheilus gohama (M'Clelland 1839) and Crossochilus rostratus Günther 1868 are considered junior synonyms of G. latius, and a neotype is designated for G. latius. Gonorhynchus wattanah (Sykes 1839) from the Krishna and Godavari River basins in western India is revalidated and redescribed with the designation of a neotype. Akrokolioplax Zhang & Kottelat 2006 is a junior synonym of Gonorhynchus. PMID:27395636

  17. Effects of levomilnacipran ER on fatigue symptoms associated with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Marlene P; Fava, Maurizio; Gommoll, Carl; Chen, Changzheng; Greenberg, William M; Ruth, Adam

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) on depression-related fatigue in adults with major depressive disorder. Post-hoc analyses of five phase III trials were carried out, with evaluation of fatigue symptoms based on score changes in four items: Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) item 7 (lassitude), and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) items 7 (work/activities), 8 (retardation), and 13 (somatic symptoms). Symptom remission was analyzed on the basis of score shifts from baseline to end of treatment: MADRS item 7 and HAMD17 item 7 (from ≥2 to ≤1); HAMD17 items 8 and 13 (from ≥1 to 0). The mean change in MADRS total score was analyzed in patients with low and high fatigue (MADRS item 7 baseline score <4 and ≥4, respectively). Patients receiving levomilnacipran ER had significantly greater mean improvements and symptom remission (no/minimal residual fatigue) on all fatigue-related items: lassitude (35 vs. 28%), work/activities (43 vs. 35%), retardation (46 vs. 39%), somatic symptoms (26 vs. 18%; all Ps<0.01 versus placebo). The mean change in MADRS total score was significantly greater with levomilnacipran ER versus placebo in both low (least squares mean difference=-2.8, P=0.0018) and high (least squares mean difference=-3.1, P<0.0001) fatigue subgroups. Levomilnacipran ER treatment was effective in reducing depression-related fatigue in adult patients with major depressive disorder and was associated with remission of fatigue symptoms. PMID:26584326

  18. Effects of levomilnacipran ER on fatigue symptoms associated with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fava, Maurizio; Gommoll, Carl; Chen, Changzheng; Greenberg, William M.; Ruth, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) on depression-related fatigue in adults with major depressive disorder. Post-hoc analyses of five phase III trials were carried out, with evaluation of fatigue symptoms based on score changes in four items: Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) item 7 (lassitude), and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) items 7 (work/activities), 8 (retardation), and 13 (somatic symptoms). Symptom remission was analyzed on the basis of score shifts from baseline to end of treatment: MADRS item 7 and HAMD17 item 7 (from ≥2 to ≤1); HAMD17 items 8 and 13 (from ≥1 to 0). The mean change in MADRS total score was analyzed in patients with low and high fatigue (MADRS item 7 baseline score <4 and ≥4, respectively). Patients receiving levomilnacipran ER had significantly greater mean improvements and symptom remission (no/minimal residual fatigue) on all fatigue-related items: lassitude (35 vs. 28%), work/activities (43 vs. 35%), retardation (46 vs. 39%), somatic symptoms (26 vs. 18%; all Ps<0.01 versus placebo). The mean change in MADRS total score was significantly greater with levomilnacipran ER versus placebo in both low (least squares mean difference=−2.8, P=0.0018) and high (least squares mean difference=−3.1, P<0.0001) fatigue subgroups. Levomilnacipran ER treatment was effective in reducing depression-related fatigue in adult patients with major depressive disorder and was associated with remission of fatigue symptoms. PMID:26584326

  19. Molecular characterization of Hb Hamilton Hill (HBA2: c.388delC), a novel HBA2 variant generating a premature termination codon and truncated HBA2 chain.

    PubMed

    Qadah, Talal; Finlayson, Jill; North, Emma; Ghassemifar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the identification of α-thalassemias caused by nondeletional mutations has increased significantly due to the advancement of sensitive molecular genetics tools. We report clinical and experimental data for a novel frameshift mutation caused by a single base deletion at position 388 in exon 3 of the α2-globin gene (HBA2: c.388delC; Hb Hamilton Hill), resulting in the phenotype of α-thalassemia (α-thal). Hb Hamilton Hill was identified in an adult female of unknown ethnicity investigated for unexplained microcytosis. Direct DNA sequencing of the HBA2 gene revealed a heterozygous mutation, HBA2: c.388delC, and the molecular effect of this mutation was assessed experimentally using our previously described in vitro model. The experimental analysis involved transfection of a human bladder carcinoma (5637) cell line with expression vectors carrying either HBA2-wild type (HBA2-WT) or HBA2: c.388delC followed by total RNA purification and cDNA synthesis. Both wild type and mutant gene expression was studied and compared at the transcriptional and translational levels using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qReTi-PCR) and immunofluorochemistry (IFC), respectively. Our experimental data showed a significant reduction by 25.0% (p = 0.04) in the transcriptional activity generated from HBA2: c.388delC compared to HBA2-WT. As a result of this base deletion, a frameshift in the open reading frame generates a premature termination codon (PTC) at codon 132 of exon 3 resulting in the formation of a truncated α-globin chain. The truncated α-globin chain, observed by the IFC technique, is most likely unstable and undergoes a rapid turnover resulting in the thalassemic phenotype.

  20. Contrasts in Structural and Bonding Representations among Polar Intermetallic Compounds. Strongly Differentiated Hamilton Populations for Three Related Condensed Cluster Halides of the Rare-Earth Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Shalabh; Meyer, Gerd; Corbett, John D.

    2010-10-01

    The crystal and electronic structures of three related R{sub 3}TnX{sub 3} phases (R = rare-earth metal, Tn = transition metal, X = Cl, I) containing extended mixed-metal chains are compared and contrasted: (1) Pr{sub 3}RuI{sub 3} (P2{sub 1}/m), (2) Gd{sub 3}MnI{sub 3} (P2{sub 1}/m), and (3) Pr{sub 3}RuCl{sub 3} (Pnma). The structures all feature double chains built of pairs of condensed R{sub 6}(Tn) octahedral chains encased by halogen atoms. Pr{sub 3}RuI{sub 3} (1) lacks significant Ru-Ru bonding, evidently because of packing restrictions imposed by the large closed-shell size of iodine. However, the vertex Pr2 atoms on the chain exhibit a marked electronic differentiation. These are strongly bound to the central Ru (and to four I), but very little to four neighboring Pr in the cluster according to bond populations, in contrast to Pr2-Pr 'bond' distances that are very comparable to those elsewhere. In Gd{sub 3}MnI{sub 3} (2), the smaller metal atoms allow substantial distortions and Mn-Mn bonding. Pr{sub 3}RuCl{sub 3} (3), in contrast to the iodide (1), can be described in terms of a more tightly bound superstructure of (2) in which both substantial Ru-Ru bonding and an increased number of Pr-Cl contacts in very similar mixed-metal chains are favored by the smaller closed-shell contacts of chlorine. Local Spin Density Approximation (LSDA) Linearized Muffin-Tin Orbital (LMTO)-ASA calculations and Crystal Orbital Hamilton Population (COHP) analyses show that the customary structural descriptions in terms of condensed, Tn-stuffed, R-R bonded polyhedral frameworks are poor representations of the bonding in all. Hamilton bond populations (-ICOHP) for the polar mixed-metal R-Tn and the somewhat smaller R-X interactions account for 75-90% of the total populations in each of these phases, together with smaller contributions and variations for R-R and Tn-Tn interactions. The strength of such R-Tn contributions in polar intermetallics was first established or anticipated by

  1. Hamilton-Jacobi and quantum theory formulations of thermal-wave propagation under the dual-phase lagging model of heat conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ordonez-Miranda, J.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Zambrano-Arjona, Miguel A.

    2010-02-15

    Dual-phase lagging model is one of the most promising approaches to generalize the Fourier heat conduction equation, and it can be reduced in the appropriate limits to the hyperbolic Cattaneo-Vernotte and to the parabolic equations. In this paper it is shown that the Hamilton-Jacobi and quantum theory formulations that have been developed to study the thermal-wave propagation in the Fourier framework can be extended to include the more general approach based on dual-phase lagging. It is shown that the problem of solving the heat conduction equation can be treated as a thermal harmonic oscillator. In the classical approach a formulation in canonical variables is presented. This formalism is used to introduce a quantum mechanical approach from which the expectation values of observables such as the temperature and heat flux are obtained. These formalisms permit to use a methodology that could provide a deeper insight into the phenomena of heat transport at different time scales in media with inhomogeneous thermophysical properties.

  2. Decentralized optimal control of a class of interconnected nonlinear discrete-time systems by using online Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman formulation.

    PubMed

    Mehraeen, Shahab; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the direct neural dynamic programming technique is utilized to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation forward-in-time for the decentralized near optimal regulation of a class of nonlinear interconnected discrete-time systems with unknown internal subsystem and interconnection dynamics, while the input gain matrix is considered known. Even though the unknown interconnection terms are considered weak and functions of the entire state vector, the decentralized control is attempted under the assumption that only the local state vector is measurable. The decentralized nearly optimal controller design for each subsystem consists of two neural networks (NNs), an action NN that is aimed to provide a nearly optimal control signal, and a critic NN which evaluates the performance of the overall system. All NN parameters are tuned online for both the NNs. By using Lyapunov techniques it is shown that all subsystems signals are uniformly ultimately bounded and that the synthesized subsystems inputs approach their corresponding nearly optimal control inputs with bounded error. Simulation results are included to show the effectiveness of the approach. PMID:21965197

  3. Design of Free Parameters of State-Dependent Coefficient Form Based on the Relation between State-Dependent Riccati Inequality and Hamilton Jacobi Inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakayanagi, Yoshihiro; Nakaura, Shigeki; Sampei, Mitsuji

    The solvable condition of nonlinear H∞ control problems is given by the Hamilton Jacobi inequality (HJI). The state-dependent Riccati inequality (SDRI) is one of the approaches used to solve the HJI. The SDRI contains the state-dependent coefficient (SDC) form of a nonlinear system. The SDC form is not unique. If a poor SDC form is chosen, then there is no solution for the SDRI. In other words, there exist free parameters of the SDC form that affect the solvability of the SDRI. This study focuses on the free parameters of the SDC form. First, a representation of the free parameters of the SDC form is introduced. The solvability of an SDRI is a sufficient condition for that of the related HJI, and the free parameters affect the conservativeness of the SDRI approach. In addition, a new method for designing the free parameters that reduces the conservativeness of the SDRI approach is introduced. Finally, numerical examples to verify the effect of this method are presented.

  4. Ground-water hydrology of the lower Wolftever Creek basin, with emphasis on the Carson Spring area, Hamilton County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.A.; Carmichael, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the ground-water-flow system that supplies Carson Spring and the surrounding lower Wolftever Creek basin northeast of Chattanooga, Tennessee, was conducted from September 1986 through December 1989. About two-thirds of the lower basin is underlain by the Chepultepec Dolomite of Ordovician age. Test drilling within a few miles of the spring showed that numerous solution cavities have developed in this formation; many are partly or completely plugged with cherty gravels and mud. In the recharge area to the spring, the formation can provide yields of 100 to perhaps 600 gallons of water per minute to bedrock wells. A well that penetrated a well-integrated cavity system underlying Carson Spring was tested at 2,000 gallons per minute. From May 1987 through December 1989, mean daily withdrawals from four wells at Carson Spring ranged from 4.78 to 5.83 cubic feet per second; mean daily spring discharge, which includes withdrawals, ranged from 5.53 to 5.79 cubic feet per second. For a 16-month drought period during 1987 and 1988, withdrawals from these wells exceeded natural spring discharge, and demonstrates that for a period of many consecutive months, the aquifer supplying the spring is capable of yielding more water than the spring would have discharged under natural conditions. Although the lower basin encompasses 17 square miles, the Carson Spring recharge area probably is not greater than 9 square miles. Most water not captured by cavities supplying the spring is discharged to Wolftever Creek. In the lower basin, the rate of ground-water discharge to the creek is about twice the average rate of discharge (0.25 cubic foot per second per square mile of drainage area) to area streams. Principal constituents in ground water in the lower basin are calcium and bicarbonate, or calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate. Specific conductance commonly ranges from 100 to 700 microsiemens per centimeter, and pH usually ranges from about 7 to 8. Overall, the ground

  5. Feynman formulae and phase space Feynman path integrals for tau-quantization of some Lévy-Khintchine type Hamilton functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butko, Yana A.; Grothaus, Martin; Smolyanov, Oleg G.

    2016-02-01

    Evolution semigroups generated by pseudo-differential operators are considered. These operators are obtained by different (parameterized by a number τ) procedures of quantization from a certain class of functions (or symbols) defined on the phase space. This class contains Hamilton functions of particles with variable mass in magnetic and potential fields and more general symbols given by the Lévy-Khintchine formula. The considered semigroups are represented as limits of n-fold iterated integrals when n tends to infinity. Such representations are called Feynman formulae. Some of these representations are constructed with the help of another pseudo-differential operator, obtained by the same procedure of quantization; such representations are called Hamiltonian Feynman formulae. Some representations are based on integral operators with elementary kernels; these are called Lagrangian Feynman formulae. Langrangian Feynman formulae provide approximations of evolution semigroups, suitable for direct computations and numerical modeling of the corresponding dynamics. Hamiltonian Feynman formulae allow to represent the considered semigroups by means of Feynman path integrals. In the article, a family of phase space Feynman pseudomeasures corresponding to different procedures of quantization is introduced. The considered evolution semigroups are represented as phase space Feynman path integrals with respect to these Feynman pseudomeasures, i.e., different quantizations correspond to Feynman path integrals with the same integrand but with respect to different pseudomeasures. This answers Berezin's problem of distinguishing a procedure of quantization on the language of Feynman path integrals. Moreover, the obtained Lagrangian Feynman formulae allow also to calculate these phase space Feynman path integrals and to connect them with some functional integrals with respect to probability measures.

  6. Delivering oxytetracycline to first-feeding zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton), and goby, Asterropteryx semipunctata Rüppell, larvae using lipid spray beads.

    PubMed

    Temple, E; Langdon, C

    2009-03-01

    Lipid spray beads (LSB) were evaluated for delivery of the low-molecular weight, water-soluble antibiotic, oxytetracycline.HCl (OTC) to fish larvae. Various OTC core-to-lipid ratios and OTC core concentrations were evaluated to maximize OTC delivery efficiency by LSB. Acceptability and digestion of LSB containing OTC and riboflavin by larval zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton), and larval gobies, Asterropteryx semipunctata Rüppell, were also evaluated. Increasing LSB core-to-lipid ratios from 1:3 to 1:1 v/v resulted in an increase in encapsulation efficiency (EE) from 2.33 to 3.68% w/w. Increasing OTC concentrations of core solutions from 0.1 to 0.5 g OTC mL(-1) increased EE from 3.95 to 18.77% w/w, respectively. Although retention efficiency (RE) was unaffected by this increase, delivery efficiency was increased to 7.9 +/- 0.7% w/w, after correcting for leakage losses because of the suspension of beads in water for 60 min. Consumption of LSB containing OTC by first-feeding zebrafish and goby larvae was confirmed by analysis of feeding incidence and gut fullness. Visual observations of larvae fed on LSB containing riboflavin indicated that larvae of both species digested LSB. Zebrafish larvae fed on OTC LSB contained 39.3 +/- 2.5 ng OTC after purging LSB from their guts. Use of LSB provides an effective means of delivering therapeutics to fish larvae and could greatly reduce required doses compared with current methods of immersing larvae in solutions of therapeutic agents.

  7. High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in sport fish species downstream of a firefighting training facility at Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Mahon, Chris G; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric; Drouillard, Ken

    2014-06-01

    A recent study reported elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water, snapping turtles, and amphipods in Lake Niapenco, downstream of Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada. Here, our goals were to 1) determine the extent of PFAA contamination in sport fish species collected downstream of the airport, 2) explore if the airport could be a potential source, and 3) compare fish PFOS concentrations to consumption advisory benchmarks. The PFOS levels in several sport fish collected from the three locations closest to the airport (<40km) were among the highest previously published in the peer-reviewed literature and also tended to exceed consumption benchmarks. The only other fish that had comparable concentrations were collected in a region affected by inputs from a major fluorinated chemical production facility. In contrast, PFOS concentrations in the two most downstream locations (>70km) were comparable to or below the average concentrations in fish as observed in the literature and were generally below the benchmarks. With regards to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), there was no significant decrease in concentrations in fish with distance from the airport and levels were comparable to or below the average concentrations observed in the literature, suggesting that the airport is not a significant source of PFCAs in these fish species. PFOS-based aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) was used at a firefighting training facility at the airport in the 1980s to mid-1990s. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the airport has resulted in fish PFOS concentrations that exceed the 95th percentile concentration of values reported in the literature to date.

  8. High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in sport fish species downstream of a firefighting training facility at Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Mahon, Chris G; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric; Drouillard, Ken

    2014-06-01

    A recent study reported elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water, snapping turtles, and amphipods in Lake Niapenco, downstream of Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada. Here, our goals were to 1) determine the extent of PFAA contamination in sport fish species collected downstream of the airport, 2) explore if the airport could be a potential source, and 3) compare fish PFOS concentrations to consumption advisory benchmarks. The PFOS levels in several sport fish collected from the three locations closest to the airport (<40km) were among the highest previously published in the peer-reviewed literature and also tended to exceed consumption benchmarks. The only other fish that had comparable concentrations were collected in a region affected by inputs from a major fluorinated chemical production facility. In contrast, PFOS concentrations in the two most downstream locations (>70km) were comparable to or below the average concentrations in fish as observed in the literature and were generally below the benchmarks. With regards to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), there was no significant decrease in concentrations in fish with distance from the airport and levels were comparable to or below the average concentrations observed in the literature, suggesting that the airport is not a significant source of PFCAs in these fish species. PFOS-based aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) was used at a firefighting training facility at the airport in the 1980s to mid-1990s. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the airport has resulted in fish PFOS concentrations that exceed the 95th percentile concentration of values reported in the literature to date. PMID:24632327

  9. Size-dependent mortality rate profiles.

    PubMed

    Roa-Ureta, Ruben H

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge of mortality rates is crucial to the understanding of population dynamics in populations of free-living fish and invertebrates in marine and freshwater environments, and consequently to sustainable resource management. There is a well developed theory of population dynamics based on age distributions that allow direct estimation of mortality rates. However, for most cases the aging of individuals is difficult or age distributions are not available for other reasons. The body size distribution is a widely available alternative although the theory underlying the formation of its shape is more complicated than in the case of age distributions. A solid theory of the time evolution of a population structured by any physiological variable has been developed in 1960s and 1970s by adapting the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of classical mechanics, and equations to estimate the body size-distributed mortality profile have been derived for simple cases. Here I extend those results with regards to the size-distributed mortality profile to complex cases of non-stationary populations, individuals growing according to a generalised growth model and seasonally patterned recruitment pulses. I apply resulting methods to two cases in the marine environment, a benthic crustacean population that was growing during the period of observation and whose individuals grow with negative acceleration, and a sea urchin coastal population that is undergoing a stable cycle of two equilibrium points in population size whose individuals grow with varying acceleration that switches sign along the size range. The extension is very general and substantially widens the applicability of the theory. PMID:27164999

  10. Chronic Supplementation of Curcumin Enhances the Efficacy of Antidepressants in Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing-Jie; Pei, Liu-Bao; Zhang, Yong; Wen, Zi-Yu; Yang, Jian-Li

    2015-08-01

    Major depressive disorder is a devastating mental illness leading to a lifetime prevalence of higher than 16% on individuals. The treatment delay and inevitable adverse effects are major limitations of current depression interventions. Emerging evidence indicates that curcumin produced significant antidepressant properties in depression in both rodents and humans without adverse effects. Therefore, it is necessary to further clarify the antidepressant actions of curcumin and the underlying mechanism in depressed patients. A total of 108 male adults aged between 31 and 59 years were systematically recruited in Tianjin Anding Hospital. Subjects were administered the Chinese version of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale that measures different scores of depressive symptoms. The subjects were asked to take 2 capsules containing either 1000 mg of curcumin or placebo soybean powder daily for 6 weeks on the basis of their current antidepressant medications. The plasma levels of interleukin 1β, tumor necrosis factor α, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and salivary cortisol were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after curcumin or placebo treatment during the 6-week procedure. Chronic supplementation with curcumin produced significant antidepressant behavioral response in depressed patients by reduction of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores. Furthermore, curcumin decreases inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α level, increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, and decreases salivary cortisol concentrations compared with placebo group. These findings indicate the potential benefits of further implications of supplementary administration of curcumin to reverse the development of depression and enhance the outcome of antidepressants treatment in major depressive disorder.

  11. Chronic Supplementation of Curcumin Enhances the Efficacy of Antidepressants in Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing-Jie; Pei, Liu-Bao; Zhang, Yong; Wen, Zi-Yu; Yang, Jian-Li

    2015-08-01

    Major depressive disorder is a devastating mental illness leading to a lifetime prevalence of higher than 16% on individuals. The treatment delay and inevitable adverse effects are major limitations of current depression interventions. Emerging evidence indicates that curcumin produced significant antidepressant properties in depression in both rodents and humans without adverse effects. Therefore, it is necessary to further clarify the antidepressant actions of curcumin and the underlying mechanism in depressed patients. A total of 108 male adults aged between 31 and 59 years were systematically recruited in Tianjin Anding Hospital. Subjects were administered the Chinese version of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale that measures different scores of depressive symptoms. The subjects were asked to take 2 capsules containing either 1000 mg of curcumin or placebo soybean powder daily for 6 weeks on the basis of their current antidepressant medications. The plasma levels of interleukin 1β, tumor necrosis factor α, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and salivary cortisol were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after curcumin or placebo treatment during the 6-week procedure. Chronic supplementation with curcumin produced significant antidepressant behavioral response in depressed patients by reduction of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores. Furthermore, curcumin decreases inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α level, increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, and decreases salivary cortisol concentrations compared with placebo group. These findings indicate the potential benefits of further implications of supplementary administration of curcumin to reverse the development of depression and enhance the outcome of antidepressants treatment in major depressive disorder. PMID:26066335

  12. Effects of paroxetine-mediated inhibition of GRK2 expression on depression and cardiovascular function in patients with myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiuqing; Wang, Qing; Guo, Rui; Xu, Lingling; Chen, Qin M; Hou, Yinglong

    2016-01-01

    Background Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor utilized in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Recent studies have identified paroxetine as a G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2) inhibitor capable of reversing cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in experimental models of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We determine the clinical importance of paroxetine on cardiac functions in patients having AMI with depression (AMID) in comparison with fluoxetine, an unrelated selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that does not inhibit GRK2. Methods Diagnosis of depression was based on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale and Self-rating Depression Scale in AMI patients after hospital admission. AMID patients were randomly assigned to paroxetine or fluoxetine for treatment of depression. Heart rate variability and cardiac function were evaluated. GRK2 protein levels were measured using peripheral lymphocytes and Western blot. Results GRK2 expression in AMID patients was significantly higher than that in AMI patients without depression. In AMID patients, GRK2 levels were positively correlated with the 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale and the Self-rating Depression Scale scores, and negatively correlated with heart rate variability. Treatment of AMID patients with paroxetine significantly reduced the expression of GRK2, normalized the autonomic nervous system function, and improved cardiac performance. In contrast, fluoxetine normalized the autonomic nervous system but did not reduce the expression of GRK2 nor improved cardiac performance. Conclusion This study suggests that paroxetine is effective for improving cardiac function in patients with AMID and such effect correlates with GRK2 reduction. PMID:27695334

  13. Retrospective analysis of suicidality in patients treated with the antidepressant desvenlafaxine.

    PubMed

    Tourian, Karen A; Padmanabhan, Krishna; Groark, Jim; Ninan, Philip T

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this analysis was to assess the risk of increased suicidal thoughts and behavior (suicidality) with desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Data from 9 double-blind, 8-week studies in outpatients with MDD were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were randomly assigned to desvenlafaxine (n = 1834) or placebo (n = 1116). Adverse events (AEs) related to suicidality were identified by searching the AE database for text strings possibly related to suicidality; false positives were excluded. Narratives for each case were prepared and blinded for review. Events were classified according to the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment. Odds ratios were calculated; chi tests were used to compare treatment groups. Occurrence of emerging or worsening suicidality, based on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression suicide item, was compared for desvenlafaxine and placebo using chi tests. In all, 17 (0.93%) of 1834 patients receiving desvenlafaxine and 8 (0.72%) of 1116 receiving placebo reported possible suicidality-related AEs. Events were relatively evenly distributed across treatment groups. One patient randomly assigned to desvenlafaxine treatment died of completed suicide during the on-therapy period. There were no significant differences between groups in the risk for any class of suicide-related events, including completed suicide or suicide attempt. Odds of emergence or worsening of suicidality 17-item (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression suicide item) did not differ significantly between treatment groups. No evidence of a signal for increased suicidality was detected in adult patients treated with desvenlafaxine in short-term MDD trials. As suicidal events were extremely rare, a true increased risk cannot be ruled out.

  14. Retrospective analysis of suicidality in patients treated with the antidepressant desvenlafaxine.

    PubMed

    Tourian, Karen A; Padmanabhan, Krishna; Groark, Jim; Ninan, Philip T

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this analysis was to assess the risk of increased suicidal thoughts and behavior (suicidality) with desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Data from 9 double-blind, 8-week studies in outpatients with MDD were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were randomly assigned to desvenlafaxine (n = 1834) or placebo (n = 1116). Adverse events (AEs) related to suicidality were identified by searching the AE database for text strings possibly related to suicidality; false positives were excluded. Narratives for each case were prepared and blinded for review. Events were classified according to the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment. Odds ratios were calculated; chi tests were used to compare treatment groups. Occurrence of emerging or worsening suicidality, based on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression suicide item, was compared for desvenlafaxine and placebo using chi tests. In all, 17 (0.93%) of 1834 patients receiving desvenlafaxine and 8 (0.72%) of 1116 receiving placebo reported possible suicidality-related AEs. Events were relatively evenly distributed across treatment groups. One patient randomly assigned to desvenlafaxine treatment died of completed suicide during the on-therapy period. There were no significant differences between groups in the risk for any class of suicide-related events, including completed suicide or suicide attempt. Odds of emergence or worsening of suicidality 17-item (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression suicide item) did not differ significantly between treatment groups. No evidence of a signal for increased suicidality was detected in adult patients treated with desvenlafaxine in short-term MDD trials. As suicidal events were extremely rare, a true increased risk cannot be ruled out. PMID:20631558

  15. Treating Depression to Remission in Older Adults: A Controlled Evaluation of Combined Escitalopram with Interpersonal Psychotherapy versus Escitalopram with Depression Care Management

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Charles F.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Martire, Lynn M.; Miller, Mark D.; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Lenze, Eric; Whyte, Ellen M.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Karp, Jordan F.; Gildengers, Ariel; Szanto, Katalin; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Andreescu, Carmen; Butters, Meryl A.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Houck, Patricia R.; Bensasi, Salem; Mazumdar, Sati; Stack, Jacqueline A.; Frank, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Objective More than half of older adults respond only partially to first-line antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a depression-specific psychotherapy, Interpersonal Psychotherapy—IPT, when used adjunctively with escitalopram, would lead to a higher rate of remission and faster resolution of symptoms in partial responders than escitalopram with depression care management (DCM). Method We conducted a 16-week randomized clinical trial of IPT and DCM in partial responders to escitalopram, enrolling 124 outpatients aged 60 and older. The primary outcome, remission, was defined as three consecutive weekly scores of ≤7 on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (17-item). We conducted Cox regression analyses of time to remission and logistic modeling for rates of remission. We tested group differences in Hamilton depression ratings over time via mixed-effects modeling. Results Remission rates for escitalopram with IPT and with DCM were similar in intention-to-treat (IPT versus DCM: 58 [95% CI: 46, 71] versus 45% [33,58]; p = 0.14) and completer analyses (IPT versus DCM: 58% [95% CI: 44,72] versus 43% [30, 57]; p = 0.20). Rapidity of symptom improvement did not differ in the two treatments. Conclusion No added advantage of IPT over DCM was shown. Depression care management is a clinically useful strategy to achieve full remission in about 50% of partial responders. PMID:20957693

  16. Efficacy of vilazodone on anxiety symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Thase, Michael E; Chen, Dalei; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety symptoms are prevalent in patients with major depressive disorder. A post-hoc analysis of two phase III trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of vilazodone on depression-related anxiety. Using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) Anxiety/Somatization subscale, patients were classified as anxious or nonanxious. Improvements in depressive symptoms were based on least squares mean changes in HAMD17 and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale total scores. Anxiety symptoms in the anxious subgroup were evaluated using Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) total and subscale (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale and item (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale Inner Tension item score. Most of the pooled study population [82.0% (708/863)] was classified with anxious depression. After 8 weeks of treatment, least squares mean differences between vilazodone and placebo for changes in HAMA total and HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale scores were -1.82 (95% confidence interval -2.81 to -0.83; P<0.001) and -0.75 (95% confidence interval -1.17 to -0.32; P<0.001), respectively. Statistically significant improvements with vilazodone were also found on all other anxiety-related measures, except the HAMA Somatic Anxiety subscale. Vilazodone may be effective in treating patients with major depressive disorder who exhibit somatic and/or psychic symptoms of anxiety.

  17. Raters & Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Winifred A.; Stone, Mark H.

    1998-01-01

    The first article in this section, "Rating Scales and Shared Meaning," by Winifred A. Lopez, discusses the analysis of rating scale data. The second article, "Rating Scale Categories: Dichotomy, Double Dichotomy, and the Number Two," by Mark H. Stone, argues that dichotomies in rating scales are more useful than multiple ratings. (SLD)

  18. Rate of spontaneous mutation at human loci encoding protein structure.

    PubMed Central

    Neel, J V; Mohrenweiser, H W; Meisler, M H

    1980-01-01

    The techniques of electrophoresis were used in a search for evidence of mutation affecting protein structure, the indicators being hemoglobin and a set of serum proteins and erythrocyte enzymes. Among 94,796 locus tests on Amerindians from Central and South America, there was no evidence for mutation. Among 105,649 locus tests on newborn infants in Ann Arbor, Michigan, there was also no evidence for mutation. We have previously failed to encounter any mutations in a series of 208,196 locus tests involving Japanese children [Neel, J. V., Satoh, C., Hamilton, H. B., Otake, M., Goriki, K., Kageoka, T., Fugita, M., Neriishi, S & Asakawa,J. (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 4221-4225], and H. Harris, D. A. Hopkinson, and E. B. Robson [(1974) Ann. Hum. Genet. 37, 237-253] found no mutations in 113,478 locus tests on inhabitants of the United Kingdom. This failure to demonstrate any mutations of this type in a total of 522,119 locus tests excludes, at the 95% level of probability, a mutation rate greater than 0.6 X 10(-5)/locus per generation in this combination of populations. PMID:6934530

  19. Effects of Paroxetine CR on Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Nourse, Rosemary; Wasser, Thomas E.; Krulewicz, Stan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Previous research reports higher rates of depression in Hispanic women than Caucasian or African American women. The effectiveness and tolerability of paroxetine CR (controlled release) was examined in women of Hispanic heritage with depression or anxiety. Methods: Thirty-six Hispanic female patients 18 years or older meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression or generalized anxiety disorder diagnosis with an initial Hamilton Depression Rating scale (17 item) Ž20 or Hamilton Anxiety Rating scale Ž18 measuring no less than 4 on the Clinical Global Impression Severity scale received paroxetine CR (12.5–50mg/day) for 29 weeks of open label treatment. Analysis was conducted using repeated measures methodology. Results: Significant symptom reduction was observed on all scales. Mean dose was 31.7mg. The side effect of sexual dysfunction (17%) appeared most frequently but did not cause any patients to cease study participation. Conclusions: Paroxetine CR was an effective and generally well tolerated treatment in this population. PMID:21103179

  20. Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data. PMID:20802818

  1. Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data.

  2. Target Heart Rate Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » + - Text Size Target Heart Rate Calculator Compute your best workout Enter your age ... is your age? years. How to Check Your Heart Rate Right after you stop exercising, take your pulse: ...

  3. Total mercury, methylmercury, and selected elements in soils of the Fishing Brook watershed, Hamilton County, New York, and the McTier Creek watershed, Aiken County, South Carolina, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Cannon, William F.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Bradley, Paul M.; Burns, Douglas A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Lowery, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is an element of on-going concern for human and aquatic health. Mercury sequestered in upland and wetland soils represents a source that may contribute to mercury contamination in sensitive ecosystems. An improved understanding of mercury cycling in stream ecosystems requires identification and quantification of mercury speciation and transport dynamics in upland and wetland soils within a watershed. This report presents data for soils collected in 2008 from two small watersheds in New York and South Carolina. In New York, 163 samples were taken from multiple depths or soil horizons at 70 separate locations near Fishing Brook, located in Hamilton County. At McTier Creek, in Aiken County, South Carolina, 81 samples from various soil horizons or soil depths were collected from 24 locations. Sample locations within each watershed were selected to characterize soil geochemistry in distinct land-cover compartments. Soils were analyzed for total mercury, selenium, total and carbonate carbon, and 42 other elements. A subset of the samples was also analyzed for methylmercury.

  4. Hb O-Tibesti [beta121(GH4)Glu-->Lys; beta11(A8)Val-->Ile], a hemoglobin variant carrying in the same beta chain the substitutions of Hb O-Arab and Hb Hamilton, found in combination with Hb S [beta6(A3)Glu-->Val].

    PubMed

    Préhu, Claude; Riou, Jean; Sartelet, Isabelle; Promé, Danielle; Claparols, Catherine; Denier, Mathias; Motte, Jacques; Galactéros, Frederic; Wajcman, Henri

    2002-02-01

    Hb O-Tibesti, carries in the same chain the substitution of Hb O-Arab [beta121(GH4)Glu-->Lys] and that of Hb Hamilton [beta11(A8)Val-->Ile]. Hb O-Tibesti may be distinguished from Hb O-Arab by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of urea and Triton-X100, and by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. It was found in a compound heterozygous condition with Hb S [beta6(A3)Glu-->Val] in a child of Chad-Sudanese descent, suffering from a sickle cell syndrome. Compared to the classical description of the Hb S/Hb O-Arab association, the additional Hb Hamilton mutation does not seem to modify the clinical presentation. PMID:11939508

  5. Handbook of noise ratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearsons, K. S.; Bennett, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The handbook was compiled to provide information in a concise form, describing the multitude of noise rating schemes. It is hoped that by describing the noise rating methods in a single volume the user will have better access to the definitions, application and calculation procedures of the current noise rating methods.

  6. Rate theories for biologists

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Some of the rate theories that are most useful for modeling biological processes are reviewed. By delving into some of the details and subtleties in the development of the theories, the review will hopefully help the reader gain a more than superficial perspective. Examples are presented to illustrate how rate theories can be used to generate insight at the microscopic level into biomolecular behaviors. Attempt is made to clear up a number of misconceptions in the literature regarding popular rate theories, including the appearance of Planck’s constant in the transition-state theory and the Smoluchowski result as an upper limit for protein-protein and protein-DNA association rate constants. Future work in combining the implementation of rate theories through computer simulations with experimental probes of rate processes, and in modeling effects of intracellular environments so theories can be used for generating rate constants for systems biology studies is particularly exciting. PMID:20691138

  7. Vibrato rate adjustment.

    PubMed

    Dromey, Christopher; Carter, Neisha; Hopkin, Arden

    2003-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to document the acoustic changes that occur as singers attempt to increase or decrease their vibrato rate to match target stimuli. Eight advanced singing students produced vowels with vibrato in three registers, both naturally and while attempting to match faster or slower rate stimuli. Slower rates were associated with lower intensity and less steady vibrato. Faster rates involved increased vibrato extent in the chest register and increased intensity in the head register. Singers whose spontaneous vibrato rates were naturally either slower or faster tended to also be relatively slower or faster when matching target rates. This ability to modify rate may have beneficial effects on the artistic quality of the voice for performance. PMID:12825649

  8. Effect of dietary supplemented andrographolide on growth, non-specific immune parameters and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Basha, Kusunur Ahamed; Raman, Ram Prakash; Prasad, Kurcheti Pani; Kumar, Kundan; Nilavan, Ezhil; Kumar, Saurav

    2013-11-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of dietary andrographolide (EC 50%) on growth, non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita fingerlings. Fishes were fed with formulated diet containing andrographolide as T0 (0.00%), T1 (0.05%), T2 (0.10%), T3 (0.20%), T4 (0.40%) and T5 (0.80%) for 42 days. Fishes were challenged with A. hydrophila 42 days post feeding and relative percentage survival (RPS) was recorded over 14 days post challenge. Blood and serum samples were collected for nonspecific immune parameters on 14, 28 and 42 days of feeding and growth performance was evaluated at the end of experiment. The results revealed that fishes fed with andrographolide showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in NBT levels, myeloperoxidase activity, phagocytic activity, serum lysozyme activity, and serum antiprotease activity when compared to the control group. The weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio of fishes fed with andrographolide were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) differed compared with control. Dietary andrographolide at the level of 0.10% showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher RPS (74.06%) against A. hydrophila infection than control. The results revealed that andrographolide supplemented diet has a stimulatory effect on non-specific immune parameters along with improved growth performance and increased disease resistance against A. hydrophila infection in L. rohita fingerlings.

  9. Effects of nickel chloride and oxygen depletion on behaviour and vitality of zebrafish (Danio rerio, Hamilton, 1822) (Pisces, Cypriniformes) embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Kienle, Cornelia; Köhler, H-R; Filser, Juliane; Gerhardt, Almut

    2008-04-01

    We examined acute (2 h exposure of 5-day-old larvae) and subchronic (exposure from fertilization up to an age of 11 days) effects of NiCl(2).6H2O on embryos and larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio), both alone and in combination with oxygen depletion. The following endpoints were recorded: acute exposure: locomotory activity and survival; subchronic exposure: hatching rate, deformations, locomotory activity (at 5, 8 and 11 days) and mortality. In acute exposures nickel chloride (7.5-15 mg Ni/L) caused decreasing locomotory activity. Oxygen depletion (or=10 mg Ni/L resulted in delayed hatching at an age of 96 h, in decreased locomotory activity at an age of 5 days, and increased mortality at an age of 11 days (LC20=9.5 mg Ni/L). The observed LOEC for locomotory activity (7.5 mg Ni/L) is in the range of environmentally relevant concentrations. Since locomotory activity was already affected by acute exposure, this parameter is recommended to supplement commonly recorded endpoints of toxicity.

  10. Measuring zebrafish turning rate.

    PubMed

    Mwaffo, Violet; Butail, Sachit; di Bernardo, Mario; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Zebrafish is becoming a popular animal model in preclinical research, and zebrafish turning rate has been proposed for the analysis of activity in several domains. The turning rate is often estimated from the trajectory of the fish centroid that is output by commercial or custom-made target tracking software run on overhead videos of fish swimming. However, the accuracy of such indirect methods with respect to the turning rate associated with changes in heading during zebrafish locomotion is largely untested. Here, we compare two indirect methods for the turning rate estimation using the centroid velocity or position data, with full shape tracking for three different video sampling rates. We use tracking data from the overhead video recorded at 60, 30, and 15 frames per second of zebrafish swimming in a shallow water tank. Statistical comparisons of absolute turning rate across methods and sampling rates indicate that, while indirect methods are indistinguishable from full shape tracking, the video sampling rate significantly influences the turning rate measurement. The results of this study can aid in the selection of the video capture frame rate, an experimental design parameter in zebrafish behavioral experiments where activity is an important measure.

  11. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  12. Seasonal variation in thermal tolerance, oxygen consumption, antioxidative enzymes and non-specific immune indices of Indian hill trout, Barilius bendelisis (Hamilton, 1807) from central Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neeraj Kumar; Akhtar, M S; Pandey, Nityanand; Singh, Ravindra; Singh, Atul Kumar

    2015-08-01

    We studied the season dependent thermal tolerance, oxygen consumption, respiratory burst response and antioxidative enzyme activities in juveniles of Barilius bendelisis. The critical thermal maximum (CTmax), lethal thermal maximum (LTmax), critical thermal minimum (CTmin) and lethal thermal minimum (LTmin) were significantly different at five different seasons viz. winter (10.64°C), spring (16.25°C), summer (22.11°C), rainy (20.87°C) and autumn (17.77°C). The highest CTmax was registered in summer (36.02°C), and lowest CTmin was recorded during winter (2.77°C). Water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were strongly related to CTmax, LTmax, CTmin and LTmin suggesting seasonal acclimatization of B. bendelisis. The thermal tolerance polygon area of the B. bendelisis juveniles within the range of seasonal temperature (10.64-22.11°C) was calculated as 470.92°C(2). Oxygen consumption rate was significantly different (p<0.05) between seasons with maximum value during summer (57.66mgO2/kg/h) and lowest in winter (32.60mgO2/kg/h). Total white blood cell count including neutrophil and monocytes also showed significant difference (p<0.05) between seasons with maximum value during summer and minimum number in winter and were found correlated to temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and respiratory burst activity. Respiratory burst activity of blood phagocytes significantly differed (p<0.05) among seasons with higher value during summer (0.163 OD540nm) and minimum in winter season (0.054 OD540nm). The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-s-transferase both in liver and gill, also varied significantly (p<0.05) during different seasons. Overall results of this study suggest that multiple environmental factors play a role in seasonal acclimation in B. bendelisis, which modulate the thermal tolerance, oxygen consumption, respiratory burst activity and status of anti-oxidative potential in wild environment.

  13. Metabolic rate measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, K.; Crosier, W.

    1980-01-01

    The Metabolic Rate Measurement System (MRMS) is an uncomplicated and accurate apparatus for measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of a test subject. From this one can determine the subject's metabolic rate for a variety of conditions, such as resting or light exercise. MRMS utilizes an LSI/11-03 microcomputer to monitor and control the experimental apparatus.

  14. Tests of Rating Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masin, Sergio Cesare; Busetto, Martina

    2010-01-01

    The study reports empirical tests of Anderson's, Haubensak's, Helson's, and Parducci's rating models when two end anchors are used for rating. The results show that these models cannot predict the judgment effect called here the Dai Pra effect. It is shown that an extension of Anderson's model is consistent with this effect. The results confirm…

  15. Extended rate equations

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, B.W.

    1981-01-30

    The equations of motion are discussed which describe time dependent population flows in an N-level system, reviewing the relationship between incoherent (rate) equations, coherent (Schrodinger) equations, and more general partially coherent (Bloch) equations. Approximations are discussed which replace the elaborate Bloch equations by simpler rate equations whose coefficients incorporate long-time consequences of coherence.

  16. Applications of Reaction Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it…

  17. The Infant Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the usefulness of the Infant Rating Scale (IRS) in the early identification of learning difficulties. Thirteen hundred five-year-olds were rated by their teachers after one term in school. The structure of the IRS, its reliability, and predictive validity are examined. (Author/SJL)

  18. Mutation rates as adaptations.

    PubMed

    Maley, C

    1997-06-01

    In order to better understand life, it is helpful to look beyond the envelop of life as we know it. A simple model of coevolution was implemented with the addition of a gene for the mutation rate of the individual. This allowed the mutation rate itself to evolve in a lineage. The model shows that when the individuals interact in a sort of zero-sum game, the lineages maintain relatively high mutation rates. However, when individuals engage in interactions that have greater consequences for one individual in the interaction than the other, lineages tend to evolve relatively low mutation rates. This model suggests that one possible cause for differential mutation rates across genes may be the coevolutionary pressure of the various forms of interactions with other genes. PMID:9219670

  19. Growth rates made easy.

    PubMed

    Hall, Barry G; Acar, Hande; Nandipati, Anna; Barlow, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    In the 1960s-1980s, determination of bacterial growth rates was an important tool in microbial genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and microbial physiology. The exciting technical developments of the 1990s and the 2000s eclipsed that tool; as a result, many investigators today lack experience with growth rate measurements. Recently, investigators in a number of areas have started to use measurements of bacterial growth rates for a variety of purposes. Those measurements have been greatly facilitated by the availability of microwell plate readers that permit the simultaneous measurements on up to 384 different cultures. Only the exponential (logarithmic) portions of the resulting growth curves are useful for determining growth rates, and manual determination of that portion and calculation of growth rates can be tedious for high-throughput purposes. Here, we introduce the program GrowthRates that uses plate reader output files to automatically determine the exponential portion of the curve and to automatically calculate the growth rate, the maximum culture density, and the duration of the growth lag phase. GrowthRates is freely available for Macintosh, Windows, and Linux. We discuss the effects of culture volume, the classical bacterial growth curve, and the differences between determinations in rich media and minimal (mineral salts) media. This protocol covers calibration of the plate reader, growth of culture inocula for both rich and minimal media, and experimental setup. As a guide to reliability, we report typical day-to-day variation in growth rates and variation within experiments with respect to position of wells within the plates.

  20. Twinning rates in Tamilnadu.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P S; Inbaraj, S G; Muthurathnam, S

    1983-01-01

    A prospective study of human reproduction was conducted in Tamilnadu State, South India, from 1969 to 1975. This paper reports twinning rates and relates these to maternal age, parity, and consanguinity. Birth weights and other dimensions at birth and infant mortality are also studied. The overall twinning rate was 1 in 115 births. Dizygotic twinning rates increased significantly with maternal age and parity. The measurements at birth for like-sexed twin pairs were lower than that of unlike-sexed, but the mortalities did not differ significantly. Twins, in general, had a several fold increase in mortality as compared with singletons. PMID:6886580

  1. Burning Rate Emulator

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...

  2. Rating the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovic, Paul; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Explains how people arrive at personal hazard assessments. Explores why people overestimate some hazards and underestimate others. Examines risk ratings for activities and technologies such as nuclear power, motor vehicles, pesticides, and vaccinations. (MA)

  3. National ART Success Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... ART and Birth Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology National Summary Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... live-birth rate? [PDF - 1.37MB] Section 2: ART Cycles using fresh nondonor eggs or embryos What ...

  4. The ratings game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braben, Donald W.

    2009-04-01

    How sad to read a supposedly serious debate among distinguished physicists (February p19) about which combinations of the latest Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) ratings represent a university physics department's true strengths.

  5. Two self-rating scales for depression in Hmong refugees: assessment in clinical and nonclinical samples.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, J

    1986-01-01

    An exploratory cross-cultural study was undertaken of two widely used self-rating scales: the Zung and the Depression Scale on the 90 Item Symptom Checklist, or SCL-Depression. Both scales were translated into Hmong and tested in two samples of Hmong refugees in the U.S.A. One sample (n = 86) consisted of a field survey of all Hmong people living in Minnesota. Of the 86, 15 sought treatment and were diagnosed as having major depression during the year following their self rating, so that a comparison of patients' scores with nonpatients' scores was possible. The other sample consisted of another 51 Hmong psychiatric patients with major depression. This second group was also assessed by four psychiatric rating scales (i.e. Hamilton Depression Scale, brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Inpatient Multidimensional Rating Scale, and Nurse's Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation) and two measures of treatment intensity (i.e. number of visits, duration of treatment). In the general Hmong population (n = 86), both self-rating scales were highly intercorrelated, and strongly associated with patient status. In the patient sample (n = 51), only the SCL-Depression showed any correlations with psychiatric rating scales or with treatment variables. This is contrary to the anticipated outcome, as it had been expected that the Zung would perform better than the SCL-Depression. In addition, duration of treatment was inversely correlated with the SCL-Depression, also opposite to our prediction. Probable causes for these unexpected results are presented. An item analysis was undertaken, comparing 71 Hmong survey subjects who were not treated for depression with 51 Hmong psychiatric patients who were treated for depression. Most Zung and SCL-Depression items showed significantly higher symptom levels in the depressed patients. However, non-depressed controls unexpectedly reported significantly higher symptom levels on certain items. No significant differences were observed on several

  6. Heart Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the mid 70's, NASA saw a need for a long term electrocardiographic electrode suitable for use on astronauts. Heart Rate Inc.'s insulated capacitive electrode is constructed of thin dielectric film applied to stainless steel surface, originally developed under a grant by Texas Technical University. HRI, Inc. was awarded NASA license and continued development of heart rate monitor for use on exercise machines for physical fitness and medical markets.

  7. High population increase rates.

    PubMed

    1991-09-01

    In addition to its economic and ethnic difficulties, the USSR faces several pressing demographic problems, including high population increase rates in several of its constituent republics. It has now become clear that although the country's rigid centralized planning succeeded in covering the basic needs of people, it did not lead to welfare growth. Since the 1970s, the Soviet economy has remained sluggish, which as led to increase in the death and birth rates. Furthermore, the ideology that held that demography could be entirely controlled by the country's political and economic system is contradicted by current Soviet reality, which shows that religion and ethnicity also play a significant role in demographic dynamics. Currently, Soviet republics fall under 2 categories--areas with high or low natural population increase rates. Republics with low rates consist of Christian populations (Armenia, Moldavia, Georgia, Byelorussia, Russia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine), while republics with high rates are Muslim (Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirgizia, Azerbaijan Kazakhstan). The later group has natural increase rates as high as 3.3%. Although the USSR as a whole is not considered a developing country, the later group of republics fit the description of the UNFPA's priority list. Another serious demographic issue facing the USSR is its extremely high rate of abortion. This is especially true in the republics of low birth rates, where up to 60% of all pregnancies are terminated by induced abortions. Up to 1/5 of the USSR's annual health care budget is spent on clinical abortions -- money which could be better spent on the production of contraceptives. Along with the recent political and economic changes, the USSR is now eager to deal with its demographic problems. PMID:12284289

  8. Hydration rate of obsidian.

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Long, W

    1976-01-30

    The hydration rates of 12 obsidian samples of different chemical compositions were measured at temperatures from 95 degrees to 245 degrees C. An expression relating hydration rate to temperature was derived for each sample. The SiO(2) content and refractive index are related to the hydration rate, as are the CaO, MgO, and original water contents. With this information it is possible to calculate the hydration rate of a sample from its silica content, refractive index, or chemical index and a knowledge of the effective temperature at which the hydration occurred. The effective hydration temperature can be either measured or approximated from weather records. Rates have been calculated by both methods, and the results show that weather records can give a good approximation to the true EHT, particularly in tropical and subtropical climates. If one determines the EHT by any of the methods suggested, and also measures or knows the rate of hydration of the particular obsidian used, it should be possible to carry out absolute dating to +/- 10 percent of the true age over periods as short as several years and as long as millions of years. PMID:17782901

  9. Hydration rate of obsidian.

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Long, W

    1976-01-30

    The hydration rates of 12 obsidian samples of different chemical compositions were measured at temperatures from 95 degrees to 245 degrees C. An expression relating hydration rate to temperature was derived for each sample. The SiO(2) content and refractive index are related to the hydration rate, as are the CaO, MgO, and original water contents. With this information it is possible to calculate the hydration rate of a sample from its silica content, refractive index, or chemical index and a knowledge of the effective temperature at which the hydration occurred. The effective hydration temperature can be either measured or approximated from weather records. Rates have been calculated by both methods, and the results show that weather records can give a good approximation to the true EHT, particularly in tropical and subtropical climates. If one determines the EHT by any of the methods suggested, and also measures or knows the rate of hydration of the particular obsidian used, it should be possible to carry out absolute dating to +/- 10 percent of the true age over periods as short as several years and as long as millions of years.

  10. Heart Rate Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.

  11. Modelling heart rate kinetics.

    PubMed

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual's cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women).

  12. Modelling Heart Rate Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual’s cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women). PMID:25876164

  13. Heart rate turbulence.

    PubMed

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death.

  14. Sulfur rate control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, T.A.; Mullendore, M.G.; Kleinfeldt, T.E.; Walker, H.G. Jr.

    1993-07-20

    A sulfur rate control system is described for substantially optimizing particulate removal performance of an electrostatic precipitator in fluid communication with a flue carrying combustion products of a fossil fuel, comprising: an electrostatic precipitator having an inlet for receiving a flue gas: means for injecting sulfur trioxide into a flue for mixing with said flue gas at a location preceding entry of said flue gas into said electrostatic precipitator, said injection of sulfur trioxide being varied responsive to a proportional control signal; and, control means coupled to both said flue and said sulfur trioxide injection means for generating said proportional control signal, said control means including (1) means for measuring a sulfur dioxide concentration quantity in said flue gas at a location preceding said sulfur trioxide injection means, (2) means for measuring a flow rate of particulates in said flue gas at a location preceding said sulfur trioxide injection means, and (3) a controller for calculating a ratio between said sulfur dioxide concentration quantity and said flow rate of particulates, said ratio calculating controller having a first input coupled to said sulfur dioxide measuring means and a second input coupled to said particulate flow rate measuring means for generating said proportional control signal in proportion to a difference between a predetermined value and said ratio between said sulfur dioxide concentration quantity and said flow rate of particulates, said ratio controller having an output coupled to said sulfur trioxide injection means for maximizing particulate removal efficiency of said electrostatic precipitator.

  15. Interest rates factor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangwook; Kim, Min Jae; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-07-01

    Interdependence of the interest rates of the US, the UK, and Japan is analyzed in this work by means of spectral analysis and network methods. A predominant effective factor in the interest rate market is which country floats a bond issue, and a minor effective factor is time to maturity of bonds. Power-law cross-correlation among different countries is analyzed by the detrended cross-correlation analysis method. Long-range cross-correlation is found between the first factors of interest rate, while there is no cross-correlation between some of the second factors. The tail dependency is indicated by tail indices from Archimedean copulas, including an empirical copula. In contrast to other pairs, the US-UK first factor pair has tail dependencies in both the upper-tail and lower-tail. Dynamic properties of interest rate are modeled by a stochastic volatility model. The properties of mean reverting and volatility clustering are observed and reflected in this model. The proposed simulation method combines the dependence structures and the factor dynamics model; it simultaneously describes the interest rates of different countries.

  16. Heart rate turbulence.

    PubMed

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death. PMID:24215748

  17. Development of Canonical Transformations from Hamilton's Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quade, C. Richard

    1979-01-01

    The theory of canonical transformations and its development are discussed with regard to its application to Hutton's principle. Included are the derivation of the equations of motion and a lack of symmetry in the formulaion with respect to Lagrangian and the fundamental commutator relations of quantum mechanics. (Author/SA)

  18. Republication of: On Hamilton's canonical equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ślebodziński, Władysław

    2010-10-01

    This is an English translation of a paper by Władysław Ślebodziński, first published in French in 1931, in which he introduced the general definition of what is today called the Lie derivative of tensors (strangely enough, he gave no name to this object). The paper has been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for re-publication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. This republication is accompanied by an editorial note written by Andrzej Trautman and Ślebodziński’s brief biography written by Witold Roter.

  19. Knee arthroplasty rating.

    PubMed

    Binazzi, R; Soudry, M; Mestriner, L A; Insall, J N

    1992-06-01

    A number of rating systems used to evaluate the results of total knee arthroplasty exist. Many of these systems are based on different concepts, and might be expected to give divergent results. To see if this was so, the authors examined a consecutive series of 235 posterior stabilized knee arthroplasties recording the results according to five rating systems: HSS (The Hospital for Special Surgery), Brigham, Freeman, BOA (British Orthopaedic Association), and the VENN diagram. In spite of their apparent differences, all point systems and the BOA gave almost identical results, while the VENN diagram proved to be the most stringent. The authors suggest that any of the current point systems may be used to "score" arthroplasties, but the results should also be rated with the VENN diagram in order to see the quality of the arthroplasty and a comparison between the different series.

  20. Optical rate sensor algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhde-Lacovara, Jo A.

    1989-12-01

    Optical sensors, in particular Charge Coupled Device (CCD) arrays, will be used on Space Station to track stars in order to provide inertial attitude reference. Algorithms are presented to derive attitude rate from the optical sensors. The first algorithm is a recursive differentiator. A variance reduction factor (VRF) of 0.0228 was achieved with a rise time of 10 samples. A VRF of 0.2522 gives a rise time of 4 samples. The second algorithm is based on the direct manipulation of the pixel intensity outputs of the sensor. In 1-dimensional simulations, the derived rate was with 0.07 percent of the actual rate in the presence of additive Gaussian noise with a signal to noise ratio of 60 dB.

  1. Optical rate sensor algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhde-Lacovara, Jo A.

    1989-01-01

    Optical sensors, in particular Charge Coupled Device (CCD) arrays, will be used on Space Station to track stars in order to provide inertial attitude reference. Algorithms are presented to derive attitude rate from the optical sensors. The first algorithm is a recursive differentiator. A variance reduction factor (VRF) of 0.0228 was achieved with a rise time of 10 samples. A VRF of 0.2522 gives a rise time of 4 samples. The second algorithm is based on the direct manipulation of the pixel intensity outputs of the sensor. In 1-dimensional simulations, the derived rate was with 0.07 percent of the actual rate in the presence of additive Gaussian noise with a signal to noise ratio of 60 dB.

  2. Apathy and anhedonia rating scales in Parkinson's disease: critique and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Leentjens, Albert F G; Dujardin, Kathy; Marsh, Laura; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Richard, Irene H; Starkstein, Sergio E; Weintraub, Daniel; Sampaio, Cristina; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Oliver; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G

    2008-10-30

    Apathy is a common condition in Parkinson's disease (PD) and is generally defined as a lack of motivation. It is associated with more severe cognitive dysfunction and a decrease in activities of daily living (ADL) performance. Anhedonia, the inability to experience pleasure, can be a symptom of both depressive and apathetic syndromes. The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) commissioned a task force to assess the clinimetric properties of apathy and anhedonia scales in PD patients. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify scales that have either been validated or used in PD patients. Apathy scales identified for review include the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES), the Apathy Scale (AS), the Apathy Inventory (AI), and the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS). In addition, item 4 (motivation/initiative) of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and item 7 (apathy) of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were included. Anhedonia scales identified for review were the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) and the Chapman scales for physical and social anhedonia. Only the AS is classified as "recommended" to assess apathy in PD. Although item 4 of the UPDRS also meets the criteria to be classified as recommended, it should be considered for screening only because of the obvious limitations of a single item construct. For the assessment of anhedonia, only the SHAPS meets the criteria of "Suggested." Information on the validity of apathy and anhedonia scales is limited because of the lack of consensus on diagnostic criteria for these conditions.

  3. Variable rate irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systems are available to producers to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer cost savings to a producer; however, the full potential of the benefits and savings cannot be realized if water ...

  4. Paradoxes in Film Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    The author selected a simple random sample of 100 movies from the "Movie and Video Guide" (1996), by Leonard Maltin. The author's intent was to obtain some basic information on the population of roughly 19,000 movies through a small sample. The "Movie and Video Guide" by Leonard Maltin is an annual ratings guide to movies. While not all films ever…

  5. Currency Exchange Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siler, Carl R.

    This curriculum unit of the Muncie (Indiana) Southside High School is to simulate the dynamics of foreign currency exchange rates from the perspectives of: (1) a major U.S. corporation, ABB Power T & D Company, Inc., of Muncie, Indiana, a manufacturer of large power transformers for the domestic and foreign markets; and (2) individual consumers…

  6. Variable Rate Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systems are available to producers with the ability to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer a producer great cost savings; however, the full potential of these benefits and savings cannot...

  7. Controlling Your Utility Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucht, Ray; Dembowski, Frederick L.

    1985-01-01

    A cost-effective alternative to high utility bills for middle-sized and smaller utility users is the service of utility rate consultants. The consultants analyze utility invoices for the previous 12 months to locate available refunds or credits. (MLF)

  8. Understanding Rates of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Aurelia; Russell, Larry

    This paper presents three activities on how to analyze rates of change in real-life situations using TI-83 calculators and computer-based laboratories. Activities include 24 hour temperature data, the temperature of a light bulb, and an M&M toss. Each section contains descriptions of equipment/materials, data collection, and data analysis. The…

  9. Toy Stories: Modeling Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Patricia E.

    2015-01-01

    Elementary school mathematics is increasingly recognized for its crucial role in developing the foundational skills and understandings for algebra. In this article, the author uses a lesson to introduce the concept of "rates"--comparing two different types and units of measure--and how to graph them. Described is the lesson and shared…

  10. Rater Training for a Multi-Site, International Clinical Trial: What Mood Symptoms may be most Difficult to Rate?

    PubMed Central

    Sajatovic, Martha; Gaur, Richa; Tatsuoka, Curtis; De Santi, Susan; Lee, Nathan; Laredo, Judith; Tripathi, Sulabh

    2011-01-01

    Aims Given resource constraints in conducting clinical trials, it is critical that rater training focuses on scale items wherein standardization is most challenging. This analysis examined mood disorder symptom ratings submitted in an online rater training program conducted preparatory to the initiation of a multi-site, international mood disorder treatment trial. Ratings were entered online and analyzed for consistency and variability, and compared to established standards (Gold Consensus Ratings/ GCRs). Methods Raters participated in web-based rater training on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Montgomery Asberg Rating Scale (MADRS), and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Training included integration of didactic materials and videos of two bipolar depressed patients interviewed by two U.S. clinicians. Raters viewed the videos and rated the mood scales. Inter-rater agreement was assessed using Kappa statistics. Ratings between the raters and the GCRs for individual scale items were assessed using McNemar test for paired binomial proportions. Results 194 raters from 16 countries, 80 sites and speaking 20 different languages participated. Interrater agreement on videos ratings ranged from substantial to moderate (HAM-D, Kappa video A = 0.72, video B = 0.65, p < 0.001), (MADRS, Kappa = 0.65 and 0.47, p < 0.001), (YMRS, Kappa = 0.75, and 0.64, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference on agreement based upon on English proficiency, clinical experience, or by country. Scale items that differed from the GCR on the HAM-D were depressed mood, delayed insomnia, retardation, and anxiety (psychic). Items that differed on the MADRS were apparent sadness, inner tension, concentration difficulties, lassitude and inability to feel. Items that differed on the YMRS were irritability and disruptive behavior. Conclusions Identification of specific rating scale items in which rater variability is greatest may facilitate training approaches that target these areas for

  11. Calculating California Seismicity Rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felzer, Karen R.

    2008-01-01

    Empirically the rate of earthquakes = magnitude M is well fit by the Gutenberg-Richter relationship, logN=a-bM (1) where N is the number of earthquakes = M over a given time period, a is the number of M = 0 earthquakes over the same period, and b is a parameter that determines the ratio of larger to smaller earthquakes (Ishimoto and Iida 1939; Gutenberg and Richter 1944). Thus to characterize the seismicity rate, N, and risk in a given region we need to solve for the values of a and b. Here we are concerned with solving for the long term average values of these parameters for the state of California. My primary data source is a catalog of 1850-2006 M = 4.0 seismicity compiled with Tianqing Cao (Appendix H). Because earthquakes outside of the state can influence California I consider both earthquakes within the state and within 100 km of the state border (Figure 1).

  12. [High dose rate brachytherapy].

    PubMed

    Aisen, S; Carvalho, H A; Chavantes, M C; Esteves, S C; Haddad, C M; Permonian, A C; Taier, M do C; Marinheiro, R C; Feriancic, C V

    1992-01-01

    The high dose rate brachytherapy uses a single source os 192Ir with 10Ci of nominal activity in a remote afterloading machine. This technique allows an outpatient treatment, without the inconveniences of the conventional low dose rate brachytherapy such as use of general anesthesia, rhachianesthesia, prolonged immobilization, and personal exposition to radiation. The radiotherapy department is now studying 5 basic treatment schemes concerning carcinomas of the uterine cervix, endometrium, lung, esophagus and central nervous system tumors. With the Micro Selectron HDR, 257 treatment sessions were done in 90 patients. Mostly were treated with weekly fractions, receiving a total of three to four treatments each. No complications were observed neither during nor after the procedure. Doses, fraction and ideal associations still have to be studied, so that a higher therapeutic ratio can be reached.

  13. Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark

    2008-01-22

    The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8)more » with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.« less

  14. Patient Rating of Therapeutic Factors and Response to Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Behenck, Andressa S; Gomes, Juliana Braga; Heldt, Elizeth

    2016-06-01

    Group therapy involves complex mechanisms that rely on certain therapeutic factors to promote improvement. The objective of this study was to assess patient rating of therapeutic factors during cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) and to investigate the correlation between patient rating and outcome of CBGT for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the present clinical trial, 15 patients participated in a 12-session CBGT protocol. Severity of symptoms was assessed before and after CBGT with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Yalom's Curative Factors Questionnaire was administered at the end of each session for patient rating of the usefulness of 12 therapeutic factors to treat OCD. There was a significant interaction between improvement in obsessive-compulsive symptoms and patient rating of altruism, universality, interpersonal learning input and output, family re-enactment, self-understanding, and existential factors over time. The results show that group therapeutic factors positively influence the response to CBGT in OCD patients. PMID:27105227

  15. Rotational rate sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  16. Composite rating scales.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2010-02-15

    Rating scales are instruments that are very frequently used by clinicians to perform patient assessments. Typically, rating scales grade the attribute on an ordinal level of measurement, i.e., a rank ordering, meaning that the numbers assigned to the different ranks (item scores) do not represent 'real numbers' or 'physical magnitudes'. Single-item scales have some advantages, such as simplicity and low respondent burden, but they may also suffer from disadvantages, such as ambiguous score meanings and low responsiveness. Multi-item scales, in contrast, seem more adequate for assessment of complex constructs, allowing for detailed evaluation. Total scores representing the value of the construct may be quite precise and thus the responsiveness of the scale may be high. The most common strategy for obtaining the total score is the sum of the item scores, a strategy that constitutes one of the most important problems with these types of scales. A summative score of ordinal figures is not a 'real magnitude' and may have little sense. This paper is a review of the theoretical frameworks of the main theories used to develop rating scales (Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory). Bearing in mind that no alternative is perfect, additional research in this field and judicious decisions are called for.

  17. Injection rate control cam

    SciTech Connect

    Perr, J.P.; Liang, E.; Yu, R.C.; Ghuman, A.S.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a cam for controlling the injection rate of fuel in a fuel injection system of an engine. The fuel injection system including a cyclically operating unit injector having a body, an injector plunger mounted for reciprocating movement in the injector body between an advanced position and a retracted portion to pump into the engine during each cycle a variable quantity of fuel up to a maximum quantity under rated engine conditions, and a drive train for converting rotational movement of the cam into reciprocating movement of the pumping plunger depending on the profile of the cam. The cam profile comprises at least a plunger retraction segment and a plunger advancement segment for controlling the velocity if injector plunger retraction and advancement, respectively, the plunger advancement segment including a pre-injection subsequent shaped to cause an initial quantity of fuel to be injected into the engine during each cycle at rated engine conditions while the pre-injection subsegment is in contact with the drive train, and an injection subsegment following the pre-injection subsegment.

  18. Constituents of response rates

    PubMed Central

    Pear, Joseph J.; Rector, Brian L.

    1979-01-01

    Response rate and the proportion of time pigeons allocated to a key-pecking activity were measured on several basic types of reinforcement schedules. Reinforcement frequency was varied within each type of basic schedule, and the effects on two constituents of response rate were noted. Propensity, the proportion of time the birds spent on a platform in front of the key, showed very consistent effects as reinforcement frequency varied: in general, it decreased when reinforcement frequency markedly decreased and it increased when reinforcement frequency increased. Speed, key pecks per unit of time spent on the platform, showed inconsistent effects when reinforcement frequency varied. Consequently, response rate showed less consistent effects than did propensity. Cumulative response records demonstrated the existence of several different types of transitions or boundary states between the key-pecking activity and other activities. The types of transitions that occurred between activities depended on both the type of reinforcement schedule and the frequency of reinforcement. The propensity data support the position that general laws of behavior can be based on temporal measures of behavior. The speed data suggest that, if a complete assessment of the dynamic properties of behavior is to be achieved, measures of behavior must incorporate the structural variations in the operant unit. PMID:16812155

  19. Emission rate measuring device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckat, S.

    1980-09-01

    The development and application of an emission rate measuring device for gaseous components is explored. The device contains absorption fluid from a supply container that moistens a cylindrical paper sleeve. A newer model is provided with a direct current motor requiring less electricity than an older model. The hose pump is modified to avoid changing it and the filter sleeve is fastened more securely to the distributor head. Application of the measuring devices is discussed, particularly at the Cologne Cathedral, where damage to the stone is observed.

  20. Interest rates hierarchical structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Matteo, T.; Aste, T.; Hyde, S. T.; Ramsden, S.

    2005-09-01

    We propose a general method to study the hierarchical organization of financial data by embedding the structure of their correlations in metric graphs in multi-dimensional spaces. An application to two different sets of interest rates is discussed by constructing triangular embeddings on the sphere. Three-dimensional representations of these embeddings with the correct metric geometry are constructed and visualized. The resulting graphs contain the minimum spanning tree as a sub-graph and they preserve its hierarchical structure. This produces a clear cluster differentiation and allows us to compute new local and global topological quantities.

  1. PULSE RATE DIVIDER

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, H.C. Jr.

    1962-12-18

    A compact pulse-rate divider circuit affording low impedance output and high input pulse repetition rates is described. The circuit features a single secondary emission tube having a capacitor interposed between its dynode and its control grid. An output pulse is produced at the anode of the tube each time an incoming pulse at the control grid drives the tube above cutoff and the duration of each output pulse corresponds to the charging time of the capacitor. Pulses incoming during the time the grid bias established by the discharging capacitor is sufficiently negative that the pulses are unable to drive the tube above cutoff do not produce output pulses at the anode; these pulses are lost and a dividing action is thus produced by the circuit. The time constant of the discharge path may be vanied to vary in turn the division ratio of the circuit; the time constant of the charging circuit may be varied to vary the width of the output pulses. (AEC)

  2. Spatial statistical point prediction guidance for heating-rate-limited aeroassisted orbital transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Pradipto; Conway, Bruce A.

    2015-06-01

    Feedback control of constrained non-linear dynamical systems satisfying a certain optimality criterion and meeting a specified transfer objective in the state space is recognized as one of the most challenging problems in control theory. One approach to computing optimal feedback policies is the dynamic programming route of numerically solving the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) partial differential equation directly. In this paper an alternate and more tractable dynamic programming approach, the optimal feedback synthesis method, is utilized. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated through an explicit guidance scheme for the heating-rate-constrained maneuver of an Aeroassisted Transfer Vehicle (AOTV). In optimal feedback synthesis, a feedback chart is constructed from a family of open-loop extremals, thus ensuring optimality with respect to any initial condition in the family. This paper presents a solution to the AOTV optimal feedback synthesis problem using the Gaussian process spatial prediction method of universal kriging. A closed-form expression for a near-optimal guidance law is derived. Its performance is found to be very promising; initial atmospheric entry errors due to simulated thruster misfiring are seen to be accurately corrected while the algebraic state-inequality constraint is closely respected.

  3. Validity and test–retest reliability of the Persian version of the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Sheikhbabaei, Meisam; Haghighi, Mohammad; Roham, Fatemeh; Jahangard, Leila; Akhondi, Amineh; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Bajoghli, Hafez; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) is an expert’s rating tool to assess the severity and symptoms of depression. The aim of the present two studies was to validate the Persian version of the MADRS and determine its test–retest reliability in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorders (MDD). Methods In study 1, the translated MADRS and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were applied to 210 patients diagnosed with MDD and 100 healthy adults. In study 2, 200 patients diagnosed with MDD were assessed with the MADRS in face-to-face interviews. Thereafter, 100 patients were assessed 3–14 days later, again via face-to-face-interviews, while the other 100 patients were assessed 3–14 days later via a telephone interview. Results Study 1: The MADRS and HDRS scores between patients with MDD and healthy controls differed significantly. Agreement between scoring of the MADRS and HDRS was high (r=0.95). Study 2: The intraclass correlation coefficient (test–retest reliability) was r=0.944 for the face-to-face interviews, and r=0.959 for the telephone interviews. Conclusion The present data suggest that the Persian MADRS has high validity and excellent test–retest reliability over a time interval of 3–14 days, irrespective of whether the second assessment was carried out face-to-face or via a telephone interview. PMID:27022265

  4. Heart-Rate and Breath-Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Circuit requiring only four integrated circuits (IC's) measures both heart rate and breath rate. Phase-locked loops lock on heart-rate and respiration-rate input signals. Each loop IC contains two phase comparators. Positive-edge-triggered circuit used in making monitors insensitive to dutycycle variations.

  5. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  6. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  7. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  8. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  9. 29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...

  10. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Pregnenolone for Bipolar Depression

    PubMed Central

    Brown, E Sherwood; Park, John; Marx, Christine E; Hynan, Linda S; Gardner, Claire; Davila, Domingo; Nakamura, Alyson; Sunderajan, Prabha; Lo, Alexander; Holmes, Traci

    2014-01-01

    Depression in bipolar disorder (BPD) is challenging to treat. Therefore, additional medication options are needed. In the current report, the effect of the neurosteroid pregnenolone on depressive symptoms in BPD was examined. Adults (n=80) with BPD, depressed mood state, were randomized to pregnenolone (titrated to 500 mg/day) or placebo, as add-on therapy, for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology—Self-Report (IDS-SR), Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HRSA), and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Serum neurosteroid levels were assessed at baseline and week 12. Data were analyzed using a mixed model ANCOVA with a between factor of treatment assignment, a within factor (repeated) of visit, and the baseline value, as well as age and gender, as covariates. In participants with at least one postbaseline visit (n=73), a significant treatment by week interaction for the HRSD (F(5,288)=2.61, p=0.025), but not IDS-SR, was observed. Depression remission rates were greater in the pregnenolone group (61%) compared with the placebo group (37%), as assessed by the IDS-SR (χ2(1)=3.99, p=0.046), but not the HRSD. Large baseline-to-exit changes in neurosteroid levels were observed in the pregnenolone group but not in the placebo group. In the pregnenolone group, baseline-to-exit change in the HRSA correlated negatively with changes in allopregnanolone (r(22)=−0.43, p=0.036) and pregNANolone (r(22)=−0.48, p=0.019) levels. Pregnenolone was well tolerated. The results suggest that pregnenolone may improve depressive symptoms in patients with BPD and can be safely administered. PMID:24917198

  11. Rates of Earth degassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onions, R. K.

    1994-01-01

    The degassing of the Earth during accretion is constrained by Pu-U-I-Xe systematics. Degassing was much more efficient during the first 100-200 Ma than subsequently, and it was more complete for Xe than for the lighter gases. More than 90 percent of the degassed Xe escaped from the atmosphere during this period. The combination of fractional degassing of melts and rare gas escape from the atmosphere is able to explain the deficit of terrestrial Xe as a simple consequence of this early degassing history. By the time Xe was quantitatively retained in the atmosphere, the abundances of Kr and the lighter gases in the Earth's interior were similar to or higher than the present-day atmospheric abundances. Subsequent transfer of these lighter rare gases into the atmosphere requires a high rate of post-accretion degassing and melt production. Considerations of Pu-U-Xe systematics suggest that relatively rapid post-accretion degassing was continued to ca. 4.1-4.2 Ga. The present-day degassing history of the Earth is investigated through consideration of rare gas isotope abundances. Although the Earth is a highly degassed body, depleted in rare gases by many orders of magnitude relative to their solar abundances, it is at the present-day losing primordial rare gases which were trapped at the time of accretion.

  12. Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to previous research on sequential ratings of student performance, this study found that professional essay raters of a large-scale standardized testing program produced ratings that were drawn toward previous ratings, creating an assimilation effect. Longer intervals between the two adjacent ratings and higher degree of agreement with…

  13. 78 FR 18664 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  14. 78 FR 39434 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  15. 76 FR 38717 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  16. 78 FR 62932 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  17. 75 FR 17453 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  18. 75 FR 37872 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  19. 77 FR 39560 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  20. 77 FR 20476 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  1. 77 FR 76586 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  2. 75 FR 81326 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  3. 76 FR 77581 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  4. 76 FR 18821 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  5. 75 FR 60152 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  6. 77 FR 59447 - Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  7. 78 FR 14821 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Interior. ACTION... Commission has adopted its 2013 preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier... preliminary fee rate on Class II revenues shall be one-half of the annual fee rate, which is 0.037%...

  8. 77 FR 5267 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for calendar year 2012. These... fee rate on class II revenues for calendar year 2012 shall be one-half of the annual fee rate,...

  9. 76 FR 38207 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for calendar year 2011. These rates... Commission. If a tribe has a certificate of self-regulation under 25 CFR part 518, the final fee rate...

  10. 76 FR 7879 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for calendar year 2011. These... fee rate on class II revenues for calendar year 2011 shall be one-half of the annual fee rate,...

  11. 75 FR 5342 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... preliminary annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.060% (.00060) for tier 2 for calendar year 2010. These... fee rate on class II revenues for calendar year 2010 shall be one-half of the annual fee rate,...

  12. 77 FR 41202 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.074% (.00074) for tier 2 for calendar year 2012. These rates... Commission. If a Tribe has a certificate of self-regulation under 25 CFR part 518, the final fee rate...

  13. Beta-decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzov, I. N.

    2006-10-01

    Major astrophysical applications involve a huge number of exotic nuclei. Their beta-decay properties play a crucial role in stellar explosive events. An important effort has been developed in last decades to measure the masses and β-decay properties of very neutron-rich nuclei at radioactive nuclear beam facilities. However, most of them cannot be synthesized in terrestrial laboratories and only theoretical predictions can fill the gap. We will concentrate mainly on the β-decay rates needed for stellar r-process modeling and for performing the RNB experiments. An overview of the microscopic approaches to the β-decay strength function is given. The continuum QRPA approach based on the self-consistent ground state description in the framework of the density functional theory is outlined. For the first time, a systematic study of the total β-decay half-lives and delayed neutron emission probabilities takes into account the Gamow Teller and first-forbidden transitions. Due to the shell configuration effects, the first-forbidden decays have a strong impact on the β-decay characteristics of the r-process relevant nuclei at Z≈28, N>50; Z⩾50, N>82 and Z=60 70, N≈126. Suppression of the delayed neutron emission probability is found in nuclei with the neutron excess bigger than one major shell. The effect originates from the high-energy first-forbidden transitions to the states outside the (Q-B)-window in the daughter nuclei. The performance of existing global models for the nuclides near the r-process paths is critically analyzed and confronted with the recent RIB experiments in the regions of 78Ni, 132Sn and “east” of 208Pb.

  14. Vilazodone in the treatment of major depressive disorder: efficacy across symptoms and severity of depression.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif; Sambunaris, Angelo; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam; Robinson, Donald S

    2014-03-01

    Vilazodone is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. To assess the efficacy of vilazodone across a range of symptoms and severities of depression, data from two phase III, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were pooled for analysis. Overall improvement in depressive symptoms measured using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was statistically significant (P<0.05) for vilazodone treatment compared with placebo as early as Week 1 and continued throughout double-blind treatment. Vilazodone treatment compared with placebo showed significant improvement on all 10 individual MADRS symptom items at end of treatment (P<0.01). Rates of response and remission were significantly greater in the vilazodone group relative to the placebo group, with numbers needed to treat ranging from eight to nine for response and 12-17 for remission. Between-group treatment differences in MADRS and the other outcome measures were similar among all depression subgroups, with no consistent pattern associated with depression severity. These findings support the efficacy of vilazodone across a broad range of depressive symptoms and severities for the treatment of major depressive disorder.

  15. Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with quetiapine in treating bipolar II depression: a randomized, double-blinded, control study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shao-hua; Lai, Jian-bo; Xu, Dong-rong; Qi, Hong-li; Peterson, Bradley S.; Bao, Ai-min; Hu, Chan-chan; Huang, Man-li; Chen, Jing-kai; Wei, Ning; Hu, Jian-bo; Li, Shu-lan; Zhou, Wei-hua; Xu, Wei-juan; Xu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and cognitive responses to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in bipolar II depressed patients remain unclear. In this study, thirty-eight bipolar II depressed patients were randomly assigned into three groups: (i) left high-frequency (n = 12), (ii) right low-frequency (n = 13), (iii) sham stimulation (n = 13), and underwent four-week rTMS with quetiapine concomitantly. Clinical efficacy was evaluated at baseline and weekly intervals using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Cognitive functioning was assessed before and after the study with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Word-Color Interference Test (Stroop), and Trail Making Test (TMT). Thirty-five patients were included in the final analysis. Overall, the mean scores of both the HDRS-17 and the MADRS significantly decreased over the 4-week trial, which did not differ among the three groups. Exploratory analyses revealed no differences in factor scores of HDRS-17s, or in response or remission rates. Scores of WCST, Stroop, or TMT did not differ across the three groups. These findings indicated active rTMS combined with quetiapine was not superior to quetiapine monotherapy in improving depressive symptoms or cognitive performance in patients with bipolar II depression. PMID:27460201

  16. Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with quetiapine in treating bipolar II depression: a randomized, double-blinded, control study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shao-Hua; Lai, Jian-Bo; Xu, Dong-Rong; Qi, Hong-Li; Peterson, Bradley S; Bao, Ai-Min; Hu, Chan-Chan; Huang, Man-Li; Chen, Jing-Kai; Wei, Ning; Hu, Jian-Bo; Li, Shu-Lan; Zhou, Wei-Hua; Xu, Wei-Juan; Xu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and cognitive responses to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in bipolar II depressed patients remain unclear. In this study, thirty-eight bipolar II depressed patients were randomly assigned into three groups: (i) left high-frequency (n = 12), (ii) right low-frequency (n = 13), (iii) sham stimulation (n = 13), and underwent four-week rTMS with quetiapine concomitantly. Clinical efficacy was evaluated at baseline and weekly intervals using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Cognitive functioning was assessed before and after the study with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Word-Color Interference Test (Stroop), and Trail Making Test (TMT). Thirty-five patients were included in the final analysis. Overall, the mean scores of both the HDRS-17 and the MADRS significantly decreased over the 4-week trial, which did not differ among the three groups. Exploratory analyses revealed no differences in factor scores of HDRS-17s, or in response or remission rates. Scores of WCST, Stroop, or TMT did not differ across the three groups. These findings indicated active rTMS combined with quetiapine was not superior to quetiapine monotherapy in improving depressive symptoms or cognitive performance in patients with bipolar II depression. PMID:27460201

  17. Using a pharmacogenomic algorithm to guide the treatment of depression

    PubMed Central

    Hall-Flavin, D K; Winner, J G; Allen, J D; Jordan, J J; Nesheim, R S; Snyder, K A; Drews, M S; Eisterhold, L L; Biernacka, J M; Mrazek, D A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential benefit of utilizing a pharmacogenomic testing report to guide the selection and dosing of psychotropic medications in an outpatient psychiatric practice. The non-randomized, open label, prospective cohort study was conducted from September 2009 to July 2010. In the first cohort, depressed patients were treated without the benefit of pharmacogenomic testing (the unguided group). A DNA sample was obtained from patients in the unguided group, but the results were not shared with either the physicians or patients until the end of the 8-week study period. In the second cohort (the guided group), testing results were provided at the beginning of the 8-week treatment period. Depression ratings were collected at baseline and after 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks of treatment using the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Clinician Rated (QIDS-C16) and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17). Clinician and patient satisfaction was also assessed. The reduction in depressive symptoms achieved within the guided treatment group was greater than the reduction of depressive symptoms in the unguided treatment group using either the QIDS-C16 (P=0.002) or HAM-D17 (P=0.04). We concluded that a rapidly available pharmacogenomic interpretive report provided clinical guidance that was associated with improved clinical outcomes for depressed patients treated in an outpatient psychiatric clinic setting. PMID:23047243

  18. Ziprasidone Augmentation of Escitalopram for Major Depressive Disorder: Efficacy Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Papakostas, George I.; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Swee, Michaela B.; Jaeger, Adrienne; Bobo, William V.; Shelton, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the efficacy of adjunctive ziprasidone in adults with non-psychotic unipolar major depression experiencing persistent symptoms following 8 weeks of open-label escitalopram. Method This was a multi-center, parallel randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at three academic medical centers in the United States. The participant pool consisted of 139 outpatients with persistent symptoms of major depressive disorder following an 8-week open label trial of escitalopram (phase 1). Subjects were randomized (1:1, n=139) to adjunctive ziprasidone (escitalopram+ziprasidone, n=71) or adjunctive placebo (escitalopram+placebo, n=68), with 8 weekly follow-up assessments. Primary outcome was defined by clinical response according to the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and determined by a 50% or greater reduction in scale scores. The Hamilton Anxiety Rating scale (HAM-A) and Visual Analogue Scale for Pain were defined a priori as key secondary outcome measures. Results Rates of clinical response (35.2% vs. 20.5%, p=0.04) and mean improvement in HAMD-17 total scores (−6.4 ± 6.4 vs. −3.3 ± 6.2, p=0.04) were significantly greater for the escitalopram+ziprasidone group. Several secondary measures of antidepressant efficacy were also in favor of adjunctive ziprasidone. Escitalopram+ziprasidone also resulted in significantly greater improvement in HAM-A, but not Visual Analogue Scale for Pain scores. Ten (14%) patients discontinued escitalopram+ziprasidone due to intolerance versus none for escitalopram+placebo (p<0.01 versus placebo). Conclusions Adjunctive ziprasidone, when added to escitalopram, demonstrated antidepressant efficacy in adult patients with major depressive disorder experiencing persistent symptoms following 8 weeks of open-label escitalopram. PMID:26085041

  19. Placebo effect after prefrontal magnetic stimulation in the treatment of resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Carlos Gustavo; Myczkowki, Martin Luiz; de Barros Cabral, Sergio; Sartorelli, Maria do Carmo Breda; Bellini, Bianca Boura; Dias, Alvaro Machado; Bernik, Marcio Antonini; Marcolin, Marco Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Many patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not achieve satisfactory symptom improvement with conventional treatments. Here, we evaluate the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) in patients with treatment-resistant OCD. This was a double-blind randomized trial involving 30 treatment-resistant OCD outpatients, allocated to have either sham or active high-frequency rTMS (over the rDLPFC) added to their treatment regimens for 6 wk, with 6 wk of follow-up. Active rTMS consisted of 30 applications (figure-of-eight coil; 10 Hz at 110% of motor threshold; 1 session/d; 40 trains/session; 5 s/train; 25-s intertrain interval). At weeks 0, 2, 6, 8, and 12, we applied the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale, 14-item Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA-14), 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), and 36-item Short-form Health Survey. The primary outcome measure was a positive response (≥ 30% improvement in YBOCS score, together with a 'much improved' or 'very much improved' CGI - Improvement scale rating). One patient in each group showed a positive response (p=1.00). For YBOCS score, there was significant effect of time (F=7.33, p=0.002) but no significant group effect or group×time interaction. In treatment-resistant OCD, active rTMS over the rDLPFC does not appear to be superior to sham rTMS in relieving obsessive-compulsive symptoms, reducing clinical severity, or improving treatment response, although there is evidence of a placebo effect. PMID:21557884

  20. Milnacipran treatment and potential biomarkers in depressed patients following an initial SSRI treatment failure: a prospective, open-label, 24-week study

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Tasuku; Sakurai, Daiji; Oda, Yasunori; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Komatsu, Hideki; Takahashi, Junpei; Oiwa, Takahiro; Sekine, Yoshimoto; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Iyo, Masaomi

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed the effect of switching patients with major depressive disorder to milnacipran following an initial selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment failure, and explored potential biomarkers in their blood. Methods We conducted a prospective, open-label, 24-week trial. Depression was assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Patients showing a ≥50% reduction in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores from baseline to final visit were considered responders. Regarding adverse effects (AEs), moderate-to-severe AEs were specifically identified as effects that required any medical treatment or that induced treatment withdrawals. We also measured blood levels of various molecules including inflammatory cytokines. Results Of the 30 participants who enrolled, 17 completed this study. The responder rate was 30% (n=10). Baseline serum levels of interleukin-6 (Z=−2.155; P=0.031) and interleukin-8 (Z=−2.616; P=0.009) were significantly higher when moderate-to-severe AEs were present (n=13 patients with moderate-to-severe AEs). Serum levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-1β showed a significant continuous decrease from the baseline level (Friedman’s test: χ2=23.9, df=4, P<0.001) only in non-responders. Conclusion These results demonstrate that serum levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β as potential blood biomarkers could be utilized to identify the responsiveness of patients to serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor like milnacipran, or to identify those patients who may experience AEs strong enough to warrant discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26677330

  1. High accuracy optical rate sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhde-Lacovara, J.

    1990-01-01

    Optical rate sensors, in particular CCD arrays, will be used on Space Station Freedom to track stars in order to provide inertial attitude reference. An algorithm to provide attitude rate information by directly manipulating the sensor pixel intensity output is presented. The star image produced by a sensor in the laboratory is modeled. Simulated, moving star images are generated, and the algorithm is applied to this data for a star moving at a constant rate. The algorithm produces accurate derived rate of the above data. A step rate change requires two frames for the output of the algorithm to accurately reflect the new rate. When zero mean Gaussian noise with a standard deviation of 5 is added to the simulated data of a star image moving at a constant rate, the algorithm derives the rate with an error of 1.9 percent at a rate of 1.28 pixels per frame.

  2. 78 FR 45956 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Hamilton County Department of Parks and Recreation, Hamilton...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... bear maxilla; 1 bear tooth; 2 lots of bone awl fragments; 2 lots of bone beamers, partial; 1 bone fish hook fragment; 1 bone indeterminate tool fragment; 1 bone tool fragment; 1 lot of bone tool making... ochre; 1 scribed bone tool fragment; 1 scribed elk scapula fragments; 1 lot of shells; 1 shell......

  3. 78 FR 49660 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Standard Division and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ..., 2013 (78 FR 30795). The NPRM proposed to require incorporating inspections, based on a calendar time... developing this AD. We received no comments on the NPRM (78 FR 30795, May 23, 2013) or on the determination... (78 FR 30795, May 23, 2013) for correcting the unsafe condition; and Do not add any additional...

  4. 78 FR 63852 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Standard Division and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... October 25, 2013. The effective date for AD 2013-16-10 (78 FR 49660, August 15, 2013) remains September 19... 2013-16-10, Amendment 39-17548 (78 FR 49660, August 15, 2013), currently requires incorporating... published in the Federal Register. The effective date for AD 2013-16-10 (78 FR 49660, August 15,...

  5. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  6. Non-Markovian models for migration-proliferation dichotomy of cancer cells: anomalous switching and spreading rate.

    PubMed

    Fedotov, Sergei; Iomin, Alexander; Ryashko, Lev

    2011-12-01

    Proliferation and migration dichotomy of the tumor cell invasion is examined within two non-Markovian models. We consider the tumor spheroid, which consists of the tumor core with a high density of cells and the outer invasive zone. We distinguish two different regions of the outer invasive zone and develop models for both zones. In model I we analyze the near-core-outer region, where biased migration away from the tumor spheroid core takes place. We suggest non-Markovian switching between the migrating and proliferating phenotypes of tumor cells. Nonlinear master equations for mean densities of cancer cells of both phenotypes are derived. In anomalous switching case we estimate the average size of the near-core-outer region that corresponds to sublinear growth (r(t)) ~ t(μ) for 0 < μ < 1. In model II we consider the outer zone, where the density of cancer cells is very low. We suggest an integrodifferential equation for the total density of cancer cells. For proliferation rate we use the classical logistic growth, while the migration of cells is subdiffusive. The exact formulas for the overall spreading rate of cancer cells are obtained by a hyperbolic scaling and Hamilton-Jacobi techniques. PMID:22304064

  7. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  8. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) ... incidence data are currently available. Rates of Getting Lung Cancer by State The number of people who ...

  9. All about Heart Rate (Pulse)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More All About Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Apr 19,2016 ... Sodium and Salt 3 Low Blood Pressure 4 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) 5 How to Eat ...

  10. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  11. Rate and Occupancy Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Atlantic Association of Coll. and Univ. Housing Officers.

    In its annual effort to determine rate and occupancy trends in the Mid-Atlantic region, MACUHO surveyed by questionnaire the chief housing officers on its mailing list and received 99 usable responses, compared with 65 the previous year. The average double room rate was reported to be $691, compared with $646 in 1975; the average board rate rose…

  12. 75 FR 44807 - Fee Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.060% (.00060) for tier 2 for calendar year 2010. These rates... Commission. If a tribe has a certificate of self-regulation under 25 CFR part 518, the preliminary fee...

  13. [Rate Justification for Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coordinated Child Care (4-C) for Central Florida, Inc., Orlando.

    This brief report argues against the cost analysis process currently used as a form of rate justification by states and central agencies who are purchasing child care. Instead, a logic is proposed for negotiated rates based on expected levels of necessary costs and reasonable rates in comparison with open market levels as shown on day care…

  14. Factors Related to Reading Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Earl

    1968-01-01

    A summary of research on reading rate is presented. Cited studies dating from 1884 to 1965 suggest a relationship among reading rate and visual perception, practice in reading, power of concentration, mental alertness, complex reaction times, intelligence, amount of vocalization, content, rate of thinking, intensity of illumination, typographical…

  15. MEMS Rate Sensors for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambino, Joel P.

    1999-01-01

    Micromachined Electro Mechanical System Rate sensors offer many advantages that make them attractive for space use. They are smaller, consume less power, and cost less than the systems currently available. MEMS Rate Sensors however, have not been optimized for use on spacecraft. This paper describes an approach to developing MEMS Rate Sensors systems for space use.

  16. The heat rate index indicator

    SciTech Connect

    Lasasso, M.; Runyan, B.; Napoli, J.

    1995-06-01

    This paper describes a method of tracking unit performance through the use of a reference number called the Heat Rate Index Indicator. The ABB Power Plant Controls OTIS performance monitor is used to determine when steady load conditions exist and then to collect controllable and equipment loss data which significantly impact thermal efficiency. By comparing these loss parameters to those found during the previous heat balance, it is possible to develop a new adjusted heat rate curve. These impacts on heat rate are used to changes the shape of the tested heat rate curve by the appropriate percentages over a specified load range. Mathcad is used to determine the Heat Rate Index by integrating for the areas beneath the adjusted heat rate curve and a heat rate curve that represents the unit`s ideal heat rate curve is the Heat Rate Index. An index of 1.0 indicates that the unit is operating at an ideal efficiency, while an index of less than 1.0 indicates that the unit is operating at less than ideal conditions. A one per cent change in the Heat Rate Index is equivalent to a one percent change in heat rate. The new shape of the adjusted heat rate curve and the individual curves generated from the controllable and equipment loss parameters are useful for determining performance problems in specific load ranges.

  17. Facing depression with botulinum toxin: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wollmer, M Axel; de Boer, Claas; Kalak, Nadeem; Beck, Johannes; Götz, Thomas; Schmidt, Tina; Hodzic, Muris; Bayer, Ursula; Kollmann, Thilo; Kollewe, Katja; Sönmez, Daniela; Duntsch, Katja; Haug, Martin D; Schedlowski, Manfred; Hatzinger, Martin; Dressler, Dirk; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2012-05-01

    Positive effects on mood have been observed in subjects who underwent treatment of glabellar frown lines with botulinum toxin and, in an open case series, depression remitted or improved after such treatment. Using a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial design we assessed botulinum toxin injection to the glabellar region as an adjunctive treatment of major depression. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to a verum (onabotulinumtoxinA, n = 15) or placebo (saline, n = 15) group. The primary end point was change in the 17-item version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale six weeks after treatment compared to baseline. The verum and the placebo groups did not differ significantly in any of the collected baseline characteristics. Throughout the sixteen-week follow-up period there was a significant improvement in depressive symptoms in the verum group compared to the placebo group as measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (F((6,168)) = 5.76, p < 0.001, η(2) = 0.17). Six weeks after a single treatment scores of onabotulinumtoxinA recipients were reduced on average by 47.1% and by 9.2% in placebo-treated participants (F((1,28)) = 12.30, p = 0.002, η(2) = 0.31, d = 1.28). The effect size was even larger at the end of the study (d = 1.80). Treatment-dependent clinical improvement was also reflected in the Beck Depression Inventory, and in the Clinical Global Impressions Scale. This study shows that a single treatment of the glabellar region with botulinum toxin may shortly accomplish a strong and sustained alleviation of depression in patients, who did not improve sufficiently on previous medication. It supports the concept, that the facial musculature not only expresses, but also regulates mood states. PMID:22364892

  18. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study of Quetiapine-XR Monotherapy or Adjunctive Therapy to Antidepressant in Acute Major Depressive Disorder with Current Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ranran; Wu, Renrong; Chen, Jun; Kemp, David E.; Ren, Ming; Conroy, Carla; Chan, Philip; Serrano, Mary Beth; Ganocy, Stephen J.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Gao, Keming

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To pilot efficacy and safety data of quetiapine-XR monotherapy or adjunctive therapy to antidepressant(s) in the acute treatment of MDD with current generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to ascertain the diagnosis of DSM-IV Axis I disorders. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to quetiapine-XR or placebo for up to 8 weeks. Changes from baseline to endpoint in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items (HAMD-17), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S), Quick Inventory of Depression Symptomatology-16 items Self-Report (QIDS-16-SR) total scores, and other outcome measures were analyzed with the last observation carried forward strategy and/or mixed-effects modeling for repeated measures. Results Of the 34 patients screened, 23 patients were randomized to receive quetiapine-XR (n = 11) or placebo (n = 12), with 5 and 4 completing the study, respectively. The mean dose of quetiapine-XR was 154 ± 91 mg/d. The change from baseline to endpoint in the total scores of HAMD-17, HAM-A, QIDS-16-SR, and CGI-S were significant in the quetiapine-XR group, but only the change in HAM-A total score was significant in the placebo group. The differences in these changes between the two groups were only significant in CGI-S scores, with the rest of numerical larger in the quetiapine-XR group. The most common side effects from quetiapine-XR were dry mouth, somnolence/sedation, and fatigue. Conclusions In this pilot study, quetiapine-XR was numerically superior to placebo in reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms in patients with MDD and current GAD. Large sample studies are warranted to support or refute these preliminary findings.

  19. The Bipolar Depression Electrical Treatment Trial (BETTER): Design, Rationale, and Objectives of a Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial and Data from the Pilot Study Phase

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Junior, Bernardo de Sampaio; Nunes, Paula; Benseñor, Isabela Martins; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Brunoni, André R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Bipolar depression (BD) is a prevalent condition, with poor therapeutic options and a high degree of refractoriness. This justifies the development of novel treatment strategies, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) that showed promising results in unipolar depression. Methods. We describe a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded trial using tDCS for refractory, acutely symptomatic BD (the bipolar depression electrical treatment trial, BETTER). Sixty patients will be enrolled and assessed with clinical and neuropsychological tests. The primary outcome is change (over time and across groups) in the scores of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 items). Biological markers such as blood neurotrophins and interleukins, genetic polymorphisms, heart rate variability, and motor cortical excitability will be assessed. Twelve anodal-left/cathodal-right 2 mA tDCS sessions over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex will be performed in 6 weeks. Results. In the pilot phase, five patients received active tDCS and were double-blindly assessed, two presenting clinical response. TDCS was well-tolerated, with no changes in cognitive scores. Conclusion. This upcoming clinical trial will address the efficacy of tDCS for BD on different degrees of refractoriness. The evaluation of biological markers will also help in understanding the pathophysiology of BD and the mechanisms of action of tDCS. PMID:25878904

  20. Efficacy and safety of curcumin in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sanmukhani, Jayesh; Satodia, Vimal; Trivedi, Jaladhi; Patel, Tejas; Tiwari, Deepak; Panchal, Bharat; Goel, Ajay; Tripathi, Chandra Bhanu

    2014-04-01

    Curcumin, an active ingredient of Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae), has shown potential antidepressant-like activity in animal studies. The objectives of this trial were to compare the efficacy and safety of curcumin with fluoxetine in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Herein, 60 patients diagnosed with MDD were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio for six weeks observer-masked treatment with fluoxetine (20 mg) and curcumin (1000 mg) individually or their combination. The primary efficacy variable was response rates according to Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, 17-item version (HAM-D17 ). The secondary efficacy variable was the mean change in HAM-D17 score after six weeks. We observed that curcumin was well tolerated by all the patients. The proportion of responders as measured by the HAM-D17 scale was higher in the combination group (77.8%) than in the fluoxetine (64.7%) and the curcumin (62.5%) groups; however, these data were not statistically significant (P = 0.58). Interestingly, the mean change in HAM-D17 score at the end of six weeks was comparable in all three groups (P = 0.77). This study provides first clinical evidence that curcumin may be used as an effective and safe modality for treatment in patients with MDD without concurrent suicidal ideation or other psychotic disorders. . PMID:23832433

  1. Status of minor depression or dysthymia in primary care following a randomized controlled treatment.

    PubMed

    Oxman, T E; Barrett, J E; Sengupta, A; Katon, W; Williams, J W; Frank, E; Hegel, M

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the rates of recovery and remission from minor depression or dysthymia in primary care patients three months after completing a randomized controlled treatment trial. The subjects were primary care patients who received > or =4 treatment sessions with Problem-Solving Treatment, paroxetine, or placebo and who completed an independent assessment 3 months after the study (201 with minor depression, 229 with dysthymia). The 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD), semistructured questions about postintervention depression treatments, and baseline medical comorbidity, neuroticism, and social function were the primary measures. For minor depression 76% and for dysthymia 68% of subjects who were in remission at the end of the 11-week treatment trial were recovered (HAMD < or =6) three months after the treatment trial. Of patients who were not in remission at 11 weeks, for minor depression 37% and for dysthymia 31% went on to achieve remission at 25 weeks. The majority of patients chose not to use antidepressants or psychotherapy after the trial. Patients with minor depression that had greater baseline social function and lower neuroticism scores were more likely to be recovered. For patients with minor depression, these findings suggest a need for some matching of continuation and maintenance treatment to patient characteristics rather than uniform, automatic treatment recommendations. Because of the chronic, relapsing nature of dysthymia, practical improvements in encouraging effective continuation and maintenance phases of treatment are indicated.

  2. Citalopram versus fluoxetine: a double-blind, controlled, multicentre, phase III trial in patients with unipolar major depression treated in general practice.

    PubMed

    Patris, M; Bouchard, J M; Bougerol, T; Charbonnier, J F; Chevalier, J F; Clerc, G; Cyran, C; Van Amerongen, P; Lemming, O; Høpfner Petersen, H E

    1996-06-01

    Two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), citalopram and fluoxetine, both at a daily dose of 20 mg, were compared in patients with unipolar major depression treated in general practice. This was a multicentre, double-blind, randomized trial carried out in France. The duration of treatment was 8 weeks. Patients were assessed by means of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the 17 items Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the investigator's Clinical Global Impressions (CGI), Observed and spontaneously reported adverse events were also recorded. A total of 357 patients of both sexes, aged between 21 and 73 years, entered the double-blind phase of the trial. A clear reduction of both the MADRS and the HAMD mean total scores was observed in both treatment groups with no statistically significant differences between treatments. Apart from back pain recorded more frequently in the citalopram group, no significant difference was found between the two treatment groups with regard to adverse events, and both citalopram and fluoxetine were considered to be well tolerated. It was concluded that citalopram was as effective as fluoxetine in the treatment of unipolar major depression. Citalopram showed an earlier onset of recovery than fluoxetine. PMID:8803650

  3. Platelet 5-HT(1A) receptor correlates with major depressive disorder in drug-free patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Wang, Di; Man, Sui Cheung; Ng, Roger; McAlonan, Grainne M; Wong, Hei Kiu; Wong, Wendy; Lee, Jade; Tan, Qing-Rong

    2014-08-01

    The platelet serotonergic system has potential biomarker utility for major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present study, platelet expression of 5-HT1A receptors and serotonin transporter (SERT) proteins, and serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were quantified in 53 patients with MDD and 22 unaffected controls. All were drug-free, non-smokers and had no other psychiatric and cardiovascular comorbidity. The severity of depression symptoms was evaluated using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). Patients with MDD had significantly higher expression of platelet 5-HT1A receptors but significantly lower contents of platelet 5-HT, platelet-poor plasma (PPP) 5-HT and PPP 5-HIAA compared to healthy controls, and this was correlated with the severity of depression. SERT expression did not differ between the two groups. Correlation analysis confirmed a strong, inverse relationship between the 5-HT1A receptor expression and the 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels. Thus overexpression of platelet 5-HT1A receptors and reduced 5-HT tone may function as a peripheral marker of depression.

  4. Influence of painful physical symptoms in the treatment of Japanese patients with melancholic major depressive disorder: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Atsushi; Hozumi, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2016-08-30

    The aim of this study was to clarify how painful physical symptoms affect treatment outcomes in patients with melancholic major depressive disorder. The subjects comprised 100 consecutive Japanese outpatients with melancholic major depressive disorder who visited our clinic from October 2011 to October 2014. All subjects were interviewed for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis 2, 3, and 4 and family history of major depressive disorder, and then grouped according to the presence of painful physical symptoms. We evaluated painful physical symptoms at baseline and after 12, 24, and 36 weeks of treatment and scores on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, compared major depressive disorder remission between groups, and assessed responsiveness to antidepressants. The group with painful physical symptoms had a significantly more positive family history of major depressive disorder. The major depressive disorder remission rate was high in both groups, and no significant differences were observed. However, a significant relationship between major depressive disorder and painful physical symptoms remission was observed in the group with painful physical symptoms. A significantly higher number of remitted patients with painful physical symptoms (N=61) were administered serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, with significantly more receiving duloxetine than milnacipran.

  5. Effects of Persisting Emotional Impact from Child Abuse and Norepinephrine Transporter Genetic Variation on Antidepressant Efficacy in Major Depression: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajeet Bhagat; Bousman, Chad A.; Ng, Chee Hong; Byron, Keith; Berk, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies suggest child abuse and serotonergic polymorphism influence depression susceptibility and anti-depressant efficacy. Polymorphisms of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) may also be involved. Research in the area is possibly clouded by under reporting of abuse in researcher trials. Methods Adults (n=51) with major depressive disorder has 8 weeks treatment with escitalopram or venlafaxine. Abuse history was obtained, the ongoing emotional impact of which was measured with the 15-item impact of event scale (IES-15). The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was applied serially. Two NET polymorphisms (rs2242446 and rs5569) were assayed, blinded to HDRS ratings and abuse history. Results No subjects reporting abuse with high impact in adulthood (IES-15 ≥26, n=12) remitted; whereas 77% reporting low impact (IES-15 <26; n=26) remitted (p<0.001). Subjects reporting high impact abuse (n=12) had a 50-fold (95% confidence interval=4.85–514.6) greater odds of carrying rs2242446-TT genotype, but the small sample size leaves this finding vulnerable to type I error. Conclusion The level of persisting impact of child abuse appears relevant to antidepressant efficacy, with susceptibility to such possibly being influence by NET rs2242446 polymorphism. Larger studies may be merited to expand on this pilot level finding given potential for biomarker utility. PMID:25912538

  6. Influence of painful physical symptoms in the treatment of Japanese patients with melancholic major depressive disorder: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Atsushi; Hozumi, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2016-08-30

    The aim of this study was to clarify how painful physical symptoms affect treatment outcomes in patients with melancholic major depressive disorder. The subjects comprised 100 consecutive Japanese outpatients with melancholic major depressive disorder who visited our clinic from October 2011 to October 2014. All subjects were interviewed for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis 2, 3, and 4 and family history of major depressive disorder, and then grouped according to the presence of painful physical symptoms. We evaluated painful physical symptoms at baseline and after 12, 24, and 36 weeks of treatment and scores on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, compared major depressive disorder remission between groups, and assessed responsiveness to antidepressants. The group with painful physical symptoms had a significantly more positive family history of major depressive disorder. The major depressive disorder remission rate was high in both groups, and no significant differences were observed. However, a significant relationship between major depressive disorder and painful physical symptoms remission was observed in the group with painful physical symptoms. A significantly higher number of remitted patients with painful physical symptoms (N=61) were administered serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, with significantly more receiving duloxetine than milnacipran. PMID:27294798

  7. Thyroid hormones association with depression severity and clinical outcome in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Berent, Dominika; Zboralski, Krzysztof; Orzechowska, Agata; Gałecki, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The clinical implications of thyroid hormones in depression have been studied extensively and still remains disputable. Supplementation of thyroid hormones is considered to augment and accelerate antidepressant treatment. Studies on the role of thyroid hormones in depression deliver contradictory results. Here we assess theirs impact on depression severity and final clinical outcome in patients with major depression. Thyrotropin, free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations were measured with automated quantitative enzyme immunoassay. Depression severity and final clinical outcome were rated with 17-itemic Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HDRS(17)] and Clinical Global Impression Scales for severity and for improvement (CGIs, CGIi). FT3 and FT4 concentrations were significantly positively correlated with clinical improvement evaluated with CGIi (R = 0.38, P = 0.012; R = 0.33, P = 0.034, respectively). There was a significant correlation between FT4 concentrations and depression severity assessed in HDRS(17) (R = 0.31, P = 0.047). Male patients presented significantly higher FT3 serum levels (Z = 2.34, P = 0.018) and significantly greater clinical improvement (Z = 2.36, P = 0.018) when compared to female patients. We conclude that free thyroid hormones concentrations are associated with depression severity and have an impact on final clinical outcome. It can be more efficient to augment and accelerate the treatment of major depressive disorder with triiodothyronine instead of levothyroxine because of individual differences in thyroid hormones metabolism.

  8. Early filiform needle acupuncture for poststroke depression: a meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiping; Chen, Jing; Chen, Junqi; Li, Xiaohui; Lai, Xueyan; Zhang, Shaoqun; Wang, Shengxu

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of filiform needle acupuncture for poststroke depression, and to compare acupuncture with the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant drugs. DATA RETRIEVAL: We retrieved data from the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979–2012), Wanfang (1980–2012), VIP (1989–2012), Chinese Biomedical Literature (1975–2012), PubMed (1966–2012), Ovid Lww (–2012), and Cochrane Library (–2012) Database using the internet. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials on filiform needle acupuncture versus antidepressant drugs for treatment of poststroke depression were included. Moreover, the included articles scored at least 4 points on the Jadad scale. Exclusion criteria: other acupuncture therapies as treatment group, not stroke-induced depression patients, score < 4 points, non-randomized controlled trials, or animal trials. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: These were the Hamilton Depression Scale scores, clinical effective rate, Self-Rating Depression Scale scores, Side Effect Rating Scale scores, and incidence of adverse reaction and events. RESULTS: A total of 17 randomized controlled clinical trials were included. Meta-analysis results displayed that after 4 weeks of treatment, clinical effective rate was better in patients treated with filiform needle acupuncture than those treated with simple antidepressant drugs [relative risk = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.21, P = 0.01]. At 6 weeks, clinical effective rate was similar between filiform needle acupuncture and antidepressant drug groups. At 2 weeks after filiform needle acupuncture, Hamilton Depression Scale (17 items) scores were lower than in the antidepressant drug group (mean difference = −2.34, 95%CI: −3.46 to −1.22, P < 0.000,1). At 4 weeks, Hamilton Depression Scale (24 items) scores were similar between filiform needle acupuncture and antidepressant drug groups. Self-Rating Depression Scale scores were lower in filiform needle

  9. Depression Rating Scales in Parkinson’s Disease: Critique and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Schrag, Anette; Barone, Paolo; Brown, Richard G.; Leentjens, Albert F.G.; McDonald, William M.; Starkstein, Sergio; Weintraub, Daniel; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Olivier; Sampaio, Cristina; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a common comorbid condition in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and a major contributor to poor quality of life and disability. However, depression can be difficult to assess in patients with PD due to overlapping symptoms and difficulties in the assessment of depression in cognitively impaired patients. As several rating scales have been used to assess depression in PD (dPD), the Movement Disorder Society commissioned a task force to assess their clinimetric properties and make clinical recommendations regarding their use. A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the use of depression scales in PD and determine which scales should be selected for this review. The scales reviewed were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Scale (Ham-D), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Montgomery-As-berg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part I, Cornell Scale for the Assessment of Depression in Dementia (CSDD), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Seven clinical researchers with clinical and research experience in the assessment of dPD were assigned to review the scales using a structured format. The most appropriate scale is dependent on the clinical or research goal. However, observer-rated scales are preferred if the study or clinical situation permits. For screening purposes, the HAM-D, BDI, HADS, MADRS, and GDS are valid in dPD. The CES-D and CSDD are alternative instruments that need validation in dPD. For measurement of severity of depressive symptoms, the Ham-D, MADRS, BDI, and SDS scales are recommended. Further studies are needed to validate the CSDD, which could be particularly useful for the assessment of severity of dPD in patients with comorbid dementia. To account for overlapping motor and nonmotor symptoms of depression, adjusted instrument cutoff scores may

  10. 9 CFR 592.520 - Overtime rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... travel and operating rate, plus the overhead rate, plus the allowance for bad debt rate. FSIS calculates the benefits rate, the travel and operating rate, the overhead rate, and the allowance for bad...

  11. 9 CFR 592.530 - Holiday rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., plus the travel and operating rate, plus the overhead rate, plus the allowance for bad debt rate. FSIS calculates the benefits rate, the travel and operating rate, the overhead rate, and the allowance for...

  12. 9 CFR 592.520 - Overtime rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... travel and operating rate, plus the overhead rate, plus the allowance for bad debt rate. FSIS calculates the benefits rate, the travel and operating rate, the overhead rate, and the allowance for bad...

  13. 9 CFR 592.530 - Holiday rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., plus the travel and operating rate, plus the overhead rate, plus the allowance for bad debt rate. FSIS calculates the benefits rate, the travel and operating rate, the overhead rate, and the allowance for...

  14. Rate control in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Van Gelder, Isabelle C; Rienstra, Michiel; Crijns, Harry J G M; Olshansky, Brian

    2016-08-20

    Control of the heart rate (rate control) is central to atrial fibrillation management, even for patients who ultimately require control of the rhythm. We review heart rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation, including the rationale for the intervention, patient selection, and the treatments available. The choice of rate control depends on the symptoms and clinical characteristics of the patient, but for all patients with atrial fibrillation, rate control is part of the management. Choice of drugs is patient-dependent. β blockers, alone or in combination with digoxin, or non-dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers (not in heart failure) effectively lower the heart rate. Digoxin is least effective, but a reasonable choice for physically inactive patients aged 80 years or older, in whom other treatments are ineffective or are contraindicated, and as an additional drug to other rate-controlling drugs, especially in heart failure when instituted cautiously. Atrioventricular node ablation with pacemaker insertion for rate control should be used as an approach of last resort but is also an option early in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation treated with cardiac resynchronisation therapy. However, catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation should be considered before atrioventricular node ablation. Although rate control is a top priority and one of the first management issues for all patients with atrial fibrillation, many issues remain. PMID:27560277

  15. Mortality rates decline in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    Experiencing remarkable decreases in mortality rates over the past 3 decades, Malaysia currently has one of the lowest mortality rates among developing countries, a rate that compares favorably with those of developed countries. Between 1957 and 1989, the crude death rate dropped from 12.4/1000 population to 4.6. Over the same period, Malaysia recorded even greater decreases in the infant mortality rate, from 75.5/1000 births to 15.2. The Maternal mortality rate also declined from 1.48 in 1970 to 0.24 in 1988. The data indicates that mortality rates vary from state to state, and that rural areas have a higher mortality than urban areas. According to a study by the National Population and Family Development Board, the use of maternal and child health services has played an important role in reducing neonatal, perinatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates. Nearly all women in Malaysia receive antenatal services. While the country has achieved great gains on mortality rates, programs focusing on specific age and socioeconomic groups could lead to even greater reductions. The Minister for National Unity and Social Development, Dato Napsiah Omar, has called for the development of programs designed to improve the population's quality of life.

  16. Mortality rates decline in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    Experiencing remarkable decreases in mortality rates over the past 3 decades, Malaysia currently has one of the lowest mortality rates among developing countries, a rate that compares favorably with those of developed countries. Between 1957 and 1989, the crude death rate dropped from 12.4/1000 population to 4.6. Over the same period, Malaysia recorded even greater decreases in the infant mortality rate, from 75.5/1000 births to 15.2. The Maternal mortality rate also declined from 1.48 in 1970 to 0.24 in 1988. The data indicates that mortality rates vary from state to state, and that rural areas have a higher mortality than urban areas. According to a study by the National Population and Family Development Board, the use of maternal and child health services has played an important role in reducing neonatal, perinatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates. Nearly all women in Malaysia receive antenatal services. While the country has achieved great gains on mortality rates, programs focusing on specific age and socioeconomic groups could lead to even greater reductions. The Minister for National Unity and Social Development, Dato Napsiah Omar, has called for the development of programs designed to improve the population's quality of life. PMID:12284509

  17. Multi-calculation rate simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Akhter, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is common in real time simulations of large aerospace systems to separate the high and low frequency subsystems within the simulation and perform the integrations of the subsystems at different calculation rates. This is done to strike a balance between accuracy of calculation and capacity of the digital computer. Questions arising as to the accuracy of this structure compared to single calculation rates were studied using a linear aircraft model. Also investigated were interactions arising to cause errors worse than those expected. Problems are specifically identified and guidelines are given for selection of sample rates for multiple rate simulations.

  18. Heart Rate and Respiratory Rate Influence on Heart Rate Variability Repeatability: Effects of the Correction for the Prevailing Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Gąsior, Jakub S.; Sacha, Jerzy; Jeleń, Piotr J.; Zieliński, Jakub; Przybylski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with average heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RespRate), alterations in these parameters may impose changes in HRV. Hence the repeatability of HRV measurements may be affected by differences in HR and RespRate. The study aimed to evaluate HRV repeatability and its association with changes in HR and RespRate. Methods: Forty healthy volunteers underwent two ECG examinations 7 days apart. Standard HRV indices were calculated from 5-min ECG recordings. The ECG-derived respiration signal was estimated to assess RespRate. To investigate HR impact on HRV, HRV parameters were corrected for prevailing HR. Results: Differences in HRV parameters between the measurements were associated with the changes in HR and RespRate. However, in multiple regression analysis only HR alteration proved to be independent determinant of the HRV differences—every change in HR by 1 bpm changed HRV values by 16.5% on average. After overall removal of HR impact on HRV, coefficients of variation of the HRV parameters significantly dropped on average by 26.8% (p < 0.001), i.e., by the same extent HRV reproducibility improved. Additionally, the HRV correction for HR decreased association between RespRate and HRV. Conclusions: In stable conditions, HR but not RespRate is the most powerful factor determining HRV reproducibility and even a minimal change of HR may considerably alter HRV. However, the removal of HR impact may significantly improve HRV repeatability. The association between HRV and RespRate seems to be, at least in part, HR dependent. PMID:27588006

  19. Continuous desorption rate measurement from a shallow-bed of poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) particles with correction for experimental artifacts.

    PubMed

    Bujalski, Robert; Cantwell, Frederick F

    2004-09-10

    A 0.50 mm high bed, containing ca. 3 mg of the nominally non-porous poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) (PS-DVB) sorbent Hamilton PRP-infinity, is located in a valve. After the bed is pre-equilibrated with a (7/3) methanol/water solution of naphthalene (NA), the valve is switched and (7/3) methanol/water solvent flows continuously through the bed at a high linear velocity. This causes NA to desorb into a constantly refreshed solvent, creating a "shallow-bed" contactor with an "infinite bath" kinetic condition. The effluent from the bed passes through a UV-absorbance detector which generates the observed instantaneous desorption rate curve for NA. The same experiment is performed using the solute phloroglucinol (PG), which is not sorbed by PRP-infinity and serves as an "impulse response function marker" (IRF-Marker). The resulting peak-shaped IRF curve is used in two ways (i.e. subtraction and deconvolution) in order to correct the observed instantaneous rate curve of NA for the following experimental artifacts: hold-up volume of the bed and valve, transit-delay time between the bed and the detector and instrument bandbroadening of the NA zone. The cumulative desorption rate curve, which is a plot of moles NA desorbed versus time, is obtained by integration. It is found to be accurately described by the theoretical equation for homogeneous spherical diffusion. The diffusion coefficient of NA inside the PRP-infinity particles (5.0+/-0.6) x 10(-11) cm2/s, agrees with the literature value that was obtained from the sorption rate of NA into the same particles. This constitutes virtually conclusive evidence for diffusion control of intra-particle kinetics of NA in the PS-DVB matrix of PRP-infinity and related polymers. The influence of both sorbent and solute properties on the method is evaluated. PMID:15481254

  20. Blood pressure responder rates versus goal rates: which metric matters?

    PubMed

    Basile, Jan

    2009-04-01

    Reducing blood pressure (BP) to guideline-recommended goals associated with reductions in cardiovascular risk is central to effective hypertension management. In addition to measuring BP reduction, clinical trials of antihypertensive agents should assess the percentage of patients responding to treatment. The Food and Drug Administration's defined rate of response required for drug approval is a reduction in diastolic BP (DBP) to <90 mmHg and/or a DBP reduction of > or = 10 mmHg. Consequently, some patients may be counted as responders even if they have not reached DBP <90 mmHg. An antihypertensive agent's effectiveness may be better assessed by the proportion of patients who achieve recommended BP goals. This article analyzes the frequency of response rates versus goal rates as endpoints in randomized trials since January 2001. Data showed that goal rates, especially combined systolic BP (SBP)/DBP goal rates, are consistently lower than response rates in studies evaluating both endpoints. Goal rates incorporating both SBP and DBP, or having a focus on SBP for individuals >50 years of age, provide the most clinically relevant information and are a more clinically relevant metric of an agent's ability to reduce BP than DBP alone.

  1. Event-based minimum-time control of oscillatory neuron models: phase randomization, maximal spike rate increase, and desynchronization.

    PubMed

    Danzl, Per; Hespanha, João; Moehlis, Jeff

    2009-12-01

    We present an event-based feedback control method for randomizing the asymptotic phase of oscillatory neurons. Phase randomization is achieved by driving the neuron's state to its phaseless set, a point at which its phase is undefined and is extremely sensitive to background noise. We consider the biologically relevant case of a fixed magnitude constraint on the stimulus signal, and show how the control objective can be accomplished in minimum time. The control synthesis problem is addressed using the minimum-time-optimal Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman framework, which is quite general and can be applied to any spiking neuron model in the conductance-based Hodgkin-Huxley formalism. We also use this methodology to compute a feedback control protocol for optimal spike rate increase. This framework provides a straightforward means of visualizing isochrons, without actually calculating them in the traditional way. Finally, we present an extension of the phase randomizing control scheme that is applied at the population level, to a network of globally coupled neurons that are firing in synchrony. The applied control signal desynchronizes the population in a demand-controlled way. PMID:19911192

  2. The Maternal Behavior Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Gerald; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Independent ratings of videotaped sessions in which mothers (N=60) interacted with their mentally retarded children (ages 1-3) suggested that potentially important components of maternal behavior (child orientedness/pleasure and control) may be assessed with the seven-item short form of the Maternal Behavior Rating Scale. (JW)

  3. Evolution & the Cesarean Section Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This was the title of an essay by geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky writing in 1973. Many causes have been given for the increased Cesarean section rate in developed countries, but biologic evolution has not been one of them. The C-section rate will continue to rise, because the…

  4. Matching and Conditioned Reinforcement Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina

    2006-01-01

    Attempts to examine the effects of variations in relative conditioned reinforcement rate on choice have been confounded by changes in rates of primary reinforcement or changes in the value of the conditioned reinforcer. To avoid these problems, this experiment used concurrent observing responses to examine sensitivity of choice to relative…

  5. Nontraditional Student Graduation Rate Benchmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Nathan B.

    2014-01-01

    The prominence of discourse on postsecondary degree completion, student persistence, and retention has increased in the national dialogue. Heightened attention to college completion rates by the federal government and pressure to tie state funding to performance metrics associated with graduation rates are catalysts for the discussion.…

  6. What Is a Reaction Rate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Guy

    2005-01-01

    The definition of reaction rate is derived and demonstrations are made for the care to be taken while using the term. Reaction rate can be in terms of a reaction property, the extent of reaction and thus it is possible to give a definition applicable in open and closed systems.

  7. Interest rate swaps under CIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallier, R.; Alobaidi, G.

    2004-03-01

    We consider fixed-for-floating interest rate swaps under the assumption that interest rates are given by the mean-reverting Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model. By using a Green's function approach, we derive analytical expressions for the values of both a vanilla swap and an in-arrears swap.

  8. Value of IDEA Ratings Questioned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2010-01-01

    Just as it has every June since 2006, the U.S. Department of Education last month delivered a rating to each state and territory based on the performance of its special education programs. The ratings, intended to fulfill the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act's requirement that "measurable" and "rigorous" targets be met on the 6.7…

  9. Towards Smart Grid Dynamic Ratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheema, Jamal; Clark, Adrian; Kilimnik, Justin; Pavlovski, Chris; Redman, David; Vu, Maria

    2011-08-01

    The energy distribution industry is giving greater attention to smart grid solutions as a means for increasing the capabilities, efficiency and reliability of the electrical power network. The smart grid makes use of intelligent monitoring and control devices throughout the distribution network to report on electrical properties such as voltage, current and power, as well as raising network alarms and events. A further aspect of the smart grid embodies the dynamic rating of electrical assets of the network. This fundamentally involves a rating of the load current capacity of electrical assets including feeders, transformers and switches. The mainstream approach to rate assets is to apply the vendor plate rating, which often under utilizes assets, or in some cases over utilizes when environmental conditions reduce the effective rated capacity, potentially reducing lifetime. Using active intelligence we have developed a rating system that rates assets in real time based upon several events. This allows for a far more efficient and reliable electrical grid that is able to extend further the life and reliability of the electrical network. In this paper we describe our architecture, the observations made during development and live deployment of the solution into operation. We also illustrate how this solution blends with the smart grid by proposing a dynamic rating system for the smart grid.

  10. Predicting the Divorce Rate: Down?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Theodore D.

    1983-01-01

    Predicted a decline in the divorce rate based on 10 factors including: decline in marriage rate, older age at marriage, mental health improvement, upper limit on employed women, less migration, end of the cultural revolution, exhaustion of latency effect of no-fault divorce, and fear of the consequences of divorce. (JAC)

  11. National anthems and suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Gunn, John F

    2011-02-01

    In a sample of 18 European nations, suicide rates were positively associated with the proportion of low notes in the national anthems and, albeit less strongly, with students' ratings of how gloomy and how sad the anthems sounded, supporting a hypothesis proposed by Rihmer. PMID:21526589

  12. Age-specific divorce rates.

    PubMed

    Kunz, P R; England, J L

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the various types of US divorce rates in 1970 and 1980 and concludes that the age-specific rate is most precise. Using data from the states' vital statistics reports and the 1980 census reports for states, the authors conclude that the teen and early 20s marriages are most at risk to divorce. Rates have increased from 1970 to 1980 with the most dramatic increases occurring in the 25-35 and 40-44 age groups. Study needs to be done to see what factors have led to such disproportionate increases in divorce rates in these age categories. Similarly, research is needed to understand why the 55 and over groups show no change of decline in rates between 1970 and 1980 in light of increases in other age groups. Contrary to general belief, however, divorce does not increase during the 'mid-life crisis' or ' after the children leave home.' PMID:12281968

  13. New fine structure cooling rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    One of the dominant electron cooling processes in the ionosphere is caused by electron impact induced fine structure transitions among the ground state levels of atomic oxygen. This fine structure cooling rate is based on theoretical cross sections. Recent advances in the numerical cross section determinations to include polarization effects and more accurate representations of the atomic target result in new lower values. These cross sections are employed in this paper to derive a new fine structure cooling rate which is between 40% and 60% of the currently used rate. A new generalized formula is presented for the cooling rate (from which the fine structure cooling rate is derived), valid for arbitrary mass and temperature difference of the colliding particles and arbitrary inelastic energy difference.

  14. The Logic of Collective Rating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nax, Heinrich

    2016-05-01

    The introduction of participatory rating mechanisms on online sales platforms has had substantial impact on firms' sales and profits. In this note, we develop a dynamic model of consumer influences on ratings and of rating influences on consumers, focussing on standard 5-star mechanisms as implemented by many platforms. The key components of our social influence model are the consumer trust in the `wisdom of crowds' during the purchase phase and indirect reciprocity during the rating decision. Our model provides an overarching explanation for well-corroborated empirical regularities. We quantify the performance of the voluntary rating mechanism in terms of realized consumer surplus with the no-mechanism and full-information benchmarks, and identify how it could be improved.

  15. Innovative Rates Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-21

    Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) as amended by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) provided financial assistance to state utility regulatory commissions, nonregulated electric utilities, and the Tennessee Valley Authority through the Innovative Rates Program. The financial assistance was to be used to plan or carry out electric utility regulatory rate reform initiatives relating to innovative rate structures that encourage conservation of energy, electric utility efficiency and reduced costs, and equitable rates to consumers. The Federal and local objectives of the project are described. Activities planned and accomplishments are summarized for the following: project management, data collection, utility bill evaluation, billing enclosure/mailing evaluation, media program evaluation, display evaluation, rate study sessions evaluation, speakers bureau evaluation, and individual customer contacts. A timetable/milestone chart and financial information are included. (MHR)

  16. The Average of Rates and the Average Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Defines arithmetic, harmonic, and weighted harmonic means, and discusses their properties. Describes the application of these properties in problems involving fuel economy estimates and average rates of motion. Gives example problems and solutions. (CW)

  17. Association between toll-like receptors expression and major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yi-Yung; Kang, Hong-Yo; Huang, Kai-Wei; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2014-12-15

    Accumulating evidences suggest that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were involved in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. TLR4 was thought to be associated with major depressive disorder in animal model, but the others were still unknown. In order to examine TLR1-9 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood and their relationships with the psychopathology of major depressive disorder, 30 patients with major depressive disorder were compared with 29 healthy controls. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) was used to assess the severity of major depression. The mRNA expression levels of TLRs were examined in parallel with a housekeeping gene using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Analysis of covariance with age and body mass index adjustment revealed a significantly higher expression of TLR3, 4, 5 and 7 mRNA but lower expression of TLR1 and 6 in patients with major depressive disorder as compared with healthy controls. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that TLR4 was an independent risk factor relating to severity of major depression. These findings suggest that TLRs, especially TLR4, may be involved in the psychopathology of major depression.

  18. Pilot randomized clinical trial of an SSRI vs bupropion: effects on suicidal behavior, ideation, and mood in major depression.

    PubMed

    Grunebaum, Michael F; Ellis, Steven P; Duan, Naihua; Burke, Ainsley K; Oquendo, Maria A; John Mann, J

    2012-02-01

    Randomized controlled trials in depressed patients selected for elevated suicidal risk are rare. The resultant lack of data leaves uncertainty about treatment in this population. This study compared a serotonin reuptake inhibitor with a noradrenergic/dopaminergic antidepressant in major depression with elevated suicidal risk factors. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, clinical pilot trial of paroxetine (N=36) or bupropion (N=38) in DSM IV major depression with a suicide attempt history or current suicidal ideation. The effects during acute (8 weeks) and continuation treatment (up to 16 weeks) were measured. Main outcomes were suicidal behavior and ideation. The secondary outcome was modified 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score subtracting the suicide item (mHDRS-17). Treatment was not associated with time to a suicidal event and no treatment main effect or treatment × time interaction on suicidal ideation or mHDRS-17 was found. Exploratory model selection showed modest advantages for paroxetine on: (1) mHDRS-17 (p=0.02); and (2) in a separate model adjusted for baseline depression, for suicidal ideation measured with the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (p=0.03), with benefit increasing with baseline severity. Depressed patients with greater baseline suicidal ideation treated with paroxetine compared with bupropion appeared to experience greater acute improvement in suicidal ideation, after adjusting for global depression. Given the lack of evidence-based pharmacotherapy guidelines for suicidal, depressed patients-an important public health population-this preliminary finding merits further study.

  19. Effects of antidepressant treatment on total antioxidant capacity and free radical levels in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Chen; Lee, Chun-Te; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Ju, Po-Chung; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Lai, Te-Jen

    2015-12-15

    In this prospective study, we investigated the effects of antidepressant therapy on total antioxidant capacity and free radical levels in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We recruited thirty-five first-episode patients who met the criteria of the Fourth Edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of MDD and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Superoxide and hydroxyl radicals were measured to investigate oxidative status and the total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) assay was performed to evaluate antioxidant capacity in healthy controls and in patients before and after receiving a 12-week regimen of sertraline. The severity of depression was evaluated using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Before treatment, the mean HDRS score in patients with MDD was 26.11±4.93. Of the 35 patients with MDD, 19 (54.29%) completed the 12-week treatment regimen and all achieved remission. Patients with MDD had significantly lower TRAP baseline values than healthy controls. After adjusting for age, sex, occupation, education and marital status, we found that HDRS score was negatively correlated with TRAP value and level of superoxide radicals. After treatment, the MDD group demonstrated significantly higher TRAP values and significantly lower levels of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. In conclusion, MDD patients are accompanied by lowered antioxidant capacity than healthy individuals. Antidepressant treatment for 12 weeks results in increased antioxidant capacity and a decrease in circulating free radicals.

  20. When should you move beyond first-line therapy for depression?

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Roger S

    2010-01-01

    The probability of achieving and sustaining symptomatic remission in major depressive disorder (MDD) with first-line pharmacotherapy is approximately 30%. Ample documentation shows that the maximal therapeutic effect obtained with antidepressant pharmacotherapy is approximately 4 to 6 weeks, perhaps longer for individuals receiving manual-based psychotherapies. Emerging evidence also indicates that early (ie, at 2 weeks) symptomatic improvement (ie, ≥ 20% improvement on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score) positively predicts remission at weeks 6 to 8 (nonimprovement at week 2 may be a more robust negative predictor of nonremission at weeks 6 to 8). Notwithstanding the identification of early positive/negative remission prediction, a subgroup of individuals receiving pharmacotherapy evinces initial improvement beyond week 6 of treatment. Available evidence does not support a claim that any antidepressant or class of antidepressants offers a faster onset of action. Identifying moderators and/or predictors of response is a priority research vista; hitherto, no biomarker has emerged as a reliable predictor of treatment efficacy, tolerability, or safety. Emerging evidence suggests that electrophysiological measures, ie, frontal quantitative electro encephalography (QEEG) may be capable of identifying antidepressant remitters within 1 to 2 weeks of exposure. Taken together, practitioners are often faced with the critical question as to when to move beyond index therapy for treating depressive symptoms as part of MDD. PMID:20977871

  1. Overgeneral autobiographical memory at baseline predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yansong; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Jun; Na, Aiguo; Sun, Yujun; Zhao, Xudong

    2016-09-30

    Previous studies have shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a characteristic of depression. However, there are no studies to explore the association between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression (FE). This study investigated whether baseline OGM predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. We recruited 125 patients with FE. The participants were divided into remitted group and non-remitted group according to the severity of their depression at 12 months follow-up. The measures consisted of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses were conducted. The results showed that non-remitted patients had more OGM at baseline. Baseline OGM predicted depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. Rumination mediated the relationship between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our findings highlight OGM as a vulnerability factor involved in the maintenance of depression in patients with FE. PMID:27392229

  2. Overgeneral autobiographical memory at baseline predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yansong; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Jun; Na, Aiguo; Sun, Yujun; Zhao, Xudong

    2016-09-30

    Previous studies have shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a characteristic of depression. However, there are no studies to explore the association between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression (FE). This study investigated whether baseline OGM predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. We recruited 125 patients with FE. The participants were divided into remitted group and non-remitted group according to the severity of their depression at 12 months follow-up. The measures consisted of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses were conducted. The results showed that non-remitted patients had more OGM at baseline. Baseline OGM predicted depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. Rumination mediated the relationship between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our findings highlight OGM as a vulnerability factor involved in the maintenance of depression in patients with FE.

  3. Rate-matching packet scheduler for real-rate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kang; Walpole, Jonathan; McNamee, Dylan; Pu, Calton; Steere, David C.

    2000-12-01

    A packet scheduler is an operating system component that controls the allocation of network interface bandwidth to outgoing network flows. By deciding which packet to send next, packet schedulers not only determine how bandwidth is shared among flows, but also play a key role in determining the rate and timing behavior of individual flows. The recent explosion of rate and timing-sensitive flows, particularly in the context of multimedia applications, has focused new interest on packet schedulers. Next generation packet schedulers must not only ensure separation among flows and meet real-time performance constraints, they must also support dynamic fine- grain real-location of bandwidth for flows with variable-bit- rate requirements. Unfortunately, today's packet schedulers either do not support rate and timing sensitive flows, or do so with reservation systems that are relatively coarse-grain and inflexible. This paper makes two contributions. First it shows how bandwidth requirements can be inferred directly from real-rate flows, without requiring explicit specifications from the application. Second, it presents the design, implementation and performance evaluation of a rate-matching packet scheduler that uses these inferred requirements to automatically and dynamically control the bandwidth allocation to flows.

  4. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores far the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elemnts in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1% of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective

  5. The Airline Quality Rating 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2002-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2002, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2001. AQR scores for the calendar year 2001 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2002 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 11 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2001. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2001 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2001, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2000 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  6. The Airline Quality Rating 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1999-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1999, reflects an updated approach to calculating monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1998. AQR scores for the calendar year 1998 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1998. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year 1998 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1998, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1997, using the updated criteria, are included to provide a reference point regarding quality in the industry.

  7. The Airline Quality Rating 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2001-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2000. AQR scores for the calendar year 2000 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 2000. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2000 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 2000, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1999 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  8. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Mary M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores for the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1 % of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  9. The Airline Quality Rating 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2003, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2002. AQR scores for the calendar year 2002 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2003 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 10 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2002. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of ontime arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2002 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2002, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2001 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  10. Growth rate of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Marr, A G

    1991-01-01

    It should be possible to predict the rate of growth of Escherichia coli of a given genotype in a specified environment. The idea that the rate of synthesis of ATP determines the rate of growth and that the yield of ATP determines the yield of growth is entrenched in bacterial physiology, yet this idea is inconsistent with experimental results. In minimal media the growth rate and yield vary with the carbon source in a manner independent of the rate of formation and yield of ATP. With acetate as the carbon source, anapleurotic reactions, not ATP synthesis, limit the growth rate. For acetate and other gluconeogenic substrates the limiting step appears to be the formation of triose phosphate. I conclude that the rate of growth is controlled by the rate of formation of a precursor metabolite and, thus, of monomers such as amino acids derived from it. The protein-synthesizing system is regulated according to demand for protein synthesis. I examine the conjecture that the signal for this regulation is the ratio of uncharged tRNA to aminoacyl-tRNA, that this signal controls the concentration of guanosine tetraphosphate, and that the concentration of guanosine tetraphosphate controls transcription of rrn genes. Differential equations describing this system were solved numerically for steady states of growth; the computed values of ribosomes and guanosine tetraphosphate and the maximal growth rate agree with experimental values obtained from the literature of the past 35 years. These equations were also solved for dynamical states corresponding to nutritional shifts up and down. PMID:1886524

  11. Stochastic analysis of nucleation rates.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jonas

    2016-02-01

    We show that approximating the Becker-Döring equations with a Langevin equation results in multiplicative noise, which in turn leads to a family of possible Fokker-Planck equations according to the Ito-Stratonovich dilemma. Using a simple and general model for the attachment and detachment rates, we find that the Ito choice approximates the nucleation rate best and also coincides with the Fokker-Planck equation resulting from the common way to Taylor expand the original set of rate equations.

  12. Stochastic analysis of nucleation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Jonas

    2016-02-01

    We show that approximating the Becker-Döring equations with a Langevin equation results in multiplicative noise, which in turn leads to a family of possible Fokker-Planck equations according to the Ito-Stratonovich dilemma. Using a simple and general model for the attachment and detachment rates, we find that the Ito choice approximates the nucleation rate best and also coincides with the Fokker-Planck equation resulting from the common way to Taylor expand the original set of rate equations.

  13. Substitution Rates under Stabilizing Selection

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Alan

    1987-01-01

    Allelic substitutions under stabilizing phenotypic selection on quantitative traits are studied in Monte Carlo simulations of 8 and 16 loci. The results are compared and contrasted to analytical models based on work of M. Kimura for two and "infinite" loci. Selection strengths of S = 4Nes approximately four (which correspond to reasonable strengths of selection for quantitative characters) can retard substitution rates tenfold relative to rates under neutrality. An important finding is a strong dependence of per locus substitution rates on the number of loci. PMID:3609727

  14. 75 FR 80866 - Credit Rating Standardization Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... all credit rating agencies issue credit ratings using identical terms; standardizing the market stress... stress; and standardizing credit rating terminology across asset classes, so that named ratings... market stress conditions under which ratings are evaluated; (C) requiring a quantitative...

  15. TRMM Sees Chantal's Rainfall Rates

    NASA Video Gallery

    On July 8, NASA's TRMM satellite saw Tropical Storm Chantal's heaviest rainfall happening at a rate of over 115.5 mm/hr. (~4.5 inches) near Chantal's center where thunderstorms reached heights of o...

  16. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Aug 30,2016 Blood ... last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  17. Tropical Storm Faxai's Rainfall Rates

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows Tropical Storm Faxai's rainfall rates on March 2 from a TRMM TMI/PR rainfall analysis being faded in over infrared cloud data from the TRMM VIRS instrument. Credit: SSAI/NASA, ...

  18. Idiot Savants: Rate of Incidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    A survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded revealed a .06 percent incidence rate for idiot savants, persons of low intelligence who possess an unusually high skill in some special task. (CL)

  19. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances...,'' is ``premised on the recent recession as an exigent event.'' Id. at 1, 2. In Order No. 1059,...

  20. Confidence rating for eutrophication assessments.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Uwe H; Topcu, Dilek H

    2014-05-15

    Confidence of monitoring data is dependent on their variability and representativeness of sampling in space and time. Whereas variability can be assessed as statistical confidence limits, representative sampling is related to equidistant sampling, considering gradients or changing rates at sampling gaps. By the proposed method both aspects are combined, resulting in balanced results for examples of total nitrogen concentrations in the German Bight/North Sea. For assessing sampling representativeness surface areas, vertical profiles and time periods are divided into regular sections for which individually the representativeness is calculated. The sums correspond to the overall representativeness of sampling in the defined area/time period. Effects of not sampled sections are estimated along parallel rows by reducing their confidence, considering their distances to next sampled sections and the interrupted gradients/changing rates. Confidence rating of time sections is based on maximum differences of sampling rates at regular time steps and related means of concentrations.

  1. Allometric estimation of metabolic rate from heart rate in penguins.

    PubMed

    Green, J A; White, C R; Butler, P J

    2005-12-01

    Studies of the relationship between heart rate (f(H)) and rate of oxygen consumption (V(.) (O(2))), which are then used to predict field metabolic rate, frequently fail to incorporate body mass as a predictive variable. This is a potentially important omission in the study of animals whose body mass fluctuates substantially during their annual cycle. In an attempt further to improve estimates of field metabolic rate from f(H), we re-evaluated data on M(b), f(H) and V(.) (O(2)) from previous studies of macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) and king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and derived a new relationship to integrate these three quantities. This relationship is at least as accurate and precise as previously determined relationships. We applied this same principle to published data on 11 of the 20 recognised penguin taxa to derive a relationship to predict V(.) (O(2)) from f(H) and M(b) in penguins of any species. This result has interesting implications in terms of reducing the logistical burden in studies of field metabolic rate. PMID:16297646

  2. Sensors for rate responsive pacing

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Orto, Simonetta; Valli, Paolo; Greco, Enrico Maria

    2004-01-01

    Advances in pacemaker technology in the 1980s have generated a wide variety of complex multiprogrammable pacemakers and pacing modes. The aim of the present review is to address the different rate responsive pacing modalities presently available in respect to physiological situations and pathological conditions. Rate adaptive pacing has been shown to improve exercise capacity in patients with chronotropic incompetence. A number of activity and metabolic sensors have been proposed and used for rate control. However, all sensors used to optimize pacing rate metabolic demands show typical limitations. To overcome these weaknesses the use of two sensors has been proposed. Indeed an unspecific but fast reacting sensor is combined with a more specific but slower metabolic one. Clinical studies have demonstrated that this methodology is suitable to reproduce normal sinus behavior during different types and loads of exercise. Sensor combinations require adequate sensor blending and cross checking possibly controlled by automatic algorithms for sensors optimization and simplicity of programming. Assessment and possibly deactivation of some automatic functions should be also possible to maximize benefits from the dual sensor system in particular conditions. This is of special relevance in patient whose myocardial contractility is limited such as in subjects with implantable defibrillators and biventricular pacemakers. The concept of closed loop pacing, implementing a negative feedback relating pacing rate and the control signal, will provide new opportunities to optimize dual-sensors system and deserves further investigation. The integration of rate adaptive pacing into defibrillators is the natural consequence of technical evolution. PMID:16943981

  3. Conditioned inhibition and reinforcement rate.

    PubMed

    Harris, Justin A; Kwok, Dorothy W S; Andrew, Benjamin J

    2014-07-01

    We investigated conditioned inhibition in a magazine approach paradigm. Rats were trained on a feature negative discrimination between an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) reinforced at one rate versus a compound of that CS and a visual stimulus (L) reinforced at a lower rate. This training established L as a conditioned inhibitor. We then tested the inhibitory strength of L by presenting it in compound with other auditory CSs. L reduced responding when tested with a CS that had been reinforced at a high rate, but had less or even no inhibitory effect when tested with a CS that had been reinforced at a low rate. The inhibitory strength of L was greater if it signaled a decrease in reinforcement from an already low rate than if it signaled an equivalent decrease in reinforcement from a high rate. We conclude that the strength of inhibition is not a linear function of the change in reinforcement that it signals. We discuss the implications of this finding for models of learning (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) that identify inhibition with a difference (subtraction) rule.

  4. Civilian residential fire fatality rates: Six high-rate states versus six low-rate states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. R., Jr.; Helzer, S. G.

    1983-08-01

    Results of an analysis of 1,600 fire fatalities occurring in six states with high fire-death rates and six states with low fire-death rates are presented. Reasons for the differences in rates are explored, with special attention to victim age, sex, race, and condition at time of ignition. Fire cause patterns are touched on only lightly but are addressed more extensively in the companion piece to this report, "Rural and Non-Rural Civilian Residential Fire Fatalities in Twelve States', NBSIR 82-2519.

  5. Matching and conditioned reinforcement rate.

    PubMed

    Shahan, Timothy A; Podlesnik, Christopher A; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina

    2006-03-01

    Attempts to examine the effects of variations in relative conditioned reinforcement rate on choice have been confounded by changes in rates of primary reinforcement or changes in the value of the conditioned reinforcer. To avoid these problems, this experiment used concurrent observing responses to examine sensitivity of choice to relative conditioned reinforcement rate. In the absence of observing responses, unsignaled periods of food delivery on a variable-interval 90-s schedule alternated with extinction on a center key (i.e., a mixed schedule was in effect). Two concurrently available observing responses produced 15-s access to a stimulus differentially associated with the schedule of food delivery (S+). The relative rate of S+ deliveries arranged by independent variable-interval schedules for the two observing responses varied across conditions. The relation between the ratio of observing responses and the ratio of S+ deliveries was well described by the generalized matching law, despite the absence of changes in the rate of food delivery. In addition, the value of the S+ deliveries likely remained constant across conditions because the ratio of S+ to mixed schedule food deliveries remained constant. Assuming that S+ deliveries serve as conditioned reinforcers, these findings are consistent with the functional similarity between primary and conditioned reinforcers suggested by general choice theories based on the concatenated matching law (e.g., contextual choice and hyperbolic value-added models). These findings are inconsistent with delay reduction theory, which has no terms for the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement in the absence of changes in rate of primary reinforcement.

  6. Preliminary photointerpretation map of landslide and other surficial deposits of the Mount Hamilton quadrangle and parts of the Mount Boardman and San Jose quadrangles, Alameda and Santa Clara Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilsen, Tor H.

    1972-01-01

    This map, then, shows the cumulative effects of various processes that have yielded surficial deposits up to the time the photographs used for photointerpretation were taken. It does not indicate directly areas where processes will be most active, nor does it show the rate at which they will operate. However, knowledge of the history of geologic events is a key to understanding and predicting the evolution of an area, even where man's activities significantly change the character of the land. Almost all new landslides, for example, occur in areas with a history of landslide activity.

  7. Rating scales for musician's dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Berque, Patrice; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart; Frucht, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Musician's dystonia (MD) is a focal adult-onset dystonia most commonly involving the hand. It has much greater relative prevalence than non-musician’s focal hand dystonias, exhibits task specificity at the level of specific musical passages, and is a particularly difficult form of dystonia to treat. For most MD patients, the diagnosis confirms the end of their music performance careers. Research on treatments and pathophysiology is contingent upon measures of motor function abnormalities. In this review, we comprehensively survey the literature to identify the rating scales used in MD and the distribution of their use. We also summarize the extent to which the scales have been evaluated for their clinical utility, including reliability, validity, sensitivity, specificity to MD, and practicality for a clinical setting. Out of 135 publications, almost half (62) included no quantitative measures of motor function. The remaining 73 studies used a variety of choices from among 10 major rating scales. Most used subjective scales involving either patient or clinician ratings. Only 25% (18) of the studies used objective scales. None of the scales has been completely and rigorously evaluated for clinical utility. Whether studies involved treatments or pathophysiologic assays, there was a heterogeneous choice of rating scales used with no clear standard. As a result, the collective interpretive value of those studies is limited because the results are confounded by measurement effects. We suggest that the development and widespread adoption of a new clinically useful rating scale is critical for accelerating basic and clinical research in MD. PMID:23884039

  8. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOEpatents

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  9. Dual physiological rate measurement instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tommy G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide an instrument for converting a physiological pulse rate into a corresponding linear output voltage. The instrument which accurately measures the rate of an unknown rectangular pulse wave over an extended range of values comprises a phase-locked loop including a phase comparator, a filtering network, and a voltage-controlled oscillator, arranged in cascade. The phase comparator has a first input responsive to the pulse wave and a second input responsive to the output signal of the voltage-controlled oscillator. The comparator provides a signal dependent on the difference in phase and frequency between the signals appearing on the first and second inputs. A high-input impedance amplifier accepts an output from the filtering network and provides an amplified output DC signal to a utilization device for providing a measurement of the rate of the pulse wave.

  10. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  11. MEMS Rate Sensors for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambino, Joel

    2000-01-01

    Micromachined Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) Rate Sensors are an enabling technology for Nanosatellites. The recent award of a Nanosatellite program to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) underscores the urgency of the development of these systems for space use. The Guidance Navigation and Control Center (GNCC) at the GSFC is involved in several efforts to develop this technology. The GNCC seeks to improve the performance of these sensors and develop flight ready systems for spacecraft use by partnering with industry leaders in MEMS Rate Sensor development. This paper introduces Microgyros and discusses the efforts in progress at the GNCC to improve the performance of these units and develop MEMS Rate Sensors for space use.

  12. Recent deformation rates on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Robert E.

    1994-11-01

    Constraints on the recent geological evolution of Venus may be provided by quantitative estimates of the rates of the principal resurfacing processes, volcanism and tectonism. This paper focuses on the latter, using impact craters as strain indicators. The total postimpact tectonic strain lies in the range 0.5-6.5%, which defines a recent mean strain rate of 10-18-10-17/s when divided by the mean surface age. Interpretation of the cratering record as one of pure production requires a decline in resurfacing rates at about 500 Ma (catastrophic resurfacing model). If distributed tectonic resurfacing contributed strongly before that time, as suggested by the widespread occurrence of tessera as inliers, the mean global strain rate must have been at least approximately 10-15/s, which is also typical of terrestrial active margins. Numerical calculations of the response of the lithosphere to inferred mantle convective forces were performed to test the hypothesis that a decrease in surface strain rate by at least two orders of magnitude could be caused by a steady decline in heat flow over the last billion years. Parameterized convection models predict that the mean global thermal gradient decreases by only about 5 K/km over this time; even with the exponential dependence of viscosity upon temperature, the surface strain rate drops by little more than one order of magnitude. Strongly unsteady cooling and very low thermal gradients today are necessary to satisfy the catastrophic model. An alternative, uniformitarian resurfacing hypothesis holds that Venus is resurfaced in quasi-random 'patches' several hundred kilometers in size that occur in response to changing mantle convection patterns.

  13. High Data Rate Instrument Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schober, Wayne; Lansing, Faiza; Wilson, Keith; Webb, Evan

    1999-01-01

    The High Data Rate Instrument Study was a joint effort between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The objectives were to assess the characteristics of future high data rate Earth observing science instruments and then to assess the feasibility of developing data processing systems and communications systems required to meet those data rates. Instruments and technology were assessed for technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006. The highest data rate instruments are hyperspectral and synthetic aperture radar instruments which are capable of generating 3.2 Gigabits per second (Gbps) and 1.3 Gbps, respectively, with a technology readiness date of 2003. These instruments would require storage of 16.2 Terebits (Tb) of information (RF communications case of two orbits of data) or 40.5 Tb of information (optical communications case of five orbits of data) with a technology readiness date of 2003. Onboard storage capability in 2003 is estimated at 4 Tb; therefore, all the data created cannot be stored without processing or compression. Of the 4 Tb of stored data, RF communications can only send about one third of the data to the ground, while optical communications is estimated at 6.4 Tb across all three technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006 which were used in the study. The study includes analysis of the onboard processing and communications technologies at these three dates and potential systems to meet the high data rate requirements. In the 2003 case, 7.8% of the data can be stored and downlinked by RF communications while 10% of the data can be stored and downlinked with optical communications. The study conclusion is that only 1 to 10% of the data generated by high data rate instruments will be sent to the ground from now through 2006 unless revolutionary changes in spacecraft design and operations such as intelligent data extraction are developed.

  14. Transcription rates in DNA brushes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Safran, S A

    2015-04-21

    We theoretically predict the rate of transcription (TX) in DNA brushes by introducing the concept of TX dipoles that takes into account the unidirectional motion of enzymes (RNAP) along DNA during transcription as correlated pairs of sources and sinks in the relevant diffusion equation. Our theory predicts that the TX rates dramatically change upon the inversion of the orientation of the TX dipoles relative to the substrate because TX dipoles modulate the concentrations of RNAP in the solution. Comparing our theory with experiments suggests that, in some cases, DNA chain segments are relatively uniformly distributed in the brush, in contrast to the parabolic profile expected for flexible polymer brushes.

  15. Is dynamic rating the answer?

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Capacity of transmission line to move power is very dependent on weather conditions. If all transmission lines could be instrumented so that the dispatchers know their capacity at all times, much uncertainty about network capacity would be eliminated. The problem is high cost; dynamic line-rating systems are likely to be in widespread use in the near future. Dynamic rating is very useful for dealing with contingency, when dispatchers need to know the maximum capacity of equipment and how many minutes they have before action must be taken.

  16. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew; Falkowski, Paul

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  17. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  18. The Creative Processes Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulp, Margaret; Tarter, Barbara J.

    1986-01-01

    Developed from research about and teacher experience with children and creativity, the Creative Processes Rating Scale was tested with 100 sixth graders and found to be an effective instrument (which can be used by teachers with no experience in art) for assessing the creative processes of children in the visual arts. (Author/CB)

  19. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  20. Alternative Schools and Dropout Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Earl J.

    National dropou figures hover around 46 percent, according to the U.S. Office of Education. School business partnerships, including occupational training, counseling, and preemployment experience, have been effective in reducing the dropout rate in many schools. The use of computers in teaching traditional subjects has proved attractive to…