Yuan, Huaiwu; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Chunxue; Luo, Ben Yan; Shi, Yuzhi; Li, Jingjing; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Yilong; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Juan; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun
2014-02-01
There was fewer paper about the relation between the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 Items, HDRS-17) factors and stroke outcomes. Our aim was to investigate the influence of total score and factors of HDRS-17 on outcome of ischemic stroke at 1 year. A total of 1,953 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled into a multicentered and prospective cohort study. The HDRS-17 was used to assess symptoms at 2 weeks after ischemic stroke. The Modified Ranking Scale (mRS) scores of 3-6 points and 0-2 points were regarded as poor outcome and benign outcome, respectively. At 1 year, 1,753 (89.8 %) patients had mRS score data. After adjusting for the confounders, patients with a total HDRS-17 score of ≥ 8 had a worse outcome at 1 year (OR = 1.62, 95 % CI 1.18-2.23). Symptoms of suicide (OR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.27-2.83), decreased or loss of interest of work (OR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.38-2.58), retardation (OR = 1.74, 95 % CI 1.27-2.38), psychic anxiety (OR = 1.72, 95 % CI 1.26-2.34), and agitation (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI 1.08-2.40) increased the risks for poor outcome by >60 %, respectively. Depressed mood, somatic anxiety, somatic symptoms-gastrointestinal, and early insomnia also increased the risk for poor outcome by nearly 50 %, respectively. A total HDRS-17 score of ≥ 8, and suicide, decreased or loss of interest of work, anxiety, agitation, retardation, depressed mood, somatic anxiety, somatic symptoms-gastrointestinal, and early insomnia of the HDRS-17 factors at 2 weeks after ischemic stroke increase the risk for poor outcome at 1 year. PMID:23715751
The responsiveness of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.
Faries, D; Herrera, J; Rayamajhi, J; DeBrota, D; Demitrack, M; Potter, W Z
2000-01-01
In clinical studies of antidepressants, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) total score has been the gold standard instrument for establishing and comparing the efficacy of new treatments. However, the HAMD is a multidimensional measure, which may reduce its ability to detect differences between treatments, in particular, changes in core symptoms of depression. Two meta-analyses were conducted to compare the responsiveness of the HAMD total score with several published unidimensional subscale scores based upon core symptoms of depression. The first compared the above instrument's ability to detect differences between fluoxetine and placebo across eight studies involving over 1600 patients. The second analysis involved four studies and over 1200 patients randomized to tricyclic antidepressants and placebo. In both meta-analyses, the unidimensional core subscales outperformed the HAMD total score at detecting treatment differences. The implications of this on sample sizes and power for clinical studies will be discussed. In fact, studies based on the observed effect sizes from the core subscales would require approximately one-third less patients than studies based on the HAMD total score. Effect sizes from each individual HAMD item will also be presented to help explain the differences in responsiveness between the scales. PMID:10696827
Park, Young-Nam; Jae, Young-Myo; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Jeong, Seung-Hee; Kim, Jung-Bum
2011-01-01
Objective This study analyzed the symptom frequencies of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) to understand the characteristics of each item and to propose the possible symptoms clusters. Methods From psychiatric clinics of 18 Hospitals in Korea, 1,183 patients, diagnosed with major depressive disorder (psychotic or non-psychotic), dysthymia or depressive disorder not otherwise specified. according to DSM-IV criteria, participated in this study from January 2006 to August 2008. The frequencies of each item of HDRS-17 were analyzed according to sex and severity. In addition, we compared this study with a previous study performed in England by Hamilton and with two studies performed in Korea by Kim et al. Results The frequencies of HDRS-17 items varied widely in this study, ranging from 95.8% in work and activities to 37.4% in loss of weight. But, depressed mood, psychic anxiety and work and activities items exhibited constant and higher frequency or rank regardless of study, the severity of depression or sex. Insomnia early, somatic gastrointestinal, genital symptoms and insight showed relatively constant but lower frequency or rank in disregard of studies or the clinical variables. Other symptoms had variable frequencies or ranks according to the variable clinical situations (culture, time, sex, severity of depression). Conclusion We propose three clusters of symptoms in depressive disorders: core symptoms cluster, an associated symptoms, and a situation-specific symptoms. We can use these possible symptom clusters of depression in simplifying diagnosis of depression, increasing diagnostic specificity in special situation and indexing disease severity. PMID:22216040
Zung, Beck, and Hamilton Rating Scales as Measures of Treatment Outcome: A Meta-Analytic Comparison.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lambert, Michael J.; And Others
1986-01-01
Treatment studies using the Zung Self-Rating Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression as dependent measures were reviewed to determine whether these scales provide comparable data for assessing treatment effects. Results indicated that the Zung and the Beck showed less change in depression following…
Measuring Depression at the End of Life: Is the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale a Valid Instrument?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olden, Megan; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William
2009-01-01
Depression at the end of life is a common mental health issue with serious implications for quality of life and decision making. This study investigated the reliability and validity of one of the most frequently used measures of depression, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) in 422 patients with terminal cancer admitted to a palliative…
Worboys, Michael
2013-01-01
Objectives: To show why and how the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression became the ‘Gold Standard’ for assessing therapies from the mid-1960s and how it was used to frame depression as a short-term and curable illness rather than a chronic one. Methods: My approach is that of the social construction of knowledge, identifying the interests, institutional contexts and practices that produce knowledge claims and then mapping the social processes of their circulation, validation and acceptance. Results: The circulation and validation of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was relatively slow and it became a ‘Gold Standard’ ‘from below’, from an emerging consensus amongst psychiatrists undertaking clinical trials for depression, which from the 1960s were principally with psychopharmaceuticals for short-term illness. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, drug trials and the construction of depression as non-chronic were mutually constituted. Discussion: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression framed depression and its sufferers in new ways, leading psychiatrists to understand illness as a treatable episode, rather than a life course condition. As such, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression served the interests of psychiatrists and psychiatry in its new era of drug therapy outside the mental hospital. However, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was a strange kind of ‘standard’, being quite non-standard in the widely varying ways it was used and the meanings given to its findings. PMID:23172888
Hamilton, Ritz, and elastodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, C. D.
1976-01-01
The theory of Ritz is applied to the equation that Hamilton called the 'Law of Varying Action'. Direct analytical solutions are obtained for the transient motion of beams, both conservative and nonconservative. The results obtained are compared to exact solutions obtained by the use of rigorously exact free-vibration modes in the differential equations of Lagrange and to an approximate solution obtained through the application of Gurtin's principles for linear elastodynamics. A brief discussion of Hamilton's law and Hamilton's principle is followed by examples of results for both free-free and cantilever beams with various loadings.
Elizabeth Hamilton: Enlightenment Educator.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Russell, Rosalind
1986-01-01
Elizabeth Hamilton, an eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scottish writer on education, was one of the first to advocate the application of educational psychology to teaching. She introduced Pestalozzi's method to the English-reading public and argued for equal education for all children of both sexes and all social backgrounds. (LFL)
Hamilton's Principle for Beginners
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brun, J. L.
2007-01-01
I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a…
Donzuso, Giulia; Cerasa, Antonio; Gioia, Maria C; Caracciolo, Manuela; Quattrone, Aldo
2014-01-01
Objectives The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Hamilton scale for anxiety (HARS) are two of the most important scales employed in clinical and psychological realms for the evaluation of anxiety. Although the reliability and sensibility of these scales are widely demonstrated there is an open debate on what exactly their scores reflect. Neuroimaging provides the potential to validate the quality and reliability of clinical scales through the identification of specific biomarkers. For this reason, we evaluated the neural correlates of these two scales in a large cohort of healthy individuals using structural neuroimaging methods. Case report Neuroimaging analysis included thickness/volume estimation of cortical and subcortical limbic structures, which were regressed on anxiety inventory scores with age and gender used for assessing discriminant validity. A total of 121 healthy subjects were evaluated. Despite the two anxiety scales, at a behavioral level, displaying significant correlations among them (HARS with STAI-state (r = 0.24; P = 0.006) and HARS with STAI-trait (r = 0.42; P < 0.001)), multivariate neuroimaging analyses demonstrated that anatomical variability in the anterior cingulate cortex was the best predictor of the HARS scores (all β's ≥ 0.31 and P's ≤ 0.01), whereas STAI-related measures did not show any significant relationship with regions of limbic circuits, but their scores were predicted by gender (all β's ≥ 0.23 and P's ≤ 0.02). Conclusion Although the purpose of HARS and STAI is to quantify the degree and characteristics of anxiety-like behaviors, our neuroimaging data indicated that these scales are neurobiologically different, confirming that their scores might reflect different aspects of anxiety: the HARS is more related to subclinical expression of anxiety disorders, whereas the STAI captures sub-dimensions of personality linked to anxiety. PMID:25161817
Peeps at William Edwin Hamilton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wayman, P. A.
1999-01-01
William Edwin Hamilton, 1834-1902, (WEH) was the elder son of Sir William Rowan Hamilton and Helen Hamilton and he inherited many of the characteristics of his famous father. One property that he did not inherit, however, was his father's genius. While the outline of the life of WEH was given by Hankins in his 1980 biography of Sir William, a copy of ``Peeps at My Life'' written by WEH during the last months of his life was not available until recently. A few years ago a copy was sent to me by Herman Berg of Detroit and in this article, the principal items in ``Peeps'' that are relevant to Ireland, and some other facets of the character of WEH, are included as they give an unusual viewpoint of a by-gone age.
Quantum Hamilton-Jacobi theory.
Roncadelli, Marco; Schulman, L S
2007-10-26
Quantum canonical transformations have attracted interest since the beginning of quantum theory. Based on their classical analogues, one would expect them to provide a powerful quantum tool. However, the difficulty of solving a nonlinear operator partial differential equation such as the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (QHJE) has hindered progress along this otherwise promising avenue. We overcome this difficulty. We show that solutions to the QHJE can be constructed by a simple prescription starting from the propagator of the associated Schrödinger equation. Our result opens the possibility of practical use of quantum Hamilton-Jacobi theory. As an application, we develop a surprising relation between operator ordering and the density of paths around a semiclassical trajectory. PMID:17995307
Hamilton׳s Rule in finite populations with synergistic interactions.
Taylor, Peter
2016-05-21
Much debate has appeared in the literature over the generality of the inclusive fitness approach in the modeling of evolutionary behavior. Here I focus on the capacity of the inclusive fitness approach to effectively handle non-additive or synergistic interactions. I work with a binary interaction with the matrix game [abcd] and I restrict attention to transitive (homogeneous) populations with weak selective effects. First of all I observe that the construction of "higher-order" relatedness coefficients permits these synergistic interactions to be analyzed with an inclusive fitness analysis. These coefficients are an immediate generalization of Hamilton׳s original coefficient and can be calculated with exactly the same type of recursive equations. Secondly I observe that for models in which the population is not too large and local genetic renewal is rare (e,g, rare mutation), these higher order coefficients are not needed even with non-additive interactions; in fact the synergistic interaction is entirely equivalent to a closely-related additive one. The overall conclusion is that in the study of synergistic binary social interactions (2-player games) in a finite homogeneous population with weak selection and rare genetic renewal, a standard inclusive-fitness analysis is able to predict the direction of allele-frequency change. I apply this result to analyze a recent model of Allen and Nowak (2015). PMID:26947271
Rizvi, Sakina J; Quilty, Lena C; Sproule, Beth A; Cyriac, Anna; Michael Bagby, R; Kennedy, Sidney H
2015-09-30
Anhedonia, a core symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), is predictive of antidepressant non-response. In contrast to the definition of anhedonia as a "loss of pleasure", neuropsychological studies provide evidence for multiple facets of hedonic function. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS), a dynamic scale that measures desire, motivation, effort and consummatory pleasure across hedonic domains. Following item selection procedures and reliability testing using data from community participants (N=229) (Study 1), the 17-item scale was validated in an online study with community participants (N=150) (Study 2). The DARS was also validated in unipolar or bipolar depressed patients (n=52) and controls (n=50) (Study 3). Principal components analysis of the 17-item DARS revealed a 4-component structure mapping onto the domains of anhedonia: hobbies, food/drink, social activities, and sensory experience. Reliability of the DARS subscales was high across studies (Cronbach's α=0.75-0.92). The DARS also demonstrated good convergent and divergent validity. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed the DARS showed additional utility over the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) in predicting reward function and distinguishing MDD subgroups. These studies provide support for the reliability and validity of the DARS. PMID:26250147
Hamiltonization of the generalized Veselova LR system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedorov, Yu. N.; Jovanović, B.
2009-08-01
We revise the solution to the problem of Hamiltonization of the n-dimensional Veselova nonholonomic system studied previously in [1]. Namely, we give a short and direct proof of the hamiltonization theorem and also show the trajectorial equivalence of the problem with the geodesic flow on the ellipsoid.
Basic Theatrical Understanding: Considerations for James Hamilton
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carroll, Noel
2009-01-01
In this article, the author considers Hamilton's idea of "basic understanding" of a theatrical performance. The author finds it hard to grasp this conception. He worries, although perhaps only on the basis of misunderstanding, that Hamilton's conception of the basic understanding of theatrical performances will not do the work he wants it to do as…
[Factorial analysis of the Hamilton depression scale, II].
Dreyfus, J F; Guelfi, J D; Ruschel, S; Blanchard, C; Pichot, P
1981-04-01
A factorial analysis (principal components with Varimax rotation) was performed on 85 ratings of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale obtained in 1979-1980 on inpatients with a major depressive illness. Using a replicable statistical technique, 4 factors were obtained. These factors do not overlap with those obtain on a similar sample with a similar technique nor with those obtained by other authors. It thus appears that there is no such thing as a factorial structure of this scale. PMID:7305179
Hamilton's principle in stochastic mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavon, Michele
1995-12-01
In this paper we establish three variational principles that provide new foundations for Nelson's stochastic mechanics in the case of nonrelativistic particles without spin. The resulting variational picture is much richer and of a different nature with respect to the one previously considered in the literature. We first develop two stochastic variational principles whose Hamilton-Jacobi-like equations are precisely the two coupled partial differential equations that are obtained from the Schrödinger equation (Madelung equations). The two problems are zero-sum, noncooperative, stochastic differential games that are familiar in the control theory literature. They are solved here by means of a new, absolutely elementary method based on Lagrange functionals. For both games the saddle-point equilibrium solution is given by the Nelson's process and the optimal controls for the two competing players are precisely Nelson's current velocity v and osmotic velocity u, respectively. The first variational principle includes as special cases both the Guerra-Morato variational principle [Phys. Rev. D 27, 1774 (1983)] and Schrödinger original variational derivation of the time-independent equation. It also reduces to the classical least action principle when the intensity of the underlying noise tends to zero. It appears as a saddle-point action principle. In the second variational principle the action is simply the difference between the initial and final configurational entropy. It is therefore a saddle-point entropy production principle. From the variational principles it follows, in particular, that both v(x,t) and u(x,t) are gradients of appropriate principal functions. In the variational principles, the role of the background noise has the intuitive meaning of attempting to contrast the more classical mechanical features of the system by trying to maximize the action in the first principle and by trying to increase the entropy in the second. Combining the two variational
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2013-05-23
... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Standard Division and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),...
The causal meaning of Hamilton's rule.
Okasha, Samir; Martens, Johannes
2016-03-01
Hamilton's original derivation of his rule for the spread of an altruistic gene (rb>c) assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of the rule holds under non-additive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are suitably defined, as partial regression coefficients. However, critics have questioned both the biological significance and the causal meaning of the resulting rule. This paper examines the causal meaning of the generalized Hamilton's rule in a simple model, by computing the effect of a hypothetical experiment to assess the cost of a social action and comparing it to the partial regression definition. The two do not agree. A possible way of salvaging the causal meaning of Hamilton's rule is explored, by appeal to R. A. Fisher's 'average effect of a gene substitution'. PMID:27069669
Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan
2012-01-01
Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…
Unbiased sampling of lattice Hamilton path ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mansfield, Marc L.
2006-10-01
Hamilton paths, or Hamiltonian paths, are walks on a lattice which visit each site exactly once. They have been proposed as models of globular proteins and of compact polymers. A previously published algorithm [Mansfield, Macromolecules 27, 5924 (1994)] for sampling Hamilton paths on simple square and simple cubic lattices is tested for bias and for efficiency. Because the algorithm is a Metropolis Monte Carlo technique obviously satisfying detailed balance, we need only demonstrate ergodicity to ensure unbiased sampling. Two different tests for ergodicity (exact enumeration on small lattices, nonexhaustive enumeration on larger lattices) demonstrate ergodicity unequivocally for small lattices and provide strong support for ergodicity on larger lattices. Two other sampling algorithms [Ramakrishnan et al., J. Chem. Phys. 103, 7592 (1995); Lua et al., Polymer 45, 717 (2004)] are both known to produce biases on both 2×2×2 and 3×3×3 lattices, but it is shown here that the current algorithm gives unbiased sampling on these same lattices. Successive Hamilton paths are strongly correlated, so that many iterations are required between statistically independent samples. Rules for estimating the number of iterations needed to dissipate these correlations are given. However, the iteration time is so fast that the efficiency is still very good except on extremely large lattices. For example, even on lattices of total size 10×10×10 we are able to generate tens of thousands of uncorrelated Hamilton paths per hour of CPU time.
Application of Hamilton's Law of Varying Action
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, C. D.
1973-01-01
The application of Hamilton's Law to the direct solution of nonstationary as well as stationary problems in mechanics of solids is discussed. Solutions are demonstrated for conservative and monconservative, stationary and/or nonstationary particle motion. Mathematical models are developed to establish the relationships of the parameters.
Hamilton County: A Rural School District Profile.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harned, Catherine
Using state education agency, census, industry employment and occupational information data, this paper provides a detailed picture of a rural school district in Southern Illinois. Mining and agriculture are the major industries in Hamilton County. The major mining employer closed in February 1988, and the drought of 1988 is likely to adversely…
GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. ...
GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. Pencil on paper, dated December 4, 1952. Also marked "PWC 103474." By J.Y. Long Company, Engineers, Oakland, California - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA
Conformal invariance and Hamilton Jacobi theory for dissipative systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiehn, R. M.
1975-01-01
For certain dissipative systems, a comparison can be made between the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and the conformal invariance of action theory. The two concepts are not identical, but the conformal action theory covers the Hamilton-Jacobi theory.
Hamilton-Jacobi approach to non-slow-roll inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kinney, William H.
1997-08-01
I describe a general approach to characterizing cosmological inflation outside the standard slow-roll approximation, based on the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of scalar field dynamics. The basic idea is to view the equation of state of the scalar field matter as the fundamental dynamical variable, as opposed to the field value or the expansion rate. I discuss how to formulate the equations of motion for scalar and tensor fluctuations in situations where the assumption of slow roll is not valid. I apply the general results to the simple case of inflation from an ``inverted'' polynomial potential, and to the more complicated case of hybrid inflation.
Difference in the binocular rivalry rate between depressive episodes and remission.
Jia, Ting; Ye, Xing; Wei, Qiang; Xie, Wen; Cai, Chunlan; Mu, Jingjing; Dong, Yi; Hu, Panpan; Hu, Xinglong; Tian, Yanghua; Wang, Kai
2015-11-01
Binocular rivalry refers to a phenomenon in which, when different images are presented to each eye simultaneously, perception alternates spontaneously between monocular views rather than being a superposition of the two images. Recently, the involvement of serotonin systems has been reported to be related to the phenomenon. There is abundant evidence for abnormalities of the serotonin systems in depression and the antidepressants that enhance 5-HT transmission, which in turn improves mood and behavior. However, the available data with respect to rivalry rates in depression are less clear. Therefore, we aimed to explore whether perceptual rivalry was affected by a dysfunctional serotonin system in patients with depression and whether there was a rivalry rate difference between episode and remission states in depression patients. Twenty-eight patients with depression and 30 healthy controls were recruited in the study. We assessed the rivalry rate and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with depression during clinical episode and remission states. The results suggested that alternation rates for patients during episodes were significantly slower than during remission and than in healthy controls. Also, alternation rates for patients during remission were slower than in healthy controls. These results may provide further clues to serotonergic neural systems contributing to the dynamics of perception rivalry and may foster enlightenment regarding the field of binocular rivalry in psychiatric disorders other than bipolar disorder. PMID:26247392
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faraggi, Alon E.; Matone, Marco
2015-07-01
Adaptation of the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to quantum mechanics leads to a cocycle condition, which is invariant under D-dimensional Mobius transformations with Euclidean or Minkowski metrics. In this paper we aim to provide a pedagogical presentation of the proof of the Möbius symmetry underlying the cocycle condition. The Möbius symmetry implies energy quantization and undefinability of quantum trajectories, without assigning any prior interpretation to the wave function. As such, the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, augmented with the global Möbius symmetry, provides an alternative starting point, to the axiomatic probability interpretation of the wave function, for the formulation of quantum mechanics and the quantum spacetime. The Möbius symmetry can only be implemented consistently if spatial space is compact, and correspondingly if there exist a finite ultraviolet length scale. Evidence for nontrivial space topology may exist in the cosmic microwave background radiation.
Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for tachyon inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aghamohammadi, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Golanbari, T.; Saaidi, Kh.
2014-10-01
Tachyon inflation is reconsidered by using the recent observational data obtained from Planck-2013 and BICEP2. The Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is picked out as a desirable approach in this work, which allows one to easily obtain the main parameters of the model. The Hubble parameter is supposed as a power-law and exponential function of the scalar field, and each case is considered separately. The constraints on the model, which come from observational data, are explained during the work. The results show a suitable value for the tensor spectral index and an appropriate form of the potential.
A Hamilton Jacobi formalism for thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajeev, S. G.
2008-09-01
We show that classical thermodynamics has a formulation in terms of Hamilton-Jacobi theory, analogous to mechanics. Even though the thermodynamic variables come in conjugate pairs such as pressure/volume or temperature/entropy, the phase space is odd-dimensional. For a system with n thermodynamic degrees of freedom it is 2n+1-dimensional. The equations of state of a substance pick out an n-dimensional submanifold. A family of substances whose equations of state depend on n parameters define a hypersurface of co-dimension one. This can be described by the vanishing of a function which plays the role of a Hamiltonian. The ordinary differential equations (characteristic equations) defined by this function describe a dynamical system on the hypersurface. Its orbits can be used to reconstruct the equations of state. The 'time' variable associated to this dynamics is related to, but is not identical to, entropy. After developing this formalism on well-grounded systems such as the van der Waals gases and the Curie-Weiss magnets, we derive a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for black hole thermodynamics in General Relativity. The cosmological constant appears as a constant of integration in this picture.
Hamilton-Jacobi Theory in Cauchy Data Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, CéAdric M.; de Leóan, Manuel; de Diego, David Martín; Vaquero, Miguel
2015-12-01
Recently, M. de LeóAn et al. [8] have developed a geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory for classical fields in the setting of multisymplectic geometry. Our purpose in the current paper is to establish the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi theory in the Cauchy data space, and relate both approaches.
An unusual ophthalmic finding in Lane-Hamilton syndrome.
Villegas, Victor M; Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Lam, Byron L; McKeown, Craig A; Berrocal, Audina M
2014-12-01
Lane-Hamilton syndrome is a rare condition that is characterized by idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis and celiac disease. We report the case of an 18-month-old girl with Lane-Hamilton syndrome who had unilateral pigmentary retinopathy. PMID:25448145
Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton on cortical surfaces.
Shi, Y; Thompson, P M; Dinov, I; Toga, A W
2008-05-01
In this paper, we propose a new method to construct graphical representations of cortical folding patterns by computing skeletons on triangulated cortical surfaces. In our approach, a cortical surface is first partitioned into sulcal and gyral regions via the solution of a variational problem using graph cuts, which can guarantee global optimality. After that, we extend the method of Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton [1] to subsets of triangulated surfaces, together with a geometrically intuitive pruning process that can trade off between skeleton complexity and the completeness of representing folding patterns. Compared with previous work that uses skeletons of 3-D volumes to represent sulcal patterns, the skeletons on cortical surfaces can be easily decomposed into branches and provide a simpler way to construct graphical representations of cortical morphometry. In our experiments, we demonstrate our method on two different cortical surface models, its ability of capturing major sulcal patterns and its application to compute skeletons of gyral regions. PMID:18450539
WAVELENGTH CALIBRATION OF THE HAMILTON ECHELLE SPECTROGRAPH
Pakhomov, Yu. V.; Zhao, G.
2013-10-01
We present the wavelength calibration of the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory. The main problem with the calibration of this spectrograph arises from the fact that thorium lines are absent in the spectrum of the presumed ThAr hollow-cathode lamp now under operation; numerous unknown strong lines, which have been identified as titanium lines, are present in the spectrum. We estimate the temperature of the lamp's gas which permits us to calculate the intensities of the lines and to select a large number of relevant Ti I and Ti II lines. The resulting titanium line list for the Lick hollow-cathode lamp is presented. The wavelength calibration using this line list was made with an accuracy of about 0.006 Å.
Frol, Alan B; Vasquez, Aracely; Getahun, Yonatan; Pacheco, Maria; Khan, David A; Brown, E Sherwood
2013-01-01
Although data are mixed, asthma and rheumatologic conditions may be associated with cognitive impairment. Medications may play a role because corticosteroids are associated with memory impairment. Therefore, an easily administered assessment of cognition would be useful in these patients. We assessed relationships between self-rated and clinician-rated cognitive performance and mood in patients with asthma and rheumatologic diseases. Participants included 31adults treated for asthma or rheumatologic disorders (17 receiving chronic prednisone therapy, and 14 not receiving prednisone). An objective assessment of a variety of cognitive domains was administered through clinician and patient-rated assessments of cognition. Composite scores for the objective (Global Clinical Rating [GCR]) and subjective (Neuropsychological Impairment Scale: Global Measure of Impairment [GMI]) measures of cognition were derived. Depression was assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17). A linear regression was conducted with GMI scores as dependent variable and GCR, HRSD-17 scores, and prednisone-use status, as independent variables. Significant differences between prednisone-treated patients and other patients were observed on the GCR, GMI, and HRSD-17. In the regression analysis, HRSD-17 scores, but not GCR scores, significantly predicted GMI scores. Prednisone-treated patients had higher levels of depressive symptoms and subjective and objective cognitive deficits than those not taking prednisone. In the combined patient groups, subjective cognitive assessment was more strongly related to depressive symptoms than objective cognition. Findings suggest physicians should be aware of the potential for cognitive deficits in patients taking corticosteroids and, when appropriate, should consider the use of objective neurocognitive tests or neuropsychology consultation to better characterize its presence and severity. PMID:23484893
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Zhongwen; Li, Guoping; Jiang, Pengying; Pan, Yang; Zu, Xiaotao
2016-07-01
In this paper, we derive the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equations from the generalized Klein-Gordon equation and generalized Dirac equation. Then, we study the tunneling rate, Hawking temperature and entropy of the higher-dimensional Reissner-Nordström de Sitter black hole via the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Our results show that the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equations for charged scalar particles and charged fermions have the same expressions. Besides, the modified Hawking temperatures and entropy are related to the mass and charge of the black hole, the cosmology constant, the quantum number of emitted particles, and the term of GUP effects β.
Hamilton-Jacobi Ansatz to Study the Hawking Radiation of Kerr-Newman Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Deyou; Yang, Shuzheng
Taking the self-gravitation interaction and unfixed background space-time into account, we study the Hawking radiation of Kerr-Newman-Kasuya black holes using Hamilton-Jacobi method. The result shows that the tunneling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the radiation spectrum deviates from the purely thermal one, which is accordant with that obtained using Parikh and Wilczek's method and gives a correction to the Hawking radiation of the black hole.
CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. ...
CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM HOTEL; HAMILTON BUNGALOW IN FOREGROUND; BUNGALOW NO. 3 DIRECTLY BEHIND; HINDS & CONNER AND "A" BUNGALOWS IN REAR. VISTA DEL ARROYO HOTEL ON RIGHT - Vista del Arroyo Hotel, 125 South Grand Avenue, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA
1. Historic American Buildings Survey Charles E. Hamilton, Photographer June, ...
1. Historic American Buildings Survey Charles E. Hamilton, Photographer June, 1934. Copied by Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer (a) EXT.-FRONT, LOOKING NORTH - Enfield Road (Schoolhouse), Prescott Center, Franklin County, MA
Quantum Hamilton Mechanics and the Theory of Quantization Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bracken, Paul
A formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of complex canonical variables is presented. It is seen that these variables are governed by Hamilton's equations. It is shown that the action variables need to be quantized. By formulating a quantum Hamilton equation for the momentum variable, the energies for two different systems are determined. Quantum canonical transformation theory is introduced and the geometrical significance of a set of generalized quantization conditions which are obtained is discussed.
Hamilton Jeffers and the Double Star Catalogues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tenn, Joseph S.
2013-01-01
Astronomers have long tracked double stars in efforts to find those that are gravitationally-bound binaries and then to determine their orbits. Court reporter and amateur astronomer Shelburne Wesley Burnham (1838-1921) published a massive double star catalogue containing more than 13,000 systems in 1906. The next keeper of the double stars was Lick Observatory astronomer Robert Grant Aitken (1864-1951), who produced a much larger catalogue in 1932. Aitken maintained and expanded Burnham’s records of observations on handwritten file cards, eventually turning them over to Lick Observatory astrometrist Hamilton Moore Jeffers (1893-1976). Jeffers further expanded the collection and put all the observations on punched cards. With the aid of Frances M. "Rete" Greeby (1921-2002), he made two catalogues: an Index Catalogue with basic data about each star, and a complete catalogue of observations, with one observation per punched card. He enlisted Willem van den Bos of Johannesburg to add southern stars, and they published the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0. As Jeffers approached retirement he became greatly concerned about the disposition of the catalogues. He wanted to be replaced by another "double star man," but Lick Director Albert E. Whitford (1905-2002) had the new 120-inch reflector, the world’s second largest telescope, and he wanted to pursue modern astrophysics instead. Jeffers was vociferously opposed to turning over the card files to another institution, and especially against their coming under the control of Kaj Strand of the U.S. Naval Observatory. In the end the USNO got the files and has maintained the records ever since, first under Charles Worley (1935-1997), and, since 1997, under Brian Mason. Now called the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS), it is completely online and currently contains more than 1,000,000 measures of more than 100,000 pairs.
Chou, Chia-Chun
2014-03-14
The complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation-Bohmian trajectories (CQHJE-BT) method is introduced as a synthetic trajectory method for integrating the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the complex action function by propagating an ensemble of real-valued correlated Bohmian trajectories. Substituting the wave function expressed in exponential form in terms of the complex action into the time-dependent Schrödinger equation yields the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We transform this equation into the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. The resulting equation describing the rate of change in the complex action transported along Bohmian trajectories is simultaneously integrated with the guidance equation for Bohmian trajectories, and the time-dependent wave function is readily synthesized. The spatial derivatives of the complex action required for the integration scheme are obtained by solving one moving least squares matrix equation. In addition, the method is applied to the photodissociation of NOCl. The photodissociation dynamics of NOCl can be accurately described by propagating a small ensemble of trajectories. This study demonstrates that the CQHJE-BT method combines the considerable advantages of both the real and the complex quantum trajectory methods previously developed for wave packet dynamics.
Chou, Chia-Chun
2014-03-14
The complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation-Bohmian trajectories (CQHJE-BT) method is introduced as a synthetic trajectory method for integrating the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the complex action function by propagating an ensemble of real-valued correlated Bohmian trajectories. Substituting the wave function expressed in exponential form in terms of the complex action into the time-dependent Schrödinger equation yields the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We transform this equation into the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. The resulting equation describing the rate of change in the complex action transported along Bohmian trajectories is simultaneously integrated with the guidance equation for Bohmian trajectories, and the time-dependent wave function is readily synthesized. The spatial derivatives of the complex action required for the integration scheme are obtained by solving one moving least squares matrix equation. In addition, the method is applied to the photodissociation of NOCl. The photodissociation dynamics of NOCl can be accurately described by propagating a small ensemble of trajectories. This study demonstrates that the CQHJE-BT method combines the considerable advantages of both the real and the complex quantum trajectory methods previously developed for wave packet dynamics. PMID:24628169
Hamilton's rule and the causes of social evolution
Bourke, Andrew F. G.
2014-01-01
Hamilton's rule is a central theorem of inclusive fitness (kin selection) theory and predicts that social behaviour evolves under specific combinations of relatedness, benefit and cost. This review provides evidence for Hamilton's rule by presenting novel syntheses of results from two kinds of study in diverse taxa, including cooperatively breeding birds and mammals and eusocial insects. These are, first, studies that empirically parametrize Hamilton's rule in natural populations and, second, comparative phylogenetic analyses of the genetic, life-history and ecological correlates of sociality. Studies parametrizing Hamilton's rule are not rare and demonstrate quantitatively that (i) altruism (net loss of direct fitness) occurs even when sociality is facultative, (ii) in most cases, altruism is under positive selection via indirect fitness benefits that exceed direct fitness costs and (iii) social behaviour commonly generates indirect benefits by enhancing the productivity or survivorship of kin. Comparative phylogenetic analyses show that cooperative breeding and eusociality are promoted by (i) high relatedness and monogamy and, potentially, by (ii) life-history factors facilitating family structure and high benefits of helping and (iii) ecological factors generating low costs of social behaviour. Overall, the focal studies strongly confirm the predictions of Hamilton's rule regarding conditions for social evolution and their causes. PMID:24686934
Quantitative genetic versions of Hamilton's rule with empirical applications
McGlothlin, Joel W.; Wolf, Jason B.; Brodie, Edmund D.; Moore, Allen J.
2014-01-01
Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness revolutionized our understanding of the evolution of social interactions. Surprisingly, an incorporation of Hamilton's perspective into the quantitative genetic theory of phenotypic evolution has been slow, despite the popularity of quantitative genetics in evolutionary studies. Here, we discuss several versions of Hamilton's rule for social evolution from a quantitative genetic perspective, emphasizing its utility in empirical applications. Although evolutionary quantitative genetics offers methods to measure each of the critical parameters of Hamilton's rule, empirical work has lagged behind theory. In particular, we lack studies of selection on altruistic traits in the wild. Fitness costs and benefits of altruism can be estimated using a simple extension of phenotypic selection analysis that incorporates the traits of social interactants. We also discuss the importance of considering the genetic influence of the social environment, or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), in the context of Hamilton's rule. Research in social evolution has generated an extensive body of empirical work focusing—with good reason—almost solely on relatedness. We argue that quantifying the roles of social and non-social components of selection and IGEs, in addition to relatedness, is now timely and should provide unique additional insights into social evolution. PMID:24686930
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Extending Fourier transformations to Hamilton's quaternions and Clifford's geometric algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hitzer, Eckhard
2013-10-01
We show how Fourier transformations can be extended to Hamilton's algebra of quaternions. This was initially motivated by applications in nuclear magnetic resonance and electric engineering. Followed by an ever wider range of applications in color image and signal processing. Hamilton's algebra of quaternions is only one example of the larger class of Clifford's geometric algebras, complete algebras encoding a vector space and all its subspace elements. We introduce how Fourier transformations are extended to Clifford algebras and applied in electromagnetism, and in the processing of images, color images, vector field and climate data.
INTERIOR DETAIL, EASTERN HEMICYCLE, SALOON. WILLIAM HAMILTON PLACED BRONZE AND ...
INTERIOR DETAIL, EASTERN HEMICYCLE, SALOON. WILLIAM HAMILTON PLACED BRONZE AND MARBLE SCULPTURE IN SOME OF THE HEMICYCLE NICHES. ONE OF THE NICHES HOUSED A CANNON STOVE FOR HEATING THE ROOM IN THE COLDER MONTHS - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
VIEW SOUTH FROM HAMILTON AVENUE BUILDING 25 LEFT; BUILDING 32 ...
VIEW SOUTH FROM HAMILTON AVENUE BUILDING 25 LEFT; BUILDING 32 MACHINE SHOP (1890) LEFT CENTER BUILDING 31 RIGGER'S SHOP (1890) CENTER BUILDING 28 BLACKSMITH SHOP (1885) RIGHT CENTER; BUILDING 27 PATTERN SHOP (1853) RIGHT - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ
Involutive constrained systems and Hamilton-Jacobi formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertin, M. C.; Pimentel, B. M.; Valcárcel, C. E.
2014-11-01
In this paper, we study singular systems with complete sets of involutive constraints. The aim is to establish, within the Hamilton-Jacobi theory, the relationship between the Frobenius' theorem, the infinitesimal canonical transformations generated by constraints in involution with the Poisson brackets, and the lagrangian point (gauge) transformations of physical systems.
Moving the Education Needle: A Conversation with Scott Hamilton
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jacobs, Joanne
2014-01-01
Scott Hamilton is the Forrest Gump of education reform, although with a lot more IQ points and fewer chocolates. He worked for Bill Bennett in the U.S. Department of Education and for Benno Schmidt at the Edison Project. He authorized charter schools in Massachusetts, co-founded the KIPP network, quadrupled the size of Teach For America (TFA), and…
Rehearsal and Hamilton's "Ingredients Model" of Theatrical Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davies, David
2009-01-01
One among the many virtues of James Hamilton's book, "The Art of Theater," is that it challenges the hegemony of the classical paradigm in the performing arts by questioning its applicability to theatrical performances. He argues instead for an "ingredients model" of the relationship between a literary script and a theatrical work. According to…
75 FR 37293 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hamilton, TX
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2010-06-29
... additional controlled airspace at Hamilton Municipal Airport (75 FR 20794) Docket No. FAA-2009-0190... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR,...
Coordinates Used in Derivation of Hawking Radiation via Hamilton-Jacobi Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bo; He, Xiaokai; Liu, Wenbiao
2009-05-01
Coordinates used in derivation of Hawking radiation via Hamilton-Jacobi method are investigated more deeply. In the case of a 4-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole, a direct computation leads to a wrong result. In the meantime, making use of the isotropic coordinate or invariant radial distance, we can get the correct conclusion. More coordinates including Painleve and Eddington-Finkelstein are tried to calculate the semi-classical Hawking emission rate. The reason of the discrepancy between naive coordinate and well-behaved coordinates is also discussed.
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... Fish and Wildlife Service Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, MS; Intent To Prepare a... conservation plan (CCP) and associated National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents for Sam D. Hamilton... information to: Mr. Steve Reagan, Project Leader, Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee NWR, 2970 Bluff Lake...
Efficient solution for finding Hamilton cycles in undirected graphs.
Alhalabi, Wadee; Kitanneh, Omar; Alharbi, Amira; Balfakih, Zain; Sarirete, Akila
2016-01-01
The Hamilton cycle problem is closely related to a series of famous problems and puzzles (traveling salesman problem, Icosian game) and, due to the fact that it is NP-complete, it was extensively studied with different algorithms to solve it. The most efficient algorithm is not known. In this paper, a necessary condition for an arbitrary un-directed graph to have Hamilton cycle is proposed. Based on this condition, a mathematical solution for this problem is developed and several proofs and an algorithmic approach are introduced. The algorithm is successfully implemented on many Hamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian graphs. This provides a new effective approach to solve a problem that is fundamental in graph theory and can influence the manner in which the existing applications are used and improved. PMID:27516930
Research on Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Hamilton Graph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Yan; Cui, Chao-Dong
An important concept, "closed domain" is proposed in this paper. In the same time, necessary and sufficient lemma for closed domain, R, is proved on which necessary and sufficient theorem for judging whether a general graph G is a Hamilton graph is proposed and proved. All instances in this paper are judged by comparatively using the theorem proposed herein and the original necessary condition theorem and sufficient condition theorem to prove the correctness of the method proposed in this paper.
Bäcklund transformations relating different Hamilton-Jacobi equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sozonov, A. P.; Tsiganov, A. V.
2015-06-01
We discuss one of the possible finite-dimensional analogues of the general Bäcklund transformation relating different partial differential equations. We show that different Hamilton-Jacobi equations can be obtained from the same Lax matrix. We consider Hénon-Heiles systems on the plane, Neumann and Chaplygin systems on the sphere, and two integrable systems with velocity-dependent potentials as examples.
Central Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We present new, efficient central schemes for multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. These non-oscillatory, non-staggered schemes are first- and second-order accurate and are designed to scale well with an increasing dimension. Efficiency is obtained by carefully choosing the location of the evolution points and by using a one-dimensional projection step. First-and second-order accuracy is verified for a variety of multi-dimensional, convex and non-convex problems.
Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for string gas thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joseph, Anosh; Rajeev, Sarada G.
2009-03-01
We show that the thermodynamics of a system of strings at high energy densities under the ideal gas approximation has a formulation in terms of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The two parameters of the system, which have dimensions of energy density and number density, respectively, define a family of hypersurfaces of a codimension one, which can be described by the vanishing of a function F that plays the role of a Hamiltonian.
Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for string gas thermodynamics
Joseph, Anosh; Rajeev, Sarada G.
2009-03-15
We show that the thermodynamics of a system of strings at high energy densities under the ideal gas approximation has a formulation in terms of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The two parameters of the system, which have dimensions of energy density and number density, respectively, define a family of hypersurfaces of a codimension one, which can be described by the vanishing of a function F that plays the role of a Hamiltonian.
Hamilton's forces of natural selection after forty years.
Rose, Michael R; Rauser, Casandra L; Benford, Gregory; Matos, Margarida; Mueller, Laurence D
2007-06-01
In 1966, William D. Hamilton published a landmark paper in evolutionary biology: "The Moulding of Senescence by Natural Selection." It is now apparent that this article is as important as his better-known 1964 articles on kin selection. Not only did the 1966 article explain aging, it also supplied the basic scaling forces for natural selection over the entire life history. Like the Lorentz transformations of relativistic physics, Hamilton's Forces of Natural Selection provide an overarching framework for understanding the power of natural selection at early ages, the existence of aging, the timing of aging, the cessation of aging, and the timing of the cessation of aging. His twin Forces show that natural selection shapes survival and fecundity in different ways, so their evolution can be somewhat distinct. Hamilton's Forces also define the context in which genetic variation is shaped. The Forces of Natural Selection are readily manipulable using experimental evolution, allowing the deceleration or acceleration of aging, and the shifting of the transition ages between development, aging, and late life. For these reasons, evolutionary research on the demographic features of life history should be referred to as "Hamiltonian." PMID:17542838
Conca, A; Fritzsche, H; Peschina, W; König, P; Swoboda, E; Wiederin, H; Haas, C
2000-02-28
The assumption of a dynamic coupling between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebral glucose metabolic rates (rCMRGlu) has been challenged by simultaneous measurements of both. Through the use of a dual-headed gamma camera with a 511-keV collimator applying the double isotope 18F-FDG and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT technique, the uptake rates of these isotopes can be semi-quantitatively evaluated. Sixteen depressed patients, diagnosed by ICD-10 criteria and assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), were studied. Based on the severity of HRSD-rated anxiety (item 10: low=1-21; high=3-4), two eight-patient subgroups were formed and compared with 12 age- and handedness-matched healthy control subjects. As regions of interest, we selected areas implicated in the neuroanatomy of anxiety and depression: hippocampus (hippo), basal ganglia (BG) and gyri temporales superiores (G.t.s.). In the control subjects, a significant statistical coupling between rCBF and rCMRGlu was revealed by the Spearman correlation coefficient only in left hippo and left BG. Patients in the low-anxiety subgroup demonstrated a marked dynamic coupling bilaterally for the G.t.s., while patients in the high-anxiety subgroup showed a significant statistical correlation of rCBF and rCMRGlu only in the left G.t.s. These findings indicate that a dynamic coupling between blood flow and glucose metabolism exists only in distinct brain regions, and that the depressive illness has an uncoupling effect on this correlation in the left BG. Furthermore, our results suggest that the HRSD anxiety score might interact with the underlying depressive illness to influence the relationship of rCBF and rCMRGlu. PMID:10708925
Hamilton-Jacobi tunneling method for dynamical horizons in different coordinate gauges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Criscienzo, Roberto; Hayward, Sean A.; Nadalini, Mario; Vanzo, Luciano; Zerbini, Sergio
2010-01-01
Previous work on dynamical black hole instability is further elucidated within the Hamilton-Jacobi method for horizon tunneling and the reconstruction of the classical action by means of the null expansion method. Everything is based on two natural requirements, namely that the tunneling rate is an observable and therefore it must be based on invariantly defined quantities, and that coordinate systems which do not cover the horizon should not be admitted. These simple observations can help to clarify some ambiguities, like the doubling of the temperature occurring in the static case when using singular coordinates and the role, if any, of the temporal contribution of the action to the emission rate. The formalism is also applied to FRW cosmological models, where it is observed that it predicts the positivity of the temperature naturally, without further assumptions on the sign of energy.
Hamilton-Jacobi method for curved domain walls and cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skenderis, Kostas; Townsend, Paul K.
2006-12-01
We use Hamiltonian methods to study curved domain walls and cosmologies. This leads naturally to first-order equations for all domain walls and cosmologies foliated by slices of maximal symmetry. For Minkowski and AdS-sliced domain walls (flat and closed FLRW cosmologies) we recover a recent result concerning their (pseudo)supersymmetry. We show how domain-wall stability is consistent with the instability of AdS vacua that violate the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. We also explore the relationship to Hamilton-Jacobi theory and compute the wave-function of a 3-dimensional closed universe evolving towards de Sitter spacetime.
Hamilton-Jacobi solutions for strongly coupled gravity and matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salopek, D. S.
1998-05-01
A Green function method is developed for solving strongly coupled gravity and matter in the semiclassical limit. In the strong-coupling limit, one assumes that Newton's constant approaches infinity, 0264-9381/15/5/009/img1. As a result, one may neglect second-order spatial gradients, and each spatial point evolves like a homogeneous universe. After constructing the Green function solution to the Hamiltonian constraint, the momentum constraint is solved using functional methods in conjunction with the superposition principle for Hamilton-Jacobi theory. Exact and approximate solutions are given for a dust field or a scalar field interacting with gravity.
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... Museum of Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Colgate University, 13 Oak Dr... Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Colgate University, 13 Oak Dr., Hamilton, NY...
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Unified formalism for the generalized kth-order Hamilton-Jacobi problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colombo, Leonardo; de Léon, Manuel; Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso
2014-08-01
The geometric formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory enables us to generalize it to systems of higher-order ordinary differential equations. In this work we introduce the unified Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism for the geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory on higher-order autonomous dynamical systems described by regular Lagrangian functions.
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77 FR 52135 - Hamilton Bank, Baltimore, Maryland; Approval of Conversion Application
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... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Comptroller of the Currency Hamilton Bank, Baltimore, Maryland; Approval of Conversion...) approved the application of Hamilton Bank, Baltimore, Maryland to convert to the stock form of...
A Celebration of Voices: The Virginia Hamilton Conference on Multicultural Literature for Youth.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Janet
2001-01-01
Focuses on the establishment of, changes in, and discussions that have taken place at the Virginia Hamilton Conference on Multicultural Literature for Youth, celebrating its 17th year of stimulating dialogue on children's books. The conference honors author Virginia Hamilton, winner of almost every major award in the field of children's…
Sense of Belonging and Mental Health in Hamilton, Ontario: An Intra-Urban Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Chowhan, James
2012-01-01
This paper examines geographic variations in sense of community belonging in Hamilton, Ontario. It also identifies the most significant health and social factors associated with belonging in the city. The research employs data from the 2007/08 Canadian Community Health Survey for respondents aged 18 or over living in the Hamilton Census…
Quantum interference within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism
Chou, Chia-Chun; Sanz, Angel S.; Miret-Artes, Salvador; Wyatt, Robert E.
2010-10-15
Quantum interference is investigated within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. As shown in a previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 (2009) 250401], complex quantum trajectories display helical wrapping around stagnation tubes and hyperbolic deflection near vortical tubes, these structures being prominent features of quantum caves in space-time Argand plots. Here, we further analyze the divergence and vorticity of the quantum momentum function along streamlines near poles, showing the intricacy of the complex dynamics. Nevertheless, despite this behavior, we show that the appearance of the well-known interference features (on the real axis) can be easily understood in terms of the rotation of the nodal line in the complex plane. This offers a unified description of interference as well as an elegant and practical method to compute the lifetime for interference features, defined in terms of the average wrapping time, i.e., considering such features as a resonant process.
Surface modification of ZnO nanorods with Hamilton receptors.
Zeininger, Lukas; Klaumünzer, Martin; Peukert, Wolfgang; Hirsch, Andreas
2015-01-01
A new prototype of a Hamilton receptor suitable for the functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles was synthesized and characterized. The hydrogen bonding receptor was coupled to a catechol moiety, which served as anchor group for the functionalization of metal oxides, in particular zinc oxide. Synthesized zinc oxide nanorods [ZnO] were used for surface functionalization. The wet-chemical functionalization procedure towards monolayer-grafted particles [ZnO-HR] is described and a detailed characterization study is presented. In addition, the detection of specific cyanurate molecules is demonstrated. The hybrid structures [ZnO-HR-CA] were stable towards agglomeration and exhibited enhanced dispersability in apolar solvents. This observation, in combination with several spectroscopic experiments gave evidence of the highly directional supramolecular recognition at the surface of nanoparticles. PMID:25872141
Particle dynamics inside shocks in Hamilton-Jacobi equations.
Khanin, Konstantin; Sobolevski, Andrei
2010-04-13
The characteristic curves of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be seen as action-minimizing trajectories of fluid particles. For non-smooth 'viscosity' solutions, which give rise to discontinuous velocity fields, this description is usually pursued only up to the moment when trajectories hit a shock and cease to minimize the Lagrangian action. In this paper we show that, for any convex Hamiltonian, there exists a uniquely defined canonical global non-smooth coalescing flow that extends particle trajectories and determines the dynamics inside shocks. We also provide a variational description of the corresponding effective velocity field inside shocks, and discuss the relation to the 'dissipative anomaly' in the limit of vanishing viscosity. PMID:20211875
Surface Modification of ZnO Nanorods with Hamilton Receptors
Zeininger, Lukas; Klaumünzer, Martin; Peukert, Wolfgang; Hirsch, Andreas
2015-01-01
A new prototype of a Hamilton receptor suitable for the functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles was synthesized and characterized. The hydrogen bonding receptor was coupled to a catechol moiety, which served as anchor group for the functionalization of metal oxides, in particular zinc oxide. Synthesized zinc oxide nanorods [ZnO] were used for surface functionalization. The wet-chemical functionalization procedure towards monolayer-grafted particles [ZnO-HR] is described and a detailed characterization study is presented. In addition, the detection of specific cyanurate molecules is demonstrated. The hybrid structures [ZnO-HR-CA] were stable towards agglomeration and exhibited enhanced dispersability in apolar solvents. This observation, in combination with several spectroscopic experiments gave evidence of the highly directional supramolecular recognition at the surface of nanoparticles. PMID:25872141
Hamilton's inclusive fitness in finite-structured populations
Taylor, Peter D.; Maciejewski, Wes
2014-01-01
Hamilton's formulation of inclusive fitness has been with us for 50 years. During the first 20 of those years attention was largely focused on the evolutionary trajectories of different behaviours, but over the past 20 years interest has been growing in the effect of population structure on the evolution of behaviour and that is our focus here. We discuss the evolutionary journey of the inclusive-fitness effect over this epoch, nurtured as it was in an essentially homogeneous environment (that of ‘transitive’ structures) having to adapt in different ways to meet the expectations of heterogeneous structures. We pay particular attention to the way in which the theory has managed to adapt the original constructs of relatedness and reproductive value to provide a formulation of inclusive fitness that captures a precise measure of allele-frequency change in finite-structured populations. PMID:24686932
Obituary: George Hamilton Bowen Jr. (1925-2009)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willson, Lee Anne; Struck, Curtis
2011-12-01
Our colleague and collaborator George Hamilton Bowen, Jr., passed away November 1, 2009 in Ames, Iowa. George was born June 20, 1925 in Tulsa, Oklahoma to George and Dorothy (Huntington) Bowen. He married Marjorie Brown June 19, 1948 in Redondo Beach, California; they had five children, with eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren at the time of his death. George H. Bowen's third or perhaps his fourth career was in astronomy. He was drafted into the navy in 1944, at the end of his first year as a student at Caltech, and ended his war-time service as an electronic technician on the aircraft carrier Shangri-La. He later said "In just nine months, starting from scratch (Ohm's law!), we learned an amazing amount - not by memorization, of course, but by study and real understanding of the basic function of the most advanced AC circuits then being used for instrumentation, measurements, communications, control systems, and much more." He gained a confidence that he could quickly and accurately diagnose and solve technical problems that stood him well in future work. One accomplishment he took particular pride in was figuring out how the radar control used cams and gears to solve the trigonometry for accurate pointing. He also described how the captain was alarmed when weather conditions changed so that refraction no longer showed them distant, small boats around the curvature of Earth. After the war, George Bowen returned to undergraduate and eventually graduate study at Caltech, where he was recruited to the biophysics research group headed by future Nobel Laureate Max Delbrück. George often described his joy in working with these first-rate scientists and finding himself accepted as a part of the effort. He finished his BS with honors in 1949 and his PhD in 1953 with a thesis on "Kinetic Studies on the Mechanism of Photoreactivation of Bacteriophase T2 Inactivated by Ultraviolet Light" involving work with E Coli. This work was supported by grants from the U
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muse, Daphne
2002-01-01
Presents a tribute to Virginia Hamilton. Notes that at a time when Black people, especially girls, were seriously beginning to struggle with self-acceptance and self-worth, Hamilton's "bold and imaginative writing was nothing short of revolutionary." (SG)
Obituary: George Hamilton Bowen Jr. (1925-2009)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willson, Lee Anne; Struck, Curtis
2011-12-01
Our colleague and collaborator George Hamilton Bowen, Jr., passed away November 1, 2009 in Ames, Iowa. George was born June 20, 1925 in Tulsa, Oklahoma to George and Dorothy (Huntington) Bowen. He married Marjorie Brown June 19, 1948 in Redondo Beach, California; they had five children, with eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren at the time of his death. George H. Bowen's third or perhaps his fourth career was in astronomy. He was drafted into the navy in 1944, at the end of his first year as a student at Caltech, and ended his war-time service as an electronic technician on the aircraft carrier Shangri-La. He later said "In just nine months, starting from scratch (Ohm's law!), we learned an amazing amount - not by memorization, of course, but by study and real understanding of the basic function of the most advanced AC circuits then being used for instrumentation, measurements, communications, control systems, and much more." He gained a confidence that he could quickly and accurately diagnose and solve technical problems that stood him well in future work. One accomplishment he took particular pride in was figuring out how the radar control used cams and gears to solve the trigonometry for accurate pointing. He also described how the captain was alarmed when weather conditions changed so that refraction no longer showed them distant, small boats around the curvature of Earth. After the war, George Bowen returned to undergraduate and eventually graduate study at Caltech, where he was recruited to the biophysics research group headed by future Nobel Laureate Max Delbrück. George often described his joy in working with these first-rate scientists and finding himself accepted as a part of the effort. He finished his BS with honors in 1949 and his PhD in 1953 with a thesis on "Kinetic Studies on the Mechanism of Photoreactivation of Bacteriophase T2 Inactivated by Ultraviolet Light" involving work with E Coli. This work was supported by grants from the U
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Jing-Li; Fu, Li-Ping; Chen, Ben-Yong; Sun, Yi
2016-01-01
This letter focuses on studying Lie symmetries and their inverse problems of the fractional nonholonomic Hamilton systems. Based on the invariance of the fractional motion equations, constraint equations and virtual displacement restrictive conditions of the systems under the infinitesimal transformation with respect to the time and generalized coordinates, the Lie symmetries and conserved quantities of the fractional nonholonomic Hamilton system are discussed and the corresponding definitions, determining equations, limiting equations, additional restricting equations and Lie theorems are given. The letter also systematically studies inverse theorems of Lie symmetries of the fractional nonholonomic Hamilton systems. Finally, an example is discussed to illustrate theses results.
The identity of Hamilton's Ticto Barb, Pethia ticto (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).
Katwate, Unmesh; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh
2015-01-01
While describing the fishes of Ganges, Hamilton described Cyprinus ticto (now allocated to Pethia) from south-eastern parts of Bengal. The unavailability of type material and insufficient diagnostic characters in the original description resulted in ambiguities in the identity of this species. In this paper, we clarify the identity of P. ticto through an integrative-taxonomic approach. Pethia ticto can be distinguished from all other known species of the genus by a combination of characters that includes an abbreviated lateral line with 6-12 pored scales; 23-26 scales in lateral-scale row; 9 predorsal scales; ½4/1/3½-4 scales in transverse series; and a pigmentation pattern that includes a small black humeral spot covering the third and fourth lateral-line scales, a prominent spot on the caudal peduncle on the 16th-19th scales of the lateral-line scale row, and two rows of black spots scattered on the dorsal fin. PMID:26249452
Quantum streamlines within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism
Chou, C.-C.; Wyatt, Robert E.
2008-09-28
Quantum streamlines are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The local structures of the quantum momentum function (QMF) and the Polya vector field near a stagnation point or a pole are analyzed. Streamlines near a stagnation point of the QMF may spiral into or away from it, or they may become circles centered on this point or straight lines. Additionally, streamlines near a pole display east-west and north-south opening hyperbolic structure. On the other hand, streamlines near a stagnation point of the Polya vector field for the QMF display general hyperbolic structure, and streamlines near a pole become circles enclosing the pole. Furthermore, the local structures of the QMF and the Polya vector field around a stagnation point are related to the first derivative of the QMF; however, the magnitude of the asymptotic structures for these two fields near a pole depends only on the order of the node in the wave function. Two nonstationary states constructed from the eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator are used to illustrate the local structures of these two fields and the dynamics of the streamlines near a stagnation point or a pole. This study presents the abundant dynamics of the streamlines in the complex space for one-dimensional time-dependent problems.
An electromechanical model of neuronal dynamics using Hamilton's principle
Drapaca, Corina S.
2015-01-01
Damage of the brain may be caused by mechanical loads such as penetration, blunt force, shock loading from blast, and by chemical imbalances due to neurological diseases and aging that trigger not only neuronal degeneration but also changes in the mechanical properties of brain tissue. An understanding of the interconnected nature of the electro-chemo-mechanical processes that result in brain damage and ultimately loss of functionality is currently lacking. While modern mathematical models that focus on how to link brain mechanics to its biochemistry are essential in enhancing our understanding of brain science, the lack of experimental data required by these models as well as the complexity of the corresponding computations render these models hard to use in clinical applications. In this paper we propose a unified variational framework for the modeling of neuronal electromechanics. We introduce a constrained Lagrangian formulation that takes into account Newton's law of motion of a linear viscoelastic Kelvin–Voigt solid-state neuron as well as the classic Hodgkin–Huxley equations of the electronic neuron. The system of differential equations describing neuronal electromechanics is obtained by applying Hamilton's principle. Numerical simulations of possible damage dynamics in neurons will be presented. PMID:26236195
On Dynamics of Lagrangian Trajectories for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khanin, Konstantin; Sobolevski, Andrei
2016-02-01
Characteristic curves of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be seen as action minimizing trajectories of fluid particles. However this description is valid only for smooth solutions. For nonsmooth "viscosity" solutions, which give rise to discontinuous velocity fields, this picture holds only up to the moment when trajectories hit a shock and cease to minimize the Lagrangian action. In this paper we discuss two physically meaningful regularization procedures, one corresponding to vanishing viscosity and another to weak noise limit. We show that for any convex Hamiltonian, a viscous regularization allows us to construct a nonsmooth flow that extends particle trajectories and determines dynamics inside the shock manifolds. This flow consists of integral curves of a particular "effective" velocity field, which is uniquely defined everywhere in the flow domain and is discontinuous on shock manifolds. The effective velocity field arising in the weak noise limit is generally non-unique and different from the viscous one, but in both cases there is a fundamental self-consistency condition constraining the dynamics.
Quantum vortices within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism.
Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E
2008-06-21
Quantum vortices are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. A quantum vortex forms around a node in the wave function in the complex space, and the quantized circulation integral originates from the discontinuity in the real part of the complex action. Although the quantum momentum field displays hyperbolic flow around a node, the corresponding Polya vector field displays circular flow. It is shown that the Polya vector field of the quantum momentum function is parallel to contours of the probability density. A nonstationary state constructed from eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator is used to illustrate the formation of a transient excited state quantum vortex, and the coupled harmonic oscillator is used to illustrate quantization of the circulation integral in the multidimensional complex space. This study not only analyzes the formation of quantum vortices but also demonstrates the local structures for the quantum momentum field and for the Polya vector field near a node of the wave function. PMID:18570490
Quantum streamlines within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism.
Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E
2008-09-28
Quantum streamlines are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The local structures of the quantum momentum function (QMF) and the Polya vector field near a stagnation point or a pole are analyzed. Streamlines near a stagnation point of the QMF may spiral into or away from it, or they may become circles centered on this point or straight lines. Additionally, streamlines near a pole display east-west and north-south opening hyperbolic structure. On the other hand, streamlines near a stagnation point of the Polya vector field for the QMF display general hyperbolic structure, and streamlines near a pole become circles enclosing the pole. Furthermore, the local structures of the QMF and the Polya vector field around a stagnation point are related to the first derivative of the QMF; however, the magnitude of the asymptotic structures for these two fields near a pole depends only on the order of the node in the wave function. Two nonstationary states constructed from the eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator are used to illustrate the local structures of these two fields and the dynamics of the streamlines near a stagnation point or a pole. This study presents the abundant dynamics of the streamlines in the complex space for one-dimensional time-dependent problems. PMID:19045012
Quantitative Compactness Estimates for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ancona, Fabio; Cannarsa, Piermarco; Nguyen, Khai T.
2016-02-01
We study quantitative compactness estimates in {W^{1,1}_{loc}} for the map {S_t}, {t > 0} that is associated with the given initial data {u_0in Lip (R^N)} for the corresponding solution {S_t u_0} of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation u_t+Hbig(nabla_{x} ubig)=0, qquad t≥ 0,quad xinR^N, with a uniformly convex Hamiltonian {H=H(p)}. We provide upper and lower estimates of order {1/\\varepsilon^N} on the Kolmogorov {\\varepsilon}-entropy in {W^{1,1}} of the image through the map S t of sets of bounded, compactly supported initial data. Estimates of this type are inspired by a question posed by Lax (Course on Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws. XXVII Scuola Estiva di Fisica Matematica, Ravello, 2002) within the context of conservation laws, and could provide a measure of the order of "resolution" of a numerical method implemented for this equation.
Quantum line bundles via Cayley-Hamilton identity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurevich, D.; Saponov, P.
2001-06-01
As shown by Pyatov and Saponov (1995 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 28 4415-21) and Gurevich et al (1997 Lett. Math. Phys. 41 255-64), the matrix L = || lij||, whose entries lij are generators of the so-called reflection equation algebra (REA), is subject to some polynomial identity resembling the Cayley-Hamilton identity for a numerical matrix. Here a similar statement is presented for a matrix whose entries are generators of a filtered algebra that is a `non-commutative analogue' of the REA. In an appropriate limit we obtain a similar statement for the matrix formed by the generators of the algebra U(gl(n)). This property is used to introduce the notion of line bundles over quantum orbits in the spirit of the Serre-Swan approach. The quantum orbits in question are presented explicitly as some quotients of one of the algebras mentioned above both in the quasiclassical case (i.e. that related to the quantum group Uq(sl(n))) and a non-quasiclassical one (i.e. that arising from a Hecke symmetry with non-standard Poincaré series of the corresponding symmetric and skew-symmetric algebras).
Stochastic homogenization of nonconvex Hamilton-Jacobi equations in one space dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armstrong, Scott N.; Tran, Hung V.; Yu, Yifeng
2016-09-01
We prove stochastic homogenization for a general class of coercive, nonconvex Hamilton-Jacobi equations in one space dimension. Some properties of the effective Hamiltonian arising in the nonconvex case are also discussed.
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NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fitzpatrick, P. M.; Harmon, G. R.; Cochran, J. E.; Shaw, W. A.
1974-01-01
Some methods of approaching a solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation are outlined and examples are given to illustrate particular methods. These methods may be used for cases where the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is not separable and have been particularly useful in solving the rigid body motion of an earth satellite subjected to gravity torques. These general applications may also have usefulness in studying the motion of satellites with aerodynamic torque and in studying space vehicle motion where thrusting is involved.
Testing the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis: past, present, and future.
Balenger, Susan L; Zuk, Marlene
2014-10-01
Hamilton and Zuk proposed a good-genes model of sexual selection in which genetic variation can be maintained when females prefer ornaments that indicate resistance to parasites. When trait expression depends on a male's resistance, the co-adaptive cycles between host resistance and parasite virulence provide a mechanism in which genetic variation for fitness is continually renewed. The model made predictions at both the intraspecific and interspecific levels. In the three decades since its publication, these predictions have been theoretically examined in models of varying complexity, and empirically tested across many vertebrate and invertebrate taxa. Despite such prolonged interest, however, it has turned out to be extremely difficult to empirically demonstrate the process described, in part because we have not been able to test the underlying mechanisms that would unequivocally identify how parasites act as mediators of sexual selection. Here, we discuss how the use of high-throughput sequencing datasets available from modern genomic approaches might improve our ability to test this model. We expect that important contributions will come through the ability to identify and quantify the suite of parasites likely to influence the evolution of hosts' resistance, to confidently reconstruct phylogenies of both host and parasite taxa, and, perhaps most exciting, to detect generational cycles of heritable variants in populations of hosts and parasites. Integrative approaches, building on systems undergoing parasite-mediated selection with genomic resources already available, will be particularly useful in moving toward robust tests of this hypothesis. We finish by presenting case studies of well-studied host-parasite relationships that represent promising avenues for future research. PMID:24876194
Hamilton study: estimating exposure to ambient suspended particles
Pengelly, L.D.; Goldsmith, C.H.; Kerigan, A.T.; Furlong, W.; Toplack, S.
1987-12-01
In the industrial city of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, we recently carried out an epidemiological study of the effect of environmental factors on respiratory health in 3500 elementary school children. The level and size distribution of suspended particles in ambient air was measured from 24-h samples taken at 6-day intervals from a network of 29 hivol TSP samplers, and nine Andersen 2000 4-stage cascade impactors. Exposure was computed by generating a 3-dimensional response surface using a linear regression model of the form: TSP = (1 + E + N)/sup 2/, based on monthly geometrical mean data for all sites. From this response surface generated for a given month, TSP levels were predicted by the model for all schools by specifying their geographical coordinates. The yearly exposure for a given child was determined from the arithmetic mean of the predicted values for 12 monthly TSP levels. A similar procedure was employed for calculation of the exposure to the fine (less than or equal to 3.3 ..mu..m) and coarse (> 3.3 ..mu..m) size fraction, as well as the aerodynamic mass median diameter of particles from the network of cascade impactors. Results of the measurements showed that gradients for TSP up to approximately 10 ..mu..g/m/sup 3//km exist over the city covering distances from 5 to 10 km. The range of 1 yr mean exposure values calculated for each child was from 30.5 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ to 74.5 ..mu../m/sup 3/. Comparable figures for particle size were up to 0.3 ..mu..m AMMD (aerodynamic mass median diameter)/km and annual mean particle size exposure from 2.69 to 3.53 ..mu..m AMMD.
Holographic Wilson loops, Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and regularizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pontello, Diego; Trinchero, Roberto
2016-04-01
The minimal area for surfaces whose borders are rectangular and circular loops are calculated using the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation. This amounts to solving the HJ equation for the value of the minimal area, without calculating the shape of the corresponding surface. This is done for bulk geometries that are asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS). For the rectangular contour, the HJ equation, which is separable, can be solved exactly. For the circular contour an expansion in powers of the radius is implemented. The HJ approach naturally leads to a regularization which consists in locating the contour away from the border. The results are compared with the ɛ -regularization which leaves the contour at the border and calculates the area of the corresponding minimal surface up to a diameter smaller than the one of the contour at the border. The results for the circular loop do not coincide if the expansion parameter is taken to be the radius of the contour at the border. It is shown that using this expansion parameter the ɛ -regularization leads to incorrect results for certain solvable non-AdS cases. However, if the expansion parameter is taken to be the radius of the minimal surface whose area is computed, then the results coincide with the HJ scheme. This is traced back to the fact that in the HJ case the expansion parameter for the area of a minimal surface is intrinsic to the surface; however, the radius of the contour at the border is related to the way one chooses to regularize in the ɛ -scheme the calculation of this area.
Hollon, Steven D.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Fawcett, Jan; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Shelton, Richard C.; Zajecka, John; Young, Paula R.; Gallop, Robert
2015-01-01
IMPORTANCE Antidepressant medication (ADM) is efficacious in the treatment of depression, but not all patients achieve remission and fewer still achieve recovery with ADM alone. OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of combining cognitive therapy (CT) with ADM vs ADM alone on remission and recovery in major depressive disorder (MDD). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A total of 452 adult outpatients with chronic or recurrent MDD participated in a trial conducted in research clinics at 3 university medical centers in the United States. The patients were randomly assigned to ADM treatment alone or CT combined with ADM treatment. Treatment was continued for up to 42 months until recovery was achieved. INTERVENTIONS Antidepressant medication with or without CT. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Blind evaluations of recovery with a modified version of the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation. RESULTS Combined treatment enhanced the rate of recovery vs treatment with ADM alone (72.6% vs 62.5%; t451 = 2.45; P = .01; hazard ratio [HR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.06–1.68; number needed to treat [NNT], 10; 95% CI, 5–72). This effect was conditioned on interactions with severity (t451 = 1.97; P = .05; NNT, 5) and chronicity (χ2 = 7.46; P = .02; NNT, 6) such that the advantage for combined treatment was limited to patients with severe, nonchronic MDD (81.3% vs 51.7%; n = 146; t145 = 3.96; P = .001; HR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.54–3.57; NNT, 3; 95% CI, 2–5). Fewer patients dropped out of combined treatment vs ADM treatment alone (18.9% vs 26.8%; t451 = −2.04; P = .04; HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.45–0.98). Remission rates did not differ significantly either as a main effect of treatment or as an interaction with severity or chronicity. Patients with comorbid Axis II disorders took longer to recover than did patients without comorbid Axis II disorders regardless of the condition (P = .01). Patients who received combined treatment reported fewer
Sakalli, I. Mirekhtiary, S. F.
2013-10-15
Hawking radiation of a non-asymptotically flat 4-dimensional spherically symmetric and static dilatonic black hole (BH) via the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) method is studied. In addition to the naive coordinates, we use four more different coordinate systems that are well-behaved at the horizon. Except for the isotropic coordinates, direct computation by the HJ method leads to the standard Hawking temperature for all coordinate systems. The isotropic coordinates allow extracting the index of refraction from the Fermat metric. It is explicitly shown that the index of refraction determines the value of the tunneling rate and its natural consequence, the Hawking temperature. The isotropic coordinates in the conventional HJ method produce a wrong result for the temperature of the linear dilaton. Here, we explain how this discrepancy can be resolved by regularizing the integral possessing a pole at the horizon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, M. Atiqur; Hossain, M. Ilias
2013-06-01
The massive particles tunneling method has been used to investigate the Hawking non-thermal and purely thermal radiations of Schwarzschild Anti-de Sitter (SAdS) black hole. Considering the spacetime background to be dynamical, incorporate the self-gravitation effect of the emitted particles the imaginary part of the action has been derived from Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Using the conservation laws of energy and angular momentum we have showed that the non-thermal and purely thermal tunneling rates are related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum. The result obtained for SAdS black hole is also in accordance with Parikh and Wilczek's opinion and gives a correction to the Hawking radiation of SAdS black hole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakalli, I.; Mirekhtiary, S. F.
2013-10-01
Hawking radiation of a non-asymptotically flat 4-dimensional spherically symmetric and static dilatonic black hole (BH) via the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) method is studied. In addition to the naive coordinates, we use four more different coordinate systems that are well-behaved at the horizon. Except for the isotropic coordinates, direct computation by the HJ method leads to the standard Hawking temperature for all coordinate systems. The isotropic coordinates allow extracting the index of refraction from the Fermat metric. It is explicitly shown that the index of refraction determines the value of the tunneling rate and its natural consequence, the Hawking temperature. The isotropic coordinates in the conventional HJ method produce a wrong result for the temperature of the linear dilaton. Here, we explain how this discrepancy can be resolved by regularizing the integral possessing a pole at the horizon.
Game theory to characterize solutions of a discrete-time Hamilton-Jacobi equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toledo, Porfirio
2013-12-01
We study the behavior of solutions of a discrete-time Hamilton-Jacobi equation in a minimax framework of game theory. The solutions of this problem represent the optimal payoff of a zero-sum game of two players, where the number of moves between the players converges to infinity. A real number, called the critical value, plays a central role in this work; this number is the asymptotic average action of optimal trajectories. The aim of this paper is to show the existence and characterization of solutions of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for this kind of games.
Hawking radiation of Kerr-de Sitter black holes using Hamilton-Jacobi method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibungochouba Singh, T.; Ablu Meitei, I.; Yugindro Singh, K.
2013-05-01
Hawking radiation of Kerr-de Sitter black hole is investigated using Hamilton-Jacobi method. When the well-behaved Painleve coordinate system and Eddington coordinate are used, we get the correct result of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy before and after radiation but a direct computation will lead to a wrong result via Hamilton-Jacobi method. Our results show that the tunneling probability is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal but it is consistent with underlying unitary theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Field, J. H.
2011-01-01
It is shown how the time-dependent Schrodinger equation may be simply derived from the dynamical postulate of Feynman's path integral formulation of quantum mechanics and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of classical mechanics. Schrodinger's own published derivations of quantum wave equations, the first of which was also based on the Hamilton-Jacobi…
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... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Hamilton, Ohio; American Municipal Power, Inc.; Notice of... Filed: November 30, 2011. d. Applicant: City of Hamilton, Ohio and American Municipal Power, Inc. e... serve a copy of the document on that resource agency. k. Description of Request: The City of...
To optimize the Hamilton-Thorn Motility Analyzer (HIM, Hamilton-Thorn Research, Beverly, MA) for use in reproductive toxicology studies with rat spermatozoa, the accuracy and precision of the instrument were assessed under a variety of instrument settings. ideotapes of both fast ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
And Others; Gilmartin, Harvey
1979-01-01
Presented is a form of Hamilton's principle for classical mechanics appropriate to the study of arbitrary self-sustained vibrations in one dimension. It is applied as an approximate computational tool to the study of several examples of anharmonic oscillation. (Author/GA)
Infant Care in Hamilton County: 4C Final Report and Model Designs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coats, Betty Ann Hanna
This report describes a one-year feasibility study to design a functional child development model for infant day care in Hamilton County, Ohio. Mothers of babies under 18 months were interviewed by telephone to determine use of and interest in infant day care. Assessment was made of existing resources for full time day care in the county…
Mobile Air Monitoring: Measuring Change in Air Quality in the City of Hamilton, 2005-2010
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adams, Matthew D.; DeLuca, Patrick F.; Corr, Denis; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.
2012-01-01
This paper examines the change in air pollutant concentrations between 2005 and 2010 occurring in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. After analysis of stationary air pollutant concentration data, we analyze mobile air pollutant concentration data. Air pollutants included in the analysis are CO, PM[subscript 2.5], SO[subscript 2], NO,…
A Survey of Environmental Education in Hamilton County Schools (K-12).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garver, Janice B.
Environmental education (EE) courses and programs offered in grades K-12 in Hamilton County (Ohio) public, private, and parochial schools were surveyed by means of a questionnaire mailed to 67 district level administrators, principals, and teachers. Questionnaires were returned from 5 private, 4 parochial, and 27 public schools, representing a 57…
Air Quality in Hamilton: Who Is Concerned? Perceptions from Three Neighbourhoods
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Simone, Dylan; Eyles, John; Newbold, K. Bruce; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison
2012-01-01
This study investigates the factors influencing perceptions of air quality in the industrial city of Hamilton, Canada. The research employs data collected via a telephone survey of 1,002 adult residents in three neighbourhoods. Perceptions in the neighbourhoods were examined by individual socio-demographic factors (age, gender, marital and…
Octavia Butler and Virginia Hamilton: Black Women Writers and Science Fiction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hampton, Gregory Jerome; Brooks, Wanda M.
2003-01-01
Notes that African American literature has always had science fiction elements in its focus on narratives of the alienated and marginalized "other." Contends that Octavia Butler and Virginia Hamilton are two African American writers of science fiction who examine the connections between the stories of a culture and the genre of science fiction.…
Perceptions of Quality Life in Hamilton's Neighbourhood Hubs: A Qualitative Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eby, Jeanette; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison
2012-01-01
This paper examines perceptions of quality of life in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada from the perspective of residents and key community stakeholders. A series of eight focus groups were conducted. Six sessions were held with residents of neighbourhood "hubs", areas characterized by high levels of poverty. The following themes were highlighted as…
76 FR 25534 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Propellers Model 247F Propellers
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Light Rail Transit in Hamilton: Health, Environmental and Economic Impact Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Topalovic, P.; Carter, J.; Topalovic, M.; Krantzberg, G.
2012-01-01
Hamilton's historical roots as an electric, industrial and transportation-oriented city provide it with a high potential for rapid transit, especially when combined with its growing population, developing economy, redeveloping downtown core and its plans for sustainable growth. This paper explores the health, environmental, social and economic…
75 FR 20794 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hamilton, TX
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ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Journet, Debra
2005-01-01
This article analyzes the power of ambiguous metaphors to present scientific novelty. Its focus is a series of papers by the prominent population biologist W. D. Hamilton in which he redefined the meaning of biological altruism. In particular, the article draws on Kenneth Burke's dramatistic pentad to examine why suggestions of motive are so…
The Code Red Project: Engaging Communities in Health System Change in Hamilton, Canada
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeLuca, Patrick F.; Buist, Steve; Johnston, Neil
2012-01-01
The communication of determinants of health and health outcomes normally executed through academic channels often fail to reach lay audiences. In April of 2010, the results of collaboration between academe and mass media were published in the Hamilton Spectator, one of Canada's 10 largest English-language daily newspapers as a 7-day series. The…
Fort Hamilton High School Project GRASP. ESEA Title VII. Final Evaluation Report, 1979-1980.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Irizarry, Ruddie A.; And Others
This report is an evaluation of a Title VII Bilingual Program conducted at the Fort Hamilton High School in Brooklyn, New York, in 1979-1980. This bilingual program provided instruction for Greek, Spanish, and Arabic speaking students. The ethnic and economic composition of the neighborhood and of the school population are discussed, and the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraaij, Richard
2016-07-01
We prove the large deviation principle (LDP) for the trajectory of a broad class of finite state mean-field interacting Markov jump processes via a general analytic approach based on viscosity solutions. Examples include generalized Ehrenfest models as well as Curie-Weiss spin flip dynamics with singular jump rates. The main step in the proof of the LDP, which is of independent interest, is the proof of the comparison principle for an associated collection of Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Additionally, we show that the LDP provides a general method to identify a Lyapunov function for the associated McKean-Vlasov equation.
A bioenergetic model for zebrafish Danio rerio (Hamilton)
Chizinski, C.J.; Sharma, Bibek; Pope, K.L.; Patino, R.
2008-01-01
A bioenergetics model was developed from observed consumption, respiration and growth rates for zebrafish Danio rerio across a range (18-32?? C) of water temperatures, and evaluated with a 50 day laboratory trial at 28?? C. No significant bias in variable estimates was found during the validation trial; namely, predicted zebrafish mass generally agreed with observed mass. ?? 2008 The Authors.
Swenson, Sarah A
2015-02-01
W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness aimed to define the evolved limits of altruism with mathematical precision. Although it was meant to apply universally, it has been almost irretrievably entwined with the particular case of social insects that featured in his famous 1964 papers. The assumption that social insects were central to Hamilton's early work contradicts material in his rich personal archive. In fact, careful study of Hamilton's notes, letters, diaries, and early essays indicates the extent to which he had humans in mind when he decided altruism was a topic worthy of biological inquiry. For this reason, this article reconsiders the role of extra-scientific factors in Hamilton's early theorizing. In doing so, it offers an alternative perspective as to why Hamilton saw self-sacrifice to be an important subject. Although the traditional narrative prioritizes his distaste for benefit-of-the-species explanations as a motivating factor behind his foundational work, I argue that greater attention ought to be given to Hamilton's hope that science could be used to address social ills. By reconsidering the meaning Hamilton intended inclusive fitness to have, we see that while he was no political ideologue, the socio-political relevance of his theory was nevertheless integral to its development. PMID:25594921
Okasha, S; Martens, J
2016-03-01
Hamilton's original work on inclusive fitness theory assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of Hamilton's rule for the spread of a pro-social allele (rb > c) holds under nonadditive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are defined as partial regression coefficients rather than pay-off parameters. This article examines whether one of the key components of Hamilton's original theory can be preserved when the rule is generalized to the nonadditive case in this way, namely that evolved organisms will behave as if trying to maximize their inclusive fitness in social encounters. PMID:26679493
[Alice Hamilton (1869-1970): a pioneer of occupational medicine and public health].
Kowalska, M; Steplewski, Z
1999-01-01
Dr. Alice Hamilton (1869-1970) was the mother of occupational health a pioneer in public health in the United States. She worked as a doctor in Hull House, the first settlement house, and she was an advocate of the birth-control movement. She led pioneering studies of occupational head, mercury, carbon monoxide poisoning and many other chemical intoxications of workers. She was an assistant professor of industrial medicine at the Harvard Medical School (1919-1935). During the years 1924-1930 she worked for the Health Organization of the League of Nations. From 1943 she acted as a vice-president of the American Health Association. Alice Hamilton was an expert in the field of occupational lead poisoning. PMID:10438256
Morselli, Davide; Passini, Stefano
2015-11-01
In Crimes of obedience, Kelman and Hamilton argue that societies can be protected by the degeneration of authority only when citizenship is based on a strong values orientation. This reference to values may be the weakest point in their theory because they do not explicitly define these values. Nevertheless, their empirical findings suggest that the authors are referring to specific democratic principles and universal values (e.g., equality, fairness, harmlessness). In this article, a composite index known as the value-oriented citizenship (VOC) index is introduced and empirically analysed. The results confirm that the VOC index discriminates between people who relate to authority based on values rather than based on their role or on rules in general. The article discusses the utility of the VOC index to develop Kelman and Hamilton's framework further empirically as well as its implications for the analysis of the relationship between individuals and authority. PMID:26463549
Crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP) analysis as projected from plane-wave basis sets.
Deringer, Volker L; Tchougréeff, Andrei L; Dronskowski, Richard
2011-06-01
Simple, yet predictive bonding models are essential achievements of chemistry. In the solid state, in particular, they often appear in the form of visual bonding indicators. Because the latter require the crystal orbitals to be constructed from local basis sets, the application of the most popular density-functional theory codes (namely, those based on plane waves and pseudopotentials) appears as being ill-fitted to retrieve the chemical bonding information. In this paper, we describe a way to re-extract Hamilton-weighted populations from plane-wave electronic-structure calculations to develop a tool analogous to the familiar crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP) method. We derive the new technique, dubbed "projected COHP" (pCOHP), and demonstrate its viability using examples of covalent, ionic, and metallic crystals (diamond, GaAs, CsCl, and Na). For the first time, this chemical bonding information is directly extracted from the results of plane-wave calculations. PMID:21548594
Barriers to Walking: An Investigation of Adults in Hamilton (Ontario, Canada)
Clark, Andrew F.; Scott, Darren M.
2016-01-01
This study investigates perceived barriers to walking using data collected from 179 randomly-selected adults between the ages of 18 and 92 in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A survey (Hamilton Active Living Study) asked questions about socio-demographics, walking, and barriers to walking. A series of binary logit models are estimated for twenty potential barriers to walking. The results demonstrate that different barriers are associated with different sub-groups of the population. Females, senior citizens, and those with a higher body mass index identify the most barriers to walking, while young adults, parents, driver’s license owners, and bus pass owners identify the fewest barriers. Understanding who is affected by perceived barriers can help policy makers and health promotion agencies target sub-groups of the population in an effort to increase walking. PMID:26840328
Fronts propagating with curvature dependent speed: Algorithms based on Hamilton-Jacobi formulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Osher, Stanley; Sethian, James A.
1987-01-01
New numerical algorithms are devised (PSC algorithms) for following fronts propagating with curvature-dependent speed. The speed may be an arbitrary function of curvature, and the front can also be passively advected by an underlying flow. These algorithms approximate the equations of motion, which resemble Hamilton-Jacobi equations with parabolic right-hand-sides, by using techniques from the hyperbolic conservation laws. Non-oscillatory schemes of various orders of accuracy are used to solve the equations, providing methods that accurately capture the formation of sharp gradients and cusps in the moving fronts. The algorithms handle topological merging and breaking naturally, work in any number of space dimensions, and do not require that the moving surface be written as a function. The methods can be used also for more general Hamilton-Jacobi-type problems. The algorithms are demonstrated by computing the solution to a variety of surface motion problems.
From constants of motion to superposition rules for Lie-Hamilton systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballesteros, A.; Cariñena, J. F.; Herranz, F. J.; de Lucas, J.; Sardón, C.
2013-07-01
A Lie system is a non-autonomous system of first-order differential equations possessing a superposition rule, i.e. a map expressing its general solution in terms of a generic finite family of particular solutions and some constants. Lie-Hamilton systems form a subclass of Lie systems whose dynamics is governed by a curve in a finite-dimensional real Lie algebra of functions on a Poisson manifold. It is shown that Lie-Hamilton systems are naturally endowed with a Poisson coalgebra structure. This allows us to devise methods for deriving in an algebraic way their constants of motion and superposition rules. We illustrate our methods by studying Kummer-Schwarz equations, Riccati equations, Ermakov systems and Smorodinsky-Winternitz systems with time-dependent frequency.
Association of Celiac Disease With Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis; Lane Hamilton Syndrome
Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Sandal, Ozlem Sarac; Bag, Ozlem; Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Bekem Soylu, Ozlem; Diniz, Gulden; Ozturk, Aysel; Can, Demet
2015-01-01
Introduction: Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare cause of alveolar hemorrhage, which is seen primarily in childhood. Celiac disease is defined as a chronic, immune-mediated enteropathy of the small intestine, caused by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically pre-disposed individuals. Association of IPH and celiac disease is known as Lane Hamilton syndrome. There are limited number of case reports of this syndrome in literature. Case Presentation: Although there were no growth and developmental delay and gastrointestinal symptoms like chronic diarrhea, chronic constipation, vomiting, abdominal bloating and pain in the two patients with IPH, they were diagnosed with Lane Hamilton Syndrome. After initiation of gluten-free diet, their IPH symptoms disappeared and hemoglobin levels were observed to return to normal. Conclusions: Even if there were no gastrointestinal symptoms in a patient with IPH, celiac disease should be investigated. These patients may benefit from gluten free diet and IPH symptoms may disappear. PMID:26495097
A Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, Changqing; Shu, Chi-Wang
1998-01-01
In this paper, we present a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving the nonlinear Hamilton-Jacobi equations. This method is based on the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving conservation laws. The method has the flexibility of treating complicated geometry by using arbitrary triangulation, can achieve high order accuracy with a local, compact stencil, and are suited for efficient parallel implementation. One and two dimensional numerical examples are given to illustrate the capability of the method.
The nonconvex multi-dimensional Riemann problem for Hamilton-Jacobi equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Osher, Stanley
1989-01-01
Simple inequalities for the Riemann problem for a Hamilton-Jacobi equation in N space dimension when neither the initial data nor the Hamiltonian need be convex (or concave) are presented. The initial data is globally continuous, affine in each orthant, with a possible jump in normal derivative across each coordinate plane, x sub i = 0. The inequalities become equalities wherever a maxmin equals a minmax and thus an exact closed form solution to this problem is then obtained.
Compressed Semi-Discrete Central-Upwind Schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Kurganov, Alexander; Levy, Doron; Petrova, Guergana
2003-01-01
We introduce a new family of Godunov-type semi-discrete central schemes for multidimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. These schemes are a less dissipative generalization of the central-upwind schemes that have been recently proposed in series of works. We provide the details of the new family of methods in one, two, and three space dimensions, and then verify their expected low-dissipative property in a variety of examples.
High-Order Central WENO Schemes for 1D Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
In this paper we derive fully-discrete Central WENO (CWENO) schemes for approximating solutions of one dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations, which combine our previous works. We introduce third and fifth-order accurate schemes, which are the first central schemes for the HJ equations of order higher than two. The core ingredient is the derivation of our schemes is a high-order CWENO reconstructions in space.
Topologically massive Yang-Mills: A Hamilton-Jacobi constraint analysis
Bertin, M. C.; Pimentel, B. M.; Valcárcel, C. E.; Zambrano, G. E. R.
2014-04-15
We analyse the constraint structure of the topologically massive Yang-Mills theory in instant-form and null-plane dynamics via the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The complete set of hamiltonians that generates the dynamics of the system is obtained from the Frobenius’ integrability conditions, as well as its characteristic equations. As generators of canonical transformations, the hamiltonians are naturally linked to the generator of Lagrangian gauge transformations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Zi-Xuan; Zhang, Yi
2014-11-01
This paper focuses on the Noether symmetries and the conserved quantities for both holonomic and nonholonomic systems based on a new non-conservative dynamical model introduced by El-Nabulsi. First, the El-Nabulsi dynamical model which is based on a fractional integral extended by periodic laws is introduced, and El-Nabulsi—Hamilton's canonical equations for non-conservative Hamilton system with holonomic or nonholonomic constraints are established. Second, the definitions and criteria of El-Nabulsi—Noether symmetrical transformations and quasi-symmetrical transformations are presented in terms of the invariance of El-Nabulsi—Hamilton action under the infinitesimal transformations of the group. Finally, Noether's theorems for the non-conservative Hamilton system under the El-Nabulsi dynamical system are established, which reveal the relationship between the Noether symmetry and the conserved quantity of the system.
Separability of Hamilton-Jacobi and Klein-Gordon equations in general Kerr-NUT-AdS spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, Valeri P.; Krtous, Pavel; Kubiznák, David
2007-02-01
We demonstrate the separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi and scalar field equations in general higher dimensional Kerr-NUT-AdS spacetimes. No restriction on the parameters characterizing these metrics is imposed.
Krantzberg, G. )
1994-10-01
Trace metals in sediment from nearshore urban and industrialized centers of the Great Lakes are frequently at concentrations well above geological background values. Total metal content in sediment, however, is a weak predictor of sediment toxicity. This study examined the bioavailability of metals from Hamilton Harbor in Lake Ontario and considered variability in metal forms on a temporal basis. Sediment from regions within Hamilton Harbor is highly contaminated with metals; nevertheless, not all metal-contaminated sites were toxic to test organisms. Most sediment did elicit sublethal and/or lethal responses in bioassay organisms. Metal bioavailability, as measured by weak acid extractions, metal bioaccumulation by fathead minnows, and sediment toxicity, was greater in sediment collected in the fall as compared to sediment collected in the spring. Results of analyses of tissue residues in test organisms and the reduced toxicity observed in sediment collected from some stations in the spring as compared to the fall implicate trace metals and sediment oxygen demand as contributing to sediment toxicity. The suitability for colonization by benthic invertebrates of sediment in some areas of Hamilton Harbor appears to be limited by both contaminants and high sediment oxygen demand. Improving the oxygen regime of the harbor should result in improvements in the benthic invertebrate community directly, by providing a suitable oxygen regime for organisms less tolerant of temporal anoxia, and indirectly by decreasing metal bioavailability, possibly through the co-precipitation of trace metals with iron and manganese hydroxides.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmid, L. A.
1977-01-01
The first and second variations are calculated for the irreducible form of Hamilton's Principle that involves the minimum number of dependent variables necessary to describe the kinetmatics and thermodynamics of inviscid, compressible, baroclinic flow in a specified gravitational field. The form of the second variation shows that, in the neighborhood of a stationary point that corresponds to physically stable flow, the action integral is a complex saddle surface in parameter space. There exists a form of Hamilton's Principle for which a direct solution of a flow problem is possible. This second form is related to the first by a Friedrichs transformation of the thermodynamic variables. This introduces an extra dependent variable, but the first and second variations are shown to have direct physical significance, namely they are equal to the free energy of fluctuations about the equilibrium flow that satisfies the equations of motion. If this equilibrium flow is physically stable, and if a very weak second order integral constraint on the correlation between the fluctuations of otherwise independent variables is satisfied, then the second variation of the action integral for this free energy form of Hamilton's Principle is positive-definite, so the action integral is a minimum, and can serve as the basis for a direct trail and error solution. The second order integral constraint states that the unavailable energy must be maximum at equilibrium, i.e. the fluctuations must be so correlated as to produce a second order decrease in the total unavailable energy.
Hamilton-Jacobi approach to photon wave mechanics: near-field aspects.
Keller, O
2008-02-01
After having briefly reviewed the Hamilton-Jacobi theory of classical point-particle mechanics, its extension to the quantum regime and the formal identity between the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for Hamilton's characteristic function and the eikonal equation of geometrical optics, an eikonal theory for free photons is established. The space-time dynamics of the photon is described on the basis of the six-component Riemann-Silberstein energy wave function. Form-identical eikonal equations are obtained for the positive and negative helicity dynamics. Microscopic response theory is used to describe the linear photon-matter interaction. In the presence of matter the free-photon concept is replaced by a quasi-photon concept, and there is a quasi-photon for each of the two helicity states. After having established integro-differential equations for the wave functions of the two quasi-photons, the eikonal conditions for the quasi-photons are determined. It appears that the eikonal condition contains complicated space integrals of the gradient of the eikonal over volumes of near-field domain size. In these space integrals the dynamics of the electrons (matter particles) appears via transverse transition current densities between pairs of many-body states. Generalized microscopic polarization and magnetization fields are introduced to establish the connection between the quasi-photon and macroscopic eikonal theories. PMID:18304094
Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane: Properties, classification and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballesteros, A.; Blasco, A.; Herranz, F. J.; de Lucas, J.; Sardón, C.
2015-04-01
We study Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane, i.e. systems of first-order differential equations describing the integral curves of a t-dependent vector field taking values in a finite-dimensional real Lie algebra of planar Hamiltonian vector fields with respect to a Poisson structure. We start with the local classification of finite-dimensional real Lie algebras of vector fields on the plane obtained in González-López, Kamran, and Olver (1992) [23] and we interpret their results as a local classification of Lie systems. By determining which of these real Lie algebras consist of Hamiltonian vector fields relative to a Poisson structure, we provide the complete local classification of Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane. We present and study through our results new Lie-Hamilton systems of interest which are used to investigate relevant non-autonomous differential equations, e.g. we get explicit local diffeomorphisms between such systems. We also analyse biomathematical models, the Milne-Pinney equations, second-order Kummer-Schwarz equations, complex Riccati equations and Buchdahl equations.
2014-01-01
Background To investigate the association between frailty index (FI) of deficit accumulation and risk of falls, fractures, death and overnight hospitalizations in women aged 55 years and older. Methods The data were from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) Hamilton Cohort. In this 3-year longitudinal, observational cohort study, women (N = 3,985) aged ≥55 years were enrolled between May 2008 and March 2009 in Hamilton, Canada. A FI including co-morbidities, activities of daily living, symptoms and signs, and healthcare utilization was constructed using 34 health deficits at baseline. Relationship between the FI and falls, fractures, death and overnight hospitalizations was examined. Results The FI was significantly associated with age, with a mean rate of deficit accumulation across baseline age of 0.004 or 0.021 (on a log scale) per year. During the third year of follow-up, 1,068 (31.89%) women reported at least one fall. Each increment of 0.01 on the FI was associated with a significantly increased risk of falls during the third year of follow-up (odds ratio [OR]: 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.03). The area under the curve (AUC) of the predictive model was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.67-0.71). Results of subgroup and sensitivity analyses indicated the relationship between the FI and risk of falls was robust, while bootstrap analysis judged its internal validation. The FI was significantly related to fractures (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03), death (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.03-1.06) during the 3-year follow-up period and overnight hospitalizations (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.02-1.03) for an increase of 0.01 on the FI during the third year of follow-up. Measured by per standard deviation (SD) increment of the FI, the ORs were 1.21 and 1.40 for falls and death respectively, while the HR was 1.17 for fractures and the IRR was 1.18 for overnight hospitalizations respectively. Conclusion The FI of deficit
Jeong, Won-Ki; Fletcher, P Thomas; Tao, Ran; Whitaker, Ross
2007-01-01
In this paper we present a method to compute and visualize volumetric white matter connectivity in diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) using a Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) solver on the GPU (Graphics Processing Unit). Paths through the volume are assigned costs that are lower if they are consistent with the preferred diffusion directions. The proposed method finds a set of voxels in the DTI volume that contain paths between two regions whose costs are within a threshold of the optimal path. The result is a volumetric optimal path analysis, which is driven by clinical and scientific questions relating to the connectivity between various known anatomical regions of the brain. To solve the minimal path problem quickly, we introduce a novel numerical algorithm for solving H-J equations, which we call the Fast Iterative Method (FIM). This algorithm is well-adapted to parallel architectures, and we present a GPU-based implementation, which runs roughly 50-100 times faster than traditional CPU-based solvers for anisotropic H-J equations. The proposed system allows users to freely change the endpoints of interesting pathways and to visualize the optimal volumetric path between them at an interactive rate. We demonstrate the proposed method on some synthetic and real DT-MRI datasets and compare the performance with existing methods. PMID:17968100
The method of Ritz applied to the equation of Hamilton. [for pendulum systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, C. D.
1976-01-01
Without any reference to the theory of differential equations, the initial value problem of the nonlinear, nonconservative double pendulum system is solved by the application of the method of Ritz to the equation of Hamilton. Also shown is an example of the reduction of the traditional eigenvalue problem of linear, homogeneous, differential equations of motion to the solution of a set of nonhomogeneous algebraic equations. No theory of differential equations is used. Solution of the time-space path of the linear oscillator is demonstrated and compared to the exact solution.
Numerical Schemes for the Hamilton-Jacobi and Level Set Equations on Triangulated Domains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy J.; Sethian, James A.
2006-01-01
Borrowing from techniques developed for conservation law equations, we have developed both monotone and higher order accurate numerical schemes which discretize the Hamilton-Jacobi and level set equations on triangulated domains. The use of unstructured meshes containing triangles (2D) and tetrahedra (3D) easily accommodates mesh adaptation to resolve disparate level set feature scales with a minimal number of solution unknowns. The minisymposium talk will discuss these algorithmic developments and present sample calculations using our adaptive triangulation algorithm applied to various moving interface problems such as etching, deposition, and curvature flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zatloukal, Václav
2016-04-01
Classical field theory is considered as a theory of unparametrized surfaces embedded in a configuration space, which accommodates, in a symmetric way, spacetime positions and field values. Dynamics is defined by a (Hamiltonian) constraint between multivector-valued generalized momenta, and points in the configuration space. Starting from a variational principle, we derive local equations of motion, that is, differential equations that determine classical surfaces and momenta. A local Hamilton-Jacobi equation applicable in the field theory then follows readily. The general method is illustrated with three examples: non-relativistic Hamiltonian mechanics, De Donder-Weyl scalar field theory, and string theory.
The nonconvex multi-dimensional Riemann problem for Hamilton-Jacobi equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardi, Martino; Osher, Stanley
1991-01-01
Simple inequalities are presented for the viscosity solution of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation in N space dimensions when neither the initial data nor the Hamiltonian need be convex (or concave). The initial data are uniformly Lipschitz and can be written as the sum of a convex function in a group of variables and a concave function in the remaining variables, therefore including the nonconvex Riemann problem. The inequalities become equalities wherever a 'maxmin' equals a 'minmax', and thus a representation formula for this problem is obtained, generalizing the classical Hopi formulas.
Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations and approximate dynamic programming on time scales.
Seiffertt, John; Sanyal, Suman; Wunsch, Donald C
2008-08-01
The time scales calculus is a key emerging area of mathematics due to its potential use in a wide variety of multidisciplinary applications. We extend this calculus to approximate dynamic programming (ADP). The core backward induction algorithm of dynamic programming is extended from its traditional discrete case to all isolated time scales. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations, the solution of which is the fundamental problem in the field of dynamic programming, are motivated and proven on time scales. By drawing together the calculus of time scales and the applied area of stochastic control via ADP, we have connected two major fields of research. PMID:18632378
Scalar particles emission from black holes with topological defects using Hamilton-Jacobi method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jusufi, Kimet
2015-11-01
We study quantum tunneling of charged and uncharged scalar particles from the event horizon of Schwarzschild-de Sitter and Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter black holes pierced by an infinitely long spinning cosmic string and a global monopole. In order to find the Hawking temperature and the tunneling probability we solve the Klein-Gordon equation by using the Hamilton-Jacobi method and WKB approximation. We show that Hawking temperature is independent of the presence of topological defects in both cases.
On the regularizing effect for unbounded solutions of first-order Hamilton-Jacobi equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barles, Guy; Chasseigne, Emmanuel
2016-05-01
We give a simplified proof of regularizing effects for first-order Hamilton-Jacobi Equations of the form ut + H (x , t , Du) = 0 in RN × (0 , + ∞) in the case where the idea is to first estimate ut. As a consequence, we have a Lipschitz regularity in space and time for coercive Hamiltonians and, for hypo-elliptic Hamiltonians, we also have an Hölder regularizing effect in space following a result of L.C. Evans and M.R. James.
Fast methods for the Eikonal and related Hamilton- Jacobi equations on unstructured meshes.
Sethian, J A; Vladimirsky, A
2000-05-23
The Fast Marching Method is a numerical algorithm for solving the Eikonal equation on a rectangular orthogonal mesh in O(M log M) steps, where M is the total number of grid points. The scheme relies on an upwind finite difference approximation to the gradient and a resulting causality relationship that lends itself to a Dijkstra-like programming approach. In this paper, we discuss several extensions to this technique, including higher order versions on unstructured meshes in Rn and on manifolds and connections to more general static Hamilton-Jacobi equations. PMID:10811874
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Bijoy K.; Janicki, Marek R.; Ayers, Paul W.
2004-10-01
Classical dynamics can be described with Newton's equation of motion or, totally equivalently, using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Here, the possibility of using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation to describe chemical reaction dynamics is explored. This requires an efficient computational approach for constructing the physically and chemically relevant solutions to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation; here we solve Hamilton-Jacobi equations on a Cartesian grid using Sethian's fast marching method [J. A. Sethian, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 1591 (1996)]. Using this method, we can—starting from an arbitrary initial conformation—find reaction paths that minimize the action or the time. The method is demonstrated by computing the mechanism for two different systems: a model system with four different stationary configurations and the H+H2→H2+H reaction. Least-time paths (termed brachistochrones in classical mechanics) seem to be a suitable chioce for the reaction coordinate, allowing one to determine the key intermediates and final product of a chemical reaction. For conservative systems the Hamilton-Jacobi equation does not depend on the time, so this approach may be useful for simulating systems where important motions occur on a variety of different time scales.
Development of an Interview-Based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jamison, Christine; Scogin, Forrest
1992-01-01
Developed interview-based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale (GDRS) and administered 35-item GDRS to 68 older adults with range of affective disturbance. Found scale to have internal consistency and split-half reliability comparable to those of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Geriatric Depression Scale. Concurrent validity, construct…
MHC, parasites and antler development in red deer: no support for the Hamilton & Zuk hypothesis.
Buczek, M; Okarma, H; Demiaszkiewicz, A W; Radwan, J
2016-03-01
The Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis proposes that the genetic benefits of preferences for elaborated secondary sexual traits have their origins in the arms race between hosts and parasites, which maintains genetic variance in parasite resistance. Infection, in turn, can be reflected in the expression of costly sexual ornaments. However, the link between immune genes, infection and the expression of secondary sexual traits has rarely been investigated. Here, we explored whether the presence and identity of functional variants (supertypes) of the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is responsible for the recognition of parasites, predict the load of lung and gut parasites and antler development in the red deer (Cervus elaphus). While we found MHC supertypes to be associated with infection by a number of parasite species, including debilitating lung nematodes, we did not find support for the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. On the contrary, we found that lung nematode load was positively associated with antler development. We also found that the supertypes that were associated with resistance to certain parasites at the same time cause susceptibility to others. Such trade-offs may undermine the potential genetic benefits of mate choice for resistant partners. PMID:26687843
Structure and metamorphism of the Franciscan Complex, Mt. Hamilton area, Northern California
Blake, M.C., Jr.; Wentworth, C.M.
1999-01-01
Truncation of metamorphic isograds and fold axes within coherent terranes of Franciscan metagraywacke by intervening zones of melange indicate that the melange is tectonic and formed after the subduction-related metamorphism and folding. These relations are expressed in two terranes of blueschist-facies rocks of the Franciscan Complex in the Mt. Hamilton area, northern California-the Jurassic Yolla Bolly terrane and the structurally underlying Cretaceous Burnt Hills terrane. Local preservation in both terranes of basal radiolarian chert and oceanic basalt beneath continent-derived metagraywacke and argillite demonstrates thrust repetition within the coherent terranes, although these relations are scarce near Mt. Hamilton. The metagraywackes range from albite-pumpellyite blueschists to those containing well-crystallized jadeitic pyroxene, and a jadeite-in isograd can be defined in parts of the area. Primary bedding defines locally coherent structural orientations and folds within the metagraywacke units. These units are crosscut by thin zones of tectonic melange containing blocks of high-grade blueschist, serpentinite, and other exotic rocks, and a broader, but otherwise identical melange zone marks the discordant boundary between the two terranes.
1989 Alice Hamilton lecture. Lead and human health: background and recent findings.
Lippmann, M
1990-02-01
This paper, prepared in tribute to Dr. Alice Hamilton on her 120th birthday, reviews her pioneering studies of occupational lead poisoning and its control, her largely unheeded warnings about the possible consequences of widespread lead exposure to the general public through the use of leaded fuel, and the results of recent studies of human exposure to and health effects of lead in the general environment. Evidence is presented for dose-related non-threshold effects for children with blood lead concentrations below 25 micrograms/dl for a variety of effects including verbal IQ; mental development; physical size; and age at physical milestones such as first steps, hearing thresholds, and postural sway. For adults, various studies have produced associations between blood pressure and blood lead concentrations below 35 micrograms/dl, suggesting possible effects on cardiovascular health. While the biological mechanisms responsible for these effects remain poorly understood, recent and current efforts to reduce exposure to lead by the virtual elimination of lead in gasoline and food packaging show that we have learned one of Dr. Hamilton's important lessons, i.e., that the most effective means of reducing excessive exposures are through control of the environmental sources. PMID:2404752
On the connection between Hamilton and Lagrange formalism in quantum field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villalba-Chávez, Selym; Alkofer, Reinhard; Schwenzer, Kai
2010-08-01
The connection between the Hamilton and the standard Lagrange formalism is established for a generic quantum field theory with vanishing vacuum expectation values of the fundamental fields. The effective actions in both formalisms are the same if and only if the fundamental fields and the momentum fields are related by the stationarity condition. These momentum fields in general differ from the canonical fields as defined via the effective action. By means of functional methods a systematic procedure is presented to identify the full correlation functions, which depend on the momentum fields, as functionals of those usually appearing in the standard Lagrange formalism. Whereas Lagrange correlation functions can be decomposed into tree diagrams, the decomposition of Hamilton correlation functions involves loop corrections similar to those arising in n-particle effective actions. To demonstrate the method we derive for theories with linearized interactions the propagators of composite auxiliary fields and the ones of the fundamental degrees of freedom. The formalism is then utilized in the case of Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory for which the relations between the two-point correlation functions of the transversal and longitudinal components of the conjugate momentum to the ones of the gauge field are given.
A practical approach to the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of holographic renormalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elvang, Henriette; Hadjiantonis, Marios
2016-06-01
We revisit the subject of holographic renormalization for asymptotically AdS spacetimes. For many applications of holography, one has to handle the divergences associated with the on-shell gravitational action. The brute force approach uses the Fefferman- Graham (FG) expansion near the AdS boundary to identify the divergences, but subsequent reversal of the expansion is needed to construct the infinite counterterms. While in principle straightforward, the method is cumbersome and application/reversal of FG is formally unsatisfactory. Various authors have proposed an alternative method based on the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. However, this approach may appear to be abstract, difficult to implement, and in some cases limited in applicability. In this paper, we clarify the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of holographic renormalization and present a simple algorithm for its implementation to extract cleanly the infinite counterterms. While the derivation of the method relies on the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity, the actual application of our algorithm does not. The work applies to any D-dimensional holographic dual with asymptotic AdS boundary, Euclidean or Lorentzian, and arbitrary slicing. We illustrate the method in several examples, including the FGPW model, a holographic model of 3d ABJM theory, and cases with marginal scalars such as a dilaton-axion system.
Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman framework for optimal control in multistage energy systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sieniutycz, Stanislaw
2000-03-01
We enunciate parallelism for structures of variational principles in mechanics and thermodynamics in terms of the duality for thermoeconomic problems of maximizing of production profit and net profit which can be transferred to duality for least action and least abbreviated action which appear in mechanics. With the parallelism in mind, we review theory and macroscopic applications of a recently developed discrete formalism of Hamilton-Jacobi type which arises when Bellman's method of dynamic programming is applied to optimize active (work producing) and inactive (entropy generating) multistage energy systems with free intervals of an independent variable. Our original contribution develops a generalized theory for discrete processes in which these intervals can reside in the model inhomogeneously and can be constrained. We consider applications to multistage thermal machines, controlled unit operations, spontaneous relaxations, nonlinear heat conduction, and self-propagating reaction-diffusion fronts. They all satisfy a basic functional equation that leads to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation (HJB equation) and a related discrete optimization algorithm with a maximum principle for a Hamiltonian. Correspondence is shown with the well-known HJB theory for continuous processes when the number of stages approaches an infinity. We show that a common unifying criterion, which is the criterion of a minimum generated entropy, can be proven to act locally in the majority of considered cases, although the related global statements can be invalid far from equilibrium. General limits are found which bound the consumption of the classical work potential (exergy) for finite durations.
Marvin, C.H.; McCarry, B.E.; Allan, L.; Bryant, D.W.
1995-06-01
Aggregates of dreissenid mussels were collected in Hamilton Harbour (western Lake Ontario) from a south shore site (Randle Reef) in an area characterized by coal tar-contaminated sediments, and from a site on the north shore exposed to particulates circulating in the harbour water column. Samples were separated into three components: dreissend mussels, gammarid amphipods (Gammarus fasciatus), and particulate material. The samples were freeze-dried, and extracted using ultrasonication in dichloromethane. The organic solvent extracts were subjected to an open-column alumina and Sephadex LH-20 gel column clean-up procedure, and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The chromatographic profiles of all sample extracts were dominated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The concentrations of the individual compounds were normalized for contaminant profile comparison of the extracts of dreissenids, amphipods, and particulates associated with aggregates of dreissenid mussels. These profiles were also compared with extracts of coal tar-contaminated sediment from the Randle Reef area, and extracts of suspended particulates obtained from sediment traps. The similarities in the PAH profiles provide evidence of exposure to a common source of contaminants. These data also show that PAH associated with suspended particulates obtained from sediment traps. The similarities in the PAH profiles provide evidence of exposure to a common source of contaminants. These data also show that PAH associated with suspended particulates in Hamilton Harbour are being accumulated by dreissenid mussels and gammarid amphipods.
From classical Lagrangians to Hamilton operators in the standard model extension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schreck, M.
2016-07-01
In this article we investigate whether a theory based on a classical Lagrangian for the minimal Standard Model Extension (SME) can be quantized such that the result is equal to the corresponding low-energy Hamilton operator obtained from the field-theory description. This analysis is carried out for the whole collection of minimal Lagrangians found in the literature. The upshot is that the first quantization can be performed consistently. The unexpected observation is made that at first order in Lorentz violation and at second order in the velocity, the Lagrangians are related to the Hamilton functions by a simple transformation. Under mild assumptions, it is shown that this holds universally. That result is used successfully to obtain classical Lagrangians for two complicated sectors of the minimal SME that have not been considered in the literature so far. Therefore, it will not be an obstacle anymore to derive such Lagrangians even for involved sets of coefficients—at least to the level of approximation stated above.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilias Hossain, M.; Atiqur Rahman, M.
2013-09-01
We have investigated Hawking non-thermal and purely thermal Radiations of Reissner Nordström anti-de Sitter (RNAdS) black hole by massive particles tunneling method. The spacetime background has taken as dynamical, incorporate the self-gravitation effect of the emitted particles the imaginary part of the action has derived from Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We have supposed that energy and angular momentum are conserved and have shown that the non-thermal and thermal tunneling rates are related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum. The results for RNAdS black hole is also in the same manner with Parikh and Wilczek's opinion and explored the new result for Hawking radiation of RNAdS black hole.
Respiratory medicine at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario: 1968 to 2013
Jones, Norman L; O’Byrne, Paul M
2014-01-01
The medical school at McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario) was conceived in 1965 and admitted the first class in 1969. John Evans became the founding Dean and he invited Moran Campbell to be the first Chairman of the Department of Medicine. Moran Campbell, already a world figure in respiratory medicine and physiology, arrived at McMaster in September 1968, and he invited Norman Jones to be Coordinator of the Respiratory Programme. At that time, Hamilton had a population of 300,000, with two full-time respirologists, Robert Cornett at the Hamilton General Hospital and Michael Newhouse at St Joseph’s Hospital. From the clinical perspective, the aim of the Respiratory Programme was to develop a network approach to clinical problems among the five hospitals in the Hamilton region, with St Joseph’s Hospital serving as a regional referral centre, and each hospital developing its own focus: intensive care and burns units at the Hamilton General Hospital; cancer at the Henderson (later Juravinski) Hospital; tuberculosis and rehabilitation at the Chedoke Hospital; pediatrics and neonatal intensive care at the McMaster University Medical Centre; and community care at the Joseph Brant Hospital in Burlington (Ontario). The network provided an ideal base for a specialty residency program. There was also the need to establish viable research. These objectives were achieved through collaboration, support of hospital administration, and recruitment of clinicians and faculty, mainly from our own trainees and research fellows. By the mid-1970s the respiratory group numbered more than 25; outpatient clinic visits and research had grown beyond our initial expectations. The international impact of the group became reflected in the clinical and basic research endeavours. ASTHMA: Freddy Hargreave and Jerry Dolovich established methods to measure airway responsiveness to histamine and methacholine. Allergen inhalation was shown to increase airway responsiveness for several weeks
Kasper, S; Zivkov, M; Roes, K C; Pols, A G
1997-05-01
Efficacy data were available from 405 severely depressed patients (baseline 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-HAMD scores > or = 25) participating in randomized, double-blind, amitriptyline-controlled studies of mirtazapine. Main efficacy variable were changes from baseline in the group mean 17-item HAMD scores and responder rates. Secondary efficacy variables were changes in depressed mood item on the HAMD and in factors derived from the 17-item HAMD scale. Treatment with either mirtazapine or amitriptyline resulted in robust reductions of baseline HAMD scores and in similar and high percentages of responders. Both drugs produced favourable effects on depressed mood and on symptoms commonly associated with depression, such as anxiety, sleep and vegetative disturbances. There were neither statistically significant nor clinically relevant differences between mirtazapine and amitriptyline at any assessment point nor at endpoint. The results demonstrate that the new antidepressant mirtazapine and the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline are equally effective in the treatment of severely depressed patients. PMID:9169299
Massless Spin-Zero Particle and the Classical Action via Hamilton-Jacobi Equation in Gödel Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahrehbakhsh, A. F.; Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R.
2012-08-01
In this letter we investigate the separability of the Klein-Gordon and Hamilton-Jacobi equation in Gödel universe. We show that the Klein-Gordon eigen modes are quantized and the complete spectrum of the particle's energy is a mixture of an azimuthal quantum number, m and a principal quantum number, n and a continuous wave number k. We also show that the Hamilton-Jacobi equation gives a closed function for classical action. These results may be used to calculate the Casimir vacuum energy in Gödel universe.
Landau-Lifshitz magnetodynamics as a Hamilton model: Magnons in an instanton background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ovchinnikov, Igor V.; Wang, Kang L.
2010-07-01
To take full advantage of the well-developed field-theoretic methods, Magnonics needs a yet-existing Lagrangian formulation. Here, we show that Landau-Lifshitz magnetodynamics is a member of the covariant-Schrödinger-equation family of Hamilton models and apply the covariant background method arriving at the Ginzburg-Landau Lagrangian formalism for magnons in an instanton background. Magnons appear to be nonrelativistic spinless bosons, which feel instantons as a gauge field and as a Bose condensate. Among the examples of the usefulness of the proposition is the recognition of the instanton-induced phase shifts in magnons as the Berry phase and the interpretation of the spin-transfer-torque generation as a ferromagnetic counterpart of the Josephson supercurrent.
Green, Jonathan P; Freckleton, Robert P; Hatchwell, Ben J
2016-01-01
Investment by helpers in cooperative breeding systems is extremely variable among species, but this variation is currently unexplained. Inclusive fitness theory predicts that, all else being equal, cooperative investment should correlate positively with the relatedness of helpers to the recipients of their care. We test this prediction in a comparative analysis of helper investment in 36 cooperatively breeding bird species. We show that species-specific helper contributions to cooperative brood care increase as the mean relatedness between helpers and recipients increases. Helper contributions are also related to the sex ratio of helpers, but neither group size nor the proportion of nests with helpers influence helper effort. Our findings support the hypothesis that variation in helping behaviour among cooperatively breeding birds is consistent with Hamilton's rule, indicating a key role for kin selection in the evolution of cooperative investment in social birds. PMID:27554604
Nice to kin and nasty to non-kin: revisiting Hamilton's early insights on eusociality.
Boomsma, Jacobus J; d'Ettorre, Patrizia
2013-01-01
When helping behaviour is costly, Hamiltonian logic implies that animals need to direct helpful acts towards kin, so that indirect fitness benefits justify the costs. We revisit inferences about nepotism and aggression in Hamilton's 1964 paper to argue that he overestimated the general significance of nepotism, but that other issues that he raised continue to suggest novel research agendas today. We now know that nepotism in eusocial insects is rare, because variation in genetic recognition cues is insufficient. A lower proportion of individuals breeding and larger clutch sizes selecting for a more uniform colony odour may explain this. Irreversible worker sterility can induce both the fiercest possible aggression and the highest likelihood of helping random distant kin, but these Hamiltonian contentions still await large-scale testing in social animals. PMID:24132094
Lui, Tun Hing
2015-01-01
A 17-year-old boy reported left second and third toe pain after axial loading injury to his left foot. Radiographs showed collapse of the second metatarsal heads and epiphysial irregularities of the fifth metatarsal heads and the condyle of the proximal phalanx of the hallux of both feet. The patient was diagnosed to have Thompson and Hamilton type IV Freiberg's disease. He was screened for epiphysial dysplasia of the other sites. He had on and off bilateral hip and knee pain. Radiographs showed bilateral symmetrical epiphysial abnormalities with morphological change as focal concavity in bilateral femoral heads and fragmentation of the patellar articular surface with preservation of the patellofemoral joint space. PMID:25721826
Marvin, C.H.; Allan, L.; McCarry, B.E.; Bryant, D.W. )
1993-01-01
Highly contaminated sediment from the Hamilton Harbour area of western Lake Ontario was examined using a bioassay-directed fractionation methodology. A sediment sample was extracted using a Soxhlet apparatus and the resulting extract was fractionated into compound classes using an alumina clean-up step and high performance liquid chromatographic techniques. The resulting fractions were subjected to bioassays using TA98- and TA100-like strains modified by the inclusion of genes for the activating enzymes nitroreductase and O-acetyl-transferase. The majority of the mutagenic activity displayed by the sample extract was found to be present in the fraction containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Extracts of the PAH-containing fraction displayed dramatically higher responses with the TA100 type strains with metabolic activation. Further separation of the PAH-containing fraction showed the majority of the biological activity coeluted with PAH having molecular masses of 276, 278, and 302 amu.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calise, Anthony J.; Melamed, Nahum
1993-01-01
In this paper we develop a general procedure for constructing a matched asymptotic expansion of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation based on the method of characteristics. The development is for a class of perturbation problems whose solution exhibits two-time-scale behavior. A regular expansion for problems of this type is inappropriate since it is not uniformly valid over a narrow range of the independent variable. Of particular interest here is the manner in which matching and boundary conditions are enforced when the expansion is carried out to first order. Two cases are distinguished - one where the left boundary condition coincides with or lies to the right of the singular region and one where the left boundary condition lies to the left of the singular region. A simple example is used to illustrate the procedure, and its potential application to aeroassisted plane change is described.
Hamilton-Jacobi method for molecular distribution function in a chemical oscillator.
Nakanishi, Hiizu; Sakaue, Takahiro; Wakou, Jun'ichi
2013-12-01
Using the Hamilton-Jacobi method, we solve chemical Fokker-Planck equations within the Gaussian approximation and obtain a simple and compact formula for a conditional probability distribution. The formula holds in general transient situations, and can be applied not only to a steady state but also to an oscillatory state. By analyzing the long time behavior of the solution in the oscillatory case, we obtain the phase diffusion constant along the periodic orbit and the steady distribution perpendicular to it. A simple method for numerical evaluation of these formulas are devised, and they are compared with Monte Carlo simulations in the case of Brusselator as an example. Some results are shown to be identical to previously obtained expressions. PMID:24320362
The classical limit of minimal length uncertainty relation: revisit with the Hamilton-Jacobi method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xiaobo; Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang
2016-05-01
The existence of a minimum measurable length could deform not only the standard quantum mechanics but also classical physics. The effects of the minimal length on classical orbits of particles in a gravitation field have been investigated before, using the deformed Poisson bracket or Schwarzschild metric. In this paper, we first use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to derive the deformed equations of motion in the context of Newtonian mechanics and general relativity. We then employ them to study the precession of planetary orbits, deflection of light, and time delay in radar propagation. We also set limits on the deformation parameter by comparing our results with the observational measurements. Finally, comparison with results from previous papers is given at the end of this paper.
High-Order Central WENO Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We present new third- and fifth-order Godunov-type central schemes for approximating solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation in an arbitrary number of space dimensions. These are the first central schemes for approximating solutions of the HJ equations with an order of accuracy that is greater than two. In two space dimensions we present two versions for the third-order scheme: one scheme that is based on a genuinely two-dimensional Central WENO reconstruction, and another scheme that is based on a simpler dimension-by-dimension reconstruction. The simpler dimension-by-dimension variant is then extended to a multi-dimensional fifth-order scheme. Our numerical examples in one, two and three space dimensions verify the expected order of accuracy of the schemes.
Numerical Schemes for the Hamilton-Jacobi and Level Set Equations on Triangulated Domains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy J.; Sethian, James A.
1997-01-01
Borrowing from techniques developed for conservation law equations, numerical schemes which discretize the Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J), level set, and Eikonal equations on triangulated domains are presented. The first scheme is a provably monotone discretization for certain forms of the H-J equations. Unfortunately, the basic scheme lacks proper Lipschitz continuity of the numerical Hamiltonian. By employing a virtual edge flipping technique, Lipschitz continuity of the numerical flux is restored on acute triangulations. Next, schemes are introduced and developed based on the weaker concept of positive coefficient approximations for homogeneous Hamiltonians. These schemes possess a discrete maximum principle on arbitrary triangulations and naturally exhibit proper Lipschitz continuity of the numerical Hamiltonian. Finally, a class of Petrov-Galerkin approximations are considered. These schemes are stabilized via a least-squares bilinear form. The Petrov-Galerkin schemes do not possess a discrete maximum principle but generalize to high order accuracy.
A Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman approach for termination of seizure-like bursting.
Wilson, Dan; Moehlis, Jeff
2014-10-01
We use Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman methods to find minimum-time and energy-optimal control strategies to terminate seizure-like bursting behavior in a conductance-based neural model. Averaging is used to eliminate fast variables from the model, and a target set is defined through bifurcation analysis of the slow variables of the model. This method is illustrated for a single neuron model and for a network model to illustrate its efficacy in terminating bursting once it begins. This work represents a numerical proof-of-concept that a new class of control strategies can be employed to mitigate bursting, and could ultimately be adapted to treat medically intractible epilepsy in patient-specific models. PMID:24965911
On a Lagrange-Hamilton formalism describing position and momentum uncertainties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schuch, Dieter
1993-01-01
According to Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, in quantum mechanics it is not possible to determine, simultaneously, exact values for the position and the momentum of a material system. Calculating the mean value of the Hamiltonian operator with the aid of exact analytic Gaussian wave packet solutions, these uncertainties cause an energy contribution additional to the classical energy of the system. For the harmonic oscillator, e.g., this nonclassical energy represents the ground state energy. It will be shown that this additional energy contribution can be considered as a Hamiltonian function, if it is written in appropriate variables. With the help of the usual Lagrange-Hamilton formalism known from classical particle mechanics, but now considering this new Hamiltonian function, it is possible to obtain the equations of motion for position and momentum uncertainties.
Constants of the motion, universal time and the Hamilton-Jacobi function in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Hara, Paul
2013-04-01
In most text books of mechanics, Newton's laws or Hamilton's equations of motion are first written down and then solved based on initial conditions to determine the constants of the motions and to describe the trajectories of the particles. In this essay, we take a different starting point. We begin with the metrics of general relativity and show how they can be used to construct by inspection constants of motion, which can then be used to write down the equations of the trajectories. This will be achieved by deriving a Hamiltonian-Jacobi function from the metric and showing that its existence requires all of the above mentioned properties. The article concludes by showing that a consistent theory of such functions also requires the need for a universal measure of time which can be identified with the "worldtime" parameter, first introduced by Steuckelberg and later developed by Horwitz and Piron.
Refinement of the Hamilton-Jacobi solution using a second canonical transformation
Gabella, W.E. . Dept. of Physics); Ruth, R.D.; Warnock, R.L. )
1991-05-01
Two canonical transformations are implemented to find approximate invariant surface for a nonlinear, time-periodic Hamiltonian. The first transformation is found from the non-perturbative, iterative solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The residual angle dependence remaining after performing the transformation is mostly eliminated by a second, perturbative transformation. This refinement can improve the accuracy, or the speed, of the invariant surface calculation. The motion of a single particle in one transverse dimension is studied in a storage ring example where strong sextupole magnets are the source of nonlinearity. The refined transformation to action-angle variables, and the corresponding invariant surface, can attain accuracy similar to that of a good non-perturbative transformation in half the computation time. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Lane-Hamilton syndrome: case report and review of the literature.
Hendrickx, Guy F M; Somers, Katia; Vandenplas, Yvan
2011-12-01
We report a case of a three-and-a-half-year-old boy, who presented with poor general condition, stunted growth, had the presence of nail clubbing, persistent cough and frequent diarrhoea. Persistent iron deficiency anaemia without signs of haemolysis suggested Lane-Hamilton syndrome (LHS) which is or/is an extremely rare combination of idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (IPH) and celiac disease (CD), although both diseases are immunologically mediated and the pathogenetic link between them is not clear. We have now 3 years of follow-up on gluten-free diet (GFD), resulting in a gradual recovery of the abnormal laboratory results in combination with an improving growth. Clinically, he is asymptomatic without any additional treatment. Our case illustrates that CD should be specifically looked for in patients with IPH, especially those in whom the severity of anaemia is disproportionate to the IPH symptoms. Both diseases may benefit from a GFD. PMID:21947219
Second-order quantized Hamilton dynamics coupled to classical heat bath
Heatwole, Eric M.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.
2005-06-15
Starting with a quantum Langevin equation describing in the Heisenberg representation a quantum system coupled to a quantum bath, the Markov approximation and, further, the closure approximation are applied to derive a semiclassical Langevin equation for the second-order quantized Hamilton dynamics (QHD) coupled to a classical bath. The expectation values of the system operators are decomposed into products of the first and second moments of the position and momentum operators that incorporate zero-point energy and moderate tunneling effects. The random force and friction as well as the system-bath coupling are decomposed to the lowest classical level. The resulting Langevin equation describing QHD-2 coupled to classical bath is analyzed and applied to free particle, harmonic oscillator, and the Morse potential representing the OH stretch of the SPC-flexible water model.
Green, Jonathan P.; Freckleton, Robert P.; Hatchwell, Ben J.
2016-01-01
Investment by helpers in cooperative breeding systems is extremely variable among species, but this variation is currently unexplained. Inclusive fitness theory predicts that, all else being equal, cooperative investment should correlate positively with the relatedness of helpers to the recipients of their care. We test this prediction in a comparative analysis of helper investment in 36 cooperatively breeding bird species. We show that species-specific helper contributions to cooperative brood care increase as the mean relatedness between helpers and recipients increases. Helper contributions are also related to the sex ratio of helpers, but neither group size nor the proportion of nests with helpers influence helper effort. Our findings support the hypothesis that variation in helping behaviour among cooperatively breeding birds is consistent with Hamilton's rule, indicating a key role for kin selection in the evolution of cooperative investment in social birds. PMID:27554604
Gauge symmetry of the N-body problem in the Hamilton-Jacobi approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efroimsky, Michael; Goldreich, Peter
2003-12-01
In most books the Delaunay and Lagrange equations for the orbital elements are derived by the Hamilton-Jacobi method: one begins with the two-body Hamilton equations in spherical coordinates, performs a canonical transformation to the orbital elements, and obtains the Delaunay system. A standard trick is then used to generalize the approach to the N-body case. We reexamine this step and demonstrate that it contains an implicit condition which restricts the dynamics to a 9(N-1)-dimensional submanifold of the 12(N-1)-dimensional space spanned by the elements and their time derivatives. The tacit condition is equivalent to the constraint that Lagrange imposed ``by hand'' to remove the excessive freedom, when he was deriving his system of equations by variation of parameters. It is the condition of the orbital elements being osculating, i.e., of the instantaneous ellipse (or hyperbola) being always tangential to the physical velocity. Imposure of any supplementary condition different from the Lagrange constraint (but compatible with the equations of motion) is legitimate and will not alter the physical trajectory or velocity (though will alter the mathematical form of the planetary equations). This freedom of nomination of the supplementary constraint reveals a gauge-type internal symmetry instilled into the equations of celestial mechanics. Existence of this internal symmetry has consequences for the stability of numerical integrators. Another important aspect of this freedom is that any gauge different from that of Lagrange makes the Delaunay system noncanonical. In a more general setting, when the disturbance depends not only upon positions but also upon velocities, there is a ``generalized Lagrange gauge'' wherein the Delaunay system is symplectic. This special gauge renders orbital elements that are osculating in the phase space. It coincides with the regular Lagrange gauge when the perturbation is velocity independent.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blight, David W.
2002-01-01
Presents the story of Charles Hamilton Houston, an African American legal scholar who led a crusade focused on equal educational opportunities and facilities for African American students. He used the courts to force Americans to listen to his message about racial subjugation, segregation, and lynch law. (SM)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nicolaidis, Mary; Sica, Michael
The major goal of Project SPEED (at Fort Hamilton High School, Brooklyn, New York) was dropout prevention. In its first year of operation, 1982-83, the project provided English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction, bilingual instruction in basic skills required for graduation, and guidance services to approximately 300 limited English proficient…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osetrin, Konstantin; Filippov, Altair; Osetrin, Evgeny
2016-01-01
The characteristics of dust matter in spacetime models, admitting the existence of privilege coordinate systems are given, where the single-particle Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be integrated by the method of complete separation of variables. The resulting functional form of the 4-velocity field and energy density of matter for all types of spaces under consideration is presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fitzpatrick, P. M.; Harmon, G. R.; Liu, J. J. F.; Cochran, J. E.
1974-01-01
The formalism for studying perturbations of a triaxial rigid body within the Hamilton-Jacobi framework is developed. The motion of a triaxial artificial earth satellite about its center of mass is studied. Variables are found which permit separation, and the Euler angles and associated conjugate momenta are obtained as functions of canonical constants and time.
76 FR 76707 - Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of Complaint
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-12-08
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of... Improvement Act of 2002, and the Pipeline Hazardous Material Safety Administration, Brian...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-12-15
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hamilton v. El Paso Natural Gas, El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice Announcing Docket Number Change On December 2, 2011, the Commission issued a notice in docket number...
Gnanaraj, Pushpa; Karthikeyan, Subashini; Narasimhan, Murali; Rajagopalan, Vaidyanathan
2015-01-01
Background: Acne is a common disorder among adolescents and young adults causing a considerable psychological impact including anxiety and depression. Isotretinoin, a synthetic oral retinoid is very effective in the treatment of moderate to severe acne. But there have been many reports linking isotretinoin to depression and suicide though no clear proof of association has been established so far. Objective: To determine whether oral isotretinoin increases the risk of depression in patients with moderate to severe acne. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty patients with moderate to severe acne were treated with oral isotretinoin 0.5 mg/kg/day for a period of 3 months. Their acne and depression scoring was done at baseline and then every month for the first 3 months and then at 6 months. Results: We found that the acne scoring reduced from 3.11 ± 0.49 to 0.65 ± 0.62 (P = < 0.001) at the end of 3 months. Also, the depression scoring decreased significantly from 3.89 ± 4.9 at the beginning of study to 0.45 ± 1.12 (P < 0.001) at the end of 3 months. Both the acne and depression scores continued to remain low at the end of 6 months at 0.5 ± 0.52 (P = < 0.001) and 0.18 ± 0.51 (P = < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions: Our study proves that oral isotretinoin causes significant clearance of acne lesions. It causes significant reduction in depression scores and is not associated with an increased incidence of depression or suicidal tendencies. PMID:26538692
Canonical equations of Hamilton for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Guo; Guo, Qi; Ren, Zhanmei
2015-09-01
We define two different systems of mathematical physics: the second order differential system (SODS) and the first order differential system (FODS). The Newton's second law of motion and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) are the exemplary SODS and FODS, respectively. We obtain a new kind of canonical equations of Hamilton (CEH), which exhibit some kind of symmetry in form and are formally different from the conventional CEH without symmetry [H. Goldstein, C. Poole, J. Safko, Classical Mechanics, third ed., Addison- Wesley, 2001]. We also prove that the number of the CEHs is equal to the number of the generalized coordinates for the FODS, but twice the number of the generalized coordinates for the SODS. We show that the FODS can only be expressed by the new CEH, but not introduced by the conventional CEH, while the SODS can be done by both the new and the conventional CEHs. As an example, we prove that the nonlinear Schrödinger equation can be expressed with the new CEH in a consistent way.
Pengelly, L.D.; Kerigan, A.T.; Goldsmith, C.H.; Inman, E.M.
1984-10-01
Hamilton, Ontario is an industrial city with a population of 300,000 which is situated at the western end of Lake Ontario. Canada's two largest iron and steel mills are located here; the city historically has had relatively poor air quality, which has improved markedly in the last 25 years. Concern about the health effects of current air quality recently led us to carry out an epidemiological study of the effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of over 3500 school children. Respiratory health was measured by pulmonary function testing of each child, and by an assessment of each child's respiratory symptoms via a questionnaire administered to the parents. Previous studies had shown that other environmental factors (e.g. parental smoking, parental cough, socioeconomic level, housing, and gas cooking) might also affect respiratory health, and thus confound any potential relationships between health and air pollution. The questionnaire also collected information on many of these confounding factors. For the purposes of initial analysis, the city was divided into five areas in which differences in air quality were expected. In general, factors which have been associated with poor respiratory health were observed to be more prevalent in areas of poorer air quality.
Communication and relationship skills for rapid response teams at hamilton health sciences.
Cziraki, Karen; Lucas, Janie; Rogers, Toni; Page, Laura; Zimmerman, Rosanne; Hauer, Lois Ann; Daniels, Charlotte; Gregoroff, Susan
2008-01-01
Rapid response teams (RRT) are an important safety strategy in the prevention of deaths in patients who are progressively failing outside of the intensive care unit. The goal is to intervene before a critical event occurs. Effective teamwork and communication skills are frequently cited as critical success factors in the implementation of these teams. However, there is very little literature that clearly provides an education strategy for the development of these skills. Training in simulation labs offers an opportunity to assess and build on current team skills; however, this approach does not address how to meet the gaps in team communication and relationship skill management. At Hamilton Health Sciences (HHS) a two-day program was developed in collaboration with the RRT Team Leads, Organizational Effectiveness and Patient Safety Leaders. Participants reflected on their conflict management styles and considered how their personality traits may contribute to team function. Communication and relationship theories were reviewed and applied in simulated sessions in the relative safety of off-site team sessions. The overwhelming positive response to this training has been demonstrated in the incredible success of these teams from the perspective of the satisfaction surveys of the care units that call the team, and in the multi-phased team evaluation of their application to practice. These sessions offer a useful approach to the development of the soft skills required for successful RRT implementation. PMID:18382164
Wave front-ray synthesis for solving the multidimensional quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation.
Wyatt, Robert E; Chou, Chia-Chun
2011-08-21
A Cauchy initial-value approach to the complex-valued quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (QHJE) is investigated for multidimensional systems. In this approach, ray segments foliate configuration space which is laminated by surfaces of constant action. The QHJE incorporates all quantum effects through a term involving the divergence of the quantum momentum function (QMF). The divergence term may be expressed as a sum of two terms, one involving displacement along the ray and the other incorporating the local curvature of the action surface. It is shown that curvature of the wave front may be computed from coefficients of the first and second fundamental forms from differential geometry that are associated with the surface. Using the expression for the divergence, the QHJE becomes a Riccati-type ordinary differential equation (ODE) for the complex-valued QMF, which is parametrized by the arc length along the ray. In order to integrate over possible singularities in the QMF, a stable and accurate Möbius propagator is introduced. This method is then used to evolve rays and wave fronts for four systems in two and three dimensions. From the QMF along each ray, the wave function can be easily computed. Computational difficulties that may arise are described and some ways to circumvent them are presented. PMID:21861551
Directly solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equations by Hermite WENO Schemes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Feng; Qiu, Jianxian
2016-02-01
In this paper, we present a class of new Hermite weighted essentially non-oscillatory (HWENO) schemes based on finite volume framework to directly solve the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. For HWENO reconstruction, both the cell average and the first moment of the solution are evolved, and for two dimensional case, HWENO reconstruction is based on a dimension-by-dimension strategy which is the first used in HWENO reconstruction. For spatial discretization, one of key points for directly solving HJ equation is the reconstruction of numerical fluxes. We follow the idea put forward by Cheng and Wang (2014) [3] to reconstruct the values of solution at Gauss-Lobatto quadrature points and numerical fluxes at the interfaces of cells, and for neither the convex nor concave Hamiltonian case, the monotone modification of numerical fluxes is added, which can guarantee the precision in the smooth region and converge to the entropy solution when derivative discontinuities come up. The third order TVD Runge-Kutta method is used for the time discretization. Extensive numerical experiments in one dimensional and two dimensional cases are performed to verify the efficiency of the methods.
Integrating the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equations by wavefront expansion and phase space analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bittner, Eric R.; Wyatt, Robert E.
2000-11-01
In this paper we report upon our computational methodology for numerically integrating the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equations using hydrodynamic trajectories. Our method builds upon the moving least squares method developed by Lopreore and Wyatt [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5190 (1999)] in which Lagrangian fluid elements representing probability volume elements of the wave function evolve under Newtonian equations of motion which include a nonlocal quantum force. This quantum force, which depends upon the third derivative of the quantum density, ρ, can vary rapidly in x and become singular in the presence of nodal points. Here, we present a new approach for performing quantum trajectory calculations which does not involve calculating the quantum force directly, but uses the wavefront to calculate the velocity field using mv=∇S, where S/ℏ is the argument of the wave function ψ. Additional numerical stability is gained by performing local gauge transformations to remove oscillatory components of the wave function. Finally, we use a dynamical Rayleigh-Ritz approach to derive ancillary equations-of-motion for the spatial derivatives of ρ, S, and v. The methodologies described herein dramatically improve the long time stability and accuracy of the quantum trajectory approach even in the presence of nodes. The method is applied to both barrier crossing and tunneling systems. We also compare our results to semiclassical based descriptions of barrier tunneling.
Computing tunneling paths with the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and the fast marching method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Bijoy K.; Ayers, Paul W.
We present a new method for computing the most probable tunneling paths based on the minimum imaginary action principle. Unlike many conventional methods, the paths are calculated without resorting to an optimization (minimization) scheme. Instead, a fast marching method coupled with a back-propagation scheme is used to efficiently compute the tunneling paths. The fast marching method solves a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the imaginary action on a discrete grid where the action value at an initial point (usually the reactant state configuration) is known in the beginning. Subsequently, a back-propagation scheme uses a steepest descent method on the imaginary action surface to compute a path connecting an arbitrary point on the potential energy surface (usually a state in the product valley) to the initial state. The proposed method is demonstrated for the tunneling paths of two different systems: a model 2D potential surface and the collinear reaction. Unlike existing methods, where the tunneling path is based on a presumed reaction coordinate and a correction is made with respect to the reaction coordinate within an 'adiabatic' approximation, the proposed method is very general and makes no assumptions about the relationship between the reaction coordinate and tunneling path.
Killing tensors, warped products and the orthogonal separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation
Rajaratnam, Krishan McLenaghan, Raymond G.
2014-01-15
We study Killing tensors in the context of warped products and apply the results to the problem of orthogonal separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. This work is motivated primarily by the case of spaces of constant curvature where warped products are abundant. We first characterize Killing tensors which have a natural algebraic decomposition in warped products. We then apply this result to show how one can obtain the Killing-Stäckel space (KS-space) for separable coordinate systems decomposable in warped products. This result in combination with Benenti's theory for constructing the KS-space of certain special separable coordinates can be used to obtain the KS-space for all orthogonal separable coordinates found by Kalnins and Miller in Riemannian spaces of constant curvature. Next we characterize when a natural Hamiltonian is separable in coordinates decomposable in a warped product by showing that the conditions originally given by Benenti can be reduced. Finally, we use this characterization and concircular tensors (a special type of torsionless conformal Killing tensor) to develop a general algorithm to determine when a natural Hamiltonian is separable in a special class of separable coordinates which include all orthogonal separable coordinates in spaces of constant curvature.
Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton)
Ramsay, J.M.; Watral, V.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.
2009-01-01
Mycobacteria are significant pathogens of laboratory zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Stress is often implicated in clinical disease and morbidity associated with mycobacterial infections but has yet to be examined with zebrafish. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of husbandry stressors on zebrafish infected with mycobacteria. Adult zebrafish were exposed to Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium chelonae, two species that have been associated with disease in zebrafish. Infected fish and controls were then subjected to chronic crowding and handling stressors and examined over an 8-week period. Whole-body cortisol was significantly elevated in stressed fish compared to non-stressed fish. Fish infected with M. marinum ATCC 927 and subjected to husbandry stressors had 14% cumulative mortality while no mortality occurred among infected fish not subjected to husbandry stressors. Stressed fish, infected with M. chelonae H1E2 from zebrafish, were 15-fold more likely to be infected than non-stressed fish at week 8 post-injection. Sub-acute, diffuse infections were more common among stressed fish infected with M. marinum or M. chelonae than non-stressed fish. This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of stress and elevated cortisol on the morbidity, prevalence, clinical disease and histological presentation associated with mycobacterial infections in zebrafish. Minimizing husbandry stress may be effective at reducing the severity of outbreaks of clinical mycobacteriosis in zebrafish facilities. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Wave front-ray synthesis for solving the multidimensional quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation
Wyatt, Robert E.; Chou, Chia-Chun
2011-08-21
A Cauchy initial-value approach to the complex-valued quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (QHJE) is investigated for multidimensional systems. In this approach, ray segments foliate configuration space which is laminated by surfaces of constant action. The QHJE incorporates all quantum effects through a term involving the divergence of the quantum momentum function (QMF). The divergence term may be expressed as a sum of two terms, one involving displacement along the ray and the other incorporating the local curvature of the action surface. It is shown that curvature of the wave front may be computed from coefficients of the first and second fundamental forms from differential geometry that are associated with the surface. Using the expression for the divergence, the QHJE becomes a Riccati-type ordinary differential equation (ODE) for the complex-valued QMF, which is parametrized by the arc length along the ray. In order to integrate over possible singularities in the QMF, a stable and accurate Moebius propagator is introduced. This method is then used to evolve rays and wave fronts for four systems in two and three dimensions. From the QMF along each ray, the wave function can be easily computed. Computational difficulties that may arise are described and some ways to circumvent them are presented.
Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 86-437-1818, Champion International Corporation, Hamilton, Ohio
Tubbs, R.L.
1987-07-01
In response to a request from employees at the Champion International Corporation paper mill located in Hamilton, Ohio, a study was made of possible excessive noise hazards arising in the small cutter area of the facility. One paper cutter, considered by workers to be louder than the others, was scheduled to have an enclosure installed for the rotary knife blade. Noise surveys were conducted in July before the installation and in November after the installation of the enclosure. Data gathered in July indicated noise levels of 108 decibels-A (dB-A), while the octave-band analysis demonstrated the majority of the sound energy to be in the midfrequency range from 250 to 4000 hertz (Hz). In November, tests showed the level to be 95dB-A with a corresponding decrease in the midfrequency sound intensities. Enclosing the rotary knife blade did reduce the potential for noise exposure, but noise measurements in excess of the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit of 85dB-A for an 8-hour day were common. The author concludes that a noise hazard existed in the small cutter area. The author recommends that engineering controls be continuously sought to further reduce the noise level from this particular machine. The use of nonmetallic drive gears should be considered, along with filling of the hollow knife blade cylinder with a lightweight acoustical material. An effective hearing-conservation program should be implemented and employees trained in the proper use of hearing protective devices.
Rainhorn, Judith
2012-01-01
Dr. Alice Hamilton (1869-1970) was a pioneer in industrial medicine, a new discipline that emerged with a new interest in working conditions and occupational hazards within an era of unprecedented industrial growth. From various sources, including her reports after she visited Arizona copper belt in 1919, my paper emphasizes the innovation of Hamilton's approach,"shoeleather epidemiology". She went to the source of information in workshops, plants and construction sites, observed the very concrete part of industrial work, interviewed many stakeholders in and around the workplace, making a methodological toolbox for industrial surveys. Her method combined an old medical practice (the medical inquiry) and a new clinical field (the plant) and placed the worker as a patient in the core of the issue of occupational health and safety. PMID:23923341
High-Order Semi-Discrete Central-Upwind Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We present the first fifth order, semi-discrete central upwind method for approximating solutions of multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Unlike most of the commonly used high order upwind schemes, our scheme is formulated as a Godunov-type scheme. The scheme is based on the fluxes of Kurganov-Tadmor and Kurganov-Tadmor-Petrova, and is derived for an arbitrary number of space dimensions. A theorem establishing the monotonicity of these fluxes is provided. The spacial discretization is based on a weighted essentially non-oscillatory reconstruction of the derivative. The accuracy and stability properties of our scheme are demonstrated in a variety of examples. A comparison between our method and other fifth-order schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi equations shows that our method exhibits smaller errors without any increase in the complexity of the computations.
Self-gravitation interaction of IR deformed Hořava-Lifshitz gravity via new Hamilton-Jacobi method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Molin; Xu, Yin; Lu, Junwang; Yang, Yuling; Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Yabo
2014-06-01
The apparent discovery of logarithmic entropies has a significant impact on IR deformed Hořava-Lifshitz (IRDHL) gravity in which the original infrared (IR) property is improved by introducing three-geometry's Ricci scalar term "μ4 R" in action. Here, we reevaluate the Hawking radiation in IRDHL by using recent new Hamilton-Jacobi method (NHJM). In particular, a thorough analysis is considered both in asymptotically flat Kehagias-Sfetsos and asymptotically non-flat Park models in IRDHL. We find the NHJM offers simplifications on the technical side. The modification in the entropy expression is given by the physical interpretation of self-gravitation of the Hawking radiation in this new Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) perspectives.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rovelli, Carlo
Hamiltonian mechanics of field theory can be formulated in a generally covariant and background independent manner over a finite dimensional extended configuration space. I study the physical symplectic structure of the theory in this framework. This structure can be defined over a space of three-dimensional surfaces without boundary, in the extended configuration space. These surfaces provide a preferred over-coordinatization of phase space. I consider the covariant form of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation on , and a canonical function S on which is a preferred solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The application of this formalism to general relativity is fully covariant and yields directly the Ashtekar-Wheeler-DeWitt equation, the basic equation of canonical quantum gravity. Finally, I apply this formalism to discuss the partial observables of a covariant field theory and the role of the spin networks -basic objects in quantum gravity- in the classical theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rovelli, Carlo
Hamiltonian mechanics of field theory can be formulated in a generally covariant and background independent manner over a finite dimensional extended configuration space. I study the physical symplectic structure of the theory in this framework. This structure can be defined over a space G of three-dimensional surfaces without boundary, in the extended configuration space. These surfaces provide a preferred over-coordinatization of phase space. I consider the covariant form of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation on G, and a canonical function S on G which is a preferred solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The application of this formalism to general relativity is fully covariant and yields directly the Ashtekar-Wheeler-DeWitt equation, the basic equation of canonical quantum gravity. Finally, I apply this formalism to discuss the partial observables of a covariant field theory and the role of the spin networks -basic objects in quantum gravity- in the classical theory.
Yu, W.; Choi, S. U.-S.; Energy Technology
2004-08-01
We previously developed a renovated Maxwell model for the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids and determined that the solid/liquid interfacial layers play an important role in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids. However, this renovated Maxwell model is limited to suspensions with spherical particles. Here, we extend the Hamilton--Crosser model for suspensions of nonspherical particles to include the effect of a solid/liquid interface. The solid/liquid interface is described as a confocal ellipsoid with a solid particle. The new model for the three-phase suspensions is mathematically expressed in terms of the equivalent thermal conductivity and equivalent volume fraction of anisotropic complex ellipsoids, as well as an empirical shape factor. With a generalized empirical shape factor, the renovated Hamilton-Crosser model correctly predicts the magnitude of the thermal conductivity of nanotube-in-oil nanofluids. At present, this new model is not able to predict the nonlinear behavior of the nanofluid thermal conductivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamamuki, Nao; Nakayasu, Atsushi; Namba, Tokinaga
2015-12-01
We study a cell problem arising in homogenization for a Hamilton-Jacobi equation whose Hamiltonian is not coercive. We introduce a generalized notion of effective Hamiltonians by approximating the equation and characterize the solvability of the cell problem in terms of the generalized effective Hamiltonian. Under some sufficient conditions, the result is applied to the associated homogenization problem. We also show that homogenization for non-coercive equations fails in general.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popova, E. P.
2015-08-01
A two-dimensional model for an αΩ-dynamo is constructed, taking into account meridional flows. A Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the resulting system of magnetic-field generation equatons is constructed using an asymptotic method analogous to the WKB method. This equation makes it possible to analytically study the influence of meridional flows on the duration of the solar magnetic-activity cycle and the evolution of magnetic waves.
Soravia, P.
1999-01-15
In this paper we extend to completely general nonlinear systems the result stating that the H{sub {infinity}} suboptimal control problem is solved if and only if the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs (HJI) equation has a nonnegative (super)solution. This is well known for linear systems, using the Riccati equation instead of the HJI equation. We do this using the theory of differential games and viscosity solutions.
Reid, Janem; Arcese, Peter; Cassidy, Alicel E V; Marr, Amyb; Smith, Jamesn M; Keller, Lukasf
2005-03-01
Hamilton and Zuk's influential hypothesis of parasite-mediated sexual selection proposes that exaggerated secondary sexual ornaments indicate a male's addictive genetic immunity to parasites. However, genetic correlated of ornaments and immunity have rarely been explicitly identified. Evidence supporting Hamilton and Zuk's hypothesis has instead been gathered by looking for positive phenotypic correlations between ornamentation and immunity; such correlations are assumed to reflect causal, addictive relationships between these traits. We show that in a song sparrows, Melospiza melodia, male's song repertoire size, a secondary sexual trait, increased with his cell-mediated immune response (CMI) to an experimental challenge. However, this phenotypic correlation could be explained because both repertoire size and CMI declined with a male's inbreeding level. Repertoire size therefore primarily indicated a male's relative heterozygosity, a non-addictive genetic predictor of immunity. Caution may therefore be required when interpreting phenotypic correlations as support for Hamilton and Zuk's addictive model of sexual selection. However, our results suggest that female song sparrows choosing with large repertoires would on average acquire more outbred and therefore more heterozygous mates. Such genetic dominance effects on ornamentation are likely to influence evolutionary trajectories of female choice, and should be explicitly incorporated into genetic models of sexual selection. PMID:15799943
Hydrology of the Cave Springs area near Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee
Bradfield, Arthur D.
1992-01-01
The hydrology of Cave Springs, the second largest spring in East Tennessee,was investigated from July 1987 to September 1989. Wells near the spring supply about 5 million gallons per day of potable water to people in Hamilton County near Chattanooga. Discharge from the spring averaged about 13.5 cubic feet per second (8.72 million gallons per day) during the study period. Withdrawals by the Hixson Utility District from wells upgradient from the outflow averaged 8.6 cubic feet per second (5.54 million gallons per day). Aquifer tests using wells intersecting a large solution cavity supplying water to the spring showed a drawdown of less than 3 feet with a discharge of 9,000 gallons per minute or 20 cubic feet per second. Temperature and specific conductance of ground water near the spring outflow were monitored hourly. Temperatures ranged from 13.5 to 18.2 degrees celsius, and fluctuated seasonally in response to climate. Specific-conductance values ranged from 122 to 405 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, but were generally between 163 to 185 microsiemensper centimeter. The drainage area of the basin recharging the spring system was estimated to be 1O squaremiles. A potentiometric map of the recharge basin was developed from water levels measured at domestic and test wells in August 1989. Aquifer tests at five test wells in the study area indicated that specific-capacity values for these wells ranged from 4.1 to 261 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. Water-quality characteristics of ground water in the area were used in conjunction with potentiometric-surface maps to delineate the approximate area contributing recharge to Cave Springs.
Roberts, M.J.; Pryor, W.A.
1985-02-01
The Spar Mountain Member of the Ste. Genevieve Limestone (middle Mississippian) in Hamilton County, Illinois, consists of 40-60 ft (12-18 m) of interbedded limestones, shales, and sandstones. Five cores and 1400 electric logs were used to delineate two shallowing-upward carbonate cycles and 2 major clastic pulses within the Spar Mountain. Eight lithofacies representing 6 depositional environments were identified. They are: (A) echinoderm-brachiopod dolostone to packstone (outer ramp), (B) ooid-peloidal grainstone (intermediate ramp), (C) skeletal grainstone (intermediate ramp), (D) ooid-molluscan-intraclastic wackestone to grainstone (inner ramp), (E) pelletal-skeletal wackestone (inner ramp), (F) quartzarenite (channelized nearshore), (G) quartz-sublithic arenite to wacke (delta platform), and (H) quartz mudstone (prodelta, delta platform). Deposition occurred on a southwest-dipping carbonate ramp, with siliciclastic sediments originating from the northeast. The sequence of facies and their inferred depositional environments record 2 major progradational episodes. Oolitic facies are interpreted to be of tidal-bar belt origin and quartzarenite facies are interpreted to be of delta-distributary channel origin. Their distribution is partially controlled by antecedent and syndepositional topography. Many of these paleotopographic highes are positive features today and yield pinch-out stratigraphic relationships. Paleogeographic reconstructions demonstrate that the primary control on facies distribution was the position of the delta proper along strike. However, depositional topography also influenced sedimentation, particularly in the sand-sized fraction. Using this concept, better prediction of underlying porous buildups (ooid shoals) is possible if thickness of the overlying siliciclastic is known. Within buildups, a complex diagenetic history complicates the distribution of porosity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potoglou, Dimitrios
The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, it offers insight on how households' car-ownership behaviour is affected by urban form and availability of local-transit at the place of residence, after controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Second, it addresses the importance of vehicle attributes, household and individual characteristics as well as economic incentives and urban form to potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Data for the empirical analyses of the aforementioned research activities were obtained through an innovative Internet survey, which is also documented in this thesis, conducted in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton. The survey included a retrospective questionnaire of households' number and type of vehicles and a stated choices experiment for assessing the potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Established approaches and emerging trends in automobile demand modelling identified early on in this thesis suggest a disaggregate approach and specifically, the estimation of discrete choice models both for explaining car ownership and vehicle-type choice behaviour. It is shown that mixed and diverse land uses as well as short distances between home and work are likely to decrease the probability of households to own a large number of cars. Regarding the demand for alternative fuelled vehicles, while vehicle attributes are particularly important, incentives such as free parking and access to high occupancy vehicle lanes will not influence the choice of hybrids or alternative fuelled vehicles. An improved understating of households' behaviour regarding the number of cars as well as the factors and trade-offs for choosing cleaner vehicles can be used to inform policy designed to reduce car ownership levels and encourage adoption of cleaner vehicle technologies in urban areas. Finally, the Internet survey sets the ground for further research on implementation and evaluation of this data collection method.
New examples of Hamilton-minimal and minimal Lagrangian manifolds in C{sup n} and CP{sup n}
Mironov, A E
2004-02-28
A new method is proposed for constructing Hamilton-minimal and minimal Lagrangian immersions and embeddings of manifolds in C{sup n} and in CP{sup n}. In particular, using this method it is possible to construct embeddings of manifolds such as the (2n+1)-dimensional generalized Klein bottle K{sup 2n+1}, S{sup 2n+1}xS{sup 1}, K{sup 2n+1}xS{sup 1}, S{sup 2n+1}xS{sup 1}xS{sup 1}, and others.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salisbury, Donald; Renn, Jürgen; Sundermeyer, Kurt
2016-02-01
Classical background independence is reflected in Lagrangian general relativity through covariance under the full diffeomorphism group. We show how this independence can be maintained in a Hamilton-Jacobi approach that does not accord special privilege to any geometric structure. Intrinsic space-time curvature-based coordinates grant equal status to all geometric backgrounds. They play an essential role as a starting point for inequivalent semiclassical quantizations. The scheme calls into question Wheeler’s geometrodynamical approach and the associated Wheeler-DeWitt equation in which 3-metrics are featured geometrical objects. The formalism deals with variables that are manifestly invariant under the full diffeomorphism group. Yet, perhaps paradoxically, the liberty in selecting intrinsic coordinates is precisely as broad as is the original diffeomorphism freedom. We show how various ideas from the past five decades concerning the true degrees of freedom of general relativity can be interpreted in light of this new constrained Hamiltonian description. In particular, we show how the Kuchař multi-fingered time approach can be understood as a means of introducing full four-dimensional diffeomorphism invariants. Every choice of new phase space variables yields new Einstein-Hamilton-Jacobi constraining relations, and corresponding intrinsic Schrödinger equations. We show how to implement this freedom by canonical transformation of the intrinsic Hamiltonian. We also reinterpret and rectify significant work by Dittrich on the construction of “Dirac observables.”
Ginsberg, Jerry H
2010-05-01
Hamilton's principle for dynamic systems is adapted to describe the coupled response of a confined acoustic domain and an elastic structure that forms part or all of the boundary. A key part of the modified principle is the treatment of the surface traction as a Lagrange multiplier function that enforces continuity conditions at the fluid-solid interface. The structural displacement, fluid velocity potential, and traction are represented by Ritz series, where the usage of the velocity potential as the state variable for the fluid assures that the flow is irrotational. Designation of the coefficients of the potential function series as generalized velocities leads to corresponding series representations of the particle velocity, displacement, and pressure in the fluid, which in turn leads to descriptions of the mechanical energies and virtual work. Application of the calculus of variations to Hamilton's principle yields linear differential-algebraic equations whose form is identical to those governing mechanical systems that are subject to nonholonomic kinematic constraints. Criteria for selection of basis functions for the various Ritz series are illustrated with an example of a rectangular cavity bounded on one side by an elastic plate and conditions that change discontinuously on other sides. PMID:21117723
Li, Guowei; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Thabane, Lehana; Cheng, Ji; Adachi, Jonathan D
2016-04-01
Investigating the cumulative rate of deficits and the change of a frailty index (FI) chronologically is helpful in clinical and research settings in the elderly. However, limited evidence for the change of frailty before and after some nonfatal adverse health event such as a major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) is available. Data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women 3-Year Hamilton cohort were used in this study. The changes of FI before and after onset of MOF were compared between the women with and without incident MOF. We also evaluated the relationship between risk of MOF, falls, and death and the change of FI and the absolute FI measures. There were 3985 women included in this study (mean age 69.4 years). The change of FI was significantly larger in the women with MOF than those without MOF at year 1 (0.085 versus 0.067, p = 0.036) and year 2 (0.080 versus 0.052, p = 0.042) post-baseline. The FI change was not significantly related with risk of MOF independently of age. However, the absolute FI measures were significantly associated with increased risk of MOF, falls, and death independently of age. In summary, the increase of the FI is significantly larger in the elderly women experiencing a MOF than their peer controls, indicating their worsening frailty and greater deficit accumulation after a MOF. Measures of the FI change may aid in the understanding of cumulative aging nature in the elderly and serve as an instrument for intervention planning and assessment. PMID:26547825
Kerigan, A.T.; Goldsmith, C.H.; Pengelly, L.D.
1986-06-01
The relative importance of the effect of outdoor environmental factors (suspended particulates, sulphur dioxide) and indoor environmental factors (parental smoking, gas cooking), on the respiratory health of children is still unclear. To answer these questions, a 3-yr cohort analytic study has been conducted in Hamilton, Ontario between 1978 and 1981. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and indoor environmental factors was determined by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Pulmonary function measures included both the forced expiratory maneuver and the single- and multiple-breath nitrogen washouts. Outdoor air quality was measured by a comprehensive network of suspended particulate and sulphur dioxide monitors. There were 3345 children 7 to 10 yr of age studied in the first year, a response rate of 95.4%, 3,727 in the second year, and 3168 in the third year; 75.6% of the initial cohort were studied in both Year 2 and Year 3. Comprehensive quality control in the study included measurement of the repeatability of both the questionnaire and pulmonary function data. Repeatability was acceptable except for variables derived from the single-breath nitrogen washout (correlation between initial and repeat closing volume vital capacity was 0.14). Cigarette smoking in Year 3 was reported in 4.8% of the children. The distribution of other covariables was not uniform, and the prevalence of parental smoking and gas cooking was greatest in the industrial area with the highest particulate pollution. Future analysis of these data will require the effect of these covariables to be distinguished from that caused by outdoor air pollution.
Kovach, Ryan P.; Luikart, Gordon; Lowe, Winsor H.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.
2016-01-01
Hamilton and Miller (2016) provide an interesting and provocative discussion of how hybridization and introgression can promote evolutionary potential in the face of climate change. They argue that hybridization—mating between individuals from genetically distinct populations—can alleviate inbreeding depression and promote adaptive introgression and evolutionary rescue. We agree that deliberate intraspecific hybridization (mating between individuals of the same species) is an underused management tool for increasing fitness in inbred populations (i.e., genetic rescue; Frankham 2015; Whiteley et al. 2015). The potential risks and benefits of assisted gene flow have been discussed in the literature, and an emerging consensus suggests that mating between populations isolated for approximately 50–100 generations can benefit fitness, often with a minor risk of outbreeding depression (Frankham et al. 2011; Aitken & Whitlock 2013; Allendorf et al. 2013).
High-Order Semi-Discrete Central-Upwind Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bran R. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We present high-order semi-discrete central-upwind numerical schemes for approximating solutions of multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. This scheme is based on the use of fifth-order central interpolants like those developed in [1], in fluxes presented in [3]. These interpolants use the weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) approach to avoid spurious oscillations near singularities, and become "central-upwind" in the semi-discrete limit. This scheme provides numerical approximations whose error is as much as an order of magnitude smaller than those in previous WENO-based fifth-order methods [2, 1]. Thee results are discussed via examples in one, two and three dimensions. We also pregnant explicit N-dimensional formulas for the fluxes, discuss their monotonicity and tl!e connection between this method and that in [2].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maoh, Hanna; Kanaroglou, Pavlos
2007-09-01
We present a microanalytical firm mobility model for the City of Hamilton, Canada, developed with data from the Statistics Canada Business Register. Contributing to the scarce literature on firm migration behavior, we explore and model the determinants of mobility among small and medium size firms who retained less than 200 employees between 1996 and 1997. Our exploratory results suggest that short distance moves are more common and tend to occur among smaller firms. Econometric modeling results support these assertions and indicate that the willingness to move can be explained by a firm’s internal characteristics (e.g. age, size, growth and industry type) as well as location factors related to the urban environment where the firm is located. The modeling results will serve as input for the development of an agent-based firmographic decision support system that can be used to inform the planning process in the study area.
2005-01-01
Noninvasive cardiac computed tomographic imaging using multislice or electron beam technology has been shown to be highly specific and sensitive in diagnosing coronary heart disease. It is about a fifth of the cost of coronary angiography and is particularly well suited for evaluating patients with a low or low to moderate probability of having obstructive coronary atherosclerosis. In addition, it offers more information than calcium scoring: because of the intravenous contrast used, it temporarily increases the density of the lumen and allows differentiation of soft plaque from calcified plaque. The Baylor Hamilton Heart and Vascular Hospital now uses this modality to define coronary atherosclerosis in patients who would otherwise have needed invasive coronary angiography; several research protocols with the technique are also under way. Baylor has recently upgraded to the 64-slice scanner. It is expected that computed tomographic coronary angiography will replace a significant percentage of invasive cardiac catheterizations. PMID:16200178
Bechtel, B.; Mayer, L. . Dept. of Geology)
1993-03-01
The movement of water through fill material and natural colluvium in a cut slope is being monitored at two sites with past landslide activity adjacent to I-275 in Hamilton County, Ohio. Quadrilaterals and an array of wooden stakes were placed immediately adjacent to the slide area to monitor movement of the slope at Site 1. To correlate any movement with soil moisture levels, rain gauges were installed. Changes in line-length measurements over a 3-month period are < 14 mm, and most differences average about 4 mm. Since measurement errors of up to 5--6 mm can be expected using a steel tape, more measurements over time will be needed to determine if significant displacement is occurring. Tensiometers were placed at 12 and 36 inches depth in the soil from mid-September through early November 1992, in order to measure matric suction. The 36 inch tensiometer indicated that the soil remained saturated at that depth. The 12 inch tensiometer measured 8 centibars, which occurred following a week of rain-free weather. Gravimetric measurements of soil samples show that surface soil moisture ranges from 14--39% immediately following a storm to 7--29% following at least 10 days of dry weather. At Site 2, quadrilaterals were set up in mid-August 1992; resurveys of the quadrilaterals shows very little, if any, movement. Movement of 38 mm occurred in one quadrilateral; movement in other quadrilaterals averaged close to 5 mm. The slide is not steadily moving, and may be following a pattern, where slides in Hamilton County were more likely to move in late winter or early spring.
Scott, John D; Anderson, John F; Durden, Lance A; Smith, Morgan L; Manord, Jodi M; Clark, Kerry L
2016-01-01
Lyme disease has emerged as a major health concern in Canada, where the etiological agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), a spirochetal bacterium, is typically spread by the bite of certain ticks. This study explores the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, collected at Dundas, Ontario (a locality within the region of Hamilton-Wentworth). Using passive surveillance, veterinarians and pet groomers were asked to collect blacklegged ticks from dogs and cats with no history of travel. Additionally, I. scapularis specimens were submitted from local residents and collected by flagging. Overall, 12 (41%) of 29 blacklegged ticks were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing, two borrelial amplicons were characterized as B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), a genospecies pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Notably, three different vertebrate hosts each had two engorged I. scapularis females removed on the same day and, likewise, one cat had three repeat occurrences of this tick species. These multiple infestations suggest that a population of I. scapularis may be established in this area. The local public health unit has been underreporting the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected I. scapularis in the area encompassing Dundas. Our findings raise concerns about the need to erect tick warning signs in parkland areas. Veterinarians, medical professionals, public health officials, and the general public must be vigilant that Lyme disease-carrying blacklegged ticks pose a public health risk in the Dundas area and the surrounding Hamilton-Wentworth region. PMID:27226771
Scott, John D.; Anderson, John F.; Durden, Lance A.; Smith, Morgan L.; Manord, Jodi M.; Clark, Kerry L.
2016-01-01
Lyme disease has emerged as a major health concern in Canada, where the etiological agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), a spirochetal bacterium, is typically spread by the bite of certain ticks. This study explores the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, collected at Dundas, Ontario (a locality within the region of Hamilton-Wentworth). Using passive surveillance, veterinarians and pet groomers were asked to collect blacklegged ticks from dogs and cats with no history of travel. Additionally, I. scapularis specimens were submitted from local residents and collected by flagging. Overall, 12 (41%) of 29 blacklegged ticks were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing, two borrelial amplicons were characterized as B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), a genospecies pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Notably, three different vertebrate hosts each had two engorged I. scapularis females removed on the same day and, likewise, one cat had three repeat occurrences of this tick species. These multiple infestations suggest that a population of I. scapularis may be established in this area. The local public health unit has been underreporting the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected I. scapularis in the area encompassing Dundas. Our findings raise concerns about the need to erect tick warning signs in parkland areas. Veterinarians, medical professionals, public health officials, and the general public must be vigilant that Lyme disease-carrying blacklegged ticks pose a public health risk in the Dundas area and the surrounding Hamilton-Wentworth region. PMID:27226771
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molnár, Orsolya; Bajer, Katalin; Mészáros, Boglárka; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor
2013-06-01
During female mate choice, conspicuous male sexual signals are used to infer male quality and choose the best sire for the offspring. The theory of parasite-mediated sexual selection (Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis) presumes that parasite infection can influence the elaboration of sexual signals: resistant individuals can invest more energy into signal expression and thus advertise their individual quality through signal intensity. By preferring these males, females can provide resistance genes for their offspring. Previous research showed that nuptial throat colour of male European green lizard, Lacerta viridis, plays a role in both inter- and intrasexual selections as a condition-dependent multiple signalling system. The aim of this study was to test the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis on male European green lizards. By blood sampling 30 adult males during the reproductive season, we found members of the Haemogregarinidae family in all but one individual (prevalence = 96 %). The infection intensity showed strong negative correlation with the throat and belly colour brightness in line with the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. In addition, we found other correlations between infection intensity and other fitness-related traits, suggesting that parasite load has a remarkable effect on individual fitness. This study shows that throat patch colour of the European green lizards not only is a multiple signalling system but also possibly acts as an honest sexual signal of health state in accordance with the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis.
Swenson, Sarah A
2015-12-01
W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness saw the evolution of altruism from the point of view of the gene. It was at heart a theory of limits, redefining altruistic behaviours as ultimately selfish. This theory inspired two controversial texts published almost in tandem, E.O. Wilson's Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975) and Richard Dawkins's The Selfish Gene (1976). When Wilson and Dawkins were attacked for their evolutionary interpretations of human societies, they claimed a distinction between reporting what is and declaring what ought to be. Can the history of sociobiological theories be so easily separated from its sociopolitical context? This paper draws upon unpublished materials from the 1960s and early 1970s and documents some of the ways in which Hamilton saw his research as contributing to contemporary concerns. It pays special attention to the 1969 Man and Beast Smithsonian Institution symposium in order to explore the extent to which Hamilton intended his theory to be merely descriptive versus prescriptive. From this, we may see that Hamilton was deeply concerned about the political chaos he perceived in the world around him, and hoped to arrive at a level of self-understanding through science that could inform a new social order. PMID:26530161
Molnár, Orsolya; Bajer, Katalin; Mészáros, Boglárka; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor
2013-06-01
During female mate choice, conspicuous male sexual signals are used to infer male quality and choose the best sire for the offspring. The theory of parasite-mediated sexual selection (Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis) presumes that parasite infection can influence the elaboration of sexual signals: resistant individuals can invest more energy into signal expression and thus advertise their individual quality through signal intensity. By preferring these males, females can provide resistance genes for their offspring. Previous research showed that nuptial throat colour of male European green lizard, Lacerta viridis, plays a role in both inter- and intrasexual selections as a condition-dependent multiple signalling system. The aim of this study was to test the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis on male European green lizards. By blood sampling 30 adult males during the reproductive season, we found members of the Haemogregarinidae family in all but one individual (prevalence = 96%). The infection intensity showed strong negative correlation with the throat and belly colour brightness in line with the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. In addition, we found other correlations between infection intensity and other fitness-related traits, suggesting that parasite load has a remarkable effect on individual fitness. This study shows that throat patch colour of the European green lizards not only is a multiple signalling system but also possibly acts as an honest sexual signal of health state in accordance with the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. PMID:23644520
1996-12-01
This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 5 of the FEMP site in Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Operable Unit 5 consists of impacted environmental media including groundwater in the underlying Great Miami Aquifer, perched groundwater, surface water, soil, sediment, flora, and fauna.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Torres, Judith A.; And Others
Project ELITES provides bilingual education to 307 Spanish-speaking, Arabic-speaking, and Greek-speaking students at Fort Hamilton High School, Brooklyn, New York. Project ELITES's philosophy is to mainstream students after two years of participation. The program's individualized approach is obtained through a 3-tiered instructional format:…
Grover, Patrick J; Jayaram, Raja; Madder, Hilary
2010-12-01
We describe a case of cerebral venous thrombosis presenting in a patient with Lane-Hamilton syndrome and coeliac disease epilepsy cerebral calcification syndrome. This is a first reported occurrence of this combination. Delayed anticoagulation with early external ventricular drain insertion for life-threatening raised intracranial pressure resulted in a successful outcome. PMID:21070152
Yauk, C.L.; Quinn, J.S.
1995-12-31
The authors used multi-locus DNA fingerprinting to examine families of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from a genotoxically contaminated site (Hamilton Harbour) and from a pristine location (Kent Island, Bay of Fundy) to show significant differences in mutation rates between the locations. Overall the authors identified 17 mutant bands from 15 individuals of the 35 examined from Hamilton Harbour, and 7 mutant fragments from 7 individuals, of the 43 examined from Kent Island; a mutation frequency of 0.429 per nestling for Hamilton Harbour and 0.163 for Kent Island. The total number of individuals with mutant bands was significantly higher at Hamilton Harbour than at Kent Island (X{sup 2}=6.734; df = 1; P < 0.01). Ongoing analysis of other less contaminated sites also reveals lower mutation rates than those seen in Hamilton Harbour. With multi-locus DNA fingerprinting many regions of the genome can be surveyed simultaneously. The tandemly repeated arrays of nucleotides examined with DNA fingerprinting are known to have elevated rates of mutation. Furthermore, the mutations seen with DNA fingerprinting are predominantly heritable. Other biomarkers currently used in situ are not able to monitor direct and heritable DNA mutation, or measure biological endpoints that frequently result in spontaneous abortion creating difficulty in observing significantly elevated levels in viable offspring. The authors suggest that multilocus DNA fingerprinting can be used as a biomarker to identify potentially heritable risks before the onset of other types of ecological damage. This approach provides a direct measure of mutation in situ and in vivo in a vertebrate species under ambient conditions.
Hawking radiation of Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole by Hamilton-Jacobi method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, M. Atiqur; Hossain, M. Ilias
2012-05-01
We investigate the Hawking radiation of Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) black hole by massive particles tunneling method. We consider the spacetime background to be dynamical, incorporate the self-gravitation effect of the emitted particles and show that the tunneling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum when energy and angular momentum are conserved. Our result is also in accordance with Parikh and Wilczek's opinion and gives a correction to the Hawking radiation of SdS black hole.
Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Sah, Rama S; Kumar, Rajesh; Jena, J K
2016-09-01
We characterized mitochondrial ATP synthase (ATPase) 6 and 8 genes in Labeo calbasu (Hamilton, 1822) and determined genetic variation in wild populations across the natural distribution in Indian rivers. A total of 206 individuals were sampled from 11 riverine sites belonging to distinct geographical locations covering five major river basins. Sequencing of 842 base pairs of ATPase 6/8 revealed 21 haplotypes with haplotype diversity ranging from 0.1250 (River Satluj) to 0.8846 (River Bhagirathi). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data revealed significant genetic differentiation among sites (FST = 0.192, p < 0.0001) which was indicative of moderate level of genetic structuring in the wild L. calbasu populations. The patterns of genetic divergence and haplotype network of mtDNA revealed distinct clades present in Indian rivers. The analysis of data demonstrated the potential of ATPase 6/8 genes in determining the genetic diversity and indicated considerable sub-structuring in wild calbasu populations present in different rivers. PMID:25630739
Cussen, Victoria A; Mench, Joy A
2014-07-01
Psittacines are generally considered to possess cognitive abilities comparable to those of primates. Most psittacine research has evaluated performance on standardized complex cognition tasks, but studies of basic cognitive processes are limited. We tested orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica) on a spatial foraging assessment, the Hamilton search task. This task is a standardized test used in human and non-human primate studies. It has multiple phases, which require trial and error learning, learning set breaking, and spatial memory. We investigated search strategies used to complete the task, cognitive flexibility, and long-term memory for the task. We also assessed the effects of individual strength of motor lateralization (foot preference) and sex on task performance. Almost all (92%) of the parrots acquired the task. All had significant foot preferences, with 69% preferring their left foot, and showed side preferences contralateral to their preferred limb during location selection. The parrots were able to alter their search strategies when reward contingencies changed, demonstrating cognitive flexibility. They were also able to remember the task over a 6-month period. Lateralization had a significant influence on learning set acquisition but no effect on cognitive flexibility. There were no sex differences. To our knowledge, this is the first cognitive study using this particular species and one of the few studies of cognitive abilities in any Neotropical parrot species. PMID:24370681
Saraswat, Darpan; Lakra, W S; Nautiyal, Prakash; Goswami, Mukunda; Shyamakant, Komal; Malakar, Abhishekh
2014-02-01
Clupisoma garua (Hamilton, 1822) is a commercially important freshwater fish and a potential candidate species for aquaculture. This study investigates the genetic diversity and population structure of six Indian populations of C. garua using cytochrome b (cyt b) sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We sequenced cyt b gene of 64 individuals collected from five distant rivers: Ganga, Gomti, Betwa, Gandak and Brahmaputra. Sequencing of 1054 bp cyt b mtDNA fragment revealed the presence of 19 haplotypes with a haplotype diversity value of 1.000 and a nucleotide diversity value of 0.0258 ± 0.00164. The Gandak river fish population showed highest nucleotide diversity. The fixation index analysis indicated significant genetic divergence among populations from different geographical areas. Both the neighbor-joining tree and median-joining network analysis of the haplotype data showed distinct patterns of phylo-geographic structure. The hierarchical analysis of molecular variance revealed that intra-group variation among populations was highly significant. The results of this study suggest that C. garua populations, especially geographically isolated groups, have developed significant genetic structures within the population. In addition, tests of neutrality suggest that C. garua may have experienced a population expansion. The study results establish cyt b as polymorphic and a potential marker to determine the population structure of C. garua. Information of genetic variation and population structure generated from this study would be useful for planning effective strategies for the conservation and rehabilitation of Schilibid cat fishes. PMID:23676141
Chen, Zheng; Jagannathan, Sarangapani
2008-01-01
In this paper, we consider the use of nonlinear networks towards obtaining nearly optimal solutions to the control of nonlinear discrete-time (DT) systems. The method is based on least squares successive approximation solution of the generalized Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (GHJB) equation which appears in optimization problems. Successive approximation using the GHJB has not been applied for nonlinear DT systems. The proposed recursive method solves the GHJB equation in DT on a well-defined region of attraction. The definition of GHJB, pre-Hamiltonian function, HJB equation, and method of updating the control function for the affine nonlinear DT systems under small perturbation assumption are proposed. A neural network (NN) is used to approximate the GHJB solution. It is shown that the result is a closed-loop control based on an NN that has been tuned a priori in offline mode. Numerical examples show that, for the linear DT system, the updated control laws will converge to the optimal control, and for nonlinear DT systems, the updated control laws will converge to the suboptimal control. PMID:18269941
Blodgett, J.C.; Harris, Carroll D.
1993-01-01
A study of the State Route 32 crossing of the Sacramento River near Hamilton City, California, is being made to determine those channel and bridge factors that contribute to scour at the site. Three types of scour data have been measured-channel bed (natural) scour, constriction (general) scour, and local (bridge-pier induced) scour. During the years 1979-93, a maximum of 3.4 ft of channel bed scour, with a mean of 1.4 ft, has been measured. Constriction scour, which may include channel bed scour, has been measured at the site nine times during the years 1987-92. The calculated amount of constriction scour ranged from 0.2 to 3.0 ft, assuming the reference is the mean bed elevation. Local scour was measured four times at the site in 1991 and 1992 and ranged from -2.1 (fill) to 11.6 ft , with the calculated amounts dependent on the bed reference elevation and method of computation used. Surveys of the channel bed near the bridge piers indicate the horizontal location of lowest bed elevation (maximum depth of scour) may vary at least 17 ft between different surveys at the same pier and most frequently is located downstream from the upstream face of the pier.
Dewi, Kartika; Palm, Harry W
2013-01-01
Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, two new species of philometrid nematodes, Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. and Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) are described from Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia. Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. was isolated from the fins of E. coioides. The new species can be distinguished from the most closely related S. eichleri Parukhin, 1971 by a larger total body length and the site of infection in the host. The new species differs from S. centropomi (Caballero, 1974) also in the larger body size of the gravid females and the site of infection in the host. S. en-dangae sp. nov. differs from S. pacifica (Moravec, Santana-Pineros, Gonzales-Solis & Torres-Huerta, 2007) in the struc-ture and arrangement of the spines on the middle part of the body, the infection site of the worm, the type host and the zoogeographical host distribution. Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. differs from all other Philometra spp. congeners so far recorded from Ephinepelus groupers in the total body length and the site of infection. This is the first opercula-infecting species of Philometra described from the fish family Serranidae. PMID:24699571
Mondal, Debashri; Barat, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, M K
2007-01-01
Static renewal bioassay tests were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of two neem based biopesticides, applied widely on tea plantation namely, Nimbecidine and Neem Gold either separately as well as, in combination to the fingerlings (mean body length- 4.46 +/- 0.15 cm; mean body weight- 0.49 +/- 0.15g) of a fresh water loach, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Hamilton Buchanan) acclimatized to laboratory conditions prior to experiment. The 96 hours LC50 values for Nimbecidine and Neem Gold and the combination of the two were 0.0135 mgl(-1), 0.0525mgl(-1) and 0.0396 mgl(-1), respectively. The regular water quality analysis showed, that with increasing doses of biopesticides, dissolved oxygen level was lower and other parameters like pH, free carbon dioxide, total alkalinity total hardness, chloride ions of water increased. The fish under toxicity stress suffered several abnormalities such as erratic and rapid movement, body imbalance and surface floating responding proportionately to the increase in concentrations of the toxicant biopesticides. The 96 hours LC50 values proved Nimbecidine more toxic than Neem Gold and the combination of the two biopesticides. PMID:17717997
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, D. L.; Chan, F. K.
1973-01-01
For a time-dependent, n-dimensional, special diagonal Hamilton-Jacobi equation a necessary and sufficient condition for the separation of variables to yield a complete integral of the form was established by specifying the admissible forms in terms of arbitrary functions. A complete integral was then expressed in terms of these arbitrary functions and also the n irreducible constants. As an application of the results obtained for the two-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equation, analysis was made for a comparatively wide class of dynamical problems involving a particle moving in Euclidean three-dimensional space under the action of external forces but constrained on a moving surface. All the possible cases in which this equation had a complete integral of the form were obtained and these are tubulated for reference.
Fu, Dong-Jing; Bossie, Cynthia A.; Alphs, Larry
2015-01-01
Background: This analysis evaluates improvement in symptoms of depression in patients with schizoaffective disorder administered oral paliperidone extended-release by accounting for the magnitude of direct and indirect (changes in negative and positive symptoms and worsening of extrapyramidal symptoms) treatment effects on depressive symptoms. Methods: Data for this post hoc analysis were drawn from two six-week, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of paliperidone extended-release versus placebo in adult subjects with schizoaffective disorder (N=614; NCT00412373, NCT00397033). Subjects with baseline 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores of 16 or greater were included. Structural equation models (path analyses) were used to separate total effects into direct and indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Change from baseline in 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score at the Week 6 end point was the dependent variable; changes in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive and negative factors and Simpson-Angus Scale (to evaluate extrapyramidal symptoms) scores were independent variables. Results: At baseline, 332 of 614 (54.1%) subjects had a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score of 16 or greater. Path analysis determined that up to 26.4 percent of the paliperidone extended-release versus placebo effect on depressive symptoms may be attributed to a direct treatment effect, and 45.8 percent and 28.4 percent were mediated indirectly through improvements on positive and negative symptoms, respectively. No effects were identified as mediated through extrapyramidal symptoms changes (-0.7%). Conclusion: Results of this analysis suggest that paliperidone’s effect on depressive symptoms in subjects with schizoaffective disorder participating in two six-week, randomized, placebo-controlled studies is mediated through indirect effects (e.g., positive and negative symptom changes) and a direct treatment effect. PMID:27222760
Chaturvedi, Anshumala; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Bhaskar, Ranjana; Mandal, Anup; Narain, Lalit; Lakra, W S
2011-06-01
We examined population structure of Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) from different riverine locations in India using 10 polymorphic allozyme and eight microsatellite loci. For analysis, 591 different tissue samples were obtained from commercial catches covering a wide geographic range. Allozyme variability (An = 1.28-1.43, Ho = 0.029-0.071) was much lower than for microsatellites (An = 4.625-6.125, Ho = 0.538-0.633). Existence of rare alleles was found at three allozyme (MDH-2, GPI and PGDH) and at two microsatellite loci (R-3 and MFW-15). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05, after the critical probability levels were adjusted for sequential Bonferroni adjustment) could be detected at three loci (EST-1, -2 and XDH) whereas, after correction for null alleles, two microsatellite loci (MFW-1,-15) deviated from HWE in the river Yamuna. Fst for all the samples combined over all allozyme loci was found to be 0.059 suggesting that 5.9% of the total variation was due to genetic differentiation while microsatellite analysis yielded 0.019 which was concordant to mean Rst (0.02). Hierarchical partition of genetic diversity (AMOVA) showed that greater variability (approx. 95%) was due to within population component than between geographical regions. Based on distribution of genetic differentiation detected by both markers, at least five different genetic stocks of L. dero across its natural distribution could be identified. These results are useful for the evaluation and conservation of L. dero in natural water bodies. PMID:21132388
Implicit trustworthiness ratings of self-resembling faces activate brain centers involved in reward.
Platek, Steven M; Krill, Austen L; Wilson, Benjamin
2009-01-01
On the basis of Hamilton's (Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behavior I, II. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 17-52) theory of inclusive fitness, self-facial resemblance is hypothesized as a mechanism for self-referent phenotypic matching by which humans can detect kin. To understand the mechanisms underlying pro-sociality toward self-resembling faces, we investigated the neural correlates of implicit trustworthiness ratings for self-resembling faces. Here we show that idiosyncratic trustworthiness ratings of self-resembling faces predict brain activation in the ventral inferior, middle and medial frontal gyri, substrates involved in reward processing. These findings demonstrate that neural reward centers are implicated in evaluating implicit pro-social behaviors toward self-resembling faces. These findings suggest that humans have evolved to use neurocomputational architecture dedicated to face processing and reward evaluation for the differentiation of kin, which drives implicit idiosyncratic affectively regulated social interactions. PMID:18761362
Hamilton Way Community Prototype
2009-02-20
This case study describes an energy efficient showcase community in the Hartford, Connecicut, area, aiming for a minimum 40% source energy savings focusing on the thermal enclosure and air tightness of the homes.
Roy, Payel; Manohar, Shivananda; Raman, Rajesh; Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Darshan, M. S.
2015-01-01
Background: Women's sexual dysfunction is found to be highly prevalent in western and Indian literature. Limited studies are available on drug naive depression in western literature and in Indian population. Aim: To determine the prevalence rate and symptom profile of female sexual dysfunctions in patients with untreated depression. Design: A cross-sectional study in the psychiatry out-patient department of general hospital in South India. Materials and Methods: Following written informed consent female sexual functioning index (FSFI) and Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) – female version and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD - 17 item) on 30 cases and 30 controls was administered. Sociodemographic data, pattern and type of sexual dysfunctions were enquired. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, contingency co-efficient analysis and stepwise multiple regression. Results: The mean score of HAMD 17 item in study group was 19.13. The study showed that female sexual dysfunction was 70.3% in study group compared to 43.3% in control FSFI scores above 16 in HAMD had dysfunction of 76% with FSFI in study group. With ASEX-F sexual dysfunction was 73.3% in study compared to 20% in control. Scores above 16 in HAMD had 80% of sexual dysfunction with ASEX-F in study group. Conclusion: The study found that ASEX-F co-related better with HAMD 17 item. Following the onset of depression, the incidence of sexual dysfunction started at an early age in women. PMID:26600576
A comparison of the performance of rating scales used in the diagnosis of postnatal depression.
Thompson, W M; Harris, B; Lazarus, J; Richards, C
1998-09-01
The results of a study looking into the association between thyroid status and depression in the postpartum period were reanalysed to explore the psychometric properties of the rating scales employed. The performance of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was found to be superior to that of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in identifying RDC-defined depression, and on a par with the observer-rated Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, which it also matched for sensitivity to change in mood state over time. The anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale performed well, reflecting the fact that anxiety represents a prominent symptom in postnatal depression. PMID:9761410
de Solla, S R; De Silva, A O; Letcher, R J
2012-02-01
Per- and poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs), which include perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) and sulfonates (PFSAs) and various precursors, are used in a wide variety of industrial, commercial and domestic products. This includes aqueous film forming foam (AFFF), which is used by military and commercial airports as fire suppressants. In a preliminary assessment prior to this study, very high concentrations (>1 ppm wet weight) of the PFSA, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), were discovered in the plasma of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) collected in 2008 from Lake Niapenco in southern Ontario, Canada. We presently report on a suite of C(6) to C(15) PFCAs, C(4), C(6), C(8) and C(10) PFSAs, several PFC precursors (e.g. perfluorooctane sulfonamide, PFOSA), and a cyclic perfluorinated acid used in aircraft hydraulic fluid, perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS) in surface water from the Welland River and Lake Niapenco, downstream of the John C. Munro International Airport, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Amphipods, shrimp, and water were sampled from the Welland River and Lake Niapenco, as well as local references. The same suite of PFCs in turtle plasma from Lake Niapenco was compared to those from other southern Ontario sites. PFOS dominated the sum PFCs in all substrates (e.g., >99% in plasma of turtles downstream the Hamilton Airport, and 72.1 to 94.1% at all other sites). PFOS averaged 2223(±247.1SE) ng/g in turtle plasma from Lake Niapenco, and ranged from 9.0 to 171.4 elsewhere. Mean PFOS in amphipods and in water were 518.1(±83.8)ng/g and 130.3(±43.6) ng/L downstream of the airport, and 19.1(±2.7) ng/g and 6.8(±0.5) ng/L at reference sites, respectively. Concentrations of selected PFCs declined with distance downstream from the airport. Although there was no known spill event or publicly reported use of AFFF associated with a fire event at the Hamilton airport, the airport is a likely major source of PFC contamination in the Welland River. PMID
Smith, Christopher A; Wright, David; Day, Shawn
2007-06-01
The institutional confinement of the 'insane' in the nineteenth century constitutes one of the most controversial events in the social history of medicine. Within this scholarship there has emerged an important debate over the spatial determinants of institutionalization. Some studies uphold an historical postulate--Jarvis's Law--that contends there was a 'distance decay' effect in mental hospital utilization--that is, an inverse correlation between the distance from a medical institution and the likelihood of people to use its resources. Other scholars have challenged or modified this thesis, arguing that factors such as the local politics, urban living, or socio-economic status were more important determinants of institutional confinement. This article contributes to this ongoing debate by analysing over 4000 admissions to the Ontario Provincial Asylum in the city of Hamilton, Canada, between 1876 and 1902. The results confirm Jarvis' Law was applicable to the Hamilton context: there was an inverse statistical relationship between physical distance from the asylum and the likelihood of admission. However, this paper yields three additional dimensions to the literature: (1) it demonstrates that jails were much more likely to be utilized as temporary places of confinement for communities far from provincial mental hospitals; (2) the length of stay in the asylum was positively correlated with the distance travelled to the institution; and (3) an inverse relationship was found when correlating distance from the asylum and the likelihood of being readmitted to the same institution. These findings suggest an impact of 'distance' beyond the dimension of hospital utilization and imply that the broader asylum experience could be affected by the previous location of patients. PMID:17400353
Effects of levomilnacipran ER on fatigue symptoms associated with major depressive disorder.
Freeman, Marlene P; Fava, Maurizio; Gommoll, Carl; Chen, Changzheng; Greenberg, William M; Ruth, Adam
2016-03-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) on depression-related fatigue in adults with major depressive disorder. Post-hoc analyses of five phase III trials were carried out, with evaluation of fatigue symptoms based on score changes in four items: Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) item 7 (lassitude), and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) items 7 (work/activities), 8 (retardation), and 13 (somatic symptoms). Symptom remission was analyzed on the basis of score shifts from baseline to end of treatment: MADRS item 7 and HAMD17 item 7 (from ≥2 to ≤1); HAMD17 items 8 and 13 (from ≥1 to 0). The mean change in MADRS total score was analyzed in patients with low and high fatigue (MADRS item 7 baseline score <4 and ≥4, respectively). Patients receiving levomilnacipran ER had significantly greater mean improvements and symptom remission (no/minimal residual fatigue) on all fatigue-related items: lassitude (35 vs. 28%), work/activities (43 vs. 35%), retardation (46 vs. 39%), somatic symptoms (26 vs. 18%; all Ps<0.01 versus placebo). The mean change in MADRS total score was significantly greater with levomilnacipran ER versus placebo in both low (least squares mean difference=-2.8, P=0.0018) and high (least squares mean difference=-3.1, P<0.0001) fatigue subgroups. Levomilnacipran ER treatment was effective in reducing depression-related fatigue in adult patients with major depressive disorder and was associated with remission of fatigue symptoms. PMID:26584326
Effects of levomilnacipran ER on fatigue symptoms associated with major depressive disorder
Fava, Maurizio; Gommoll, Carl; Chen, Changzheng; Greenberg, William M.; Ruth, Adam
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) on depression-related fatigue in adults with major depressive disorder. Post-hoc analyses of five phase III trials were carried out, with evaluation of fatigue symptoms based on score changes in four items: Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) item 7 (lassitude), and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) items 7 (work/activities), 8 (retardation), and 13 (somatic symptoms). Symptom remission was analyzed on the basis of score shifts from baseline to end of treatment: MADRS item 7 and HAMD17 item 7 (from ≥2 to ≤1); HAMD17 items 8 and 13 (from ≥1 to 0). The mean change in MADRS total score was analyzed in patients with low and high fatigue (MADRS item 7 baseline score <4 and ≥4, respectively). Patients receiving levomilnacipran ER had significantly greater mean improvements and symptom remission (no/minimal residual fatigue) on all fatigue-related items: lassitude (35 vs. 28%), work/activities (43 vs. 35%), retardation (46 vs. 39%), somatic symptoms (26 vs. 18%; all Ps<0.01 versus placebo). The mean change in MADRS total score was significantly greater with levomilnacipran ER versus placebo in both low (least squares mean difference=−2.8, P=0.0018) and high (least squares mean difference=−3.1, P<0.0001) fatigue subgroups. Levomilnacipran ER treatment was effective in reducing depression-related fatigue in adult patients with major depressive disorder and was associated with remission of fatigue symptoms. PMID:26584326
Mehraeen, Shahab; Jagannathan, Sarangapani
2011-11-01
In this paper, the direct neural dynamic programming technique is utilized to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation forward-in-time for the decentralized near optimal regulation of a class of nonlinear interconnected discrete-time systems with unknown internal subsystem and interconnection dynamics, while the input gain matrix is considered known. Even though the unknown interconnection terms are considered weak and functions of the entire state vector, the decentralized control is attempted under the assumption that only the local state vector is measurable. The decentralized nearly optimal controller design for each subsystem consists of two neural networks (NNs), an action NN that is aimed to provide a nearly optimal control signal, and a critic NN which evaluates the performance of the overall system. All NN parameters are tuned online for both the NNs. By using Lyapunov techniques it is shown that all subsystems signals are uniformly ultimately bounded and that the synthesized subsystems inputs approach their corresponding nearly optimal control inputs with bounded error. Simulation results are included to show the effectiveness of the approach. PMID:21965197
Jerrett, M; Burnett, R; Brook, J; Kanaroglou, P; Giovis, C; Finkelstein, N; Hutchison, B
2004-01-01
Study objective: To assess the short term association between air pollution and mortality in different zones of an industrial city. An intra-urban study design is used to test the hypothesis that socioeconomic characteristics modify the acute health effects of ambient air pollution exposure. Design: The City of Hamilton, Canada, was divided into five zones based on proximity to fixed site air pollution monitors. Within each zone, daily counts of non-trauma mortality and air pollution estimates were combined. Generalised linear models (GLMs) were used to test mortality associations with sulphur dioxide (SO2) and with particulate air pollution measured by the coefficient of haze (CoH). Main results: Increased mortality was associated with air pollution exposure in a citywide model and in intra-urban zones with lower socioeconomic characteristics. Low educational attainment and high manufacturing employment in the zones significantly and positively modified the acute mortality effects of air pollution exposure. Discussion: Three possible explanations are proposed for the observed effect modification by education and manufacturing: (1) those in manufacturing receive higher workplace exposures that combine with ambient exposures to produce larger health effects; (2) persons with lower education are less mobile and experience less exposure measurement error, which reduces bias toward the null; or (3) manufacturing and education proxy for many social variables representing material deprivation, and poor material conditions increase susceptibility to health risks from air pollution. PMID:14684724
LeGalley, Erin; Krekeler, Mark P S
2013-05-01
The Hamilton Municipal Electric Plant is a 125 MW coal-fired power plant, owned and operated by the City of Hamilton in Butler County, Ohio. The plant is located within 110 m of 50 homes. Bulk chemical investigation of street sediment near these homes indicates average concentrations of 25 ppm Cr, 40 ppm Cu, 15 ppm Ni, 215 ppm Pb, and 500 ppm Zn. Lead and Zn have maximum concentrations of 1207 ppm and 1512 ppm, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy indicates coal ash spherules are present in the street sediment as well as a variety of Pb, Ni, Cr, W, and BaSO4 particulates. Transmission electron microscopy indicates heavy metals are sorbed onto clay particles with some preference for illite over chlorite. This investigation shows bulk chemistry and electron microscopy approaches are very effective tools to investigate particulate pollutants and identify contexts in complex urban settings involving coal pollution. PMID:23395990
Webster, D.A.; Carmichael, J.K.
1993-01-01
An investigation of the ground-water-flow system that supplies Carson Spring and the surrounding lower Wolftever Creek basin northeast of Chattanooga, Tennessee, was conducted from September 1986 through December 1989. About two-thirds of the lower basin is underlain by the Chepultepec Dolomite of Ordovician age. Test drilling within a few miles of the spring showed that numerous solution cavities have developed in this formation; many are partly or completely plugged with cherty gravels and mud. In the recharge area to the spring, the formation can provide yields of 100 to perhaps 600 gallons of water per minute to bedrock wells. A well that penetrated a well-integrated cavity system underlying Carson Spring was tested at 2,000 gallons per minute. From May 1987 through December 1989, mean daily withdrawals from four wells at Carson Spring ranged from 4.78 to 5.83 cubic feet per second; mean daily spring discharge, which includes withdrawals, ranged from 5.53 to 5.79 cubic feet per second. For a 16-month drought period during 1987 and 1988, withdrawals from these wells exceeded natural spring discharge, and demonstrates that for a period of many consecutive months, the aquifer supplying the spring is capable of yielding more water than the spring would have discharged under natural conditions. Although the lower basin encompasses 17 square miles, the Carson Spring recharge area probably is not greater than 9 square miles. Most water not captured by cavities supplying the spring is discharged to Wolftever Creek. In the lower basin, the rate of ground-water discharge to the creek is about twice the average rate of discharge (0.25 cubic foot per second per square mile of drainage area) to area streams. Principal constituents in ground water in the lower basin are calcium and bicarbonate, or calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate. Specific conductance commonly ranges from 100 to 700 microsiemens per centimeter, and pH usually ranges from about 7 to 8. Overall, the ground
Champasri, T; Rapley, R; Duangjinda, M; Suksri, A
2008-02-15
The experiment was carried out during the 2003 to 2006 at the Department of Fisheries, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand in collaboration with the Department of Biosciences, the University of Hertfordshire, College Land, Hatfield, Herts, UK. Molecular RAPD technique was used for the determinations of DNA patterns of the fish genus Puntius Hamilton 1822. The fish samples of 1,500 individual fish were collected from fifteen wetlands in Northeast Thailand and they were used for DNA extraction. Before the experiment was carried out the fish samples were morphologically identified and it was found that the collected fish consisted of 9 species i.e., Puntius altus, P. aurotaeniatus, P. binotatus, P. gonionotus, (e) P. leiacanthus, P. orphoides, P. partipentazona, P. schwanenfeldi and P. wetmorei. Genomic DNAs were extracted from 5 mg of muscle tissues (skeleton muscles) with the use of PUREGENE DNA Isolation Kit for Laboratory Use, Gentra Systems, USA. Eighty decamer primers from four kits were subjected to a preliminary test. It was found that only 10 decamer primers were most suited for this PCR amplification. The results showed that genetic distant values being established among and between pairs of the fishes of the 9 fish species ranged from 0.191 to 0.456 for a pair between Puntius gonionotus and Puntius altus and a pair between Puntius schwanenfeldi and Puntius leiacanthus, respectively. Similarity coefficient values within the 9 fish species ranged from 0.109 to 0.231. The results on a Dendrogram of clusters showed that there were 5 minor groups of the 9 fish species but the 9 species could not be split or shifted into other genera of the fish due to small differences found within the values of similarity coefficients. PMID:18817121
Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Mahon, Chris G; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric; Drouillard, Ken
2014-06-01
A recent study reported elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water, snapping turtles, and amphipods in Lake Niapenco, downstream of Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada. Here, our goals were to 1) determine the extent of PFAA contamination in sport fish species collected downstream of the airport, 2) explore if the airport could be a potential source, and 3) compare fish PFOS concentrations to consumption advisory benchmarks. The PFOS levels in several sport fish collected from the three locations closest to the airport (<40km) were among the highest previously published in the peer-reviewed literature and also tended to exceed consumption benchmarks. The only other fish that had comparable concentrations were collected in a region affected by inputs from a major fluorinated chemical production facility. In contrast, PFOS concentrations in the two most downstream locations (>70km) were comparable to or below the average concentrations in fish as observed in the literature and were generally below the benchmarks. With regards to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), there was no significant decrease in concentrations in fish with distance from the airport and levels were comparable to or below the average concentrations observed in the literature, suggesting that the airport is not a significant source of PFCAs in these fish species. PFOS-based aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) was used at a firefighting training facility at the airport in the 1980s to mid-1990s. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the airport has resulted in fish PFOS concentrations that exceed the 95th percentile concentration of values reported in the literature to date. PMID:24632327
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butko, Yana A.; Grothaus, Martin; Smolyanov, Oleg G.
2016-02-01
Evolution semigroups generated by pseudo-differential operators are considered. These operators are obtained by different (parameterized by a number τ) procedures of quantization from a certain class of functions (or symbols) defined on the phase space. This class contains Hamilton functions of particles with variable mass in magnetic and potential fields and more general symbols given by the Lévy-Khintchine formula. The considered semigroups are represented as limits of n-fold iterated integrals when n tends to infinity. Such representations are called Feynman formulae. Some of these representations are constructed with the help of another pseudo-differential operator, obtained by the same procedure of quantization; such representations are called Hamiltonian Feynman formulae. Some representations are based on integral operators with elementary kernels; these are called Lagrangian Feynman formulae. Langrangian Feynman formulae provide approximations of evolution semigroups, suitable for direct computations and numerical modeling of the corresponding dynamics. Hamiltonian Feynman formulae allow to represent the considered semigroups by means of Feynman path integrals. In the article, a family of phase space Feynman pseudomeasures corresponding to different procedures of quantization is introduced. The considered evolution semigroups are represented as phase space Feynman path integrals with respect to these Feynman pseudomeasures, i.e., different quantizations correspond to Feynman path integrals with the same integrand but with respect to different pseudomeasures. This answers Berezin's problem of distinguishing a procedure of quantization on the language of Feynman path integrals. Moreover, the obtained Lagrangian Feynman formulae allow also to calculate these phase space Feynman path integrals and to connect them with some functional integrals with respect to probability measures.
Knight, J D Marcus; Rai, Ashwin; D'souza, Ronald K P
2013-01-01
The identity and generic placement of Barbus mussullah Sykes, the type species of Hypselobarbus Bleeker, have for long been unclear, variously having been considered a synonym of Cyprinus curmuca Hamilton or a species of Tor Gray or Gonoproktopterus Bleeker. Here, through a re-examination of the original descriptions and the examination of specimens from western peninsular India, we redescribe H. mussullah and show that Hypselobarbus is a valid genus, of which Gonoproktopertus is a junior synonym. Hypselobarbus mussullah is distinguished from all other species of Hypselobarbus by possessing both rostral and maxillary barbels; having the last simple dorsal-fin ray weak and smooth; the lateral line complete, with 41 +1 pored scales; 9/1/4 scales in transverse line between origins of dorsal and pelvic fins; and 5½ scales between lateral line and anal-fin origin. Species of Hypselobarbus are distinguished from other genera of Cyprinidae by possessing long, branched gill rakers and the anal fin distally rounded in adults. Hypselobarbus canarensis was found to be a valid species and H. kurali is considered its synonym. Hypselobarbus canarensis can be distinguished from all congeners by possessing both rostral and maxillary barbels; having the last simple dorsal-fin ray weak and smooth; the lateral line complete, with 40-42+1 pored scales; ½7-½8/1/3½ scales in transverse line from dorsal-fin origin to pelvic-fin origin; 4½ scales between lateral line and anal-fin origin. Hypselobarbus kolus is considered a synonym of H. curmuca, which is redescribed: it is distinguished from all congeners by possessing maxillary barbels only; the last simple dorsal-fin ray weak and smooth; 41-43+1 lateral-line scales; 9-10/1/4½-5 scales in transverse line between origins of dorsal and pelvic fins; and 5½-6 scales between lateral line and anal-fin origin. PMID:25113692
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harvey, F. Edwin; Rudolph, David L.; Frape, Shaun K.
1997-08-01
Estimates of groundwater seepage flux in lake bottom sediments require knowledge of the hydraulic gradient at the sediment-surface water interface and the hydraulic conductivity of the lake-bottom materials. In deep waters, in situ measurement of these parameters can be accomplished through the use of piezometer probes lowered and monitored remotely from a surface vessel. In this research work a new tethered piezometer probe was developed and tested for use in collecting hydraulic property data in deep-lake bottom sediments. The probe uses a variable-reluctance transducer to measure the differential sediment pore pressure between two ports spaced 100 cm apart. The dissipation of pore pressure transients that develop during rapid emplacement of the probe were extrapolated in time to estimate equilibrium hydraulic gradients. In addition, various data analysis techniques were evaluated for determining sediment hydraulic conductivity and specific storage through interpretation of the pore-pressure dissipation data. The probe was used to estimate groundwater seepage in the bottom sediments of the Hamilton Harbour, at the western end of Lake Ontario. Upward gradients were measured at nine locations within the harbor ranging from 0.010 to 0.425 and a downward gradient of -0.015 was recorded at one site along the harbor's eastern boundary. Hydraulic conductivities determined from pore-pressure dissipation over time ranged from 6.9 × 10-9to 4.8 × 10-7 m/s. Specific storage values ranged from 0.08 to 0.19 m-1. Calculated average linear seepage velocities ranged from 4.3 × 10-8 to -8.5 × 10-9 m/s. The groundwater contribution to the harbor through the deeper, fine-grained sediments was estimated to be 9.1 × 10-2 m3/s, or 2.9 × 106 m3/yr. This represents approximately 1.0% of the harbor basin's total volume, 15% of precipitation's contribution, 1.2% of the contribution of surface inflows (excluding the Burlington ship canal) and 0.22% of the total surface outflow passing
Assessment and treatment of dysthymia. The development of the Cornell dysthymia rating scale.
Cohen, J
1997-01-01
The understanding and classification of persistently depressed mood has undergone many changes since the term 'dysthymia' was first used nearly 150 years ago. Originally it was applied to both melancholia and mania; later it was applied to depressive personality. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-III in 1980 and in subsequent updates classified dysthymia as a mood disorder, characterized by a frequently insidious onset and a course that is chronic and unremitting. The assessment of clinical response in the pharmacologic treatment of dysthymia has been more difficult than that for major depression. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, among others, is oriented towards episodic rather than chronic states of depression. A new rating scale, the Cornell Dysthymia Rating Scale, has been developed to better assess milder symptomatology in chronically depressed patients. Early studies suggest its utility, but further validation of the scale is needed in patients with dysthymia and without major depression. PMID:19698530
Size-dependent mortality rate profiles.
Roa-Ureta, Ruben H
2016-08-01
Knowledge of mortality rates is crucial to the understanding of population dynamics in populations of free-living fish and invertebrates in marine and freshwater environments, and consequently to sustainable resource management. There is a well developed theory of population dynamics based on age distributions that allow direct estimation of mortality rates. However, for most cases the aging of individuals is difficult or age distributions are not available for other reasons. The body size distribution is a widely available alternative although the theory underlying the formation of its shape is more complicated than in the case of age distributions. A solid theory of the time evolution of a population structured by any physiological variable has been developed in 1960s and 1970s by adapting the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of classical mechanics, and equations to estimate the body size-distributed mortality profile have been derived for simple cases. Here I extend those results with regards to the size-distributed mortality profile to complex cases of non-stationary populations, individuals growing according to a generalised growth model and seasonally patterned recruitment pulses. I apply resulting methods to two cases in the marine environment, a benthic crustacean population that was growing during the period of observation and whose individuals grow with negative acceleration, and a sea urchin coastal population that is undergoing a stable cycle of two equilibrium points in population size whose individuals grow with varying acceleration that switches sign along the size range. The extension is very general and substantially widens the applicability of the theory. PMID:27164999
Yu, Jing-Jie; Pei, Liu-Bao; Zhang, Yong; Wen, Zi-Yu; Yang, Jian-Li
2015-08-01
Major depressive disorder is a devastating mental illness leading to a lifetime prevalence of higher than 16% on individuals. The treatment delay and inevitable adverse effects are major limitations of current depression interventions. Emerging evidence indicates that curcumin produced significant antidepressant properties in depression in both rodents and humans without adverse effects. Therefore, it is necessary to further clarify the antidepressant actions of curcumin and the underlying mechanism in depressed patients. A total of 108 male adults aged between 31 and 59 years were systematically recruited in Tianjin Anding Hospital. Subjects were administered the Chinese version of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale that measures different scores of depressive symptoms. The subjects were asked to take 2 capsules containing either 1000 mg of curcumin or placebo soybean powder daily for 6 weeks on the basis of their current antidepressant medications. The plasma levels of interleukin 1β, tumor necrosis factor α, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and salivary cortisol were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after curcumin or placebo treatment during the 6-week procedure. Chronic supplementation with curcumin produced significant antidepressant behavioral response in depressed patients by reduction of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores. Furthermore, curcumin decreases inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α level, increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, and decreases salivary cortisol concentrations compared with placebo group. These findings indicate the potential benefits of further implications of supplementary administration of curcumin to reverse the development of depression and enhance the outcome of antidepressants treatment in major depressive disorder. PMID:26066335
Uguz, Faruk
2013-07-01
Data on the use of a combination of antidepressants during pregnancy are inadequate. This report presents the beneficial effect of low-dose mirtazapine added onto selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of the symptoms of severe nausea, insomnia and loss of appetite accompanying psychiatric disorders during pregnancy, which is an important problem in clinical practice. The psychiatric diagnoses were determined with the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Assessments were performed with the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Further studies should be carried out to confirm the positive effects and safety of an additional low-dose mirtazapine in these cases. PMID:23363390
MILLER, MARK D.; FRANK, ELLEN; CORNES, CLEON; IMBER, STANLEY D.; ANDERSON, BARBARA; EHRENPREIS, LIN; MALLOY, JULIE; SILBERMAN, REBECCA; WOLFSON, LEE; ZALTMAN, JEAN; REYNOLDS, CHARLES F.
1994-01-01
The efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) as a treatment for outpatients with major depression has been documented in several controlled trials. Recently, IPT has been adapted specifically for depression in late life. The authors report on their experience in applying IPT to geriatric patients whose depression is temporally linked to the loss of their spouses. Detailed treatment techniques are illustrated with case vignettes. Preliminary treatment outcomes are presented for 6 subjects who showed a mean change on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression from 18.5 ± 2.3 SD to 7.2 ± 4.6 after an average of 17 weekly IPT sessions. IPT appears to be an effective short-term treatment for bereavement-related depression in elderly subjects. PMID:22700188
Real-Time Self-Regulation of Emotion Networks in Patients with Depression
Linden, David E. J.; Habes, Isabelle; Johnston, Stephen J.; Linden, Stefanie; Tatineni, Ranjit; Subramanian, Leena; Sorger, Bettina; Healy, David; Goebel, Rainer
2012-01-01
Many patients show no or incomplete responses to current pharmacological or psychological therapies for depression. Here we explored the feasibility of a new brain self-regulation technique that integrates psychological and neurobiological approaches through neurofeedback with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a proof-of-concept study, eight patients with depression learned to upregulate brain areas involved in the generation of positive emotions (such as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and insula) during four neurofeedback sessions. Their clinical symptoms, as assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS), improved significantly. A control group that underwent a training procedure with the same cognitive strategies but without neurofeedback did not improve clinically. Randomised blinded clinical trials are now needed to exclude possible placebo effects and to determine whether fMRI-based neurofeedback might become a useful adjunct to current therapies for depression. PMID:22675513
Real-time self-regulation of emotion networks in patients with depression.
Linden, David E J; Habes, Isabelle; Johnston, Stephen J; Linden, Stefanie; Tatineni, Ranjit; Subramanian, Leena; Sorger, Bettina; Healy, David; Goebel, Rainer
2012-01-01
Many patients show no or incomplete responses to current pharmacological or psychological therapies for depression. Here we explored the feasibility of a new brain self-regulation technique that integrates psychological and neurobiological approaches through neurofeedback with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a proof-of-concept study, eight patients with depression learned to upregulate brain areas involved in the generation of positive emotions (such as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and insula) during four neurofeedback sessions. Their clinical symptoms, as assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS), improved significantly. A control group that underwent a training procedure with the same cognitive strategies but without neurofeedback did not improve clinically. Randomised blinded clinical trials are now needed to exclude possible placebo effects and to determine whether fMRI-based neurofeedback might become a useful adjunct to current therapies for depression. PMID:22675513
Retrospective analysis of suicidality in patients treated with the antidepressant desvenlafaxine.
Tourian, Karen A; Padmanabhan, Krishna; Groark, Jim; Ninan, Philip T
2010-08-01
The objective of this analysis was to assess the risk of increased suicidal thoughts and behavior (suicidality) with desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Data from 9 double-blind, 8-week studies in outpatients with MDD were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were randomly assigned to desvenlafaxine (n = 1834) or placebo (n = 1116). Adverse events (AEs) related to suicidality were identified by searching the AE database for text strings possibly related to suicidality; false positives were excluded. Narratives for each case were prepared and blinded for review. Events were classified according to the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment. Odds ratios were calculated; chi tests were used to compare treatment groups. Occurrence of emerging or worsening suicidality, based on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression suicide item, was compared for desvenlafaxine and placebo using chi tests. In all, 17 (0.93%) of 1834 patients receiving desvenlafaxine and 8 (0.72%) of 1116 receiving placebo reported possible suicidality-related AEs. Events were relatively evenly distributed across treatment groups. One patient randomly assigned to desvenlafaxine treatment died of completed suicide during the on-therapy period. There were no significant differences between groups in the risk for any class of suicide-related events, including completed suicide or suicide attempt. Odds of emergence or worsening of suicidality 17-item (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression suicide item) did not differ significantly between treatment groups. No evidence of a signal for increased suicidality was detected in adult patients treated with desvenlafaxine in short-term MDD trials. As suicidal events were extremely rare, a true increased risk cannot be ruled out. PMID:20631558
The Carroll rating scale for depression. II. Factor analyses of the feature profiles.
Smouse, P E; Feinberg, M; Carroll, B J; Park, M H; Rawson, S G
1981-03-01
Factor analyses were conducted for the Hamilton depression rating scale (HRS) and the self administered Carroll counterpart (CRS). The factor loadings for the respective first factors were similar; those for the respective second factors showed strict sign consistency but only moderate consistency of magnitude; the loadings for the respective third factors showed no particular consistency. The first three CRS and first three HRS factor scores were computed for each individual and correlations were computed from these factor scores. The first and second factors were highly correlated but the third factors were negatively correlated indicating that they were not measuring the same thing. The first factors of the CRS and HRS correlated highly with their respective raw total scores and were indices of the severity of illness. The self-administered CRS (with matching weights) is a credible alternative to the HRS for routine clinical assessment of the severity of depression. PMID:7272610
Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Kim, Daeho; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Jo, Sun-Jin; Park, Yong Chon
2015-01-01
Although major depressive disorder (MDD) has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS), depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale), suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation), functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version). Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients. PMID:25600920
Kertzman, Semion; Vainder, Michael; Reznik, Ilya; Gotzlav, Yossef; Weizman, Abraham; Kotler, Moshe; Iancu, Iulian
2012-05-01
There is growing evidence that individual differences among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) on psychological and demographic measures may predict the therapeutic response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In this retrospective chart review, 108 outpatients with current major depressive episodes were treated with citalopram, paroxetine, or fluvoxamine. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 were administered before and after 8 weeks of SSRIs treatment. Clinical response was defined as a 50% or greater decrease in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale total score (final visit minus baseline). This naturalistic short-term follow-up outcome study demonstrates that among depressive outpatients who responded to an 8-week trial, 57.4% achieved a good response to SSRIs. Statistical analysis showed that SSRI treatment may be 3.03 times more advantageous for MDD outpatients who are younger than 39 years. The patients with an elevated score of above 66T on the Social Introversion Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 scale are approximately 0.37 times as likely to be SSRI responders as are patients with a Social Introversion score less than 66T. Thus, it seems that in MDD outpatient age is the strongest predictor of response to SSRIs. PMID:22415223
Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them.
Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth
2009-11-01
The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data. PMID:20802818
Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them
Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth
2010-01-01
The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data. PMID:20802818
Woodruff, Laurel G.; Cannon, William F.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Bradley, Paul M.; Burns, Douglas A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Lowery, Mark A.
2010-01-01
Mercury is an element of on-going concern for human and aquatic health. Mercury sequestered in upland and wetland soils represents a source that may contribute to mercury contamination in sensitive ecosystems. An improved understanding of mercury cycling in stream ecosystems requires identification and quantification of mercury speciation and transport dynamics in upland and wetland soils within a watershed. This report presents data for soils collected in 2008 from two small watersheds in New York and South Carolina. In New York, 163 samples were taken from multiple depths or soil horizons at 70 separate locations near Fishing Brook, located in Hamilton County. At McTier Creek, in Aiken County, South Carolina, 81 samples from various soil horizons or soil depths were collected from 24 locations. Sample locations within each watershed were selected to characterize soil geochemistry in distinct land-cover compartments. Soils were analyzed for total mercury, selenium, total and carbonate carbon, and 42 other elements. A subset of the samples was also analyzed for methylmercury.
Fertility Clinic Success Rates
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NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pearsons, K. S.; Bennett, R. L.
1974-01-01
The handbook was compiled to provide information in a concise form, describing the multitude of noise rating schemes. It is hoped that by describing the noise rating methods in a single volume the user will have better access to the definitions, application and calculation procedures of the current noise rating methods.
Zhou, Huan-Xiang
2012-01-01
Some of the rate theories that are most useful for modeling biological processes are reviewed. By delving into some of the details and subtleties in the development of the theories, the review will hopefully help the reader gain a more than superficial perspective. Examples are presented to illustrate how rate theories can be used to generate insight at the microscopic level into biomolecular behaviors. Attempt is made to clear up a number of misconceptions in the literature regarding popular rate theories, including the appearance of Planck’s constant in the transition-state theory and the Smoluchowski result as an upper limit for protein-protein and protein-DNA association rate constants. Future work in combining the implementation of rate theories through computer simulations with experimental probes of rate processes, and in modeling effects of intracellular environments so theories can be used for generating rate constants for systems biology studies is particularly exciting. PMID:20691138
Sharma, Neeraj Kumar; Akhtar, M S; Pandey, Nityanand; Singh, Ravindra; Singh, Atul Kumar
2015-08-01
We studied the season dependent thermal tolerance, oxygen consumption, respiratory burst response and antioxidative enzyme activities in juveniles of Barilius bendelisis. The critical thermal maximum (CTmax), lethal thermal maximum (LTmax), critical thermal minimum (CTmin) and lethal thermal minimum (LTmin) were significantly different at five different seasons viz. winter (10.64°C), spring (16.25°C), summer (22.11°C), rainy (20.87°C) and autumn (17.77°C). The highest CTmax was registered in summer (36.02°C), and lowest CTmin was recorded during winter (2.77°C). Water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were strongly related to CTmax, LTmax, CTmin and LTmin suggesting seasonal acclimatization of B. bendelisis. The thermal tolerance polygon area of the B. bendelisis juveniles within the range of seasonal temperature (10.64-22.11°C) was calculated as 470.92°C(2). Oxygen consumption rate was significantly different (p<0.05) between seasons with maximum value during summer (57.66mgO2/kg/h) and lowest in winter (32.60mgO2/kg/h). Total white blood cell count including neutrophil and monocytes also showed significant difference (p<0.05) between seasons with maximum value during summer and minimum number in winter and were found correlated to temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and respiratory burst activity. Respiratory burst activity of blood phagocytes significantly differed (p<0.05) among seasons with higher value during summer (0.163 OD540nm) and minimum in winter season (0.054 OD540nm). The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-s-transferase both in liver and gill, also varied significantly (p<0.05) during different seasons. Overall results of this study suggest that multiple environmental factors play a role in seasonal acclimation in B. bendelisis, which modulate the thermal tolerance, oxygen consumption, respiratory burst activity and status of anti-oxidative potential in wild environment. PMID:26267511
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saari, Martin J.; Sorin, Solomon M.
1946-01-01
An altitude-wind-tunnel investigation has been made to determine the performance of Hamilton Standard 6507A-2 four-blade and three-blade propellers on a YP-47M airplane at high blade loadings and high engine powers. Characteristics of the four-blase propeller were obtained for a range of power coefficients from 0.10 to 1.00 at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.20, 0.30, 0.40. Characteristics of the three-blade propeller were obtained for a range of power coefficients from 0.30 to 1.00 at a free-stream Mach number of 0.40. Results of the force measurements indicate primarily the trend of propeller efficiency for changes in power coefficient or advance-diameter ratio because no corrections for the effects of tunnel-wall constriction on the installation were applied. Slipstream surveys are presented to illustrate blade thrust load distribution for certain operating conditions. Within the range of advance-diameter ratios investigated at each free-stream Mach number, the efficiency of the four-blade propeller decreased as the power coefficient was increased from 0.10 to 1.00. For the three-blade propeller, nearly constant maximum efficiencies were obtained for power coefficients from 0.32 to 0.63 at advance-diameter ratios between 1.90 and 3.00. In general, for conditions below the stall and critical tip Mach number, the maximum thrust load shifted from the inboard sections toward the tip sections as the power coefficient was increased or as the advance-diameter ratio was decreased. For conditions beyond the stall or critical tip Mach number, losses in thrust occurred on the outboard blade sections owing to flow break-down; the thrust load increased slightly on the inboard sections.
Observed Barium Emission Rates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.
1993-01-01
The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.
Metabolic rate measurement system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koester, K.; Crosier, W.
1980-01-01
The Metabolic Rate Measurement System (MRMS) is an uncomplicated and accurate apparatus for measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of a test subject. From this one can determine the subject's metabolic rate for a variety of conditions, such as resting or light exercise. MRMS utilizes an LSI/11-03 microcomputer to monitor and control the experimental apparatus.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cunningham, Kevin
2007-01-01
This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it…
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Controlled-rate cooling is one of several techniques available for the long-term storage of plants in liquid nitrogen. In this technique samples are slowly cooled to an intermediate temperature and then plunged in liquid nitrogen. Controlled rate cooling is based on osmotic regulation of cell conte...
Scaling metabolic rate fluctuations.
Labra, Fabio A; Marquet, Pablo A; Bozinovic, Francisco
2007-06-26
Complex ecological and economic systems show fluctuations in macroscopic quantities such as exchange rates, size of companies or populations that follow non-Gaussian tent-shaped probability distributions of growth rates with power-law decay, which suggests that fluctuations in complex systems may be governed by universal mechanisms, independent of particular details and idiosyncrasies. We propose here that metabolic rate within individual organisms may be considered as an example of an emergent property of a complex system and test the hypothesis that the probability distribution of fluctuations in the metabolic rate of individuals has a "universal" form regardless of body size or taxonomic affiliation. We examined data from 71 individuals belonging to 25 vertebrate species (birds, mammals, and lizards). We report three main results. First, for all these individuals and species, the distribution of metabolic rate fluctuations follows a tent-shaped distribution with power-law decay. Second, the standard deviation of metabolic rate fluctuations decays as a power-law function of both average metabolic rate and body mass, with exponents -0.352 and -1/4 respectively. Finally, we find that the distributions of metabolic rate fluctuations for different organisms can all be rescaled to a single parent distribution, supporting the existence of general principles underlying the structure and functioning of individual organisms. PMID:17578913
Shore, B.W.
1981-01-30
The equations of motion are discussed which describe time dependent population flows in an N-level system, reviewing the relationship between incoherent (rate) equations, coherent (Schrodinger) equations, and more general partially coherent (Bloch) equations. Approximations are discussed which replace the elaborate Bloch equations by simpler rate equations whose coefficients incorporate long-time consequences of coherence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanevski, M.; Maignan, M.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Timonin, V.
2008-06-01
The present study deals with the analysis and mapping of Swiss franc interest rates. Interest rates depend on time and maturity, defining term structure of the interest rate curves (IRC). In the present study IRC are considered in a two-dimensional feature space-time and maturity. Exploratory data analysis includes a variety of tools widely used in econophysics and geostatistics. Geostatistical models and machine learning algorithms (multilayer perceptron and Support Vector Machines) were applied to produce interest rate maps. IR maps can be used for the visualisation and pattern perception purposes, to develop and to explore economical hypotheses, to produce dynamic asset-liability simulations and for financial risk assessments. The feasibility of an application of interest rates mapping approach for the IRC forecasting is considered as well.
Optimal firing rate estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paulin, M. G.; Hoffman, L. F.
2001-01-01
We define a measure for evaluating the quality of a predictive model of the behavior of a spiking neuron. This measure, information gain per spike (Is), indicates how much more information is provided by the model than if the prediction were made by specifying the neuron's average firing rate over the same time period. We apply a maximum Is criterion to optimize the performance of Gaussian smoothing filters for estimating neural firing rates. With data from bullfrog vestibular semicircular canal neurons and data from simulated integrate-and-fire neurons, the optimal bandwidth for firing rate estimation is typically similar to the average firing rate. Precise timing and average rate models are limiting cases that perform poorly. We estimate that bullfrog semicircular canal sensory neurons transmit in the order of 1 bit of stimulus-related information per spike.
Mutation rates as adaptations.
Maley, C
1997-06-01
In order to better understand life, it is helpful to look beyond the envelop of life as we know it. A simple model of coevolution was implemented with the addition of a gene for the mutation rate of the individual. This allowed the mutation rate itself to evolve in a lineage. The model shows that when the individuals interact in a sort of zero-sum game, the lineages maintain relatively high mutation rates. However, when individuals engage in interactions that have greater consequences for one individual in the interaction than the other, lineages tend to evolve relatively low mutation rates. This model suggests that one possible cause for differential mutation rates across genes may be the coevolutionary pressure of the various forms of interactions with other genes. PMID:9219670
Hall, Barry G; Acar, Hande; Nandipati, Anna; Barlow, Miriam
2014-01-01
In the 1960s-1980s, determination of bacterial growth rates was an important tool in microbial genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and microbial physiology. The exciting technical developments of the 1990s and the 2000s eclipsed that tool; as a result, many investigators today lack experience with growth rate measurements. Recently, investigators in a number of areas have started to use measurements of bacterial growth rates for a variety of purposes. Those measurements have been greatly facilitated by the availability of microwell plate readers that permit the simultaneous measurements on up to 384 different cultures. Only the exponential (logarithmic) portions of the resulting growth curves are useful for determining growth rates, and manual determination of that portion and calculation of growth rates can be tedious for high-throughput purposes. Here, we introduce the program GrowthRates that uses plate reader output files to automatically determine the exponential portion of the curve and to automatically calculate the growth rate, the maximum culture density, and the duration of the growth lag phase. GrowthRates is freely available for Macintosh, Windows, and Linux. We discuss the effects of culture volume, the classical bacterial growth curve, and the differences between determinations in rich media and minimal (mineral salts) media. This protocol covers calibration of the plate reader, growth of culture inocula for both rich and minimal media, and experimental setup. As a guide to reliability, we report typical day-to-day variation in growth rates and variation within experiments with respect to position of wells within the plates. PMID:24170494
The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braben, Donald W.
2009-04-01
How sad to read a supposedly serious debate among distinguished physicists (February p19) about which combinations of the latest Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) ratings represent a university physics department's true strengths.
... ART and Birth Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology National Summary Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... live-birth rate? [PDF - 1.37MB] Section 2: ART Cycles using fresh nondonor eggs or embryos What ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Slovic, Paul; And Others
1979-01-01
Explains how people arrive at personal hazard assessments. Explores why people overestimate some hazards and underestimate others. Examines risk ratings for activities and technologies such as nuclear power, motor vehicles, pesticides, and vaccinations. (MA)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1984-01-01
In the mid 70's, NASA saw a need for a long term electrocardiographic electrode suitable for use on astronauts. Heart Rate Inc.'s insulated capacitive electrode is constructed of thin dielectric film applied to stainless steel surface, originally developed under a grant by Texas Technical University. HRI, Inc. was awarded NASA license and continued development of heart rate monitor for use on exercise machines for physical fitness and medical markets.
Development of Canonical Transformations from Hamilton's Principle.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Quade, C. Richard
1979-01-01
The theory of canonical transformations and its development are discussed with regard to its application to Hutton's principle. Included are the derivation of the equations of motion and a lack of symmetry in the formulaion with respect to Lagrangian and the fundamental commutator relations of quantum mechanics. (Author/SA)
Lane-Hamilton syndrome: association or coincidence.
Paksu, Sule; Paksu, Muhammet Sukru; Kalayci, Ayhan Gazi; Sancak, Recep
2012-03-01
The combination of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) and celiac disease (CD) is rare. The clinical importance of this association is that a significant improvement can be obtained with gluten free diet not only in intestinal but also in pulmonary symptoms. A four and half-years old girl was admitted with complaints of cough, difficulty in breathing and paleness. She had intermittent episodes of abdominal pain and diarrhea. She had dyspnea and tachycardia, and oxygen saturation 88%. The patient was diagnosed with CD and concomitant IPH. With gluten-free diet and corticosteroid treatment, both intestinal and pulmonary symptoms were controlled. PMID:22484746
Hamilton Happening: A Creative Writing Scoop.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lux, Katy; Nobel, Marcia
A practical, low-cost plan that involves teacher workshops and noon-hour workshops for students to encourage creative activity in an elementary school program for kindergarten through grade five is described in this booklet. Included is a sample of a monthly newsletter that suggests activities for creative involvement that are seasonal, centered…
Friedman, I; Long, W
1976-01-30
The hydration rates of 12 obsidian samples of different chemical compositions were measured at temperatures from 95 degrees to 245 degrees C. An expression relating hydration rate to temperature was derived for each sample. The SiO(2) content and refractive index are related to the hydration rate, as are the CaO, MgO, and original water contents. With this information it is possible to calculate the hydration rate of a sample from its silica content, refractive index, or chemical index and a knowledge of the effective temperature at which the hydration occurred. The effective hydration temperature can be either measured or approximated from weather records. Rates have been calculated by both methods, and the results show that weather records can give a good approximation to the true EHT, particularly in tropical and subtropical climates. If one determines the EHT by any of the methods suggested, and also measures or knows the rate of hydration of the particular obsidian used, it should be possible to carry out absolute dating to +/- 10 percent of the true age over periods as short as several years and as long as millions of years. PMID:17782901
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1990-01-01
Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.
Zakynthinaki, Maria S.
2015-01-01
The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual’s cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women). PMID:25876164
Modelling heart rate kinetics.
Zakynthinaki, Maria S
2015-01-01
The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual's cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women). PMID:25876164
Cygankiewicz, Iwona
2013-01-01
Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death. PMID:24215748
Optical rate sensor algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Uhde-Lacovara, Jo A.
1989-01-01
Optical sensors, in particular Charge Coupled Device (CCD) arrays, will be used on Space Station to track stars in order to provide inertial attitude reference. Algorithms are presented to derive attitude rate from the optical sensors. The first algorithm is a recursive differentiator. A variance reduction factor (VRF) of 0.0228 was achieved with a rise time of 10 samples. A VRF of 0.2522 gives a rise time of 4 samples. The second algorithm is based on the direct manipulation of the pixel intensity outputs of the sensor. In 1-dimensional simulations, the derived rate was with 0.07 percent of the actual rate in the presence of additive Gaussian noise with a signal to noise ratio of 60 dB.
Stoenescu, M.L.; Smith, T.M.
1980-02-01
The collision integral terms in Boltzmann equation are reformulated numerically leading to the substitution of the multiple integrals with a multiplicative matrix of the two colliding species velocity distribution functions which varies with the differential collision cross section. A matrix of lower rank may be constructed when one of the distribution functions is specified, in which case the matrix elements represent kinetic transition probabilities in the velocity space and the multiplication of the time rate collision matrix with the unknown velocity distribution function expresses the time rate of change of the distribution. The collision matrix may be used to describe the time evolution of systems in nonequilibrium conditions, to evaluate the rate of momentum and energy transfer between given species, or to generate validity criteria for linearized kinetic equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denny, Mark
2016-05-01
The physics of a weather balloon is analyzed. The surprising aspect of the motion of these balloons is that they ascend to great altitudes (typically 35 km) at a more or less constant rate. Such behavior is not surprising near the ground—say for a helium-filled party balloon rising from street level to the top of the Empire State building—but it is unexpected for a balloon that rises to altitudes where the air is rarefied. We show from elementary physical laws why the ascent rate is approximately constant.
Controlling Your Utility Rates.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lucht, Ray; Dembowski, Frederick L.
1985-01-01
A cost-effective alternative to high utility bills for middle-sized and smaller utility users is the service of utility rate consultants. The consultants analyze utility invoices for the previous 12 months to locate available refunds or credits. (MLF)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siler, Carl R.
This curriculum unit of the Muncie (Indiana) Southside High School is to simulate the dynamics of foreign currency exchange rates from the perspectives of: (1) a major U.S. corporation, ABB Power T & D Company, Inc., of Muncie, Indiana, a manufacturer of large power transformers for the domestic and foreign markets; and (2) individual consumers…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moore, Thomas L.
2006-01-01
The author selected a simple random sample of 100 movies from the "Movie and Video Guide" (1996), by Leonard Maltin. The author's intent was to obtain some basic information on the population of roughly 19,000 movies through a small sample. The "Movie and Video Guide" by Leonard Maltin is an annual ratings guide to movies. While not all films ever…
The paper discusses a data attribute rating system (DARS), developed by EPA to assist in evaluating data associated with emission inventories. he paper presents DARS for evaluation by the potential user community. ARS was originally conceived as a method for evaluating country-sp...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Systems are available to producers to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer cost savings to a producer; however, the full potential of the benefits and savings cannot be realized if water ...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Systems are available to producers with the ability to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer a producer great cost savings; however, the full potential of these benefits and savings cannot...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swanson, Patricia E.
2015-01-01
Elementary school mathematics is increasingly recognized for its crucial role in developing the foundational skills and understandings for algebra. In this article, the author uses a lesson to introduce the concept of "rates"--comparing two different types and units of measure--and how to graph them. Described is the lesson and shared…
Understanding Rates of Change.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weil, Aurelia; Russell, Larry
This paper presents three activities on how to analyze rates of change in real-life situations using TI-83 calculators and computer-based laboratories. Activities include 24 hour temperature data, the temperature of a light bulb, and an M&M toss. Each section contains descriptions of equipment/materials, data collection, and data analysis. The…
Behenck, Andressa S; Gomes, Juliana Braga; Heldt, Elizeth
2016-06-01
Group therapy involves complex mechanisms that rely on certain therapeutic factors to promote improvement. The objective of this study was to assess patient rating of therapeutic factors during cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) and to investigate the correlation between patient rating and outcome of CBGT for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the present clinical trial, 15 patients participated in a 12-session CBGT protocol. Severity of symptoms was assessed before and after CBGT with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Yalom's Curative Factors Questionnaire was administered at the end of each session for patient rating of the usefulness of 12 therapeutic factors to treat OCD. There was a significant interaction between improvement in obsessive-compulsive symptoms and patient rating of altruism, universality, interpersonal learning input and output, family re-enactment, self-understanding, and existential factors over time. The results show that group therapeutic factors positively influence the response to CBGT in OCD patients. PMID:27105227
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-03-27
... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to the government for maturities similar to the average SBA direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate...
Kronenberg, S.; Siebentritt, C.R.
1981-07-28
A combined dose rate meter and charger unit therefor which does not require the use of batteries but on the other hand produces a charging potential by means of a piezoelectric cylinder which is struck by a manually triggered hammer mechanism. A tubular type electrometer is mounted in a portable housing which additionally includes a geiger-muller (Gm) counter tube and electronic circuitry coupled to the electrometer for providing multi-mode operation. In one mode of operation, an rc circuit of predetermined time constant is connected to a storage capacitor which serves as a timed power source for the gm tube, providing a measurement in terms of dose rate which is indicated by the electrometer. In another mode, the electrometer indicates individual counts.
Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark
Friedley, Andrew
2008-01-22
The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8) with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.
Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark
2008-01-22
The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8)more » with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.« less
Hunter, Steven L.
2002-01-01
A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.
Spatial statistical point prediction guidance for heating-rate-limited aeroassisted orbital transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Pradipto; Conway, Bruce A.
2015-06-01
Feedback control of constrained non-linear dynamical systems satisfying a certain optimality criterion and meeting a specified transfer objective in the state space is recognized as one of the most challenging problems in control theory. One approach to computing optimal feedback policies is the dynamic programming route of numerically solving the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) partial differential equation directly. In this paper an alternate and more tractable dynamic programming approach, the optimal feedback synthesis method, is utilized. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated through an explicit guidance scheme for the heating-rate-constrained maneuver of an Aeroassisted Transfer Vehicle (AOTV). In optimal feedback synthesis, a feedback chart is constructed from a family of open-loop extremals, thus ensuring optimality with respect to any initial condition in the family. This paper presents a solution to the AOTV optimal feedback synthesis problem using the Gaussian process spatial prediction method of universal kriging. A closed-form expression for a near-optimal guidance law is derived. Its performance is found to be very promising; initial atmospheric entry errors due to simulated thruster misfiring are seen to be accurately corrected while the algebraic state-inequality constraint is closely respected.
Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Sheikhbabaei, Meisam; Haghighi, Mohammad; Roham, Fatemeh; Jahangard, Leila; Akhondi, Amineh; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Bajoghli, Hafez; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
2016-01-01
Background and aims The Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) is an expert’s rating tool to assess the severity and symptoms of depression. The aim of the present two studies was to validate the Persian version of the MADRS and determine its test–retest reliability in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorders (MDD). Methods In study 1, the translated MADRS and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were applied to 210 patients diagnosed with MDD and 100 healthy adults. In study 2, 200 patients diagnosed with MDD were assessed with the MADRS in face-to-face interviews. Thereafter, 100 patients were assessed 3–14 days later, again via face-to-face-interviews, while the other 100 patients were assessed 3–14 days later via a telephone interview. Results Study 1: The MADRS and HDRS scores between patients with MDD and healthy controls differed significantly. Agreement between scoring of the MADRS and HDRS was high (r=0.95). Study 2: The intraclass correlation coefficient (test–retest reliability) was r=0.944 for the face-to-face interviews, and r=0.959 for the telephone interviews. Conclusion The present data suggest that the Persian MADRS has high validity and excellent test–retest reliability over a time interval of 3–14 days, irrespective of whether the second assessment was carried out face-to-face or via a telephone interview. PMID:27022265
Radhakishun, F S; van den Bos, J; van der Heijden, B C; Roes, K C; O'Hanlon, J F
2000-10-01
This double-blind study compared mirtazapine's effects on alertness and sleep between parallel groups treated for 2 weeks according to a fixed regimen of 30 mg at bedtime (N = 69) and one that increased in dose from 15 to 30 mg at bedtime after the first week (N = 71). These patients with depression used an interactive telephone/computer system for daily alertness and sleep recordings on self-rating scales before and during treatment. Efficacy (17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAM-D], Clinical Global Impression Scale [CGI]) and safety assessments were made by participating psychiatrists. Both groups' alertness ratings were subnormal at baseline and even lower after the first dose. The ratings recovered after the second dose and increased progressively to levels 18% higher than those at baseline by the end of treatment. Patients receiving the fixed dose reported earlier sleep onset and longer duration. Similar mean changes in HAM-D scores (approximately -40%) and frequencies of CGI responders (>50%) occurred in both groups. The regimens were equally well tolerated. Somnolence, the most frequent side effect, was reported by only 10% of each group during the first week and by fewer patients during the second. Mirtazapine in fixed and ascending nocturnal dosing regimens was found to facilitate sleep, but it does not generally reduce daytime alertness. The fixed regimen seems preferable because of its greater effects on sleep. PMID:11001237
Mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablet versus sertraline: a prospective onset of action study.
Behnke, Kirsten; Søgaard, Jesper; Martin, Stephen; Bäuml, Josef; Ravindran, Arun V; Agren, Hans; Vester-Blokland, Estelle D
2003-08-01
This multinational, randomized, double-blind study was specifically designed to prospectively compare the onset of antidepressant efficacy of mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablets and sertraline at dosages commonly used in clinical practice. A total of 345 patients with major depressive episode (DSM-IV) received mirtazapine (30-45 mg/d) or sertraline (50-150 mg/d) for 8 weeks. Mirtazapine was administered in the newly developed fast dissolving, orally disintegrating tablet formulation. Assessments were performed at baseline and on days 4, 7, 10, 14, 28, 42, and 56. The primary efficacy variable (mean absolute change from baseline in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAMD] total score [17 items]) showed that mirtazapine was significantly (P < 0.05) more effective than sertraline at all assessments during the first 2 weeks of the study. After this time, HAMD total scores were similar in both groups. These findings were supported by analysis of the HAMD response rate (ie, > or =50% reduction in HAMD total score from baseline), HAMD remission rate (HAMD total score of < or =7), and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Both treatments were well tolerated. In addition, mirtazapine had a greater effect than sertraline on sexual functioning. In conclusion, this first prospective onset of action study using the orally disintegrating tablet indicates that mirtazapine has a faster onset of therapeutic effect than sertraline. The orally disintegrating tablet formulation of mirtazapine used in this study is known to enhance the convenience and compliance by the patient. PMID:12920411
McDonald, H.C. Jr.
1962-12-18
A compact pulse-rate divider circuit affording low impedance output and high input pulse repetition rates is described. The circuit features a single secondary emission tube having a capacitor interposed between its dynode and its control grid. An output pulse is produced at the anode of the tube each time an incoming pulse at the control grid drives the tube above cutoff and the duration of each output pulse corresponds to the charging time of the capacitor. Pulses incoming during the time the grid bias established by the discharging capacitor is sufficiently negative that the pulses are unable to drive the tube above cutoff do not produce output pulses at the anode; these pulses are lost and a dividing action is thus produced by the circuit. The time constant of the discharge path may be vanied to vary in turn the division ratio of the circuit; the time constant of the charging circuit may be varied to vary the width of the output pulses. (AEC)
A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Pregnenolone for Bipolar Depression
Brown, E Sherwood; Park, John; Marx, Christine E; Hynan, Linda S; Gardner, Claire; Davila, Domingo; Nakamura, Alyson; Sunderajan, Prabha; Lo, Alexander; Holmes, Traci
2014-01-01
Depression in bipolar disorder (BPD) is challenging to treat. Therefore, additional medication options are needed. In the current report, the effect of the neurosteroid pregnenolone on depressive symptoms in BPD was examined. Adults (n=80) with BPD, depressed mood state, were randomized to pregnenolone (titrated to 500 mg/day) or placebo, as add-on therapy, for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology—Self-Report (IDS-SR), Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HRSA), and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Serum neurosteroid levels were assessed at baseline and week 12. Data were analyzed using a mixed model ANCOVA with a between factor of treatment assignment, a within factor (repeated) of visit, and the baseline value, as well as age and gender, as covariates. In participants with at least one postbaseline visit (n=73), a significant treatment by week interaction for the HRSD (F(5,288)=2.61, p=0.025), but not IDS-SR, was observed. Depression remission rates were greater in the pregnenolone group (61%) compared with the placebo group (37%), as assessed by the IDS-SR (χ2(1)=3.99, p=0.046), but not the HRSD. Large baseline-to-exit changes in neurosteroid levels were observed in the pregnenolone group but not in the placebo group. In the pregnenolone group, baseline-to-exit change in the HRSA correlated negatively with changes in allopregnanolone (r(22)=−0.43, p=0.036) and pregNANolone (r(22)=−0.48, p=0.019) levels. Pregnenolone was well tolerated. The results suggest that pregnenolone may improve depressive symptoms in patients with BPD and can be safely administered. PMID:24917198
Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer
... staged? Next Topic How is thymus cancer treated? Survival rates for thymus cancer Survival rates are often ... into account. Stage of thymoma 5-year observed survival rate I 74% II 73% III 64% IV ...
Heart-Rate and Breath-Rate Monitor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cooper, T. G.
1983-01-01
Circuit requiring only four integrated circuits (IC's) measures both heart rate and breath rate. Phase-locked loops lock on heart-rate and respiration-rate input signals. Each loop IC contains two phase comparators. Positive-edge-triggered circuit used in making monitors insensitive to dutycycle variations.
29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...
29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...
29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...
29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...
29 CFR 778.112 - Day rates and job rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day rates and job rates. 778.112 Section 778.112 Labor... Requirements Principles for Computing Overtime Pay Based on the âregular Rateâ § 778.112 Day rates and job rates. If the employee is paid a flat sum for a day's work or for doing a particular job, without...
The treatment of depressed chinese americans using qigong in a health care setting: a pilot study.
Yeung, Albert; Slipp, Lauren E; Jacquart, Jolene; Fava, Maurizio; Denninger, John W; Benson, Herbert; Fricchione, Gregory L
2013-01-01
Background. This pilot study examined the feasibility and efficacy of providing Qigong treatment in a health center to Chinese Americans with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods. Fourteen Chinese Americans with MDD were enrolled, and they received a 12-week Qigong intervention. The key outcome measurement was the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17); the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) and -Improvement (CGI-I), the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF), and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) were also administered. Positive response was defined as a decrease of 50% or more on the HAM-D17, and remission was defined as HAM-D17 ≤ 7. Patients' outcome measurements were compared before and after the Qigong intervention. Results. Participants (N = 14) were 64% female, with a mean age of 53 (±14). A 71% of participants completed the intervention. The Qigong intervention resulted in a positive treatment-response rate of 60% and a remission rate of 40% and statistically significant improvement, as measured by the HAM-D17, CGI-S, CGI-I, Q-LES-Q-SF, and the family support subscale of the MSPSS. Conclusions. The Qigong intervention provided at a health care setting for the treatment of primary care patients with MDD is feasible. Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted. PMID:23690836
Hu, Shao-hua; Lai, Jian-bo; Xu, Dong-rong; Qi, Hong-li; Peterson, Bradley S.; Bao, Ai-min; Hu, Chan-chan; Huang, Man-li; Chen, Jing-kai; Wei, Ning; Hu, Jian-bo; Li, Shu-lan; Zhou, Wei-hua; Xu, Wei-juan; Xu, Yi
2016-01-01
The clinical and cognitive responses to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in bipolar II depressed patients remain unclear. In this study, thirty-eight bipolar II depressed patients were randomly assigned into three groups: (i) left high-frequency (n = 12), (ii) right low-frequency (n = 13), (iii) sham stimulation (n = 13), and underwent four-week rTMS with quetiapine concomitantly. Clinical efficacy was evaluated at baseline and weekly intervals using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Cognitive functioning was assessed before and after the study with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Word-Color Interference Test (Stroop), and Trail Making Test (TMT). Thirty-five patients were included in the final analysis. Overall, the mean scores of both the HDRS-17 and the MADRS significantly decreased over the 4-week trial, which did not differ among the three groups. Exploratory analyses revealed no differences in factor scores of HDRS-17s, or in response or remission rates. Scores of WCST, Stroop, or TMT did not differ across the three groups. These findings indicated active rTMS combined with quetiapine was not superior to quetiapine monotherapy in improving depressive symptoms or cognitive performance in patients with bipolar II depression. PMID:27460201
Hu, Shao-Hua; Lai, Jian-Bo; Xu, Dong-Rong; Qi, Hong-Li; Peterson, Bradley S; Bao, Ai-Min; Hu, Chan-Chan; Huang, Man-Li; Chen, Jing-Kai; Wei, Ning; Hu, Jian-Bo; Li, Shu-Lan; Zhou, Wei-Hua; Xu, Wei-Juan; Xu, Yi
2016-01-01
The clinical and cognitive responses to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in bipolar II depressed patients remain unclear. In this study, thirty-eight bipolar II depressed patients were randomly assigned into three groups: (i) left high-frequency (n = 12), (ii) right low-frequency (n = 13), (iii) sham stimulation (n = 13), and underwent four-week rTMS with quetiapine concomitantly. Clinical efficacy was evaluated at baseline and weekly intervals using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Cognitive functioning was assessed before and after the study with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Word-Color Interference Test (Stroop), and Trail Making Test (TMT). Thirty-five patients were included in the final analysis. Overall, the mean scores of both the HDRS-17 and the MADRS significantly decreased over the 4-week trial, which did not differ among the three groups. Exploratory analyses revealed no differences in factor scores of HDRS-17s, or in response or remission rates. Scores of WCST, Stroop, or TMT did not differ across the three groups. These findings indicated active rTMS combined with quetiapine was not superior to quetiapine monotherapy in improving depressive symptoms or cognitive performance in patients with bipolar II depression. PMID:27460201
Using a pharmacogenomic algorithm to guide the treatment of depression
Hall-Flavin, D K; Winner, J G; Allen, J D; Jordan, J J; Nesheim, R S; Snyder, K A; Drews, M S; Eisterhold, L L; Biernacka, J M; Mrazek, D A
2012-01-01
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential benefit of utilizing a pharmacogenomic testing report to guide the selection and dosing of psychotropic medications in an outpatient psychiatric practice. The non-randomized, open label, prospective cohort study was conducted from September 2009 to July 2010. In the first cohort, depressed patients were treated without the benefit of pharmacogenomic testing (the unguided group). A DNA sample was obtained from patients in the unguided group, but the results were not shared with either the physicians or patients until the end of the 8-week study period. In the second cohort (the guided group), testing results were provided at the beginning of the 8-week treatment period. Depression ratings were collected at baseline and after 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks of treatment using the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Clinician Rated (QIDS-C16) and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17). Clinician and patient satisfaction was also assessed. The reduction in depressive symptoms achieved within the guided treatment group was greater than the reduction of depressive symptoms in the unguided treatment group using either the QIDS-C16 (P=0.002) or HAM-D17 (P=0.04). We concluded that a rapidly available pharmacogenomic interpretive report provided clinical guidance that was associated with improved clinical outcomes for depressed patients treated in an outpatient psychiatric clinic setting. PMID:23047243
Impact of Reproductive Status and Age on Response of Depressed Women to Cognitive Therapy
Minhajuddin, Abu; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.
2013-01-01
Abstract Objective Previous research suggests that reproductive hormones are potential affective modulators in mood disorders and may influence response to antidepressant medications. To our knowledge, there are no data on relationships between hormonal status and response to psychotherapy for recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods At two sites, female outpatients (n=353), aged 18–70, with recurrent MDD received 12–14 weeks of cognitive therapy (CT). Menopausal status and age were based on self-report. In the parent study, nonresponse to therapy was defined as persistence of a major depressive episode (MDE) as defined by the DSM-IV or a final Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17-Item (HRSD17) score of ≥ 12 or both. More traditional definitions of response (at least a 50% reduction in pretreatment HRSD17) and remission (a final HRSD17 ≤ 6) were also examined. Results Controlling for pretreatment HRSD17 scores, there were no significant differences found in the rates of response to CT or symptom status among premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women. Conclusions We found no support for the hypotheses that response to CT or the rates of change in depressive symptoms are moderated by reproductive status. The findings, however, are limited by the absence of early follicular phase serum sampling/analysis to estimate hormone levels and the reliance on self-report to establish menopausal status. These data motivate a full investigation of the effects of reproductive status on response to psychosocial interventions. PMID:23305218
Papakostas, George I.; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Swee, Michaela B.; Jaeger, Adrienne; Bobo, William V.; Shelton, Richard C.
2016-01-01
Objective To test the efficacy of adjunctive ziprasidone in adults with non-psychotic unipolar major depression experiencing persistent symptoms following 8 weeks of open-label escitalopram. Method This was a multi-center, parallel randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at three academic medical centers in the United States. The participant pool consisted of 139 outpatients with persistent symptoms of major depressive disorder following an 8-week open label trial of escitalopram (phase 1). Subjects were randomized (1:1, n=139) to adjunctive ziprasidone (escitalopram+ziprasidone, n=71) or adjunctive placebo (escitalopram+placebo, n=68), with 8 weekly follow-up assessments. Primary outcome was defined by clinical response according to the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and determined by a 50% or greater reduction in scale scores. The Hamilton Anxiety Rating scale (HAM-A) and Visual Analogue Scale for Pain were defined a priori as key secondary outcome measures. Results Rates of clinical response (35.2% vs. 20.5%, p=0.04) and mean improvement in HAMD-17 total scores (−6.4 ± 6.4 vs. −3.3 ± 6.2, p=0.04) were significantly greater for the escitalopram+ziprasidone group. Several secondary measures of antidepressant efficacy were also in favor of adjunctive ziprasidone. Escitalopram+ziprasidone also resulted in significantly greater improvement in HAM-A, but not Visual Analogue Scale for Pain scores. Ten (14%) patients discontinued escitalopram+ziprasidone due to intolerance versus none for escitalopram+placebo (p<0.01 versus placebo). Conclusions Adjunctive ziprasidone, when added to escitalopram, demonstrated antidepressant efficacy in adult patients with major depressive disorder experiencing persistent symptoms following 8 weeks of open-label escitalopram. PMID:26085041
Kim, Tae-Suk; Jeong, Seung Hee; Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Yim, Hyeon-Woo
2011-01-01
Objective The Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study is a 9-year observational collaborative prospective cohort study for the clinical outcomes in participants with depressive disorders in Korea. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of the depressive participants as the hospital-based cohort. Methods Participants were assessed using various instruments including the Clinical Global Impression scale, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Scale for Suicide Ideation, and World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment instruments-abbreviated version. Also, personal histories of medical and psychiatric illnesses and the range of socio-epidemiologic and clinical data were collected from each participant. Results One thousand one hundred eighty three participants were recruited from 18 hospitals. The mean age of the participants was 47.9±15.9 year-old, 74.4% were female, 82.9% had been diagnosed of major depressive disorder, 40.9% were experiencing their first depressive episode, and 21.4% had a past history of suicide attempts. The majority (85.3%) of the participants were moderately to severely ill. The average HDRS-17 was 19.8±6.1. Significant gender differences at baseline were shown in age, education, marriage, employment, religion, and first depressive episode. Conclusion The baseline findings in the CRESCEND study showed some different characteristics of depression in Korea, suggesting a possibility of ethnic and cultural factors in depression. PMID:21519530
Hashimoto, Tasuku; Sakurai, Daiji; Oda, Yasunori; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Komatsu, Hideki; Takahashi, Junpei; Oiwa, Takahiro; Sekine, Yoshimoto; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Iyo, Masaomi
2015-01-01
Background We assessed the effect of switching patients with major depressive disorder to milnacipran following an initial selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment failure, and explored potential biomarkers in their blood. Methods We conducted a prospective, open-label, 24-week trial. Depression was assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Patients showing a ≥50% reduction in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores from baseline to final visit were considered responders. Regarding adverse effects (AEs), moderate-to-severe AEs were specifically identified as effects that required any medical treatment or that induced treatment withdrawals. We also measured blood levels of various molecules including inflammatory cytokines. Results Of the 30 participants who enrolled, 17 completed this study. The responder rate was 30% (n=10). Baseline serum levels of interleukin-6 (Z=−2.155; P=0.031) and interleukin-8 (Z=−2.616; P=0.009) were significantly higher when moderate-to-severe AEs were present (n=13 patients with moderate-to-severe AEs). Serum levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-1β showed a significant continuous decrease from the baseline level (Friedman’s test: χ2=23.9, df=4, P<0.001) only in non-responders. Conclusion These results demonstrate that serum levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β as potential blood biomarkers could be utilized to identify the responsiveness of patients to serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor like milnacipran, or to identify those patients who may experience AEs strong enough to warrant discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26677330
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Onions, R. K.
1994-01-01
The degassing of the Earth during accretion is constrained by Pu-U-I-Xe systematics. Degassing was much more efficient during the first 100-200 Ma than subsequently, and it was more complete for Xe than for the lighter gases. More than 90 percent of the degassed Xe escaped from the atmosphere during this period. The combination of fractional degassing of melts and rare gas escape from the atmosphere is able to explain the deficit of terrestrial Xe as a simple consequence of this early degassing history. By the time Xe was quantitatively retained in the atmosphere, the abundances of Kr and the lighter gases in the Earth's interior were similar to or higher than the present-day atmospheric abundances. Subsequent transfer of these lighter rare gases into the atmosphere requires a high rate of post-accretion degassing and melt production. Considerations of Pu-U-Xe systematics suggest that relatively rapid post-accretion degassing was continued to ca. 4.1-4.2 Ga. The present-day degassing history of the Earth is investigated through consideration of rare gas isotope abundances. Although the Earth is a highly degassed body, depleted in rare gases by many orders of magnitude relative to their solar abundances, it is at the present-day losing primordial rare gases which were trapped at the time of accretion.
Rate of Lysozyme Crystallization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baird, J. K.; Clunie, J. C.
1997-03-01
We have observed the following: Free solution measurements of the electrophoretic mobility of hen egg-white lysozyme crystals grown in aqueous NaCl at 10 deg C at pH values between 3.6 and 5.7 demonstrate that the crystals are positively charged.(J.K. Baird, A.M. Holmes, and J.C. Clunie, Bull.Am.Phys.Soc. 41, 620 (1996)) (2) When the decaying concentration of uncrystallized lysozyme in the growth solution is monitored as a function of time, the log of the half-life decreases linearly with the square-root of the ionic strength. (3) Acid-base titration shows that lysozyme molecules in solution exist as highly charged cations.(R. Roxby and C. Tanford, Biochemistry 10, 3348 (1971)) These three observations combine to suggest that lysozyme crystallizes by addition of lysozyme cations to positively charged crystal nuclei and that the rate is accelerated by the presence of strong electrolytes.
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Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Attali, Yigal
2011-01-01
Contrary to previous research on sequential ratings of student performance, this study found that professional essay raters of a large-scale standardized testing program produced ratings that were drawn toward previous ratings, creating an assimilation effect. Longer intervals between the two adjacent ratings and higher degree of agreement with…
Primate disease and breeding rates.
Chamove, A; Cameron, G; Nash, V
1979-10-01
33 species were compared for 12 disease categories over 3 years of laboratory housing. There were low correlations between popularity, birth, death, and illness rates. Highest rates were: birth, Macaca nemestrina; illness, Pongo pygmaeus; death, Cercopithecus aethiops. Lowest rates were: birth, Lemur catta; illness, Sanguinus mystax; death, Galago crassicaudatus. Galago crassicaudatus and Macaca fasicularus had low disease and high birth rates. PMID:119108
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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-08-15
..., 2013 (78 FR 30795). The NPRM proposed to require incorporating inspections, based on a calendar time... developing this AD. We received no comments on the NPRM (78 FR 30795, May 23, 2013) or on the determination... (78 FR 30795, May 23, 2013) for correcting the unsafe condition; and Do not add any additional...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-10-25
... October 25, 2013. The effective date for AD 2013-16-10 (78 FR 49660, August 15, 2013) remains September 19... 2013-16-10, Amendment 39-17548 (78 FR 49660, August 15, 2013), currently requires incorporating... published in the Federal Register. The effective date for AD 2013-16-10 (78 FR 49660, August 15,...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-07-30
... funerary objects are 4 lots of animal bone (burned and unburned); 1 animal incisor tool; 1 antler... triangular projectile points; 2 lots of detritus; 1 dog skeleton from a dog burial, relatively complete; 1... humpback knife; 1 lot of intermediate bone tool; 4 lots of light and heavy fraction; 1 modified...
Fedotov, Sergei; Iomin, Alexander; Ryashko, Lev
2011-12-01
Proliferation and migration dichotomy of the tumor cell invasion is examined within two non-Markovian models. We consider the tumor spheroid, which consists of the tumor core with a high density of cells and the outer invasive zone. We distinguish two different regions of the outer invasive zone and develop models for both zones. In model I we analyze the near-core-outer region, where biased migration away from the tumor spheroid core takes place. We suggest non-Markovian switching between the migrating and proliferating phenotypes of tumor cells. Nonlinear master equations for mean densities of cancer cells of both phenotypes are derived. In anomalous switching case we estimate the average size of the near-core-outer region that corresponds to sublinear growth (r(t)) ~ t(μ) for 0 < μ < 1. In model II we consider the outer zone, where the density of cancer cells is very low. We suggest an integrodifferential equation for the total density of cancer cells. For proliferation rate we use the classical logistic growth, while the migration of cells is subdiffusive. The exact formulas for the overall spreading rate of cancer cells are obtained by a hyperbolic scaling and Hamilton-Jacobi techniques. PMID:22304064
High accuracy optical rate sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Uhde-Lacovara, J.
1990-01-01
Optical rate sensors, in particular CCD arrays, will be used on Space Station Freedom to track stars in order to provide inertial attitude reference. An algorithm to provide attitude rate information by directly manipulating the sensor pixel intensity output is presented. The star image produced by a sensor in the laboratory is modeled. Simulated, moving star images are generated, and the algorithm is applied to this data for a star moving at a constant rate. The algorithm produces accurate derived rate of the above data. A step rate change requires two frames for the output of the algorithm to accurately reflect the new rate. When zero mean Gaussian noise with a standard deviation of 5 is added to the simulated data of a star image moving at a constant rate, the algorithm derives the rate with an error of 1.9 percent at a rate of 1.28 pixels per frame.
National Utility Rate Database: Preprint
Ong, S.; McKeel, R.
2012-08-01
When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.
Sekine, Atsushi; Hozumi, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuo
2016-08-30
The aim of this study was to clarify how painful physical symptoms affect treatment outcomes in patients with melancholic major depressive disorder. The subjects comprised 100 consecutive Japanese outpatients with melancholic major depressive disorder who visited our clinic from October 2011 to October 2014. All subjects were interviewed for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis 2, 3, and 4 and family history of major depressive disorder, and then grouped according to the presence of painful physical symptoms. We evaluated painful physical symptoms at baseline and after 12, 24, and 36 weeks of treatment and scores on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, compared major depressive disorder remission between groups, and assessed responsiveness to antidepressants. The group with painful physical symptoms had a significantly more positive family history of major depressive disorder. The major depressive disorder remission rate was high in both groups, and no significant differences were observed. However, a significant relationship between major depressive disorder and painful physical symptoms remission was observed in the group with painful physical symptoms. A significantly higher number of remitted patients with painful physical symptoms (N=61) were administered serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, with significantly more receiving duloxetine than milnacipran. PMID:27294798
Romeo, Renee; Patel, Anita; Knapp, Martin; Thomas, Christine
2004-05-01
Currently, there are no data available comparing cost-effectiveness of two antidepressants in the primary care setting in the UK. Alongside a randomized, double-blind, 24-week study of mirtazapine and paroxetine, data were prospectively collected on patients' use of hospital and non-hospital services and days off work. Costs were estimated in each treatment arm from National Health Service (NHS) and societal perspectives, and were compared with selected outcome measures (numbers of 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (17-HAMD) responders and changes in Quality of Life in Depression Scale scores between baseline and 24-week endpoint) to explore and compare relative cost-effectiveness. Mirtazapine treatment resulted in a statistically significantly greater improvement in quality of life than paroxetine at endpoint (P=0.021). Although the 17-HAMD response rates were higher for the mirtazapine users at endpoint, the difference (7%) was not statistically significant (P=0.31). However, mean total societal costs per patient were 375 pounds less with mirtazapine (1850 pounds) compared to paroxetine (2225 pounds; P=0.32). Mean total NHS costs per patient were also lower (120 pounds) with mirtazapine (1408 pounds) compared to paroxetine (1528 pounds). The advantage for mirtazapine remained present on all variables analysed after performing sensitivity analyses. The results suggest that mirtazapine may be a cost-effective treatment choice compared to paroxetine for depression in a primary care setting. PMID:15107654
Singh, Ajeet Bhagat; Bousman, Chad A.; Ng, Chee Hong; Byron, Keith; Berk, Michael
2015-01-01
Objective Previous studies suggest child abuse and serotonergic polymorphism influence depression susceptibility and anti-depressant efficacy. Polymorphisms of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) may also be involved. Research in the area is possibly clouded by under reporting of abuse in researcher trials. Methods Adults (n=51) with major depressive disorder has 8 weeks treatment with escitalopram or venlafaxine. Abuse history was obtained, the ongoing emotional impact of which was measured with the 15-item impact of event scale (IES-15). The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was applied serially. Two NET polymorphisms (rs2242446 and rs5569) were assayed, blinded to HDRS ratings and abuse history. Results No subjects reporting abuse with high impact in adulthood (IES-15 ≥26, n=12) remitted; whereas 77% reporting low impact (IES-15 <26; n=26) remitted (p<0.001). Subjects reporting high impact abuse (n=12) had a 50-fold (95% confidence interval=4.85–514.6) greater odds of carrying rs2242446-TT genotype, but the small sample size leaves this finding vulnerable to type I error. Conclusion The level of persisting impact of child abuse appears relevant to antidepressant efficacy, with susceptibility to such possibly being influence by NET rs2242446 polymorphism. Larger studies may be merited to expand on this pilot level finding given potential for biomarker utility. PMID:25912538
Suzuki, Yutaro; Fukui, Naoki; Sawamura, Kazushi; Sugai, Takuro; Watanabe, Junzo; Ono, Shin; Inoue, Yoshimasa; Ozdemir, Vural; Someya, Toshiyuki
2008-06-01
Therapeutic drug monitoring studies of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants thus far failed to identify a clear concentration-response relationship in major depression. Majority of the previous studies defined clinical response as 50% or greater reduction from baseline in depression rating scale scores. Because many patients who meet these criteria still present symptoms associated with functional impairment, there is a need to consider "remission" as an alternative end point in concentration-response analyses of SSRIs. The present 12-week prospective study investigated the relationship between fluvoxamine (an SSRI) plasma concentration and remission in outpatients with depression. We used a flexible dose titration study designed to mimic clinical practice within the therapeutic dose range of fluvoxamine (25-200 mg/d). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was computed to determine the optimal fluvoxamine plasma concentration for remission using 269 concentration data obtained from 80 patients. Analysis of the ROC curve from the entire study sample did not reveal a fluvoxamine concentration significantly predicting remission. By contrast, ROC analysis specifically in patients with moderate to severe depression (N = 51; baseline 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score > or = 20) found a fluvoxamine concentration of 61.4 ng/mL as a significant predictor of remission. In conclusion, therapeutic drug monitoring may be useful for rational titration and individualization of fluvoxamine dose and predicting remission in patients with moderate to severe depression, who may presumably display lesser placebo component in pharmacodynamic response. PMID:18480690
Patris, M; Bouchard, J M; Bougerol, T; Charbonnier, J F; Chevalier, J F; Clerc, G; Cyran, C; Van Amerongen, P; Lemming, O; Høpfner Petersen, H E
1996-06-01
Two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), citalopram and fluoxetine, both at a daily dose of 20 mg, were compared in patients with unipolar major depression treated in general practice. This was a multicentre, double-blind, randomized trial carried out in France. The duration of treatment was 8 weeks. Patients were assessed by means of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the 17 items Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the investigator's Clinical Global Impressions (CGI), Observed and spontaneously reported adverse events were also recorded. A total of 357 patients of both sexes, aged between 21 and 73 years, entered the double-blind phase of the trial. A clear reduction of both the MADRS and the HAMD mean total scores was observed in both treatment groups with no statistically significant differences between treatments. Apart from back pain recorded more frequently in the citalopram group, no significant difference was found between the two treatment groups with regard to adverse events, and both citalopram and fluoxetine were considered to be well tolerated. It was concluded that citalopram was as effective as fluoxetine in the treatment of unipolar major depression. Citalopram showed an earlier onset of recovery than fluoxetine. PMID:8803650
... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More All About Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Apr 19,2016 ... Sodium and Salt 3 Low Blood Pressure 4 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) 5 How to Eat ...
... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...
... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) ... incidence data are currently available. Rates of Getting Lung Cancer by State The number of people who ...
Criteria for Establishing Bond Ratings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ackerman, Freda Stern
1984-01-01
An executive of Moody's Investors Service explains what past experience has taught the company about municipal analysis, how a bond issue is assigned a credit rating, and what issuers can do to obtain the best rating. (MLF)
2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
2006-11-01
This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.
Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel
2016-03-30
Measuring changes in psychomotor activity is a potential tool in the monitoring of the course of affective states in bipolar disorder. Previous studies have been cross-sectional and only some have used objective measures. The aim was to investigate state-related differences in objectively-measured psychomotor activity in bipolar disorder. During a 12 weeks study, repeated measurements of heart rate and movement monitoring over several days were collected during different affective states from 19 outpatients with bipolar disorder. Outcomes included activity energy expenditure (AEE) and trunk acceleration (ACC). Symptoms were clinically assessed using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Compared to patients in a euthymic state, patients in a manic state had significantly higher AEE. Compared to patients in a depressive state, patients in a manic state had significantly higher ACC and AEE. There was a significant diurnal variation in ACC and AEE between affective states. Finally, there was a significant correlation between the severity of manic symptoms and ACC and AEE, respectively. This first study measuring psychomotor activity during different affective states using a combined heart rate and movement sensor supports that psychomotor activity is a core symptom in bipolar disorder that is altered during affective states. PMID:26832835
Idiot savants: rate of incidence.
Hill, A L
1977-02-01
Based on the replies to a survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded, an incidence rate for idiot savants was established. This rate of .06% is based on the reporting of 54 idiot savants within a population of 90,000 residents. Several reasons for caution in the acceptance of this incidence rate are discussed. PMID:840586
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-10-22
... Rate Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances... On September 26, 2013, the Postal Service filed an exigent rate request with the Commission...
Stocking Rates for Horse Pastures
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Decision on which stocking rate to graze a horse pasture is critical, particularly if the forage is expected to meet the nutrient needs of the horses. Challenges and management for targeting the optimum stocking rate, defined as the stocking rate that allows forage consumption to approximately equ...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-07-29
... COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.060% (.00060) for tier 2 for calendar year 2010. These rates... Commission. If a tribe has a certificate of self-regulation under 25 CFR part 518, the preliminary fee...
AGRICULTURAL EXCHANGE RATE DATA SHEET
The ERS data set contains annual and monthly data for exchange rates important to U.S. agriculture. It includes both nominal and real exchange rates for 80 countries (plus the European Union) as well as real trade-weighted exchange rate indexes for many commodities and aggregatio...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gambino, Joel P.
1999-01-01
Micromachined Electro Mechanical System Rate sensors offer many advantages that make them attractive for space use. They are smaller, consume less power, and cost less than the systems currently available. MEMS Rate Sensors however, have not been optimized for use on spacecraft. This paper describes an approach to developing MEMS Rate Sensors systems for space use.
[Rate Justification for Child Care.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Community Coordinated Child Care (4-C) for Central Florida, Inc., Orlando.
This brief report argues against the cost analysis process currently used as a form of rate justification by states and central agencies who are purchasing child care. Instead, a logic is proposed for negotiated rates based on expected levels of necessary costs and reasonable rates in comparison with open market levels as shown on day care…
Rate and Occupancy Survey Results.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mid-Atlantic Association of Coll. and Univ. Housing Officers.
In its annual effort to determine rate and occupancy trends in the Mid-Atlantic region, MACUHO surveyed by questionnaire the chief housing officers on its mailing list and received 99 usable responses, compared with 65 the previous year. The average double room rate was reported to be $691, compared with $646 in 1975; the average board rate rose…
Relaxed Poisson cure rate models.
Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N
2016-03-01
The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented. PMID:26686485
Depression Rating Scales in Parkinson’s Disease: Critique and Recommendations
Schrag, Anette; Barone, Paolo; Brown, Richard G.; Leentjens, Albert F.G.; McDonald, William M.; Starkstein, Sergio; Weintraub, Daniel; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Olivier; Sampaio, Cristina; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.
2007-01-01
Depression is a common comorbid condition in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and a major contributor to poor quality of life and disability. However, depression can be difficult to assess in patients with PD due to overlapping symptoms and difficulties in the assessment of depression in cognitively impaired patients. As several rating scales have been used to assess depression in PD (dPD), the Movement Disorder Society commissioned a task force to assess their clinimetric properties and make clinical recommendations regarding their use. A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the use of depression scales in PD and determine which scales should be selected for this review. The scales reviewed were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Scale (Ham-D), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Montgomery-As-berg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part I, Cornell Scale for the Assessment of Depression in Dementia (CSDD), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Seven clinical researchers with clinical and research experience in the assessment of dPD were assigned to review the scales using a structured format. The most appropriate scale is dependent on the clinical or research goal. However, observer-rated scales are preferred if the study or clinical situation permits. For screening purposes, the HAM-D, BDI, HADS, MADRS, and GDS are valid in dPD. The CES-D and CSDD are alternative instruments that need validation in dPD. For measurement of severity of depressive symptoms, the Ham-D, MADRS, BDI, and SDS scales are recommended. Further studies are needed to validate the CSDD, which could be particularly useful for the assessment of severity of dPD in patients with comorbid dementia. To account for overlapping motor and nonmotor symptoms of depression, adjusted instrument cutoff scores may
Saturn component failure rate and failure rate modifiers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1971-01-01
Failure mode frequency ratios, environmental adjustment factors, and failure rates for mechanical and electromechanical component families are presented. The failure rates and failure rate modifiers resulted from a series of studies whose purpose was to provide design, tests, reliability, and systems engineers with accurate, up-to-date failure rate information. The results of the studies were achieved through an extensive engineering analysis of the Saturn Program test data and Unsatisfactory Condition Reports (UCR's) and the application of mathematical techniques developed for the studies.
Field measurement of ventilation rates.
Persily, A K
2016-02-01
Ventilation rates have significant impacts on building energy use and indoor contaminant concentrations, making them key parameters in building performance. Ventilation rates have been measured in buildings for many decades, and there are mature measurement approaches available to researchers and others who need to know actual ventilation rates in buildings. Despite the fact that ventilation rates are critical in interpreting indoor concentration measurements, it is disconcerting how few Indoor Air Quality field studies measure ventilation rates or otherwise characterize the ventilation design of the study building(s). This paper summarizes parameters of interest in characterizing building ventilation, available methods for quantifying these parameters, and challenges in applying these methods to different types of buildings and ventilation systems. These parameters include whole-building air change rates, system outdoor air intake rates, and building infiltration rates. Tracer gas methods are reviewed as well as system airflow rate measurements using, for example, duct traverses. Several field studies of ventilation rates conducted over the past 75 years are described to highlight the approaches employed and the findings obtained. PMID:25689218
9 CFR 592.520 - Overtime rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... travel and operating rate, plus the overhead rate, plus the allowance for bad debt rate. FSIS calculates the benefits rate, the travel and operating rate, the overhead rate, and the allowance for bad...
9 CFR 592.520 - Overtime rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... travel and operating rate, plus the overhead rate, plus the allowance for bad debt rate. FSIS calculates the benefits rate, the travel and operating rate, the overhead rate, and the allowance for bad...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
..., plus the travel and operating rate, plus the overhead rate, plus the allowance for bad debt rate. FSIS calculates the benefits rate, the travel and operating rate, the overhead rate, and the allowance for...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
..., plus the travel and operating rate, plus the overhead rate, plus the allowance for bad debt rate. FSIS calculates the benefits rate, the travel and operating rate, the overhead rate, and the allowance for...
15 CFR 700.3 - Priority ratings and rated orders.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Priority ratings and rated orders. 700.3 Section 700.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL...
Conducting Market Rate Surveys and Establishing Rate Policies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karolak, Eric; Collins, Ray; Stoney, Louise
Market rate surveys and the rate-setting policies and reimbursement rules informed by them are at the core of the market-based approach to child care and are central to the delicate balancing act of ensuring access to subsidized care while at the same time promoting the quality of child care. This report provides an overview of the market-based…
HEATCVB: Coronal heating rate approximations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cranmer, Steven R.
2015-06-01
HEATCVB is a stand-alone Fortran 77 subroutine that estimates the local volumetric coronal heating rate with four required inputs: the radial distance r, the wind speed u, the mass density ρ, and the magnetic field strength |B0|. The primary output is the heating rate Qturb at the location defined by the input parameters. HEATCVB also computes the local turbulent dissipation rate of the waves, γ = Qturb/(2UA).
Relation between gastric emptying rate and rate of intraluminal lipolysis.
Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Geypens, B J; Hiele, M I; Rutgeerts, P J
1996-01-01
The variable gastric emptying rate of a test meal is one of the major problems in evaluating accurately gastrointestinal physiological functions beyond the stomach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the gastric emptying rate on the rate of intraluminal lipolysis. Thirty four subjects without pancreatic disease (21 with a normal gastric emptying and 13 with a known slow gastric emptying) and 14 subjects with pancreatic disease (four without and 10 with pancreatic insufficiency) were studied using a dual labelled breath test. The test meal consisted of one egg, 60 grams of white bread, 10 grams of margarine, and 150 ml of water (350 kcal). The egg yolk was labelled with 91 mg of 13C-octanoic acid, the margarine was labelled with 296 kBq of distearyl-2-14C-octanoyl-glycerol. Breath samples were taken every 15 minutes during six hours and analysed for 13CO2 and 14CO2 content. The gastric emptying rate of the meal was evaluated by the gastric emptying coefficient, the half emptying time, and the lag phase; the rate of intraluminal lipolysis was evaluated by the six hours cumulative 14CO2 excretion. Despite a clear distinction in the rate of intraluminal lipolysis, no difference could be detected in gastric emptying rate of the test meal between subjects without and with pancreatic disease. In subjects with pancreatic insufficiency, intraluminal hydrolysis was the rate limiting process in fat assimilation; in patients without pancreatic insufficiency, however, gastric emptying could be rate limiting. Therefore, patients with known slow gastric emptying, displayed a significantly decreased rate of intraluminal lipolysis compared with normal controls. This decrease could be corrected for accurately using a correction factor based on the gastric emptying coefficient. In conclusion, the combined 13C-octanoic acid and 14C-mixed triglyceride breath test permits the measurement of gastric emptying rate and intraluminal lipolysis simultaneously in a minimally
Rate control in atrial fibrillation.
Van Gelder, Isabelle C; Rienstra, Michiel; Crijns, Harry J G M; Olshansky, Brian
2016-08-20
Control of the heart rate (rate control) is central to atrial fibrillation management, even for patients who ultimately require control of the rhythm. We review heart rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation, including the rationale for the intervention, patient selection, and the treatments available. The choice of rate control depends on the symptoms and clinical characteristics of the patient, but for all patients with atrial fibrillation, rate control is part of the management. Choice of drugs is patient-dependent. β blockers, alone or in combination with digoxin, or non-dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers (not in heart failure) effectively lower the heart rate. Digoxin is least effective, but a reasonable choice for physically inactive patients aged 80 years or older, in whom other treatments are ineffective or are contraindicated, and as an additional drug to other rate-controlling drugs, especially in heart failure when instituted cautiously. Atrioventricular node ablation with pacemaker insertion for rate control should be used as an approach of last resort but is also an option early in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation treated with cardiac resynchronisation therapy. However, catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation should be considered before atrioventricular node ablation. Although rate control is a top priority and one of the first management issues for all patients with atrial fibrillation, many issues remain. PMID:27560277
Mortality rates decline in Malaysia.
1991-11-01
Experiencing remarkable decreases in mortality rates over the past 3 decades, Malaysia currently has one of the lowest mortality rates among developing countries, a rate that compares favorably with those of developed countries. Between 1957 and 1989, the crude death rate dropped from 12.4/1000 population to 4.6. Over the same period, Malaysia recorded even greater decreases in the infant mortality rate, from 75.5/1000 births to 15.2. The Maternal mortality rate also declined from 1.48 in 1970 to 0.24 in 1988. The data indicates that mortality rates vary from state to state, and that rural areas have a higher mortality than urban areas. According to a study by the National Population and Family Development Board, the use of maternal and child health services has played an important role in reducing neonatal, perinatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates. Nearly all women in Malaysia receive antenatal services. While the country has achieved great gains on mortality rates, programs focusing on specific age and socioeconomic groups could lead to even greater reductions. The Minister for National Unity and Social Development, Dato Napsiah Omar, has called for the development of programs designed to improve the population's quality of life. PMID:12284509
Danzl, Per; Hespanha, João; Moehlis, Jeff
2009-12-01
We present an event-based feedback control method for randomizing the asymptotic phase of oscillatory neurons. Phase randomization is achieved by driving the neuron's state to its phaseless set, a point at which its phase is undefined and is extremely sensitive to background noise. We consider the biologically relevant case of a fixed magnitude constraint on the stimulus signal, and show how the control objective can be accomplished in minimum time. The control synthesis problem is addressed using the minimum-time-optimal Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman framework, which is quite general and can be applied to any spiking neuron model in the conductance-based Hodgkin-Huxley formalism. We also use this methodology to compute a feedback control protocol for optimal spike rate increase. This framework provides a straightforward means of visualizing isochrons, without actually calculating them in the traditional way. Finally, we present an extension of the phase randomizing control scheme that is applied at the population level, to a network of globally coupled neurons that are firing in synchrony. The applied control signal desynchronizes the population in a demand-controlled way. PMID:19911192
Wade, Alan; Crawford, Gordon M; Angus, Margaret; Wilson, Richard; Hamilton, Lorna
2003-05-01
Primary care patients with a major depressive disorder and 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (17-HAM-D) score >18 were randomized to 24 weeks of treatment with mirtazapine 30-45 mg/day (n=99) or paroxetine 20-30 mg/day (n=98). Both treatments were efficacious in improving depressive symptomatology, as assessed by group mean 17-HAM-D scores, percentages of HAM-D responders and remitters and Clinical Global Improvement responders. The mirtazapine group showed statistically significantly larger decreases from baseline in group mean 17-HAM-D scores at weeks 1, 2 and 4, and the difference with the paroxetine group reached the level of clinical relevance at weeks 2 and 4. Antidepressant efficacy was maintained throughout both the acute and continuation phase of treatment. Both treatments were well tolerated. The only adverse event with a statistically significantly higher incidence in the mirtazapine group was fatigue. Statistically significantly more paroxetine-treated patients complained of increased sweating, headache and nausea. The results demonstrate that both mirtazapine and paroxetine were efficacious and well tolerated when used for 24 weeks in depressed patients treated in primary care. An observed difference in efficacy favouring mirtazapine between weeks 1 and 4 indicates that mirtazapine patients had improved earlier compared to those on paroxetine, and corroborates similar findings in other comparisons of mirtazapine versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:12702891
Chan, Herng Nieng; Rush, A John; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Trivedi, Madhukar; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Balasubramani, G K; Friedman, Edward S; Gaynes, Bradley N; Davis, Lori; Morris, David; Fava, Maurizio
2012-11-01
The objective of this paper was to determine whether the presence of more vs. fewer anxious symptom features, at baseline, are associated with other clinical features and treatment outcomes in out-patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This single-blind, randomized trial enrolled 665 MDD out-patients to compare the efficacy of two antidepressant medication combinations against escitalopram after 12-wk acute treatment and follow-up (total 28 wk). The sample was divided into those with greater (vs. fewer) anxiety features using the anxiety/somatization subscale of the baseline 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Baseline sociodemographic and clinical features, treatment features and outcomes compared these two groups. Overall, 74.7% of participants met the threshold for 'anxious features'. They were more likely to be female, have other concurrent anxiety disorders, more severe depression, more lethargic and melancholic features and poorer cognitive and physical functioning, quality of life and work and social adjustment. In acute treatment, participants with anxious features received comparatively higher doses of mirtazapine and venlafaxine and reported more side-effects. The groups with and without anxious features did not differ in treatment outcomes and side-effect burden. Despite being associated with a distinct clinical profile, baseline anxious features were not clinically useful in predicting acute treatment outcomes or differential treatment response. PMID:22129562
Liu, Yansong; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Jun; Na, Aiguo; Sun, Yujun; Zhao, Xudong
2016-09-30
Previous studies have shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a characteristic of depression. However, there are no studies to explore the association between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with first-episode depression (FE). This study investigated whether baseline OGM predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. We recruited 125 patients with FE. The participants were divided into remitted group and non-remitted group according to the severity of their depression at 12 months follow-up. The measures consisted of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses were conducted. The results showed that non-remitted patients had more OGM at baseline. Baseline OGM predicted depressive symptoms at follow-up in patients with FE. Rumination mediated the relationship between baseline OGM and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our findings highlight OGM as a vulnerability factor involved in the maintenance of depression in patients with FE. PMID:27392229
Zeng, Qingzhi; Wang, Wei Chun; Fang, Yiru; Mellor, David; Mccabe, Marita; Byrne, Linda; Zuo, Sai; Xu, Yifeng
2016-07-30
Relying on the absence, presence of level of symptomatology may not provide an adequate indication of the effects of treatment for depression, nor sufficient information for the development of treatment plans that meet patients' needs. Using a prospective, multi-centered, and observational design, the present study surveyed a large sample of outpatients with depression in China (n=9855). The 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17) and the Remission Evaluation and Mood Inventory Tool (REMIT) were administered at baseline, two weeks later and 4 weeks, to assess patients' self-reported symptoms and general sense of mental health and wellbeing. Of 9855 outpatients, 91.3% were diagnosed as experiencing moderate to severe depression. The patients reported significant improvement over time on both depressive symptoms and general sense after 4-week treatment. The effect sizes of change in general sense were lower than those in symptoms at both two week and four week follow-up. Treatment effects on both general sense and depressive symptomatology were associated with demographic and clinical factors. The findings indicate that a focus on both general sense of mental health and wellbeing in addition to depressive symptomatology will provide clinicians, researchers and patients themselves with a broader perspective of the status of patients. PMID:27156024
Impact of anxiety symptoms on outcomes of depression: an observational study in Asian patients
Novick, Diego; Montgomery, William; Aguado, Jaume; Peng, Xiaomei; Haro, Josep Maria
2016-01-01
Objective To investigate the impact of anxiety symptoms on depression outcomes in Asian patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (n=714). Methods The 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17), overall severity, somatic symptoms, and quality of life (QOL) (EuroQOL Questionnaire-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D]) were assessed at baseline and 3 months. Anxiety was measured using items 10 and 11 from the HAMD-17. Linear, tobit, and logistic multiple regression models analyzed the impact of anxiety symptoms on outcomes. Baseline anxiety was related to age and the presence of pain symptoms at baseline. Results Regression models showed that a higher level of anxiety was associated with a lower frequency of remission and lower QOL at 3 months. Patients with lower baseline anxiety symptoms had higher remission rates (odds ratio for each point of anxiety symptoms, 0.829 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.723–0.951]). Patients with higher levels of baseline anxiety had a lower QOL at 3 months (a decrease in EQ-5D tariff score for each point of anxiety symptoms, 0.023 [95% CI: 0.045–0.001]). Conclusion In conclusion, the presence of anxiety symptoms negatively impacts the outcomes of depression. PMID:27114710
van Rijsbergen, Gerard D; Burger, Huibert; Hollon, Steven D; Elgersma, Hermien J; Kok, Gemma D; Dekker, Jack; de Jong, Peter J; Bockting, Claudi L H
2014-12-15
Mood is a key element of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and is perceived as a highly dynamic construct. The aim of the current study was to examine whether a single-item mood scale can be used for mood monitoring. One hundred thirty remitted out-patients were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders (SCID-I), Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS), 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17), and Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report (IDS-SR). Of all patients, 13.8% relapsed during follow-up assessments. Area under the curves (AUCs) for the VAMS, HAM-D17 and IDS-SR were 0.94, 0.91, and, 0.86, respectively. The VAMS had the highest positive predictive value (PPV) without any false negatives at score 55 (PPV=0.53; NPV=1.0) and was the best predictor of current relapse status (variance explained for VAMS: 60%; for HAM-D17: 49%; for IDS-SR: 34%). Only the HAM-D17 added significant variance to the model (7%). Assessing sad mood with a single-item mood scale seems to be a straightforward and patient-friendly avenue for life-long mood monitoring. Using a diagnostic interview (e.g., the SCID) in case of a positive screen is warranted. Repeated assessment of the VAMS using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) might reduce false positives. PMID:25070177
Basalt Weathering Rates Across Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navarresitchler, A.; Brantley, S.
2006-12-01
Weathering of silicate minerals is a known sink for atmospheric CO2. An estimated 30%-35% of the consumption of CO2 from continental silicate weathering can be attributed to basalt weathering (Dessert et al., 2003). To assess basalt weathering rates we examine weathering advance rates of basalt (w, mm/yr) reported at four scales: denudation rates from basalt watersheds (tens of kilometers), rates of soil formation from soil profiles developed on basaltic parent material of known age (meters), rates of weathering rind formation on basalt clasts (centimeters), and laboratory dissolution rates (millimeters). Basalt weathering advance rates calculated for watersheds range between 0.36 and 9.8x10-3 mm/yr. The weathering advance rate for a basalt soil profile in Hawaii is 8.0x10-3 mm/yr while advance rates for clasts range from 5.6x10-6 to 2.4x10-4 mm/yr. Batch and mixed flow laboratory experiments performed at circum- neutral pH yield advance rates of 2.5x10^{-5} to 3.4x10-7 mm/yr when normalized to BET surface area. These results show increasing advance rates with both increasing scale (from laboratory to watersheds) and increasing temperature. If we assume that basalt weathers at an intrinsic rate that applies to all scales then we conclude that variations in weathering advance rates arise from variations in surface area measurement at different scales (D); therefore, basalt weathering is a fractal system. We measure a fractal dimension (dr) of basalt weathering of 2.2. For Euclidean geometries, measured surface area does not vary with the scale at which it is measured and dr equals 2. For natural surfaces, surface area is related to the scale at which it is measured. As scale increases, the minimum size of the surface irregularities that are measurable also increases. The ratio between BET and geometric normalized laboratory dissolution rates has been defined as a roughness parameter, λ, which ranges from ~10-100. We extend the definition of this roughness parameter
Gąsior, Jakub S.; Sacha, Jerzy; Jeleń, Piotr J.; Zieliński, Jakub; Przybylski, Jacek
2016-01-01
Background: Since heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with average heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RespRate), alterations in these parameters may impose changes in HRV. Hence the repeatability of HRV measurements may be affected by differences in HR and RespRate. The study aimed to evaluate HRV repeatability and its association with changes in HR and RespRate. Methods: Forty healthy volunteers underwent two ECG examinations 7 days apart. Standard HRV indices were calculated from 5-min ECG recordings. The ECG-derived respiration signal was estimated to assess RespRate. To investigate HR impact on HRV, HRV parameters were corrected for prevailing HR. Results: Differences in HRV parameters between the measurements were associated with the changes in HR and RespRate. However, in multiple regression analysis only HR alteration proved to be independent determinant of the HRV differences—every change in HR by 1 bpm changed HRV values by 16.5% on average. After overall removal of HR impact on HRV, coefficients of variation of the HRV parameters significantly dropped on average by 26.8% (p < 0.001), i.e., by the same extent HRV reproducibility improved. Additionally, the HRV correction for HR decreased association between RespRate and HRV. Conclusions: In stable conditions, HR but not RespRate is the most powerful factor determining HRV reproducibility and even a minimal change of HR may considerably alter HRV. However, the removal of HR impact may significantly improve HRV repeatability. The association between HRV and RespRate seems to be, at least in part, HR dependent. PMID:27588006
Matching and Conditioned Reinforcement Rate
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina
2006-01-01
Attempts to examine the effects of variations in relative conditioned reinforcement rate on choice have been confounded by changes in rates of primary reinforcement or changes in the value of the conditioned reinforcer. To avoid these problems, this experiment used concurrent observing responses to examine sensitivity of choice to relative…
Nontraditional Student Graduation Rate Benchmarks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miller, Nathan B.
2014-01-01
The prominence of discourse on postsecondary degree completion, student persistence, and retention has increased in the national dialogue. Heightened attention to college completion rates by the federal government and pressure to tie state funding to performance metrics associated with graduation rates are catalysts for the discussion.…
Predicting the Divorce Rate: Down?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kemper, Theodore D.
1983-01-01
Predicted a decline in the divorce rate based on 10 factors including: decline in marriage rate, older age at marriage, mental health improvement, upper limit on employed women, less migration, end of the cultural revolution, exhaustion of latency effect of no-fault divorce, and fear of the consequences of divorce. (JAC)
Rating Scale Instruments and Measurement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cavanagh, Robert F.; Romanoski, Joseph T.
2006-01-01
The article examines theoretical issues associated with measurement in the human sciences and ensuring data from rating scale instruments are measures. An argument is made that using raw scores from rating scale instruments for subsequent arithmetic operations and applying linear statistics is less preferable than using measures. These theoretical…
76 FR 46603 - Security Ratings
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-08-03
... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 200, 229, 230, 232, 239, 240, and 249 RIN 3235-AK18 Security Ratings AGENCY... for, security ratings (for example, Forms S-3 and F-3 eligibility criteria) with alternative...- worthiness of a security or money market instrument and any references to or requirements in such...
Depression Rating Scale for Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Poznanski, Elva O.; And Others
1979-01-01
A Children's Depression Rating Scale (CDRS) was devised and tested on 30 inpatient children (6 to 12 years old) in a medical hospital. A high correlation was found between global ratings by two psychiatrists of severity of depression and scores on the CDRS. Journal availability: American Academy of Pediatrics, P.O. Box 1034, Evanston, IL 60204.…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mallier, R.; Alobaidi, G.
2004-03-01
We consider fixed-for-floating interest rate swaps under the assumption that interest rates are given by the mean-reverting Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model. By using a Green's function approach, we derive analytical expressions for the values of both a vanilla swap and an in-arrears swap.
Evolution & the Cesarean Section Rate
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walsh, Joseph A.
2008-01-01
"Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This was the title of an essay by geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky writing in 1973. Many causes have been given for the increased Cesarean section rate in developed countries, but biologic evolution has not been one of them. The C-section rate will continue to rise, because the…
National anthems and suicide rates.
Lester, David; Gunn, John F
2011-02-01
In a sample of 18 European nations, suicide rates were positively associated with the proportion of low notes in the national anthems and, albeit less strongly, with students' ratings of how gloomy and how sad the anthems sounded, supporting a hypothesis proposed by Rihmer. PMID:21526589
Dual rate pressure relief valve
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steeneken, J.
1968-01-01
Pressure relief valve vents at a slow bleed rate at one pressure level and at a higher bleed rate at a higher pressure level. The value housing contains a sleeve, inlet port, outlet port, an orifice, a ball and seat arrangement, and a belleville spring diaphragm.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schmitz, Guy
2005-01-01
The definition of reaction rate is derived and demonstrations are made for the care to be taken while using the term. Reaction rate can be in terms of a reaction property, the extent of reaction and thus it is possible to give a definition applicable in open and closed systems.
Innovative Rates Program. Final report
Not Available
1982-06-21
Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) as amended by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) provided financial assistance to state utility regulatory commissions, nonregulated electric utilities, and the Tennessee Valley Authority through the Innovative Rates Program. The financial assistance was to be used to plan or carry out electric utility regulatory rate reform initiatives relating to innovative rate structures that encourage conservation of energy, electric utility efficiency and reduced costs, and equitable rates to consumers. The Federal and local objectives of the project are described. Activities planned and accomplishments are summarized for the following: project management, data collection, utility bill evaluation, billing enclosure/mailing evaluation, media program evaluation, display evaluation, rate study sessions evaluation, speakers bureau evaluation, and individual customer contacts. A timetable/milestone chart and financial information are included. (MHR)
New fine structure cooling rate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoegy, W. R.
1976-01-01
One of the dominant electron cooling processes in the ionosphere is caused by electron impact induced fine structure transitions among the ground state levels of atomic oxygen. This fine structure cooling rate is based on theoretical cross sections. Recent advances in the numerical cross section determinations to include polarization effects and more accurate representations of the atomic target result in new lower values. These cross sections are employed in this paper to derive a new fine structure cooling rate which is between 40% and 60% of the currently used rate. A new generalized formula is presented for the cooling rate (from which the fine structure cooling rate is derived), valid for arbitrary mass and temperature difference of the colliding particles and arbitrary inelastic energy difference.
The Logic of Collective Rating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nax, Heinrich
2016-05-01
The introduction of participatory rating mechanisms on online sales platforms has had substantial impact on firms' sales and profits. In this note, we develop a dynamic model of consumer influences on ratings and of rating influences on consumers, focussing on standard 5-star mechanisms as implemented by many platforms. The key components of our social influence model are the consumer trust in the `wisdom of crowds' during the purchase phase and indirect reciprocity during the rating decision. Our model provides an overarching explanation for well-corroborated empirical regularities. We quantify the performance of the voluntary rating mechanism in terms of realized consumer surplus with the no-mechanism and full-information benchmarks, and identify how it could be improved.
High Rate Digital Demodulator ASIC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghuman, Parminder; Sheikh, Salman; Koubek, Steve; Hoy, Scott; Gray, Andrew
1998-01-01
The architecture of High Rate (600 Mega-bits per second) Digital Demodulator (HRDD) ASIC capable of demodulating BPSK and QPSK modulated data is presented in this paper. The advantages of all-digital processing include increased flexibility and reliability with reduced reproduction costs. Conventional serial digital processing would require high processing rates necessitating a hardware implementation in other than CMOS technology such as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) which has high cost and power requirements. It is more desirable to use CMOS technology with its lower power requirements and higher gate density. However, digital demodulation of high data rates in CMOS requires parallel algorithms to process the sampled data at a rate lower than the data rate. The parallel processing algorithms described here were developed jointly by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The resulting all-digital receiver has the capability to demodulate BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, and DQPSK at data rates in excess of 300 Mega-bits per second (Mbps) per channel. This paper will provide an overview of the parallel architecture and features of the HRDR ASIC. In addition, this paper will provide an over-view of the implementation of the hardware architectures used to create flexibility over conventional high rate analog or hybrid receivers. This flexibility includes a wide range of data rates, modulation schemes, and operating environments. In conclusion it will be shown how this high rate digital demodulator can be used with an off-the-shelf A/D and a flexible analog front end, both of which are numerically computer controlled, to produce a very flexible, low cost high rate digital receiver.
The Average of Rates and the Average Rate.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lindstrom, Peter
1988-01-01
Defines arithmetic, harmonic, and weighted harmonic means, and discusses their properties. Describes the application of these properties in problems involving fuel economy estimates and average rates of motion. Gives example problems and solutions. (CW)
The Airline Quality Rating 2001
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.
2001-01-01
The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2000. AQR scores for the calendar year 2000 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 2000. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2000 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 2000, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1999 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.
Deformational injection rate measuring method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marčič, Milan
2002-09-01
After completing the diesel engine endurance testing, we detected various traces of thermal load on the walls of combustion chambers located in the engine pistons. The engines were fitted with ω combustion chambers. The thermal load of different intensity levels occurred where the spray of fuel, fuel vapor, and air interacted with the combustion chamber wall. The uneven thermal load distribution of the combustion chamber wall results from varying injection rates in each injection nozzle hole. The most widely applied controlling methods so far for injection rate measurement, such as the Zeuch and Bosch concepts, allow measurement of only the total injection rate in multihole nozzles, without providing any indication whatsoever of the injection rate differences in individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the article allows the injection rate to be measured in each hole of the multihole nozzle. The results of the measurements using this method showed that the differences occurred in injection rates of individual injection nozzle holes. These differences may be the cause of various thermal loads on the combustion chamber walls. The criterion for injection rate is the deformation of the membrane due to an increase in the fuel quantity in the measuring space and due to the pressure waves resulting from the fuel being injected into the measuring space. The membrane deformation is measured using strain gauges, glued to the membrane and forming the Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the temperature compensation of the Wheatstone's bridge and the membrane, heated up during the measurements.
The Airline Quality Rating 2003
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.
2003-01-01
The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2003, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2002. AQR scores for the calendar year 2002 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2003 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 10 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2002. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of ontime arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2002 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2002, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2001 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.
The Airline Quality Rating 2004
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fink, Mary M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.
2004-01-01
The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores for the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1 % of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.
Growth Rate and Turgor Pressure
Green, Paul B.; Cummins, W. Raymond
1974-01-01
Because turgor pressure is regarded as the driving force for cell extension, any general theory of plant growth requires quantitative information on the relationship between steady irreversible growth rate and turgor pressure. To investigate contrasting views of this relation an automated apparatus was constructed which perfused both the outer and inner epidermis of a single coleoptile while its growth rate was continuously recorded. Turgor was altered abruptly by perfusing with solutions of varying tonicity. With specially grown rye coleoptiles the half-time of the osmo-elastic response was reduced to 2 minutes or less. After decay of this response, however, rate continued to change (so as to partially compensate the effects of the turgor shift in question) for 30 to 60 minutes. Only then could a steady rate be taken. A characterization of steady rate versus turgor covering five turgor values for a single coleoptile thus required many hours. The conclusions are as follows. (a) The change in steady rate, per unit change in turgor, was much greater +IAA than −IAA. (b) Both auxin and turgor act to reset an apparent stabilizing system whose presence is shown in the partial compensation of the initial response to turgor shifts. The above “extensibility” changes are operational only. They need not reflect changes in the immediate physical extensibility of the wall; they could reflect changes in a process acting on the wall. (c) The growth rate versus turgor relation shows some hysteresis. PMID:16658991
The Airline Quality Rating 2002
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.
2002-01-01
The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2002, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2001. AQR scores for the calendar year 2001 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2002 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 11 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2001. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2001 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2001, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2000 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.
The Airline Quality Rating 2004
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.
2004-01-01
The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores far the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elemnts in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1% of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective
The Airline Quality Rating 1999
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.
1999-01-01
The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1999, reflects an updated approach to calculating monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1998. AQR scores for the calendar year 1998 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1998. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year 1998 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1998, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1997, using the updated criteria, are included to provide a reference point regarding quality in the industry.
Stochastic analysis of nucleation rates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johansson, Jonas
2016-02-01
We show that approximating the Becker-Döring equations with a Langevin equation results in multiplicative noise, which in turn leads to a family of possible Fokker-Planck equations according to the Ito-Stratonovich dilemma. Using a simple and general model for the attachment and detachment rates, we find that the Ito choice approximates the nucleation rate best and also coincides with the Fokker-Planck equation resulting from the common way to Taylor expand the original set of rate equations.
Renormalized reaction and relaxation rates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbachev, Yuriy E.
2016-06-01
Impact of the non-equilibrium on the reaction and relaxation rates (called as generalized relaxation rates - GRR), for the spatially inhomogeneous gas mixture is considered. Discarding the assumption that the 'chemical' part of the collisional integral is a small correction to non-reactive part, the expression for the zero-order GRR is derived. They are represented as a renormalization of the traditional reaction and relaxation rates, which means mixing of all corresponding processes. Thus all reactions and relaxation processes are entangled.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allbritain, R. H.
1986-01-01
Flow-control device precisely adjusted for two rates. Heart of twoposition valve is sliding poppet. At far-right position, poppet allows low flow. At far-left position, allows high flow. Valve supplies high-pressure gas at either of two preselected flow rates. Valve adjustable between 0.12 and 1.2 lb/s (0.054 and 0.54 kg/s) of hydrogen at 3,300 lb/in.2 (23 MN/m2) and 80 degrees F (27 degrees C). Two flow rates preadjusted between these limits in increments of 0.01 lb/s (0.0045 kg/s).
Stochastic analysis of nucleation rates.
Johansson, Jonas
2016-02-01
We show that approximating the Becker-Döring equations with a Langevin equation results in multiplicative noise, which in turn leads to a family of possible Fokker-Planck equations according to the Ito-Stratonovich dilemma. Using a simple and general model for the attachment and detachment rates, we find that the Ito choice approximates the nucleation rate best and also coincides with the Fokker-Planck equation resulting from the common way to Taylor expand the original set of rate equations. PMID:26986388
75 FR 80866 - Credit Rating Standardization Study
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-12-23
... all credit rating agencies issue credit ratings using identical terms; standardizing the market stress... stress; and standardizing credit rating terminology across asset classes, so that named ratings... market stress conditions under which ratings are evaluated; (C) requiring a quantitative...
Idiot Savants: Rate of Incidence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, A. Lewis
1977-01-01
A survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded revealed a .06 percent incidence rate for idiot savants, persons of low intelligence who possess an unusually high skill in some special task. (CL)
Confidence rating for eutrophication assessments.
Brockmann, Uwe H; Topcu, Dilek H
2014-05-15
Confidence of monitoring data is dependent on their variability and representativeness of sampling in space and time. Whereas variability can be assessed as statistical confidence limits, representative sampling is related to equidistant sampling, considering gradients or changing rates at sampling gaps. By the proposed method both aspects are combined, resulting in balanced results for examples of total nitrogen concentrations in the German Bight/North Sea. For assessing sampling representativeness surface areas, vertical profiles and time periods are divided into regular sections for which individually the representativeness is calculated. The sums correspond to the overall representativeness of sampling in the defined area/time period. Effects of not sampled sections are estimated along parallel rows by reducing their confidence, considering their distances to next sampled sections and the interrupted gradients/changing rates. Confidence rating of time sections is based on maximum differences of sampling rates at regular time steps and related means of concentrations. PMID:24680718
... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Aug 30,2016 Blood ... last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...
TRMM Sees Chantal's Rainfall Rates
On July 8, NASA's TRMM satellite saw Tropical Storm Chantal's heaviest rainfall happening at a rate of over 115.5 mm/hr. (~4.5 inches) near Chantal's center where thunderstorms reached heights of o...
Tropical Storm Faxai's Rainfall Rates
This animation shows Tropical Storm Faxai's rainfall rates on March 2 from a TRMM TMI/PR rainfall analysis being faded in over infrared cloud data from the TRMM VIRS instrument. Credit: SSAI/NASA, ...
Low bit rate speech transmission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rothweiler, J.; Bertrand, J.
The achievement of very low bit rates in all-digital military communications is important in tactical systems. Attention is presently given to a 400-2400 bit/sec system in which feature extraction is performed by standard linear predictive coding together with pattern matching by vector quantization and trellis coding. Some part of this system have been implemented in hardware, and others in simulation. Diagnostic rhyme test results are presented to indicate the performance of the system at various bit rates.
Strain Rates and Scalar Dissipation Rates in Gaseous Transverse Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shoji, Takeshi; Gevorkyan, Levon; Besnard, Andrea; Karagozian, Ann
2015-11-01
This experimental study quantifies local strain rates and scalar dissipation rates for the non-reactive gaseous jet in crossflow (JICF) using simultaneous acetone planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging and stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV). Flush nozzle and flush pipe injectors are used to create jets consisting of mixtures of He and N2, with varying exit velocity profiles, jet-to-crossflow momentum flux ratios J, and density ratios S. Strain rates in the vicinity of windward and lee-side jet shear layers are quantified based both on scalar dissipation rates extracted from PLIF measurements within locally 1D layer-like structures and on vector fields extracted from PIV measurements. Strain rates from the simultaneous measurements are in very good qualitative agreement with one another on the jets' windward and lee sides, and are also consistent with flame ignition locations in comparable reactive JICF experiments. Quantitative differences in strain fields are most pronounced at lower J values, corresponding to absolutely unstable shear layers and high local strain fields, although these differences are affected by the PLIF spatial resolution for a range of flow conditions. Extraction of dominant mode structures via POD will also be presented. Supported by NSF grant CBET-1437014 & AFOSR grant FA9550-15-1-0261 (A004376801).
Ratings for emotion film clips.
Gabert-Quillen, Crystal A; Bartolini, Ellen E; Abravanel, Benjamin T; Sanislow, Charles A
2015-09-01
Film clips are widely utilized to elicit emotion in a variety of research studies. Normative ratings for scenes selected for these purposes support the idea that selected clips correspond to the intended target emotion, but studies reporting normative ratings are limited. Using an ethnically diverse sample of college undergraduates, selected clips were rated for intensity, discreteness, valence, and arousal. Variables hypothesized to affect the perception of stimuli (i.e., gender, race-ethnicity, and familiarity) were also examined. Our analyses generally indicated that males reacted strongly to positively valenced film clips, whereas females reacted more strongly to negatively valenced film clips. Caucasian participants tended to react more strongly to the film clips, and we found some variation by race-ethnicity across target emotions. Finally, familiarity with the films tended to produce higher ratings for positively valenced film clips, and lower ratings for negatively valenced film clips. These findings provide normative ratings for a useful set of film clips for the study of emotion, and they underscore factors to be considered in research that utilizes scenes from film for emotion elicitation. PMID:24984981
Civilian residential fire fatality rates: Six high-rate states versus six low-rate states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, J. R., Jr.; Helzer, S. G.
1983-08-01
Results of an analysis of 1,600 fire fatalities occurring in six states with high fire-death rates and six states with low fire-death rates are presented. Reasons for the differences in rates are explored, with special attention to victim age, sex, race, and condition at time of ignition. Fire cause patterns are touched on only lightly but are addressed more extensively in the companion piece to this report, "Rural and Non-Rural Civilian Residential Fire Fatalities in Twelve States', NBSIR 82-2519.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovács, Z.; Harko, T.
2011-11-01
We present a full general relativistic numerical code for estimating the energy-momentum deposition rate (EMDR) from neutrino pair annihilation (?). The source of the neutrinos is assumed to be a neutrino-cooled accretion disc around neutron and quark stars. We calculate the neutrino trajectories by using a ray-tracing algorithm with the general relativistic Hamilton's equations for neutrinos and derive the spatial distribution of the EMDR due to the annihilations of neutrinos and antineutrinos around rotating neutron and quark stars. We obtain the EMDR for several classes of rotating neutron stars, described by different equations of state of the neutron matter, and for quark stars, described by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) bag model equation of state and in the colour-flavour-locked (CFL) phase. The distribution of the total annihilation rate of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs around rotating neutron and quark stars is studied for isothermal discs and accretion discs in thermodynamical equilibrium. We demonstrate both the differences in the equations of state for neutron and quark matter and rotation with the general relativistic effects significantly modify the EMDR of the electrons and positrons generated by the neutrino-antineutrino pair annihilation around compact stellar objects, as measured at infinity.
Matching and Conditioned Reinforcement Rate
Shahan, Timothy A; Podlesnik, Christopher A; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina
2006-01-01
Attempts to examine the effects of variations in relative conditioned reinforcement rate on choice have been confounded by changes in rates of primary reinforcement or changes in the value of the conditioned reinforcer. To avoid these problems, this experiment used concurrent observing responses to examine sensitivity of choice to relative conditioned reinforcement rate. In the absence of observing responses, unsignaled periods of food delivery on a variable-interval 90-s schedule alternated with extinction on a center key (i.e., a mixed schedule was in effect). Two concurrently available observing responses produced 15-s access to a stimulus differentially associated with the schedule of food delivery (S+). The relative rate of S+ deliveries arranged by independent variable-interval schedules for the two observing responses varied across conditions. The relation between the ratio of observing responses and the ratio of S+ deliveries was well described by the generalized matching law, despite the absence of changes in the rate of food delivery. In addition, the value of the S+ deliveries likely remained constant across conditions because the ratio of S+ to mixed schedule food deliveries remained constant. Assuming that S+ deliveries serve as conditioned reinforcers, these findings are consistent with the functional similarity between primary and conditioned reinforcers suggested by general choice theories based on the concatenated matching law (e.g., contextual choice and hyperbolic value-added models). These findings are inconsistent with delay reduction theory, which has no terms for the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement in the absence of changes in rate of primary reinforcement. PMID:16673824
76 FR 59767 - Interest Rates; Notice
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-09-27
... publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.125 (3\\1/8\\) percent for the October-December quarter of FY 2012. Pursuant to...
HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND 24-HOUR MINIMUM HEART RATE
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Heart rate variability (HRV) indices based on 24-hour electrocardiograph recordings have been used in clinical research studies to assess the aggregate activity of the autonomic nervous system. While 24-hour HRV is generally considered non-invasive, use in research protocols typically involves cons...
Henry, J.J.
1961-09-01
A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.
Dual physiological rate measurement instrument
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cooper, Tommy G. (Inventor)
1990-01-01
The object of the invention is to provide an instrument for converting a physiological pulse rate into a corresponding linear output voltage. The instrument which accurately measures the rate of an unknown rectangular pulse wave over an extended range of values comprises a phase-locked loop including a phase comparator, a filtering network, and a voltage-controlled oscillator, arranged in cascade. The phase comparator has a first input responsive to the pulse wave and a second input responsive to the output signal of the voltage-controlled oscillator. The comparator provides a signal dependent on the difference in phase and frequency between the signals appearing on the first and second inputs. A high-input impedance amplifier accepts an output from the filtering network and provides an amplified output DC signal to a utilization device for providing a measurement of the rate of the pulse wave.
Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis
2005-01-01
On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.
Recent deformation rates on Venus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimm, Robert E.
1994-11-01
Constraints on the recent geological evolution of Venus may be provided by quantitative estimates of the rates of the principal resurfacing processes, volcanism and tectonism. This paper focuses on the latter, using impact craters as strain indicators. The total postimpact tectonic strain lies in the range 0.5-6.5%, which defines a recent mean strain rate of 10-18-10-17/s when divided by the mean surface age. Interpretation of the cratering record as one of pure production requires a decline in resurfacing rates at about 500 Ma (catastrophic resurfacing model). If distributed tectonic resurfacing contributed strongly before that time, as suggested by the widespread occurrence of tessera as inliers, the mean global strain rate must have been at least approximately 10-15/s, which is also typical of terrestrial active margins. Numerical calculations of the response of the lithosphere to inferred mantle convective forces were performed to test the hypothesis that a decrease in surface strain rate by at least two orders of magnitude could be caused by a steady decline in heat flow over the last billion years. Parameterized convection models predict that the mean global thermal gradient decreases by only about 5 K/km over this time; even with the exponential dependence of viscosity upon temperature, the surface strain rate drops by little more than one order of magnitude. Strongly unsteady cooling and very low thermal gradients today are necessary to satisfy the catastrophic model. An alternative, uniformitarian resurfacing hypothesis holds that Venus is resurfaced in quasi-random 'patches' several hundred kilometers in size that occur in response to changing mantle convection patterns.
High Data Rate Instrument Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schober, Wayne; Lansing, Faiza; Wilson, Keith; Webb, Evan
1999-01-01
The High Data Rate Instrument Study was a joint effort between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The objectives were to assess the characteristics of future high data rate Earth observing science instruments and then to assess the feasibility of developing data processing systems and communications systems required to meet those data rates. Instruments and technology were assessed for technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006. The highest data rate instruments are hyperspectral and synthetic aperture radar instruments which are capable of generating 3.2 Gigabits per second (Gbps) and 1.3 Gbps, respectively, with a technology readiness date of 2003. These instruments would require storage of 16.2 Terebits (Tb) of information (RF communications case of two orbits of data) or 40.5 Tb of information (optical communications case of five orbits of data) with a technology readiness date of 2003. Onboard storage capability in 2003 is estimated at 4 Tb; therefore, all the data created cannot be stored without processing or compression. Of the 4 Tb of stored data, RF communications can only send about one third of the data to the ground, while optical communications is estimated at 6.4 Tb across all three technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006 which were used in the study. The study includes analysis of the onboard processing and communications technologies at these three dates and potential systems to meet the high data rate requirements. In the 2003 case, 7.8% of the data can be stored and downlinked by RF communications while 10% of the data can be stored and downlinked with optical communications. The study conclusion is that only 1 to 10% of the data generated by high data rate instruments will be sent to the ground from now through 2006 unless revolutionary changes in spacecraft design and operations such as intelligent data extraction are developed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strickland, Ken
2013-04-01
The Rate Change Big Bang Theory redefines the birth of the universe with a dramatic shift in energy direction and a new vision of the first moments. With rate change graph technology (RCGT) we can look back 13.7 billion years and experience every step of the big bang through geometrical intersection technology. The analysis of the Big Bang includes a visualization of the first objects, their properties, the astounding event that created space and time as well as a solution to the mystery of anti-matter.
Fermentation Rates of Grape Juice
Ough, C. S.; Kunkee, R. E.
1968-01-01
Microbiological analysis showed that juices from white grapes had less biotin than juices from red grapes. The biotin content of the juices of some varieties was significantly different from that of other varieties. We did not note any regional effects on the biotin content of the juices. Biotin content of the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes increased significantly with maturity, whereas the biotin content of a white variety did not. The biotin content, with the total nitrogen, can be used to estimate indirectly the yeast growth potential and hence to predict the fermentation rate of the juice. About 84% of the rate variation can be accounted for by the calculated regression equations. PMID:16349801
Transcription rates in DNA brushes.
Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Safran, S A
2015-04-21
We theoretically predict the rate of transcription (TX) in DNA brushes by introducing the concept of TX dipoles that takes into account the unidirectional motion of enzymes (RNAP) along DNA during transcription as correlated pairs of sources and sinks in the relevant diffusion equation. Our theory predicts that the TX rates dramatically change upon the inversion of the orientation of the TX dipoles relative to the substrate because TX dipoles modulate the concentrations of RNAP in the solution. Comparing our theory with experiments suggests that, in some cases, DNA chain segments are relatively uniformly distributed in the brush, in contrast to the parabolic profile expected for flexible polymer brushes. PMID:25736601
Online Course Evaluations Response Rates
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guder, Faruk; Malliaris, Mary
2013-01-01
This paper studies the reasons for low response rates in online evaluations. Survey data are collected from the students to understand factors that might affect student participation in the course evaluation process. When course evaluations were opened to the student body, an email announcement was sent to all students, and a reminder email was…
Dual Brushless Resolver Rate Sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, David E. (Inventor)
1996-01-01
This invention relates to dual analog angular rate sensors which are implemented without the use of mechanical brushes. A resolver rate sensor which includes two brushless resolvers which are mechanically coupled to the same output shaft is provided with inputs which are provided to each resolver by providing the first resolver with a DC input and the second resolver with an AC sinusoidal input. A trigonometric identity in which the sum of the squares of the sin and cosine components equal one is used to advantage in providing a sensor of increased accuracy. The first resolver may have a fixed or variable DC input to permit dynamic adjustment of resolver sensitivity thus permitting a wide range of coverage. Novelty and advantages of the invention reside in the excitation of a resolver with a DC signal and in the utilization of two resolvers and the trigonometric identity of cos(exp 2)(theta) + sin(exp 2)(theta) = 1 to provide an accurate rate sensor which is sensitive to direction and accurate through zero rate.
Cohort Default Rates in Context
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Looney, Shannon M.
2011-01-01
Burgeoning student loan debt indicates problems not only for the country's borrowers but also for the postsecondary system. The rise in student loan defaults signifies a rise in institutional cohort default rates (CDRs)--a measure of accountability that informs the government and the general public how well an institution prepares its students for…
Metabolic rate meter and method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, T. I.; Ruderman, I. W. (Inventor)
1968-01-01
A method is described for measuring the dynamic metabolic rate of a human or animal. The ratio of the exhaled carbon dioxide to a known amount of C(13)02 introduced into the exhalation is determined by mass spectrometry. This provides an instantaneous measurement of the carbon dioxide generated.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-03-13
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission Fee Rate Correction In notice document 2013-05334, appearing on page 14821 in the issue of Thursday, March 7, 2013, make the following correction: On page 14821, in...
On Comparing Transition Rate Gains.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reuterberg, Sven-Eric
This report is about the problem of making transition or enrollment rate gains comparable. It is shown that measures based on the proportions themselves, i.e. the difference between proportions, the proportion ratio and the residual gain ratio do not make the gains comparable. Instead a non-linear transformation has to be done. Two such…
Exchange Rates and Old People.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dowd, James J.
1980-01-01
Extends earlier work on aging as a process of exchange by focusing on the issue of exchange rates and how they are negotiated. Access to power resources declines with age, placing the old person in the position of negotiating from weakness. (Author)
Eernisse, Errol P.; Peterson, Gary D.
1976-01-01
A variable gas leak rate valve which utilizes a poled piezoelectric element to control opening and closing of the valve. The gas flow may be around a cylindrical rod with a tubular piezoelectric member encircling the rod for seating thereagainst to block passage of gas and for reopening thereof upon application of suitable electrical fields.
Divergent Thinking and Interview Ratings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Batey, Mark; Rawles, Richard; Furnham, Adrian
2009-01-01
This study examined divergent thinking (DT) test scores of applicants taking part in a selection procedure for an undergraduate psychology degree (N = 370). Interviewers made six specific (creative intelligence, motivation, work habits, emotional stability, sociability, and social responsibility) and one overall recommendation rating on each…
Heating rates in tropical anvils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ackerman, Thomas P.; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Pfister, Leonhard; Liou, Kuo-Nan
1988-01-01
The interaction of infrared and solar radiation with tropical cirrus anvils is addressed. Optical properties of the anvils are inferred from satellite observations and from high-altitude aircraft measurements. An infrared multiple-scattering model is used to compute heating rates in tropical anvils. Layer-average heating rates in 2 km thick anvils were found to be on the order of 20 to 30 K/day. The difference between heating rates at cloud bottom and cloud top ranges from 30 to 200 K/day, leading to convective instability in the anvil. The calculations are most sensitive to the assumed ice water content, but also are affected by the vertical distribution of ice water content and by the anvil thickness. Solar heating in anvils is shown to be less important than infrared heating but not negligible. The dynamical implications of the computed heating rates are also explored and it is concluded that the heating may have important consequences for upward mass transport in the tropics. The potential impact of tropical cirrus on the tropical energy balance and cloud forcing are discussed.
Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher
Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.
1997-02-11
A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.
Glascoe, E
2008-08-11
It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.
Vehicle crashworthiness ratings in Australia.
Cameron, M; Mach, T; Neiger, D; Graham, A; Ramsay, R; Pappas, M; Haley, J
1994-08-01
The paper reviews the published vehicle safety ratings based on mass crash data from the United States, Sweden, and Great Britain. It then describes the development of vehicle crashworthiness ratings based on injury compensation claims and police accident reports from Victoria and New South Wales, the two most populous states in Australia. Crashworthiness was measured by a combination of injury severity (of injured drivers) and injury risk (of drivers involved in crashes). Injury severity was based on 22,600 drivers injured in crashes in the two states. Injury risk was based on 70,900 drivers in New South Wales involved in crashes after which a vehicle was towed away. Injury risk measured in this way was compared with the "relative injury risk" of particular model cars involved in two car crashes in Victoria (where essentially only casualty crashes are reported), which was based on the method developed by Folksam Insurance in Sweden from Evans' double-pair comparison method. The results include crashworthiness ratings for the makes and models crashing in Australia in sufficient numbers to measure their crash performance adequately. The ratings were normalised for the driver sex and speed limit at the crash location, the two factors found to be strongly related to injury risk and/or severity and to vary substantially across makes and models of Australian crash-involved cars. This allows differences in crashworthiness of individual models to be seen, uncontaminated by major crash exposure differences. PMID:7916859
Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher
Kolber, Zbigniew; Falkowski, Paul
1997-02-11
A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.
The Adaptive Behavior Rating Scale.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meyer, William J.
A scale to identify important behaviors in preschool children was developed, and ratings were related to more traditional indices of development and academic readiness. Teacher interviews were used to identify 62 specific behaviors related to maximally adapted and maximally maladapted kindergarten children. These were incorporated into a…
Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.
2011-01-01
The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, Andrew B.
2012-01-01
To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.
NASA Human-Rating Requirements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Groen, Frank; Harkins, Wil; Stamatelatos, Michael
2010-01-01
NASA's Procedural Requirements 87052B defines the Human-Rating Certification process and related technical requirements for human spaceflight programs developed by and for NASA. The document specifies Agency-level responsibilities related to the certification, processes to be established by the program, and technical requirements.
Faghihi, Gita; Iraji, Fariba; Rajaee Harandi, Manijeh; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad-Ali; Askari, Gholamreza
2013-01-01
According to the hypothesis on the stimulating effect of adenosine on increasing fibroblast growth factor 7 in dermal papilla cells and its vasorelaxant effect, we performed this study to compare the effect of topical minoxidil 5% and adenosine 0.75% on male pattern androgenetic alopecia. This prospective-randomized study recruited 110 male patients suffering from grade II-V Hamilton androgenetic alopecia. Fifty-five patients received minoxidil 5% (group 1) and adenosine 0.75% (group 2) each. Later, 16 patients were excluded due to allergic reactions or loss to follow up. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, complete and relative recovery rates alongside patient satisfaction rate (faster prevention of primary hair loss and appearance of newly grown hair) were compared between the groups. After 3 months of treatment, relative recovery was achieved in 2.4% and 1.9% of patients in group 1 and group 2, respectively, which was not significantly different (p=0.17). During 6 months, the relative recovery rate did not change either within or between the groups (p=0.99) and after 6 months none of the patients achieved complete recovery. However, the patient satisfaction rate was significantly higher in group 2 (p=0.003). In the light of the results, adenosine has no statistically superiority to minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia according to recovery rates. However, the patients were significantly more satisfied with adenosine because of faster prevention of hair loss and appearance of the newly grown hairs. It seems further studies with larger sample size or different drug dosages are required to clarify the findings. PMID:24183218
Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates
Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.
2015-01-01
The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488
Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements
Marcic, Milan
2006-01-01
A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today known measuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate in diesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possible differences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformational measuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation of membrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. The pressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For each hole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into which fuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. During measurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain an overpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into the graduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.The membrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane and forming the full Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shape and temperature compensation of the strain gauges.
Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates.
Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P
2015-11-01
The "escape-and-radiate" hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488
13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...
13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...
13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...
13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...
Xu, Z Z
2014-11-01
The objective was to compare reproductive performance of liquid sex-sorted (SS) semen with that of conventional (CON) semen in lactating dairy cows. Between 2011 and 2013, commercial dairy herds (n = 101, 203, and 253 for 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively) with predominantly Holstein-Friesian cows were enrolled in a contract mating program to produce surplus heifers for export using liquid SS semen. During the spring mating period, each herd was allocated with liquid SS semen at 50% of its daily requirement and the remaining daily requirement was allocated with CON liquid semen. Sperm for producing SS semen was sorted by Sexing Technologies NZ Ltd. (Hamilton, New Zealand) and then packaged using the liquid semen technology of LIC (Hamilton, New Zealand) at a dose of 1 × 10(6) sperm. Artificial insemination (AI) with liquid SS semen was carried out between 43 and 46 h after collection. Conventional semen straws contained 1.25 × 10(6), 1.75 × 10(6), or 2 × 10(6) sperm for semen to be used on d 1, 2, or 3 after collection, respectively. Only CON inseminations on the same days as when SS semen was used were included in the comparison. Herd managers biased usage of SS semen toward cows with a longer postpartum interval before the mating start date (64.0 vs. 62.8 d), cows of higher genetic merit (NZ$107.0 vs. NZ$98.4), younger cows (5.1 vs. 5.2 yr), and cows in which they had more confidence of being genuinely in estrus as measured by a lower percentage of short returns between 1 and 17 d (5.3 vs. 7.5%). After adjusting for these factors, the estimated difference in nonreturn rate between AI with SS and CON semen over the 3 seasons was -3.8 percentage points (SS = 70.2% vs. CON = 74.0%; SS/CON = 94.9%). The estimated maximum difference in calving rate per AI between SS and CON semen was -3.1 percentage points for 2011 (SS = 51.2% vs. CON = 54.3%; SS/CON = 94.3%) and -3.0 percentage points for 2012 (SS = 49.7% vs. CON = 52.6%; SS/CON = 94.5%). Calving data for 2013
Nucleation rate in monotectic alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falk, F.
Cooling a melt of a monotectic system into the miscibility gap results in nucleation of fluid droplets in a fluid matrix prior to solidification. For homogeneous nucleation the temperature dependence of the nucleation rate is calculated. As material parameters the chemical potential of the species involved, the diffusion constant of the fluid, and the surface tension between adjacent phases are important. Since their temperature dependence is not well known from experiments, different theoretical models are used and their influence is discussed. The surface tension turns out to be the most crucial parameter in determining the nucleation rate. For AlIn numerical results are presented. In this system the undercooling with respect to homogeneous nucleation increases from zero at the critical point to 100 K at a composition near the monotectic point.
Improving the RPC rate capability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aielli, G.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Stante, L.; Iuppa, R.; Liberti, B.; Paolozzi, L.; Pastori, E.; Santonico, R.; Toppi, M.
2016-07-01
This paper has the purpose to study the rate capability of the Resistive Plate Chamber, RPC, starting from the basic physics of this detector. The effect of different working parameters determining the rate capability is analysed in detail, in order to optimize a new family of RPCs for applications to heavy irradiation environments and in particular to the LHC phase 2. A special emphasis is given to the improvement achievable by minimizing the avalanche charge delivered in the gas. The paper shows experimental results of Cosmic Ray tests, performed to study the avalanche features for different gas gap sizes, with particular attention to the overall delivered charge. For this purpose, the paper studies, in parallel to the prompt electronic signal, also the ionic signal which gives the main contribution to the delivered charge. Whenever possible the test results are interpreted on the basis of the RPC detector physics and are intended to extend and reinforce our physical understanding of this detector.
The instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czarnecki, Krzysztof
2016-01-01
An accelerogram of the instantaneous phase of signal components referred to as an instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram (IFRS) is presented as a joint time-frequency distribution. The distribution is directly obtained by processing the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) locally. A novel approach to amplitude demodulation based upon the reassignment method is introduced as a useful by-product. Additionally, an estimator of energy density versus the instantaneous frequency rate (IFR) is proposed and referred to as the IFR profile. The energy density is estimated based upon both the classical energy spectrogram and the IFRS smoothened by the median filter. Moreover, the impact of an analyzing window width, additive white Gaussian noise and observation time is tested. Finally, the introduced method is used for the analysis of the acoustic emission of an automotive engine. The recording of the engine of a Lamborghini Gallardo is analyzed as an example.
Child Mortality Rate in Ethiopia
Susuman, A Sathiya
2012-01-01
Ethiopia’s childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussell’s methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia’s childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000). The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation. PMID:23113145
Self-similar aftershock rates.
Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco
2016-08-01
In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise-an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes-the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting. PMID:27627324
Nova reaction rates and experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bishop, S.; Herlitzius, C.; Fiehl, J.
2011-04-01
Oxygen-neon novae form a subset of classical novae events known to freshly synthesize nuclei up to mass number A≲40. Because several gamma-ray emitters lie in this mass range, these novae are also interesting candidates for gamma-ray astronomy. The properties of excited states within those nuclei in this mass region play a critical role in determining the resonant (p,γ) reaction rates, themselves, largely unknown for the unstable nuclei. We describe herein a new Doppler shift lifetime facility at the Maier-Leibnitz tandem laboratory, Technische Universität München, with which we will map out important resonant (p,γ) nova reaction rates.