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Sample records for 17-year periodical cicadas

  1. Eicosanoids mediate nodulation reactions to bacterial infections in adults of two 17-year periodical cicadas, Magicicada septendecim and M. cassini.

    PubMed

    Tunaz, H; Bedick, J C.; Miller, J S.; Hoback, W W.; Rana, R L.; Stanley, D W.

    1999-10-01

    Nodulation is the first and quantitatively most important cellular defense reaction to bacterial infections in insects. Treating adults of the 17-year periodical cicadas, Magicicada septendecim and M. cassini, with eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors immediately prior to intrahemocoelic injections of the bacterium, Serratia marcescens, sharply reduced the nodulation response to bacterial challenges. Separate treatments with specific inhibitors of phospholipase A(2), cyclooxygenase, and lipoxygenase reduced nodulation, supporting our view that nodule formation is a multi-step process in which individual steps are separately mediated by lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase products. The inhibitory influence of dexamethasone was apparent by 2 h after injection, and nodulation was significantly reduced, relative to control insects, over the following 14 h. The dexamethasone effects were reversed by treating bacteria-challenged insects with the eicosanoid-precursor polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid. Low levels of arachidonic acid were detected in fat body phospholipids. These findings in adults of an exopterygote insect species with an unusual life history pattern broaden our hypothesis that eicosanoids mediate cellular immune reactions to bacterial infections in most, if not all, insects.

  2. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  3. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  4. Organochlorines and heavy metals in 17-year cicadas pose no apparent dietary threat to birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Organochlorine and heavy metal concentrations in 17-year cicadas from Prince Georges and Anne Arundel Counties, Maryland, were well below levels known to be harmful to birds. Cicadas contained concentrations of metals similar to or less than other local invertebrates except they contained more copper than did earthworms. Copper and lead concentrations in cicadas from one site may have been elevated by sewage plant effluent deposited during river floodings. Cicadas from the median of a major highway did not contain more lead than cicadas from non-traffic sites.

  5. Biogeochemistry of Metals in Periodic Cicada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, G. R.; Sibrell, P. L.; Boughton, C. J.; Yang, L. H.; Hancock, T. C.

    2005-05-01

    Metal concentrations were measured in three species of 17-year periodic cicadas (Magicicada spp.) to determine the bioavailability of metals from both uncontaminated and lead-arsenate-pesticide contaminated soils and evaluate whether these metal concentrations might threaten wildlife. Collections were made in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia during Brood X emergence in May and June 2004. Periodic cicadas emerge synchronously at high density after 13 or 17 years of underground development, feeding on xylem fluids, and molt into their adult form leaving a keratin exoskeleton shell. They are an important food source for birds and animals during emergence events, and influence nutrient cycles in woodland settings. Soil concentrations at the collection sites vary over one order of magnitude for Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Se, and Zn and over two orders of magnitude for As, Au, and Pb. The concentration levels of metals in adult periodic cicadas do not pose a dietary threat to birds and other wildlife that preferentially feed upon cicadas during emergence events. The adult cicadas contain concentrations of metals similar to, or less than, other invertebrates, such as earthworms. Average adult cicada body concentrations for As, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn are 3, 64, 0.015, 0.4, and 160 mg/Kg (dry weight), respectively. Much of the cicada nymph body load of metals is partitioned into the molt exoskeleton. Elements, such as Al, Fe, and Pb, are strongly enriched in the exoskeleton relative to the adult body; Cu and Zn are enriched in bodies. Concentrations of Fe, Co, and Pb, when normalized to inert soil constituents such as aluminum and cerium, are similar between the molt exoskeleton and their host soil, implying that passive assimilation through prolonged soil contact (adhesion or adsorption) may control these metal concentrations. Normalized concentrations of bioessential elements, such as S, P, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Mo, and

  6. Synchronization of periodical cicada emergences.

    PubMed

    Hoppensteadt, F C; Keller, J B

    1976-10-15

    Synchronized insect emergences are shown to be a possible consequence of predation in the presence of a limited environmental carrying capacity through a mathematical model for cicada populations that includes these two features. Synchronized emergences, like those observed in 13- and 17-year cicades, are predicted for insects with sufficiently long life-spans. Balanced solutions, in which comparable emergences occur each year, are found for insects having sufficiently short life-spans, such as 3-, 4-, and 7-year cicadas. For the values used here, synchronized emergences occur for insects with life-spans of 10 years or more, and balanced emergences occur for life-spans of fewer than 10 years.

  7. Chronic speciation in periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, M G.

    2001-02-01

    Allochronic speciation and reproductive character displacement are two intuitively attractive models of speciation. The first proposes that changes in the timing of life cycles produce new species, whereas the second suggests that speciation is due to the exaggeration of sexual isolation in sympatric populations. Clear examples of either process in nature remain elusive, despite some extensive searches. Two recent studies of mtDNA markers and behaviour of periodical cicadas in North America have identified a new species of cicada that seems to provide good evidence for the involvement of both processes in its origin.

  8. Periodical cicadas as resource pulses in North American forests.

    PubMed

    Yang, Louie H

    2004-11-26

    Resource pulses are occasional events of ephemeral resource superabundance that occur in many ecosystems. Aboveground consumers in diverse communities often respond strongly to resource pulses, but few studies have investigated the belowground consequences of resource pulses in natural ecosystems. This study shows that resource pulses of 17-year periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) directly increase microbial biomass and nitrogen availability in forest soils, with indirect effects on growth and reproduction in forest plants. These findings suggest that pulses of periodical cicadas create "bottom-up cascades," resulting in strong and reciprocal links between the aboveground and belowground components of a North American forest ecosystem.

  9. The priming of periodical cicada life cycles.

    PubMed

    Grant, Peter R

    2005-04-01

    Periodical cicadas in the genus Magicicada have unusually long life cycles for insects, with periodicities of either 13 or 17 years. Biologists have explained the evolution of these prime number period lengths in terms of resource limitation, enemy avoidance, hybridization and climate change. Here, I question two aspects of these explanations: that the origin of the life cycles was associated with Pleistocene ice age events, and that they evolved from shorter life cycles through the lengthening of nymphal stages in annual increments. Instead, I suggest that these life cycles evolved earlier than the Pleistocene and involved an abrupt transition from a nine-year to a 13-year life cycle, driven, in part, by interspecific competition.

  10. Transient habitats limit development time for periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Karban, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) mature in 13 or 17 years, the longest development times for any non-diapausing insects. Selection may favor prolonged development since nymphs experience little mortality and individuals taking 17 years have been shown to have greater fecundity than those taking 13 years. Why don't periodical cicadas take even longer to develop? Nymphs feed on root xylem fluid and move little. Ovipositing females prefer fast-growing trees at forest edges. I hypothesized that (1) adults emerging at edges would be heavier than those from forest interiors and (2) habitat changes could limit development time. I collected newly eclosed females that had neither fed as adults nor moved from their site of development. For M. septendecim, females from edges were 4.9% heavier than those from the interior. I assumed that emergence density indicated habitat quality and measured density at eight sites in 1979, 1996, and 2013. Over three generations, variation in densities was great; densities at two sites crashed, and at one site they exploded to 579/m2 Habitat transience may limit development time because only adults can reassess habitats and reposition offspring. In conclusion, cicadas are affected by habitat characteristics, habitats change over 17 years, and cicadas may emerge, mate, and redistribute their offspring to track habitat dynamics.

  11. Periodical cicadas use light for oviposition site selection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Louie H

    2006-01-01

    Organisms use incomplete information from local experience to assess the suitability of potential habitat sites over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Although ecologists have long recognized the importance of spatial scales in habitat selection, few studies have investigated the temporal scales of habitat selection. In particular, cues in the immediate environment may commonly provide indirect information about future habitat quality. In periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.), oviposition site selection represents a very long-term habitat choice. Adult female cicadas insert eggs into tree branches during a few weeks in the summer of emergence, but their oviposition choices determine the underground habitats of root-feeding nymphs over the following 13 or 17 years. Here, field experiments are used to show that female cicadas use the local light environment of host trees during the summer of emergence to select long-term host trees. Light environments may also influence oviposition microsite selection within hosts, suggesting a potential behavioural mechanism for associating solar cues with host trees. In contrast, experimental nutrient enrichment of host trees did not influence cicada oviposition densities. These findings suggest that the light environments around host trees may provide a robust predictor of host tree quality in the near future. This habitat selection may influence the spatial distribution of several cicada-mediated ecological processes in eastern North American forests. PMID:17015354

  12. Periodical cicadas use light for oviposition site selection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Louie H

    2006-12-07

    Organisms use incomplete information from local experience to assess the suitability of potential habitat sites over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Although ecologists have long recognized the importance of spatial scales in habitat selection, few studies have investigated the temporal scales of habitat selection. In particular, cues in the immediate environment may commonly provide indirect information about future habitat quality. In periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.), oviposition site selection represents a very long-term habitat choice. Adult female cicadas insert eggs into tree branches during a few weeks in the summer of emergence, but their oviposition choices determine the underground habitats of root-feeding nymphs over the following 13 or 17 years. Here, field experiments are used to show that female cicadas use the local light environment of host trees during the summer of emergence to select long-term host trees. Light environments may also influence oviposition microsite selection within hosts, suggesting a potential behavioural mechanism for associating solar cues with host trees. In contrast, experimental nutrient enrichment of host trees did not influence cicada oviposition densities. These findings suggest that the light environments around host trees may provide a robust predictor of host tree quality in the near future. This habitat selection may influence the spatial distribution of several cicada-mediated ecological processes in eastern North American forests.

  13. Infectivity of resting spores of Massospora cicadina (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae), an entomopathogenic fungus of periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) (Homoptera: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Duke, L; Steinkraus, D C; English, J E; Smith, K G

    2002-05-01

    Massospora cicadina Peck is a fungal pathogen of 13- and 17-year periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.). In northwest Arkansas, during the spring 1998 emergence of the 13-year periodical cicada, Magicicada tredecassini (Brood XIX), <1% of emerging cicadas were infected with the conidial stage of M. cicadina, similar to data collected from the same population in 1985. However, in northwest Arkansas plots treated with M. cicadina resting spores collected from infected 17-year Magicicada septendecim cicadas (Brood IV) in 1997 from southern Iowa, 10 months prior to the 1998 emergence in Arkansas, conidial stage infections of M. cicadina in 13-year Arkansas M. tredecassini cicadas increased significantly to 10.6% (7.9% in males and 2.6% in females). These data suggest that M. cicadina resting spores do not require a dormancy of 13 or 17 years between cicada emergences. Instead M. cicadina resting spores appear to be capable of germinating and infecting periodical cicadas after less than 1 year. In addition, M. cicadina resting spores derived from one species (17-year M. septendecim cicadas) were infective for a second species (13-year M. tredecassini cicadas). A mean of 1.4 x 10(6)(SE = 1.8 x 10(5)) mature resting spores were produced per infected male M. septendecim.

  14. Pulses of dead periodical cicadas increase herbivory of American bellflowers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Louie H

    2008-06-01

    Resource pulses can have both direct bottom-up and indirect top-down effects on their consumers, but comparatively few studies have investigated the top-down effects of naturally occurring resource pulses on plants. This study describes two years of field experiments conducted to determine the indirect effects of 17-year periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) on herbivory in American bellflowers (Campanulastrum americanum). In 2004, the area of damaged leaves on cicada-supplemented plants was 78% greater than the area of damaged leaves on control plants. In 2005, cicada-supplemented plants were more likely to experience herbivory by mammalian herbivores than control plants. When large herbivores were excluded, similar patterns of leaf herbivory were observed, but these differences were not statistically significant. These results suggest that the pulsed input of dead periodical cicada bodies increased rates of herbivory on bellflowers, and that this effect was largely mediated by the selective foraging of large mammalian herbivores. More broadly, this study suggests that pulses of limiting resources can have both positive direct effects on plants and negative indirect effects due to selective herbivory, and that the net effects of pulsed resources on plants may depend on the composition and behavior of the surrounding herbivore community.

  15. Periodical Cicada--Brood V (Pest Alert)

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service

    1999-01-01

    Three separate species of periodical cicadas, Magicicada septendecim (L.), M. cassini (Fisher), and M. septendecula (Alexander and Moore), will appear this spring over large portions of Ohio and West Virginia during the scheduled Brood V emergence. This brood is the largest that occurs in either state and was last seen in 1982. It will also emerge in the southwest...

  16. Allochthonous subsidy of periodical cicadas affects the dynamics and stability of pond communities.

    PubMed

    Nowlin, Weston H; González, María J; Vanni, Michael J; Stevens, M Henry H; Fields, Matthew W; Valente, Jonathon J

    2007-09-01

    Periodical cicadas emerge from below ground every 13 or 17 years in North American forests, with individual broods representing the synchronous movement of trillions of individuals across geographic regions. Due to predator satiation, most individuals escape predation, die, and become deposited as detritus. Some of this emergent biomass falls into woodland aquatic habitats (small streams and woodland ponds) and serves as a high-quality allochthonous detritus pulse in early summer. We present results of a two-part study in which we (1) quantified deposition of Brood X periodical cicada detritus into woodland ponds and low-order streams in southwestern Ohio, and (2) conducted an outdoor mesocosm experiment in which we examined the effects of deposition of different amounts of cicada detritus on food webs characteristic of forest ponds. In the mesocosm experiment, we manipulated the amount of cicada detritus input to examine if food web dynamics and stability varied with the magnitude of this allochthonous resource subsidy, as predicted by numerous theoretical models. Deposition data indicate that, during years of periodical cicada emergence, cicada carcasses can represent a sizable pulse of allochthonous detritus to forest aquatic ecosystems. In the mesocosm experiment, cicada carcass deposition rapidly affected food webs, leading to substantial increases in nutrients and organism biomass, with the magnitude of increase dependent upon the amount of cicada detritus. Deposition of cicada detritus impacted the stability of organism functional groups and populations by affecting the temporal variability and biomass minima. However, contrary to theory, stability measures were not consistently related to the size of the allochthonous pulse (i.e., the amount of cicada detritus). Our study underscores the need for theory to further explore consequences of pulsed allochthonous subsidies for food web stability.

  17. Can Periodic Cicadas be used as a Biomonitor for Arsenical Pesticide Contamination?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, G. R.; Sibrell, P. L.; Boughton, C. J.; Yang, L.; Hancock, T. C.

    2004-12-01

    Widespread use of arsenical pesticides on fruit crops, particularly apple orchards, during the first half of the 20th century is a significant source of arsenic to agricultural soil in the Mid-Atlantic region. Cumulative application rates may be as high as 37 Kg/hectare of arsenic in orchard areas. Brood X 17-year periodic cicadas (Magicicada spp.) emerged at densities up to 30,000 or more individuals per hectare in orchard and forest habitats during May-June, 2004, in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia and in Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia. These cicadas were sampled to evaluate the bioavailability of arsenic in orchard and non-orchard reference site soils. Potentially toxic elements, such as arsenic and other heavy metals bind to sulfhydryl groups, and thus may accumulate in keratin-rich tissues, such as cicada nymphal exuviae and adult exoskeletons. These cicadas feed on plant roots underground for 17 years before emerging to molt into their adult form. Adult cicadas have very limited dispersal, rarely traveling more than 50 m in a flight. As such, their body and exoskeleton keratin has potential value as a biomonitor for arsenic and other metals that is spatially referenced to local conditions for the duration of time the nymphs live in the soil. This study addresses the following research questions: (1) do the soils in and adjacent to orchard sites where arsenical pesticide was used contain elevated concentrations of arsenic and other metals relative to likely background conditions?; (2) can periodic cicadas be used as an easily sampled biomonitor measuring bioavailability of pesticide residues in soils?; and (3) do the concentration levels of arsenical pesticide residues in periodic cicadas emerging from contaminated orchard sites pose a dietary threat to birds and other wildlife that preferentially feed upon cicadas during emergence events?

  18. Feeding ecology and evidence for amino acid synthesis in the periodical cicada (Magicicada).

    PubMed

    Christensen, Hilary; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2011-01-01

    The periodical cicadas of the genus Magicicada (including M. septendecim, M. cassini, and M. septendecula) have the longest juvenile life span of any insect, living underground for 13 or 17 years and feeding exclusively on root xylem fluids. Due to their inaccessible life cycles very little is known about cicada nutrition, despite the fact that members of Magicicada can achieve a very large biomass in woodland habitats east of the Mississippi and hence constitute a major part of the ecosystem where they occur in high densities. Live cicadas were collected at two sites in early June of 2004, during the emergence of Brood X (both M. septendecim and M. cassini were recovered). We used a combination of stable isotopic measurements (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) and multivariate statistical techniques to test for differences in resource acquisition among the cicada species and sexes collected at two locations within the 17-year periodical Brood X range. The amino acid constituents of cicada chitin and organs, plus xylem extracted from a deciduous sapling, were also analyzed. The data show that male and female cicadas have different carbon fractionations, which could reflect differential resource utilization due to oviposition in females. Several essential amino acids for the cicada were absent in xylem. Carbon-isotopic composition of all amino acids in the cicadas was distinctly different from the limited set measured in the xylem. Because of the differences in isotopic composition, we conclude that amino acids were synthesized de novo rather than incorporated directly, most likely produced by endosymbiotic bacteria. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Avian predation pressure as a potential driver of periodical cicada cycle length

    Treesearch

    Walter E. Koenig; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2013-01-01

    The extraordinarily long life cycles, synchronous emergences at 13- or 17-year intervals, and complex geographic distribution of periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in eastern North America are a long-standing evolutionary enigma. Although a variety of factors, including satiation of aboveground predators and avoidance of interbrood hybridization,...

  20. Avian predation pressure as a potential driver of periodical cicada cycle length.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Walter D; Liebhold, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    The extraordinarily long life cycles, synchronous emergences at 13- or 17-year intervals, and complex geographic distribution of periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in eastern North America are a long-standing evolutionary enigma. Although a variety of factors, including satiation of aboveground predators and avoidance of interbrood hybridization, have been hypothesized to shape the evolution of this system, no empirical support for these mechanisms has previously been reported, beyond the observation that bird predation can extirpate small, experimentally mistimed emergences. Here we show that periodical cicada emergences appear to set populations of potential avian predators on numerical trajectories that result in significantly lower potential predation pressure during the subsequent emergence. This result provides new support for the importance of predators in shaping periodical cicada life history, offers an ecological rationale for why emergences are synchronized at the observed multiyear intervals, and may explain some of the developmental plasticity observed in these unique insects.

  1. Response of host plants to periodical cicada oviposition damage.

    PubMed

    Flory, S Luke; Mattingly, W Brett

    2008-06-01

    Insect oviposition on plants is widespread across many systems, but studies on the response of host plants to oviposition damage are lacking. Although patterns of oviposition vary spatially and temporally, ovipositing insects that exhibit outbreak characteristics may have strong effects on host plants during peak abundance. Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.), in particular, may reduce the performance of host plants when they synchronously emerge in massive numbers to mate and oviposit on host plants. Here we provide the first experimental manipulation of host plant use by periodical cicadas to evaluate the impact of cicada oviposition on plant performance across a diversity of host species within an ecologically relevant setting. Using a randomized block design, we established a plantation of three native and three exotic host plant species common to the successional forests in which cicadas occur. During the emergence of Brood X in 2004, we employed a highly effective cicada exclusion treatment by netting half of the host plants within each block. We assessed multiple measures of host plant performance, including overall plant growth and the growth and reproduction of individual branches, across three growing seasons. Despite our thorough assessment of potential host plant responses to oviposition damage, cicada oviposition did not generally inhibit host plant performance. Oviposition densities on unnetted host plants were comparable to levels documented in other studies, reinforcing the ecological relevance of our results, which indicate that cicada oviposition damage did not generally reduce the performance of native or exotic host plants.

  2. Permanence induced by life-cycle resonances: the periodical cicada problem.

    PubMed

    Kon, Ryusuke

    2012-01-01

    Periodical cicadas are known for their unusually long life cycle for insects and their prime periodicity of either 13 or 17 years. One of the explanations for the prime periodicity is that the prime periods are selected to prevent cicadas from resonating with predators with submultiple periods. This paper considers this hypothesis by investigating a population model for periodical predator and prey. The study shows that if the periods of the two periodical species are not coprime, then the predator cannot resist the invasion of the prey. On the other hand, if the periods are coprime, then the predator can resist the invasion of the prey. It is also shown that if the periods are not coprime, then the life-cycle resonance can induce a permanent system, in which no cohorts are missing in both populations. On the other hand, if the periods are coprime, then the system cannot be permanent.

  3. Geographic body size variation in the periodical cicadas Magicicada: implications for life cycle divergence and local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Koyama, T; Ito, H; Kakishima, S; Yoshimura, J; Cooley, J R; Simon, C; Sota, T

    2015-06-01

    Seven species in three species groups (Decim, Cassini and Decula) of periodical cicadas (Magicicada) occupy a wide latitudinal range in the eastern United States. To clarify how adult body size, a key trait affecting fitness, varies geographically with climate conditions and life cycle, we analysed the relationships of population mean head width to geographic variables (latitude, longitude, altitude), habitat annual mean temperature (AMT), life cycle and species differences. Within species, body size was larger in females than males and decreased with increasing latitude (and decreasing habitat AMT), following the converse Bergmann's rule. For the pair of recently diverged 13- and 17-year species in each group, 13-year cicadas were equal in size or slightly smaller on average than their 17-year counterparts despite their shorter developmental time. This fact suggests that, under the same climatic conditions, 17-year cicadas have lowered growth rates compared to their 13-years counterparts, allowing 13-year cicadas with faster growth rates to achieve body sizes equivalent to those of their 17-year counterparts at the same locations. However, in the Decim group, which includes two 13-year species, the more southerly, anciently diverged 13-year species (Magicicada tredecim) was characterized by a larger body size than the other, more northerly 13- and 17-year species, suggesting that local adaptation in warmer habitats may ultimately lead to evolution of larger body sizes. Our results demonstrate how geographic clines in body size may be maintained in sister species possessing different life cycles.

  4. Influence of soil chemistry on metal and bioessential element concentrations in nymphal and adult periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R.; Sibrell, P.L.; Boughton, C.J.; Yang, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Metal and bioessential element concentrations were measured in three species of 17-year periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) to determine how cicada tissue chemistry is affected by soil chemistry, measure the bioavailability of metals from both uncontaminated and lead-arsenate-pesticide contaminated soils, and assess the potential risks of observed metal contamination for wildlife. Periodical cicada nymphs feed on root xylem fluids for 13 or 17??years of underground development. The nymphs then emerge synchronously at high densities, before leaving their nymphal keratin exoskeleton and molting into their adult form. Cicadas are an important food source for birds and animals during emergence events, and influence nutrient cycles in woodland ecosystems. Nymphal exoskeletons and whole adult cicadas were sampled in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia during the Brood X emergence in May and June, 2004. Elements, such as Al, Fe, and Pb, are strongly enriched in the nymphal exoskeleton relative to the adult body; Cu and Zn are enriched in bodies. Concentrations of Fe and Pb, when normalized to relatively inert soil constituents such as Al and Ce, are similar in both the molt exoskeleton and their host soil, implying that passive assimilation through prolonged soil contact (adhesion or adsorption) might control these metal concentrations. Normalized concentrations of bioessential elements, such as S, P, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Mo, and chalcophile (sulfur-loving) elements, such as As, Se, and Au, indicate strong enrichment in cicada tissues relative to soil, implying selective absorption and retention by xylem fluids, the cicada nymphs themselves, or both. Element enrichment patterns in cicada tissues are similar to enrichment patterns observed in xylem fluids from tree roots. Chalcophile elements and heavy metals accumulate in keratin-rich tissues and may bind to sulfhydryl groups. Metal concentrations in the nymphal

  5. Influence of soil chemistry on metal and bioessential element concentrations in nymphal and adult periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.).

    PubMed

    Robinson, G R; Sibrell, P L; Boughton, C J; Yang, L H

    2007-03-15

    Metal and bioessential element concentrations were measured in three species of 17-year periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) to determine how cicada tissue chemistry is affected by soil chemistry, measure the bioavailability of metals from both uncontaminated and lead-arsenate-pesticide contaminated soils, and assess the potential risks of observed metal contamination for wildlife. Periodical cicada nymphs feed on root xylem fluids for 13 or 17 years of underground development. The nymphs then emerge synchronously at high densities, before leaving their nymphal keratin exoskeleton and molting into their adult form. Cicadas are an important food source for birds and animals during emergence events, and influence nutrient cycles in woodland ecosystems. Nymphal exoskeletons and whole adult cicadas were sampled in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia during the Brood X emergence in May and June, 2004. Elements, such as Al, Fe, and Pb, are strongly enriched in the nymphal exoskeleton relative to the adult body; Cu and Zn are enriched in bodies. Concentrations of Fe and Pb, when normalized to relatively inert soil constituents such as Al and Ce, are similar in both the molt exoskeleton and their host soil, implying that passive assimilation through prolonged soil contact (adhesion or adsorption) might control these metal concentrations. Normalized concentrations of bioessential elements, such as S, P, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Mo, and chalcophile (sulfur-loving) elements, such as As, Se, and Au, indicate strong enrichment in cicada tissues relative to soil, implying selective absorption and retention by xylem fluids, the cicada nymphs themselves, or both. Element enrichment patterns in cicada tissues are similar to enrichment patterns observed in xylem fluids from tree roots. Chalcophile elements and heavy metals accumulate in keratin-rich tissues and may bind to sulfhydryl groups. Metal concentrations in the nymphal

  6. Selection for prime-number intervals in a numerical model of periodical cicada evolution.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Jin; Hayashi, Taro; Tanaka, Yumi; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Simon, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Periodical cicadas are known for unusually long and prime-numbered life cycles (13 and 17 years) for insects. To explain the evolution of prime-numbered reproductive intervals (life cycles), the hybridization hypothesis claims that prime numbers greatly reduce the chance of hybridization with other life cycles. We investigate the hybridization hypothesis using a simulation model. This model is a deterministic, discrete population model with three parameters: larval survival per year, clutch size, and emergence success. Reproductive intervals from 10 years to 20 years compete for survival in the simulations. The model makes three key assumptions: a Mendelian genetic system, random mating among broods of different life-cycle lengths, and integer population sizes. Longer life cycles have larger clutch sizes but suffer higher total mortality than shorter life cycles. Our results show that (1) nonprime-numbered reproductive intervals disappear rapidly in comparison to the selection among the various prime-numbered life cycles, (2) the selection of prime-numbered intervals happens only when populations are at the verge of extinction, and (3) the 13- and 17-year prime phenotypes evolve under certain conditions of the model and may coexist. The hybridization hypothesis is discussed in light of other hypotheses for the evolution of periodical cicada life cycles.

  7. Long-term habitat selection and chronic root herbivory: explaining the relationship between periodical cicada density and tree growth.

    PubMed

    Yang, Louie H; Karban, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) are insect herbivores that feed on host tree roots, but their distribution among hosts is determined largely by the oviposition of female cicadas in the previous generation. A pattern of decreasing tree growth rates with increasing cicada densities is predicted when considering the costs of chronic root herbivory, but the opposite pattern is expected when considering adaptive habitat selection. Here, we report observations indicating that the relationship between periodical cicada densities and host tree growth rates is hump shaped. We suggest that both herbivory and habitat selection are likely to be key processes explaining this pattern, resulting in regions of positive and negative correlation. These results suggest that the effects of cicada herbivory are most apparent at relatively high cicada densities, while habitat selection tends to distribute cicada herbivory on host trees that are able to compensate for cicada root herbivory up to threshold cicada densities.

  8. Avian predators are less abundant during periodical cicada emergences, but why?

    PubMed

    Koenig, Walter D; Ries, Leslie; Olsen, V Beth K; Liebhold, Andrew M

    2011-03-01

    Despite a substantial resource pulse, numerous avian insectivores known to depredate periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) are detected less commonly during emergence years than in either the previous or following years. We used data on periodical cicada calls collected by volunteers conducting North American Breeding Bird Surveys within the range of cicada Brood X to test three hypotheses for this observation: lower detection rates could be caused by bird calls being obscured by cicada calls ("detectability" hypothesis), by birds avoiding areas with cicadas ("repel" hypothesis), or because bird abundances are generally lower during emergence years for some reason unrelated to the current emergence event ("true decline" hypothesis). We tested these hypotheses by comparing bird detections at stations coincident with calling cicadas vs. those without calling cicadas in the year prior to and during cicada emergences. At four distinct levels (stop, route, range, and season), parallel declines of birds in groups exposed and not exposed to cicada calls supported the true decline hypothesis. We discuss several potential mechanisms for this pattern, including the possibility that it is a consequence of the ecological and evolutionary interactions between predators of this extraordinary group of insects.

  9. Life cycle replacement by gene introduction under an allee effect in periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Nariai, Yukiko; Hayashi, Saki; Morita, Satoru; Umemura, Yoshitaka; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2011-04-06

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are divided into three species groups (-decim, -cassini, -decula) of similar but distinct morphology and behavior. Each group contains at least one species with a 17-year life cycle and one with a 13-year cycle; each species is most closely related to one with the other cycle. One explanation for the apparent polyphyly of 13- and 17-year life cycles is that populations switch between the two cycles. Using a numerical model, we test the general feasibility of life cycle switching by the introduction of alleles for one cycle into populations of the other cycle. Our results suggest that fitness reductions at low population densities of mating individuals (the Allee effect) could play a role in life cycle switching. In our model, if the 13-year cycle is genetically dominant, a 17-year cycle population will switch to a 13-year cycle given the introduction of a few 13-year cycle alleles under a moderate Allee effect. We also show that under a weak Allee effect, different year-classes ("broods") with 17-year life cycles can be generated. Remarkably, the outcomes of our models depend only on the dominance relationships of the cycle alleles, irrespective of any fitness advantages.

  10. Life Cycle Replacement by Gene Introduction under an Allee Effect in Periodical Cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Nariai, Yukiko; Hayashi, Saki; Morita, Satoru; Umemura, Yoshitaka; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are divided into three species groups (-decim, -cassini, -decula) of similar but distinct morphology and behavior. Each group contains at least one species with a 17-year life cycle and one with a 13-year cycle; each species is most closely related to one with the other cycle. One explanation for the apparent polyphyly of 13- and 17-year life cycles is that populations switch between the two cycles. Using a numerical model, we test the general feasibility of life cycle switching by the introduction of alleles for one cycle into populations of the other cycle. Our results suggest that fitness reductions at low population densities of mating individuals (the Allee effect) could play a role in life cycle switching. In our model, if the 13-year cycle is genetically dominant, a 17-year cycle population will switch to a 13-year cycle given the introduction of a few 13-year cycle alleles under a moderate Allee effect. We also show that under a weak Allee effect, different year-classes (“broods”) with 17-year life cycles can be generated. Remarkably, the outcomes of our models depend only on the dominance relationships of the cycle alleles, irrespective of any fitness advantages. PMID:21494682

  11. Allochronic speciation, secondary contact, and reproductive character displacement in periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp.): genetic, morphological, and behavioural evidence.

    PubMed

    Cooley, J R; Simon, C; Marshall, D C; Slon, K; Ehrhardt, C

    2001-03-01

    Periodical cicadas have proven useful in testing a variety of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses because of their unusual life history, extraordinary abundance, and wide geographical range. Periodical cicadas provide the best examples of synchronous periodicity and predator satiation in the animal kingdom, and are excellent illustrations of habitat partitioning (by the three morphologically distinct species groups), incipient species (the year classes or broods), and cryptic species (a newly discovered 13-year species, Magicicada neotredecim). They are particularly useful for exploring questions regarding speciation via temporal isolation, or allochronic speciation. Recently, data were presented that provided strong support for an instance of allochronic speciation by life-cycle switching. This speciation event resulted in the formation of a new 13-year species from a 17-year species and led to secondary contact between two formerly separated lineages, one represented by the new 13-year cicadas (and their 17-year ancestors), and the other represented by the pre-existing 13-year cicadas. Allozyme frequency data, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and abdominal colour were shown to be correlated genetic markers supporting the life-cycle switching/allochronic speciation hypothesis. In addition, a striking pattern of reproductive character displacement in male call pitch and female pitch preference between the two 13-year species was discovered. In this paper we report a strong association between calling song pitch and mtDNA haplotype for 101 individuals from a single locality within the M. tredecim/M. neotredecim contact zone and a strong association between abdomen colour and mtDNA haplotype. We conclude by reviewing proposed mechanisms for allochronic speciation and reproductive character displacement.

  12. Periodical cicadas: A minimal automaton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de O. Cardozo, Giovano; de A. M. M. Silvestre, Daniel; Colato, Alexandre

    2007-08-01

    The Magicicada spp. life cycles with its prime periods and highly synchronized emergence have defied reasonable scientific explanation since its discovery. During the last decade several models and explanations for this phenomenon appeared in the literature along with a great deal of discussion. Despite this considerable effort, there is no final conclusion about this long standing biological problem. Here, we construct a minimal automaton model without predation/parasitism which reproduces some of these aspects. Our results point towards competition between different strains with limited dispersal threshold as the main factor leading to the emergence of prime numbered life cycles.

  13. Experimental infection of a periodical cicada (Magicicada cassinii) with a parasitoid (Emblemasoma auditrix) of a proto-periodical cicada (Okanagana rimosa).

    PubMed

    Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard; de Vries, Thomas

    2014-12-14

    The proto-periodical cicada Okanagana rimosa is subject to infection by the acoustically orientating parasitoid fly Emblemasoma auditrix. Furthermore, it is also the only known host of E. auditrix. Here we test the question, whether the highly adapted parasitoid can also infect other cicadas, like the periodical cicada (Magicicada cassinii) and which steps of the parasitization process can be completed. The experiments might also reveal whether such a parasitoid could hypothetically have been involved in the evolution of periodicity. The hearing threshold of E. auditrix matches with the spectrum of the calling song of M. cassinii, indicating potential host localization. Behaviourally, host localization is possible by the parasitoid as it approaches a loudspeaker broadcasting the buzz part of the calling song of M. cassinii. Magicicada cassinii is readily accepted as host and for host infection the parasitoid uses the same behavioural sequence as for its host O. rimosa. A larva is deposited into the timbal of the cicada. By contrast to O. rimosa the development of the fly larva is delayed and eventually suppressed in M. cassinii. The host range of E. auditrix is mainly determined by acoustic parameters. This filter is important, as other sensory cues seem not to be involved in the host selection process and larva will not develop in unsuited host. Although the recent parasitoid-host system seems to be stable in terms of coexistence of both species, an acoustically hunting parasitoid could have been a selective force during evolution of prime numbered periodicity in cicadas.

  14. Predicting emergence, chorusing, and oviposition of periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Oberdörster, Uta; Grant, Peter R

    2006-02-01

    Periodical cicadas in the genus Magicicada have an unusual life history that includes an exceptionally long life cycle and a massive, synchronized emergence. Distributions in woodland habitat are extremely patchy, and an unresolved problem is how the patchiness is generated and maintained. We undertook a study in Princeton, New Jersey, USA, to determine if habitat factors such as tree height, distance to the nearest neighbor, and amount of foliage influence distributions of nymphal emergences, centers of chorusing aggregations, and oviposition sites. Emerging nymphs were counted, chorus centers were identified by measuring decibel levels of their songs, and oviposition was estimated from the foliage "flags" that are produced by trees in response to the damage caused by egg-laying. All three distributions were mapped on 50 trees in a human-managed area of 75 x 130 m. We were unable to identify habitat features that were associated with the distribution of emergences, except that tulip trees (Liriodendron) had significantly fewer emergences than two other genera, ash (Fraxinus) and beech (Fagus). Using multiple linear regression analysis, we found that the distribution of emergences was the best predictor of the distribution of chorus centers and oviposition sites. In an analysis of ash trees alone, tree height and spacing, in addition to cicada emergences, predicted chorus centers and oviposition incidence. Thus the distribution of the offspring generation (oviposition) is shown to be similar to the parental generation (emergence). We suggest that their stability is maintained across generations by extremely low dispersal and mutual attraction. Aggregations may be thought of as self-perpetuating, randomly distributed assemblages, initially established through the interaction of factors, including successful exploitation of underground resources, and avoidance of fungal disease and aboveground predation in the development of high-density mating aggregations.

  15. Evolution of prolonged development: a life table analysis for periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Karban, R

    1997-10-01

    According to conventional wisdom, natural selection should favor early reproduction. Prolonged development of 13 and 17 yr has been difficult to explain for periodical cicadas. Earlier, I hypothesized that development may be long for periodical cicadas because fecundity increases as a function of longer development with little increased risk of mortality. In this article, I tested whether the fecundity was greater for 17-yr cicadas than for 13-yr cicadas and estimated the shape of the survivorship curve. A cohort of 17-yr cicadas was followed from 1979 through 1996. Most mortality occurred during the first 2 yr; thereafter mortality was uncommon. Across 17 yr, adult densities increased at five out of seven sites, and in no case did the change exceed three times. Seventeen-year adults had heavier ovaries than did 13-yr adults; this effect was greater for Magicicada cassini (1.80 times) than for Magicicada decim (1.16 times). For M. cassini, the extra fecundity associated with 17-yr development swamped the potential advantages of more frequent reproduction of 13-yr forms under most conditions. For M. decim, realistically low rates of mortality roughly matched the small effect of development on fecundity. Prolonged development in periodical cicadas may be explained adequately by the demographic hypothesis, although it may also reduce predation risk to adults or result from strong selection for large body size.

  16. Comparison of exclusion and imidacloprid for reduction of oviposition damage to young trees by periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Ahern, Robert G; Frank, Steven D; Raupp, Michael J

    2005-12-01

    Insecticides are traditionally used to control periodical cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae) and to reduce associated injury caused by oviposition. However, research has shown that conventional insecticides have low or variable season-long efficacy in reducing injury caused by cicadas. New systemic neonicotinoid insecticides provide excellent levels of control against a variety of sucking insects. We compared the efficacy of a neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, and a nonchemical control measure, netting, to reduce cicada injury. Netted trees sustained very little injury, whereas unprotected trees were heavily damaged. Fewer eggnests, scars, and flags were observed on trees treated with imidacloprid compared with unprotected trees; however, the hatching of cicada eggs was unaffected by imidacloprid.

  17. Evidence for Paternal Leakage in Hybrid Periodical Cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Kathryn M.; Cooley, John R.; Simon, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial inheritance is generally assumed to be maternal. However, there is increasing evidence of exceptions to this rule, especially in hybrid crosses. In these cases, mitochondria are also inherited paternally, so “paternal leakage” of mitochondria occurs. It is important to understand these exceptions better, since they potentially complicate or invalidate studies that make use of mitochondrial markers. We surveyed F1 offspring of experimental hybrid crosses of the 17-year periodical cicadas Magicicada septendecim, M. septendecula, and M. cassini for the presence of paternal mitochondrial markers at various times during development (1-day eggs; 3-, 6-, 9-week eggs; 16-month old 1st and 2nd instar nymphs). We found evidence of paternal leakage in both reciprocal hybrid crosses in all of these samples. The relative difficulty of detecting paternal mtDNA in the youngest eggs and ease of detecting leakage in older eggs and in nymphs suggests that paternal mitochondria proliferate as the eggs develop. Our data support recent theoretical predictions that paternal leakage may be more common than previously estimated. PMID:17849021

  18. Evidence for paternal leakage in hybrid periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp.).

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Kathryn M; Cooley, John R; Simon, Chris

    2007-09-12

    Mitochondrial inheritance is generally assumed to be maternal. However, there is increasing evidence of exceptions to this rule, especially in hybrid crosses. In these cases, mitochondria are also inherited paternally, so "paternal leakage" of mitochondria occurs. It is important to understand these exceptions better, since they potentially complicate or invalidate studies that make use of mitochondrial markers. We surveyed F1 offspring of experimental hybrid crosses of the 17-year periodical cicadas Magicicada septendecim, M. septendecula, and M. cassini for the presence of paternal mitochondrial markers at various times during development (1-day eggs; 3-, 6-, 9-week eggs; 16-month old 1st and 2nd instar nymphs). We found evidence of paternal leakage in both reciprocal hybrid crosses in all of these samples. The relative difficulty of detecting paternal mtDNA in the youngest eggs and ease of detecting leakage in older eggs and in nymphs suggests that paternal mitochondria proliferate as the eggs develop. Our data support recent theoretical predictions that paternal leakage may be more common than previously estimated.

  19. Genomic divergence and lack of introgressive hybridization between two 13-year periodical cicadas support life cycle switching in the face of climate change.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Takuya; Ito, Hiromu; Fujisawa, Tomochika; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Cooley, John R; Simon, Chris; Yoshimura, Jin; Sota, Teiji

    2016-11-01

    Life history evolution spurred by post-Pleistocene climatic change is hypothesized to be responsible for the present diversity in periodical cicadas (Magicicada), but the mechanism of life cycle change has been controversial. To understand the divergence process of 13-year and 17-year cicada life cycles, we studied genetic relationships between two synchronously emerging, parapatric 13-year periodical cicada species in the Decim group, Magicicada tredecim and M. neotredecim. The latter was hypothesized to be of hybrid origin or to have switched from a 17-year cycle via developmental plasticity. Phylogenetic analysis using restriction-site-associated DNA sequences for all Decim species and broods revealed that the 13-year M. tredecim lineage is genomically distinct from 17-year Magicicada septendecim but that 13-year M. neotredecim is not. We detected no significant introgression between M. tredecim and M. neotredecim/M. septendecim thus refuting the hypothesis that M. neotredecim are products of hybridization between M. tredecim and M. septendecim. Further, we found that introgressive hybridization is very rare or absent in the contact zone between the two 13-year species evidenced by segregation patterns in single nucleotide polymorphisms, mitochondrial lineage identity and head width and abdominal sternite colour phenotypes. Our study demonstrates that the two 13-year Decim species are of independent origin and nearly completely reproductively isolated. Combining our data with increasing observations of occasional life cycle change in part of a cohort (e.g. 4-year acceleration of emergence in 17-year species), we suggest a pivotal role for developmental plasticity in Magicicada life cycle evolution.

  20. Spatial variability in oviposition damage by periodical cicadas in a fragmented landscape.

    PubMed

    Cook, William M; Holt, Robert D; Yao, Jin

    2001-03-01

    Effects of the periodical cicada (Magicicada spp.) on forest dynamics are poorly documented. A 1998 emergence of M. cassini in eastern Kansas led to colonization of a fragmented experimental landscape undergoing secondary succession. We hypothesized that per-tree rates of oviposition damage by cicadas would reflect: (1) distance from the source of the emergence, (2) patch size, and (3) local tree density. Ovipositing females displayed clear preferences for host species and damage incidence showed predictable spatial patterns. Two species (smooth sumac, Rhus glabra, and eastern red cedar, Juniperus virginiana) were rarely attacked, whereas others (rough-leaved dogwood, Cornus drummondii; slippery elm, Ulmus rubra; box elder, Acer negundo, and honey locust, Gleditsia triacanthos) were strongly attacked. The dominant early successional tree, dogwood, received on average the most attacks. As predicted, attacks per stem declined strongly with distance from the emergence source, and with local stem density (a "dilution" effect). Contrary to expectations, there were more attacks per stem on larger patches. Because ovipositing cicadas cut damaging slits in host tree branches, potentially affecting tree growth rate, competitive ability, and capacity to reproduce, cicada damage could potentially influence spatial variation in secondary succession.

  1. Sexual dimorphism of motorneurons: timbal muscle innervation in male periodical cicadas and homologous structures in females.

    PubMed

    Wohlers, D; Bacon, J

    1980-01-01

    In 17-year cicadas, only the male has a sound-producing apparatus. It consists of paired abdominal timbals, each driven by a specialized timbal muscle. Each muscle is innervated by a large timbal motorneuron. Having the largest axon in the auditory nerve, its central structure is readily elucidated with cobalt. The largest cell in the female auditory nerve is found to be a motorneuron that bears striking resemblance to the timbal motorneuron of the male. On the basis of their anatomy within the CNS, we consider these cells to be homologous, despite the fact that the female has no apparent timbal muscle. Cobalt-filling to the periphery reveals the target muscle of the female motorneuron to be one of the three tensor tympani muscles supporting the tympanum; these muscles are not found in the male. The evolutionary significance of these findings is discussed in terms of a possible loss of the sound-producing apparatus in females.

  2. Bird Diversity and Composition in Even-Aged Loblolly Pine Stands Relative to Emergence of 13-year Periodical Cicadas and Vegetation Structure

    Treesearch

    Jennifer L. Hestir; Michael D. Cain

    1999-01-01

    In southern Arkansas, l3-year periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) were expected to emerge in late April and early May of 1998. Presence of a superabundant food source, such as periodical cicadas, may attract greater numbers of birds and more species of birds than is usually present in a particular area. Three even-aged loblolly pine (Pinus...

  3. Patterns and causes of change in a cliff swallow colony during a 17-year period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The number of cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonata) nests at a farmstead in southeastern North Dakota increased at an average annual rate of 87% with house sparrow (Passer domesticus) removal during 1957-60 and 1970-72. Harassment of nesting cliff swallows by house sparrows, adult swallow mortality from cold weather in late May, and collapse of nests were the principal observed factors limiting swallow population growth during a 17-year period.

  4. Reproductive character displacement and speciation in periodical cicadas, with description of new species, 13-year Magicicada neotredecem.

    PubMed

    Marshall, D C; Cooley, J R

    2000-08-01

    Acoustic mate-attracting signals of related sympatric, synchronic species are always distinguishable, but those of related allopatric species sometimes are not, thus suggesting that such signals may evolve to "reinforce" premating species isolation when similar species become sympatric. This hypothesis predicts divergences restricted to regions of sympatry in partially overlapping species, but such "reproductive character displacement" has rarely been confirmed. We report such a case in the acoustic signals of a previously unrecognized 13-year periodical cicada species, Magicicada neotredecim, described here as a new species (see Appendix). Where M. neotredecim overlaps M. tredecim in the central United States, the dominant male call pitch (frequency) of M. neotredecim increases from approximately 1.4 kHz to 1.7 kHz, whereas that of M. tredecim remains comparatively stable. The average preferences of female M. neotredecim for call pitch show a similar geographic pattern, changing with the call pitch of conspecific males. Magicicada neotredecim differs from 13-year M. tredecim in abdomen coloration, mitochondrial DNA, and call pitch, but is not consistently distinguishable from 17-year M. septendecim; thus, like other Magicicada species, M. neotredecim appears most closely related to a geographically adjacent counterpart with the alternative life cycle. Speciation in Magicicada may be facilitated by life-cycle changes that create temporal isolation, and reinforcement could play a role by fostering divergence in premating signals prior to speciation. We present two theories of Magicicada speciation by life-cycle evolution: "nurse-brood facilitation" and "life-cycle canalization."

  5. Reconstructing asymmetrical reproductive character displacement in a periodical cicada contact zone.

    PubMed

    Cooley, John R; Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R; Simon, Chris

    2006-05-01

    Selection against costly reproductive interactions can lead to reproductive character displacement (RCD). We use information from patterns of displacement and inferences about predisplacement character states to investigate causes of RCD in periodical cicadas. The 13-year periodical cicada Magicicada neotredecim exhibits RCD and strong reproductive isolation in sympatry with a closely related 13-year species, Magicicada tredecim. Displacement is asymmetrical, because no corresponding pattern of character displacement exists within M. tredecim. Results from playback and hybridization experiments strongly suggest that sexual interactions between members of these species were possible at initial contact. Given these patterns, we evaluate potential sources of selection for displacement. One possible source is 'acoustical interference', or mate-location inefficiencies caused by the presence of heterospecifics. Acoustical interference combined with the species-specificity of song pitch and preference appears to predict the observed asymmetrical pattern of RCD in Magicicada. However, acoustical interference does not appear to be a complete explanation for displacement in Magicicada, because our experiments suggest a significant potential for direct sexual interactions between these species before displacement. Another possible source of selection for displacement is hybrid failure. We evaluate the attractiveness of inferred hybrid mating signals, and we examine the viability of hybrid eggs. Neither of these shows strong evidence of hybrid inferiority. We conclude by presenting a model of hybrid failure related to life cycle differences in Magicicada.

  6. What the buzz was all about: superfast song muscles rattle the tymbals of male periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Nahirney, Patrick C; Forbes, Jeffrey G; Morris, H Douglas; Chock, Susanne C; Wang, Kuan

    2006-10-01

    Male cicadas produce mating calls by oscillating a pair of superfast tymbal muscles in their anterior abdominal cavity that pull on and buckle stiff-ribbed cuticular tymbal membranes located beneath the folded wings. The functional anatomy and rattling of the tymbal organ in 17 yr periodical cicada, Magicicada cassini (Brood X), were revealed by high-resolution microcomputed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, electron microscopy, and laser vibrometry to understand the mechanism of sound production in these insects. Each 50 Hz muscle contraction yielded five to six stages of rib buckling in the tymbal, and a small release of muscle tension resulted in a rapid recovery due to the spring-loaded nature of the stiff ribs in the resilin-rich tymbal. The tymbal muscle sarcomeres have thick and thin filaments that are 30% shorter than those in flight muscles, with Z-bands that were thicker and configured into novel perforated hexagonal lattices. Caffeine-treated fibers supercontracted by allowing thick filaments to traverse the Z-band through its open lattice. This superfast sonic muscle illustrates design features, especially the matching hexagonal symmetry of the myofilaments and the perforated Z-band that contribute to high-speed contractions, long endurance, and potentially supercontraction needed for producing enduring mating songs and choruses.

  7. Allee effect in the selection for prime-numbered cycles in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yumi; Yoshimura, Jin; Simon, Chris; Cooley, John R.; Tainaka, Kei-ichi

    2009-01-01

    Periodical cicadas are well known for their prime-numbered life cycles (17 and 13 years) and their mass periodical emergences. The origination and persistence of prime-numbered cycles are explained by the hybridization hypothesis on the basis of their lower likelihood of hybridization with other cycles. Recently, we showed by using an integer-based numerical model that prime-numbered cycles are indeed selected for among 10- to 20-year cycles. Here, we develop a real-number-based model to investigate the factors affecting the selection of prime-numbered cycles. We include an Allee effect in our model, such that a critical population size is set as an extinction threshold. We compare the real-number models with and without the Allee effect. The results show that in the presence of an Allee effect, prime-numbered life cycles are most likely to persist and to be selected under a wide range of extinction thresholds. PMID:19451640

  8. Allee effect in the selection for prime-numbered cycles in periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yumi; Yoshimura, Jin; Simon, Chris; Cooley, John R; Tainaka, Kei-ichi

    2009-06-02

    Periodical cicadas are well known for their prime-numbered life cycles (17 and 13 years) and their mass periodical emergences. The origination and persistence of prime-numbered cycles are explained by the hybridization hypothesis on the basis of their lower likelihood of hybridization with other cycles. Recently, we showed by using an integer-based numerical model that prime-numbered cycles are indeed selected for among 10- to 20-year cycles. Here, we develop a real-number-based model to investigate the factors affecting the selection of prime-numbered cycles. We include an Allee effect in our model, such that a critical population size is set as an extinction threshold. We compare the real-number models with and without the Allee effect. The results show that in the presence of an Allee effect, prime-numbered life cycles are most likely to persist and to be selected under a wide range of extinction thresholds.

  9. Cicada Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Catherine E.; Hildreth, David

    1997-01-01

    Presents investigations in which students are provided with a series of four mystery items related to cicadas. Observations and a class discussion follow each item. Contains basic information on doing experiments with live cicadas, specific assessment strategies for this activity, and facts about cicadas. (DDR)

  10. Cicada Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Catherine E.; Hildreth, David

    1997-01-01

    Presents investigations in which students are provided with a series of four mystery items related to cicadas. Observations and a class discussion follow each item. Contains basic information on doing experiments with live cicadas, specific assessment strategies for this activity, and facts about cicadas. (DDR)

  11. Independent divergence of 13- and 17-y life cycles among three periodical cicada lineages.

    PubMed

    Sota, Teiji; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Cooley, John R; Hill, Kathy B R; Simon, Chris; Yoshimura, Jin

    2013-04-23

    The evolution of 13- and 17-y periodical cicadas (Magicicada) is enigmatic because at any given location, up to three distinct species groups (Decim, Cassini, Decula) with synchronized life cycles are involved. Each species group is divided into one 13- and one 17-y species with the exception of the Decim group, which contains two 13-y species-13-y species are Magicicada tredecim, Magicicada neotredecim, Magicicada tredecassini, and Magicicada tredecula; and 17-y species are Magicicada septendecim, Magicicada cassini, and Magicicada septendecula. Here we show that the divergence leading to the present 13- and 17-y populations differs considerably among the species groups despite the fact that each group exhibits strikingly similar phylogeographic patterning. The earliest divergence of extant lineages occurred ∼4 Mya with one branch forming the Decim species group and the other subsequently splitting 2.5 Mya to form the Cassini and Decula species groups. The earliest split of extant lineages into 13- and 17-y life cycles occurred in the Decim lineage 0.5 Mya. All three species groups experienced at least one episode of life cycle divergence since the last glacial maximum. We hypothesize that despite independent origins, the three species groups achieved their current overlapping distributions because life-cycle synchronization of invading congeners to a dominant resident population enabled escape from predation and population persistence. The repeated life-cycle divergences supported by our data suggest the presence of a common genetic basis for the two life cycles in the three species groups.

  12. Some properties of mitochondria isolated from the flight muscle of the periodical cicada, Magicicada septendecim

    PubMed Central

    Hansford, R. G.

    1971-01-01

    Mitochondria from the flight muscle of the periodical cicada oxidize pyruvate and d-glycerol 1-phosphate at rates comparable with those obtained with flight-muscle mitochondria from other insects. The oxidation of d-glycerol 1-phosphate is greatly stimulated by low concentrations of Ca2+. However, oxidative phosphorylation with this substrate is optimum over only a narrow range of Ca2+ concentration, because of the ability of these mitochondria actively to accumulate Ca2+ present at micromolar concentrations. The oxidation of pyruvate via the complete tricarboxylic acid cycle is enhanced by high concentrations of phosphate. When both pyruvate and d-glycerol 1-phosphate are present simultaneously, there is no simple summation of the rates obtained with the substrates singly. Acetyl-l-carnitine, palmitoyl-l-carnitine, glutamate and 2-oxoglutarate are oxidized at rates similar to those obtained with mammalian mitochondria, though lower than those obtained with the two prime substrates. However, no other tricarboxylic acid-cycle intermediates added to the medium were oxidized. From these and other observations it has been concluded that these mitochondria possess a previously undescribed combination of substrate-anion permeases. PMID:5113491

  13. Independent divergence of 13- and 17-y life cycles among three periodical cicada lineages

    PubMed Central

    Sota, Teiji; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Cooley, John R.; Hill, Kathy B. R.; Simon, Chris; Yoshimura, Jin

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of 13- and 17-y periodical cicadas (Magicicada) is enigmatic because at any given location, up to three distinct species groups (Decim, Cassini, Decula) with synchronized life cycles are involved. Each species group is divided into one 13- and one 17-y species with the exception of the Decim group, which contains two 13-y species—13-y species are Magicicada tredecim, Magicicada neotredecim, Magicicada tredecassini, and Magicicada tredecula; and 17-y species are Magicicada septendecim, Magicicada cassini, and Magicicada septendecula. Here we show that the divergence leading to the present 13- and 17-y populations differs considerably among the species groups despite the fact that each group exhibits strikingly similar phylogeographic patterning. The earliest divergence of extant lineages occurred ∼4 Mya with one branch forming the Decim species group and the other subsequently splitting 2.5 Mya to form the Cassini and Decula species groups. The earliest split of extant lineages into 13- and 17-y life cycles occurred in the Decim lineage 0.5 Mya. All three species groups experienced at least one episode of life cycle divergence since the last glacial maximum. We hypothesize that despite independent origins, the three species groups achieved their current overlapping distributions because life-cycle synchronization of invading congeners to a dominant resident population enabled escape from predation and population persistence. The repeated life-cycle divergences supported by our data suggest the presence of a common genetic basis for the two life cycles in the three species groups. PMID:23509294

  14. Primary structure of a novel neuropeptide isolated from the corpora cardiaca of periodical cicadas having adipokinetic and hypertrehalosemic activities.

    PubMed

    Raina, A; Pannell, L; Kochansky, J; Jaffe, H

    1995-09-01

    A new neuropeptide hormone was isolated from the corpora cardiaca of the periodical cicadas, Magicicada species. Primary structure of the peptide as determined by a combination of automated Edman degradation after enzymatic deblocking with pyroglutamate aminopeptidase and mass spectrometry is: pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Ser-Trp-Gly-Asn-NH2. Synthetic peptide assayed in the green stink bug Nezara viridula caused a 112% increase in hemolymph lipids at a dose of 0.625 pmol, and a 67% increase in hemolymph carbohydrates at a dose of 2.5 pmol. Based on these results we designate this peptide, a first from order Homoptera, as Magicicada species-adipokinetic hormone (Mcsp-AKH).

  15. Traumatic episodes experienced during the genocide period in Rwanda influence life circumstances in young men and women 17 years later.

    PubMed

    Rugema, Lawrence; Mogren, Ingrid; Ntaganira, Joseph; Gunilla, Krantz

    2013-12-28

    During Rwanda's genocide period in 1994, about 800,000 people were killed. People were murdered, raped and seriously injured. This retrospective study investigated prevalence and frequency of traumatic episodes and associated psychosocial effects in young adults in Rwanda over the lifetime, during the genocide period and in the past three years. This is a cross-sectional population-based study conducted among men and women, aged 20 to 35 years, residing in the Southern province of Rwanda. The study population, randomly selected in a multi stage procedure, included 477 females and 440 males. Data collection was performed through individual interviewing with a structured questionnaire during the period December 2011- January 2012. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire was used to assess traumatic episodes. All data was sex-disaggregated. Differences between groups were measured by chi square and Fischer's exact test. Associations with socio-demographic and psychosocial factors were estimated by use of odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals in bi- and multivariate analyses. The participants in this study were 3 to 18 years of age in 1994, the year of the genocide. Our sample size was 917 participants, 440 men and 477 women. Women were to a higher extent exposed to traumatic episodes than men during their lifetime, 83.6% (n = 399) and 73.4% (n = 323), respectively. During the genocide period, 37.5% of the men/boys and 35.4% of the women/girls reported such episodes while in the past three years (2009-2011) 25.0% of the men and 23.1% of the women did. Women were more exposed to episodes related to physical and sexual violence, while men were exposed to imprisonment, kidnapping and mass killings. Victims of such violence during the genocide period were 17 years later less educated although married (men OR 1.47; 0.98-2.19; women OR 1.54; 1.03-2.30), without children (men OR 1.59; 1.08-2.36; women OR 1.86; 1.11-3.08) and living under extremely poor circumstances. The

  16. Traumatic episodes experienced during the genocide period in Rwanda influence life circumstances in young men and women 17 years later

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During Rwanda’s genocide period in 1994, about 800,000 people were killed. People were murdered, raped and seriously injured. This retrospective study investigated prevalence and frequency of traumatic episodes and associated psychosocial effects in young adults in Rwanda over the lifetime, during the genocide period and in the past three years. Methods This is a cross-sectional population-based study conducted among men and women, aged 20 to 35 years, residing in the Southern province of Rwanda. The study population, randomly selected in a multi stage procedure, included 477 females and 440 males. Data collection was performed through individual interviewing with a structured questionnaire during the period December 2011- January 2012. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire was used to assess traumatic episodes. All data was sex-disaggregated. Differences between groups were measured by chi square and Fischer’s exact test. Associations with socio-demographic and psychosocial factors were estimated by use of odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals in bi- and multivariate analyses. Results The participants in this study were 3 to 18 years of age in 1994, the year of the genocide. Our sample size was 917 participants, 440 men and 477 women. Women were to a higher extent exposed to traumatic episodes than men during their lifetime, 83.6% (n = 399) and 73.4% (n = 323), respectively. During the genocide period, 37.5% of the men/boys and 35.4% of the women/girls reported such episodes while in the past three years (2009-2011) 25.0% of the men and 23.1% of the women did. Women were more exposed to episodes related to physical and sexual violence, while men were exposed to imprisonment, kidnapping and mass killings. Victims of such violence during the genocide period were 17 years later less educated although married (men OR 1.47; 0.98-2.19; women OR 1.54; 1.03-2.30), without children (men OR 1.59; 1.08-2.36; women OR 1.86; 1.11-3.08) and living under extremely

  17. Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three

  18. Hot flushes and night sweats symptom profiles over a 17-year period in mid-aged women: The role of hysterectomy with ovarian conservation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Louise F; Pandeya, Nirmala; Byles, Julie; Mishra, Gita D

    2016-09-01

    There is limited research on hot flushes and night sweats in women with a hysterectomy with ovarian conservation. We aimed to describe the patterns of these symptoms in a cohort of Australian women and to investigate the relationship between distinct symptom patterns and hysterectomy status. Repeated-measures latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify hot flushes and night sweats symptom patterns across seven surveys (over 17 years) in the mid-cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the associations of the symptom patterns in women with a hysterectomy with ovarian conservation (n=1129) versus women without a hysterectomy (n=4977). A higher proportion of women with a hysterectomy than of those without experienced a constant pattern of hot flushes (15% versus 30%) and night sweats (9% versus 19%). Women with a hysterectomy had higher odds of constant hot flushes versus minimal hot flushes (OR=1.97, 95% CI: 1.64, 2.35) and constant versus minimal night sweats (OR=2.09, 95% CI: 1.70, 2.55). Smoking, a 'lower level of education to non-professional occupation' pathway and body mass index (BMI) patterns of 'always obese' and 'increasingly obese' were also associated with a higher risk of constant symptoms. Women who have a hysterectomy (with ovarian conservation) have a higher risk of hot flushes and night sweats that persist over an extended period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Trends in Current Tobacco Use, Smoking Rates and Quit Attempts among Saudi Population during Periods of 17 Years (1996–2012): Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    ALMUTAIRI, Khalid M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In this study, we investigated the causes behind increase trends in smoking and extent of tobacco use in Saudi Arabia. We also explored the issues related to and its impact tobacco control research and policy in the Kingdom. Methods: Data were collected from various published articles, public data based such as WHO, Geneva and CDC Atlanta. Data were also obtained from surveys conducted by various institutions under The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) for high school students and Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) for medical student. Tobacco importation data and death rates were estimated by various International Organizations. Results: Tobacco importation in Saudi Arabia increased from 1996 to 2012. The proportion of smokers in the KSA almost doubled especially in males from 21% in 1996 to 37% in 2012. Mortality attributable to tobacco in the KSA was estimated to account for 280, 000 premature deaths over the same period (without accounting for smuggled tobacco). The economic burden of tobacco consumption over the last 10 years (2001–2010) in the KSA was 20.5 billion US dollars (based on 2011 prices). Anti-tobacco measures in KSA have been reinforced by the enactment of anti-tobacco laws and collaboration among different government agencies and ministries. Conclusion: If effective tobacco control strategies are not enacted, serious consequences, increasing premature mortality rates among them, will continue to threaten the KSA. PMID:25905050

  20. The presence of cicada family noise in Javanese and Balinese Pranatamangsa calendar calculation an ethnoecological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryadarma, I. G. P.; Handziko, Rio Christy

    2017-08-01

    The presence and distribution of various cicada families as one of Javanese and Balinese ethnic farmers' season changing indicators. Comprehension of season changing is as an effort to optimize crop result as a mean to support basic needs. Society understands the behaviour of animal of cicada family based on season condition. Traditionally season guideline is based on the sun position from the equator, moon position, astronomy called as pranotomongso. Cicada's family is one of indicators of season changing between rain season and dry season. There were two-selected cicadas: garengpung as indicator of dry season and tenggoreknongas indicator of rainy season. This research aimed to discover the presence and growth dynamics of garengpung and tenggoreknong(cicada) as season changing indicator insects. This research is explorative research and data were taken through observation. Field observations on the manifestation and dynamics of two insects were conducted. The research was conducted in Yogyakarta Special Province and Bali Province during period of 2015 up to 2016. Correlation between the presence dynamics and emergence of garengpung and tenggoreknongvoice could be utilized as indicator of rainy and dry season dynamics change. Calculation of rainy and dry season change is relevant with pranotomongso calculation. The presence and dynamics of cicada emergence is still relevant as one of ecological information through ethnoecological approach.

  1. Chemical Constituents of Cordyceps cicadae.

    PubMed

    Chu, Zhi-Bo; Chang, Jun; Zhu, Ying; Sun, Xun

    2015-12-01

    One new bifuran derivative (1), together with fourteen known compounds, were isolated from Cordyceps cicadae X. Q. Shing. The known compounds included nine nucleosides, uracil (2), uridine (3), 2'-deoxyuridine (4), 2'-deoxyinosine (5), guanosine (6), 2'-deoxyguanosine (7), thymidine (8), adenosine (9), and 2'-deoxyadenosine (10); three amino acids tryptophan (11), phenylalanine (12), and tyrosine (13); and two dopamine analogues N-acetylnoradrenaline (14) and its dimer, trans-2-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-acetylamino-7-(N-acetyl-2"-amino-ethylene)-1,4-benzodioxane (15). Their structures were decisively elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques.

  2. GENERAL: A Possible Population-Driven Phase Transition in Cicada Chorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Si-Yuan; Jin, Yu-Liang; Zhao, Xiao-Xue; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the collective synchronization of cicada chirping. Using both experimental and phenomenological numerical techniques, here we show that the onset of a periodic two-state acoustic synchronous behavior in cicada chorus depends on a critical size of population Nc = 21, above which a typical chorus state appears periodically with a 30 second-silence state in between, and further clarify its possibility concerning a new class of phase transition, which is unusually driven by population. This work has relevance to acoustic synchronization and to general physics of phase transition.

  3. CICADA -- Configurable Instrument Control and Data Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Peter J.; Roberts, William H.; Sebo, Kim M.

    CICADA (Young et al. 1997) is a multi-process, distributed application for the control of astronomical data acquisition systems. It comprises elements that control the operation of, and data flow from CCD camera systems; and the operation of telescope instrument control systems. CICADA can be used to dynamically configure support for astronomical instruments that can be made up of multiple cameras and multiple instrument controllers. Each camera is described by a hierarchy of parts that are each individually configured and linked together. Most of CICADA is written in C++ and much of the configurability of CICADA comes from the use of inheritance and polymorphism. An example of a multiple part instrument configuration -- a wide field imager (WFI) -- is described here. WFI, presently under construction, is made up of eight 2k x 4k CCDs with dual SDSU II controllers and will be used at Siding Spring's ANU 40in and AAO 3.9m telescopes.

  4. Living rain gauges: cumulative precipitation explains the emergence schedules of California protoperiodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Chatfield-Taylor, Will; Cole, Jeffrey A

    2017-08-05

    Mass multi-species cicada emergences (broods) occur in California with variable periodicity. Here we present the first rule set that predicts the emergence of protoperiodical cicada communities. We tested two hypotheses with a dataset consisting of direct observations and georeferenced museum specimen records: first, that cicada broods are triggered to emerge by periodic ENSO events and second, that brood emergences occur after precipitation accumulates above a threshold value. The period of ENSO events does not explain the observed pattern of cicada brood emergence. Rather, broods emerged given two conditions: 1) that total precipitation exceeded a threshold of 1181 mm and 2) that a minimum 3 y period lapsed. The precipitation threshold is obeyed over an 800 km north-south distance in California and across a variety of habitats. We predict the next brood emergence at one study site in arid Los Angeles County desert foothills to occur in 2020 or, if drought conditions continue, in 2021. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Teenagers (15-17 years of age)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teenagers (15-17 years) Mental Health Specific Conditions Learning Disorder Data & Statistics Research Legacy Program Intervention Support Fidelity Monitoring FAQ Resources Partner Stories Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia & Tools Links to Other Websites Get Email Updates ...

  6. Nonlinear Acoustics in Cicada Mating Calls Enhance Sound Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    NUWC-NPT Reprint Report 11,907 1 March 2009 Nonlinear Acoustics in Cicada Mating Calls Enhance Sound Propagation Derke R. Hughes Albert H...vol. 125, no. 2, February 2009. Nonlinear acoustics in cicada mating calls enhance sound propagation Derke R. Hughes,3 Albert H. Nuttall,h Richard A...2008; revised 31 October 2008; accepted 15 November 2008) An analysis of cicada mating calls, measured in field experiments, indicates that the very

  7. How Do “Mute” Cicadas Produce Their Calling Songs?

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Changqing; Wei, Cong; Nansen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Insects have evolved a variety of structures and mechanisms to produce sounds, which are used for communication both within and between species. Among acoustic insects, cicada males are particularly known for their loud and diverse sounds which function importantly in communication. The main method of sound production in cicadas is the tymbal mechanism, and a relative small number of cicada species possess both tymbal and stridulatory organs. However, cicadas of the genus Karenia do not have any specialized sound-producing structures, so they are referred to as “mute”. This denomination is quite misleading, as they indeed produce sounds. Here, we investigate the sound-producing mechanism and acoustic communication of the “mute” cicada, Karenia caelatata, and discover a new sound-production mechanism for cicadas: i.e., K. caelatata produces impact sounds by banging the forewing costa against the operculum. The temporal, frequency and amplitude characteristics of the impact sounds are described. Morphological studies and reflectance-based analyses reveal that the structures involved in sound production of K. caelatata (i.e., forewing, operculum, cruciform elevation, and wing-holding groove on scutellum) are all morphologically modified. Acoustic playback experiments and behavioral observations suggest that the impact sounds of K. caelatata are used in intraspecific communication and function as calling songs. The new sound-production mechanism expands our knowledge on the diversity of acoustic signaling behavior in cicadas and further underscores the need for more bioacoustic studies on cicadas which lack tymbal mechanism. PMID:25714608

  8. Embryonic development of pleuropodia of the cicada, Magicicada cassini

    PubMed Central

    Strauß, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    In many insects the first abdominal segment possesses embryonic appendages called pleuropodia. Here we show the embryogenesis of pleuropodial cells of the periodical cicada, Magicicada cassini (Fisher 1851) (Insecta, Homoptera, Cicadidae). An antibody, anti-horseradish perioxidase (HRP), that is usually neuron-specific strongly marked the pleuropodial anlagen and revealed their ectodermal origin shortly after limb bud formation. Thereafter the cells sank into the epidermis and their apical parts enlarged. A globular part protruded from the body wall. Filamentous structures were marked at the stem region and into the apical dilation. In later embryonic stages the pleuropodia degenerated. Despite the binding of anti-HRP the cells had no morphological neuronal characters and cannot be regarded as neurons. The binding indicates that glycosylated cell surface molecules contribute to the adhesion between the presumably glandular pleuropodial cells. In comparison, anti-HRP does not mark the pleuropodia of Orthoptera. PMID:19537987

  9. Embryonic development of pleuropodia of the cicada, Magicicada cassini.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    In many insects the first abdominal segment possesses embryonic appendages called pleuropodia. Here we show the embryogenesis of pleuropodial cells of the periodical cicada, Magicicada cassini (Fisher 1851) (Insecta, Homoptera, Cicadidae). An antibody, anti-horseradish perioxidase (HRP), that is usually neuron-specific strongly marked the pleuropodial anlagen and revealed their ectodermal origin shortly after limb bud formation. Thereafter the cells sank into the epidermis and their apical parts enlarged. A globular part protruded from the body wall. Filamentous structures were marked at the stem region and into the apical dilation. In later embryonic stages the pleuropodia degenerated. Despite the binding of anti-HRP the cells had no morphological neuronal characters and cannot be regarded as neurons. The binding indicates that glycosylated cell surface molecules contribute to the adhesion between the presumably glandular pleuropodial cells. In comparison, anti-HRP does not mark the pleuropodia of Orthoptera.

  10. Cicada-Wing-Inspired Self-Cleaning Antireflection Coatings on Polymer Substrates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chu; Huang, Zhe-Sheng; Yang, Hongta

    2015-11-18

    The cicada has transparent wings with remarkable self-cleaning properties and high transmittance over the whole visible spectral range, which is derived from periodic conical structures covering the wing surface. Here we report a scalable self-assembly technique for fabricating multifunctional optical coatings that mimic cicada-wing structures. Spin-coated two-dimensional non-close-packed colloidal crystals are utilized as etching masks to pattern subwavelength-structured cone arrays directly on polymer substrates. The resulting gratings exhibit broadband antireflection performance and superhydrophobic properties after surface modification. The dependence of the cone shape and size on the antireflective and self-cleaning properties has also been investigated in this study.

  11. Cordyceps cicadae extracts ameliorate renal malfunction in a remnant kidney model*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rong; Chen, Yi-ping; Deng, Yue-yi; Zheng, Rong; Zhong, Yi-fei; Wang, Lin; Du, Lan-ping

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing public health problem with an urgent need for new pharmacological agents. Cordyceps cicadae is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has potential renoprotective benefits. The current study aimed to determine any scientific evidence to support its clinical use. Methods: We analyzed the potential of two kinds of C. cicadae extract, total extract (TE) and acetic ether extract (AE), in treating kidney disease simulated by a subtotal nephrectomy (SNx) model. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into seven groups: sham-operated group, vehicle-treated SNx, Cozaar, 2 g/(kg∙d) TE SNx, 1 g/(kg∙d) TE SNx, 92 mg/(kg∙d) AE SNx, and 46 mg/(kg∙d) AE SNx. Renal injury was monitored using urine and serum analyses, and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stainings were used to analyze the level of fibrosis. The expression of type IV collagen (Col IV), fibronectin (FN), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: Renal injury, reflected in urine and serum analyses, and pathological changes induced by SNx were attenuated by TE and AE intervention. The depositions of Col IV and FN were also decreased by the treatments and were accompanied by reduced expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF. In some respects, 2 g/(kg∙d) of TE produced better effects than Cozaar. Conclusions: For the first time, we have shown that C. cicadae may inhibit renal fibrosis in vivo through the TGF-β1/CTGF pathway. Therefore, we conclude that the use of C. cicadae could provide a rational strategy for combating renal fibrosis. PMID:22135152

  12. CICADA, CCD and Instrument Control Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Peter J.; Brooks, Mick; Meatheringham, Stephen J.; Roberts, William H.

    Computerised Instrument Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) is a software system for control of telescope instruments in a distributed computing environment. It is designed using object-oriented techniques and built with standard computing tools such as RPC, SysV IPC, Posix threads, Tcl, and GUI builders. The system is readily extensible to new instruments and currently supports the Astromed 3200 CCD controller and MSSSO's new tip-tilt system. Work is currently underway to provide support for the SDSU CCD controller and MSSSO's Double Beam Spectrograph. A core set of processes handle common communication and control tasks, while specific instruments are ``bolted'' on using C++ inheritance techniques.

  13. The next step in cicada audition: measuring pico-mechanics in the cicada's ear.

    PubMed

    Windmill, J F C; Sueur, J; Robert, D

    2009-12-01

    Female cicadas use sound when they select a mate from a chorus of singing males. The cicada has a tympanal ear; and the tympanal membrane, and constituent tympanal ridge, act as both acousto-mechanical transducers and frequency filters. The tympanal ridge is physically connected to a large number of mechanoreceptor neurons via a cuticular extension known as the tympanal apodeme. Using microscanning laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured for the first time the in vivo vibrations of the apodeme of female Cicadatra atra in response to the motion of the tympanum driven by sound. These measurements reveal that the nanoscale motion of the tympanal membrane is over a magnitude greater than that of the apodeme. Furthermore, the apodeme acts as an additional mechanical frequency filter, enhancing that of the tympanal ridge, narrowing the frequency band of vibration at the mechanoreceptor neurons to that of the male calling song. This study enhances our understanding of the mechanical link between the external ear of the cicada and its sensory cells.

  14. Computational investigation of cicada aerodynamics in forward flight

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Hui; Dong, Haibo; Gai, Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Free forward flight of cicadas is investigated through high-speed photogrammetry, three-dimensional surface reconstruction and computational fluid dynamics simulations. We report two new vortices generated by the cicada's wide body. One is the thorax-generated vortex, which helps the downwash flow, indicating a new phenomenon of lift enhancement. Another is the cicada posterior body vortex, which entangles with the vortex ring composed of wing tip, trailing edge and wing root vortices. Some other vortex features include: independently developed left- and right-hand side leading edge vortex (LEV), dual-core LEV structure at the mid-wing region and near-wake two-vortex-ring structure. In the cicada forward flight, approximately 79% of the total lift is generated during the downstroke. Cicada wings experience drag in the downstroke, and generate thrust during the upstroke. Energetics study shows that the cicada in free forward flight consumes much more power in the downstroke than in the upstroke, to provide enough lift to support the weight and to overcome drag to move forward. PMID:25551136

  15. Cicadas impact bird communication in a noisy tropical rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Robert; Ray, William; Beck, Angela; Zook, James

    2015-01-01

    Many animals communicate through acoustic signaling, and “acoustic space” may be viewed as a limited resource that organisms compete for. If acoustic signals overlap, the information in them is masked, so there should be selection toward strategies that reduce signal overlap. The extent to which animals are able to partition acoustic space in acoustically diverse habitats such as tropical forests is poorly known. Here, we demonstrate that a single cicada species plays a major role in the frequency and timing of acoustic communication in a neotropical wet forest bird community. Using an automated acoustic monitor, we found that cicadas vary the timing of their signals throughout the day and that the frequency range and timing of bird vocalizations closely track these signals. Birds significantly avoid temporal overlap with cicadas by reducing and often shutting down vocalizations at the onset of cicada signals that utilize the same frequency range. When birds do vocalize at the same time as cicadas, the vocalizations primarily occur at nonoverlapping frequencies with cicada signals. Our results greatly improve our understanding of the community dynamics of acoustic signaling and reveal how patterns in biotic noise shape the frequency and timing of bird vocalizations in tropical forests. PMID:26023277

  16. Computational investigation of cicada aerodynamics in forward flight.

    PubMed

    Wan, Hui; Dong, Haibo; Gai, Kuo

    2015-01-06

    Free forward flight of cicadas is investigated through high-speed photogrammetry, three-dimensional surface reconstruction and computational fluid dynamics simulations. We report two new vortices generated by the cicada's wide body. One is the thorax-generated vortex, which helps the downwash flow, indicating a new phenomenon of lift enhancement. Another is the cicada posterior body vortex, which entangles with the vortex ring composed of wing tip, trailing edge and wing root vortices. Some other vortex features include: independently developed left- and right-hand side leading edge vortex (LEV), dual-core LEV structure at the mid-wing region and near-wake two-vortex-ring structure. In the cicada forward flight, approximately 79% of the total lift is generated during the downstroke. Cicada wings experience drag in the downstroke, and generate thrust during the upstroke. Energetics study shows that the cicada in free forward flight consumes much more power in the downstroke than in the upstroke, to provide enough lift to support the weight and to overcome drag to move forward.

  17. Annual Fire, Mowing and Fertilization Effects on Two Cicada Species (Homoptera: Cicadidae) in Tallgrass Prairie

    Treesearch

    Mac A. Callaham; Matt R. Whiles; John M. Blair

    2002-01-01

    In tallgrass prairie, cicadas emerge annually, are abundant and their emergence can be an important flux of energy and nutrients. However, factors influencing the distribution and abundance of these cicadas are virtually unknown. We examined cicada emergence in plots from a long-term (13 y) experimental manipulation involving common tallgrass prairie management...

  18. Wellness among US adolescents ages 12-17 years.

    PubMed

    Preskitt, J K; Menear, K S; Goldfarb, S S; Menachemi, N

    2015-11-01

    Wellness is a multidimensional construct related to an individual's physical, emotional, intellectual and social well-being. We present estimates of wellness among US adolescents aged 12-17 years and explore how demographic characteristics are associated with wellness. All respondents aged 12 to 17 years (n = 34,601) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health were included in the sample. Survey items were coded to operationalize an overall wellness score, comprised of four subdimensions (physical, intellectual, emotional and social). The mean adjusted overall wellness score was 30.2 (out of 40). Mean raw subdimensions scores were: social = 3.14 (out of 4), emotional = 4.79 (out of 6), intellectual = 4.80 (out of 8) and physical = 6.57 (out of 8). Older adolescents, those with special health needs, those in lower income families and those whose mother or father report fair-poor mental health status had lower wellness scores. US adolescents have wellness scores towards the upper or higher end of our scale. Several adolescent and family characteristics were associated with either lower overall wellness and/or lower wellness on multiple subdimensions. Assessing wellness during critical developmental periods of adolescence is a first step towards promoting behaviours that support increased wellness into adulthood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Chromosomal analysis of Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni; Solé, Mirco; Faria, Renato Gomes; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2016-01-01

    All the species of Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 karyotyped up until now have been classified as 2n = 22. The species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group analyzed by C-banding present a block of heterochromatin in the interstitial region of the short arm of pair 5. Physalaemus cicada Bokermann, 1966 has been considered to be a member of the Physalaemus cuvieri species group, although its interspecific phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. The PcP190 satellite DNA has been mapped on the chromosomes of most of the species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. For two species, Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862), however, only the chromosome number and morphology are known. Given this, the objective of the present study was to analyze the chromosomes of Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri, primarily by C-banding and PcP190 mapping. The results indicate that Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada have similar karyotypes, which were typical of Physalaemus. In both species, the NORs are located on the long arm of pair 8, and the C-banding indicated that, among other features, Physalaemus kroyeri has the interstitial band on chromosome 5, which is however absent in Physalaemus cicada. Even so, a number of telomeric bands were observed in Physalaemus cicada. The mapping of the PcP190 satellite DNA highlighted areas of the centromeric region of the chromosomes of pair 1 in both species, although in Physalaemus kroyeri, heteromorphism was also observed in pair 3. The cytogenetic evidence does not support the inclusion of Physalaemus cicada in the Physalaemus cuvieri group. In the case of Physalaemus kroyeri, the interstitial band on pair 5 is consistent with the existence of a cytogenetic synapomorphy in the Physalaemus cuvieri species group.

  20. Chromosomal analysis of Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada (Anura, Leptodactylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni; Solé, Mirco; Faria, Renato Gomes; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract All the species of Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 karyotyped up until now have been classified as 2n = 22. The species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group analyzed by C-banding present a block of heterochromatin in the interstitial region of the short arm of pair 5. Physalaemus cicada Bokermann, 1966 has been considered to be a member of the Physalaemus cuvieri species group, although its interspecific phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. The PcP190 satellite DNA has been mapped on the chromosomes of most of the species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. For two species, Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862), however, only the chromosome number and morphology are known. Given this, the objective of the present study was to analyze the chromosomes of Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri, primarily by C-banding and PcP190 mapping. The results indicate that Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada have similar karyotypes, which were typical of Physalaemus. In both species, the NORs are located on the long arm of pair 8, and the C-banding indicated that, among other features, Physalaemus kroyeri has the interstitial band on chromosome 5, which is however absent in Physalaemus cicada. Even so, a number of telomeric bands were observed in Physalaemus cicada. The mapping of the PcP190 satellite DNA highlighted areas of the centromeric region of the chromosomes of pair 1 in both species, although in Physalaemus kroyeri, heteromorphism was also observed in pair 3. The cytogenetic evidence does not support the inclusion of Physalaemus cicada in the Physalaemus cuvieri group. In the case of Physalaemus kroyeri, the interstitial band on pair 5 is consistent with the existence of a cytogenetic synapomorphy in the Physalaemus cuvieri species group. PMID:27551351

  1. Oncological outcomes of nephron sparing nephrectomy. 17-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Aguilera Bazan, Alfredo; Bañuelos, B; Alonso-Dorrego, J M; Diez, J; Cisneros, J; De la Peña Barthel, J

    2014-04-01

    Nephron sparing renal surgery is considered the technique of choice for renal tumors smaller than 4 cm. We present our oncological results in a 17-year period. Between January 1995 and December 2012, 130 renal tumor surgeries (58 open, 72 laparoscopic) were performed. We analize the pathological results, presence of positive surgical margins, local relapse, distant metastases and death. The most frequent tumor was clear cell carcinoma (73%) in a pT1 stage (87%). Mean tumor size was 3 cm. Positive surgical margin rate was 7%, currently without any tumor recurrence among these cases (follow up 37 months). Cancer specific mortality is 0% and local recurrence rate 3%. Mean follow up is 71 months. Nephron sparing surgery results are similar to radical nephrectomy in tumors smaller than 4 cm. Positive surgical margins do not seem to have an important repercussion in cancer specific survival.

  2. Pilocarpine-induced seizures in rodents--17 years on.

    PubMed

    Turski, W A

    2000-01-01

    In 1983, we reported that intracerebral or systemic administration of cholinergic agents produced seizures and seizure-related brain damage in rodents. During the following 17 years, seizures induced by cholinomimetic drugs became a popular model of epilepsy. Seizures can by produced by cholinergic agonists acting directly at muscarinic receptors or by drugs enhancing cholinergic transmission due to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. Status epilepticus evoked by pilocarpine in rodents triggers long-lasting changes which can be described as: (I) acute-onset seizures lasting for several hours, (II) a silent period characterized by normalization of electroencephalographic patterns lasting for days, and (III) spontaneous recurrent seizures lasting for life. Therefore, seizures induced by cholinomimetics in rodents are of value for studies of basic mechanisms of epileptogenesis and action of antiepileptic drugs.

  3. Nonlinear acoustics in cicada mating calls enhance sound propagation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Derke R; Nuttall, Albert H; Katz, Richard A; Carter, G Clifford

    2009-02-01

    An analysis of cicada mating calls, measured in field experiments, indicates that the very high levels of acoustic energy radiated by this relatively small insect are mainly attributed to the nonlinear characteristics of the signal. The cicada emits one of the loudest sounds in all of the insect population with a sound production system occupying a physical space typically less than 3 cc. The sounds made by tymbals are amplified by the hollow abdomen, functioning as a tuned resonator, but models of the signal based solely on linear techniques do not fully account for a sound radiation capability that is so disproportionate to the insect's size. The nonlinear behavior of the cicada signal is demonstrated by combining the mutual information and surrogate data techniques; the results obtained indicate decorrelation when the phase-randomized and non-phase-randomized data separate. The Volterra expansion technique is used to fit the nonlinearity in the insect's call. The second-order Volterra estimate provides further evidence that the cicada mating calls are dominated by nonlinear characteristics and also suggests that the medium contributes to the cicada's efficient sound propagation. Application of the same principles has the potential to improve radiated sound levels for sonar applications.

  4. The emergence densities of annual cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) increase with sapling density and are greater near edges in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Chiavacci, Scott J; Bednarz, James C; McKay, Tanja

    2014-08-01

    The emergence densities of cicadas tend to be patchy at multiple spatial scales. While studies have identified habitat conditions related to these patchy distributions, their interpretation has been based primarily on periodical cicada species; habitat factors associated with densities of nonperiodical (i.e., annual) cicadas have remained under studied. This is despite their widespread distribution, diversity, and role as an important trophic resource for many other organisms, particularly within riparian areas. We studied habitat factors associated with the emergence densities of Tibicen spp. in a bottomland hardwood forest in east-central Arkansas. We found emergence densities were greatest in areas of high sapling densities and increased toward forest edges, although sapling density was a much stronger predictor of emergence density. Emergence densities also differed among sample areas within our study system. The habitat features predicting nymph densities were likely driven by a combination of factors affecting female selection of oviposition sites and the effects of habitat conditions on nymph survival. The differences in nymph densities between areas of our system were likely a result of the differential effects of flooding in these areas. Interestingly, our findings were similar to observations of periodical species, suggesting that both types of cicadas select similar habitat characteristics for ovipositing or are under comparable selective pressures during development. Our findings also imply that changes in habitat characteristics because of anthropogenically altered disturbance regimes (e.g., flooding) have the potential to negatively impact both periodical and annual species, which could have dramatic consequences for organisms at numerous trophic levels.

  5. [A method of synthesizing cicada sound for treatment of tinnitus].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yangjing; He, Peiyu; Pan, Fan; Cui, Tao; Wang, Haiyan

    2013-06-01

    Masking therapy can make patients accustom to tinnitus. This therapy is safe and easy to implement, so that it has become a widely used treatment of curing tinnitus. According to surveys of tinnitus sounds, cicada sound is one of the most usual tinnituses. Meanwhile, we have not hitherto found published papers concerning how to synthesize cicada sound and to use it to ameliorate tinnitus. Inspired by the human acoustics theory, we proposed a method to synthesize medical masking sound and to realize the diversity by illustrating the process of synthesizing various cicada sounds. In addition, energy attenuation problem in spectrum shifting process has been successfully solved. Simulation results indicated that the proposed method achieved decent results and would have practical value for the future applications.

  6. Distribution of nucleosides in populations of Cordyceps cicadae.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wen-Bo; Yu, Hong; Ge, Feng; Yang, Jun-Yuan; Chen, Zi-Hong; Wang, Yuan-Bing; Dai, Yong-Dong; Adams, Alison

    2014-05-14

    A rapid HPLC method had been developed and used for the simultaneous determination of 10 nucleosides (uracil, uridine, 2'-deoxyuridine, inosine, guanosine, thymidine, adenine, adenosine, 2'-deoxyadenosine and cordycepin) in 10 populations of Cordyceps cicadae, in order to compare four populations of Ophicordyceps sinensis and one population of Cordyceps militaris. Statistical analysis system (SAS) 8.1 was used to analyze the nucleoside data. The pattern of nucleoside distribution was analyzed in the sampled populations of C. cicadae, O. sinensis and C. militaris, using descriptive statistical analysis, nested analysis and Q cluster analysis. The total amount of the 10 nucleosides in coremium was 1,463.89-5,678.21 µg/g in 10 populations of C. cicadae, 1,369.80-3,941.64 µg/g in sclerotium. The average contents of the 10 analytes were 4,392.37 µg/g and 3,016.06 µg/g in coremium and sclerotium, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) of nucleosides ranged from 8.36% to 112.36% in coremium of C. cicadae, and from 10.77% to 155.87% in sclerotium of C. cicadae. The CV of the nucleosides was wide within C. cicadae populations. The nested variation analysis by the nine nucleosides' distribution indicated that about 42.29% of the nucleoside variability in coremium was attributable to the differentiation among populations, and the remaining 57.71% resided in the populations. It was also shown that about 28.94% of the variation in sclerotium was expressed between populations, while most of the variation (71.06%) corresponded to the populations.

  7. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellieu, Louis; Sarrazin, Michaël; Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2014-07-01

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing, while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  8. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Dellieu, Louis Sarrazin, Michaël Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2014-07-14

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing, while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  9. Response to enrichment, type and timing: small mammals vary in their response to a springtime cicada but not a carbohydrate pulse.

    PubMed

    Vandegrift, Kurt J; Hudson, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    1. Masting events in the autumn provide a carbohydrate-rich pulse of resources that can influence the dynamics of small mammals and their natural enemies. Similar patterns are observed with the periodical cicada emergence which provides a protein-rich pulse in the spring, but comparisons are confounded by timing and food type. 2. We compared the influence of a naturally occurring spring pulse of cicadas with an experimental spring pulse of carbohydrate-rich seeds. We used a replicated population level field experiment and capture-mark-recapture techniques to record the vital rates, demographics, and abundance of Peromyscus leucopus (the white-footed mouse), as well as other small mammals and their parasites. 3. The density of P. leucopus on grids where cicadas emerged was 55% higher than controls as a consequence of early breeding. This was followed by an increase in the prevalence of the nematode Pterygodermatities peromysci, reduced breeding and decreased recruitment rates. Other small mammals including Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk) and Blarina brevicauda (short-tailed shrew), increased in density, but there was no affect on Sorex cinereus (masked shrew). 4. In contrast to the presence of cicadas, there was no influence of sunflower seed supplementation on small mammal density, vital rates, or reproduction with the exception of an increase in B. brevicauda density. The response of small mammals to seasonal pulses depends on timing, food type, and species.

  10. Sexual dimorphism in auditory mechanics: tympanal vibrations of Cicada orni.

    PubMed

    Sueur, Jérôme; Windmill, James F C; Robert, Daniel

    2008-08-01

    In cicadas, the tympanum is anatomically intricate and employs complex vibrations as a mechanism for auditory frequency analysis. Using microscanning laser Doppler vibrometry, the tympanal mechanics of Cicada orni can be characterized in controlled acoustical conditions. The tympanum of C. orni moves following a simple drum-like motion, rather than the travelling wave found in a previous study of Cicadatra atra. There is a clear sexual dimorphism in the tympanal mechanics. The large male tympanum is unexpectedly insensitive to the dominant frequency of its own calling song, possibly a reflection of its dual purpose as a sound emitter and receiver. The small female tympanum appears to be mechanically sensitive to the dominant frequency of the male calling song and to high-frequency sound, a capacity never suspected before in these insects. This sexual dimorphism probably results from a set of selective pressures acting in divergent directions, which are linked to the different role of the sexes in sound reception and production. These discoveries serve to indicate that there is far more to be learnt about the development of the cicada ear, its biomechanics and evolution, and the cicada's acoustic behaviour.

  11. Recurrent varicose veins: causes and neovascularisation. A 17-year experience.

    PubMed

    Herman, J; Musil, D; Tichy, M; Bachleda, P

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the paper was to determine the causes of varicose vein recurrence and, when neovascularisation is suspected, to confirm or exclude its presence and to establish its contribution to the recurrence of varicose veins. A retrospective analysis of a set of 217 legs reoperated in our department over a period of 17 years with a two-year prospective histological and histochemical (nestin) analysis of resected veins. Reflux as a cause of varicose vein recurrence was identified in 93% of the limbs. It was most commonly found in the area of the saphenofemoral junction, followed by the area of the saphenopopliteal junction. Reflux in the perforating veins was almost invariably linked to that in the saphenofemoral junction or saphenopopliteal junction; an isolated damage to the perforating veins was only present in three limbs. Histological and histochemical analysis was performed for the samples of eleven veins in which neovascularisation was suspected based on preoperative duplex ultrasonography evaluation. Neovascularisation was confirmed in none of these veins and none of them was the cause of recurrence. The major cause of varicose vein recurrence is a reflux left unresolved during the primary surgery, particularly in the area of the saphenofemoral junction. A less common cause is progression of the disease and the occurrence of a new reflux. Neovascularisation is of no importance for the recurrence of varicose veins.

  12. Power and control muscles of cicada song: structural and contractile heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Stokes, D R; Josephson, R K

    2004-04-01

    Sound production in cicadas is powered by a pair of large muscles whose contractions cause buckling of cuticular tymbals and thereby create sound pulses. Sound is modulated by control muscles that alter the stiffness of the tymbals or change the shape of the abdominal resonance chamber. Muscle ultrastructure and contractile properties were characterized for the tymbal muscle and two control muscles, the ventral longitudinal muscle and the tymbal tensor, of the periodical cicada Magicicada septendecim. The tymbal muscle is a fast muscle that is innervated by a single motoraxon. The control muscles are an order of magnitude less massive than the tymbal muscles, but their innervation patterns were considerably more complex. The tensor muscle is innervated by two axons, each of which evokes rather slow twitches, and the ventral muscle is innervated by at least six axons, some of which produce fast and the others slow contractions. Muscle contraction kinetics correlated well with ultrastructure. Fibers of the tymbal muscle and the portions of the ventral muscle thought to be fast were richly supplied with transverse tubules (T-tubules) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR); slow portions of the ventral muscle and the tensor muscle had relatively little SR.

  13. Injury in the national basketball association: a 17-year overview.

    PubMed

    Drakos, Mark C; Domb, Benjamin; Starkey, Chad; Callahan, Lisa; Allen, Answorth A

    2010-07-01

    Injury patterns in elite athletes over long periods continue to evolve. The goal of this study was to review of the injuries and medical conditions afflicting athletes competing in the National Basketball Association (NBA) over a 17-year period. Descriptive epidemiological study. Injuries and player demographic information were reported by each team's athletic trainer. Criteria for reportable injuries were those that resulted in (1) physician referral, (2) a practice or game being missed, or (3) emergency care. The demographics, frequency of injury, time lost, and game exposures were tabulated, and game-related injury rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A total of 1094 players appeared in the database 3843 times (3.3 ± 2.6 seasons). Lateral ankle sprains were the most frequent orthopaedic injury (n, 1658; 13.2%), followed by patellofemoral inflammation (n, 1493; 11.9%), lumbar strains (n, 999; 7.9%), and hamstring strains (n, 413; 3.3%). The most games missed were related to patellofemoral inflammation (n, 10 370; 17.5%), lateral ankle sprains (n, 5223; 8.8%), knee sprains (n, 4369; 7.4%), and lumbar strains (n, 3933; 6.6%). No correlations were found between injury rate and player demographics, including age, height, weight, and NBA experience. Professional athletes in the NBA experience a high rate of game-related injuries. Patellofemoral inflammation is the most significant problem in terms of days lost in competition, whereas ankle sprains are the most common injury. True ligamentous injuries of the knee were surprisingly rare. Importantly, player demographics were not correlated with injury rates. Further investigation is necessary regarding the consequences and sport-specific treatment of various injuries in NBA players. Knowledge of these injury patterns can help to guide treatments and provide more accurate guidelines for an athlete to return to play.

  14. Relative Reliability and Validity of the Block Kids Questionnaire among Youth Aged 10 to 17 Years

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This cross-sectional study tested the reliability and validity of the Block Kids Questionnaire to assess diet during the past 7 days. Within a 7-day period, 10- to 17-year-old children and adolescents completed two 24-hour dietary recalls by telephone, followed by the Block Kids Questionnaire at the...

  15. Axillary lymphadenopathy 17 years after digital silicone implants: study with x-ray microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Paplanus, S.H.; Payne, C.M.

    1988-05-01

    Axillary lymphadenopathy developed in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis 17 years after the placing of Swanson implants in the hand. Foreign material in the lymph nodes was identified as silicone by energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis. This emphasizes the long latent period that may be associated with this clinical phenomenon which may mimic other, more serious, diseases.

  16. Total and methyl mercury contents and distribution characteristics in cicada, Cryptotympana atrata (Fabricius).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Wang, Qichao

    2010-06-01

    Total and methyl mercury concentrations of cicada bodies, wings, and exuviae were investigated to study the mercury distribution characteristics. Results indicated that total and methyl mercury concentrations of cicada bodies were 2.64 mg/kg and 123.93 ng/g on average, respectively. In cicada tissues, total mercury concentrations were found to increase in the order of exuviae (0.50 mg/kg on average) < wings (0.98 mg/kg on average) < cicada bodies (2.64 mg/kg on average) and methyl mercury concentrations of cicada bodies were 123.93 ng/g on average and were the highest. Methyl mercury concentrations accounted for about 4.69% of total mercury in cicada bodies and most mercury was in inorganic forms in cicada. Sex differences of total mercury concentrations were significantly great (F = 8.433, p < 0.01) and total mercury concentrations of the males, which were 3.38 mg/kg on average, were much higher. Correlation analysis showed that neither total nor methyl mercury concentrations of cicada bodies was significantly related to the corresponding contents of soil (r = 0.0598, p > 0.05).

  17. Cicada emergence in southwestern riparian forest: Influences of wildfire and vegetation composition

    Treesearch

    D. Max Smith; Jeffrey Kelly; Deborah M. Finch

    2006-01-01

    Annually emerging cicadas are a numerically and ecologically dominant species in Southwestern riparian forests. Humans have altered disturbance regimes that structure these forests such that floods are less common and wildfires occur more frequently than was historically the case. Impacts of these changes on primary consumers such as riparian cicadas are unknown....

  18. Versatile Aggressive Mimicry of Cicadas by an Australian Predatory Katydid

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, David C.; Hill, Kathy B. R.

    2009-01-01

    Background In aggressive mimicry, a predator or parasite imitates a signal of another species in order to exploit the recipient of the signal. Some of the most remarkable examples of aggressive mimicry involve exploitation of a complex signal-response system by an unrelated predator species. Methodology/Principal Findings We have found that predatory Chlorobalius leucoviridis katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) can attract male cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) by imitating the species-specific wing-flick replies of sexually receptive female cicadas. This aggressive mimicry is accomplished both acoustically, with tegminal clicks, and visually, with synchronized body jerks. Remarkably, the katydids respond effectively to a variety of complex, species-specific Cicadettini songs, including songs of many cicada species that the predator has never encountered. Conclusions/Significance We propose that the versatility of aggressive mimicry in C. leucoviridis is accomplished by exploiting general design elements common to the songs of many acoustically signaling insects that use duets in pair-formation. Consideration of the mechanism of versatile mimicry in C. leucoviridis may illuminate processes driving the evolution of insect acoustic signals, which play a central role in reproductive isolation of populations and the formation of species. PMID:19142230

  19. Is microhabitat segregation between two cicada species (Tibicina haematodes and Cicada orni) due to calling song propagation constraints?

    PubMed

    Sueur, J; Aubin, T

    2003-07-01

    The cicada species Tibicina haematodes and Cicada orni are two sympatric species often inhabiting vineyards. We show that they occupy two distinct levels: males of T. haematodes produce their calling songs from a high position in vine foliage while males of C. orni call from a low position near the ground on vine trunks. Experiments consisting of broadcasting and re-recording experimental signals in natural habitats from low and high positions show that signals are more and more modified as sender-receiver distance increases. T. haematodes would have an advantage when calling on trunks rather than on branches whereas C. orni would be able to call indiscriminately from both low and high positions. Thus, the microhabitat segregation observed between T. haematodes and C orni in vineyards does not seem to be related to calling song propagation constraints, but may be due to other ethological or ecological factors.

  20. Hirayama disease in a 17-year-old Chinese man

    PubMed Central

    Sitt, Jacqueline Ching Man; Fung, Eva Lai Wah; Yuen, Edmund Hok-Yuen; Ahuja, Anil Tejbhan

    2014-01-01

    Hirayama disease is an uncommon cervical myelopathy associated with neck flexion. It has been postulated to be related to the anterior shifting of the posterior dura of the lower cervical dural canal during neck flexion, resulting in lower cervical cord atrophy with asymmetric flattening. We report a case of Hirayama disease in a 17-year-old Chinese man and demonstrate the use of dynamic flexion magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine in the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:24379115

  1. Nightguard vital bleaching: side effects and patient satisfaction 10 to 17 years post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Boushell, Lee W; Ritter, André V; Garland, Glenn E; Tiwana, Karen K; Smith, Lynn R; Broome, Angela; Leonard, Ralph H

    2012-06-01

      The long-term patient satisfaction and safety of nightguard vital bleaching (NGVB) requires further evaluation.   The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients' satisfaction and identify side effects of NGVB up to 17 years post-treatment.   Thirty-one participants who had completed previous NGVB studies using 10% carbamide peroxide were contacted at least 10 years post-treatment (range 10-17 years, average 12.3 years). Participants reported shade satisfaction (very satisfied [VS], partially satisfied [PS], or not satisfied [NS]) as well as potential complications. Participants had teeth # 6 to 11 examined for tooth vitality, gingival inflammation (Löe's Gingival Index [GI]), and radiographically for external cervical resorption (ECR).   All of the participants had successful lightening of their teeth. Sixty-one percent (19) had not retreated their teeth. Of those who had not retreated their teeth and who responded to the question of whitening satisfaction, 31% (4/13) were VS, 54% (7/13) were PS, and 15% (2/13) were NS with their current shade. Of those who had retreated their teeth, all were VS or PS. Ninety-one percent of the examined teeth had GI = 0 (normal), 7% had GI = 1 (mild inflammation), and 2% had GI = 2 (moderate inflammation). Sixty-nine percent of teeth tested responded to a cold stimulus. Radiographs did not detect ECR or apical lesions. No participant reported having a gingival biopsy post-treatment, and 87% would whiten again.   Patient satisfaction with NGVB may last as long as 12.3 years in average (range 10-17 years) post-treatment. GI and ECR findings were considered within the normal expectations for the sample studied, suggesting minimal clinical post-NGVB side effects up to 17 years. Nightguard vital bleaching provides patient satisfaction with minimal side effects up to 17 years post-treatment. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Stridulatory sound-production and its function in females of the cicada Subpsaltria yangi.

    PubMed

    Luo, Changqing; Wei, Cong

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic behavior plays a crucial role in many aspects of cicada biology, such as reproduction and intrasexual competition. Although female sound production has been reported in some cicada species, acoustic behavior of female cicadas has received little attention. In cicada Subpsaltria yangi, the females possess a pair of unusually well-developed stridulatory organs. Here, sound production and its function in females of this remarkable cicada species were investigated. We revealed that the females could produce sounds by stridulatory mechanism during pair formation, and the sounds were able to elicit both acoustic and phonotactic responses from males. In addition, the forewings would strike the body during performing stridulatory sound-producing movements, which generated impact sounds. Acoustic playback experiments indicated that the impact sounds played no role in the behavioral context of pair formation. This study provides the first experimental evidence that females of a cicada species can generate sounds by stridulatory mechanism. We anticipate that our results will promote acoustic studies on females of other cicada species which also possess stridulatory system.

  3. Stridulatory Sound-Production and Its Function in Females of the Cicada Subpsaltria yangi

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Changqing; Wei, Cong

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic behavior plays a crucial role in many aspects of cicada biology, such as reproduction and intrasexual competition. Although female sound production has been reported in some cicada species, acoustic behavior of female cicadas has received little attention. In cicada Subpsaltria yangi, the females possess a pair of unusually well-developed stridulatory organs. Here, sound production and its function in females of this remarkable cicada species were investigated. We revealed that the females could produce sounds by stridulatory mechanism during pair formation, and the sounds were able to elicit both acoustic and phonotactic responses from males. In addition, the forewings would strike the body during performing stridulatory sound-producing movements, which generated impact sounds. Acoustic playback experiments indicated that the impact sounds played no role in the behavioral context of pair formation. This study provides the first experimental evidence that females of a cicada species can generate sounds by stridulatory mechanism. We anticipate that our results will promote acoustic studies on females of other cicada species which also possess stridulatory system. PMID:25710637

  4. CeasIng Cpap At standarD criteriA (CICADA): impact on weight gain, time to full feeds and caffeine use.

    PubMed

    Broom, Margaret; Ying, Lei; Wright, Audrey; Stewart, Alice; Abdel-Latif, Mohamed E; Shadbolt, Bruce; Todd, David A

    2014-09-01

    In our previous randomised controlled trial (RCT), we have shown in preterm babies (PBs) <30 weeks gestation that CeasIng Cpap At standarD criteriA (CICADA (method 1)) compared with cycling off continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) gradually (method 2) or cycling off CPAP gradually with low flow air/oxygen during periods off CPAP (method 3) reduces CPAP cessation time in PBs <30 weeks gestation. This retrospective study reviewed weight gain, time to reach full feeds and time to cease caffeine in PBs previously enrolled in the RCT. Data were collected from 162 of the 177 PBs, and there was no significant difference in the projected weight gain between the three methods. Based on intention to treat, the time taken to reach full feeds for all three methods showed no significant difference. However, post hoc analysis showed the CICADA method compared with cycling off gradually just failed significance (30.3±1.6 vs 31.1±2.4 (weeks corrected gestational age (Wks CGA±SD)), p=0.077). Analysis of time to cease caffeine showed there was a significant difference between the methods with PBs randomised to the CICADA method compared with the cycling off method ceasing caffeine almost a week earlier (33.6±2.4 vs 34.5±2.8 (Wks CGA±SD), p=0.02). This retrospective study provides evidence to substantiate the optimum method of ceasing CPAP; the CICADA method, does not adversely affect weight gain, time to reach full feeds and may reduce time to cease caffeine in PBs <30 weeks gestation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Substrate vibrations during acoustic signalling in the cicada Okanagana rimosa

    PubMed Central

    Stölting, Heiko; Moore, Thomas E.; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    Males of the North American cicada Okanagana rimosa (Homoptera: Cicadidae, Tibicininae) emit loud airborne acoustic signals for intraspecific communication. Specialised vibratory signals could not be detected; however, the airborne signal induced substrate vibrations. Both auditory and vibratory spectra peak in the range from 7–10 kHz. Thus, the vibrations show similar frequency components to the sound spectrum within biologically relevant distances. These vibratory signals could be important as signals involved in mate localization and perhaps even as the context for the evolution of the ear in a group of parasitoid flies. PMID:15455036

  6. Mortality among 5-17 year old children in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Osano, Bonface Ombaba; Were, Fred; Mathews, Shanaaz

    2017-01-01

    Global mortality trends have changed over time and are expected to continue changing with a reduction in communicable diseases and an increase of non-communicable disease. Increased survival of children beyond five years may change mortality patterns for these children. There are few studies in Africa that explore the causes of mortality in children over five years. The objective of this study was to determine the mortality rate and clinical profiles of children aged 5-17 years who died in six Kenyan hospitals in 2013. Retrospective review of patients' medical records to abstract data on diagnosis for those who died in year 2013. Data was analysed to provide descriptive statistics and explored differences in mortality rates between age groups and gender. We retrieved 4,520 patient records. The in-hospital mortality rate was 3.5% (95%CI 3.0-4.1) with variations in deaths between the ages and gender. Among the deaths, 60% suffered from communicable diseases, maternal and nutritional causes; 41.3% suffered from non-communicable diseases. A further 11.9% succumbed to traumatic injuries. The predominant clinical diagnoses among patients who died were HIV/AIDS, respiratory tract infections and malaria. Infectious causes had the highest proportion of diagnoses among children aged 5-17 years who died.

  7. Impact of Adolescent Personality Disorders on Obesity 17 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Huang, Yangxin; Kasen, Stephanie; Skodol, Andrew; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2015-10-01

    To investigate associations between adolescent personality disorder (PD) and obesity 17 years later. The Children in the Community is a longitudinal study based on a randomly sampled cohort of families, in effect since 1975. PDs were assessed in youths by self-report and mother report in 1985 to 1986, when participants were at an average age of 16 years. Obesity was assessed in 2001 to 2004 when participants were an average age of 33 years (n = 621). Prevalence of obesity was 16.59% (103/621) at an average age of 33 years. Prevalence of any adolescent PD was 17.55% (109/621) at an average age of 16 years. Adolescents who had any PD were 1.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-3.22) times as likely to be obese 17 years later after adjusting for demographic variables and known risk factors. Paranoid, histrionic, and obsessive-compulsive PDs in adolescence were significantly associated with obesity in adulthood, with odds ratios of 3.45 (95% CI = 1.46-8.17), 4.49 (95% CI = 1.91-10.53), and 6.80 (95% CI = 2.50-18.55), respectively. This is the first study to report a significant independent long-term association based on prospective data between adolescent PDs and adult obesity in a community-based sample. Findings will contribute to the design of preventive measures against the development of obesity.

  8. Phylogeography of the New Zealand cicada Maoricicada campbelli based on mitochondrial DNA sequences: ancient clades associated with cenozoic environmental change.

    PubMed

    Buckley, T R; Simon, C; Chambers, G K

    2001-07-01

    New Zealand's isolation, its well-studied rapidly changing landscape, and its many examples of rampant speciation make it an excellent location for studying the process of genetic differentiation. Using 1520 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from the cytochrome oxidase subunit I, ATPase subunits 6 and 8 and tRNA(Asp) genes, we detected two well-differentiated, parapatrically distributed clades within the widespread New Zealand cicada species Maoricicada campbelli that may prove to represent two species. The situation that we uncovered is unusual in that an ancient lineage with low genetic diversity is surrounded on three sides by two recently diverged lineages. Using a relaxed molecular clock model coupled with Bayesian statistics, we dated the earliest divergence within M. campbelli at 2.3 +/- 0.55 million years. Our data suggest that geological and climatological events of the late Pliocene divided a once-widespread species into northern and southern components and that near the middle of the Pleistocene the northern lineage began moving south eventually reaching the southern clade. The southern clade seems to have moved northward to only a limited extent. We discovered five potential zones of secondary contact through mountain passes that will be examined in future work. We predict that, as in North American periodical cicadas, contact between these highly differentiated lineages will exist but will not involve gene flow.

  9. An Architect Cicada in Brazilian Rainforest: Guyalna chlorogena (Walker).

    PubMed

    Béguin, C F

    2017-04-01

    To study the noteworthy nest building behavior of the nymph of the Brazilian Rainforest cicada Guyalna chlorogena (Walker) during the last year of its underground life, we monitored a large number of edifices, consisting of a vertical well (up to 1 m deep) with a turret (20 to 40 cm tall) on top, and we also performed experiments. We have shown that the buildings are occupied by a single nymph, male or female, which increases the height of its turret each night by about 3 cm, during a short active growing phase. The nymph softens and reshapes the apex by pushing upwards a lump of freshly mixed soaked clay, without any opening present, i. e., without ever exposing itself to the outside. We also established that the nymph is very active once its building is achieved. For example, it restores the height of the turret to its original value when shortening and opens the top of its building in case of variation of environmental parameters. Finally, we have shown how the nymph opens its edifice to reach the outside for molting into an adult stage (imago). With this work, we contributed to a better understanding of the nesting behavior of Amazon cicadas.

  10. Characterizations of a new Cordyceps cicadae isolate and production of adenosine and cordycepin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongjun; Guo, Yanbin; Zhang, Liqin; Wu, Jia

    2012-01-01

    Cordyceps is a fastidious pathogenic fungus infecting insects, and recent years have witnessed rapid progress in its medical properties. In this study, a wild isolate, C. cicadae MP12, was characterized through in vitro cultivation and its nuclear small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) data. In vitro culture of C. cicadae MP12 was established by growing its fruiting bodies in a solid matrix. C. cicadae MP12 was inoculated into Cryptotympana atrata cicada pupae for in vivo culture, where the fungi developed its fruiting body as well. The contents of adenosine and cordycepin in dried fruiting bodies after culture were 1421.45μg/g and 1398.12 μg/g, respectively. Therefore, the established cultures from this study could be used for the production of various medically important metabolic substances. PMID:24031851

  11. Characterization of Nonlinear Systems with Memory by Means of Volterra Expansions with Frequency Partitioning: Application to a Cicada Mating Call

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-15

    Partitioning Application to a Cicada Mating Call Albert H. Nuttall Adaptive Methods Inc. Derke R. Hughes NUWC Division Newport IVAVSEA WARFARE...Frequency Partitioning: Application to a Cicada Mating Call 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Albert H... cicada mating call with a distinctly non-white and non-Gaussian excitation gives good results for the estimated first- and second-order kernels and

  12. Exploring the Role of Habitat on the Wettability of Cicada Wings.

    PubMed

    Oh, Junho; Dana, Catherine E; Hong, Sungmin; Román, Jessica K; Jo, Kyoo Dong; Hong, Je Won; Nguyen, Jonah; Cropek, Donald M; Alleyne, Marianne; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2017-08-16

    Evolutionary pressure has pushed many extant species to develop micro/nanostructures that can significantly affect wettability and enable functionalities such as droplet jumping, self-cleaning, antifogging, antimicrobial, and antireflectivity. In particular, significant effort is underway to understand the insect wing surface structure to establish rational design tools for the development of novel engineered materials. Most studies, however, have focused on superhydrophobic wings obtained from a single insect species, in particular, the Psaltoda claripennis cicada. Here, we investigate the relationship between the spatially dependent wing wettability, topology, and droplet jumping behavior of multiple cicada species and their habitat, lifecycle, and interspecies relatedness. We focus on cicada wings of four different species: Neotibicen pruinosus, N. tibicen, Megatibicen dorsatus, and Magicicada septendecim and take a comparative approach. Using spatially resolved microgoniometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and high speed optical microscopy, we show that within cicada species, the wettability of wings is spatially homogeneous across wing cells. All four species were shown to have truncated conical pillars with widely varying length scales ranging from 50 to 400 nm in height. Comparison of the wettability revealed three cicada species with wings that are superhydrophobic (>150°) with low contact angle hysteresis (<5°), resulting in stable droplet jumping behavior. The fourth, more distantly related species (Ma. septendecim) showed only moderate hydrophobic behavior, eliminating some of the beneficial surface functional aspects for this cicada. Correlation between cicada habitat and wing wettability yielded little connection as wetter, swampy environments do not necessarily equate to higher measured wing hydrophobicity. The results, however, do point to species relatedness and reproductive strategy as a closer proxy for predicting

  13. Analysis of Inter-Individual Bacterial Variation in Gut of Cicada Meimuna mongolica (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenting; Nan, Xiaoning; Zheng, Zhou; Wei, Cong; He, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal bacterial community plays a crucial role in the nutrition, development, survival, and reproduction of insects. When compared with other insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts, the habitats of cicada nymphs and adults are totally different. However, little is known about the differences in the gut bacterial communities in the nymphs and adults within any cicada species. The diversity of bacteria in the gut of nymphs and adults of both genders of Meimuna mongolica (Distant) was studied using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method. Few inter-individual variations among gut microbiota were observed, suggesting that M. mongolica typically harbors a limited and consistent suite of bacterial species. Bacteria in the genera Pseudomonas and Enterobacter were the predominant components of the gut microflora of M. mongolica at all life stages. Bacteria of Pantoea, Streptococcus, and Uruburuella were also widespread in the cicada samples but at relatively lower concentrations. The relative stability and similarity of the PCR-DGGE patterns indicate that all individuals of this cicada species harbor a characteristic bacterial community which is independent from developmental stages and genders. Related endosymbionts that could be harbored in bacteromes of cicadas were not detected in any gut samples, which could be related to the cicada species and the distribution of these endosymbionts in the cicada cavity, or due to some of the possible limitations of PCR-DGGE community profiling. It is worthwhile to further address if related cicada endosymbiont clades distribute in the alimentary canals and other internal organs through diagnostic PCR using group-specific primer sets. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  14. Natural bactericidal surfaces: mechanical rupture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells by cicada wings.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena P; Hasan, Jafar; Webb, Hayden K; Truong, Vi Khanh; Watson, Gregory S; Watson, Jolanta A; Baulin, Vladimir A; Pogodin, Sergey; Wang, James Y; Tobin, Mark J; Löbbe, Christian; Crawford, Russell J

    2012-08-20

    Natural superhydrophobic surfaces are often thought to have antibiofouling potential due to their self-cleaning properties. However, when incubated on cicada wings, Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells are not repelled; instead they are penetrated by the nanopillar arrays present on the wing surface, resulting in bacterial cell death. Cicada wings are effective antibacterial, as opposed to antibiofouling, surfaces. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Analysis of Inter-Individual Bacterial Variation in Gut of Cicada Meimuna mongolica (Hemiptera: Cicadidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenting; Nan, Xiaoning; Zheng, Zhou; Wei, Cong; He, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal bacterial community plays a crucial role in the nutrition, development, survival, and reproduction of insects. When compared with other insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts, the habitats of cicada nymphs and adults are totally different. However, little is known about the differences in the gut bacterial communities in the nymphs and adults within any cicada species. The diversity of bacteria in the gut of nymphs and adults of both genders of Meimuna mongolica (Distant) was studied using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method. Few inter-individual variations among gut microbiota were observed, suggesting that M. mongolica typically harbors a limited and consistent suite of bacterial species. Bacteria in the genera Pseudomonas and Enterobacter were the predominant components of the gut microflora of M. mongolica at all life stages. Bacteria of Pantoea, Streptococcus, and Uruburuella were also widespread in the cicada samples but at relatively lower concentrations. The relative stability and similarity of the PCR-DGGE patterns indicate that all individuals of this cicada species harbor a characteristic bacterial community which is independent from developmental stages and genders. Related endosymbionts that could be harbored in bacteromes of cicadas were not detected in any gut samples, which could be related to the cicada species and the distribution of these endosymbionts in the cicada cavity, or due to some of the possible limitations of PCR-DGGE community profiling. It is worthwhile to further address if related cicada endosymbiont clades distribute in the alimentary canals and other internal organs through diagnostic PCR using group-specific primer sets. PMID:26411784

  16. Sichuan Snub-Nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) Consume Cicadas in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Zhang, Peng; Garber, Paul A; Hedley, Richard; Li, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    There is limited information on insectivory in folivorous primates. Here, we report that wild Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) consume cicadas (Karenia caelatata) in the Qinling Mountains of China. Our research suggests that snub-nosed monkeys expand their diet and prey on cicadas during summer and early autumn, possibly in response to increased availability of these insects and their relatively high protein and fat content relative to leaves.

  17. A novel lectin with highly potent antiproliferative and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities from cicada (Cicada flammata).

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiu Juan; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-05-01

    A dimeric lectin with a molecular weight of 60 kDa and high hemagglutinating activity was isolated from dried cicadas. It was adsorbed on Q-Sepharose and unadsorbed on Affi-Gel Blue gel. Its hemagglutinating activity was stable up to 55 degrees C and between pH 2 and 13. The activity was inhibited by glucuronic acid and raffinose, K(+) ions, and Mg(2+) ions. Cicada lectin potently inhibited proliferation of HepG2 hepatoma and MCF 7 breast cancer cells, with an IC(50) value of 0.76 and 0.49 microM, respectively. It potently inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity with an IC(50) of 0.36 microM but was devoid of mitogenic activity on spleen cells. Its N-terminal sequence exhibited slight similarity to a conserved hypothetical protein from Culex quinquefasciatus and a gene product from transcript GH19834-RA of Drosophila grimshawi, but there was no resemblance to lectins from other insects, including Drosophila, Sarcophaga, Glossina, and Aedes species.

  18. Extract from Periostracum cicadae Inhibits Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Induced by Ultraviolet B Irradiation on HaCaT Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tsen, Jen-Horng; Yen, Hsuan; Yang, Ting-Ya

    2017-01-01

    Periostracum cicadae is widely used for the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema, pruritus, and itching. The current study sought to evaluate the effect of P. cicadae extract on ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation and identify the mechanisms involved. Photodamage-protective activity of P. cicadae extracts against oxidative challenge was screened using HaCaT keratinocytes. P. cicadae extracts did not affect cell viability but decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The extract attenuates the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 in UVB-treated HaCaT cells. Also, P. cicadae abrogated UVB-induced activation of NF-κB, p53, and activator protein-1 (AP-1). The downmodulation of IL-6 by P. cicadae was inhibited by the p38 inhibitor (SB203580) or JNK inhibitor (SP600125). Moreover, the extract attenuated the expression of NF-κB and induced thrombomodulin in keratinocytes and thereby effectively downregulated inflammatory responses in the skin. The nuclear accumulation and expression of NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2) were increased by P. cicadae treatment. Furthermore, treatment with P. cicadae remarkably ameliorated the skin's structural damage induced by irradiation. This study demonstrates that P. cicadae may protect skin cells against oxidative insult by modulating ROS concentration, IL-6, MMPs generation, antioxidant enzymes activity, and cell signaling pathways. PMID:28465707

  19. Unintentional ingestion of Cordyceps fungus-infected cicada nymphs causing ibotenic acid poisoning in Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Doan, Uyen Vy; Mendez Rojas, Bomar; Kirby, Ralph

    2017-09-01

    Cordyceps fungus found in infected cicada nymphs ("cicada flowers") is utilized in traditional Chinese medicine. Cordyceps fungus toxicity in humans has not been previously reported. We report 60 cases of apparent Cordyceps poisoning in Southern Vietnam. We retrospectively collected demographic and clinical data from the medical records (21 cases) and by telephone interview (39 cases) of patients admitted to seven hospitals in Southern Vietnam following ingestion of cicada flowers between 2008 and 2015. We also determined the species of Cordyceps present in the cicada flowers and performed a partial chemical analysis of the fungus. Sixty cases of toxic effects following ingestion of cicada flowers were documented. Symptom onset occurred within 60 minutes following ingestion. Symptoms included dizziness, vomiting, salivation, mydriasis, jaw stiffness, urinary retention, seizures, agitated delirium, hallucinations, somnolence and coma. None of the patients suffered liver or kidney injury. There was one fatality. The Cordyceps fungus involved in these poisoning was identified as Ophiocordyceps heteropoda. The presence of ibotenic acid was confirmed, but musimol and muscarine were absent. Cicada infected with Ophiocordyceps heteropoda in Vietnam contain ibotenic acid and are associated with a clinical syndrome consistent with its effects.

  20. Terminologia Anatomica after 17 years: inconsistencies, mistakes and new proposals.

    PubMed

    Kachlik, David; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2015-09-01

    The article deals with our experience of Terminologia Anatomica (TA) in fields of education (of systemic and topographic anatomy) and clinical medicine (teaching of clinical anatomy and courses for young physicians in endoscopy). The anatomical nomenclature in Latin has been official for 120 years and its latest version for 17 years. Its main weak points should be discussed in public (or at least the discussion should be provoked), which is the reason for publishing the following findings and ensuing proposals. They are classified with seven groups: mistakes in TA, discrepancies in TA, multiplication of terms, synonyms in TA, identical terms for different structures, too long terms and missing terms in TA. The last group comprises missing terms in systemic anatomy, clinical anatomy, a paucity of terms in variant anatomy, in locomotion system and in topographic anatomy. Several attempts to draw attention to these have been made by the publication of inaccuracies in Nomina Anatomica and TA but this article summarizes and reviews current situation, emphasizing the weak points of the TA and brings several proposals and suggestions for further discussion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Searching for Global Consciousness: A 17-Year Exploration.

    PubMed

    Bancel, Peter A

    2016-12-18

    The Global Consciousness Project (GCP) maintains a long-term experiment that investigates the possibility of a subtle connection between the collective mental activity of humans and the physical behavior of systems in the surrounding environment. The Project formulates this proposition as a broad hypothesis that relates the output of true random number generators (RNGs) to times of intense, collective mental attention during major world events. Over 17 years, the hypothesis has been tested on nearly 500 events, yielding a cumulative result that rejects the null hypothesis by seven standard deviations, apparently lending strong support to the proposal of global consciousness. However, an alternate interpretation is that the result is due to an anomalous effect associated with persons directly engaged with the experiment. This article examines these interpretations and finds that the data do not support the global consciousness proposal. Rather, analyses indicate that the GCP result is due to a goal-oriented effect associated with individuals, similar to effects reported in prior research that studies subject engagement with RNG outputs. An operational definition of goal-oriented effects is presented, which allows for explicit tests of the data. All of the tests favor the interpretation of a goal-oriented effect.

  2. Vegetation shifts observed in arctic tundra 17 years after fire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, Kirsten; Rocha, Adrian V.; van de Weg, Martine Janet; Shaver, Gaius

    2012-01-01

    With anticipated climate change, tundra fires are expected to occur more frequently in the future, but data on the long-term effects of fire on tundra vegetation composition are scarce. This study addresses changes in vegetation structure that have persisted for 17 years after a tundra fire on the North Slope of Alaska. Fire-related shifts in vegetation composition were assessed from remote-sensing imagery and ground observations of the burn scar and an adjacent control site. Early-season remotely sensed imagery from the burn scar exhibits a low vegetation index compared with the control site, whereas the late-season signal is slightly higher. The range and maximum vegetation index are greater in the burn scar, although the mean annual values do not differ among the sites. Ground observations revealed a greater abundance of moss in the unburned site, which may account for the high early growing season normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) anomaly relative to the burn. The abundance of graminoid species and an absence of Betula nana in the post-fire tundra sites may also be responsible for the spectral differences observed in the remotely sensed imagery. The partial replacement of tundra by graminoid-dominated ecosystems has been predicted by the ALFRESCO model of disturbance, climate and vegetation succession.

  3. A 17-year epidemiological study on changes in lung function in toluene diisocyanate foam workers.

    PubMed

    Clark, R L; Bugler, J; Paddle, G M; Chamberlain, J D; Allport, D C

    2003-05-01

    To determine whether longitudinal declines in ventilatory capacity and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms in workers manufacturing polyurethane foam were related to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposure. A population of workers from 12 UK factories was studied between 1981 and 1986 [8]. A survivor cohort of 251, of whom 217 were in the 1981-1986 study, was examined again in 1997-1998. Modified British Medical Research Council respiratory questionnaires and lung function measurements were completed for each of the 251 subjects at the beginning and end of the 17-year study period. Mean TDI exposures for all jobs in which subjects were employed were assessed and related to their occupational histories. The annual declines in 1-second forced expiratory volume (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were not related to TDI exposure, and were typical of those measured in other populations not exposed to TDI. Over the study period the cold-foam handling group ( n=26) showed an increase in breathlessness and a significant excess decline in FVC; the exposed group ( n=175) showed an increase in wheezing (mainly smokers), whilst the low-exposure group ( n=50) showed a decrease in chest illness. Smoking and an increase in body weight both caused excess declines in FEV(1). This study does not provide evidence that there was any TDI-related decline in FEV(1) or in FVC over a 17-year period in workers exposed to TDI at the levels prevailing in the UK factories that manufactured flexible polyurethane foam.

  4. Cicada-inspired cell-instructive nanopatterned arrays

    PubMed Central

    Diu, Ting; Faruqui, Nilofar; Sjöström, Terje; Lamarre, Baptiste; Jenkinson, Howard F.; Su, Bo; Ryadnov, Maxim G.

    2014-01-01

    Biocompatible surfaces hold key to a variety of biomedical problems that are directly related to the competition between host-tissue cell integration and bacterial colonisation. A saving solution to this is seen in the ability of cells to uniquely respond to physical cues on such surfaces thus prompting the search for cell-instructive nanoscale patterns. Here we introduce a generic rationale engineered into biocompatible, titanium, substrates to differentiate cell responses. The rationale is inspired by cicada wing surfaces that display bactericidal nanopillar patterns. The surfaces engineered in this study are titania (TiO2) nanowire arrays that are selectively bactericidal against motile bacteria, while capable of guiding mammalian cell proliferation according to the type of the array. The concept holds promise for clinically relevant materials capable of differential physico-mechanical responses to cellular adhesion. PMID:25409910

  5. Cicada-inspired cell-instructive nanopatterned arrays.

    PubMed

    Diu, Ting; Faruqui, Nilofar; Sjöström, Terje; Lamarre, Baptiste; Jenkinson, Howard F; Su, Bo; Ryadnov, Maxim G

    2014-11-20

    Biocompatible surfaces hold key to a variety of biomedical problems that are directly related to the competition between host-tissue cell integration and bacterial colonisation. A saving solution to this is seen in the ability of cells to uniquely respond to physical cues on such surfaces thus prompting the search for cell-instructive nanoscale patterns. Here we introduce a generic rationale engineered into biocompatible, titanium, substrates to differentiate cell responses. The rationale is inspired by cicada wing surfaces that display bactericidal nanopillar patterns. The surfaces engineered in this study are titania (TiO2) nanowire arrays that are selectively bactericidal against motile bacteria, while capable of guiding mammalian cell proliferation according to the type of the array. The concept holds promise for clinically relevant materials capable of differential physico-mechanical responses to cellular adhesion.

  6. Cicada-inspired cell-instructive nanopatterned arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diu, Ting; Faruqui, Nilofar; Sjöström, Terje; Lamarre, Baptiste; Jenkinson, Howard F.; Su, Bo; Ryadnov, Maxim G.

    2014-11-01

    Biocompatible surfaces hold key to a variety of biomedical problems that are directly related to the competition between host-tissue cell integration and bacterial colonisation. A saving solution to this is seen in the ability of cells to uniquely respond to physical cues on such surfaces thus prompting the search for cell-instructive nanoscale patterns. Here we introduce a generic rationale engineered into biocompatible, titanium, substrates to differentiate cell responses. The rationale is inspired by cicada wing surfaces that display bactericidal nanopillar patterns. The surfaces engineered in this study are titania (TiO2) nanowire arrays that are selectively bactericidal against motile bacteria, while capable of guiding mammalian cell proliferation according to the type of the array. The concept holds promise for clinically relevant materials capable of differential physico-mechanical responses to cellular adhesion.

  7. Preparation of chitooligosaccharides from cicada slough and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Jun; Pan, Sai-Kun; Wang, Hong-Bin; Wu, Jin-Hua

    2013-11-01

    In this study, chitooligosaccharides were prepared from cicada slough of Cryptotympana atrata Fabricius by hydrolysis using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Factors affecting the hydrolysis of chitosan were investigated and the optimum hydrolysis conditions were as follows: time, 4 h; temperature, 65 °C; amount of H2O2, 2% (v/v); and pH, 5. Under these conditions, the average degree of polymerisation decreased to ~4.5. The Fourier transform infrared spectra and product sugar composition indicate that there were no significant chemical changes in the backbones of the chitosan treated with H2O2.The chitooligosaccharides had high antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli at the concentration of 100mg/mL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A review of the cicada genus Kosemia Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Qi, Shengping; Hayashi, Masami; Wei, Cong

    2015-01-21

    The genus Kosemia Matsumura is reviewed based on investigation of the described species and the descriptions of two new species, Kosemia castanea sp. n. and Kosemia guanzhongensis sp. n., from Shaanxi Province, China. Two species formerly belonging to the genus Cicadetta Kolenati, C. chinensis (Distant) and C. mogannia (Distant), are transferred to Kosemia Matsumura to become K. chinensis (Distant), comb. n. and K. mogannia (Distant), comb. n.. The male of K. chinensis (Distant), comb. n. is discovered and described for the first time. Melampsalta bifuscata Liu, 1940 is recognized to be a junior synonym of K. chinensis. Leptopsalta rubicosta Chou & Lei, 1997 and Lycurgus sinensis Jacobi, 1944 are recognized to be junior synonyms of K. mogannia. Kosemia radiator (Uhler, 1896) is removed from the Chinese cicada fauna. A key to species of Kosemia is provided. 

  9. Benign Orofacial Lesions in Libyan Population: A 17 Years Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hatem, Marwa; Abdulmajid, Ziad S.; Taher, Elsanousi M.; El Kabir, Mohamed A.; Benrajab, Mohamed A.; Kwafi, Rafik

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the frequency and type of benign orofacial lesions submitted for diagnosis at Tripoli Medical Centre over 17 years period (1997-2013). Materials and Methods: Entries for specimens from patients were retrieved and compiled into 9 diagnostic categories and 82 diagnoses. Results: During the 17 years period, a total of 975 specimens were evaluated, it comprised a male-female ratio of 0.76:1. The mean age of biopsied patients was 36.3±18.32 years. The diagnostic category with the highest number of specimens was skin and mucosal pathology (22.87%); and the most frequent diagnosis was pyogenic granuloma (14.05%). Conclusion: Pyogenic granuloma, lichen planus, radicular cyst and fibroepithelial polyp were found to be the most predominant diagnoses. Frequencies of most benign orofacial diseases were comparable to similar studies in the literature and to those reported from the eastern region of Libya. Further surveys are needed to define the epidemiology of orofacial diseases in Libyan population. PMID:26962370

  10. School and the 17-Year-Old: A Comparison of Career Development Skills of 17-Year-Olds Attending School and Those Not Attending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    National performance for 17-year-olds in school, 17-year-olds not in school and young adults aged 26-35 in the area of career and occupational development (COD) was assessed to determine whether or not education status and career development skills are related. Within each of the groups, performance of various subgroups was examined, defined by…

  11. School and the 17-Year-Old: A Comparison of Career Development Skills of 17-Year-Olds Attending School and Those Not Attending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    National performance for 17-year-olds in school, 17-year-olds not in school and young adults aged 26-35 in the area of career and occupational development (COD) was assessed to determine whether or not education status and career development skills are related. Within each of the groups, performance of various subgroups was examined, defined by…

  12. Comparative thermoregulation of sympatric endothermic and ectothermic cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Tibicen winnemanna and Tibicen chloromerus).

    PubMed

    Sanborn, A F

    2000-06-01

    Measurements of body temperature in the field demonstrated that endothermic cicadas regulate body temperature by behavioral mechanisms as well as by endogenous heat production. Regression analysis suggests both endothermic and ectothermic species are thermoregulating. Body temperature of endothermically active cicadas without access to exogenous heat is approximately the same as the body temperature of basking cicadas. Tibicen winnemanna (Davis) raises body temperature in the field with the heat produced in flight or through the activation of the flight musculature without the act of flight. T. chloromerus (Walker) uses solar radiation to elevate body temperature to the level necessary for activity. The thermal responses of each species are related to its activity patterns with minimum flight temperature and shade-seeking temperatures significantly lower in the endothermic T. winnemanna. Heat torpor temperature appears to be related to the environment rather than behavior pattern. Endothermy in cicadas may serve to uncouple reproductive behavior from environmental constraints; to circumvent possible thermoregulatory problems; to permit the utilization of habitats unavailable to strictly ectothermic cicadas; to reduce predation; to optimize broadcast coverage and sound transmission; and to decrease possible acoustic interference.

  13. Postembryonic development of the auditory system of the cicada Okanagana rimosa (Say) (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    Cicadas (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadidae) use acoustic signalling for mate attraction and perceive auditory signals by a tympanal organ in the second abdominal segment. The main structural features of the ear are the tympanum, the sensory organ consisting of numerous scolopidial cells, and the cuticular link between sensory neurones and tympanum (tympanal ridge and apodeme). Here, a first investigation of the postembryonic development of the auditory system is presented. In insects, sensory neurones usually differentiate during embryogenesis, and sound-perceiving structures form during postembryogenesis. Cicadas have an elongated and subterranian postembryogenesis which can take several years until the final moult. The neuroanatomy and functional morphology of the auditory system of the cicada Okanagana rimosa (Say) are documented for the adult and the three last larval stages. The sensory organ and the projection of sensory afferents to the CNS are present in the earliest stages investigated. The cuticular structures of the tympanum, the tympanal frame holding the tympanum, and the tympanal ridge differentiate in the later stages of postembryogenesis. Thus, despite the different life styles of larvae and adults, the neuronal components of the cicada auditory system develop already during embryogenesis or early postembryogenesis, and sound-perceiving structures like tympana are elaborated later in postembryogenesis. The life cycle allows comparison of cicada development to other hemimetabolous insects with respect to the influence of specially adapted life cycle stages on auditory maturation. The neuronal development of the auditory system conforms to the timing in other hemimetabolous insects.

  14. Acoustic and temporal partitioning of cicada assemblages in city and mountain environments.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Bao-Sen; Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Chiu, Yuh-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Comparing adaptations to noisy city environments with those to natural mountain environments on the community level can provide significant insights that allow an understanding of the impact of anthropogenic noise on invertebrates that employ loud calling songs for mate attraction, especially when each species has its distinct song, as in the case of cicadas. In this study, we investigated the partitioning strategy of cicada assemblages in city and mountain environments by comparing the acoustic features and calling activity patterns of each species, recorded using automated digital recording systems. Our comparison of activity patterns of seasonal and diel calling revealed that there was no significant temporal partitioning of cicada assemblages in either environment. In addition, there was no correlation between the acoustic distance based on spectral features and temporal segregation. Heterospecific spectral overlap was low in both city and mountain environments, although city and mountain cicada assemblages were subject to significantly different levels of anthropogenic or interspecific noise. Furthermore, for the common species found in both environments, the calling activity patterns at both seasonal and diel time scales were significantly consistent across sites and across environments. We suggest that the temporal calling activity is constrained by endogenous factors for each species and is less flexible in response to external factors, such as anthropogenic noise. As a result, cicada assemblages in city environments with low species diversity do not demonstrate a more significant temporal partitioning than those in mountain environments with high species diversity.

  15. Replication of cicada wing's nano-patterns by hot embossing and UV nanoimprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sung-Hoon; Hwang, Jaeyeon; Lee, Heon

    2009-09-01

    The hydrophobicity of the cicada wing originates from its naturally occurring, surface nano-structure. The nano-structure of the cicada wing consists of an array of nano-sized pillars, 100 nm in diameter and 300 nm in height. In this study, the nano-structure of the cicada wing was successfully duplicated by using hot embossing lithography and UV nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The diameter and pitch of replication were the same as those of the original cicada wing and the height was a little smaller than that of the original master. The transmittance of the hot embossed PVC film was increased by 2-6% compared with that of the bare PVC film. The hydrophobicity was measured by water contact angle measurements. The water contact angle of the replica, made of UV cured polymer, was 132° ± 2°, which was slightly lower than that of the original cicada wing (138° ± 2°), but much higher than that of the UV cured polymer surface without any nano-sized pillars (86°).

  16. Replication of cicada wing's nano-patterns by hot embossing and UV nanoimprinting.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Hoon; Hwang, Jaeyeon; Lee, Heon

    2009-09-23

    The hydrophobicity of the cicada wing originates from its naturally occurring, surface nano-structure. The nano-structure of the cicada wing consists of an array of nano-sized pillars, 100 nm in diameter and 300 nm in height. In this study, the nano-structure of the cicada wing was successfully duplicated by using hot embossing lithography and UV nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The diameter and pitch of replication were the same as those of the original cicada wing and the height was a little smaller than that of the original master. The transmittance of the hot embossed PVC film was increased by 2-6% compared with that of the bare PVC film. The hydrophobicity was measured by water contact angle measurements. The water contact angle of the replica, made of UV cured polymer, was 132 degrees +/- 2 degrees , which was slightly lower than that of the original cicada wing (138 degrees +/- 2 degrees ), but much higher than that of the UV cured polymer surface without any nano-sized pillars (86 degrees ).

  17. Near-Optimal Foraging in the Pacific Cicada Killer Sphecius convallis Patton (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae).

    PubMed

    Coelho, Joseph R; Hastings, Jon M; Holliday, Charles W

    2012-02-10

    This study evaluated foraging effectiveness of Pacific cicada killers (Sphecius convallis) by comparing observed prey loads to that predicted by an optimality model. Female S. convallis preyed exclusively on the cicada Tibicen parallelus, resulting in a mean loaded flight muscle ratio (FMR) of 0.187 (N = 46). This value lies just above the marginal level, and only seven wasps (15%) were below 0.179. The low standard error (0.002) suggests that S. convallis is the most ideal flying predator so far examined in this respect. Preying on a single species may have allowed stabilizing selection to adjust the morphology of females to a nearly ideal size. That the loaded FMR is slightly above the marginal level may provide a small safety factor for wasps that do not have optimal thorax temperatures or that have to contend with attempted prey theft. Operational FMR was directly related to wasp body mass. Smaller wasps were overloaded in spite of provisioning with smaller cicadas, while larger wasps were underloaded despite provisioning with larger cicadas. Small wasps may have abandoned larger cicadas because of difficulty with carriage.

  18. Near-Optimal Foraging in the Pacific Cicada Killer Sphecius convallis Patton (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae)

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Joseph R.; Hastings, Jon M.; Holliday, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated foraging effectiveness of Pacific cicada killers (Sphecius convallis) by comparing observed prey loads to that predicted by an optimality model. Female S. convallis preyed exclusively on the cicada Tibicen parallelus, resulting in a mean loaded flight muscle ratio (FMR) of 0.187 (N = 46). This value lies just above the marginal level, and only seven wasps (15%) were below 0.179. The low standard error (0.002) suggests that S. convallis is the most ideal flying predator so far examined in this respect. Preying on a single species may have allowed stabilizing selection to adjust the morphology of females to a nearly ideal size. That the loaded FMR is slightly above the marginal level may provide a small safety factor for wasps that do not have optimal thorax temperatures or that have to contend with attempted prey theft. Operational FMR was directly related to wasp body mass. Smaller wasps were overloaded in spite of provisioning with smaller cicadas, while larger wasps were underloaded despite provisioning with larger cicadas. Small wasps may have abandoned larger cicadas because of difficulty with carriage. PMID:26467953

  19. Acoustic and Temporal Partitioning of Cicada Assemblages in City and Mountain Environments

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Bao-Sen; Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Chiu, Yuh-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Comparing adaptations to noisy city environments with those to natural mountain environments on the community level can provide significant insights that allow an understanding of the impact of anthropogenic noise on invertebrates that employ loud calling songs for mate attraction, especially when each species has its distinct song, as in the case of cicadas. In this study, we investigated the partitioning strategy of cicada assemblages in city and mountain environments by comparing the acoustic features and calling activity patterns of each species, recorded using automated digital recording systems. Our comparison of activity patterns of seasonal and diel calling revealed that there was no significant temporal partitioning of cicada assemblages in either environment. In addition, there was no correlation between the acoustic distance based on spectral features and temporal segregation. Heterospecific spectral overlap was low in both city and mountain environments, although city and mountain cicada assemblages were subject to significantly different levels of anthropogenic or interspecific noise. Furthermore, for the common species found in both environments, the calling activity patterns at both seasonal and diel time scales were significantly consistent across sites and across environments. We suggest that the temporal calling activity is constrained by endogenous factors for each species and is less flexible in response to external factors, such as anthropogenic noise. As a result, cicada assemblages in city environments with low species diversity do not demonstrate a more significant temporal partitioning than those in mountain environments with high species diversity. PMID:25590620

  20. Guaifenesin Pharmacokinetics Following Single-Dose Oral Administration in Children Aged 2 to 17 Years.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Gary A; Solomon, Gail; Albrecht, Helmut H; Reitberg, Donald P; Guenin, Eric

    2016-07-01

    This study characterized guaifenesin pharmacokinetics in children aged 2 to 17 years (n = 40) who received a single oral dose of guaifenesin (age-based doses of 100-400 mg) 2 hours after breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 8 hours after dosing and analyzed for guaifenesin using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods, relationships with age were assessed using linear regression, and dose proportionality was assessed on 95% confidence intervals. Based on the upper dose recommended in the monograph (for both children and adolescents), area under the curve from time zero to infinity and maximum plasma concentration both increased with age. However, when comparing the upper dose for children aged 2 to 11 years with the lower dose for adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, similar systemic exposure was observed. As expected due to increasing body size, oral clearance (CLo ) and terminal volume of distribution (Vz /F) increased with age. Due to a larger increase in Vz /F than CLo , an increase in terminal exponential half-life was also observed. Allometric scaling indicated no maturation-related changes in CLo and Vz /F. © 2016, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  1. Biophysical Model of Bacterial Cell Interactions with Nanopatterned Cicada Wing Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Pogodin, Sergey; Hasan, Jafar; Baulin, Vladimir A.; Webb, Hayden K.; Truong, Vi Khanh; Phong Nguyen, The Hong; Boshkovikj, Veselin; Fluke, Christopher J.; Watson, Gregory S.; Watson, Jolanta A.; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2013-01-01

    The nanopattern on the surface of Clanger cicada (Psaltoda claripennis) wings represents the first example of a new class of biomaterials that can kill bacteria on contact based solely on their physical surface structure. The wings provide a model for the development of novel functional surfaces that possess an increased resistance to bacterial contamination and infection. We propose a biophysical model of the interactions between bacterial cells and cicada wing surface structures, and show that mechanical properties, in particular cell rigidity, are key factors in determining bacterial resistance/sensitivity to the bactericidal nature of the wing surface. We confirmed this experimentally by decreasing the rigidity of surface-resistant strains through microwave irradiation of the cells, which renders them susceptible to the wing effects. Our findings demonstrate the potential benefits of incorporating cicada wing nanopatterns into the design of antibacterial nanomaterials. PMID:23442962

  2. Biophysical model of bacterial cell interactions with nanopatterned cicada wing surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pogodin, Sergey; Hasan, Jafar; Baulin, Vladimir A; Webb, Hayden K; Truong, Vi Khanh; Phong Nguyen, The Hong; Boshkovikj, Veselin; Fluke, Christopher J; Watson, Gregory S; Watson, Jolanta A; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2013-02-19

    The nanopattern on the surface of Clanger cicada (Psaltoda claripennis) wings represents the first example of a new class of biomaterials that can kill bacteria on contact based solely on their physical surface structure. The wings provide a model for the development of novel functional surfaces that possess an increased resistance to bacterial contamination and infection. We propose a biophysical model of the interactions between bacterial cells and cicada wing surface structures, and show that mechanical properties, in particular cell rigidity, are key factors in determining bacterial resistance/sensitivity to the bactericidal nature of the wing surface. We confirmed this experimentally by decreasing the rigidity of surface-resistant strains through microwave irradiation of the cells, which renders them susceptible to the wing effects. Our findings demonstrate the potential benefits of incorporating cicada wing nanopatterns into the design of antibacterial nanomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The visual system of the Australian 'Redeye' cicada (Psaltoda moerens).

    PubMed

    Ribi, Willi A; Zeil, Jochen

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the functional anatomy of the visual system in the Australian 'Redeye' cicada Psaltoda moerens, including compound eyes and ocelli. The compound eyes have large visual fields, about 7500 ommatidia per eye and binocular overlaps of 10-15° in the frontal and of 50-60° in the dorsal visual field. The diameters of corneal facet lenses range between 22 and 34 μm and the lenses are unusually long with up to 100 μm in some eye regions. In the posterior part of the eyes, the hexagonal facet array changes to a square lattice. The compound eyes are of the eucone apposition type with 8 retinular cells contributing to a fused rhabdom in each ommatidium. The red eye colour is due to the pigment granules in the secondary pigment cells. We found a small Dorsal Rim Area (DRA), in which rhabdom cross-sections are rectangular rather than round. The cross-sections of DRA rhabdoms do not systematically change orientation along the length of the rhabdom, indicating that microvilli directions do not twist, which would make retinular cells in the DRA polarization sensitive. The three ocelli have unusual lenses with a champagne-cork shape in longitudinal sections. Retinular cells are short in the dorsal and ventral part of the retinae, and long in their equatorial part. Ocellar rhabdoms are short (<10 μm), positioned close to the corneagenous layer and are formed by pairs of retinular cells. In cross-section, the rhabdomeres are 2-5 μm long and straight. The red colour of ocelli is produced by screening pigments that form an iris around the base of the ocellar lens and by screening pigments between the ocellar retinular cells. We discuss the organization of the compound eye rhabdom, the organization of the ocelli and the presence of a DRA in the light of what is known about Hemipteran compound eyes. We note in particular that cicadas are the only Hemipteran group with fused rhabdoms, thus making Hemiptera an interesting case to study the evolution of open rhabdoms

  4. Hypnotic drug use among 0-17 year olds during 2004-2011: a nationwide prescription database study.

    PubMed

    Hartz, Ingeborg; Furu, Kari; Bratlid, Trond; Handal, Marte; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2012-12-01

    To (a) describe the prevalence, trend, and amount of hypnotic drug use, (b) determine the prevalence of chronic diseases among hypnotic drug users, and (c) determine levels of recurrent hypnotic drug use (2007-2011), among 0-17 year old Norwegians. Data were obtained from the nationwide Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD) in the period 2004-2011. Hypnotic drug use in 0-17 year olds increased during the period, from 8.9 to 12.3 per 1000, mainly owing to doubling of melatonin use. Hypnotic drug use peaked at 15 per 1000 among those aged 1-2 years. Melatonin use increased steadily from 6 to 12 years of age, most pronounced in males. Among females, hypnotic drug use increased threefold from 13 to17 years of age. Melatonin was dispensed in the highest annual amount of all hypnotic drugs; accounting up to a median of 360 defined daily doses in 9-13 year old boys. A total of 62% and 52% of all male and female hypnotic drug users were co-medicated with reimbursable drugs for chronic diseases. Levels of recurrent use (2007-2011) were 12% in boys and 8% in girls, of whom 76-77% were co-medicated with drugs reimbursed for chronic diseases. There is a trend of increasing use of hypnotic drugs among 0-17 year olds, mainly owing to increasing use of melatonin, used in high amounts. Still, melatonin is not recommended in Norway for use in this age group because of insufficient data on safety and efficacy. A threefold increase in hypnotic drugs among females from 13 to 17 years of age warrants attention.

  5. Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II: A case report with 17 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Gama, Francisco José Reis; Corrêa, Isabella Sousa; Valerio, Claudia Scigliano; Ferreira, Emanuelle de Fátima

    2017-01-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta is a dominant autosomal hereditary disorder of dentin formation that affects the deciduous and permanent teeth. Its etiology is characterized by inadequate cell differentiation during odontogenesis. The clinical characteristics of dentinogenesis imperfecta are discolored teeth with a translucency that varies from gray to brown or amber. Radiographically, the teeth exhibit pulp obliteration, thin and short roots, bell-shaped crowns, and periapical bone rarefaction. The aim of this report was to present a case of dentinogenesis imperfecta type II that was followed up over a 17-year period. This report also presents scanning electron microscopy images of the enamel and dentin, showing that both were altered in the affected teeth. The disease characteristics and the treatments that were administered are reported in this study to guide dentists with respect to the need for early diagnosis and adequate follow-up to avoid major sequelae. PMID:28680850

  6. Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II: A case report with 17 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gama, Francisco José Reis; Corrêa, Isabella Sousa; Valerio, Claudia Scigliano; Ferreira, Emanuelle de Fátima; Manzi, Flávio Ricardo

    2017-06-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta is a dominant autosomal hereditary disorder of dentin formation that affects the deciduous and permanent teeth. Its etiology is characterized by inadequate cell differentiation during odontogenesis. The clinical characteristics of dentinogenesis imperfecta are discolored teeth with a translucency that varies from gray to brown or amber. Radiographically, the teeth exhibit pulp obliteration, thin and short roots, bell-shaped crowns, and periapical bone rarefaction. The aim of this report was to present a case of dentinogenesis imperfecta type II that was followed up over a 17-year period. This report also presents scanning electron microscopy images of the enamel and dentin, showing that both were altered in the affected teeth. The disease characteristics and the treatments that were administered are reported in this study to guide dentists with respect to the need for early diagnosis and adequate follow-up to avoid major sequelae.

  7. Argentine references for the assessment of body proportions from birth to 17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Del Pino, Mariana; Orden, Alicia B; Arenas, María A; Fano, Virginia

    2017-06-01

    Abnormal body proportions may indicate skeletal disorders; therefore, their detection has great clinical significance. To estimate centiles for head circumference/height (HC/H) and sitting height/height (SH/H) ratios, and assess their diagnostic usefulness among a group of children with skeletal dysplasia. Centiles 3, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90 and 97 for HC/H and SH/H ratios were estimated with the LMS method using Box-Cox transformation to normalize data distribution for each age. Q-Q plot tests were applied to evaluate normality of residuals and the Q test to calculate goodness-of-fit. The sample included 4818 girls and4803 boys, all healthy, between 0-17 years old. The median of the SH/H ratio for each age decreased from 0.67 at birth to 0.57 at age 4. At 12 years of age, values reached 0.52 and 0.53 for males and females, respectively, remaining unchanged until age 17. The median of the HC/H ratio decreased from 0.45 at 6 years old to 0.34 at 17 years old for both sexes. Z-scores for SH/H among 20 children diagnosed with hypochondroplasia were better at showing abnormal proportions than the SH/H ratio not adjusted by age. Estimated centiles for HC/H and SH/H ratios show that the most dramatic changes in body proportions occur in the prepubertal period. These references allow an earlier detection of abnormal body proportions in children with skeletal dysplasia.

  8. Combined data, Bayesian phylogenetics, and the origin of the New Zealand cicada genera.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Thomas R; Arensburger, Peter; Simon, Chris; Chambers, Geoffrey K

    2002-02-01

    We have applied Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods of phylogenetic estimation to data from four mitochondrial genes (COI, COII, 12S, and 16S) and a single nuclear gene (EF1alpha) from several genera of New Zealand, Australian, and New Caledonian cicada taxa. We specifically focused on the heterogeneity of phylogenetic signal among the different data partitions and the biogeographic origins of the New Zealand cicada fauna. The Bayesian analyses circumvent many of the problems associated with other statistical tests for comparing data partitions. We took an information-theoretic approach to model selection based on the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). This approach indicated that there was considerable uncertainty in identifying the best-fit model for some of the partitions. Additionally, a large amount of uncertainty was associated with many parameter estimates from the substitution model. However, a sensitivity analysis on the combined dataset indicated that the model selection uncertainty had little effect on estimates of topology because these estimates were largely insensitive to changes in the assumed model. This outcome suggests strong signal in our data. Our analyses support a New Caledonian affiliation of the New Zealand cicada genera Maoricicada, Kikihia, and Rhodopsalta and Australian affinities for the genera Amphipsalta and Notopsalta. This result was surprising, given that previous cicada biologists suspected a close relationship between Amphipsalta, Notopsalta, and Rhodopsalta based on genitalic characters. Relationships among the closely related genera Maoricicada, Kikihia, and Rhodopsalta were poorly resolved, the mitochondrial data and the EF1alpha data favoring different arrangements within this clade.

  9. The cicada genus Karenia Distant, 1888 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae), with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hong-Thai; Constant, Jerome

    2014-08-19

    The cicadas of the genus Karenia are reviewed, and Karenia tibetensis sp.nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) is described from Tibet, China. Pictures of the male adult and illustrations of the male genitalia are provided. A key to the species of Karenia is presented and the distribution of the Karenia species is discussed.

  10. CeasIng Cpap At standarD criteriA (CICADA): predicting a successful outcome.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yue; Broom, Margaret; Wright, Audrey; Hovey, Donna; Abdel-Latif, Mohamed E; Shadbolt, Bruce; Todd, David A

    2016-01-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) where we concluded that CeasIng Cpap At standerD criteriA (CICADA) in premature babies (PBs) <30 weeks gestational age (GA) was the significantly better method of ceasing CPAP. To identify factors that may influence the number of attempts to cease CPAP, we reviewed the records of 50 PBs from the RCT who used the CICADA method. PBs were grouped according to number of attempts to cease CPAP (fast group ≤2 attempts and slow group >2 attempts to cease CPAP). There were 26 (fast group) and 24 (slow group) PBs included in the analysis. Results showed significant differences in mean GA (27.8 ± 0.3 vs 26.9 ± 0.3 [weeks ± SE], p = 0.03) and birth weight ([Bwt]; 1080 ± 48.8 vs 899 ± 45.8 [grams ± SE], p = 0.01) between groups. Significantly fewer PBs in the fast group had a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) compared to the slow group (5/26 (19.2%) vs 13/24 (54.2 %), p = 0.02). Bwt was a significant negative predictor of CPAP duration (r = -0.497, p = 0.03) and CPAP ceasing attempts (r = -0.290, p = 0.04). PBs with a higher GA and Bwt without a PDA ceased CPAP earlier using the CICADA method. Bwt was better than GA for predicting CPAP duration and attempts to cease CPAP. Our previous studies showed that CeasIng Cpap At standarD criteriA (CICADA) significantly reduces CPAP time, oxygen requirements and caffeine use. Some PBs however using the CICADA method required >2 attempts to cease CPAP ('slow CICADA' group). PBs in the 'fast CICADA' group (<3 attempts to cease CPAP) (a) have longer gestational age and higher birth weight, (b) shorter mechanical ventilation and (c) lower incidence of patent ductus arteriosus. Attempts to cease CPAP decreased by 0.5 times per 1 week increase in GA and 0.3 times per 100-g increase in birth weight for PBs <30 weeks gestation.

  11. 29 CFR 570.129 - Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds... Amended Exemptions § 570.129 Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds. Section 13(c)(6... employment, perform the occasional and incidental driving of automobiles and trucks on public highways...

  12. 29 CFR 570.129 - Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds... Amended Exemptions § 570.129 Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds. Section 13(c)(6... employment, perform the occasional and incidental driving of automobiles and trucks on public highways...

  13. 29 CFR 570.129 - Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds... Amended Exemptions § 570.129 Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds. Section 13(c)(6... employment, perform the occasional and incidental driving of automobiles and trucks on public highways...

  14. 29 CFR 570.129 - Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds... Amended Exemptions § 570.129 Limited driving of automobiles and trucks by 17-year-olds. Section 13(c)(6... employment, perform the occasional and incidental driving of automobiles and trucks on public highways...

  15. Football-related injuries among 6- to 17-year-olds treated in US emergency departments, 1990-2007.

    PubMed

    Nation, Adam D; Nelson, Nicolas G; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn; McKenzie, Lara B

    2011-03-01

    Football is one of the most popular youth sports in the United States despite the high rate of injuries. Previously published studies have investigated football-related injuries that occurred in organized play but have excluded those that occurred during unorganized play. Through use of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database, cases of football-related injuries were identified for analysis. Sample weights were used to calculate national estimates. An estimated 5 252 721 children and adolescents 6 to 17 years old were treated in US emergency departments for football-related injuries. The annual number of cases increased by 26.5% over the 18-year study period. The 12- to 17-year-old age group accounted for 77.8% of all injuries and had nearly twice the odds of sustaining a concussion. The findings suggest the need for increased prevention efforts to lower the risk of football-related injury in children and adolescents.

  16. Bacterial diversity of bacteriomes and organs of reproductive, digestive and excretory systems in two cicada species (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhou; Wang, Dandan; He, Hong; Wei, Cong

    2017-01-01

    Cicadas form intimate symbioses with bacteria to obtain nutrients that are scarce in the xylem fluid they feed on. The obligate symbionts in cicadas are purportedly confined to specialized bacteriomes, but knowledge of bacterial communities associated with cicadas is limited. Bacterial communities in the bacteriomes and organs of reproductive, digestive and excretory systems of two cicada species (Platypleura kaempferi and Meimuna mongolica) were investigated using different methods, and the bacterial diversity and distribution patterns of dominant bacteria in different tissues were compared. Within each species, the bacterial communities of testes are significantly different from those of bacteriomes and ovaries. The dominant endosymbiont Candidatus Sulcia muelleri is found not only in the bacteriomes and reproductive organs, but also in the "filter chamber + conical segment" of both species. The transmission mode of this endosymbiont in the alimentary canal and its effect on physiological processes merits further study. A novel bacterium of Rhizobiales, showing ~80% similarity to Candidatus Hodgkinia cicadicola, is dominant in the bacteriomes and ovaries of P. kaempferi. Given that the genome of H. cicadicola exhibits rapid sequence evolution, it is possible that this novel bacterium is a related endosymbiont with beneficial trophic functions similar to that of H. cicadicola in some other cicadas. Failure to detect H. cicadicola in M. mongolica suggests that it has been subsequently replaced by another bacterium, a yeast or gut microbiota which compensates for the loss of H. cicadicola. The distribution of this novel Rhizobiales species in other cicadas and its identification require further investigation to help establish the definition of the bacterial genus Candidatus Hodgkinia and to provide more information on sequence divergence of related endosymbionts of cicadas. Our results highlight the complex bacterial communities of cicadas, and are informative for

  17. Bacterial diversity of bacteriomes and organs of reproductive, digestive and excretory systems in two cicada species (Hemiptera: Cicadidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhou; Wang, Dandan; He, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Cicadas form intimate symbioses with bacteria to obtain nutrients that are scarce in the xylem fluid they feed on. The obligate symbionts in cicadas are purportedly confined to specialized bacteriomes, but knowledge of bacterial communities associated with cicadas is limited. Bacterial communities in the bacteriomes and organs of reproductive, digestive and excretory systems of two cicada species (Platypleura kaempferi and Meimuna mongolica) were investigated using different methods, and the bacterial diversity and distribution patterns of dominant bacteria in different tissues were compared. Within each species, the bacterial communities of testes are significantly different from those of bacteriomes and ovaries. The dominant endosymbiont Candidatus Sulcia muelleri is found not only in the bacteriomes and reproductive organs, but also in the “filter chamber + conical segment” of both species. The transmission mode of this endosymbiont in the alimentary canal and its effect on physiological processes merits further study. A novel bacterium of Rhizobiales, showing ~80% similarity to Candidatus Hodgkinia cicadicola, is dominant in the bacteriomes and ovaries of P. kaempferi. Given that the genome of H. cicadicola exhibits rapid sequence evolution, it is possible that this novel bacterium is a related endosymbiont with beneficial trophic functions similar to that of H. cicadicola in some other cicadas. Failure to detect H. cicadicola in M. mongolica suggests that it has been subsequently replaced by another bacterium, a yeast or gut microbiota which compensates for the loss of H. cicadicola. The distribution of this novel Rhizobiales species in other cicadas and its identification require further investigation to help establish the definition of the bacterial genus Candidatus Hodgkinia and to provide more information on sequence divergence of related endosymbionts of cicadas. Our results highlight the complex bacterial communities of cicadas, and are informative

  18. Restoration of fecal continence with chronic electrostimulation of gracilis muscle 17 years after a Pickrell's operation.

    PubMed

    Seccia, M; Banti, P; Zocco, G; Viacava, P

    2001-11-01

    A 27-year-old woman who had undergone a Pickrell's operation at the age of 10 years, was observed for severe incontinence to solid and liquid stools. Physical examination and physiological tests revealed poor resting anal tone but a very good response of the transposed gracilis to percutaneous electrostimulation, which showed that the gracilis ability to contract was maintained in spite of 17 years of only occasional and unplanned muscular activity. Examination also demonstrated that the muscle had followed body growth during the patient's development. Restoration of continence by continuous electrostimulation of the gracilis muscle was then planned. To allow muscular resistance to this stimulation a fast-to-slow twitch fiber conversion was first obtained by low-frequency electrostimulation. A subcutaneous abdominal implant of a pulse generator connected to the gracilis by intramuscular platinum-iridium electrodes was carried out. After a period of muscular training, fiber conversion was achieved, and continuous electrostimulation led to complete restoration of continence with stable results at the 36 month follow-up evaluation. This case demonstrates that even such a long period of muscular inactivity does not affect the possibility of recovering a failed Pickrell's operation using electrostimulation. This easy and safe procedure can be applied to all previously failed graciloplasties provided that muscle contractility is maintained.

  19. Physical Health of Young, Australian Women: A Comparison of Two National Cohorts Surveyed 17 Years Apart

    PubMed Central

    Rowlands, Ingrid J; Dobson, Annette J; Mishra, Gita D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Very little is known about the extent of physical health issues among young women in early adulthood and whether this is changing over time. Methods We used data from two national samples of young women aged 18–23 years, surveyed 17 years apart, who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. We used multinomial logistic regression to compare the women’s physical health (i.e., self-rated health, common symptoms and conditions) and identify whether sociodemographic factors, health behaviours and stress explained any physical health differences between the samples. Results Women aged 18–23 years in 2013 (N = 17,069) were more likely to report poor self-rated health and physical symptoms (particularly urogenital and bowel symptoms) than women aged 18–23 years in 1996 (N = 14,247). Stress accounted for a large proportion of the physical health differences between the cohorts, particularly for allergies, headaches, self-rated health, severe tiredness, skin problems, severe period pain and hypertension. Conclusions Women’s health appears to be changing, with young women born in more recent decades reporting greater physical symptom levels. Changing socio-cultural and economic conditions may place pressure on young adults, negatively affecting their health and wellbeing. Assessing the extent to which social structures and health care policies are offering adequate support to young women may offer avenues for promoting positive health and wellbeing. PMID:26528902

  20. Beverage Consumption Patterns at Age 13 to 17 Years Are Associated with Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index at Age 17 Years.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Teresa A; Van Buren, John M; Warren, John J; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Levy, Steven M

    2017-05-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been associated with obesity in children and adults; however, associations between beverage patterns and obesity are not understood. Our aim was to describe beverage patterns during adolescence and associations between adolescent beverage patterns and anthropometric measures at age 17 years. We conducted a cross-sectional analyses of longitudinally collected data. Data from participants in the longitudinal Iowa Fluoride Study having at least one beverage questionnaire completed between ages 13.0 and 14.0 years, having a second questionnaire completed between 16.0 and 17.0 years, and attending clinic examination for weight and height measurements at age 17 years (n=369) were included. Beverages were collapsed into four categories (ie, 100% juice, milk, water and other sugar-free beverages, and SSBs) for the purpose of clustering. Five beverage clusters were identified from standardized age 13 to 17 years mean daily beverage intakes and named by the authors for the dominant beverage: juice, milk, water/sugar-free beverages, neutral, and SSB. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)) at age 17 years were analyzed. We used Ward's method for clustering of beverage variables, one-way analysis of variance and χ(2) tests for bivariable associations, and γ-regression for associations of weight or BMI (outcomes) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Linear regression was used for associations of height (outcome) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Participants with family incomes <$60,000 trended shorter (1.5±0.8 cm; P=0.070) and were heavier (2.0±0.7 BMI units; P=0.002) than participants with family incomes ≥$60,000/year. Adjusted mean weight, height, and BMI estimates differed by beverage cluster membership. For example, on average, male and female members of the neutral cluster were 4.5 cm (P=0.010) and 4.2 cm (P=0.034) shorter, respectively, than members of the milk cluster. For

  1. Paroxysmal hemicrania with visual aura in a 17-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Stefan; Wöber, Christian

    2009-04-01

    We report the case of a 17-year-old boy presenting with a history of recurrent episodes of isolated visual aura later followed infrequently by indomethacin-responsive headache attacks resembling paroxysmal hemicrania.

  2. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  3. Polysaccharides purified from Cordyceps cicadae protects PC12 cells against glutamate-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Feng, Yan; Olatunji, Oyenike O; Tang, Jian; Wei, Yuan; Ouyang, Zhen; Su, Zhaoliang

    2016-11-20

    Two polysaccharides CPA-1 and CPB-2 were isolated purified from Cordyceps cicadae by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and purification using anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Preliminary structural characterization of CPA-1 and CPB-2 were performed. The protective effect of CPA-1 and CPB-2 against glutamate-induced oxidative toxicity in PC12 cells was analyzed. The results indicated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with CPA-1 and CPB-2 significantly increased cell survival, Ca(2+) overload and ROS generation. CPA-1 and CPB-2 also markedly up-regulated the antioxidant status of pretreated PC12 cells. Our results suggested that Cordyceps cicadae polysaccharides can protect PC12 cells against glutamate excitotoxicity and might serve as therapeutic agents for neuronal disorders.

  4. Naturally inspired SERS substrates fabricated by photocatalytically depositing silver nanoparticles on cicada wings.

    PubMed

    Tanahashi, Ichiro; Harada, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Densely stacked Ag nanoparticles with an average diameter of 199 nm were effectively deposited on TiO2-coated cicada wings (Ag/TiO2-coated wings) from a water-ethanol solution of AgNO3 using ultraviolet light irradiation at room temperature. It was seen that the surfaces of bare cicada wings contained nanopillar array structures. In the optical absorption spectra of the Ag/TiO2-coated wings, the absorption peak due to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Ag nanoparticles was observed at 440 nm. Strong Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals of Rhodamine 6G adsorbed on the Ag/TiO2-coated wings were clearly observed using the 514.5-nm line of an Ar(+) laser. The Ag/TiO2-coated wings can be a promising candidate for naturally inspired SERS substrates.

  5. Naturally inspired SERS substrates fabricated by photocatalytically depositing silver nanoparticles on cicada wings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Densely stacked Ag nanoparticles with an average diameter of 199 nm were effectively deposited on TiO2-coated cicada wings (Ag/TiO2-coated wings) from a water-ethanol solution of AgNO3 using ultraviolet light irradiation at room temperature. It was seen that the surfaces of bare cicada wings contained nanopillar array structures. In the optical absorption spectra of the Ag/TiO2-coated wings, the absorption peak due to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Ag nanoparticles was observed at 440 nm. Strong Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals of Rhodamine 6G adsorbed on the Ag/TiO2-coated wings were clearly observed using the 514.5-nm line of an Ar+ laser. The Ag/TiO2-coated wings can be a promising candidate for naturally inspired SERS substrates. PMID:24959110

  6. Observation of the wing deformation and the CFD study of cicada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hu; Mohd Adam Das, Shahrizan; Luo, Haoxiang

    2011-11-01

    We studied the wing properties and kinematics of cicada when the 13-year species emerged in amazingly large numbers in middle Tennessee during May 2011. Using a high-speed camera, we recorded the wing motion of the insect and then reconstructed the three-dimensional wing kinematics using a video digitization software. Like many other insects, the deformation of the cicada wing is asymmetric between the downstroke and upstroke half cycles, and this particular deformation pattern would benefit production of the lift and propulsive forces. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional CFD studies are carried out based on the reconstructed wing motion. The implication of the study on the role of the aerodynamic force in the wing deformation will be discussed. This work is sponsored by the NSF.

  7. Random lasing from Rhodamine 6G doped ethanediol solution based on the cicada wing nanocones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Feng, Guoying; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Chao; Yin, Jiajia; Dai, Shenyu; Zhou, Shouhuan

    2016-06-01

    Random lasing from Rhdomaine 6G (Rh6G) doped ethanediol solution based on the cicada wing nanostructures as scatterers has been demonstrated. The optical positive feedback of the random laser is provided by these nanocones on the cicada wing, where the scale of the nanocones and the distance between them is about 150 nm and 200 nm, respectively. Al-coated reflector has been introduced to reduce the loss of the pump energy from the bottom, and moreover lower the laser threshold, which is about 126.0 μJ/pulse. Due to the liquid gain medium, the lifetime of this random laser is longer than conventional random lasers. This random laser shows the potential applications in biological random laser and photonic devices.

  8. Naturally inspired SERS substrates fabricated by photocatalytically depositing silver nanoparticles on cicada wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanahashi, Ichiro; Harada, Yoshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    Densely stacked Ag nanoparticles with an average diameter of 199 nm were effectively deposited on TiO2-coated cicada wings (Ag/TiO2-coated wings) from a water-ethanol solution of AgNO3 using ultraviolet light irradiation at room temperature. It was seen that the surfaces of bare cicada wings contained nanopillar array structures. In the optical absorption spectra of the Ag/TiO2-coated wings, the absorption peak due to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Ag nanoparticles was observed at 440 nm. Strong Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals of Rhodamine 6G adsorbed on the Ag/TiO2-coated wings were clearly observed using the 514.5-nm line of an Ar+ laser. The Ag/TiO2-coated wings can be a promising candidate for naturally inspired SERS substrates.

  9. Omics data reveal the unusual asexual-fruiting nature and secondary metabolic potentials of the medicinal fungus Cordyceps cicadae.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuzhen; Luo, Feifei; Cen, Kai; Xiao, Guohua; Yin, Ying; Li, Chunru; Li, Zengzhi; Zhan, Shuai; Zhang, Huizhan; Wang, Chengshu

    2017-08-30

    Ascomycete Cordyceps species have been using as valued traditional Chinese medicines. Particularly, the fruiting bodies of Cordyceps cicadae (syn. Isaria cicadae) have long been utilized for the treatment of chronic kidney disease. However, the genetics and bioactive chemicals in this fungus have been largely unexplored. In this study, we performed comprehensive omics analyses of C. cicadae, and found that, in contrast to other Cordyceps fungi, C. cicadae produces asexual fruiting bodies with the production of conidial spores instead of the meiotic ascospores. Genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis indicate that the protein families encoded by C. cicadae are typical of entomopathogenic fungi, including the expansion of proteases and chitinases for targeting insect hosts. Interestingly, we found that the MAT1-2 mating-type locus of the sequenced strain contains an abnormally truncated MAT1-1-1 gene. Gene deletions revealed that asexual fruiting of C. cicadae is independent of the MAT locus control. RNA-seq transcriptome data also indicate that, compared to growth in a liquid culture, the putative genes involved in mating and meiosis processes were not up-regulated during fungal fruiting, further supporting asexual reproduction in this fungus. The genome of C. cicadae encodes an array of conservative and divergent gene clusters for secondary metabolisms. Based on our analysis, the production of known carcinogenic metabolites by this fungus could be potentially precluded. However, the confirmed production of oosporein raises health concerns about the frequent consumption of fungal fruiting bodies. The results of this study expand our knowledge of fungal genetics that asexual fruiting can occur independent of the MAT locus control. The obtained genomic and metabolomic data will benefit future investigations of this fungus for medicinal uses.

  10. Cordyceps cicadae induces G2/M cell cycle arrest in MHCC97H human hepatocellular carcinoma cells: a proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hualin; Zhang, Jing; Sit, Wai-Hung; Lee, Chung-Yung Jetty; Wan, Jennifer Man-Fan

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps cicadae is a medicinal fungus that is often used for treating cancer. However, the anticancer mechanisms of C. cicadae are largely unknown. This study aims to investigate the anticancer mechanisms of C. cicadae against hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro using a proteomic approach. Human hepatocellular carcinoma MHCC97H cells were treated with a water extract of C. cicadae (0, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 μg/mL) for 48 h and harvested for cell viability assays. The significant differences in protein expression between control and C. cicadae-treated cells were analyzed by two-dimensional gel-based proteomics coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to investigate the cell cycle and cell death. The anticancer molecular mechanism was analyzed by whole proteome mapping. The water extract of C. cicadae (0, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 μg/mL) inhibited the growth of MHCC97H cells in a dose-dependent manner via G2/M phase cell cycle arrest with no evidence of apoptosis. Among the identified proteins with upregulated expression were dynactin subunit 2, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1, heat shock protein beta-1, alpha-enolase isoform 1, phosphatidylinositol transfer protein, and WD repeat-containing protein 1. Meanwhile, the proteins with downregulated expression were 14-3-3 gamma, BUB3, microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 1, thioredoxin-like protein, chloride intracellular channel protein 1, ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5, xaa-Pro dipeptidase, enoyl-CoA delta isomerase 1, protein-disulfide isomerase-related chaperone Erp29, hnRNP 2H9B, peroxiredoxin 1, WD-40 repeat protein, and serine/threonine kinase receptor-associated protein. The water extract of C. cicadae reduced the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma MHCC97H cells via G2/M cell cycle arrest.

  11. Navigation, Guidance and Control For the CICADA Expendable Micro Air Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    the GPS data when the GPS sensor data first becomes valid. The altitude estimate is then propagated using the estimated vertical velocity 3 of 14...design goal for the guidance and control system was to enable the CICADA to recover from a wide range of initial launch conditions and altitudes . Recording...vehicle from a drop of over 29,000 feet in altitude . I. Introduction Unmanned aerial sensors (UAS) have typically been complex assemblies of the airframe

  12. A review of the cicada genus Haphsa Distant from China (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Yang, Mingsheng; Wei, Cong

    2015-05-18

    The cicada genus Haphsa Distant from China was reviewed based on the description of a new species (Haphsa lueta sp. n.) and redescriptions of other three known species which are reported from China for the first time. A key to all known species of Haphsa worldwide is provided. The geographical distribution of the Haphsa species and the availability of Haphsa dianensis Chou, Lei, Li, Lu & Yao, 1997 are discussed.

  13. Ergosterol peroxide from Cordyceps cicadae ameliorates TGF-β1-induced activation of kidney fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rong; Zheng, Rong; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; Zhang, Shuwei

    2014-02-15

    Chronic kidney disease is a growing public health problem with an urgent need for new pharmacological agents. Ergosterol peroxide (EP) is the major sterol produced by Cordyceps cicadae Shing (C. cicadae), a widely used traditional Chinese medicine. C. cicadae has been used to treat many kinds of diseases and has a potential benefit on renoprotection. This study aimed to investigate the anti-fibrotic effects of EP as well as the underlying mechanisms. A normal rat kidney fibroblast cell line (NRK-49F) was stimulated to undergo fibroblast activation by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and EP treatment was applied to explore its potential anti-fibrotic effects. Cell proliferation was investigated using MTT analysis. Fibrosis-associated protein expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and/or Western blotting. EP treatment attenuated TGF-β1-induced renal fibroblast proliferation, expression of cytoskeleton protein and CTGF, as well as ECM production. Additionally, EP blocked TGF-β1-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK pathway. Moreover, the TGF-β1-induced expression of fibronectin was attenuated by either inhibition of MAPKs or by EP treatment. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that EP is able to suppress TGF-β1-induced fibroblasts activation in NRK-49F. This new information provides a line of theoretical evidence supporting the use of C. cicadae in the intervention of kidney disease and suggests that EP has the potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent to prevent renal fibrosis.

  14. How the Aridification of Australia Structured the Biogeography and Influenced the Diversification of a Large Lineage of Australian Cicadas.

    PubMed

    Owen, Christopher L; Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R; Simon, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Over the last 30 million years, Australia's landscape has undergone dramatic cooling and drying due to the establishment of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and change in global CO$_{2}$ levels. Studies have shown that many Australian organisms went extinct during these major cooling events, while others experienced adaptive radiations and increases in diversification rates as a result of exploiting new niches in the arid zone. Despite the many studies on diversification and biogeography in Australia, few have been continent-wide and none have focused on a group of organisms adapted to feeding on plants. We studied 162 species of cicadas in the Australian Pauropsalta complex, a large generic lineage within the tribe Cicadettini. We asked whether there were changes in the diversification rate of Pauropsalta over time and if so: 1) which clades were associated with the rate change? 2) did timing of rate shifts correspond to known periods of dramatic historical climate change, 3) did increases in diversification rate along select lineages correspond to adaptive radiations with movement into the arid zone? To address these questions, we estimated a molecular phylogeny of the Pauropsalta complex using ${\\sim}$5300 bp of nucleotide sequence data distributed among five loci (one mtDNA locus and four nDNA loci). We found that this large group of cicadas did not diversify at a constant rate as they spread through Australia; instead the signature of decreasing diversification rate changed roughly around the time of the expansion of the east Antarctic ice sheets ${\\sim}$16 Ma and the glaciation of the northern hemisphere ${\\sim}$3 Ma. Unlike other Australian taxa, the Pauropsalta complex did not explosively radiate in response to an early invasion of the arid zone. Instead multiple groups invaded the arid zone and experienced rates of diversification similar to mesic-distributed taxa. We found evidence for relictual groups, located in pre-Mesozoic habitat, that have not

  15. Limited, episodic diversification and contrasting phylogeography in a New Zealand cicada radiation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The New Zealand (NZ) cicada fauna contains two co-distributed lineages that independently colonized the isolated continental fragment in the Miocene. One extensively studied lineage includes 90% of the extant species (Kikihia + Maoricicada + Rhodopsalta; ca 51 spp.), while the other contains just four extant species (Amphipsalta – 3 spp. + Notopsalta – 1 sp.) and has been little studied. We examined mitochondrial and nuclear-gene phylogenies and phylogeography, Bayesian relaxed-clock divergence timing (incorporating literature-based uncertainty of molecular clock estimates) and ecological niche models of the species from the smaller radiation. Results Mitochondrial and nuclear-gene trees supported the monophyly of Amphipsalta. Most interspecific diversification within Amphipsalta-Notopsalta occurred from the mid-Miocene to the Pliocene. However, interspecific divergence time estimates had large confidence intervals and were highly dependent on the assumed tree prior, and comparisons of uncorrected and patristic distances suggested difficulty in estimation of branch lengths. In contrast, intraspecific divergence times varied little across analyses, and all appear to have occurred during the Pleistocene. Two large-bodied forest taxa (A. cingulata, A. zelandica) showed minimal phylogeographic structure, with intraspecific diversification dating to ca. 0.16 and 0.37 Ma, respectively. Mid-Pleistocene-age phylogeographic structure was found within two smaller-bodied species (A. strepitans – 1.16 Ma, N. sericea – 1.36 Ma] inhabiting dry open habitats. Branches separating independently evolving species were long compared to intraspecific branches. Ecological niche models hindcast to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) matched expectations from the genetic datasets for A. zelandica and A. strepitans, suggesting that the range of A. zelandica was greatly reduced while A. strepitans refugia were more extensive. However, no LGM habitat could be

  16. Limited, episodic diversification and contrasting phylogeography in a New Zealand cicada radiation.

    PubMed

    Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R; Marske, Katharine A; Chambers, Colleen; Buckley, Thomas R; Simon, Chris

    2012-09-11

    The New Zealand (NZ) cicada fauna contains two co-distributed lineages that independently colonized the isolated continental fragment in the Miocene. One extensively studied lineage includes 90% of the extant species (Kikihia + Maoricicada + Rhodopsalta; ca 51 spp.), while the other contains just four extant species (Amphipsalta - 3 spp. + Notopsalta - 1 sp.) and has been little studied. We examined mitochondrial and nuclear-gene phylogenies and phylogeography, Bayesian relaxed-clock divergence timing (incorporating literature-based uncertainty of molecular clock estimates) and ecological niche models of the species from the smaller radiation. Mitochondrial and nuclear-gene trees supported the monophyly of Amphipsalta. Most interspecific diversification within Amphipsalta-Notopsalta occurred from the mid-Miocene to the Pliocene. However, interspecific divergence time estimates had large confidence intervals and were highly dependent on the assumed tree prior, and comparisons of uncorrected and patristic distances suggested difficulty in estimation of branch lengths. In contrast, intraspecific divergence times varied little across analyses, and all appear to have occurred during the Pleistocene. Two large-bodied forest taxa (A. cingulata, A. zelandica) showed minimal phylogeographic structure, with intraspecific diversification dating to ca. 0.16 and 0.37 Ma, respectively. Mid-Pleistocene-age phylogeographic structure was found within two smaller-bodied species (A. strepitans - 1.16 Ma, N. sericea - 1.36 Ma] inhabiting dry open habitats. Branches separating independently evolving species were long compared to intraspecific branches. Ecological niche models hindcast to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) matched expectations from the genetic datasets for A. zelandica and A. strepitans, suggesting that the range of A. zelandica was greatly reduced while A. strepitans refugia were more extensive. However, no LGM habitat could be reconstructed for A. cingulata and N

  17. Trends in leprosy case detection in Rwanda, 1995-2011: analysis of 17 years of laboratory data.

    PubMed

    Uwimana, Innocent; Bizimungu, Nestor; Ingabire, Fabrice; Mukamukwiye, Elyse; Sharangabo, Odette; Ngabonziza, Semuto C; Kamanzi, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    Leprosy, or Hansen's disease, is a chronic, infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. It remains one of the leading causes of deformity and physical disability. We analysed laboratory records to assess trends in prevalence rates and case detection rates (CDRs) in Rwanda. A retrospective review of detected leprosy cases from the records of the Rwanda National Reference Laboratory over a 17-year period (1995-2011) was conducted. Skin biopsy samples were analysed microscopically using Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique to identify M. leprae. Cumulatively, 266 suspected cases were reported between 1995 and 2011. Of the suspected cases, 77 (28.9%) were laboratory confirmed as having leprosy. Among detected cases, 59 (76.6%) were men and 18 (23.4%) women. The male:female ratio was 3:1. There were 77 registered leprosy cases over the 17-year period of the study, and the prevalence rate was 0.005 per 10 000 population. A gradual decrease in the prevalence rate was observed from 0.015 per 10 000 population in 2003 to 0.003 per 10 000 population in 2010. From 1995 to 2011, the CDR did not exceed one per 10 000 population. This laboratory review demonstrates a declining trend in prevalence rates and CDR during the period of the study. Early case detection and a sustainable leprosy control programme remain the cornerstones of reducing the physical and socio-economic burden of leprosy in Rwanda.

  18. Phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells induced by polysaccharide isolated from Paecilomyces cicadae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Sook; Kim, Jee Youn; Ryu, Hwa Sun; Shin, Bo Ram; Kang, Jong Soon; Kim, Hwan Mook; Kim, Yong Ook; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Han, Sang Bae

    2011-01-01

    Paecilomyces cicadae Miquel Samson is the anamorph of Cordyceps cicadae Shing and is used in functional foods for the prevention and treatment of various diseases. In the present study, we examined the effects of P. cicadae polysaccharide (PCP) on dendritic cell (DC) maturation. Phenotypic maturation of DCs by PCP was confirmed by the elevated expressions of CD80, CD86, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I, and MHC-II molecules and functional maturation by increased expression of interleukin-12, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α, enhanced allogenic T cell stimulation, and decreased endocytosis. PCP induced the maturation of DCs from C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 mice but not from Toll-like receptor (tlr) 4⁻/⁻ knockout mice and TLR4-mutated C3H/HeJ mice, which suggests that TLR4 is the membrane receptor for PCP. PCP increased the degradation of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) α/β, which enhanced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p50/p65 and induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, which are signaling molecules downstream of TLR4. These results indicate that PCP induces DC maturation through TLR4 signaling.

  19. Genome expansion via lineage splitting and genome reduction in the cicada endosymbiont Hodgkinia.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Matthew A; Van Leuven, James T; Meister, Russell C; Carey, Kaitlin M; Simon, Chris; McCutcheon, John P

    2015-08-18

    Comparative genomics from mitochondria, plastids, and mutualistic endosymbiotic bacteria has shown that the stable establishment of a bacterium in a host cell results in genome reduction. Although many highly reduced genomes from endosymbiotic bacteria are stable in gene content and genome structure, organelle genomes are sometimes characterized by dramatic structural diversity. Previous results from Candidatus Hodgkinia cicadicola, an endosymbiont of cicadas, revealed that some lineages of this bacterium had split into two new cytologically distinct yet genetically interdependent species. It was hypothesized that the long life cycle of cicadas in part enabled this unusual lineage-splitting event. Here we test this hypothesis by investigating the structure of the Ca. Hodgkinia genome in one of the longest-lived cicadas, Magicicada tredecim. We show that the Ca. Hodgkinia genome from M. tredecim has fragmented into multiple new chromosomes or genomes, with at least some remaining partitioned into discrete cells. We also show that this lineage-splitting process has resulted in a complex of Ca. Hodgkinia genomes that are 1.1-Mb pairs in length when considered together, an almost 10-fold increase in size from the hypothetical single-genome ancestor. These results parallel some examples of genome fragmentation and expansion in organelles, although the mechanisms that give rise to these extreme genome instabilities are likely different.

  20. Design for approaching Cicada-wing reflectance in low- and high-index biomimetic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Fan; Jen, Yi-Jun; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chattopadhyay, Surojit

    2015-01-27

    Natural nanostructures in low refractive index Cicada wings demonstrate ≤ 1% reflectance over the visible spectrum. We provide design parameters for Cicada-wing-inspired nanotip arrays as efficient light harvesters over a 300-1000 nm spectrum and up to 60° angle of incidence in both low-index, such as silica and indium tin oxide, and high-index, such as silicon and germanium, photovoltaic materials. Biomimicry of the Cicada wing design, demonstrating gradient index, onto these material surfaces, either by real electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma processing or by modeling, was carried out to achieve a target reflectance of ∼ 1%. Design parameters of spacing/wavelength and length/spacing fitted into a finite difference time domain model could simulate the experimental reflectance values observed in real silicon and germanium or in model silica and indium tin oxide nanotip arrays. A theoretical mapping of the length/spacing and spacing/wavelength space over varied refractive index materials predicts that lengths of ∼ 1.5 μm and spacings of ∼ 200 nm in high-index and lengths of ∼ 200-600 nm and spacings of ∼ 100-400 nm in low-index materials would exhibit ≤ 1% target reflectance and ∼ 99% optical absorption over the entire UV-vis region and angle of incidence up to 60°.

  1. Genome expansion via lineage splitting and genome reduction in the cicada endosymbiont Hodgkinia

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Matthew A.; Van Leuven, James T.; Meister, Russell C.; Carey, Kaitlin M.; Simon, Chris; McCutcheon, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative genomics from mitochondria, plastids, and mutualistic endosymbiotic bacteria has shown that the stable establishment of a bacterium in a host cell results in genome reduction. Although many highly reduced genomes from endosymbiotic bacteria are stable in gene content and genome structure, organelle genomes are sometimes characterized by dramatic structural diversity. Previous results from Candidatus Hodgkinia cicadicola, an endosymbiont of cicadas, revealed that some lineages of this bacterium had split into two new cytologically distinct yet genetically interdependent species. It was hypothesized that the long life cycle of cicadas in part enabled this unusual lineage-splitting event. Here we test this hypothesis by investigating the structure of the Ca. Hodgkinia genome in one of the longest-lived cicadas, Magicicada tredecim. We show that the Ca. Hodgkinia genome from M. tredecim has fragmented into multiple new chromosomes or genomes, with at least some remaining partitioned into discrete cells. We also show that this lineage-splitting process has resulted in a complex of Ca. Hodgkinia genomes that are 1.1-Mb pairs in length when considered together, an almost 10-fold increase in size from the hypothetical single-genome ancestor. These results parallel some examples of genome fragmentation and expansion in organelles, although the mechanisms that give rise to these extreme genome instabilities are likely different. PMID:26286984

  2. Are cicadas (Diceroprocta apache) both a "keystone" and a "critical-link" species in lower Colorado River riparian communities?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    Apache cicada (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Diceroprocta apache Davis) densities were estimated to be 10 individuals/m2 within a closed-canopy stand of Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and Goodding willow (Salix gooddingii) in a revegetated site adjacent to the Colorado River near Parker, Arizona. Coupled with data drawn from the literature, I estimate that up to 1.3 cm (13 1/m2) of water may be added to the upper soil layers annually through the feeding activities of cicada nymphs. This is equivalent to 12% of the annual precipitation received in the study area. Apache cicadas may have significant effects on ecosystem functioning via effects on water transport and thus act as a critical-link species in this southwest desert riverine ecosystem. Cicadas emerged later within the cottonwood-willow stand than in relatively open saltcedar-mesquite stands; this difference in temporal dynamics would affect their availability to several insectivorous bird species and may help explain the birds' recent declines. Resource managers in this region should be sensitive to the multiple and strong effects that Apache cicadas may have on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  3. The phylogenetic utility of acetyltransferase (ARD1) and glutaminyl tRNA synthetase (QtRNA) for reconstructing Cenozoic relationships as exemplified by the large Australian cicada Pauropsalta generic complex.

    PubMed

    Owen, Christopher L; Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R; Simon, Chris

    2015-02-01

    The Pauropsalta generic complex is a large group of cicadas (72 described spp.; >82 undescribed spp.) endemic to Australia. No previous molecular work on deep level relationships within this complex has been conducted, but a recent morphological revision and phylogenetic analysis proposed relationships among the 11 genera. We present here the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the complex using five loci (1 mtDNA, 4 nDNA), two of which are from nuclear genes new to cicada systematics. We compare the molecular phylogeny to the morphological phylogeny. We evaluate the phylogenetic informativeness of the new loci to traditional cicada systematics loci to generate a baseline of performance and behavior to aid in gene choice decisions in future systematic and phylogenomic studies. Our maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenies strongly support the monophyly of most of the newly described genera; however, relationships among genera differ from the morphological phylogeny. A comparison of phylogenetic informativeness among all loci revealed that COI 3rd positions dominate the informativeness profiles relative to all other loci but exhibit some among taxon nucleotide bias. After removing COI 3rd positions, COI 1st positions dominate near the terminals, while the period intron has the most phylogenetic informativeness near the root. Among the nuclear loci, ARD1 and QtRNA have lower phylogenetic informativeness than period intron and elongation factor 1 alpha intron, but the informativeness increases at you move from the tips to the root. The increase in phylogenetic informativeness deeper in the tree suggests these loci may be useful for resolving older relationships.

  4. Diagnostic value of "dysphagia limit" for neurogenic dysphagia: 17 years of experience in 1278 adults.

    PubMed

    Aydogdu, Ibrahim; Kiylioglu, Nefati; Tarlaci, Sultan; Tanriverdi, Zeynep; Alpaydin, Sezin; Acarer, Ahmet; Baysal, Leyla; Arpaci, Esra; Yuceyar, Nur; Secil, Yaprak; Ozdemirkiran, Tolga; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2015-03-01

    Neurogenic dysphagia (ND) is a prevalent condition that accounts for significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Screening and follow-up are critical for early diagnosis and management which can mitigate its complications and be cost-saving. The aims of this study are to provide a comprehensive investigation of the dysphagia limit (DL) in a large diverse cohort and to provide a longitudinal assessment of dysphagia in a subset of subjects. We developed a quantitative and noninvasive method for objective assessment of dysphagia by using laryngeal sensor and submental electromyography. DL is the volume at which second or more swallows become necessary to swallow the whole amount of bolus. This study represents 17 years experience with the DL approach in assessing ND in a cohort of 1278 adult subjects consisting of 292 healthy controls, 784 patients with dysphagia, and 202 patients without dysphagia. A total of 192 of all patients were also reevaluated longitudinally over a period of 1-19 months. DL has 92% sensitivity, 91% specificity, 94% positive predictive value, and 88% negative predictive value with an accuracy of 0.92. Patients with ALS, stroke, and movement disorders have the highest sensitivity (85-97%) and positive predictive value (90-99%). The clinical severity of dysphagia has significant negative correlation with DL (r=-0.67, p<0.0001). We propose the DL as a reliable, quick, noninvasive, quantitative test to detect and follow both clinical and subclinical dysphagia and it can be performed in an EMG laboratory. Our study provides specific quantitative features of DL test that can be readily utilized by the neurologic community and nominates DL as an objective and robust method to evaluate dysphagia in a wide range of neurologic conditions. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Childhood intussusception: 17-year experience at a tertiary referral centre in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carol W Y; Chan, Ivy H Y; Chung, Patrick H Y; Lan, Lawrence C L; Lam, Wendy W M; Wong, Kenneth K Y; Tam, Paul K H

    2015-12-01

    To review all paediatric patients with intussusception over the last 17 years. Retrospective case series. A tertiary centre in Hong Kong. Children who presented with intussusception from January 1997 to December 2014 were reviewed. The duration of symptoms, successful treatment modalities, complication rate, and length of hospital stay were studied. A total of 173 children (108 male, 65 female) presented to our hospital with intussusception during the study period. Their median age at presentation was 12.5 months (range, 2 months to 16 years) and the mean duration of symptoms was 2.3 (standard deviation, 1.8) days. Vomiting was the most common symptom (76.3%) followed by abdominal pain (46.2%), per rectal bleeding or red currant jelly stool (40.5%), and a palpable abdominal mass (39.3%). Overall, 160 patients proceeded to pneumatic or hydrostatic reduction, among whom 127 (79.4%) were successful. Three (1.9%) patients had bowel perforation during the procedure. Early recurrence of intussusception occurred in four (3.1%) patients with non-operative reduction. No recurrence was reported in the operative group. The presence of a palpable abdominal mass was a risk factor for operative treatment (relative risk=2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-2.2). Analysis of our results suggested that duration of symptoms did not affect the success rate of non-operative reduction. Non-operative reduction has a high success rate and low complication rate, but the presence of a palpable abdominal mass is a risk factor for failure. Operative intervention should not be delayed in those patients who encounter difficult or doubtful non-operative reduction.

  6. Health and relationships with leisure time activities in Swedish children aged 2-17 years.

    PubMed

    Berntsson, Leeni T; Ringsberg, Karin C

    2014-09-01

    Three cross-sectional time series studies, randomised and stratified for age and gender, were performed on children aged 2-17, studying their health and well-being. The studies were performed in the Nordic countries in 1984, 1996 and 2011. Long-term illness (LTI) and psychosomatic complaints (PSC) increased during the period. Data were collected from mailed questionnaires. Data of 1461 Swedish children from 2011 were used and compared with data from 1984 and 1996. Relationships between the health indicators (the absence of LTI, 13 diagnoses, the absence of PSC, six symptoms, six items of well-being) and 12 activities were analysed. A total of 83.2% of the children were healthy and 16.8% had at least one LTI, boys 19.1% and girls 14.5%. PSC increased from 18.6% in 1996 to 23.1% in 2011. The distribution was higher in girls. Girls were more active than boys during leisure time. 'Reading books', 'visiting friends', 'listening to music' and 'activity in organisations' were related to an absence of PSC, LTI and well-being. 'Surfing/blogging on the Internet' was negatively related to LTI, PSC and well-being. Multiple regression showed that that 'visits or is visited by friends' was related with a low probability for LTI and also with a high probability for well-being. In the logistic regression analyses, the following variables were seen as promoting health most: 'visits or is visited by friends' and 'is active in organizations' for children aged 2-17 years, especially for boys and well-being. The health of Swedish children declined between 1984 and 2011. Positive relationships were found between some activities and health as well as other activities related to ill health. The results suggest an increased focus on the activities that have positive relationships with health in order to promote health among children. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. Tinea capitis in adults in southern Spain. A 17-year epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Lova-Navarro, Miguel; Gómez-Moyano, Elisabeth; Martínez Pilar, Leandro; Fernandez-Ballesteros, María Dolores; Godoy-Díaz, Daniel Jesus; Vera-Casaño, Angel; Crespo-Erchiga, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Tinea capitis is an infection of the hair due to keratinophilic fungi, known as dermatophytes. Although the disease is common in children, several studies have also shown that it is far from unusual in adults, especially in post-menopausal women and immunocompromised persons. To determine the incidence of tinea capitis in adults in our area, as well as the predisposing factors (gender, immunity), and causative species. A retrospective study was conducted over a period of 17 years, from 1995 to 2011, collecting data on cases of tinea capitis diagnosed in our dermatology department. Information collected for all patients included age, gender, location of the lesions, results of direct examination and culture, immune status, cause of immunosuppression, and the prescribed treatment. Thirty-three cases (11.4%) out of 289 cases of tinea capitis occurred in adults. Most of these adults (72%) were immunocompetent, and the rest were immunocompromised for different reasons. Three of the patients were men and 30 women, with 70% of the latter being post-menopausal. Trichophyton species were isolated in 76% of these adult patients, with Trichophyton violaceum being the most common. Treatment with oral terbinafine was successful in all these cases. Microsporum species were responsible for the other cases, all treated successfully with oral griseofulvin. This series of tinea capitis in adults is one of the largest to date. It shows that tinea capitis is not uncommon among the immunocompetent adult population. In our geographical area, except for prepubescent patients, most cases affecting the adult population were caused by species of the genus Trichophyton. In these cases the treatment of choice was oral terbinafine, which considerably shortened the treatment time, and was associated with fewer side effects than the classical griseofulvin. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidemiological and mortality trends in infective endocarditis, a 17-year population-based prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chiavarelli, Mario; Scalese, Marco; Nencioni, Cesira; Valentini, Silvia; Guerrini, Francesco; D’Aiello, Incoronata; Picchi, Andrea; De Sensi, Francesco; Habib, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    Background The population at risk, the clinical and microbiological features of infective endocarditis (IE) have changed. Aim of our study was to evaluate the contemporary epidemiological trends, over a 17-year period in a definite region of Tuscany, Italy, to analyze the clinical outcomes and associated prognostic factors. Methods From 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2014, all patients with a definite diagnosis of IE were prospectively entered in a data-base. The Health-Care system data-base was interrogated to capture patients who could have been missed. The final dataset derived by the merging of the two data-bases. Results Incidence rate of IE was 4.6/100,000/y with a significant linear incidence increase. In hospitalized patients the incidence was 1.27/1,000 admissions. Over age 65 incidence rate was 11.7/100,000/y. Male/female ratio was 1.54:1. A temporal trend towards an increase in the mean population age was found (P=0.033). There was an increase in the incidence of Health-care associated IE, P=0.016. The most common microorganisms were staphylococcus aureus (25%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (22%). In-hospital mortality was 24%. A trend towards an increase in mortality rate was found (P=0.055). Independent predictors of mortality were older age, S. aureus infection, heart failure, septic shock and persistent bacteremia. Conclusions Our study confirms an increasing mortality trend in IE, although with a borderline significance. Elderly forms are associated with poor prognosis and higher than 1-year mortality rate even in the multivariate analysis. Ageing population, increase in healthcare-associated and staphylococcal infections, may explain the rise of IE incidence and of the mortality trend. PMID:28164010

  9. Occupational injury deaths of 16 and 17 year olds in the US: trends and comparisons with older workers.

    PubMed

    Castillo, D N; Malit, B D

    1997-12-01

    To examine patterns of occupational injury deaths of 16 and 17 year olds in the United States for the three year period 1990-2, examine trends since the 1980s, and compare fatality rates with those of older workers. Occupational injury deaths were analyzed using the death certificate based National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) surveillance system. Fatality rates were calculated using estimates of full time equivalent (FTE) workers based on data from the Current Population Survey, a monthly household survey. There were 111 deaths of 16 and 17 year olds for the years 1990-2. The average yearly rate was 3.5 deaths/100,000 FTE. The leading causes of death were motor vehicle related, homicide, and machinery related. All causes occupational injury fatality rates for 16 and 17 year olds were lower than for adults for 1990-2. Rates for the leading causes of death (motor vehicle related, homicide, and machinery related) were comparable or slightly higher than the rates for young and middle aged adult workers. Although rates decreased dramatically from 1980 to 1983, the decreasing trend attenuated in later years. Comparisons of youth fatality rates to those of adult workers should address differences in patterns of employment, most importantly hours of work. Comparisons to narrow age groupings of adults is preferable to a single category of all workers 18 years and older. Increasing compliance with federal child labor regulations could help reduce work related deaths of youth. Other measures are needed, however, as there are many work hazards, including those associated with homicides, that are not addressed by United States federal child labor law regulations.

  10. Occupational injury deaths of 16 and 17 year olds in the US: trends and comparisons with older workers.

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, D. N.; Malit, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine patterns of occupational injury deaths of 16 and 17 year olds in the United States for the three year period 1990-2, examine trends since the 1980s, and compare fatality rates with those of older workers. METHODS: Occupational injury deaths were analyzed using the death certificate based National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) surveillance system. Fatality rates were calculated using estimates of full time equivalent (FTE) workers based on data from the Current Population Survey, a monthly household survey. RESULTS: There were 111 deaths of 16 and 17 year olds for the years 1990-2. The average yearly rate was 3.5 deaths/100,000 FTE. The leading causes of death were motor vehicle related, homicide, and machinery related. All causes occupational injury fatality rates for 16 and 17 year olds were lower than for adults for 1990-2. Rates for the leading causes of death (motor vehicle related, homicide, and machinery related) were comparable or slightly higher than the rates for young and middle aged adult workers. Although rates decreased dramatically from 1980 to 1983, the decreasing trend attenuated in later years. CONCLUSIONS: Comparisons of youth fatality rates to those of adult workers should address differences in patterns of employment, most importantly hours of work. Comparisons to narrow age groupings of adults is preferable to a single category of all workers 18 years and older. Increasing compliance with federal child labor regulations could help reduce work related deaths of youth. Other measures are needed, however, as there are many work hazards, including those associated with homicides, that are not addressed by United States federal child labor law regulations. PMID:9493624

  11. Color Vision Deficiencies in Youths 12-17 Years of Age United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaby, David; Roberts, Jean

    The prevalence of color vision deficiencies among youths 12 to 17 years of age in the United States was evaluated during a 1966-1970 survey of 6,768 youths selected as representative of noninstitutionalized adolescents with respect to age, sex, race, geographic region, income, population size of place of residence, and rate of population change in…

  12. [Surgical Medical Meetings in the Mexican Social Security Institute: 17 years of existence].

    PubMed

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; Cruz-Vega, Felipe; Loría-Castellanos, Jorge; Franco-Bey, Rubén; Quiroz-Vasquez, Laura; Cruz-Flores, Priscila

    2014-01-01

    The Surgical Medical Meetings Program aims to make highly specialized medical services to the marginalized rural population. Surgical Medical Encounters highlight the experience and results of an innovative strategy characterized by continuous improvement and the desire to continue transcending health for the most vulnerable populations. During 17 years of its inception, it is interesting to describe the evolution and achievements of the program.

  13. A rare cause of right upper quadrant pain in a 17-year-old female.

    PubMed

    Nwankwo, Nwabundo; Barbaryan, Aram; Ali, Alaa M; Mirrakhimov, Aibek E

    2013-01-01

    A 17-year-old Hispanic female presented to our hospital with complaints of right upper quadrant abdominal pain, vomiting, and fever. Physical exam was positive for hepatomegaly. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple hypoechoic liver masses. Liver biopsy was done, which was diagnostic for hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma.

  14. Myocardial infarction in a 17-year-old patient due to neurofibromatosis-associated coronary aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Evrengul, Harun; Kilic, Dogu I; Zungur, Mustafa; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Tanriverdi, Halil

    2013-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis is an autosomal dominant multi-system genetic disorder. Extra-cardiac vascular manifestations of neurofibromatosis have been previously described in many reports. However, coronary arterial involvements have been rarely described. A 17-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis presented to our institute with subacute myocardial infarction. Coronary angiogram revealed an aneurysm with thrombus in the left anterior descending artery.

  15. FYI: Infant Colic...Teenaged Mothers--17 Years Later...Celebrating Safely...and More.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents information about various topics, including (1) an invention, Sleep Tight, that eases colic symptoms in infants; (2) a 17-year follow-up study on teenage mothers' lives; (3) working mothers; (4) discussion of child care; (5) safe adolescent celebrations; (6) homosexuality; and (7) child abuse. (BB)

  16. What "Our" 17-Year-Olds Know: One District's Assessment. Publication No. 88.20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, L. David; Galindo, Letticia

    The knowledge that 17-year-old students in a local city school district had of literature and history was assessed using the same test items administered by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). A review of national results of the NAEP examination in 1986 has highlighted the gaps in knowledge of this age group. The Austin (Texas)…

  17. Examination and Health History Findings Among Children and Youth, 6-17 Years. United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jean

    National estimates on physical health status, health problems, or abnormal conditions of approximately 13,887 noninstitutionalized American children, 6 to 11 years of age in 1963 through 1965, and adolescents, 12 to 17 years of age in 1966 through 1970, were derived from pediatric examinations in the National Health Examination survey and from…

  18. Vision Test Validation Study for the Health Examination Survey Among Youths 12-17 years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jean

    A validation study of the vision test battery used in the Health Examination Survey of 1966-1970 was conducted among 210 youths 12-17 years-old who had been part of the larger survey. The study was designed to discover the degree of correspondence between survey test results and clinical examination by an opthalmologist in determining the…

  19. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children 12 through 17 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Among our oldest children--adolescents age 12 through 17 years--41 percent live in low-income…

  20. Juvenile cobalamin deficiency in a 17-year-old child with autonomic dysfunction and skin changes.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Abdul Hafeez; Ansari, Aamir; Beech, Cameron M; Shah, Nidhi P; Tanner, Stephan M; Sarnaik, Sharada A

    2012-03-01

    We report a rare case of juvenile cobalamin deficiency who presented at the age of 17 years. He was underweight and had skin changes, normocytic anemia, and autonomic dysfunction, which led to adynamic ileus and acute postrenal failure. The expected macrocytosis was masked by an underlying alpha-thalassemia trait. The patient had an excellent response to parenteral cobalamin treatment.

  1. Sex, Drugs, Relationships, Contraception, and Fears of Disease on a College Campus over 17 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murstein, Bernard I.; Mercy, Todd

    1994-01-01

    Sexual behavior was surveyed in 1991 for fourth time in 17 years at northeastern college with 98 male and 148 female participants. Results indicated 91% nonvirginity rate for men; 76% for women. Both genders initiated sex at same age. Men exhibited more liberal sexual philosophy. Neither gender had sexual double standard. Drug use was related to…

  2. FYI: Infant Colic...Teenaged Mothers--17 Years Later...Celebrating Safely...and More.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents information about various topics, including (1) an invention, Sleep Tight, that eases colic symptoms in infants; (2) a 17-year follow-up study on teenage mothers' lives; (3) working mothers; (4) discussion of child care; (5) safe adolescent celebrations; (6) homosexuality; and (7) child abuse. (BB)

  3. Thoracoscopic resection of a bronchogenic cyst in a 17-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Pułtorak, Roksana; Pasierbek, Michał; Grabowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Bronchogenic cysts comprise approximately 6% of mediastinal tumors in children. The treatment consists in surgical resection of the cyst. The authors present the case of a 17-year-old girl who was accidentally diagnosed with a mediastinal cyst. The patient was successfully treated with thoracoscopic surgery with good early and late clinical outcomes. PMID:28096839

  4. Vital signs: births to teens aged 15-17 years--United States, 1991-2012.

    PubMed

    Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Romero, Lisa; Spitz, Alison; Gavin, Lorrie; Barfield, Wanda

    2014-04-11

    Teens who give birth at age 15-17 years are at increased risk for adverse medical and social outcomes of teen pregnancy. To examine trends in the rate and proportion of births to teens aged 15-19 years that were to teens aged 15-17 years, CDC analyzed 1991-2012 National Vital Statistics System data. National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) data from 2006-2010 were used to examine sexual experience, contraceptive use, and receipt of prevention opportunities among female teens aged 15-17 years. During 1991-2012, the rate of births per 1,000 teens declined from 17.9 to 5.4 for teens aged 15 years, 36.9 to 12.9 for those aged 16 years, and 60.6 to 23.7 for those aged 17 years. In 2012, the birth rate per 1,000 teens aged 15-17 years was higher for Hispanics (25.5), non-Hispanic blacks (21.9), and American Indians/Alaska Natives (17.0) compared with non-Hispanic whites (8.4) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (4.1). The rate also varied by state, ranging from 6.2 per 1,000 teens aged 15-17 years in New Hampshire to 29.0 in the District of Columbia. In 2012, there were 86,423 births to teens aged 15-17 years, accounting for 28% of all births to teens aged 15-19 years. This percentage declined from 36% in 1991 to 28% in 2012 (p<0.001). NSFG data for 2006-2010 indicate that although 91% of female teens aged 15-17 years received formal sex education on birth control or how to say no to sex, 24% had not spoken with parents about either topic; among sexually experienced female teens, 83% reported no formal sex education before first sex. Among currently sexually active female teens (those who had sex within 3 months of the survey) aged 15-17 years, 58% used clinical birth control services in the past 12 months, and 92% used contraception at last sex; however, only 1% used the most effective reversible contraceptive methods. Births to teens aged 15-17 years have declined but still account for approximately one quarter of births to teens aged 15-19 years. These data highlight

  5. A new genus and species of tettigarctid cicada from the early Miocene of New Zealand: Paratettigarcta zealandica (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Tettigarctidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kaulfuss, Uwe; Moulds, Max

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of primitive cicada (Hemiptera: Tettigarctidae) is described from the early Miocene of southern New Zealand. Paratettigarcta zealandica gen. et sp. n. is the first cicada (Cicadoidea) fossil from New Zealand and exhibits wing venation patterns typical for the subfamily Tettigarctinae. It differs from other fossil taxa and the extant genus Tettigarcta in the early divergence of CuA2 from the nodal line in the forewing, its parallel-sided subcostal cell, the early bifurcation of vein M and long apical cells of the hindwing, and in wing pigmentation patterns. PMID:25829843

  6. A new genus and species of tettigarctid cicada from the early Miocene of New Zealand: Paratettigarctazealandica (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Tettigarctidae).

    PubMed

    Kaulfuss, Uwe; Moulds, Max

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of primitive cicada (Hemiptera: Tettigarctidae) is described from the early Miocene of southern New Zealand. Paratettigarctazealandica gen. et sp. n. is the first cicada (Cicadoidea) fossil from New Zealand and exhibits wing venation patterns typical for the subfamily Tettigarctinae. It differs from other fossil taxa and the extant genus Tettigarcta in the early divergence of CuA2 from the nodal line in the forewing, its parallel-sided subcostal cell, the early bifurcation of vein M and long apical cells of the hindwing, and in wing pigmentation patterns.

  7. A checklist of the cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of Hainan Island, China, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingsheng; Wei, Cong

    2013-10-29

    A total of 54 cacada species, belonging to 28 genera, nine tribes and three subfamilies of the family Cicadidae, are identified to comprise the cicada fauna of Hainan Island, based on the examination of material collected between 2007 and 2011. One species, Semia hainanensis sp. n., is described as new to science. Nine species are recorded as new to Hainan Island, of which two species, Pomponia subtilita Lee, 2009 and Becquartina bleuzeni Boulard, 2005, are reported for the first time from China. In addition, six species formerly recorded from Hainan are removed from the list of Hainan cicadas. Taxonomic remarks and information on geographic distributions are also provided.

  8. [Changes of body mass components and body constitution in boys 7-17 years of age].

    PubMed

    Kornienko, I A; Tambovtseva, R V; Panasiuk, T V

    2003-01-01

    The longitudinal studies of boys aged 7-17 years were performed to trace the dynamics of growth processes, indices of endomorphism, mesomorphism and ectomorphism according to type of body build. The indices of somatotype stability, proposed by the authors, depending on the age and body build, are discussed. It is shown that the least variable are the boys of asthenoid and digestive types of body build, while those belonging to muscular and thoraco-muscular types undergo changes most frequently. At the age of 9-10 years the somatotype variability is the greatest. By the age of 15-17 years the proportion of the boys belonging to asthenoid-thoracal type is increased, that is characterized by a deceleration of skeletal muscles development and an increase in the ectomorphism index.

  9. Acute Myeloid Leukaemia of Donor Cell Origin Developing 17 Years after Allogenic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Pilar; Alvarez, J. Carlos; Garrido, Pilar; Lorente, J. Antonio; Palacios, Jorge; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Donor cell leukaemia (DCL) is a rare complication of allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We report the case of a female patient with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), FAB type M3, who developed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) type M5 of donor origin 17 years after allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from her HLA-matched sister. Morphology and immunophenotyping showed differences with the initial leukaemia, and short tandem repeat (STR) analysis confirmed donor-type haematopoiesis. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) showed an 11q23 deletion. Given that the latency period between transplant and development of leukaemia was the longest reported to date, we discuss the mechanisms underlying delayed leukaemia onset. PMID:23675279

  10. Employment of Minors. A Guide for 14- through 17-year-olds, Their Parents and Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Bureau of Labor and Industry, Portland.

    This guide on the employment of minors is intended for 14- through 17-year olds, their parents, and employers. It first lists requirements for employers who hire minors. Then it lists the jobs that 14- and 15-year-old workers can do, both the types of businesses that would hire them and examples of the kinds of jobs that 14- and 15-year-olds may…

  11. Acute torsion of wandering spleen in a 17-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Maoqing; Chen, Ping; Ruan, Xinzhong; Ye, Xianwang; Huang, Qiuli

    2015-01-01

    The acute torsion of wandering spleen is a very rare disease characterized by acute abdominal pain. Without early surgical intervention, wandering spleen can lead to splenic infarction or rupture. However, early clinical diagnosis is very difficult, so imaging modalities play an important role. We present a case of acute abdominal pain due to torsion of the wandering spleen in a 17-year-old girl, diagnosed by computed tomography and effectively managed by splenectomy for splenic infarction.

  12. Acute torsion of wandering spleen in a 17-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Maoqing; Chen, Ping; Ruan, Xinzhong; Ye, Xianwang; Huang, Qiuli

    2015-01-01

    The acute torsion of wandering spleen is a very rare disease characterized by acute abdominal pain. Without early surgical intervention, wandering spleen can lead to splenic infarction or rupture. However, early clinical diagnosis is very difficult, so imaging modalities play an important role. We present a case of acute abdominal pain due to torsion of the wandering spleen in a 17-year-old girl, diagnosed by computed tomography and effectively managed by splenectomy for splenic infarction. PMID:26379994

  13. Impact of Provider Recommendation on Tdap Vaccination of Adolescents Aged 13-17 Years.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng-Jun; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; O'Halloran, Alissa; Meyer, Sarah A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Reagan-Steiner, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination has been recommended for adolescents in the U.S. since 2006. Information on Tdap vaccination by provider recommendation is limited. The purpose of this study is to assess recent Tdap vaccination by provider recommendation status among adolescents aged 13-17 years. The 2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen data (N=18,948) were analyzed in 2016 to assess national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage disparities among adolescents by provider recommendation status, and other demographic and access to care variables. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and predictive marginal modeling evaluated associations between Tdap vaccination and provider recommendation status and other factors among adolescents aged 13-17 years. Overall, only 56.9% of adolescents aged 13-17 years received a provider recommendation for Tdap. Coverage was significantly higher among adolescents with a provider recommendation (88.6%) compared with those without a provider recommendation (80.5%) (p<0.05). Multivariable logistic regression showed that characteristics independently associated with a higher likelihood of Tdap vaccination included receiving a provider recommendation, Hispanic ethnicity, having two to three physician contacts in the past 12 months, having one or two vaccination providers, and receiving vaccinations from more than one type of facility (p<0.05). Provider recommendations were significantly associated with Tdap vaccination among adolescents aged 13-17 years. However, 43% of parents of adolescents did not receive a provider recommendation. Evidence-based strategies such as standing orders and provider reminders alone or health systems interventions in combination should be taken to improve provider recommendation and Tdap vaccination coverage. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Arterial Myocardial Revascularization Using Bilateral Radial Arte 17 Years after Right Pneumonectomy

    PubMed Central

    Erdil, Nevzat; Nisanoglu, Vedat; Toprak, Huseyin Ilksen; Erdil, Feray Akgul; Kuzucu, Akin; Battaloglu, Bektas

    2004-01-01

    We report the case of a 51-year-old man who underwent arterial myocardial revascularization with the use of bilateral radial arteries, 17 years after undergoing a right pneumonectomy. We used a fast-track anesthesia protocol for the procedure. There was no perioperative complication, and postoperative recovery was uneventful. The patient was discharged from the hospital 5 days after the operation. PMID:15061636

  15. Relationship between general and specific coordination in 8- to 17-year-old male basketball players.

    PubMed

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Venckūnas, Tomas; Masiulis, Nerijus; Matulaitis, Kestutis; Balciūnas, Mindaugas; Peters, Derek; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between general coordination, sport-specific coordination, and sport-specific fitness of 8- to 17-year-old male basketball players. 312 males with training experience ranging from one year in the 8-year-old cohort up to 10 years for the 17-year-olds performed basketball-specific fitness (20 m sprint, Illinois, countermovement jump), general coordination (20 m run with three obstacles), semi-basketball-specific coordination (20 m sprint dribbling two balls, countermovement jump with arm swing) and basketball-specific coordination (Illinois ball dribbling) tests. There were moderate to large correlations between the results of both general and basketball-specific coordination with the results of most basketball-specific coordination tests in all age groups. Correlations between general and basketball-specific coordination were large in four age groups (11-14 yr., r = .52 to r = .76), moderate in five groups (8-10, 15 & 16 yr., r = .37 to r = .46), while not significant in the 17-year-olds. These results suggest that the importance of general coordination for sport-specific skills improvements during a sports-specific skill acquisition phase, remains high at the skill refinement phase, and decreases when sport-specific skills have been mastered to near-perfection.

  16. Rapid fabrication of bio-inspired nanostructure with hydrophobicity and antireflectivity on polystyrene surface replicating from cicada wings.

    PubMed

    Xie, Heng; Huang, Han-Xiong; Peng, Yu-Jiang

    2017-08-24

    The fine nanostructure on the cicada wing of Cryptotympana atrata fabricius, which exhibits hydrophobicity and antireflectivity, is carefully examined. A promising strategy is proposed for facilely and successively replicating the natural functional nanostructure of the cicada wing onto polystyrene (PS) surfaces. First, a nickel replica with tapered nanopores is fabricated by combining electroless plating and subsequent electroplating with the natural cicada wing as an original template. Then, using microinjection compression molding, with the nickel replica as a template, the tapered nanopores are transcribed onto the PS surface, resulting in orderly and densely arranged nanopillars with a mean diameter of about 156 nm and a mean pitch of about 180 nm. The natural cicada wing and fabricated nickel replica are reusable. Interestingly, the PS replica surface exhibits a water contact angle of 143° ± 2° and a reflectance of about 4% in the wavelength range of 400-1000 nm. These results mean that the bionic PS replica not only inherits the nanostructure of the natural wing, but also its hydrophobic and antireflective properties. The mechanisms for the hydrophobic and antireflective properties are revealed via composite wetting interface and effective medium layer on the replica surface, respectively. The proposed fast and efficient replication strategy can be an excellent candidate for mimicking bio-inspired functional micro/nanostructures without complicated procedures and expensive materials.

  17. On the cicada genus Nipponosemia Kato, with description of one new species from China (Hemiptera, Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingsheng; Wei, Cong

    2013-01-01

    The cicada genus Nipponosemia Kato is reviewed. Four species are illustrated, photographed and described, including three known species and one new species. A key to all species of this genusis presented, and information on the biology of Nipponosemia are provided. The systematic status of the tribe Cicadatrini and biogeography of Nipponosemia are discussed.

  18. On the cicada genus Nipponosemia Kato, with description of one new species from China (Hemiptera, Cicadidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingsheng; Wei, Cong

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The cicada genus Nipponosemia Kato is reviewed. Four species are illustrated, photographed and described, including three known species and one new species. A key to all species of this genusis presented, and information on the biology of Nipponosemia are provided. The systematic status of the tribe Cicadatrini and biogeography of Nipponosemia are discussed. PMID:23794865

  19. Cordyceps cicadae induces G2/M cell cycle arrest in MHCC97H human hepatocellular carcinoma cells: a proteomic study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cordyceps cicadae is a medicinal fungus that is often used for treating cancer. However, the anticancer mechanisms of C. cicadae are largely unknown. This study aims to investigate the anticancer mechanisms of C. cicadae against hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro using a proteomic approach. Methods Human hepatocellular carcinoma MHCC97H cells were treated with a water extract of C. cicadae (0, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 μg/mL) for 48 h and harvested for cell viability assays. The significant differences in protein expression between control and C. cicadae-treated cells were analyzed by two-dimensional gel-based proteomics coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to investigate the cell cycle and cell death. The anticancer molecular mechanism was analyzed by whole proteome mapping. Results The water extract of C. cicadae (0, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 μg/mL) inhibited the growth of MHCC97H cells in a dose-dependent manner via G2/M phase cell cycle arrest with no evidence of apoptosis. Among the identified proteins with upregulated expression were dynactin subunit 2, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1, heat shock protein beta-1, alpha-enolase isoform 1, phosphatidylinositol transfer protein, and WD repeat-containing protein 1. Meanwhile, the proteins with downregulated expression were 14-3-3 gamma, BUB3, microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 1, thioredoxin-like protein, chloride intracellular channel protein 1, ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5, xaa-Pro dipeptidase, enoyl-CoA delta isomerase 1, protein-disulfide isomerase-related chaperone Erp29, hnRNP 2H9B, peroxiredoxin 1, WD-40 repeat protein, and serine/threonine kinase receptor-associated protein. Conclusion The water extract of C. cicadae reduced the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma MHCC97H cells via G2/M cell cycle arrest. PMID:24872842

  20. Activation of macrophages by polysaccharide isolated from Paecilomyces cicadae through toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Sook; Kim, Yeon Jin; Lee, Hong Kyung; Ryu, Hwa Sun; Kim, Ji Sung; Yoon, Mi Jung; Kang, Jong Soon; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Han, Sang-Bae

    2012-09-01

    Paecilomyces cicadae have been reported to have immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of polysaccharide (PCP) isolated from P. cicadae on the macrophages. PCP increased the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in RAW 264.7 cells. To investigate the membrane receptor, we examined the effect of PCP on primary macrophages isolated from wild type C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice having mutant-TLR4. PCP induced NO production and cytokine gene expression in macrophages from C3H/HeN, but not from tlr4-mutated C3H/HeJ mice, which suggests that TLR4 is the membrane receptor for PCP. PCP induced the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38, and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p50/p65, which are the main signaling molecules downstream from TLR4. Among them, p38 and NF-κB signaling played a crucial role in PCP-induced NO production by macrophages. These results indicate that PCP activates macrophages through the TLR4 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Selective bactericidal activity of nanopatterned superhydrophobic cicada Psaltoda claripennis wing surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Jafar; Webb, Hayden K; Truong, Vi Khanh; Pogodin, Sergey; Baulin, Vladimir A; Watson, Gregory S; Watson, Jolanta A; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2013-10-01

    The nanopattern on the surface of Clanger cicada (Psaltoda claripennis) wings represents the first example of a new class of biomaterials that can kill bacteria on contact based solely on its physical surface structure. As such, they provide a model for the development of novel functional surfaces that possess an increased resistance to bacterial contamination and infection. Their effectiveness against a wide spectrum of bacteria, however, is yet to be established. Here, the bactericidal properties of the wings were tested against several bacterial species, possessing a range of combinations of morphology and cell wall type. The tested species were primarily pathogens, and included Bacillus subtilis, Branhamella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Planococcus maritimus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Staphylococcus aureus. The wings were found to consistently kill Gram-negative cells (i.e., B. catarrhalis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and P. fluorescens), while Gram-positive cells (B. subtilis, P. maritimus, and S. aureus) remained resistant. The morphology of the cells did not appear to play any role in determining cell susceptibility. The bactericidal activity of the wing was also found to be quite efficient; 6.1 ± 1.5 × 10(6) P. aeruginosa cells in suspension were inactivated per square centimeter of wing surface after 30-min incubation. These findings demonstrate the potential for the development of selective bactericidal surfaces incorporating cicada wing nanopatterns into the design.

  2. Sound emission and reception tuning in three cicada species sharing the same habitat.

    PubMed

    Sueur, Jéro Me; Windmill, James F C; Robert, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Many animal species acoustically communicate at the same place and time generating complex acoustic environments. However, the acoustic parameter space is usually structured, with each species emitting identifiable signals. While signal partitioning has been reported, very few analyses include the mechanical spectral response of auditory organs. The loud chorus generated by three cicadas (Cicada orni, Cicadatra atra, and Lyristes plebejus) was studied. The vibration pattern of L. plebejus shows traveling waves as previously observed in Ctra. atra. The spectral properties of both calling songs and tympanal auditory systems primarily indicate that each species uses its own frequency band. Male tympanal membranes (TMs) are tuned to their own song's dominant frequency, except for C. orni, which is sensitive to the lowest frequency band of its song. In contrast, female TMs are broadly tuned to the male songs. Ctra. atra females differ by tuning to frequencies slightly higher than the male song. Hence, acoustic space partitioning occurs for both emitter and receiver, but does not seem to fully preclude interference risk as some spectral overlap exists. In addition to the local physical ecology of each species, selective attention to conspecific signals is likely to be enhanced by further mechanical and neuronal processing.

  3. Thermal adaptation and diversity in tropical ecosystems: evidence from cicadas (Hemiptera, Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Sanborn, Allen F; Heath, James E; Phillips, Polly K; Heath, Maxine S; Noriega, Fernando G

    2011-01-01

    The latitudinal gradient in species diversity is a central problem in ecology. Expeditions covering approximately 16°54' of longitude and 21°4' of latitude and eight Argentine phytogeographic regions provided thermal adaptation data for 64 species of cicadas. We test whether species diversity relates to the diversity of thermal environments within a habitat. There are general patterns of the thermal response values decreasing in cooler floristic provinces and decreasing maximum potential temperature within a habitat except in tropical forest ecosystems. Vertical stratification of the plant communities leads to stratification in species using specific layers of the habitat. There is a decrease in thermal tolerances in species from the understory communities in comparison to middle level or canopy fauna. The understory Herrera umbraphila Sanborn & Heath is the first diurnally active cicada identified as a thermoconforming species. The body temperature for activity in H. umbraphila is less than and significantly different from active body temperatures of all other studied species regardless of habitat affiliation. These data suggest that variability in thermal niches within the heterogeneous plant community of the tropical forest environments permits species diversification as species adapt their physiology to function more efficiently at temperatures different from their potential competitors.

  4. Thermal Adaptation and Diversity in Tropical Ecosystems: Evidence from Cicadas (Hemiptera, Cicadidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Allen F.; Heath, James E.; Phillips, Polly K.; Heath, Maxine S.; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2011-01-01

    The latitudinal gradient in species diversity is a central problem in ecology. Expeditions covering approximately 16°54′ of longitude and 21°4′ of latitude and eight Argentine phytogeographic regions provided thermal adaptation data for 64 species of cicadas. We test whether species diversity relates to the diversity of thermal environments within a habitat. There are general patterns of the thermal response values decreasing in cooler floristic provinces and decreasing maximum potential temperature within a habitat except in tropical forest ecosystems. Vertical stratification of the plant communities leads to stratification in species using specific layers of the habitat. There is a decrease in thermal tolerances in species from the understory communities in comparison to middle level or canopy fauna. The understory Herrera umbraphila Sanborn & Heath is the first diurnally active cicada identified as a thermoconforming species. The body temperature for activity in H. umbraphila is less than and significantly different from active body temperatures of all other studied species regardless of habitat affiliation. These data suggest that variability in thermal niches within the heterogeneous plant community of the tropical forest environments permits species diversification as species adapt their physiology to function more efficiently at temperatures different from their potential competitors. PMID:22242117

  5. Thermal biology of Pacific cicada killers, Sphecius convallis Patton, in the Upper Sonoran Desert.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Joseph R; Holliday, Charles W; Hastings, Jon M; Phillips, Christy M

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the Pacific cicada killer, Sphecius convallis Patton, was undertaken to examine the behavioral and physiological mechanisms by which they are able to complete their life cycle in the thermal extremes of the Upper Sonoran Desert. S. convallis were endothermic, exhibiting elevated and relatively constant thorax temperatures during many activities. Males basked in trees at dawn to warm up, then used a variety of behaviors and perching strategies to maintain thorax temperature during territorial behavior. The thorax temperature of females was highest during provisioning and orientation flights, somewhat lower while investigating burrows, and lowest while digging burrows. The optimal thorax temperature for flight was about 40°C, which was approximated most closely by males resting in the shade during the afternoon. In mating clusters, the mated male was the hottest, the female was coolest and the other males were intermediate. Wasps lost about 5% of body mass during heating treatments, and may use evaporative water loss for cooling. Pacific cicada killers use a complex suite of behavioral and physiological adaptations to regulate body temperature during their nesting season.

  6. A new species of the cicada genus Cicadatra Kolenati, 1857 (Hemiptera, Cicadidae) from Pakistan with a key to the known species of Pakistani Cicadatra.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zubair; Sanborn, Allen F; Akhter, Muhammad Atique

    2012-01-01

    A new species of cicada, Cicadatra ziaraticasp. n., is described from Pakistan. Male genitalia, timbal and opercula are described and illustrated as important diagnostic characters. Biological notes are also provided. A key to the known Cicadatra of Pakistan is provided.

  7. Mitral balloon valvuloplasty during pregnancy:The long term up to 17 years obstetric outcome and childhood development.

    PubMed

    A, Gulraze; W, Kurdi; Fa, Niaz; Me, Fawzy

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives : We report 17 years outcome of subsequent pregnancies of women with severe Mitral Stenosis (MS) who underwent Mitral Balloon Valvuloplasty (MBV) during pregnancy and the follow up of the children born of such pregnancies. Twenty three pregnant patients suffering from severe MS (NYHA-New York Heart Association class III/IV) who underwent MBV by Inoue balloon catheter technique during second trimester were enrolled. The study was performed between January 1992 and December 2008 at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during which time, details about the obstetric outcome and childhood development were recorded. Mean follow up period was 10± 5.5 years (range 1-17 years). MBV was successful in all patients with improvement in their NYHA class to I/II. All patients were followed until term and had uneventful course after MBV. Twenty two (95.6%) patients delivered 23 babies including a twin birth. These children exhibited normal growth and development according to their age. Nineteen patients had further pregnancies and gave birth to 38 live & healthy babies with one still birth and no unfavorable maternal outcome. Of these, 97.4% were singleton pregnancies while 2.6% were twin pregnancies. Spontaneous abortions were recorded in 21.5% and there was one still birth (2.5%) and one ectopic pregnancy (2.5%). Conclusion : Mitral Balloon Valvuloplasty is a safe and useful procedure during pregnancy, with no short or long term adverse affects on the mothers and their obstetric future. The children born of subsequent pregnancies exhibited normal physical and mental development.

  8. Recurrence of trachomatous trichiasis 17 years after bilamellar tarsal rotation procedure.

    PubMed

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Al-Hadrami, Khalfan; Sarvanan, Natarajan; Al Harby, Saleh; Mohammed, Ali Jaffer

    2006-06-01

    In 1989, World Health Organization consultant operated on trachomatous trichiasis (TT) cases in Dhakhiliya region of Oman. We evaluated their current ocular status. This was an historic cohort study. This study was conducted in an in-house setting. Ninety-one patients with TT who underwent operation by the bilamellar tarsal rotation procedure (BTR) were our study population. Their preoperative, operative, and immediate postoperative data were retrieved from the register. Staff members located and visited these patients. They examined the eyes and determined their visual, TT, and corneal status. They interviewed participants with a close-ended questionnaire to assess the quality of life and satisfaction for the TT services that were offered. Sixty-three patients could be followed. Among 72 eyes that had undergone operation 17 years earlier, the recurrence rate was 47.2% (95% CI, 35.7-58.8). In 21 unoperated eyes (55%), TT was noted. The association of TT recurrence to age, gender, type of TT, conjunctivitis, and active trachoma was tested. The BTR for minor trichiasis was the risk factor for recurrence of TT (adjusted odds ratio, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.4-10.8). The high recurrence rate of TT, 17 years after BTR surgery and high rates of TT in eyes that did not undergo surgical procedure earlier suggest that the causes of high recurrence should be identified and addressed. The ongoing pathologic condition of scarring of upper lids of both operated and unoperated eyes could be responsible for lid status after 17 years of BTR surgeries. High percentage of refusals because of long-term high recurrence could pose a challenge to reach the "elimination of blinding trachoma" by 2020.

  9. Mental disorders in Australian 4- to 17- year olds: Parent-reported need for help.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah E; Lawrence, David; Sawyer, Michael; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2017-04-01

    To describe the extent to which parents report that 4- to 17-year-olds with symptoms meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria for mental disorders need help, the types of help needed, the extent to which this need is being met and factors associated with a need for help. During 2013-2014, a national household survey of the mental health of Australia's young people (Young Minds Matter) was conducted, involving 6310 parents (and carers) of 4- to 17-year-olds. The survey identified 12-month mental disorders using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children - Version IV ( n = 870) and asked parents about the need for four types of help - information, medication, counselling and life skills. Parents of 79% of 4- to 17-year-olds with mental disorders reported that their child needed help, and of these, only 35% had their needs fully met. The greatest need for help was for those with major depressive disorder (95%) and conduct disorder (93%). Among these, 39% of those with major depressive disorder but only 19% of those with conduct disorder had their needs fully met. Counselling was the type of help most commonly identified as being needed (68%). In multivariate models, need for counselling was higher when children had autism or an intellectual disability, in blended families, when parents were distressed, and in the most advantaged socioeconomic areas. Many children and adolescents meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria for mental disorders have a completely unmet need for help, especially those with conduct disorders. Even with mild disorders, lack of clinical assessment represents an important missed opportunity for early intervention and treatment.

  10. 17-Year-Old Boy with Renal Failure and the Highest Reported Creatinine in Pediatric Literature

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jessica; Gordillo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is on the rise and constitutes a major health burden across the world. Clinical presentations in early CKD are usually subtle. Awareness of the risk factors for CKD is important for early diagnosis and treatment to slow the progression of disease. We present a case report of a 17-year-old African American male who presented in a life threatening hypertensive emergency with renal failure and the highest reported serum creatinine in a pediatric patient. A brief discussion on CKD criteria, complications, and potential red flags for screening strategies is provided. PMID:26199780

  11. A 17-Year-Old Girl With Acute Onset of Hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Michael; Ciorciari, Anthony J; Cunningham, Sandra J

    2016-06-01

    The presentation of acute-onset hemiparesis in a teenager can be challenging and offers a wide differential diagnosis. We discuss the approach to the patient (which should begin with thorough history taking and physical examination) and advanced imaging as directed by the patient's signs and symptoms. We report the case of an otherwise well 17-year-old girl who presented to the pediatric emergency department with a 2-day history of left-sided weakness and difficulty ambulating. Her eventual diagnosis of Balo concentric sclerosis, a rare form of multiple sclerosis, is discussed.

  12. Aripiprazole for irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents aged 6–17 years

    PubMed Central

    Blankenship, Kelly; Erickson, Craig A; Stigler, Kimberly A; Posey, David J; McDougle, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    Aripiprazole was recently US FDA-approved to treat irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder aged 6–17 years. There are currently only two psychotropics approved by the FDA to treat irritability in the autistic population. This drug profile will discuss available studies of aripiprazole in individuals with pervasive developmental disorders, two of which led to its recent FDA approval. We will discuss the efficacy, as well as the safety and tolerability of the drug documented in these studies. In addition, the chemistry, pharmacokinetics, metabolism and mechanism of action of aripiprazole will be reviewed. PMID:21359119

  13. Spinal extradural inclusion dermoid cyst mimicking pseudomeningocele, appearing after 17 years of meningomyelocele repair.

    PubMed

    Yerramneni, Vamsi Krishna; Patibandla, M R; Venkateswararao, K; Mudumba, Vs

    2013-05-01

    Dermoid cysts are congenital cystic tumors arising from embryonic rests and commonest site is in the thoracic region of the spinal canal. The authors reported a case of dermoid cyst in a 17-year-old boy appearing after lumbar meningomyelocele repair at 2 months of age. The boy presented with 6 months history of gradually progressive globular swelling at the site of previous scar and weakness of the left foot. Preoperatively small extradurally protruding placode was seen attached to the swelling. The swelling was completely excised. At 1 year follow-up patient had improvement in foot weakness with magnetic resonance imaging showing no residual or recurrent lesion.

  14. The effect of iron deficiency anemia on intelligence quotient (IQ) in under 17 years old students.

    PubMed

    Goudarzi, A; Mehrabi, M R; Goudarzi, K

    2008-05-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of iron deficiency on intelligence of 11-17 years students. This study conducted on the 540 students (11-17 years) that educated at guidance and high school of Boroujerd city. Laboratory investigations were included serum iron, TIBC (total iron binding capacity) and ferretin. Riven matrix was used in order to determine intelligence quotient. Data were analyzed using SPSS 13 and chi2 and t-tests. Results showed that 78 (14.4%) students had iron deficiency and 14 (25.9%) had iron deficiency anemia. There was no significant difference between different sexes for iron deficiency distribution (p > 0.05), while iron deficiency anemia was significantly higher in girls as compared with boys (p > 0.05). Mean quotient was 115 +/- 12.1 in iron deficiency students, while it was 113.7 +/- 13.9 in patients without iron deficiency. There was also no significant difference between normal and iron deficient students for intelligence quotient (p > 0.05).

  15. Use of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children and adolescents aged 6 - 17 years.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Ruth; Trück, Johannes; Pollard, Andrew J

    2013-10-01

    The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines into infant immunization schedules has successfully reduced the incidence of pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes. Disease incidence is low in healthy 6 - 17-year-old children and young people; however, there are a number of clinical conditions that put individuals in this age group at increased risk. Expansion of the license of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine , PCV-13, to include the 6 - 17 age group has recently been approved by European and American regulatory bodies. Studies assessing the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in both healthy and high-risk 6 - 17-year-old children and adolescents are covered and the potential impact of PCV-13 in these populations is discussed. The use of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, PPV-23, in high-risk children and adolescents is also considered. Expanding the use of PCV-13 to include high-risk children and adolescents aged 6 - 17 has the potential to prevent additional cases of disease; however, vaccination of this population may no longer be necessary when herd immunity to PCV-13 serotypes becomes fully established. Despite the broader serotype coverage of PPV-23, the benefits of this vaccine in high-risk populations are uncertain.

  16. Facial and oral injuries in Brazilian children aged 5-17 years: 5-year review.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, A L; Melo, T R

    2008-06-01

    This was to assess causes of maxillofacial trauma using a retrospective study in Paraiba, Brazil. Records of 256 patients with maxillofacial injuries aged 5-17 years treated between January 2002 to May 2006 were analyzed according to sex, age, cause of injury, frequency of dentoalveolar trauma, intraoral soft tissue injury, frequency and site of facial fracture. Chi-square and Fisher's Exact Tests were used at a significance level of 5%; odds ratio (OR) with confidence intervals to 95% were calculated (IC95%). Facial injuries were most frequent in males (78.1%) and in 13-17 year olds (60.9%); they tended to be more frequent during weekends (48%). Commonest causes were falls (37.9%) and traffic accidents (21.1%). Nasal fractures were most common (51.3%), followed by the zygomatic-orbital complex (25.4%); dentoalveolar injuries were present in 25.8% of cases. There was a positive association between facial fracture and dentoalveolar trauma, alveolar and tooth fracture, avulsion and intraoral soft tissue injury. Accidental falls were found to be the leading cause of maxillofacial fractures, affecting males 3 times more than females.

  17. Leachability and heavy metal speciation of 17-year old stabilised/solidified contaminated site soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Hailing; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2014-08-15

    The long-term leachability, heavy metal speciation transformation and binding mechanisms in a field stabilised/solidified contaminated soil (made ground) from West Drayton site were recently investigated following in situ auger mixing treatment with a number of cement-based binders back in 1996. Two batch leaching tests (TCLP and BS EN 12457) and a modified five step sequential extraction procedure along with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were employed for the testing of the 17-year-old field soil. The results of batch leaching tests show that the treatment employed remained effective at 17 years of service time, with all BS EN 12457 test samples and most of TCLP test samples satisfied drinking water standards. Sequential extraction results illustrate that the leaching of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd in all mixes mainly occurred at the Fe/Mn phase, ranging from 43% to 83%. Amongst the five metals tested, Ni was the most stable with around 40% remained in the residual phase for all the different cement-based binder stabilised/solidified samples. XRD and SEM analyses show that the hydration process has been fully completed and further carbonation took place. In summary, this study confirms that such cement-based stabilisation/solidification (S/S) treatment can achieve satisfactory durability and thus is a reliable technique for long-term remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Guaifenesin Pharmacokinetics Following Single‐Dose Oral Administration in Children Aged 2 to 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Gary A.; Solomon, Gail; Albrecht, Helmut H.; Reitberg, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study characterized guaifenesin pharmacokinetics in children aged 2 to 17 years (n = 40) who received a single oral dose of guaifenesin (age‐based doses of 100‐400 mg) 2 hours after breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 8 hours after dosing and analyzed for guaifenesin using liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods, relationships with age were assessed using linear regression, and dose proportionality was assessed on 95% confidence intervals. Based on the upper dose recommended in the monograph (for both children and adolescents), area under the curve from time zero to infinity and maximum plasma concentration both increased with age. However, when comparing the upper dose for children aged 2 to 11 years with the lower dose for adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, similar systemic exposure was observed. As expected due to increasing body size, oral clearance (CLo) and terminal volume of distribution (Vz/F) increased with age. Due to a larger increase in Vz/F than CLo, an increase in terminal exponential half‐life was also observed. Allometric scaling indicated no maturation‐related changes in CLo and Vz/F. PMID:26632082

  19. Developmental brain alterations in 17 year old boys are related to antenatal maternal anxiety.

    PubMed

    Mennes, Maarten; Van den Bergh, Bea; Lagae, Lieven; Stiers, Peter

    2009-06-01

    To assess the association between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and the brain activity of 17 year old adolescents performing two cognitive control tasks. Twenty-three 17 year old boys of mothers whose level of anxiety was measured during pregnancy were investigated using ERP while performing a Go/Nogo paradigm assessing exogenous cognitive control and a Gambling paradigm requiring endogenous cognitive control. No effects of antenatal maternal anxiety were observed in the Go/Nogo paradigm. However, in the Gambling paradigm adolescents of the high anxiety group (n=8) showed a less efficient pattern of decision making compared to the adolescents in the low-average anxiety group (n=15). Moreover, only for this task the ERP data showed an enlarged early frontal P2a component in the high anxiety group. The brain activity of adolescents during an endogenous cognitive control task is associated to the level of anxiety experienced by their mother during pregnancy. This association was not observed during an exogenous cognitive control task. This study indicates that a child's brain functionality is related to its mother's anxiety during pregnancy. Endogenous cognitive control is regarded the cognitive function most affected by the level of antenatal maternal anxiety.

  20. ISOLATION OF THE GENOME SEQUENCE STRAIN MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM 104 FROM MULTIPLE PATIENTS OVER A 17-YEAR PERIOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genome sequence strain 104 of the opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium was isolated form an adult AIDS patient in Southern California in 1983. Isolates of non-paratuberculosis M. avium from 207 other patients in Southern California and elsewhere were examined for genoty...

  1. ISOLATION OF THE GENOME SEQUENCE STRAIN MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM 104 FROM MULTIPLE PATIENTS OVER A 17-YEAR PERIOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genome sequence strain 104 of the opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium was isolated form an adult AIDS patient in Southern California in 1983. Isolates of non-paratuberculosis M. avium from 207 other patients in Southern California and elsewhere were examined for genoty...

  2. Interceptions of nonindigenous plant pests at US ports of entry and border crossings over a 17-year period

    Treesearch

    Deborah G. McCullough; Timothy T. Work; Joseph F. Cavey; Andrew M. Liebhold; David Marshall

    2006-01-01

    Despite the substantial impacts of nonindigenous plant pests and weeds, relatively little is known about the pathways by which these organisms arrive in the U.S. One source of such information is the Port Information Network (PIN) database, maintained by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) since 1984. The PIN database...

  3. Appearance of cicada fauna (Homoptera: Cicadoidea) by altitudes in Johor National Park, Mount Ledang, Johor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Aliadi Mohd; Sulaiman, Azman

    2015-09-01

    A total of 31 cicada species in 15 genera under two families (Cicadidae, 27 species in 11 genera; Tibicinidae, four species in three genera) was recorded for Johor National Park, Mount Ledang, Johor. This was based on 666 individuals were obtained through six sampling occasions in November 2012 until October 2013, each time using light trap set in six sampling locations (L1, L2, L3, L4a, L4b, L4c) that were selected based on altitudes. The most common and abundant species in L1 is Pomponia sp1 and recognized as new species that need to be described as new to science. Orientopsaltria saudarapadda Duffles & Zaidi appeared as the most common and abundant species in L2, represented by 21 individuals which covers 34.43 % of the total cicadas specimen in that area. In the location of L3, Dundubia vaginata (Fabricius) appeared as the most abundant species represented by 37 individuals or 26.81% while Abroma maculicollis Guerin appeared as the most common species. Shannon's Species Diversity Index (H') in L3 was the highest (H'=2.28) followed by L4b (H'=2.21), L2 (H'=1.93) L4a (H'=1.92), L4c (H'=1.84) and L1 (H'=1.58), and the evenness index in L1 was the highest (E= 0.88), followed by L4b (E= 0.79), L3 (E= 0.77), L2 (E= 0.75), L4c (E= 0.74) and L4a (E= 0.79). Margalef Species Richness Index in L3 was the highest (R'=3.65), followed by oleh L4b (R'=3.01), L4a (R'=2.97), L2 (R'=2.92), L4c (R'=2.4), and L1 (R'=2.01). Generally shows that L3 at the altitude 350 m appear as the best sampling site for cicadas species in Mount Ledang Johor with the highest value of species diversity and richness index.

  4. Corrosion process and structural performance of a 17 year old reinforced concrete beam stored in chloride environment

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, T. Castel, A. Francois, R.

    2007-11-15

    The long-term corrosion process of reinforced concrete beams is studied in this paper. The reinforced concrete elements were stored in a chloride environment for 17years under service loading in order to be representative of real structural conditions. At different stages, cracking maps were drawn, total chloride contents were measured and mechanical tests were performed. Results show that the bending cracks and their width do not influence significantly the service life of the structure. The chloride threshold at the reinforcement depth, used by standards as a single parameter to predict the end of the initiation period, is a necessary but not a sufficient parameter to define service life. The steel-concrete interface condition is also a determinant parameter. The bleeding of concrete is an important cause of interface de-bonding which leads to an early corrosion propagation of the reinforcements. The structural performance under service load (i.e.: stiffness in flexure) is mostly affected by the corrosion of the tension reinforcement (steel cross-section and the steel-concrete bond reduction). Limit-state service life design based on structural performance reduction in terms of serviceability shows that the propagation period of the corrosion process is an important part of the reinforced concrete service life.

  5. The weak effects of climatic change on Plantago pollen concentration: 17 years of monitoring in Northwestern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Parrado, Zulima; Valencia-Barrera, Rosa Ma.; Vega-Maray, Ana Ma.; Fuertes-Rodríguez, Carmen Reyes; Fernández-González, Delia

    2014-09-01

    Plantago L. species are very common in nitrified areas such as roadsides and their pollen is a major cause of pollinosis in temperate regions. In this study, we sampled airborne pollen grains in the city of León (NW, Spain) from January 1995 to December 2011, by using a Burkard® 7-day-recording trap. The percentage of Plantago pollen compared to the total pollen count ranged from 11 % (1997) to 3 % (2006) in the period under study. Peak pollen concentrations were recorded in May and June. Our 17-year analysis failed to disclose significant changes in the seasonal trend of plantain pollen concentration. In addition, there were no important changes in the start dates of pollen release and the meteorological parameters analyzed did not show significant variations in their usual trends. We analyzed the influence of several meteorological parameters on Plantago pollen concentration to explain the differences in pollen concentration trends during the study. Our results show that temperature, sun hours, evaporation, and relative humidity are the meteorological parameters best correlated to the behavior of Plantago pollen grains. In general, the years with low pollen concentrations correspond to the years with less precipitation or higher temperatures. We calculated the approximate Plantago flowering dates using the cumulative sum of daily maximum temperatures and compared them with the real bloom dates. The differences obtained were 4 days in 2009, 3 days in 2010, and 1 day in 2011 considering the complete period of pollination.

  6. Mechanical properties of glycerinated fibres from the tymbal muscles of a Brazilian cicada

    PubMed Central

    Aidley, D. J.; White, D. C. S.

    1969-01-01

    1. Some of the properties of glycerinated fibres from the synchronous tymbal muscles of the cicada Fidicina rana have been investigated. 2. In the presence of suitable concentrations of ATP and calcium ions, the fibres are able to perform oscillatory work when subjected to small sinusoidal length changes in the frequency range 2-30 c/s. 3. When subjected to abrupt changes in length, active fibres show a delayed increase in tension after a stretch and a delayed decrease in tension after release. 4. The muscle fibres therefore show the mechanical properties characteristic of glycerinated fibres from asychronous insect flight muscles. Some implications of this finding in relation to the evolution of asynchronous muscles are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5347716

  7. Angle dependent antireflection property of TiO2 inspired by cicada wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zada, Imran; Zhang, Wang; Li, Yao; Sun, Peng; Cai, Nianjin; Gu, Jiajun; Liu, Qinglei; Su, Huilan; Zhang, Di

    2016-10-01

    Inspired by cicada wings, biomorphic TiO2 with antireflective structures (ARSs) was precisely fabricated using a simple, inexpensive, and highly effective sol-gel process combined with subsequent calcination. It was confirmed that the fabricated biomorphic TiO2 not only effectively inherited the ARS but also exhibited high-performance angle dependent antireflective properties ranging from normal to 45°. Reflectance spectra demonstrated that the reflectivity of the biomorphic TiO2 with ARSs gradually changed from 1.4% to 7.8% with the increasing incidence angle over a large visible wavelength range. This angle dependent antireflective property is attributed to an optimized gradient refractive index between air and TiO2 via ARSs on the surface. Such surfaces with ARSs may have potential application in solar cells.

  8. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita in a 17-year-old boy with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Russo, Irene; Ferrazzi, Anna; Zanetti, Irene; Alaibac, Mauro

    2015-07-10

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita is a rare, acquired, autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease of the skin, characterised by blisters and erosions, especially in trauma-prone sites and extensor skin surface, scarring with formation of milia, skin fragility and nail dystrophy. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita is extremely rare in childhood and it has been reported to be frequently associated with Crohn's disease. Furthermore, autoantibodies against type VII collagen have been found in a large number of patients with Crohn's disease without epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. We report a case of a 17-year-old boy affected by Crohn's disease who presented with milia on infiltrated erythematous plaques over the back of the hands. The diagnosis of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita was confirmed by histopathology, direct and indirect immunofluorescence analysis and ELISA. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Lessons From a 17-Year Radiosurgery Experience at the Royal Adelaide Hospital

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, Daniel E.; Brophy, Brian P.; Taylor, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate some of the potential pitfalls of cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and its planning based on prospectively gathered data from a 17-year experience at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Methods and Materials: More than 250 treatments have been planned since 1993 using previously described standard SRS techniques for intracranial benign and malignant lesions. Results: Five case studies are presented (1 meningioma, 1 acoustic neuroma, 2 solitary brain metastasis, 1 arteriovenous malformation), each of which demonstrates at least one salutary lesson. Conclusions: Because SRS delivers a highly conformal dose distribution, it is unforgiving of any geographic miss due to inaccurate outlining and thus dependent on neuroradiological expertise and collaboration. There are also potentially significant implications of misdiagnosis in SRS cases without histological proof-in particular, presumed brain metastases.

  10. Lyme disease: a case report of a 17-year-old male with fatal Lyme carditis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Esther C; Vail, Eric; Kleinman, George; Lento, Patrick A; Li, Simon; Wang, Guiqing; Limberger, Ronald; Fallon, John T

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is a systemic infection commonly found in the northeastern, mid-Atlantic, and north-central regions of the United States. Of the many systemic manifestations of Lyme disease, cardiac involvement is uncommon and rarely causes mortality. We describe a case of a 17-year-old adolescent who died unexpectedly after a 3-week viral-like syndrome. Postmortem examination was remarkable for diffuse pancarditis characterized by extensive infiltrates of lymphocytes and focal interstitial fibrosis. In the cardiac tissue, Borrelia burgdorferi was identified via special stains, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction. The findings support B. burgdorferi as the causative agent for his fulminant carditis and that the patient suffered fatal Lyme carditis. Usually, Lyme carditis is associated with conduction disturbances and is a treatable condition. Nevertheless, few cases of mortality have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a rare example of fatal Lyme carditis in an unsuspected patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Malnutrition and its risk factors among children 1-7 years old in rural Malaysian communities.

    PubMed

    Norhayati, M; Noorhayati, M I; Mohammod, C G; Oothuman, P; Azizi, O; Fatimah, A; Fatmah, M S

    1997-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nutritional status of children aged 1-7 years in Malaysian rural communities and to identify its risk factors. In all, 221 children were assessed using anthropometric measurements, dietary questionnaires and other tools. Weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height were analysed. Based on the NCHS standards, the overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was 46.2%, 18.1% and 30.3% respectively. Almost one-third of the 1-2 years old groups were malnourished. Univariate analysis identified household income £ MR750.00 as a significant risk factor of stunting and wasting.

  12. An acupuncture needle remaining in a lung for 17 years: case study and review.

    PubMed

    Lewek, Pawel; Lewek, Joanna; Kardas, Przemyslaw

    2012-09-01

    The case of a 67-year-old patient with an acupuncture needle remaining in his left lung is described. This foreign body was a remnant of a procedure performed by a doctor 17 years previously for osteoarthritic back pain. On the basis of this case, a review was performed of literature available in the PubMed database dealing with acupuncture needles remaining in a patient's body. A total of 25 articles were found. The articles describe needles found in the bladder, shoulder girdle, spinal cord, right ventricle, L5 nerve root, medulla oblongata, skin, carpal tunnel, nuchal and occipital area, calf and paraspinal muscle. Migration of needle fragments to the liver, pancreas, stomach, colon, breast, kidney, muscles, and spinal cord has been reported in the literature. In cases where patients were operated on, the needles were removed without subsequent complications and the patients recovered fully.

  13. Sperm morphology in five species of cicadettine cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Chawanji, Abraham S; Hodgson, Alan N; Villet, Martin H

    2006-12-01

    Mature spermatozoa from five species of cicadas of the subfamily Cicadettinae (Quintilia wealei, Melampsalta leucoptera, Stagira simplex, Xosopsaltria thunbergi and Monomatapa matoposa) were examined by light and electron microscopy. In each species sperm are elongate, aggregated into organized bundles with their heads embedded in a homogenous matrix to form spermatodesmata, and exhibit polymegaly. The head of the sperm consist of an anteriorly positioned conical acrosome that has a tubular substructure and a deep, posterior invagination that forms the subacrosomal space (eccentrically positioned anteriorly). The acrosome is flattened anteriorly; posteriorly it extends along either side of the nucleus as two tubular processes that gradually decrease in diameter. The filiform nucleus tapers anteriorly and intrudes into the subscrosomal space. Posteriorly the nucleus has a lateral invagination that houses material of the so-called centriolar adjunct. Posterior to the centriolar adjuct and the nucleus are two crystalline mitochondrial derivatives and a centriole, respectively, the latter giving rise to the axoneme, which has a 9 + 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules. In these respects the sperm are similar to those of platypleurine cicadas. However, some features seem unique to cicadettines, including the structural organization of an enlarged centriolar adjunct and the dimensions of the tails. The enlarged centriolar adjunct has a lamella-like substructure and can be considered a synapomorphic character in the Cicadettinae. It is, therefore, potentially useful in the separation of this subfamily from the Cicadinae. In addition, the great length of the sperm nucleus of long-headed sperm in M. matoposa could be a synapomorphy of this genus and related taphurine and cicadettine species.

  14. Reduced temperature sensitivity of soil respiration after a 17-year climate change experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Bailey, V. L.; Fansler, S.; Liu, C.; Smith, J. L.; Bolton, H.

    2012-12-01

    In 1994, a reciprocal soil transplant experiment was initiated between two elevations (310 m, warmer and drier, and 844 m, cooler and wetter) on Rattlesnake Mountain in southeastern Washington, USA, testing whether the microbial and biochemical dynamics that developed under cool, moist conditions would be destabilized under hot, dry conditions. In March 2012 we resampled the original transplanted soils to study longer-term changes in microbial community composition, soil C and N dynamics, and soil physical structure. These resampled cores were randomly assigned to climate-control chambers simulating the lower or upper site climates. We measured respiration throughout a 100-day incubation, coupled with biogeochemical analyses, to examine how these soils had responded to environmental changes over 17 years. Temperature and soil moisture were the primary drivers of CO2 evolution, but transplant source and destination both exerted significant effects. Most strikingly, respiration from cores originally from the hotter, low-elevation site that spent 17 years at the upper site exhibited almost no temperature sensitivity (Q10=1.07, 13-33 °C). Cores from the upper site had more carbon (~1.1% versus 0.8%), but equivalent C:N ratios, while soils incubated in the 'upper' chamber had greater N-acetylglucosaminidase and β-glucosidase potentials. Tomographic reconstructions revealed that porosity, moisture content, grain size distribution, and organic C were highly heterogeneous, consistent with the observed macro-scale variability. These results suggest that the upper-site soils were more resilient to the 1994 transplant, but that there is a significantly altered microbial community in the transplanted soils, particularly the lower-to-upper cores, that has not recovered almost two decades after the original experiment. This raises more general questions of how current climate change will affect soil resistance to future perturbations, and how confidently we can model this

  15. Responses to televised alcohol advertisements associated with drinking behaviour of 10-17-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Wyllie, A; Zhang, J F; Casswell, S

    1998-03-01

    To examine the nature of the relationships between 10-17-year-old New Zealanders' responses to alcohol advertisements and their drinking behaviour and future drinking expectations, with consideration also being given to the role of positive and negative beliefs about drinking. Survey involving 500 face-to-face interviews, with selection based on random cluster sampling. In respondents' homes in New Zealand's three largest urban areas. Ten-17-year-old New Zealanders. Response to specific alcohol advertisements was measured by recalled exposure (how often they recalled having seen the advertisements) and liking (a measure of positive response). An exploratory structural equation model provided tentative support for the theory-based hypothesis that positive responses to beer advertisements increased the frequency of current drinking and expected future drinking, among this age group. There was no evidence for the hypothesized reciprocal effects; the frequency of drinking (including non-drinking) did not significantly affect the respondent's liking of beer advertisements. There was also no support for a hypothesis that linking of the beer advertisements was a product of a general liking for alcohol. Many of the young people themselves felt that alcohol advertising encouraged teenagers to drink. This was especially the case among 10-13-year-old males, who were the most likely to accept the portrayals in alcohol advertising as realistic. Although there are limitations on the confidence with which conclusions can be drawn, the findings are consistent with qualitative and quantitative research and different theoretical perspectives on advertising processes which suggest alcohol advertising is likely to have some influence on young people.

  16. Applications of Gore-Tex implants in rhinoplasty reexamined after 17 years.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Krzysztof; Torgerson, Cory Stephen; Gillman, Grant S

    2008-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of GORE-TEX (W. L. Gore & Associates Inc, Flagstaff, Arizona) alloplast in rhinoplasty. A 17-year retrospective medical chart review at a teaching hospital, community hospital, and private facial cosmetic surgery center. A total of 521 patients (122 male and 399 female; age range, 13-70 years) were followed for 12 months to 17 years. All patients had undergone GORE-TEX implantation rhinoplasty (685 implants in 158 primary procedures and 508 secondary procedures) performed by 1 surgeon. Patient satisfaction, expressed with respect to desired cosmetic benefit and functional outcome, and physician assessment, based on aesthetic improvement, technical considerations, and complications, were evaluated. Results were assessed according to the follow-up notes in the medical chart reflecting patients' and surgeon's comments and full preoperative and postoperative photographic documentation. GORE-TEX alloplasts, 1 to 10 mm thick, implanted in the nasal dorsum (n = 264), lateral nasal wall (n = 252), supratip dorsum (n = 85), and premaxilla (n = 84) showed excellent stability and tissue tolerance. Biological complications that required implant removal occurred in 1.9% of patients and included infection, soft tissue swelling, migration, and extrusion. With the exception of the nasal tip, columella, or problems in which corrections would require rigidity of the grafted or implanted material, the GORE-TEX alloplast is a safe, inexpensive, and predictable alternative to autografts. In the present series, more than 95% of implants used were 1 to 4 mm thick. In the remaining 5%, 6 implants ranged from 8 to 10 mm thick, and we found them acceptable. It is our opinion that for both primary and secondary rhinoplasty with adequate endonasal and external soft tissue coverage, GORE-TEX should be strongly considered for major and minor corrections of the nasal wall and bridge in properly selected patients.

  17. Normative values for mandibular mobility in Scandinavian individuals 4-17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Stoustrup, P; Kristensen, K D; Küseler, A; Herlin, T; Pedersen, T K

    2016-08-01

    Assessment of mandibular mobility is an important part of the clinical oro-facial examination of paediatric and adolescent patients. The aims of the present cross-sectional study were to establish age-related normative values for mandibular mobility in a Scandinavian paediatric and adolescent cohort and to assess the validity of universal cut-off values for lower 'normal' mandibular ranges of motion. A total of 1114 Danish individuals between 4-17 years of age were included. Maximal mouth opening capacity and laterotrusion capacity were assessed, in each individual, according to a standardised measurement protocol. The mean maximal mouth opening capacity gradually increased from 38 mm (SD 6·1 mm) at age 4 to 54·5 mm (SD 6·8 mm) at age 17. No inter-gender difference in maximal mouth opening capacity was observed (P > 0·15). The mean maximal laterotrusion capacity gradually increased from 7·4 mm (SD. 1·1 mm) at age four to 10·1 mm (SD 1·9 mm) at age 17. A statistical significant inter-gender difference of 0·8 mm (SD 0·4 mm) was observed in relation to the total laterotrusion capacity; however, the clinical relevance of this significant difference is questionable. Normative values of mandibular function was established in individuals 4-17 years of age. Our findings oppose the use of a single universal cut-off value for 'normal' range of motion in paediatric and adolescent patients. Instead, we recommend to use the age-related normative values of mandibular range of motion as basis for the assessment of the development of oro-facial function.

  18. Medical examination of Israeli 17-year-olds before military service as a national resource for health information.

    PubMed

    Kark, J D; Kedem, R; Revach, M

    1986-01-01

    At age 17 years Israelis undergo medical examination for the purpose of health classification for military service. The potential use of this extensive data collection system for epidemiologic studies is illustrated for selected conditions. Trends in diagnosed disorders over a 25-year period are exemplified in the changing prevalence of tuberculosis, bronchial asthma, diabetes, epilepsy and heart defects. Within birth cohorts, cross-sectional analyses of height, body mass, blood pressure and disorders--such as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, diabetes, psychiatric diagnoses and such genetic conditions as familial Mediterranean fever--point to clear ethnic differences. Educational level is strongly associated with measures of health status. Potential uses of this resource include: detecting groups in need of preventive, curative and rehabilitative care, assessing changing needs and priorities of health care, evaluation of intervention programs and health services provided in childhood, a wide spectrum of etiologic studies including assessment of health effects of social change, follow-up studies including the natural history of disorders, and developing data systems such as national registries of rare or important conditions. Issues relating to data reliability and validity, changing disease classification and nonexamination of groups exempted from military service limit interpretation of findings and restrict uses of this resource. Emphasis on standardization of data collection and diagnostic criteria, quality assurance and improved data management will be necessary.

  19. Trajectories of suicidal ideation and posttraumatic stress symptoms among former prisoners of war: a 17-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zerach, Gadi; Levi-Belz, Yossi; Solomon, Zahava

    2014-02-01

    War captivity is one of the most severe human-inflicted traumatic experiences with wide and substantial long-term negative effects. However, only one retrospective study examined suicidal ideation (SI) among ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs). This study aimed to prospectively assess SI among ex-POWs and its associations with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms over a 17-year period. Two groups of male Israeli veterans from the 1973 Yom Kippur War were examined: ex-POWs and comparable veterans who were not taken captive. Both groups were assessed via self-report measures of SI and PTSD symptoms at three time points: T1 18 (1991), T2 30 (2003), and T3 35 (2008) years after the war. Latent growth curve modeling (LGM) results showed that ex-POWs reported higher levels of SI at T2 and T3 and a pattern of increase in SI levels trajectory over time, compared to control veterans. Furthermore, among ex-POWs, PTSD symptoms at T1 contributed to the increase in rate of change in SI overtime. In addition, PTSD symptoms affected SI at the same measurement, above and beyond above the trajectories of SI. Clinical implications of these findings for the relations between captivity trauma and suicidality are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Eavesdropping to Find Mates: The Function of Male Hearing for a Cicada-Hunting Parasitoid Fly, Emblemasoma erro (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    PubMed Central

    Stucky, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Females of several species of dipteran parasitoids use long-range hearing to locate hosts for their offspring by eavesdropping on the acoustic mating calls of other insects. Males of these acoustic eavesdropping parasitoids also have physiologically functional ears, but so far, no adaptive function for male hearing has been discovered. I investigated the function of male hearing for the sarcophagid fly Emblemasoma erro Aldrich, an acoustic parasitoid of cicadas, by testing the hypothesis that both male and female E. erro use hearing to locate potential mates. I found that both male and nongravid female E. erro perform phonotaxis to the sounds of calling cicadas, that male flies engage in short-range, mate-finding behavior once they arrive at a sound source, and that encounters between females and males at a sound source can lead to copulation. Thus, cicada calling songs appear to serve as a mate-finding cue for both sexes of E. erro. Emblemasoma erro’s mate-finding behavior is compared to that of other sarcophagid flies, other acoustic parasitoids, and nonacoustic eavesdropping parasitoids. PMID:27382133

  1. Eavesdropping to Find Mates: The Function of Male Hearing for a Cicada-Hunting Parasitoid Fly, Emblemasoma erro (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    PubMed

    Stucky, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    Females of several species of dipteran parasitoids use long-range hearing to locate hosts for their offspring by eavesdropping on the acoustic mating calls of other insects. Males of these acoustic eavesdropping parasitoids also have physiologically functional ears, but so far, no adaptive function for male hearing has been discovered. I investigated the function of male hearing for the sarcophagid fly Emblemasoma erro Aldrich, an acoustic parasitoid of cicadas, by testing the hypothesis that both male and female E. erro use hearing to locate potential mates. I found that both male and nongravid female E. erro perform phonotaxis to the sounds of calling cicadas, that male flies engage in short-range, mate-finding behavior once they arrive at a sound source, and that encounters between females and males at a sound source can lead to copulation. Thus, cicada calling songs appear to serve as a mate-finding cue for both sexes of E. erro Emblemasoma erro's mate-finding behavior is compared to that of other sarcophagid flies, other acoustic parasitoids, and nonacoustic eavesdropping parasitoids. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  2. Normal standards of eye projection in Turkish children 6 to 17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kara, Turgay; Kurtoglu, Selim; Mazicioglu, M Mumtaz; Ozturk, Ahmet; Ozdoğru, Mehtap; Ustunbas, Hasan Basri

    2010-12-01

    There are a few international and Turkish reports on children's eye projection references. This is a cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the second study of the Determination of Anthropometric Measurements of Turkish Children and Adolescents study group (DAMTCA II).The study population was 4,533 primary and secondary school students aged 6 to 18 years (2,512 girls, 2,021 boys). A Hertel exophthalmometer was used; age- and gender-specific means and standard deviations and percentiles were calculated for eye projection. The 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 80th, 85th, 90th, 95th, and 97th percentiles of right and left eye projection, and the mean and standard deviation for each age and gender were calculated. In 6-year-old children, the smoothed eye projection of the 3rd-97th percentiles for the right and left eye in boys were detected as 11.2 mm-17.0 mm for right eye and 11.1 mm-17.0 mm for left eye. In 17-year-old male adolescents, the 3rd-97th percentiles were detected as 11.9 mm-19.5 mm for the right eye and 11.8 mm-19.2 mm for the left eye. The 3rd-97th percentiles in 6-year-old girls were detected as 11.1 mm-17.1 mm for the right eye and 10.9 mm-17.1 mm for the left eye. In 17-year-old girls, the 3rd-97th percentiles were detected as 11.7 mm-19.4 mm for the right eye and 11.8-19.2 mm for the left eye. Age- and gender-specific references for exophthalmos provide important information both for the clinical decision-making process, and screening in the diagnosis of abnormal or pathological conditions which result in exophthalmos.

  3. Hepatitis B vaccination among adolescents 13-17 years, United States, 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng-jun; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; O'Halloran, Alissa; Elam-Evans, Laurie; Greby, Stacie M; Singleton, James A; Murphy, Trudy V

    2015-04-08

    Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent HBV infection. Routine HepB vaccination was recommended for infants in 1991 and catch-up vaccination has been recommended for adolescents since in 1995. The purpose of this study is to assess HepB vaccination among adolescents 13-17 years. The 2006-2012 NIS-Teen were analyzed. Vaccination trends and coverage by birth cohort among adolescents were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive marginal models are used to identify factors independently associated with HepB vaccination. HepB vaccination coverage increased from 81.3% in 2006 to 92.8% in 2012. Coverage varied by birth cohort and 79-83% received vaccination before 2 years of age for those who were born during 1995 and 1999. Among those who had not received vaccination by 11 years of age, for the 1993-1995 birth cohorts, 9-15% were vaccinated during ages 11-12 years, and 27-37% had been vaccinated through age 16 years. Coverage among adolescents 13-17 years in 2012 ranged by state from 84.4% in West Virginia to 98.7% in Florida (median 93.3%). Characteristics independently associated with a higher likelihood of HepB vaccination included living more than 5 times above poverty level, living in Northeastern or Southern region of the United States, and having a mixed facility as their vaccination provider. Those with a hospital listed as their vaccination provider and those who did not have a well-child visit at age 11-12 years were independently associated with a lower likelihood of HepB vaccination. Efforts focused on groups with lower coverage may reduce disparities in coverage and prevent hepatitis B infection. Parents and providers should routinely review adolescent immunizations. Routine reminder/recall, expanded access in health care settings, and standing order programs should be incorporated into routine clinical care of adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Sexual behaviour and early coitarche in a national sample of 17 year old Swedish girls

    PubMed Central

    Edgardh, K.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate sexual behaviour in 17 year old girls, using data from a national survey on adolescent sexuality. Method: The study was based on two samples of 17 year olds, comprising 2% of the population born in 1973 and carried out in 1990. A school sample and a sample of school non-attenders were recruited in a two step procedure. Data were collected by anonymous self administered questionnaires. 2583 questionnaires were distributed. Response rates from students was 92%, for school non-attenders 44%. 1121 female students and 118 female school dropouts responded. Results: 64% of the student girls had experienced their first intercourse; 16% were "early starters" with coitarche before age 15. STD and pregnancy were reported by 15% of early starters and pregnancy by 14%, p<0.001 and 0.002 respectively when compared with later starters. The number of coital partners, experience of first date intercourse, and of oral and anal sex was higher in the early starters, p<0.001. Early starters reported menarche at age 11 or earlier more often than the later starters (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.48–3.56), as well as a perceived social age exceeding the chronological by 2 years (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.34–2.80). Sexual abuse was reported by 20% of the early and 11% of the later starters, p=0.002. Among school non-attenders no significant differences were found with regard to age for coitarche. A majority of 83% of the girls had experienced voluntary intercourse, and 49% were early starters. Five girls were mothers. STD was reported by 19% and induced abortion by 14%. Sexual abuse was alleged by 28%. Conclusion: Coitarche before age 15 is related to early menarche and high perceived social age. High number of partners and first date intercourse make early starters at increased risk for STD and unintended pregnancy. Sexual abuse is alleged more often by early starters. Key Words: adolescent sexuality; sex; coitarche; sexual behaviour; sexual abuse PMID:10858710

  5. Successful disc surgery after 17 years of erectile dysfunction caused by a "silent" disc protrusion.

    PubMed

    Orlin, Jan Roar; Klevmark, Bjørn

    2008-01-01

    A 35-year-old male with normal erectile function up until the age of 18 years subsequently suffered permanent erectile dysfunction for the next 17 years. At the age of 15 years he had fallen from a horse and landed on his buttocks. He also complained of slight voiding dysfunction. Uroflowmetry showed reduced flow, indicating a possible common neurogenic cause of the disturbed bladder function and erectile dysfunction. CT of the lumbar spine showed a large protrusion of the intervertebral disc L5-S1. After operative removal of the protrusion, a normal erection was achieved after 15 days and urine flow improved at 1 and 2 months and became normal after 3 months. Both erectile and bladder function continued to be normal 10 years later. Thus, the effects of long-lasting mechanical compression of parasympathetic nerves need not be irreversible. Uroflowmetry is also a test for neurogenic aetiology of erectile dysfunction, as bladder contractility and erection are both dependent upon parasympathetic innervation from the spinal segments S2-S4.

  6. MP3 player listening sound pressure levels among 10 to 17 year old students.

    PubMed

    Keith, Stephen E; Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Haider, Ifaz; Marro, Leonora; Thompson, Emma; Marcoux, Andre M

    2011-11-01

    Using a manikin, equivalent free-field sound pressure level measurements were made from the portable digital audio players of 219 subjects, aged 10 to 17 years (93 males) at their typical and "worst-case" volume levels. Measurements were made in different classrooms with background sound pressure levels between 40 and 52 dBA. After correction for the transfer function of the ear, the median equivalent free field sound pressure levels and interquartile ranges (IQR) at typical and worst-case volume settings were 68 dBA (IQR = 15) and 76 dBA (IQR = 19), respectively. Self-reported mean daily use ranged from 0.014 to 12 h. When typical sound pressure levels were considered in combination with the average daily duration of use, the median noise exposure level, Lex, was 56 dBA (IQR = 18) and 3.2% of subjects were estimated to exceed the most protective occupational noise exposure level limit in Canada, i.e., 85 dBA Lex. Under worst-case listening conditions, 77.6% of the sample was estimated to listen to their device at combinations of sound pressure levels and average daily durations for which there is no known risk of permanent noise-induced hearing loss, i.e., ≤  75 dBA Lex. Sources and magnitudes of measurement uncertainties are also discussed.

  7. Bacterial Community Structure after a 17-year Reciprocal Soil Transplant Simulating Climate Change with Elevation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, V. L.; McCue, L.; Fansler, S.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Hess, N. J.; Smith, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    In 1994, a reciprocal soil transplant experiment was initiated between two elevations (310 m, warmer and drier, and 844 m, cooler and wetter) on Rattlesnake Mountain in southeastern Washington, USA. In March 2012 we resampled the original transplanted soils, control cores transplanted in situ, and native soils from each elevation, to study longer-term changes in microbial community composition, soil C and N dynamics, and soil physical structure. Our studies of these soils suggested that climate change has significantly altered the C dynamics in these soils, and that even after 17 years of adaptation, the soil microbial communities have not recovered to a condition similar to their new environment. To more thoroughly define the response of the native bacterial communities to this long-term transplant, we sequenced the V4 region of the 16S genes for all the treatments in this study, broken into 0-5, 5-10, and 10-15-cm depth intervals. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analyses of the sequence data reveal a strong surface influence, with some separation of the 5-10 and 10-15-cm depths. We are investigating these data, and companion metagenomic data, for signatures of the bacterial community's response to simulated climate change.

  8. Absence of Exertional Hyperthermia in a 17 Year Old with Severe Burns

    PubMed Central

    McEntire, Serina J.; Lee, Jong O.; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective An important safety concern when exercising burned patients is the potential for an excessive increase in core body temperature (hyperthermia = body core temperature > 39°C) during exercise. Methods We examined the thermoregulatory response to exercise in the heat (31°C, relative humidity 40%) in a 17 year old with a 99% total body surface area burn. A 30 minute exercise test was performed at an intensity of 75% of his peak aerobic capacity. Intestinal temperature was assessed via telemetry with an ingestible capsule. Intestinal temperature was measured pre-exercise, during, and post-exercise. Results The patient completed 12 minutes of the 30 minute exercise test. Starting core temperature was 36.98 °C and increased 0.69 °C during exercise. After excercise, intestinal temperature continued to increase, but no hyperthermia was noted. Conclusion It has been reported that burned children can safely exercise at room temperature, however, the response in the heat is unknown. This patient did not develop exertional hyperthermia, which we propose is due to his low fitness level and heat intolerance. However, the potential for hyperthermia would be increased if he were forced to maintain a high relative workload in the heat. We propose that severely burned individuals should be able to safely participate in physical activities. However, the decision to stop exercising should be accepted to avoid development of exertional hyperthermia. PMID:19506510

  9. Parental Characteristics Associated With Bullying Perpetration in US Children Aged 10 to 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Rosa M.; Flores, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We identified factors associated with child bullying in the United States. Methods. We used the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health to examine associations among child, parent, and community factors and bullying perpetration among children aged 10 to 17 years, using bivariate and stepwise multivariable analyses. Results. African American and Latino children and children living in poverty and who had emotional, developmental, or behavioral (EDB) problems had higher odds of bullying, as did children of parents who felt angry with their child or who felt their child bothered them a lot or was hard to care for; suboptimal maternal mental health was associated with higher bullying odds. Children who always or usually completed homework and had parents who talked with them and met all or most of their friends had lower bullying odds. Conclusions. Assessing children’s EDB problems, maternal mental health, and parental perceptions may identify children at risk for bullying. Parent–child communication, meeting children’s friends, and encouraging children academically were associated with lower bullying odds; these protective factors may be useful in designing preventive interventions. PMID:23078471

  10. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in a 17-year old boy: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Guzmán, C.; Barrera-Rodríguez, R.; Portilla-Segura, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare, invasive and often fatal neoplasm that develops in the thin layer of tissue surrounding the lungs known as the pleura. Although rare, mesotheliomas do occur in the young; their characteristics are distinct from those of older patients. Case presentation This is a case report of a 17-year-old boy who had moderate dyspnea, cough, right-sided pleuritic chest pain, fever, headache and no weight loss. Physical examination showed a right pleural effusion and chest roentgenograms revealed a homogenous opacity on lower right hemithorax. Biochemical analysis of pleural fluid showed hemorrhagic/turbid effusion compatible with exudate. It was initially treated as an empyema. The pleural fluid culture was negative. Adenosine deaminase level was 34.3 U/L (admission) and 19.02 U/L (two weeks after). Pleural fluid smear and culture for Mtb were negative. During the open pleural biopsy, thickened pleura and multiple pale yellow nodules in the lung were observed. The histopathological report was compatible with malignant pleural mesothelioma. With this diagnosis, a chemotherapy regimen with cisplatin was initiated. After two cycles, the patient had no clinical and radiological improvement. The patient is currently under regular follow up. Conclusion MPM is rare in young adults and its clinical presentation makes it different from mesothelioma in elderly patients, so it will be necessary to identify the new risk factors that can identify these patients. PMID:27222787

  11. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in a 17-year old boy: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Guzmán, C; Barrera-Rodríguez, R; Portilla-Segura, J

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare, invasive and often fatal neoplasm that develops in the thin layer of tissue surrounding the lungs known as the pleura. Although rare, mesotheliomas do occur in the young; their characteristics are distinct from those of older patients. This is a case report of a 17-year-old boy who had moderate dyspnea, cough, right-sided pleuritic chest pain, fever, headache and no weight loss. Physical examination showed a right pleural effusion and chest roentgenograms revealed a homogenous opacity on lower right hemithorax. Biochemical analysis of pleural fluid showed hemorrhagic/turbid effusion compatible with exudate. It was initially treated as an empyema. The pleural fluid culture was negative. Adenosine deaminase level was 34.3 U/L (admission) and 19.02 U/L (two weeks after). Pleural fluid smear and culture for Mtb were negative. During the open pleural biopsy, thickened pleura and multiple pale yellow nodules in the lung were observed. The histopathological report was compatible with malignant pleural mesothelioma. With this diagnosis, a chemotherapy regimen with cisplatin was initiated. After two cycles, the patient had no clinical and radiological improvement. The patient is currently under regular follow up. MPM is rare in young adults and its clinical presentation makes it different from mesothelioma in elderly patients, so it will be necessary to identify the new risk factors that can identify these patients.

  12. Glanzmann thrombasthenia in a 17-year-old Peruvian Paso mare.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Macarena G; Wills, Tamara B; Christopherson, Peter; Hines, Melissa T

    2011-03-01

    A 17-year-old Peruvian Paso mare was evaluated for bilateral epistaxis that had been present for at least 3 years. The mare had mild anemia, platelet count within the reference interval, unremarkable coagulation times, and a negative Coggins test. On endoscopic examination, structural abnormalities were not observed in the nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, or either guttural pouch, but petechiation was noted in the nasal mucosa. Additional tests revealed prolonged cutaneous bleeding time, normal concentration of von Willebrand factor antigen, an abnormal clot retraction test, and failure of plalelet aggregation in response to agonists, suggesting a functional disorder of platelets. Genetic analysis indicated the horse was homozygous for a 10-base-pair deletion that included the last 3 base pairs of exon 11 and the first 7 base pairs of intron 11 of the gene encoding glycoprotein IIb. The diagnosis was Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) caused by a structural defect in glycoprotein IIb. GT is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex on platelet surfaces. Separate genes encode each glycoprotein, and mutations in either gene can result in GT. This case of GT is unique given the age of the mare at the time of diagnosis. We conclude that GT, although an inherited disorder, should be considered in horses with suspected dysfunctional platelets, regardless of age. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. A 17-Year-Old With Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Band, Molly E; Sheldon, Candice; Brancato, John; Parikh, Nehal S; D'Alessandri-Silva, Cynthia

    2016-05-01

    A 17-year-old girl presented with facial swelling and shortness of breath to an outside emergency department. She was treated for an allergic reaction with steroids and antihistamines, and discharged from the hospital. Subsequently, she was referred as an outpatient to pediatric nephrology for recurrent edema and proteinuria. Initial laboratory workup by nephrology was significant for a normal complete blood count and reassuring electrolyte panel. Pertinent laboratories were a creatinine of 0.5 mg/dL (0.4-1.1 mg/dL) and an albumin 2.3 g/dL (3.5-5.0 g/dL). The urine protein-to-creatinine ratio was >7 (<0.2). A renal ultrasound showed symmetrically sized kidneys with normal echotexture. The patient's renal biopsy results were consistent with minimal change disease. Based on the biopsy results, prednisone was started. Due to a poor response to prednisone, an alternate immunomodulator therapy was selected. Her subsequent complete blood counts showed a downward trend of all cell lines and an elevated serum uric acid. Concurrently, she reported worsening fatigue, low back pain, nausea, vomiting, night sweats, and pruritus. More details of her case and the outcome are presented.

  14. Doxylamine pharmacokinetics following single dose oral administration in children ages 2-17 years.

    PubMed

    Balan, Guhan; Thompson, Gary A; Gibb, Roger; Li, Lijuan; Hull, David; Seeck, Molly

    2013-11-01

    To characterize doxylamine pharmacokinetics in children. This study was conducted in 41 subjects, ages 2-17 years. Doxylamine succinate doses based on age/weight ranged from 3.125 to 12.5 mg. A single oral dose was administered with 2 to 4 oz. of water or decaffeinated beverages ∼2 hours after a light breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 72 hours after dosing and analyzed for doxylamine using HPLC MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental methods and relationships with age were assessed using linear regression. Over the fourfold dose range, Cmax was similar while AUC increased only 60%, although not statistically significant (P-value = 0.0517). As expected due to increasing body size, CLo and Vz /F increased with age. Due to a similar increase with age for Clo and Vz /F, no age-related differences in t1/2,z were observed (∼16 hours). Allometric scaling indicated no maturation related changes in CLo ; although Vz /F remained age-dependent, the predicted range decreased ∼70%. Overall, the single doses were well tolerated. Somnolence was the most common reported AE with no apparent differences in incidence noted with age. An age/weight dosing nomogram utilizing a fourfold range of doses achieves similar Cmax , whereas AUC increases only 60%.

  15. Detection of non-polio enteroviruses from 17 years of virological surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Apostol, Lea Necitas; Suzuki, Akira; Bautista, Analisa; Galang, Hazel; Paladin, Fem Julia; Fuji, Naoko; Lupisan, Socorro; Olveda, Remigio; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-04-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance has been conducted as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) strategy on poliomyelitis eradication. Aside from poliovirus, which is the target pathogen, isolation, and identification of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) is also done by neutralization test using pools of antisera which can only identify limited number of NPEVs. In the Philippines, despite the significant number of isolated NPEVs, no information is available with regard to its occurrence, diversity, and pattern of circulation. In this study, a total of 790 NPEVs isolated from stool samples submitted to the National Reference Laboratory from 1992 to 2008 were analyzed; neutralization test was able to type 55% (442) of the isolates. Of the remaining 356 isolates, which were untyped by using neutralization test, 348 isolates were analyzed further by RT-PCR targeting the VP1 gene. A total of 47 serotypes of NPEV strains were identified using neutralization test and molecular typing, including 28 serotypes of human enterovirus B (HEV-B), 12 serotypes of HEV-A, and 7 of HEV-C. The HEV-B group (625/790; 79%) constituted the largest proportion of isolates, followed by HEV-C (108/790; 13.7%), HEV-A (57/790; 7.2%), and no HEV-D. Coxsackievirus (CV) B, echovirus (E)6, E11, and E13 were the most frequent isolates. E6, E11, E13, E14, E25, E30, E33, CVA20, and CVA24 were considered as endemic strains, some NPEVs recurred and few serotypes existed only for 1-3 years during the study period. Despite some limitations in this study, plural NPEVs with multiple patterns of circulation in the Philippines for 17 years were identified. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Detection of Non-Polio Enteroviruses From 17 Years of Virological Surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Apostol, Lea Necitas; Suzuki, Akira; Bautista, Analisa; Galang, Hazel; Paladin, Fem Julia; Fuji, Naoko; Lupisan, Socorro; Olveda, Remigio; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance has been conducted as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) strategy on poliomyelitis eradication. Aside from poliovirus, which is the target pathogen, isolation, and identification of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) is also done by neutralization test using pools of antisera which can only identify limited number of NPEVs. In the Philippines, despite the significant number of isolated NPEVs, no information is available with regard to its occurrence, diversity, and pattern of circulation. In this study, a total of 790 NPEVs isolated from stool samples submitted to the National Reference Laboratory from 1992 to 2008 were analyzed; neutralization test was able to type 55% (442) of the isolates. Of the remaining 356 isolates, which were untyped by using neutralization test, 348 isolates were analyzed further by RT-PCR targeting the VP1 gene. A total of 47 serotypes of NPEV strains were identified using neutralization test and molecular typing, including 28 serotypes of human enterovirus B (HEV-B), 12 serotypes of HEV-A, and 7 of HEV-C. The HEV-B group (625/790; 79%) constituted the largest proportion of isolates, followed by HEV-C (108/790; 13.7%), HEV-A (57/790; 7.2%), and no HEV-D. Coxsackievirus (CV) B, echovirus (E)6, E11, and E13 were the most frequent isolates. E6, E11, E13, E14, E25, E30, E33, CVA20, and CVA24 were considered as endemic strains, some NPEVs recurred and few serotypes existed only for 1–3 years during the study period. Despite some limitations in this study, plural NPEVs with multiple patterns of circulation in the Philippines for 17 years were identified. J. Med. Virol. 84:624–631, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22337302

  17. The cicadas of Argentina with new records, a new genus and fifteen new species (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Sanborn, Allen F; Heath, Maxine S

    2014-10-11

    The Argentine cicada fauna is determined. A total of 108 species belonging to 37 genera, eight tribes, and three subfamilies of cicadas are represented in the Argentine cicada fauna. One genus and 15 species are described as new to science: Torresia Sanborn & Heath gen. n., Fidicinoides ferruginosa Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Proarna alalonga Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Proarna parva Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Prasinosoma medialinea Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Dorisiana noriegai Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Guyalna platyrhina Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Herrera humilastrata Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Herrera umbraphila Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Parnisa lineaviridia Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Parnisa viridis Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Alarcta micromacula Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Torresia lariojaensis Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Torresia sanjuanensis Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Chonosia longiopercula Sanborn & Heath sp. n., and Chonosia septentrionala Sanborn & Heath sp. n. Adusella signata Haupt, 1918 rev. stat. is determined to be a valid species, removed as a junior synonym of Tettigades lebruni Distant, 1906 and reassigned to the genus Odopoea Distant to become Odopoea signata comb. n. Fidicina vinula Stål, 1854 rev. stat. is determined to be a valid species, removed as a junior synonym of Fidicinoides pronoe (Walker, 1850) and assigned to the genus Fidicinoides Boulard & Martinelli to become Fidicinoides vinula comb. n. Proarna capistrata Distant, 1885 rev. stat. is determined to be a valid species, removed as a junior synonym of Proarna montividensis Berg, 1882. Chonosia papa (Berg, 1882) rev. stat. is determined to be a valid species and removed as a junior synonym of Chonosia crassipennis (Walker, 1858). Chonosia crassipennis var. metequei nom. nud. Delétang, 1919 syn. n. is considered natural variation in C. crassipennis. Dorisia bonaerensis var. bergi nom. nud. Delétang, 1919 syn. n. and Dorisia bonaerensis var. dominiquei nom. nud. Delétang, 1919 syn. n. are considered to be natural variation

  18. A Blast from the Past: Community Scale Impacts of Explosives Contaminated Soils after 17 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Via, S. M.; Zinnert, J.; Young, D.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenically contaminated soils pose a significant threat to biota across the world. Much of the literature on explosives contaminated soils has focused on individual or species level impacts while the larger plant community is often ignored. Our goal was to fill that gap and investigate impacts on community structure and diversity in an area contaminated with three common explosive compounds (RDX, TNT, Composition B). Community data were collected from an experimental minefield that was cleared 17 years ago, seeded with a surveyed grid of explosive compounds, and allowed to naturally revegetate. Plots within contaminated and reference sites were established. Woody and herbaceous species composition was recorded and species diversity and richness were calculated. Species composition and functional type data were analyzed using cluster analyses, multi-response permutation procedure analyses (MRPP), and detrended correspondence analyses (DCA) to investigate separation of the treatment groups. Classical diversity metrics were similar across treatments; however, cluster analyses and MRPP revealed significant differences in species and functional type composition. DCA of species composition showed no separation of treatment groups while DCA of functional traits showed that the TNT and Comp B plots contained a narrower range of functional traits, primarily due to life history and leaf characteristics, which differentiated them from the other treatment groups;. Differences between reference and contaminant sites in species composition and traits suggests that the presence of soil contaminants act as a physiological filter controlling which plant species establish and prosper. This in turn may have long lasting and significant impacts on the overall community composition and structure. Further research is needed to fully understand the community and ecosystem scale impacts of such contaminants.

  19. Soil Respiration and Bacterial Structure and Function after 17 Years of a Reciprocal Soil Transplant Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Bolton, Harvey; Fansler, Sarah; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Liu, Chongxuan; McCue, Lee Ann; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on soil organic matter—its structure, microbial community, carbon storage, and respiration response—remain uncertain and widely debated. In addition, the effects of climate changes on ecosystem structure and function are often modulated or delayed, meaning that short-term experiments are not sufficient to characterize ecosystem responses. This study capitalized on a long-term reciprocal soil transplant experiment to examine the response of dryland soils to climate change. The two transplant sites were separated by 500 m of elevation on the same mountain slope in eastern Washington state, USA, and had similar plant species and soil types. We resampled the original 1994 soil transplants and controls, measuring CO2 production, temperature response, enzyme activity, and bacterial community structure after 17 years. Over a laboratory incubation of 100 days, reciprocally transplanted soils respired roughly equal cumulative amounts of carbon as non-transplanted controls from the same site. Soils transplanted from the hot, dry, lower site to the cooler and wetter (difference of -5°C monthly maximum air temperature, +50 mm yr-1 precipitation) upper site exhibited almost no respiratory response to temperature (Q10 of 1.1), but soils originally from the upper, cooler site had generally higher respiration rates. The bacterial community structure of transplants did not differ significantly from that of untransplanted controls, however. Slight differences in local climate between the upper and lower Rattlesnake locations, simulated with environmental control chambers during the incubation, thus prompted significant differences in microbial activity, with no observed change to bacterial structure. These results support the idea that environmental shifts can influence soil C through metabolic changes, and suggest that microbial populations responsible for soil heterotrophic respiration may be constrained in surprising ways, even as shorter- and

  20. Soil respiration and bacterial structure and function after 17 years of a reciprocal soil transplant experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Bolton, Harvey; Fansler, Sarah J.; ...

    2016-03-02

    The effects of climate change on soil organic matter—its structure, microbial community, carbon storage, and respiration response—remain uncertain and widely debated. In addition, the effects of climate changes on ecosystem structure and function are often modulated or delayed, meaning that short-term experiments are not sufficient to characterize ecosystem responses. This study capitalized on a long-term reciprocal soil transplant experiment to examine the response of dryland soils to climate change. The two transplant sites were separated by 500 m of elevation on the same mountain slope in eastern Washington state, USA, and had similar plant species and soil types. We resampledmore » the original 1994 soil transplants and controls, measuring CO2 production, temperature response, enzyme activity, and bacterial community structure after 17 years. Over a laboratory incubation of 100 days, reciprocally transplanted soils respired roughly equal cumulative amounts of carbon as non-transplanted controls from the same site. Soils transplanted from the hot, dry, lower site to the cooler and wetter (difference of -5 °C monthly maximum air temperature, +50 mm yr-1precipitation) upper site exhibited almost no respiratory response to temperature (Q10 of 1.1), but soils originally from the upper, cooler site had generally higher respiration rates. The bacterial community structure of transplants did not differ significantly from that of untransplanted controls, however. Slight differences in local climate between the upper and lower Rattlesnake locations, simulated with environmental control chambers during the incubation, thus prompted significant differences in microbial activity, with no observed change to bacterial structure. Lastly, these results support the idea that environmental shifts can influence soil C through metabolic changes, and suggest that microbial populations responsible for soil heterotrophic respiration may be constrained in surprising ways, even

  1. Soil respiration and bacterial structure and function after 17 years of a reciprocal soil transplant experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Bolton, Harvey; Fansler, Sarah J.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Liu, Chongxuan; McCue, Lee Ann; Smith, Jeff L.; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2016-03-02

    The effects of climate change on soil organic matter—its structure, microbial community, carbon storage, and respiration response—remain uncertain and widely debated. In addition, the effects of climate changes on ecosystem structure and function are often modulated or delayed, meaning that short-term experiments are not sufficient to characterize ecosystem responses. This study capitalized on a long-term reciprocal soil transplant experiment to examine the response of dryland soils to climate change. The two transplant sites were separated by 500 m of elevation on the same mountain slope in eastern Washington state, USA, and had similar plant species and soil types. We resampled the original 1994 soil transplants and controls, measuring CO2 production, temperature response, enzyme activity, and bacterial community structure after 17 years. Over a laboratory incubation of 100 days, reciprocally transplanted soils respired roughly equal cumulative amounts of carbon as non-transplanted controls from the same site. Soils transplanted from the hot, dry, lower site to the cooler and wetter (difference of -5 °C monthly maximum air temperature, +50 mm yr-1precipitation) upper site exhibited almost no respiratory response to temperature (Q10 of 1.1), but soils originally from the upper, cooler site had generally higher respiration rates. The bacterial community structure of transplants did not differ significantly from that of untransplanted controls, however. Slight differences in local climate between the upper and lower Rattlesnake locations, simulated with environmental control chambers during the incubation, thus prompted significant differences in microbial activity, with no observed change to bacterial structure. Lastly, these results support the idea that environmental shifts can influence soil C through metabolic changes, and suggest that microbial populations responsible for soil heterotrophic respiration may be constrained in

  2. Amplitude of accommodation in an 11- to 17-year-old Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Hassan; Nabovati, Payam; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Forouzesh, Samira; Yazdani, Negareh; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    The aim was to determine normal values of accommodative amplitude (AA) during adolescence in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, sampling was done from high school students in Kermanshah in 2015 through a multi-stage cluster sampling method and selected students were invited to participate in the study. Examinations were performed on-site at each sampled high school. All students had visual acuity and refractive examination followed by measurement of AA. Accommodative amplitude was tested with Donder's push-up method using a Royal Air Force (RAF) near point rule. Of the 1,070 selected students, 901 were included in the study and their mean age was 14.4 ± 1.7 years. Mean AA in this study was 11.53 ± 3.02 D (range: 5.00-28.50 D). Mean AA was 15.33 D in 11-year-olds and significantly decreased with age, until it reached 10.40 D in the 17-year-old age group. Mean AA in boys and girls were 10.09 ± 2.48 D and 11.65 ± 3.03 D, respectively. Based on the multiple linear regression model, younger age (coefficient = -0.774) and female gender (coefficient = 1.060) significantly associated with AA. This study showed that the AA in Iranian teenagers is lower than that calculated with Hofstetter's formula. It is important to take account of this point when making diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  3. Gang membership between ages 5 and 17 years in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pyrooz, David C; Sweeten, Gary

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the frequency, prevalence, and turnover in gang membership between ages 5 and 17 years in the United States. Data were from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, which is representative of youth born between 1980 and 1984. Age-specific patterns of gang joining, participation, and leaving are estimated based on youths (N = 7,335) self-reported gang membership at the baseline and eight subsequent interviews, which were combined with population age estimates from the 2010 U.S. Census to produce national estimates of gang membership. Sampling variance-adjusted bounds were estimated based on assumptions about missing cases and survey design effects. Demographic and socioeconomic variables are used to compare differences between gang and nongang youth. Youth gang members were disproportionately male, black, Hispanic, from single-parent households, and families living below the poverty level. We estimated that there were 1,059,000 youth gang members in the United States in 2010 (bounds ranging from 675,000 to 1,535,000). The prevalence of youth gang membership was 2.0% (1.2%-2.8%), peaking at age 14 years at 5.0% (3.9%-6.0%). Annually, 401,000 (204,000-639,000) juveniles join gangs and 378,000 (199,000-599,000) exit gangs, with a turnover rate of 36%. We discovered that significantly more people are involved with gangs than previous estimates would suggest. Clinicians and policy makers must recognize that youth gang members may not conform to popular perceptions of gang demographics. The patterns of youth gang membership observed in this study support prevention programs aimed at children before the teen years. This strategy is more likely to succeed than gang intervention or suppression strategies aimed at teens. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A 17-year-old male with a Small Bowel Neuroendocrine Tumor: flushing differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Forero Molina, Maria Alejandra; Garcia, Elizabeth; Gonzalez-Devia, Deyanira; García-Duperly, Rafael; Vera, Alonso

    2017-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are heterogeneous neoplasms that originate from cells with a secretory function. Small bowel NETs (SB-NETs) are related to serotonin hypersecretion which causes: flushing, diarrhea, abdominal pain, bronchoconstriction and heart involvement, also known as carcinoid syndrome (CS). CS can be confused with an allergic reaction and thus should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the allergy consult. We present the case of a pediatric patient initially referred under the suspicion of food allergies. We present the case of a 17-year-old male with evanescent non-pruriginous erythematous lesions- flushing that appeared with food consumption, associated with conjunctival injection, warmth and diaphoresis after the lesions disappeared. He denied abdominal pain, diarrhea, cough or wheezing. The 24-h urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) excretion was elevated. The CT scan showed thickening of the distal ileum and multiple lesions on both hepatic lobules and the colonoscopy revealed a tumor in the ileocecal valve. Hepatic and intestinal biopsies reported a well-differentiated NET of the ileocecal valve with hepatic metastasis. He was started on octreotide and underwent a wide hepatectomy and right hemicolectomy with improvement of symptoms. NETs can present as carcinoid syndrome (flushing, diarrhea, abdominal pain, wheezing), which constitutes vague symptomatology and represents a challenging diagnosis for physicians. They can be confused with an allergic reaction and the allergist should consider it as a differential diagnosis. Accurate diagnostic tests will help to diagnose NETs earlier and potentially prevent carcinoid heart disease, bowel obstruction, and improve quality of life and mortality in these patients.

  5. Soil Respiration and Bacterial Structure and Function after 17 Years of a Reciprocal Soil Transplant Experiment.

    PubMed

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Bolton, Harvey; Fansler, Sarah; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Liu, Chongxuan; McCue, Lee Ann; Smith, Jeffrey; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on soil organic matter-its structure, microbial community, carbon storage, and respiration response-remain uncertain and widely debated. In addition, the effects of climate changes on ecosystem structure and function are often modulated or delayed, meaning that short-term experiments are not sufficient to characterize ecosystem responses. This study capitalized on a long-term reciprocal soil transplant experiment to examine the response of dryland soils to climate change. The two transplant sites were separated by 500 m of elevation on the same mountain slope in eastern Washington state, USA, and had similar plant species and soil types. We resampled the original 1994 soil transplants and controls, measuring CO2 production, temperature response, enzyme activity, and bacterial community structure after 17 years. Over a laboratory incubation of 100 days, reciprocally transplanted soils respired roughly equal cumulative amounts of carbon as non-transplanted controls from the same site. Soils transplanted from the hot, dry, lower site to the cooler and wetter (difference of -5°C monthly maximum air temperature, +50 mm yr-1 precipitation) upper site exhibited almost no respiratory response to temperature (Q10 of 1.1), but soils originally from the upper, cooler site had generally higher respiration rates. The bacterial community structure of transplants did not differ significantly from that of untransplanted controls, however. Slight differences in local climate between the upper and lower Rattlesnake locations, simulated with environmental control chambers during the incubation, thus prompted significant differences in microbial activity, with no observed change to bacterial structure. These results support the idea that environmental shifts can influence soil C through metabolic changes, and suggest that microbial populations responsible for soil heterotrophic respiration may be constrained in surprising ways, even as shorter- and

  6. National and state vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years--United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-08-30

    At ages 11 through 12 years, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that preteens receive 1 dose of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, 1 dose of meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine, and 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit. ACIP also recommends that pre-teens and older adolescents receive an annual influenza vaccine as well as any overdue vaccines (e.g., varicella). To monitor vaccination coverage among persons aged 13-17 years, CDC analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen). This report highlights findings of that analysis. From 2011 to 2012, coverage increased for ≥1 Tdap vaccine dose (from 78.2% to 84.6%), ≥1 MenACWY vaccine dose (from 70.5% to 74.0%) and, among males, ≥1 HPV vaccine dose (from 8.3% to 20.8%). Among females, vaccination coverage estimates for each HPV vaccine series dose were similar in 2012 compared with 2011. Coverage varied substantially among states. Regarding Healthy People 2020 targets for adolescents, 36 states achieved targets for Tdap, 12 for MenACWY, and nine for varicella vaccine coverage. Large and increasing coverage differences between Tdap and other vaccines recommended for adolescents indicate that substantial missed opportunities remain for vaccinating teens, especially against HPV infection. Health-care providers should administer recommended HPV and meningococcal vaccinations to boys and girls during the same visits when Tdap vaccine is given. In addition, whether for health problems or well-checks, providers, parents, and adolescents should use every health-care visit as an opportunity to review adolescents' immunization histories and ensure that every adolescent is fully vaccinated.

  7. Gross morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of the mute cicada Karenia caelatata Distant (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hai-ying; Wei, Cong; Zhang, Ya-lin

    2013-02-01

    Salivary glands of the cicada Karenia caelatata Distant were investigated using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The salivary glands are paired structures and consist of principal glands and accessory glands. The principal gland is subdivided into anterior lobe and posterior lobe; the former contains about 34-39 long digitate lobules, while the latter contains approximately 30-33 long digitate lobules and 13-22 short digitate lobules. These short digitate lobules, about one fifth or sixth as long as the long digitate lobules, locate at the base of the long digitate lobules of posterior lobe. All of these digitate lobules vary in size, disposition, length and shape. The anterior lobe and the posterior lobe are connected by an anterior-posterior duct. Two efferent salivary ducts, which connect with the posterior lobe, fuse to form a common duct. The accessory gland is composed of three parts: a greatly tortuous and folded accessory salivary tube, a circlet of gular gland constituting of several acini of the same size, and a non-collapsible accessory salivary duct. The digitate lobules and gular glands possess secretory cells containing abundant secretory granules vary in size, shape, and electron density, as might indicate different materials are synthesized in different secretory regions. The anterior-posterior duct lines with a player of cuticular lining, and cells beneath the cuticular lining lack of basal infoldings, as suggests the duct serves just to transport secretions. The accessory salivary duct is lined with cuticular lining; cells of the duct have well developed basal infoldings associated with abundant mitochondria, as probably suggests the duct is a reabsorptive region of ions. The cells of the accessory salivary tube possess deep basal infoldings and well developed apical dense microvilli, indicating the cells of the tube are secretory in function. Concentric lamellar structures and a peculiar structure with abundant membrane

  8. The study and analysis of the mating behavior and sound production of male cicada Psalmocharias alhageos (Kol.) (Homoptera:Cicadidae) to make disruption in mating.

    PubMed

    Zamanian, H; Mehdipour, M; Ghaemi, N

    2008-09-01

    Psalmocharias alhageos is an important pest of vine in most parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, southern areas of Russia, Turkey and Iraq. This cicada is spread in most provinces in Iran such as Esfahan, Hamedan, Qazvin, Markazi, Lorestan, Qom, Kerman, Tehran and Kordestan. In addition to vine, this insect damages some other fruit trees, such as apple, sour cherry, quince, peach, pomegranate and pear trees and some non-fruit trees, namely white poplar, ash, elm, eglantine, silk and black poplar trees. The nymphs of cicada damage the trees by feeding on root, adult insects on young bud and by oviposition under branch barks. Nourishing root by nymph leads to the weakness of the tree and hinder its growth. The high density oviposition of adult insects inside young barks causes withering of branches. The resulted damage on vine products is 40% which is one of the most important factors in product reduction in vineyard. This research was conducted in Takestan in Qazvin. It was conducted for the first time to study the behaviors of the mates of this vine cicada in order to manage it. Two systems were used to record the sound of male cicada called analog voice-recorder and digital voice recorder. To analyze the recorded sound of the male cicada we used of spectrum analyzer, digital storage oscilloscope and protens 7 computer softwares. We could call the attention of natural enemies an disturb the male insect's attracting sound by producing natural and artificial sound in the range of 1-6 kHz in two different ripeness status of the fruits and could prevent mating and oviposition of female cicadas.

  9. Declining riverine sediment input impact on spring phytoplankton bloom off the Yangtze River Estuary from 17-year satellite observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Mao, Zhihua; Tang, Fuping; Han, Guoqi; Jiang, Yazhou

    2017-03-01

    Off the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent waters (the YRE) are one of the fastest changing regions in the world in terms of the effects of anthropogenic disturbance. Here we address quantitative analysis whether reducing river to sea sediment may cause declining water turbidity then a better light available condition for the algal growth, therefor increasing phytoplankton bloom magnitude in the YRE in the bloom season. An area of high phytoplankton productivity zone is estimated by theoretical and satellite data analysis, which matches well with the spatial distribution of accumulative times of the reported algal bloom events at the decadal time scale. We present 17-year (1998-2014) satellite and hydrological data to reveal an increasing trend in Chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a) in the spring bloom season (May to June), which has strong correlation with the decreasing in the sediment discharge from the Yangtze river to the East China Sea. Changes in Chl-a and the sediment load are inversely related in terms of both temporal variation and their corresponding magnitudes (R2=0.38, p=0.008, n=17). Furtherly, this relationship is not sensitivity to one-year time lag analysis. On the other hand, euphotic depth in the bloom period shows no significant change, which reflects a balance between the increasing phytoplankton biomass enhancing water turbidity and declining riverine sediment decreasing turbidity. Finally, a stepwise multiple linear regression is used to determine which of the five relatively independent environmental variables most significantly contribute to the interannual variability of the bloom magnitude. The most significant effect (p=0.00007) is also found in the riverine sediment load. Therefor, our results suggest that anthropogenic derived riverine sediment change has been significantly impacted spring phytoplankton production in the YRE.

  10. Impact of Louisiana's HPV Vaccine Awareness Policy on HPV Vaccination Among 13- to 17-Year-Old Females.

    PubMed

    Pierre-Victor, Dudith; Trepka, Mary Jo; Page, Timothy F; Li, Tan; Stephens, Dionne P; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2017-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends routine human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization for 11- to 12-year-old adolescents. In 2008, Louisiana required the school boards to distribute HPV vaccine information to parents or guardian of students in Grades 6 to 12. This article investigates the impact of this policy on HPV vaccination among 13- to 17-year-old female adolescents using National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) data. Drawing on the data from the 2008 to 2012 NIS-Teen, we compared the difference in proportions of females who have been vaccinated before and after the policy. Using difference-indifference estimation, we explored the change in vaccination rates before and after the policy implementation in Louisiana compared with Alabama and Mississippi, two states that did not have such a policy in place. The difference-in-differences estimates for HPV vaccination were not significant. Physician recommendation for HPV vaccination was significantly associated with vaccination among females in Louisiana and Alabama (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.74; 95% confidence interval [CI; 5.22, 11.5]), and for those in Louisiana and Mississippi (aOR = 7.05; 95% CI [4.6, 10.5]). Compared to the proportion of female adolescents who had received physician recommendation in Alabama or Mississippi, the proportion in Louisiana did not increase significantly in the postpolicy period. HPV vaccination rates did not increase significantly in Louisiana compared to Alabama or Mississippi following the implementation of the policy. Despite Louisiana's policy, physician recommendation remains the key determinant of HPV vaccination. HPV vaccine awareness does not necessarily result in HPV vaccination.

  11. Quantifying restoration success and recovery in a metal-polluted stream: A 17-year assessment of physicochemical and biological responses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clements, W.H.; Vieira, N.K.M.; Church, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness of stream restoration is often challenging because of the lack of pre-treatment data, narrow focus on physicochemical measures and insufficient post-restoration monitoring. Even when these fundamental elements are present, quantifying restoration success is difficult because of the challenges associated with distinguishing treatment effects from seasonal variation, episodic events and long-term climatic changes.2. We report results of one of the most comprehensive and continuous records of physical, chemical and biological data available to assess restoration success for a stream ecosystem in North America. Over a 17 year period we measured seasonal and annual changes in metal concentrations, physicochemical characteristics, macroinvertebrate communities, and brown trout Salmo trutta populations in the Arkansas River, a metal-contaminated stream in Colorado, USA.3. Although we observed significant improvements in water quality after treatment, the effectiveness of restoration varied temporally, spatially and among biological response variables. The fastest recovery was observed at stations where restoration eliminated point sources of metal contamination. Recovery of macroinvertebrates was significantly delayed at some stations because of residual sediment contamination and because extreme seasonal and episodic variation in metal concentrations prevented recolonization by sensitive species. Synthesis and applications. Because recovery trajectories after the removal of a stressor are often complex or nonlinear, long-term studies are necessary to assess restoration success within the context of episodic events and changes in regional climate. The observed variation in recovery among chemical and biological endpoints highlights the importance of developing objective criteria to assess restoration success. Although the rapid response of macroinvertebrates to reduced metal concentrations is encouraging, we have previously demonstrated that

  12. Molecular phylogenetics, diversification, and systematics of Tibicen Latreille 1825 and allied cicadas of the tribe Cryptotympanini, with three new genera and emphasis on species from the USA and Canada
    (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Hill, Kathy B R; Marshall, David C; Moulds, Maxwell S; Simon, Chris

    2015-07-10

    North America has a diverse cicada fauna with multiple genera from all three Cicadidae subfamilies, yet molecular phylogenetic analyses have been completed only for the well-studied periodical cicadas (Magicicada Davis). The genus Tibicen Latreille, a large group of charismatic species, is in need of such work because morphological patterns suggest multiple groups with complicated relationships to other genera in the tribe Cryptotympanini. In this paper we present a molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, of 35 of the 38 extant USA species and subspecies of the genus Tibicen together with their North American tribal allies (Cornuplura Davis, Cacama Davis), selected Tibicen species from Eurasia, and representatives of other Eurasian and Pacific cryptotympanine genera. This tree shows that Tibicen contains several well-supported clades, one predominating in eastern and central North America and related to Cryptotympana Stål and Raiateana Boulard, another in western North America related to Cacama and Cornuplura, and at least two clades in Eurasia. We also present a morphological cladistic analysis of Tibicen and its close allies based on 27 characters. Character states identified in the cladistic analysis define three new genera, two for North American taxa (Hadoa gen. n. and Neotibicen gen. n.) including several Mexican species, and one for Asian species (Subsolanus gen. n.). Using relaxed molecular clocks and literature-derived mtDNA rate estimates, we estimate the timeframe of diversification of Tibicen clades and find that intergeneric divergence has occurred since the late Eocene, with most extant species within the former Tibicen originating after the mid-Miocene. We review patterns of ecology, behavior, and geography among Tibicen clades in light of the phylogenetic results and note that the study of these insects is still in its early stages. Some Mexican species formerly placed in Tibicen are here transferred to Diceroprocta

  13. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years.

    PubMed

    Huijgen, Barbara C H; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p < .05). Using stepwise discriminant analysis, 62.5% of subjects was correctly assigned to one of the groups based on their metacognition, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility performance. Controlling for training hours and academic level, MANCOVA's showed differences in favor of the elite youth soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the "lower-level" cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal

  14. Reduced Microbial Resilience after a 17-Year Climate Gradient Transplant Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, V. L.; Fansler, S.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Liu, C.; Smith, J. L.; Bolton, H.

    2012-12-01

    that even after 17 years of adaptation, the soil microbial communities have not recovered to a condition similar to their new environment. These soils also appear to have lost some of their resilience to subsequent climate perturbations, raising more general questions of how current climate change will affect the capacity of soils to buffer against future, different perturbations.

  15. Body image of tall and medium girls aged 13-17 years.

    PubMed

    Głogowska, Joanna; Milde, Katarzyna; Stupnicki, Romuald

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent girls often experience difficulties in a rational perception of own body and consider attaining an "appropriate shape" as a key to success and happiness. Growth disorders, like e.g. very tall stature, may bring about stigmatising which, in turn, may decrease in such girls their self-esteem, especially in adolescence. Aim of the study was to assess the perceived body image of tall and medium-statured girls and to compare their self-rating with an external one. A group of 56 girls aged 13-17 years were classified into two categories of body height: medium stature, between Percentiles 40 and 60 (n=36) and tall, above Percentile 90 (n=20). Using a template containing 9 female body shapes, the girls indicated the shape they thought they had, the shape they wished to have, and an external rating was also made. Girls rated as shapes 1 or 2 were classified as thin, shapes 3 or 4 as medium and shape 5 or higher as robust. The data were related to the BMI values. Thin girls self-rated their body shapes and the desired ones significantly higher (p <0.05) compared with the external rating. In medium-shaped girls the same was true for self-rating, the desired shape being concordant with the external rating. In robust girls, the external and self-ratings were concordant, the desired shapes being significantly lower (p <0.05) but higher (p <0.05) in tall than in medium-height girls (5.0 and 3.9, respectively). Tall and medium girls did not differ significantly in BMI but a very high correlation (r=0.930; p <0.001) was found between the externally rated body shape and BMI in both groups of girls. The distorted perception of own body shape by adolescent girls may result from the specific ideals of feminine beauty and excessively slim silhouette insistently promoted by mass media and fashion designers. Popularisation of the results of this and similar studies may contribute to altering the respective attitudes of adolescent girls.

  16. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M.; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13–17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for “higher-level” cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). “Lower-level” cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA’s showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the “higher-level” cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p < .05). Using stepwise discriminant analysis, 62.5% of subjects was correctly assigned to one of the groups based on their metacognition, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility performance. Controlling for training hours and academic level, MANCOVA’s showed differences in favor of the elite youth soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the “lower-level” cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the

  17. Social jet lag, chronotype and body mass index in 14-17-year-old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Malone, Susan Kohl; Zemel, Babette; Compher, Charlene; Souders, Margaret; Chittams, Jesse; Thompson, Aleda Leis; Pack, Allan; Lipman, Terri H

    2016-08-11

    The relationship between sleep duration and obesity in adolescents is inconclusive. This may stem from a more complex relationship between sleep and obesity than previously considered. Shifts toward evening preferences, later sleep-wake times and irregular sleep-wake patterns are typical during adolescence but their relationship to body mass index (BMI) has been relatively unexplored. This cross-sectional study examined associations between sleep duration, midpoint of sleep and social jet lag (estimated from 7 days of continuous actigraphy monitoring), and morningness/eveningness with BMIs (BMI z-scores) and waist-to-height ratios in 14-17-year-old adolescents. Seventy participants were recruited from ninth and tenth grades at a public high school. Participants' characteristics were as follows: 74% female, 75% post-pubertal, 36% Hispanic, 38% White, 22% Black, 4% Asian and 64% free/reduced lunch participants with a mean age of 15.5 (SD, 0.7). Forty-one percent of the participants were obese (BMI ≥ 95th percentile); 54% were abdominally obese (waist-to-height ratio ≥ 0.5). Multivariable general linear models were used to estimate the association between the independent variables (school night sleep duration, free night sleep duration, midpoint of sleep (corrected), social jet lag and morningness/eveningness) and the dependent variables (BMI z-scores and waist-to-height ratios). Social jet lag is positively associated with BMI z-scores (p < 0.01) and waist-to-height ratios (p = 0.01). Midpoint of sleep (corrected) is positively associated with waist-to-height ratios (p = 0.01). After adjusting for social jet lag, school night sleep duration was not associated with waist-to-height ratios or BMI z-scores. Morningness/eveningness did not moderate the association between sleep duration and BMI z-scores. Findings from this study suggest that chronobiological approaches to preventing and treating obesity may be important for accelerating progress in reducing obesity

  18. Fibroadenoma in Axillary Supernumerary Breast in a 17-Year-Old Girl: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Surd, Adrian; Mironescu, Aurel; Gocan, Horatiu

    2016-10-01

    Supernumerary breast or polymastia is a well documented anomaly of the breast, and commonly presents along the embryonic milk line extending between the axilla and groin. However, cases of polymastia have been recorded in the face, vulva, and perineum. The clinical significance of these anomalies include their susceptibility to inflammatory and malignant changes, and their association with other congenital anomalies of the urinary and cardiovascular systems. In this article we report a case of fibroadenoma that developed in the supernumerary breast of the right axilla in a 17-year-old girl. It is uncommon to find such palpable masses in young patients. Clinical and sonographic examination of both breasts revealed no abnormalities and no lymph nodes were detected in the axillae or the neck. No associated urologic or cardiovascular abnormalities were found, and the histopathological examination of the excisional biopsy samples showed a well-defined, capsulated intracanalicular type of fibroadenoma similar to that of eutopic mammary tissue. In this report, we describe a rare case of fibroadenoma in an accessory breast in a young woman. There are a fewer than 40 reports in the world about this subject, of which differential diagnoses include: cancer in axillary supernumerary breast, hidradenitis, axillary lymphadenomegaly, lipomas, anexial cutaneous neoplasia, cysts, and phylloides tumor. The combination of clinical examination, ultrasound, and cytology leads to adequate treatment, especially surgical. The diagnosis could be confused because of findings from cytology. In this case, because of the clinical and sonographic findings and multiple differential diagnosis, only the histopathological study was used to confirm the diagnosis. Despite its high sensitivity, cytology has low specificity and could create false positive results. However, atypical lesions can be seen in fibroadenomas, especially in younger patients, pregnant patients, and in patients who use hormonal

  19. The tymbal muscle of cicada has flight muscle-type sarcomeric architecture and protein expression.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The structural and biochemical features of the tymbal (sound-producing) muscle of cicadas were studied by X-ray diffraction and immunochemistry, and compared with those of flight muscles from the same species. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the tymbal muscle was very similar to that of the dorsal longitudinal flight muscle: In both muscles, the 2,0 equatorial reflection is much more intense than the 1,1, indicating that both muscles have a flight muscle-type myofilament lattice. In rigor, the first myosin/actin layer line reflection was finely lattice-sampled, indicating that the contractile proteins are arranged with a crystalline regularity as in asynchronous flight muscles. In contrast, the diffraction pattern from the tensor muscle, which modulates the sound by stressing the tymbal, did not show signs of such high regularity or flight muscle-type filament lattice. Electrophoretic patterns of myofibrillar proteins were also very similar in the tymbal muscle and flight muscles, but distinct from those from the tensor or leg muscles. The antibody raised against the flight muscle-specific troponin-I isoform reacted with an 80-kDa band from both tymbal and flight muscles, but with none of the bands from the tensor or leg muscles. The close similarities of the structural and biochemical profiles between the tymbal and the flight muscles suggest the possibility that a set of flight muscle-specific proteins is diverted to the tymbal muscle to meet its demand for fast, repetitive contractions.

  20. Priority and synonymy of some North American cicada genera (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadinae: Cryptotympanini).

    PubMed

    Sanborn, Allen F; Heath, Maxine S

    2017-03-15

    The status of several North American cicada genera is reconsidered based on the recent erection of new genera and historical evidence. Megatibicen Sanborn & Heath, 2016 is shown to have priority over Megatibicen Lee, 2016 (which was changed by the author to Gigatibicen Lee, 2016 prior to formal publication). Ameritibicen Lee, 2016 is shown to be a junior synonym of Megatibicen Sanborn & Heath, 2016 and both Ameritibicen n. syn. and and Gigatibicen Lee, 2016 n. syn. are synonymized here to Megatibicen Sanborn & Heath. The species placed in Gigatibicen are returned to Megatibicen to become Megatibicen auletes (Germar, 1834) n. comb., Megatibicen resh (Haldeman, 1852) n. comb., and Megatibicen resonans (Walker, 1850) n. comb. while the species placed in Ameritibicen remain in Megatibicen due to the junior synonym status of Ameritibicen. The monospecific Paratibicen Lee, 2016 n. syn. is shown to be a junior synonym of Neotibicen Hill & Marshall, 2015 and its species is reassigned to Neotibicen to become Neotibicen similaris (Smith & Grossbeck, 1907) n. comb.

  1. Influence of cuticle nanostructuring on the wetting behaviour/states on cicada wings.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingxia; Liang, Aiping; Watson, Gregory S; Watson, Jolanta A; Zheng, Yongmei; Ju, Jie; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The nanoscale protrusions of different morphologies on wing surfaces of four cicada species were examined under an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The water contact angles (CAs) of the wing surfaces were measured along with droplet adhesion values using a high-sensitivity microelectromechanical balance system. The water CA and adhesive force measurements obtained were found to relate to the nanostructuring differences of the four species. The adhesive forces in combination with the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel approximations were used to predict wetting states of the insect wing cuticles. The more disordered and inhomogeneous surface of the species Leptopsalta bifuscata demonstrated a Wenzel type wetting state or an intermediate state of spreading and imbibition with a CA of 81.3° and high adhesive force of 149.5 µN. Three other species (Cryptotympana atrata, Meimuna opalifer and Aola bindusara) exhibited nanostructuring of the form of conically shaped protrusions, which were spherically capped. These surfaces presented a range of high adhesional values; however, the CAs were highly hydrophobic (C. atrata and A. bindusara) and in some cases close to superhydrophobic (M. opalifer). The wetting states of A. bindusara, C. atrata and M. opalifer (based on adhesion and CAs) are most likely represented by the transitional region between the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel approximations to varying degrees.

  2. Influence of Cuticle Nanostructuring on the Wetting Behaviour/States on Cicada Wings

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mingxia; Liang, Aiping; Watson, Gregory S.; Watson, Jolanta A.; Zheng, Yongmei; Ju, Jie; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The nanoscale protrusions of different morphologies on wing surfaces of four cicada species were examined under an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The water contact angles (CAs) of the wing surfaces were measured along with droplet adhesion values using a high-sensitivity microelectromechanical balance system. The water CA and adhesive force measurements obtained were found to relate to the nanostructuring differences of the four species. The adhesive forces in combination with the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel approximations were used to predict wetting states of the insect wing cuticles. The more disordered and inhomogeneous surface of the species Leptopsalta bifuscata demonstrated a Wenzel type wetting state or an intermediate state of spreading and imbibition with a CA of 81.3° and high adhesive force of 149.5 µN. Three other species (Cryptotympana atrata, Meimuna opalifer and Aola bindusara) exhibited nanostructuring of the form of conically shaped protrusions, which were spherically capped. These surfaces presented a range of high adhesional values; however, the CAs were highly hydrophobic (C. atrata and A. bindusara) and in some cases close to superhydrophobic (M. opalifer). The wetting states of A. bindusara, C. atrata and M. opalifer (based on adhesion and CAs) are most likely represented by the transitional region between the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel approximations to varying degrees. PMID:22536351

  3. Induction of egg hatching by high humidity in the cicada Cryptotympana facialis.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Minoru; Numata, Hideharu

    2006-01-01

    The timing of egg hatching in Cryptotympana facialis was examined in relation to short-term weather conditions. The brief underwater submergence, once a week, of dead twigs bearing cicada egg nests resulted in high hatching rates both at 25 degrees C and under outdoor conditions protected from rainfall. Under outdoor conditions with natural rainfall, most eggs hatched on rainy days. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of hatching eggs and daily relative humidity (RH). When eggs picked from twigs were exposed to various humidity levels, many eggs hatched quickly at higher humidity without direct contact with liquid water. Newly hatched nymphs showed a low tolerance to desiccation; at 81% RH at 25 degrees C, most of them died within 6 h. Under outdoor conditions, most nymphs died within 2 h on sunny days, whereas nymphs survived longer on rainy days. When newly hatched nymphs were released on dry ground, only 24% of them succeeded in burrowing into the soil, and many were killed by ants or desiccation. However, 92% of nymphs released onto wet ground successfully burrowed into it. The direct induction of hatching by high humidity ensures the survival and establishment in the soil of newly hatched nymphs in this species.

  4. Traces and burrowing behaviors of the Cicada nymph Cicadetta calliope: Neoichnology and paleoecological significance of extant soil-dwelling insects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.J.; Hasiotis, S.T.

    2008-01-01

    This study documents the traces and burrowing behaviors of nymphs of the prairie cicada Cicadetta calliope (Hemiptera: Cicadidae), as observed in neoichnological experiments. Cicada nymphs were collected from the C horizons of sandy Fluvents along the Kansas River east of Lawrence, Kansas. The nymphs appeared to be fifth instars, 13-17 mm long and 6-7 mm wide. Nymphs were placed in plastic enclosures containing layers of colored, moist, very fine-grained sand. They burrowed immediately, excavating air-filled, sediment-enclosed cells between 20 mm and 40 mm long and averaging 9 mm wide. Burrowing was completed in three stages: (1) sediment in the forward portion of the cell was excavated and rolled into a ball with the forelimbs; (2) the nymph turned 180?? using a forward roll, and moved to the back of the cell; and (3) the sediment ball was pushed up against the back wall of the cell and kneaded with the forelimbs into a thin layer. Resulting burrow traces are sinuous and distinctly meniscate and demonstrate that insect larvae construct meniscate, backfilled burrows in well-drained terrestrial settings. Cicadetta calliope nymphs and their traces are excellent analogs for meniscate trace fossils commonly found in late Paleozoic-Cenozoic alluvial deposits and paleosols. Such meniscate trace fossils are useful for interpreting the paleoenvironment and paleohydrogeology of the units in which they are found. In addition, such backfilled burrows can be used to supplement the fossil record of cicada-like hemipterans, currently known only from the latest Permian to the Early Triassic. Copyright ?? 2008, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  5. Functional Literacy: Basic Reading Performance. An Assessment of In-School 17-Year-Olds in 1974. Technical Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadway, Charles; Wilson, H. A.

    The functional literacy of various groups of 17-year-old students was assessed to discover whether the reading skills which are usually taught in the schools are adequate for functioning in everyday life. Eighty-six test exercises were classified according to the various formats of reading materials they represent and according to the types of…

  6. The Relation between 8- to 17-Year-Olds' Judgments of Other's Honesty and Their Own Past Honest Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Angela D.; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation examined whether school-aged children and adolescents' own deceptive behavior of cheating and lying influenced their honesty judgments of their same-aged peers. Eighty 8- to 17-year-olds who had previously participated in a study examining cheating and lie-telling behaviors were invited to make honesty judgments of their…

  7. Comparing the Diagnostic Accuracy of Six Potential Screening Instruments for Bipolar Disorder in Youths Aged 5 to 17 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Gracious, Barbara L.; Demeter, Christine; DelPorto Bedoya, Denise; Price, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic efficiency of six index tests as predictors of juvenile bipolar disorder in two large outpatient samples, aged 5 to 10 and 11 to 17 years, gathered from 1997 to 2002. Method: DSM-IV diagnosis was based on a semistructured diagnostic interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age…

  8. Interfascicular Neurolysis for Incomplete Spontaneous Posterior Interosseous Nerve Palsy with a Surgical Delay of 17 Years: Is It Still Effective?

    PubMed

    Ochi, Kensuke; Horiuchi, Yukio; Arino, Hiroshi; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman with incomplete spontaneous posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) palsy underwent interfascicular neurolysis and tendon transfer, 17 years after its onset. After one year, her nerve function partially recovered electrophysiologically. This case suggests that incomplete spontaneous PIN palsy may recover by interfascicular neurolysis, even with a long preoperative delay.

  9. Goodenough-Harris Test Estimates of Intellectual Maturity of Youths 12-17 Years: Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Dale B.; Pinder, Glenn D.

    The results of a modified version of the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test are presented in relation to selected demographic and socioeconomic factors as they affect youths aged 12-17 years in the noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Findings are based on data gathered on a sample of 6,768 adolescents who participated in the Health…

  10. Internal Consistency and Associated Characteristics of Informant Discrepancies in Clinic Referred Youths Age 11 to 17 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Pabon, Shairy C.; Youngstrom, Jennifer K.; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency of informant discrepancies in reports of youth behavior and emotional problems and their unique relations with youth, caregiver, and family characteristics. In a heterogeneous multisite clinic sample of 420 youths (ages 11-17 years), high internal consistency estimates were observed across…

  11. Visual Acuity of Youths 12-17 Years, United States. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 11, No. 127.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jean; Slaby, David

    Presented are the findings of a national health examination survey of uncorrected and corrected monocular and binocular visual acuity of 7,514 noninstitutionalized youth 12 to 17 years of age analyzed with respect to age, sex, race, geographic region, size of place of residence, and annual family income. Among findings reported are that 70 0/0 of…

  12. The Relation between 8- to 17-Year-Olds' Judgments of Other's Honesty and Their Own Past Honest Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Angela D.; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation examined whether school-aged children and adolescents' own deceptive behavior of cheating and lying influenced their honesty judgments of their same-aged peers. Eighty 8- to 17-year-olds who had previously participated in a study examining cheating and lie-telling behaviors were invited to make honesty judgments of their…

  13. Long-term immunogenicity of hepatitis A virus vaccine in Alaska 17 years after initial childhood series.

    PubMed

    Raczniak, Gregory A; Bulkow, Lisa R; Bruce, Michael G; Zanis, Carolyn L; Baum, Richard L; Snowball, Mary M; Byrd, Kathy K; Sharapov, Umid M; Hennessy, Thomas W; McMahon, Brian J

    2013-02-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccination for all children at age 1 year and for high-risk adults. The vaccine is highly effective; however, protection duration is unknown. We report HAV antibody concentrations 17 years after childhood immunization, demonstrating that protective antibody levels remain and have stabilized over the past 7 years.

  14. Long-Term Immunogenicity of Hepatitis A Virus Vaccine in Alaska 17 Years After Initial Childhood Series

    PubMed Central

    Raczniak, Gregory A.; Bulkow, Lisa R.; Bruce, Michael G.; Zanis, Carolyn L.; Baum, Richard L.; Snowball, Mary M.; Byrd, Kathy K.; Sharapov, Umid M.; Hennessy, Thomas W.; McMahon, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccination for all children at age 1 year and for high-risk adults. The vaccine is highly effective; however, protection duration is unknown. We report HAV antibody concentrations 17 years after childhood immunization, demonstrating that protective antibody levels remain and have stabilized over the past 7 years. PMID:23204169

  15. Vaccination coverage in French 17-year-old young adults: an assessment of mandatory and recommended vaccination statuses.

    PubMed

    Roblot, F; Robin, S; Chubilleau, C; Giraud, J; Bouffard, B; Ingrand, P

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to assess vaccination coverage (VC) in 17-year-old French young adults (YAs) participating in one mandatory Day of Defence and Citizenship (DDC). Between June 2010 and May 2011, YAs participating in 43 randomly selected mandatory sessions of the DDC programme in Poitou-Charentes (France) were asked to provide their personal vaccination record. Tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae b, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella vaccination status were assessed at ages 2, 6, 13 and 17 years. Of 2610 participants, 2111 (81%) supplied documents for evaluation. Of these, 1838 (87%, M:F sex ratio 0·96) were aged 17 years (9% of the global population of this age in the area). The assessment of the 17-year-olds demonstrated the following rates of complete vaccination: diphtheria-tetanus-polio 83%; measles, mumps and rubella 83%; pertussis 69%; H. influenzae b 61%; human papillomavirus 47%; and hepatitis B 40%. At age 6 years, only 46% had received two doses of the vaccine against measles. The YAs were not aware of their status but were in favour of vaccination. VC in YAs is insufficient, particularly for hepatitis B, pertussis and measles. Combined vaccines and the simplification of vaccination schedules should improve VC. Preventive messages should focus on YAs.

  16. Inspection Time and Cognitive Abilities in Twins Aged 7 to 17 Years: Age-Related Changes, Heritability and Genetic Covariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Caroline J.; Isaacs, Elizabeth B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Rogers, Mary; Lanigan, Julie; Singhal, Atul; Lucas, Alan; Gringras, Paul; Denton, Jane; Deary, Ian J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the age-related differences in inspection time and multiple cognitive domains in a group of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 7 to 17 years. Data from 111 twin pairs and 19 singleton siblings were included. We found clear age-related trends towards more efficient visual information processing in older participants. There…

  17. Internal Consistency and Associated Characteristics of Informant Discrepancies in Clinic Referred Youths Age 11 to 17 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Pabon, Shairy C.; Youngstrom, Jennifer K.; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency of informant discrepancies in reports of youth behavior and emotional problems and their unique relations with youth, caregiver, and family characteristics. In a heterogeneous multisite clinic sample of 420 youths (ages 11-17 years), high internal consistency estimates were observed across…

  18. Volunteering and Giving among American Teenagers 14 to 17 Years of Age. Findings from a National Survey. 1990 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Virginia A.; Weitzman, Murray S.

    This survey was conducted by the Gallup organization on the volunteering and giving behavior of U.S. teenagers as a supplement to a national survey on giving and volunteering among U.S. adults. Information was obtained from in-home personal interviews with 301 teenagers from 14 to 17 years of age. Results indicated that 58 percent of teenagers…

  19. Optical properties of chitin: surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates based on antireflection structures on cicada wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddart, P. R.; Cadusch, P. J.; Boyce, T. M.; Erasmus, R. M.; Comins, J. D.

    2006-02-01

    The transparent wings of some cicada species present ordered arrays of papillary structures with a spacing of approximately 200 nm. These structures serve an antireflection function, with optical transmission peaking at a value of approximately 98% and rising above 90% over a broad band from 450 to 2500 nm. The dimensions of the papillae are comparable to the roughness scale of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. SERS measurements performed on silver- and gold-coated wings display enhancement factors of approximately 106 with no apparent background contribution from the wing.

  20. Use of Complementary Health Approaches Among Children Aged 4–17 Years in the United States: National Health Interview Survey, 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Black, Lindsey I.; Clarke, Tainya C.; Barnes, Patricia M.; Stussman, Barbara J.; Nahin, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This report presents national estimates of the use of complementary health approaches among children aged 4–17 years in the United States. Selected modalities are compared for 2007 and 2012 to examine changes over time. Methods Data from the 2007 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were analyzed for this report. The combined sample included 17,321 interviews with knowledgeable adults about children aged 4–17 years. Point estimates and estimates of their variances were calculated using SUDAAN software to account for the complex sampling design of NHIS. Differences between percentages were evaluated using two-sided significance tests at the 0.05 level. Results The use of complementary health approaches among children did not change significantly since 2007 (from 12.0% in 2007 to 11.6% in 2012). However, one approach, the use of traditional healers, showed a statistically significant decrease in use, from 1.1% in 2007 to 0.1% in 2012. No other significant decreases were identified. An increase in the use of yoga was observed during this period (from 2.3% in 2007 to 3.1% in 2012). Nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplements; chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation; and yoga, tai chi, or qi gong were the most commonly used complementary health approaches in both 2007 and 2012. Also consistent between 2007 and 2012 was that complementary health approaches were most frequently used for back or neck pain, head or chest cold, anxiety or stress, and other musculoskeletal conditions. PMID:25671583

  1. Prevalence of Diagnosed Tourette Syndrome in Persons Aged 6-17 Years--United States, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is an inheritable, childhood-onset neurologic disorder marked by persistent multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic. Tics are involuntary, repetitive, stereotypic movements or vocalizations that are usually sudden and rapid and often can be suppressed for short periods. The prevalence of TS is uncertain; the broad…

  2. A new species of the cicada genus Semia Matsumura, 1917 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from Vietnam, with a key to the species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hong-thai; Constant, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    A new species of cicada, Semia gialaiensis, is described from Kon Ka Kinh National Park in central Vietnam. Photos of the adult, illustrations of the male genitalia, a distribution map and biological data are provided. A key to the species of Semia based on the male adults is also given.

  3. Effects of age on genetic influence on bone loss over 17 years in women: the Healthy Ageing Twin Study (HATS).

    PubMed

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hammond, Christopher J; Hart, Deborah J; Spector, Timothy D

    2012-10-01

    The rate of bone loss varies across the aging period via multiple complex mechanisms. Therefore, the role of genetic factors on bone loss may also change similarly. In this study, we investigated the effect of age on the genetic component of bone loss in a large twin-based longitudinal study. During 17 years of follow-up in TwinsUK and Healthy Ageing Twin Study (HATS), 15,491 hip and lumbar spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were performed in 7056 twins. Out of these subjects, 2716 female twins aged >35 years with at least two scans separated for >4 years (mean follow-up 9.7 years) were included in this analysis. We used a mixed-effects random-coefficients regression model to predict hip and spine bone mineral density (BMD) values for exact ages of 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, and 80 years, with adjustment for baseline age, weight, height, and duration of hormone replacement therapy. We then estimated heritability of the changes in BMD measures between these age ranges. Heritability estimates for cross-sectional hip and spine BMD were high (ranging between 69% and 88%) at different ages. Heritability of change of BMD was lower and more variable, generally ranging from 0% to 40% for hip and 0% to 70% for spine; between age 40 and 45 years genetic factors explained 39.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%-53%) of variance of BMD loss for total hip, 46.4% (95% CI, 32%-58%) for femoral neck, and 69.5% (95% CI, 59%-77%) for lumbar spine. These estimates decreased with increasing age, and there appeared to be no heritability of BMD changes after the age of 65 years. There was some evidence at the spine for shared genetic effects between cross-sectional and longitudinal BMD. Whereas genetic factors appear to have an important role in bone loss in early postmenopausal women, nongenetic mechanisms become more important determinants of bone loss with advanced age. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  4. The changing landscape of antiviral treatment of herpes zoster: a 17-year population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Kevin J; Alessi-Severini, Silvia; Chateau, Dan; Falk, Jamie; Bugden, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common viral disease that produces a painful vesicular rash. Early use of antiviral medications is recommended, as it reduces pain and speeds healing. A population-based observational study was conducted to evaluate the changing burden of HZ in the province of Manitoba (Canada) over a period of 17 years. Methods Administrative health care data including medical and hospital records were examined, and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification codes were used to identify episodes of HZ between April 1, 1997 and March 31, 2014 in persons aged 20 or over. Annual age-adjusted incidence and hospitalization rates were calculated. Prescription records of HZ-diagnosed persons for acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir were used to calculate the rates and costs of antiviral treatment. Results There were 73,893 identified cases of HZ and 1,245 HZ-related hospitalizations between 1997 and 2013. Of these episodes, 42,270 (57.2%) were treated with antiviral medications at a total cost of $4,708,065 (CAD). The age-adjusted incidence of HZ rose from 4.67/1,000 person years in 1997/1998 to 5.67/1,000 person years in 2013/2014, a 21.9% increase. Antiviral treatment rates increased from 41.7% to 66.2% of all diagnosed episodes. Mean treatment costs per episode dropped from $127.29 in 1997/1998 to $56.06 in 2013/2014, primarily due to the introduction of generic antiviral medications. The total cost of antiviral treatment peaked in 2005/2006 at $329,935 and dropped steadily thereafter to $223,973 in 2013/2014. HZ-related hospitalization rates decreased from 3.1% to 0.9%. Conclusion While both the incidence of HZ and the rates of antiviral treatment have risen substantially, the economic burden from antiviral treatment has been decreasing since a peak in 2005/2006 and was only 3.2% higher in 2013/2014 than in 1997/1998. This drop

  5. Effects of temperature on tuning of the auditory pathway in the cicada Tettigetta josei (Hemiptera, Tibicinidae).

    PubMed

    Fonseca, P J; Correia, T

    2007-05-01

    The effects of temperature on hearing in the cicada Tettigetta josei were studied. The activity of the auditory nerve and the responses of auditory interneurons to stimuli of different frequencies and intensities were recorded at different temperatures ranging from 16 degrees C to 29 degrees C. Firstly, in order to investigate the temperature dependence of hearing processes, we analyzed its effects on auditory tuning, sensitivity, latency and Q(10dB). Increasing temperature led to an upward shift of the characteristic hearing frequency, to an increase in sensitivity and to a decrease in the latency of the auditory response both in the auditory nerve recordings (periphery) and in some interneurons at the metathoracic-abdominal ganglionic complex (MAC). Characteristic frequency shifts were only observed at low frequency (3-8 kHz). No changes were seen in Q(10dB). Different tuning mechanisms underlying frequency selectivity may explain the results observed. Secondly, we investigated the role of the mechanical sensory structures that participate in the transduction process. Laser vibrometry measurements revealed that the vibrations of the tympanum and tympanal apodeme are temperature independent in the biologically relevant range (18-35 degrees C). Since the above mentioned effects of temperature are present in the auditory nerve recordings, the observed shifts in frequency tuning must be performed by mechanisms intrinsic to the receptor cells. Finally, the role of potassium channels in the response of the auditory system was investigated using a specific inhibitor of these channels, tetraethylammonium (TEA). TEA caused shifts on tuning and sensitivity of the summed response of the receptors similar to the effects of temperature. Thus, potassium channels are implicated in the tuning of the receptor cells.

  6. Patterns of acoustic variation in Cicada barbara Stål (Hemiptera, Cicadoidea) from the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Juma, G A; Seabra, S G; Quartau, J A

    2008-02-01

    Field recordings of the calling song and of an amplitude modulated signal produced by males of Cicada barbara from North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula were analysed in order to assess the geographical acoustic variation and the potential usefulness of acoustic data in the discrimination of subspecies and populations. Sound recordings were digitized and the frequency and temporal properties of the calls of each cicada were analysed. In all regions studied, peak frequency, quartiles 25, 50 and 75% and syllable rate showed low coefficients of variation suggesting inherent static properties. All frequency variables were correlated with the latitude, decreasing from south to north. In addition, most acoustic variables of the calling song showed significant differences between regions, and PCA and DFA analyses supported a partitioning within this species between Iberian Peninsula+Ceuta and Morocco, corroborating mtDNA data on the same species. Therefore, the subspecific division of C. barbara into C. barbara barbara from Morocco and C. barbara lusitanica from Portugal, Spain and Ceuta finds support from the present acoustic analyses, a result which is also reinforced by molecular markers.

  7. Variceal bleeding caused by oesophageal varices: A manifestation of hepatocellular carcinoma in a 17-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Saadia Sasha; Sanmuganathan, Samuel N

    2015-01-01

    The authors present the rare case of a 17-year-old girl referred to the medical assessment unit following a large upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. On further evaluation, she was found to have a primary hepatocellular carcinoma with extensive metastases. In our patient, the tumour was deemed incurable by resection, liver transplantation or percutaneous treatment. She underwent palliative chemotherapy and passed away 11 months following presentation. PMID:27489703

  8. [Suicidal behaviour in a clinical population of 12- to 17-year-old patients with eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Damsted, Pernille; Petersen, Dorthe Janne; Bilenberg, Niels; Hørder, Kirsten

    2006-10-30

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of suicidal behavior and comorbidity among patients 12-17 years of age with eating disorders. Previous studies showed an increased rate of suicidal behavior in young people with eating disorders. Data were collected as part of a European study concerning eating disorders. 37 patients (12-17 years, mean age 15 years) from the Center for Eating Disorders, Odense University Hospital, participated in the study. The frequency of suicidal behavior was tested individually by BAB-T interview (''Grading of Anorexia and Bulimia, Teen-ager''), which is a semi-structured interview with the patient, and by YSR (''Youth Self Report'') a questionnaire filled in by the patient herself. Suicidal behavior was shown by 40% of the patients, and 29% had self-injurious behavior. There was a tendency for suicidal behavior and comorbidity to be more prominent in the youngest patients. The risk of suicidal behavior is greater in patients with eating disorders than in the background population. In the youngest patients there is an increased tendency to suicidal behavior and comorbidity, but this requires further documentation. The clinician must be aware of self-injurious behavior in patients with eating disorders, including those between 12 and 17 years of age.

  9. Sex-Stratified Trends in Enrollment, Patient Characteristics, Treatment, and Outcomes Among Non–ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Insights from Clinical Trials Over 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kragholm, Kristian; Halim, Sharif A.; Yang, Qinghong; Schulte, Phillip J.; Hochman, Judith S.; Melloni, Chiara; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Moliterno, David J.; Harrington, Robert A.; White, Harvey D.; Armstrong, Paul W.; Ohman, E. Magnus; Van de Werf, Frans; Tricoci, Pierluigi; Alexander, John H.; Giugliano, Robert P.; Newby, L. Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Background Adequate representation by sex in trials allows generalizability of results. We examined representation of women in clinical trials during a 17-year period in which inclusion criteria were broadened and federal mandates for representativeness were launched. Methods and Results Using mixed models, we studied sex-stratified temporal trends in enrollment, clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes among 76,148 non–ST-segment elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients using patient-level data merged from 11 phase III trials conducted from 1994 to 2010. Overall, 33.3% of patients were women, which changed minimally over time. Women were consistently 4–5 years older than men (median age 68 [IQR 61–75] versus 64 [IQR 56–72] years) and more frequently had diabetes, hypertension, and heart failure; men more frequently had prior myocardial infarction and revascularization. GRACE risk scores increased over time for both sexes with the inclusion of older patients with more comorbidities. Use of PCI, in-hospital and discharge angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blockers, β-blockers, and lipid-lowering drugs also increased among both sexes. Kaplan-Meier estimates of 6-month mortality declined from 7.0% [95% CI 6.5%–7.6%] to 4.5% [95% CI 4.0%–5.0%] among women and 6.3% [95% CI 6.0%–6.7%] to 3.1% [95% CI 2.9%–3.4%] among men during the 17-year period. Conclusions The relative proportion of women in NSTE ACS trials changed minimally over time. Nevertheless, in parallel with men, use of evidence-based care and outcomes improved significantly over time among women. PMID:26152683

  10. Diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese adolescents aged 12 to 17 years.

    PubMed

    Al-Khudairy, Lena; Loveman, Emma; Colquitt, Jill L; Mead, Emma; Johnson, Rebecca E; Fraser, Hannah; Olajide, Joan; Murphy, Marie; Velho, Rochelle Marian; O'Malley, Claire; Azevedo, Liane B; Ells, Louisa J; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Rees, Karen

    2017-06-22

    Adolescent overweight and obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with short- and long-term health consequences. Modifying known dietary and behavioural risk factors through behaviour changing interventions (BCI) may help to reduce childhood overweight and obesity. This is an update of a review published in 2009. To assess the effects of diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. We performed a systematic literature search in: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS, and the trial registers ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP Search Portal. We checked references of identified studies and systematic reviews. There were no language restrictions. The date of the last search was July 2016 for all databases. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for treating overweight or obesity in adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias, evaluated the overall quality of the evidence using the GRADE instrument and extracted data following the guidelines of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We contacted trial authors for additional information. We included 44 completed RCTs (4781 participants) and 50 ongoing studies. The number of participants in each trial varied (10 to 521) as did the length of follow-up (6 to 24 months). Participants ages ranged from 12 to 17.5 years in all trials that reported mean age at baseline. Most of the trials used a multidisciplinary intervention with a combination of diet, physical activity and behavioural components. The content and duration of the intervention, its delivery and the comparators varied across trials. The studies contributing most information to outcomes of weight and body mass index (BMI) were from studies at a low risk of bias, but studies with a high risk of bias provided data on adverse events

  11. Trends in racial disparities for asthma outcomes among children 0-17 years, 2001-2010

    PubMed Central

    Akinbami, Lara J.; Moorman, Jeanne E.; Simon, Alan E.; Schoendorf, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Racial disparities in childhood asthma have been a long-standing target for intervention, especially disparities in hospitalization and mortality. Objectives Describe trends in racial disparities in asthma outcomes using both traditional population-based rates and at-risk rates (based on the estimated number of children with asthma) to account for prevalence differences between race groups. Methods Estimates of asthma prevalence and outcomes (emergency department visits, hospitalizations and deaths) were calculated from national data for 2001 to 2010 for black and white children. Trends were calculated using weighted log-linear regression, and changes in racial disparities over time were assessed using Joinpoint. Results Disparities in asthma prevalence between black and white children increased from 2001 to 2010; at the end of this period, black children were twice as likely as white children to have asthma. Population-based rates showed that disparities in asthma outcomes remained stable (ED visits and hospitalizations) or increased (asthma attack prevalence, deaths). In contrast, analysis with at-risk rates which account for differences in asthma prevalence showed that disparities in asthma outcomes either remained stable (deaths), decreased (ED visits, hospitalizations), or did not exist (asthma attack prevalence). Conclusion Using at-risk rates to assess racial disparities in asthma outcomes accounts for prevalence differences between black and white children, and adds another perspective to the population-based examination of asthma disparities. An at-risk rate analysis shows that among children with asthma, there is no disparity for asthma attack prevalence, and that progress has been made in decreasing disparities in asthma ED visit and hospitalization rates. PMID:25091437

  12. Oral Health Education and Promotion Programmes: Meta-Analysis of 17-Year Intervention.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, M; Rakhshanderou, S; Ramezankhani, A; Noroozi, M; Armoon, B

    2017-08-24

    Oral Health Education and Promotion Interventions (OHEPIs) focus on improving knowledge, to adopt favourable oral health behaviours that can enhance oral health and clinical oral health. However, no meta-analyses exist that evaluate the effectiveness of OHEPI programmes. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of oral health education and promotion programmes. The PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane and ScienceDirect databases from years 2000 to 2016 were searched. Eleven studies based on Participant, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome Study (PICOs) and quality assessment criteria were selected for the systematic review and meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of the data was carried out using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis V2.0 software. As the heterogeneity of subgroups was higher than 50%, an effect random model was used for the computation of average odds ratio. The heterogeneity of the studies was higher than 50% (I(2)  = 92%, P < .001); therefore, the random effect model was used to calculate the average odds ratio. 3 subgroups, (A) programme outcomes (long- and short-term outcomes), (B) age groups and (C) the follow-up periods after the intervention, were extracted for the intervention review. Overall, programme outcome and the 3-month subgroup follow-up were both significantly increased (OR = 2. 41, CI: 1.3, 4.7; P = .005) (OR = 1.14, CI: 1.01, 1.30; P = .03) in terms of odds effectiveness of the interventions. But the age subgroups showed no significance (OR = 0.93, CI: 0.74, 1.17; P = .52) in odds effectiveness of the interventions. This study found that past OHEPIs are effective and positive impacts on dental visits, attitudes, as well as brushing and flossing behaviours during 3 months post-intervention among children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Mortality in Mild Cognitive Impairment Diagnosed with DSM-5 Criteria and with Petersen's Criteria: A 17-Year Follow-Up in a Community Study.

    PubMed

    Santabárbara, Javier; Gracia-García, Patricia; Pírez, Guillermo; López-Antón, Raúl; De La Cámara, Concepcion; Ventura, Tirso; Pérez-Sastre, Marina; Lobo, Elena; Saz, Pedro; Marcos, Guillermo; Lobo, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    To explore the possibility that the mortality risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as diagnosed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria (DSM-5-MCI) will be higher than using Petersen's criteria (P-MCI) and to report the population-attributable fraction (PAF) of mortality due to MCI. A representative community sample of 4,803 individuals aged 55 or more years was interviewed and then followed for 17 years. Standardized instruments were used in the assessment, including the Geriatric Mental State-AGECAT, and research psychiatrists diagnosed P-MCI and DSM-5-MCI cases following operationalized criteria. Mortality information was obtained from the official population registry. Kaplan-Meier age-adjusted survival curves were built for the MCI diagnostic groups, and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate the hazard ratio of death in participants with MCI relative to those without. We also estimated the PAF of mortality due to specific MCI diagnostic groups. Compared with noncases, the mortality rate ratio was approximately double in DSM-5-MCI individuals (2.3) than in P-MCI individuals (1.2). In the multivariate statistical analysis, a significant association between each diagnostic category and mortality was observed but was only maintained in the final model in DSM-5-MCI cases (hazard ratio: 1.24). The PAF of mortality due to MCI was approximately 1% in both MCI categories. The mortality risk in comparison with noncases was higher in DSM-5-MCI than in P-MCI. The PAF of mortality in DSM-5-MCI individuals was ~ 1% over a 17-year period. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The differences in level of trait anxiety among girls and boys aged 13-17 years with myopia and emmetropia.

    PubMed

    Łazarczyk, Joanna B; Urban, Beata; Konarzewska, Beata; Szulc, Agata; Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Alina; Żmudzka, Ewa; Kowzan, Urszula; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Juszczyk-Zajkowska, Karolina

    2016-11-14

    A significant increase in myopia among children and teenagers can be observed all over the world. Yet at the same time, there is still an insignificant number of studies concerning this health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the level of trait anxiety among myopic group of teenagers in comparison to teenagers with emmetropia, and to confirm whether the level of trait anxiety relates to age and gender. Two hundred thirty-nine students aged 13-17 years were included in the study. The study group comprised 114 persons with myopia (81 girls and 33 boys), while the control group comprised 125 persons without refractive error (79 girls and 46 boys). Volunteers completed a set of questionnaires including: personal data, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) (13-14 year-olds), or State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) (15-17 year-olds). The trait anxiety subscales were thus analyzed. Among younger adolescents (13-14 years of age) with myopia there was a significantly higher incidence of pathological intensification of anxiety as a constant trait. After taking into account the distribution of gender, there was a higher level of trait anxiety in the group of boys with myopia than in the control group aged 13-17 years and 13-14 years. There was also a higher level of trait anxiety detected in males than in females. Myopia may affect the level of trait anxiety among 13-14-year-olds. In both age groups of girls, a higher percentage of patients with high level of anxiety was discovered (≥7 sten), as compared to their peers without vision defects. Our results can contribute to a more accurate analysis of young teenagers' psychological problems, especially among boys diagnosed with myopia.

  15. Symptoms 10-17 years after breast cancer radiotherapy data from the randomised SWEBCG91-RT trial.

    PubMed

    Lundstedt, Dan; Gustafsson, Magnus; Malmström, Per; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Alsadius, David; Sundberg, Agnetha; Wilderäng, Ulrica; Holmberg, Erik; Anderson, Harald; Steineck, Gunnar; Karlsson, Per

    2010-11-01

    Postoperative radiotherapy decreases the risk for local recurrence and improves overall survival in women with breast cancer. We have limited information on radiotherapy-induced symptoms 10-17 years after therapy. Between 1991 and 1997, women with lymph node-negative breast cancer were randomised in a Swedish multi-institutional trial to breast conserving surgery with or without postoperative radiotherapy. In 2007, 10-17 years after randomisation, the group included 422 recurrence-free women. We collected data with a study-specific questionnaire on eight pre-selected symptom groups. For six symptom groups (oedema in breast or arm, erysipelas, heart symptoms, lung symptoms, rib fractures, and decreased shoulder mobility) we found similar occurrence in both groups. Excess occurrence after radiotherapy was observed for pain in the breast or in the skin, reported to occur "occasionally" by 38.1% of survivors having undergone radiotherapy and surgery versus 24.0% of those with surgery alone (absolute difference 14.1%; p=0.004) and at least once a week by 10.3% of the radiotherapy group versus 1.7% (absolute difference 8.6%; p=0.001). Daily life and analgesic use did not differ between the groups. Ten to 17 years after postoperative radiotherapy 1 in 12 women had weekly pain that could be attributed to radiotherapy. The symptoms did not significantly affect daily life and thus the reduced risk for local recurrence seems to outweigh the risk for long-term symptoms for most women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Swedish parents' activities together with their children and children's health: a study of children aged 2-17 years.

    PubMed

    Berntsson, Leeni T; Ringsberg, Karin C

    2014-11-01

    Nordic children's health has declined. Studies show that parents' engagement in children's leisure-time activities might provide beneficial health outcomes for children. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between Swedish parents' activities together with their children, the parents' experiences of time pressure and their children's health. Data of 1461 Swedish children aged 2-17 years old that were collected in the NordChild study of 2011 were used. We analyzed physical health, diseases and disabilities, psychosomatic health and well-being, and the parents' experiences of time pressure; and we calculated the associations between parental activity together with the child and health indicators. Activities that were significantly and positively associated with children's health at ages 2-17 years of age were: playing and playing games; going to the cinema, theatre, and sporting events; reading books; playing musical instruments/singing; sports activities; watching TV/video/DVD. Playing video games or computer games, driving child to activities and going for walks were significantly and positively associated at age groups 7-12 years and 13-17 years. Activities that were negatively associated with health were: surfing/blogging on the Internet, going shopping and doing homework. Parents who were not experiencing time pressures had a higher level of activity together with their children. The parental experience of time pressure was associated with work time, with less homework activity and more symptoms in children. The family and home are important settings for the development of children's health we found eight parental activities together with their children that promoted the children's health parents' working time and their time pressure experiences affected their activities with their children there is a need for an increased focus on parental activities that are positively associated with children's health. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of

  17. Malignant catatonia due to anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis in a 17-year-old girl: case report.

    PubMed

    Consoli, Angèle; Ronen, Karine; An-Gourfinkel, Isabelle; Barbeau, Martine; Marra, Donata; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Montefiore, Delphine; Maksud, Philippe; Bonnot, Olivier; Didelot, Adrien; Amoura, Zahir; Vidailhet, Marie; Cohen, David

    2011-05-13

    Anti-NMDA-Receptor encephalitis is a severe form of encephalitis that was recently identified in the context of acute neuropsychiatric presentation. Here, we describe the case of a 17-year-old girl referred for an acute mania with psychotic features and a clinical picture deteriorated to a catatonic state. Positive diagnosis of anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis suggested specific treatment. She improved after plasma exchange and immunosuppressive therapy. Post-cognitive sequelae (memory impairment) disappeared within 2-year follow-up and intensive cognitive rehabilitation.

  18. Multihormonal hypopituitarism, hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism in a 17-years-old girl with Diamond-Blackfan anemia and secondary hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Głąb, Ewa; Barg, Ewa; Wikiera, Beata; Bieniasz, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    Congenital hypoplastic anemia (Diamond-Blakcfan syndrom) is a genetically determined disorder which is manifested in early childhood with selective deficiency of erythrocyte line in bone marrow. Severe anemia usually appears in the first six months of life. Survival depends on blood transfusions, which in consequence lead to hemochromatosis. The most common complications of transfusional hemochromatosis are hepatic cirrhosis, hypopituitarism, hypogonadism, diabetes mellitus, other endocrinopathies, and cardiomyopathy. We present the case of 17 years old girl with congenital hypoplastic anemia and multihormonal insufficiency due to secondary hemochromatosis.

  19. Thermoregulation and the effect of body temperature on call temporal parameters in the cicada Diceroprocta olympusa (Homoptera: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Sanborn, A F; Maté, S

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the thermoregulatory behavior, thermal responses (minimum flight, maximum voluntary tolerance and heat torpor temperatures) and the effect of body temperature (T(b)) on call parameters in the cicada Diceroprocta olympusa (Walker). Regression of T(b) as a function of ambient (T(a)) or perch temperatures (T(p)) suggests thermoregulation is occurring. Thermoregulation occurs through behavioral changes that alter the uptake of solar radiation. T(p) is a better predictor of T(b) than is T(a). Thermal responses (minimum flight temperature 20.4 degrees C, maximum voluntary tolerance temperature 37 degrees C, and heat torpor temperature 46.7 degrees C) may be related to the humid, grassland habitat of the species. In contrast to other acoustic insects, no significant relationship was found between the temporal parameters of the calling song and T(b) within the population of D. olympusa.

  20. Conflicting patterns of DNA barcoding and taxonomy in the cicada genus Tettigettalna from Southern Europe (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Nunes, Vera L; Mendes, Raquel; Marabuto, Eduardo; Novais, Bruno M; Hertach, Thomas; Quartau, José A; Seabra, Sofia G; Paulo, Octávio S; Simões, Paula C

    2014-01-01

    DNA barcodes have great potential to assist in species identification, especially when high taxonomical expertise is required. We investigated the utility of the 5' mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) region to discriminate between 13 European cicada species. These included all nine species currently recognized under the genus Tettigettalna, from which seven are endemic to the southern Iberian Peninsula. These cicadas have species-specific male calling songs but are morphologically very similar. Mean COI divergence between congeners ranged from 0.4% to 10.6%, but this gene was proven insufficient to determine species limits within genus Tettigettalna because a barcoding gap was absent for several of its species, that is, the highest intraspecific distance exceeded the lowest interspecific distance. The genetic data conflicted with current taxonomic classification for T. argentata and T. mariae. Neighbour-joining and Bayesian analyses revealed that T. argentata is geographically structured (clades North and South) and might constitute a species complex together with T. aneabi and T. mariae. The latter diverges very little from the southern clade of T. argentata and shares with it its most common haplotype. T. mariae is often in sympatry with T. argentata but it remains unclear whether introgression or incomplete lineage sorting may be responsible for the sharing of haplotypes. T. helianthemi and T. defauti also show high intraspecific variation that might signal hidden cryptic diversity. These taxonomic conflicts must be re-evaluated with further studies using additional genes and extensive morphological and acoustic analyses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Correlation between dental traumatic injuries and overjet among 11 to 17 years Indian girls with Angle's class I molar relation.

    PubMed

    Bendgude, Vikas; Akkareddy, Basavaprabhu; Panse, Amey; Singh, Rashmi; Metha, Deepak; Jawale, Bhushan; Garcha, Vikram; Jathar, Prasad

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the correlation of traumatic dental injuries and overjet among school going girls of age 11 to 17 years in Pune, India. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 2045 school girls aged 11 to 17 years, attending public elementary schools in Pune, India. The traumatic dental injuries were assessed according to Ellis and Davey’s criteria. Occlusion was recorded according to Angle´s classification and overjet was measured using a WHO 621 probe. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using Mann-Whitney test. There was a significant (Z -2.785) association between increase in overjet and occurrence of trauma. Children with increased overjet were 3.09 times more likely to have dental injuries. It can be concluded from the present study that a significant correlation exists between amount of overjet and prevalence of traumatic injuries among children. The percentage of trauma prevalence increases with the increase of overjet. Traumatic dental injury is not a result of disease but a consequence of several factors that will accumulate throughout life if not properly treated. One of the most important factors significantly contributing to traumatic dental injuries is the anterior overjet. Hence, correction of increased anterior overjet may help in prevention of traumatic injuries.

  2. Geographic variation in human papillomavirus vaccination uptake among 13-17 year old adolescent girls in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahbubur; McGrath, Christine J; Berenson, Abbey B

    2014-05-01

    Geographic variation in provider-verified human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake among adolescent girls in the US has not been examined. To investigate this, we analyzed 2011 National Immunization Survey-Teen data. Among 13-17 year old girls (n=11,236), weighted vaccine initiation (48.4%) and completion rates (30.6%) were the lowest in the South when compared to the Northeast (53.4% and 39.9%), Midwest (51.1% and 33.5%) and West (61.6% and 38.7%) (P<.001, both for initiation and completion). Multivariable log-binomial regression analysis indicated that 13-17 year old girls living in the South were less likely to initiate [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR)=0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-0.97] and complete (aPR=0.83, 95% CI, 0.74-0.93) the HPV vaccine series compared to girls living in the Northeast. Similar differences were observed when the uptake rates in the South were compared to other regions in the US. Intervention programs to increase HPV vaccine uptake and reduce regional disparities are warranted.

  3. N(6)-(2-Hydroxyethyl)adenosine in the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps cicadae Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Pro-inflammatory Responses by Suppressing TLR4-Mediated NF-κB Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meng-Ying; Chen, Chin-Chu; Lee, Li-Ya; Lin, Ting-Wei; Kuo, Chia-Feng

    2015-10-23

    Natural products play an important role in promoting health with relation to the prevention of chronic inflammation. N(6)-(2-Hydroxyethyl)adenosine (HEA), a physiologically active compound in the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps cicadae, has been identified as a Ca(2+) antagonist and shown to control circulation and possess sedative activity in pharmacological tests. The fruiting body of C. cicadae has been widely applied in Chinese medicine. However, neither the anti-inflammatory activities of HEA nor the fruiting bodies of C. cicadae have been carefully examined. In this study, we first cultured the fruiting bodies of C. cicadae and then investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of water and methanol extracts of wild and artificially cultured C. cicadae fruiting bodies. Next, we determined the amount of three bioactive compounds, adenosine, cordycepin, and HEA, in the extracts and evaluated their synergistic anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, the possible mechanism involved in anti-inflammatory action of HEA isolated from C. cicadae was investigated. The results indicate that cordycepin is more potent than adenosine and HEA in suppressing the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by RAW 264.7 macrophages; however, no synergistic effect was observed with these three compounds. HEA attenuated the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses by suppressing the toll-like receptor (TLR)4-mediated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. This result will support the use of HEA as an anti-inflammatory agent and C. cicadae fruiting bodies as an anti-inflammatory mushroom.

  4. Optically active N-acetyldopamine dimer of the crude drug "Zentai," the cast-off shell of the Cicada, Cryptotympana sp.

    PubMed

    Noda, N; Kubota, S; Miyata, Y; Miyahara, K

    2000-11-01

    Two optically active N-acetyldopamine dimers together with four phenolic monomers were isolated from the crude drug "Zentai," a cast-off shell of the cicada of Cryptotympana sp. (Cicadidae). The former two were 2-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-1,4-benzodioxane derivatives carrying substituents at the 3 and 6 (or 7) positions, which are known to be components of sclerotized insect cuticles. Their structures including absolute configurations were determined on the basis of NMR and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic data.

  5. Global Cicada Sound Collection I: Recordings from South Africa and Malawi by B. W. Price & M. H. Villet and harvesting of BioAcoustica data by GBIF

    PubMed Central

    Price, Benjamin Wills; Rycroft, Simon; Villet, Martin H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Sound collections for singing insects provide important repositories that underpin existing research (e.g. Price et al. 2007 at http://bio.acousti.ca/node/11801; Price et al. 2010) and make bioacoustic collections available for future work, including insect communication (Ordish 1992), systematics (e.g. David et al. 2003), and automated identification (Bennett et al. 2015). The BioAcoustica platform (Baker et al. 2015) is both a repository and analysis platform for bioacoustic collections: allowing collections to be available in perpetuity, and also facilitating complex analyses using the BioVeL cloud infrastructure (Vicario et al. 2011). The Global Cicada Sound Collection is a project to make recordings of the world's cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) available using open licences to maximise their potential for study and reuse. This first component of the Global Cicada Sound Collection comprises recordings made between 2006 and 2008 of Cicadidae in South Africa and Malawi. New information This collection of sounds includes 219 recordings of 133 voucher specimens, comprising 42 taxa (25 identified to species, all identified to genus) from South Africa and Malawi. The recordings have been used to underpin work on the species limits of cicadas in southern Africa, including Price et al. (2007) and Price et al. (2010). The specimens are deposited in the Albany Museum, Grahamstown, South Africa (AMGS). The harvesting of acoustic data as occurrence records by GBIF has been implemented by the Scratchpads Team at the Natural History Museum, London. This link increases the value of individual recordings and the BioAcoustica platform within the global infrastructure of biodiversity informatics by making specimen/occurence records from BioAcoustica available to a wider audience, and allowing their integration with other occurence datasets that also contribute to GBIF. PMID:26379465

  6. High-spatial-resolution mapping of superhydrophobic cicada wing surface chemistry using infrared microspectroscopy and infrared imaging at two synchrotron beamlines.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Mark J; Puskar, Ljiljana; Hasan, Jafar; Webb, Hayden K; Hirschmugl, Carol J; Nasse, Michael J; Gervinskas, Gediminas; Juodkazis, Saulius; Watson, Gregory S; Watson, Jolanta A; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2013-05-01

    The wings of some insects, such as cicadae, have been reported to possess a number of interesting and unusual qualities such as superhydrophobicity, anisotropic wetting and antibacterial properties. Here, the chemical composition of the wings of the Clanger cicada (Psaltoda claripennis) were characterized using infrared (IR) microspectroscopy. In addition, the data generated from two separate synchrotron IR facilities, the Australian Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy beamline (AS-IRM) and the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC), University of Wisconsin-Madison, IRENI beamline, were analysed and compared. Characteristic peaks in the IR spectra of the wings were assigned primarily to aliphatic hydrocarbon and amide functionalities, which were considered to be an indication of the presence of waxy and proteinaceous components, respectively, in good agreement with the literature. Chemical distribution maps showed that, while the protein component was homogeneously distributed, a significant degree of heterogeneity was observed in the distribution of the waxy component, which may contribute to the self-cleaning and aerodynamic properties of the cicada wing. When comparing the data generated from the two beamlines, it was determined that the SRC IRENI beamline was capable of producing higher-spatial-resolution distribution images in a shorter time than was achievable at the AS-IRM beamline, but that spectral noise levels per pixel were considerably lower on the AS-IRM beamline, resulting in more favourable data where the detection of weak absorbances is required. The data generated by the two complementary synchrotron IR methods on the chemical composition of cicada wings will be immensely useful in understanding their unusual properties with a view to reproducing their characteristics in, for example, industry applications.

  7. Global Cicada Sound Collection I: Recordings from South Africa and Malawi by B. W. Price & M. H. Villet and harvesting of BioAcoustica data by GBIF.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ed; Price, Benjamin Wills; Rycroft, Simon; Villet, Martin H

    2015-01-01

    Sound collections for singing insects provide important repositories that underpin existing research (e.g. Price et al. 2007 at http://bio.acousti.ca/node/11801; Price et al. 2010) and make bioacoustic collections available for future work, including insect communication (Ordish 1992), systematics (e.g. David et al. 2003), and automated identification (Bennett et al. 2015). The BioAcoustica platform (Baker et al. 2015) is both a repository and analysis platform for bioacoustic collections: allowing collections to be available in perpetuity, and also facilitating complex analyses using the BioVeL cloud infrastructure (Vicario et al. 2011). The Global Cicada Sound Collection is a project to make recordings of the world's cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) available using open licences to maximise their potential for study and reuse. This first component of the Global Cicada Sound Collection comprises recordings made between 2006 and 2008 of Cicadidae in South Africa and Malawi. This collection of sounds includes 219 recordings of 133 voucher specimens, comprising 42 taxa (25 identified to species, all identified to genus) from South Africa and Malawi. The recordings have been used to underpin work on the species limits of cicadas in southern Africa, including Price et al. (2007) and Price et al. (2010). The specimens are deposited in the Albany Museum, Grahamstown, South Africa (AMGS). The harvesting of acoustic data as occurrence records by GBIF has been implemented by the Scratchpads Team at the Natural History Museum, London. This link increases the value of individual recordings and the BioAcoustica platform within the global infrastructure of biodiversity informatics by making specimen/occurence records from BioAcoustica available to a wider audience, and allowing their integration with other occurence datasets that also contribute to GBIF.

  8. The incidence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis since 1995 in Danish children and adolescents <17 years - based on nationwide registry data.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Michael Due; Baldal, Mira Eggebrecht; Nielsen, Rasmus Gaardskær; Nielsen, Jan; Lund, Ken; Nørgård, Bente Mertz

    2016-09-01

    Worldwide the incidence of pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is suspected to be increasing. Based on unselected nationwide register data the aim of this study is to examine the change in incidence of CD and UC in children and adolescents in Denmark. All children and adolescents <17 years with a diagnosis of CD or UC registered in the Danish National Patient Registry from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2013 were included. Using a Poisson regression model we estimated the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for the annual change in the incidence adjusted for gender and age. The cumulative incidence was described using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. The IRR for CD was 1.052 (95% CI: 1.039-1.065), and for UC the IRR was 1.022 (95% CI: 1.011-1.033), adjusted for age and gender. The incidence rate of CD increased during the study period to 10.0 (95% CI: 7.5-13.2) per 100,000 person years for girls and 9.4 (95% CI: 7.0-13.2) for boys, in 2013. Similar, the incidence of UC increased to 7.2 (95% CI: 5.0-9.9) per 100,000 person years for girls and 6.2 (95% CI: 4.3-8.7) for boys. In a period of 19 years from 1995 to 2013 we found an increasing incidence for pediatric UC and CD, especially pronounced for CD.

  9. Population structure of Cicada barbara Stål (Hemiptera, Cicadoidea) from the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco based on mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Juma, G A; Quartau, J A; Bruford, M W

    2008-02-01

    We assess the genetic history and population structure of Cicada barbara in Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula, based on analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The divergence between Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula populations was strongly corroborated by the molecular data, suggesting genetically isolated populations with a low level of gene flow. The Ceuta population from Spanish North Africa was more similar to the Iberian populations than the surrounding Moroccan populations, suggesting that the Strait of Gibraltar has not been acting as a strict barrier to dispersal while the Rif Mountains have. The Iberian Peninsula specimens showed a signature of demographic expansion before that which occurred in Morocco, but some of the assumptions related to the demographic parameters should be considered with caution due to the small genetic variation found. The high haplotype diversity found in Morocco implies higher demographic stability than in the Iberian Peninsula populations. These results do not, however, suggest a Moroccan origin for Iberian cicadas; but the most northwest region in Africa, such as Ceuta, might have acted as a southern refuge for Iberian cicadas during the most severe climatic conditions, from where they could expand north when climate improved. The separation of two subspecies within C. barbara (C. barbara lusitanica and C. barbara barbara) finds support with these results.

  10. Large-area high-performance SERS substrates with deep controllable sub-10-nm gap structure fabricated by depositing Au film on the cicada wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiwei, Qi; Yudong, Li; Ming, Yang; Qiang, Wu; Zongqiang, Chen; Wudeng, Wang; Wenqiang, Lu; Xuanyi, Yu; Jingjun, Xu; Qian, Sun

    2013-10-01

    Noble metal nanogap structure supports strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) which can be used to detect single molecules. However, the lack of reproducible fabrication techniques with nanometer-level control over the gap size has limited practical applications. In this letter, by depositing the Au film onto the cicada wing, we engineer the ordered array of nanopillar structures on the wing to form large-area high-performance SERS substrates. Through the control of the thickness of the Au film deposited onto the cicada wing, the gap sizes between neighboring nanopillars are fine defined. SERS substrates with sub-10-nm gap sizes are obtained, which have the highest average Raman enhancement factor (EF) larger than 2 × 108, about 40 times as large as that of commercial Klarite® substrates. The cicada wings used as templates are natural and environment-friendly. The depositing method is low cost and high throughput so that our large-area high-performance SERS substrates have great advantage for chemical/biological sensing applications.

  11. Large-area high-performance SERS substrates with deep controllable sub-10-nm gap structure fabricated by depositing Au film on the cicada wing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Noble metal nanogap structure supports strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) which can be used to detect single molecules. However, the lack of reproducible fabrication techniques with nanometer-level control over the gap size has limited practical applications. In this letter, by depositing the Au film onto the cicada wing, we engineer the ordered array of nanopillar structures on the wing to form large-area high-performance SERS substrates. Through the control of the thickness of the Au film deposited onto the cicada wing, the gap sizes between neighboring nanopillars are fine defined. SERS substrates with sub-10-nm gap sizes are obtained, which have the highest average Raman enhancement factor (EF) larger than 2 × 108, about 40 times as large as that of commercial Klarite® substrates. The cicada wings used as templates are natural and environment-friendly. The depositing method is low cost and high throughput so that our large-area high-performance SERS substrates have great advantage for chemical/biological sensing applications. PMID:24148212

  12. A Case of Osteomyelitis of the toe caused by Coccidioidomycosis in a 17 year-old with Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Ahmer; Boken, Daniel J; Nelson, Christine A; Totten, Vicken Y

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of a 17-year-old male who presented with pain in his right first toe. His pain and swelling had worsened and x-rays of his foot revealed erosive changes of the great toe distal phalanx suggesting possible osteomyelitis. His co-morbidities were morbid obesity and diabetes insipidus. He was admitted to the hospital, blood cultures were drawn, and he was started on vancomycin for presumed bacterial osteomyelitis. He underwent incision and drainage of the fluctuant abscess of the toe, where a culture of the wound was taken. Preliminary results grew fungi. Being located in an endemic area, he was started on anti-fungal treatment for presumed disseminated coccidioidomycosis; culture was positive for Coccidiodes immitis. He also had serology positive for coccidioidomycosis titers. He had uneventful hospital stay and was discharged on long-term oral antifungal therapy.

  13. Internal Consistency and Associated Characteristics of Informant Discrepancies in Clinic Referred Youths Age 11 to 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Pabón, Shairy C.; Youngstrom, Jennifer K.; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency of informant discrepancies in reports of youth behavior and emotional problems and their unique relations with youth, caregiver, and family characteristics. In a heterogeneous multisite clinic sample of 420 youths (ages 11 to 17 years), high internal consistency estimates were observed across measures of informant discrepancies. Further, latent profile analyses identified systematic patterns of discrepancies, characterized by their magnitude and direction (i.e., which informant reported greater youth problems). Additionally, informant discrepancies systematically and uniquely related to informants' own perspectives of youth mood problems, and these relations remained significant after taking into account multiple informants' reports of informant characteristics widely known to relate to informant discrepancies. These findings call into the question the prevailing view of informant discrepancies as indicative of unreliability and/or bias on the part of informants' reports of youths' behavior. PMID:21229442

  14. Academic well-being and smoking among 14- to 17-year-old schoolchildren in six European cities.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Jaana M; Lindfors, Pirjo; Rimpelä, Arja; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Rathmann, Katharina; Perelman, Julian; Federico, Bruno; Richter, Matthias; Kunst, Anton E; Lorant, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    It is well established that poor academic performance is related to smoking, but the association between academic well-being and smoking is less known. We measured academic well-being by school burnout and schoolwork engagement and studied their associations with smoking among 14- to 17-year-old schoolchildren in Belgium, Germany, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, and Portugal. A classroom survey (2013 SILNE survey, N = 11,015) was conducted using the Short School Burnout Inventory and the Schoolwork Engagement Inventory. Logistic regression, generalized linear mixed models, and ANOVA were used. Low schoolwork engagement and high school burnout increased the odds for daily smoking in all countries. Academic performance was correlated with school burnout and schoolwork engagement, and adjusting for it slightly decreased the odds for smoking. Adjusting for socioeconomic factors and school level had little effect. Although high school burnout and low schoolwork engagement correlate with low academic performance, they are mutually independent risk factors for smoking.

  15. Immunological abnormalities 17 years after accidental exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, A M; Wild, G; Ward, J D; Ward, A M

    1988-01-01

    Eighteen workers were reviewed 17 years after accidental exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin). Clinical assessment showed that they were in good health. A study of several biochemical and immunological parameters in these subjects and in 15 carefully matched controls showed no difference in serum concentrations of hepatic enzymes between exposed workers and controls. Although mean serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglyceride were higher in exposed subjects than in controls, the results did not reach statistical significance. Antinuclear antibodies and immune complexes were detected significantly more frequently in the peripheral blood of workers exposed to dioxin. There was no significant difference between exposed workers and controls in the number of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and helper and suppressor T cell counts in peripheral blood, but the number of natural killer cells identified by the monoclonal antibody Leu-7 was significantly higher in workers exposed to dioxin. PMID:3264183

  16. Handgrip Strength: A Population-Based Study of Norms and Age Trajectories for 3- to 17-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Bohannon, Richard W; Wang, Ying-Chih; Bubela, Deborah; Gershon, Richard C

    2017-04-01

    To provide normative values and equations for grip strength obtained from a population-based sample of individuals 3 to 17 years of age. This cross-sectional study used grip strength data from 2706 participants (49.2% males, 91% right-hand dominant) in the normative phase of the National Institutes of Health Toolbox project. Analyses showed greater strength in the dominant hand in boys and with each yearly increase in age. Normative data are presented separately for each side, sex, and age. Separate regression equations using age and weight as explanatory variables of grip strength are provided for each side by sex. The normative data can serve as a guide for interpreting grip strength measurements. The trajectories can be used to investigate the effect of various pathologies and conditions on grip strength during physical maturation.

  17. From Benign to Malign in a Case of Cervical Adenopathy in a 17-Year-Old Adolescent: Diagnostic Traps

    PubMed Central

    Trailescu, Maria; Burlea, Amelia; Covaci, Claudia; Balan, Ozana; Pavel, Adrian; Crișan, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Distinguishing between benign and malign adenopathies remains a challenge and could represent a source of error in a diagnosis. We report a case of right laterocervical adenopathy in a 17-year-old teenager admitted to hospital with an episode of fever associated with dysphagia, congested pharynx, and pultaceous deposits. Initially the adenopathy was considered to be secondary to a coinfection with Streptococcus B-hemolytic and Epstein-Barr virus, as suggested by the positive bacteriological and serological tests. The onset of the adenopathy before the episode and the ultrasound modifications raised the suspicion of a malignancy, later confirmed by the histopathologic examination of the lymph node excision. The final diagnosis was nodal metastasis of an undifferentiated lymphoepithelial carcinoma with an ENT starting point. Currently, the adolescent is hospitalised in the ENT ward, where the pharynx carcinoma with nodal metastasis was confirmed. Sometimes the infectious context can mask or unmask a malign chronic disease with insidious evolution. PMID:28018695

  18. Socio-economic and demographic variations in school lunch participation of French children aged 3-17 years.

    PubMed

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel; Turck, Dominique

    2011-02-01

    To assess school canteen attendance in a French nationally representative sample of children and to analyse its association with the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the children and their families. Data from the second French national cross-sectional food consumption survey (INCA2), performed in 2006-2007, were used. Information on usual weekly school canteen attendance was collected through a self-reported questionnaire, and demographic and socio-economic variables through a face-to-face questionnaire. The associations between school canteen attendance and the socio-economic and demographic variables were investigated by multivariate logistic regression analyses. The INCA2 sample was representative of the children aged 3-17 years in France. Analysis was performed on 1413 schoolchildren who completed the school canteen attendance questions. Some 65·6 % of schoolchildren aged 3-17 years had school lunch at least once weekly. This rate of attendance was positively correlated with age. Whatever the school level, school canteen attendance was positively associated with the educational level of the caregiver/parent. In pre- and elementary-school children, enrolment at the school canteen was also higher when the caregiver/parent worked, or in single-parent families. In secondary-school children, school lunch participation decreased with children living in more densely populated areas and increased with the level of the household's living standards. School canteen attendance was positively associated with children's socio-economic background. This could reduce the effectiveness of the forthcoming school meal composition regulations designed to improve the diet of children from deprived backgrounds, who are more likely to have unhealthy food habits.

  19. Correlates of HPV knowledge among low-income, minority mothers with a child 9 – 17 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Davlin, S.L.; Berenson, A.B.; Rahman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective To assess the level of HPV knowledge among low income, minority mothers with a child between the ages of 9 – 17 years. Design Women who sought care at a university-based clinic and had at least one child aged 9 to 17 years were approached. A total of 638 mothers were recruited. Only those who had heard of HPV were included in the correlation analyses (n = 468). Main Outcome Measures HPV knowledge was assessed utilizing a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 20 questions. Results There were differences between those who had heard of HPV and those who had not. More of those who had not heard of HPV were Hispanic (63%), low-income (89%), and did not graduate high school (59%). Of those who had heard of HPV, the majority did not answer 50% of questions correctly. Few knew the vaccine could prevent genital warts (19.7%). Factors independently associated with HPV knowledge included age, personal history of HPV, cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer, acquiring knowledge from ≥2 sources, having known someone with HPV or cervical cancer, having seen a brochure on the vaccine, and having seen an advertisement for the vaccine. Conclusions Knowledge regarding HPV is low among low-income women with children in the target age range for HPV vaccination. Increased awareness should focus on genital warts and other cancers, since this population has virtually no knowledge of other health outcomes related to HPV infection. Educational programs tailored to this population need to be developed to increase vaccination. PMID:25444051

  20. Cervical and shoulder postural assessment of adolescents between 15 and 17 years old and association with upper quadrant pain

    PubMed Central

    Ruivo, Rodrigo M.; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro; Carita, Ana I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is sparse literature that provides evidence of cervical and shoulder postural alignment of 15 to 17-year-old adolescents and that analyzes sex differences. Objectives: To characterize the postural alignment of the head and shoulder in the sagittal plane of 15 to 17-year-old Portuguese adolescents in natural erect standing and explore the relationships between three postural angles and presence of neck and shoulder pain. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools in Portugal. 275 adolescent students (153 females and 122 males) aged 15 to 17 were evaluated. Sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were measured with photogrammetry and PAS software. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder Assessment (ASES) was used to assess shoulder pain, whereas neck pain was self-reported with a single question. Results: Mean values of sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were 17.2±5.7, 47.4±5.2, and 51.4±8.5º, respectively. 68% of the participants revealed protraction of the head, whereas 58% of them had protraction of the shoulder. The boys showed a significantly higher mean cervical angle, and adolescents with neck pain revealed lower mean cervical angle than adolescents without neck pain. 53% of the girls self-reported regular neck pain, contrasting with 19% of the boys. Conclusions: This data shows that forward head and protracted shoulder are common postural disorders in adolescents, especially in girls. Neck pain is prevalent in adolescents, especially girls, and it is associated with forward head posture. PMID:25054381

  1. National, Regional, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13-17 Years - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tanja Y; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Singleton, James A; Yankey, David; Markowitz, Lauri E; Fredua, Benjamin; Williams, Charnetta L; Meyer, Sarah A; Stokley, Shannon

    2017-08-25

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents routinely receive tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap), meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (1) at age 11-12 years. ACIP also recommends catch-up vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine, measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, and varicella vaccine for adolescents who are not up to date with childhood vaccinations. ACIP recommends a booster dose of MenACWY at age 16 years (1). In December 2016, ACIP updated HPV vaccine recommendations to include a 2-dose schedule for immunocompetent adolescents initiating the vaccination series before their 15th birthday (2). To estimate adolescent vaccination coverage in the United States, CDC analyzed data from the 2016 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) for 20,475 adolescents aged 13-17 years.* During 2015-2016, coverage increased for ≥1 dose of Tdap (from 86.4% to 88.0%) and for each HPV vaccine dose (from 56.1% to 60.4% for ≥1 dose). Among adolescents aged 17 years, coverage with ≥2 doses of MenACWY increased from 33.3% to 39.1%. In 2016, 43.4% of adolescents (49.5% of females; 37.5% of males) were up to date with the HPV vaccination series, applying the updated HPV vaccine recommendations retrospectively.(†) Coverage with ≥1 HPV vaccine dose varied by metropolitan statistical area (MSA) status and was lowest (50.4%) among adolescents living in non-MSA areas and highest (65.9%) among those living in MSA central cities.(§) Adolescent vaccination coverage continues to improve overall; however, substantial opportunities exist to further increase HPV-associated cancer prevention.

  2. Frontal Lobe Morphometry with MRI in a Normal Age Group of 6-17 Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    İlkay Koşar, M; Otağ, İlhan; Sabancıoğulları, Vedat; Atalar, Mehmet; Tetiker, Hasan; Otağ, Aynur; Çimen, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Background Morphometric data of the frontal lobe are important for surgical planning of lesions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide suitable data for this purpose. Objectives In our study, the morphometric data of mid-sagittal MRI of the frontal lobe in certain age and gender groups of children have been presented. Patients and Methods In a normal age group of 6-17-year-old participants, the length of the line passing through predetermined different points, including the frontal pole (FP), commissura anterior (AC), commissura posterior (PC), the outermost point of corpus callosum genu (AGCC), the innermost point of corpus callosum genu (IGCC), tuberculum sella (TS), AGCC and IGCC points parallel to AC-PC line and the point such line crosses at the frontal lobe surface (FCS) were measured in three age groups (6-9, 10-13 and 14-17 years) for each gender. Results The frontal lobe morphometric data were higher in males than females. Frontal lobe measurements peak at the age group of 10-13 in the male and at the age group of 6-13 in the female. In boys, the length of FP-AC increases 4.1% in the 10-13 age group compared with the 6-9-year-old group, while this increase is 2.3% in girls. Conclusion Differences in age and gender groups were determined. While the length of AGCC-IGCC increases 10.4% in adults, in children aged 6-17, the length of AC-PC is 11.5% greater than adults. These data will contribute to the preliminary assessment for developing a surgical plan in fine interventions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings in children. PMID:23599707

  3. Continuity of care in primary care and association with survival in older people: a 17-year prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Maarsingh, Otto R; Henry, Ykeda; van de Ven, Peter M; Deeg, Dorly JH

    2016-01-01

    Background Although continuity of care is a widely accepted core principle of primary care, the evidence about its benefits is still weak. Aim To investigate whether continuity of care in general practice is associated with better survival in older people. Design and setting Data were derived from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, an ongoing cohort study in older people in the Netherlands. The study sample consisted of 1712 older adults aged ≥60 years, with 3-year follow-up cycles up to 17 years (1992–2009), and mortality follow-up until 2013. Method Continuity of care was defined as the duration of the ongoing therapeutic relationship between patient and GP. The Herfindahl–Hirschman Index was used to calculate the continuity of care (COC). A COC index value of 1 represented maximum continuity. COC index values <1 were divided into tertiles, with a fourth category for participants with maximum COC. Cox regression analysis was used to investigate the association between COC and survival time. Results Seven hundred and forty-two participants (43.3%) reported a maximum COC. Among the 759 participants surviving 17 years, 251 (33.1%) still had the same GP. The lowest COC category (index >0–0.500) showed significantly greater mortality than those in the maximum COC category (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.42). There were no confounders that affected this HR. Conclusion This study demonstrates that low continuity of care in general practice is associated with a higher risk of mortality, strengthening the case for encouragement of continuity of care. PMID:27324627

  4. Continuity of care in primary care and association with survival in older people: a 17-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Maarsingh, Otto R; Henry, Ykeda; van de Ven, Peter M; Deeg, Dorly Jh

    2016-08-01

    Although continuity of care is a widely accepted core principle of primary care, the evidence about its benefits is still weak. To investigate whether continuity of care in general practice is associated with better survival in older people. Data were derived from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, an ongoing cohort study in older people in the Netherlands. The study sample consisted of 1712 older adults aged ≥60 years, with 3-year follow-up cycles up to 17 years (1992-2009), and mortality follow-up until 2013. Continuity of care was defined as the duration of the ongoing therapeutic relationship between patient and GP. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index was used to calculate the continuity of care (COC). A COC index value of 1 represented maximum continuity. COC index values <1 were divided into tertiles, with a fourth category for participants with maximum COC. Cox regression analysis was used to investigate the association between COC and survival time. Seven hundred and forty-two participants (43.3%) reported a maximum COC. Among the 759 participants surviving 17 years, 251 (33.1%) still had the same GP. The lowest COC category (index >0-0.500) showed significantly greater mortality than those in the maximum COC category (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.42). There were no confounders that affected this HR. This study demonstrates that low continuity of care in general practice is associated with a higher risk of mortality, strengthening the case for encouragement of continuity of care. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  5. Frontal lobe morphometry with MRI in a normal age group of 6-17 year-olds.

    PubMed

    Ilkay Koşar, M; Otağ, Ilhan; Sabancıoğulları, Vedat; Atalar, Mehmet; Tetiker, Hasan; Otağ, Aynur; Cimen, Mehmet

    2012-12-01

    Morphometric data of the frontal lobe are important for surgical planning of lesions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide suitable data for this purpose. In our study, the morphometric data of mid-sagittal MRI of the frontal lobe in certain age and gender groups of children have been presented. In a normal age group of 6-17-year-old participants, the length of the line passing through predetermined different points, including the frontal pole (FP), commissura anterior (AC), commissura posterior (PC), the outermost point of corpus callosum genu (AGCC), the innermost point of corpus callosum genu (IGCC), tuberculum sella (TS), AGCC and IGCC points parallel to AC-PC line and the point such line crosses at the frontal lobe surface (FCS) were measured in three age groups (6-9, 10-13 and 14-17 years) for each gender. The frontal lobe morphometric data were higher in males than females. Frontal lobe measurements peak at the age group of 10-13 in the male and at the age group of 6-13 in the female. In boys, the length of FP-AC increases 4.1% in the 10-13 age group compared with the 6-9-year-old group, while this increase is 2.3% in girls. Differences in age and gender groups were determined. While the length of AGCC-IGCC increases 10.4% in adults, in children aged 6-17, the length of AC-PC is 11.5% greater than adults. These data will contribute to the preliminary assessment for developing a surgical plan in fine interventions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings in children.

  6. A modified laparoscopic hernioplasty (TAPP) is the standard procedure for inguinal and femoral hernias: a retrospective 17-year analysis with 1,123 hernia repairs.

    PubMed

    Peitsch, Werner K J

    2014-02-01

    procedures, 2.4%). Within 2 years after a modified TAPP, only 1 of 230 patients (0.4%) experienced a recurrent hernia (1 relapse after 265 hernioplasties, 0.4%). After the modified TAPP procedure, 52.9% (n = 9) of the patients with a recurrent hernia had a second repair at our hospital, and 35.3% (n = 6) had the second repair at other hospitals, whereas 2 patients (11.8 %) renounced a repeat surgical intervention. The recurrence rate after a modified TAPP procedure for all the patients (n = 896) was 1.8%. The study participants with primary hernias (n = 765) had a 1.7% recurrence rate, whereas the rate for recurrent hernias after anterior repair (n = 131) was 2.3 %. Incarcerated hernias (n = 47) and hernias after radical prostatectomy (n = 22) that were closed by the modified TAPP procedure resulted in no hernia recurrences. Only 1 of 47 patients with scrotal hernias had a hernia relapse. Of all the hernia recurrences between 1993 and 2009 (n = 76), 60.5% (n = 46) developed within 2 years after surgery, whereas 15.8% (n = 12) occurred after more than 5 years, and 4% (n = 3) occurred after more than 10 years. The recurrence rates also were higher for surgeons in the early period after completion of their personal learning curves (<50 modified TAPP procedures performed on their own responsibility). In a retrospective long-term study (2-17 years) from a single center with 1,108 patients and 1,123 modified TAPP procedures (93.9% of all hernia repairs), the hernia recurrence rate was 1.7% for adults with primary hernias (n = 765 patients) and 2.3% for adults with recurrent hernias after anterior repair (n = 131 patients). A modified TAPP procedure with suturing of hernia defects larger than 1 × 1 cm can be used as the standard procedure without recurrences for femoral hernias, incarcerated hernias, and hernias after radical prostatectomy, with low recurrence rates for scrotal hernias (2%). To collect quantitative data on hernia recurrence rates, postoperative follow-up studies

  7. Severe impact and subsequent recovery of a coral assemblage following the 1997-8 El Niño event: a 17-year study from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kelmo, Francisco; Attrill, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    The coral reefs of northern Bahia evolved in isolation from other Atlantic systems and under conditions of high environmental stress, particularly high turbidity. We have monitored the scleractinian assemblage of four shallow bank reefs (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) annually for 17 years since 1995, collecting quantitative data on diversity and density of coral colonies. As the sampling period included the 1997-8 El Niño event, the most severe on record, for the first time these results allow a quantitative assessment of the long-term impact of this major environmental stressor on such a coral assemblage. After El Niño, most species showed significantly reduced densities of colonies, this decline occurring for the subsequent two years without evidence of any new settlement until 2001. From 2000 to 2007 the species Porites astreoides went unrecorded. Recovery was slow, and multivariate analysis revealed that assemblages had not returned to the pre-El Niño state until 2011. It therefore took 13 years for full recovery of the coral assemblage to occur, which has consequences for reef systems if such El-Niño events become more frequent in the future.

  8. An acute in-patient psychiatric service for 16- to 17-year-old adolescents in the UK: a descriptive evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Duddu, Venu; Rhouma, Abdulhakim; Qureshi, Masood; Chaudhry, Imran Bashir; Drake, Terry; Sumra, Altaf; Husain, Nusrat

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method The need for an age-appropriate in-patient service for 16- to 17-year-olds led to the development of a 6-bed acute admissions unit in a non-metropolitan county in the UK. We provide a descriptive evaluation of the first 2 years of its operation. All admissions from April 2010 to March 2012 were reviewed, clinical details systematically recorded and descriptively analysed. Results Ninety-seven young people were admitted during this period (a third were compulsorily detained under the Mental Health Act 1983). The average length of stay was 3–4 weeks. The most common presenting complaints were self-harm and low mood, usually in the context of life events and childhood adversity. Nearly half had substance misuse and other risk-taking behaviours. A third presented with psychotic symptoms. Adjustment and anxiety disorders were most common, followed by alcohol/substance use disorders, depressive illnesses and psychotic illnesses. Comorbidity was the rule rather than the exception. Most patients improved by the time of discharge. Clinical implications The unit provides an accessible and effective age-appropriate service and is likely to constitute an important component of the comprehensive child and adolescent mental health service strategy in the county. PMID:27752345

  9. Severe Impact and Subsequent Recovery of a Coral Assemblage following the 1997–8 El Niño Event: A 17-Year Study from Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kelmo, Francisco; Attrill, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    The coral reefs of northern Bahia evolved in isolation from other Atlantic systems and under conditions of high environmental stress, particularly high turbidity. We have monitored the scleractinian assemblage of four shallow bank reefs (Praia do Forte, Itacimirim, Guarajuba and Abai) annually for 17 years since 1995, collecting quantitative data on diversity and density of coral colonies. As the sampling period included the 1997–8 El Niño event, the most severe on record, for the first time these results allow a quantitative assessment of the long-term impact of this major environmental stressor on such a coral assemblage. After El Niño, most species showed significantly reduced densities of colonies, this decline occurring for the subsequent two years without evidence of any new settlement until 2001. From 2000 to 2007 the species Porites astreoides went unrecorded. Recovery was slow, and multivariate analysis revealed that assemblages had not returned to the pre-El Niño state until 2011. It therefore took 13 years for full recovery of the coral assemblage to occur, which has consequences for reef systems if such El-Niño events become more frequent in the future. PMID:23741459

  10. [Surgical treatment of anorectal fistulas. A 17-year experience at the Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán"].

    PubMed

    Ayala, M; Jiménez, R; García-Osogobio, S; Mass, W; Gómez, F; Remes-Troche, J M; Arch, J; Takahaskhi, T

    1999-01-01

    Surgical treatment for anorectal fistula may be difficult because of the risk of recurrence, prolonged healing or anal incontinence following the operation. To analyze the experience with the surgical management of ano-rectal fistula during a period of 17 years. The medical records of 105 patients with anorectal fistulas were reviewed retrospectively, with analysis of demographic and clinical data, operative treatment, and results. There were 73% men and 27% women. Mean age was 45 years. 86% had an underlying chronic disease, most frequently diabetes mellitus (21%) and obesity (14%). No anatomic classification of the fistulous tract was done in 86% of cases, and inter-sphincteric tracts were the most frequent type in the classified cases. In 90% of cases, treatment was fistulectomy. Complications occurred in 13% of cases, mainly delayed healing (6.5%). Recurrent disease was documented in 11 cases (10%), and the majority were treated with a new fistulectomy. There were no cases with anal incontinence following the operation. The necessity of performing the anatomic classification of ano-rectal fistula should be emphasized. Fistulectomy was the most frequent surgical procedure.

  11. The energy, nutrient and food intakes of teenagers aged 16-17 years in Britain. 1. Energy, macronutrients and non-starch polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Crawley, H F

    1993-07-01

    As part of the 16-17 year follow-up of the 1970 longitudinal birth cohort study, The International Centre for Child Studies collected dietary data from a National sample of 4760 teenagers. Dietary intake data were collected in 4 d unweighed dietary diaries, distributed by schools and returned by post. Dietary intake data were quantitatively coded, and the intakes of energy, macronutrients and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) are reported. Intakes of fat and extrinsic sugars, expressed as a percentage of energy intake, exceeded recent recommendations (Department of Health, 1991), and the intakes of intrinsic sugars, milk sugars and starch, and NSP were considerably lower than recommended. Only 25% of males and 10% of females achieved intakes of 18 g NSP/d. The main food groups contributing fat (%) to the diets of teenagers (for males and females respectively) were meat and meat products (24.2, 22.1), spreading fats (18.6, 18.1) and cereals and cereal products (18, 17.8), whilst the major sources of sugars (%) were (for males and females respectively) sugar and confectionary (28.2, 26.4), cereals and cereal products (24.5, 23) and beverages (21.9, 21.5). Less than half the cohort drank alcohol during the recording period, and about 6% of females drank more than 2 units alcohol/d, and about 6% of males drank more than 3 units alcohol/d.

  12. [Epidemiological survey on pre-hypertension and hypertension prevalence among adolescents aged 11 to 17 years in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Hong, Bin; Jin, Xue-juan; Su, Yan-ling; Xiao, Lei; Cai, Qian-fang; Zou, Hui-fei; Ge, Jun-bo

    2012-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension as well as the association with overweight/obesity in Shanghai adolescents. School children aged 11 - 17 years in four schools in Shanghai were included in this survey. All students were visited in May 2010 at school by trained nurses or physicians who administered a questionnaire and carried out anthropometric measurements. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, heart rate and blood pressure. Repeat measurements were performed in school children with elevated blood pressure within one month. The pre-hypertension and hypertension was defined on the basis of the 2004 National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group definitions. The overweight and obesity was defined using cutoff points recommended by Working Group of Obesity, China (WGOC). There were 4175 school children aged 11 - 17 years [mean (15.0 ± 1.9) years, 52.3% (n = 2183) girls and 47.7% (n = 1992) boys]. There were 72.5% (n = 3025) participants with normal blood pressure [ girls (n = 1666) 76.3% and boys (n = 1361) 68.3%], 18.0% (n = 750)participants with pre-hypertension [14.2% (n = 310) for girls and 22.1% (n = 440) for boys], 8.3% (n = 346) participants with stage 1 hypertension [8.2% (n = 179) for girls and 8.3% (n = 165) for boys] and 1.3% (n = 54) participants with stage 2 hypertension [1.3% (n = 28) for girls and 1.3% (n = 26) for boys]. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6.7% (n = 147) and 3.0% (n = 66) for girls and 13.7% (n = 273) and 6.3% (n = 125) for boys. After adjusting for gender, age, parental history of hypertension and physical activities, multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the overweight [adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval: 1.42 (1.16 - 1.75)] and obesity [adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval: 2.35 (1.78 - 3.11)] were independent predictors of elevated blood pressure in this cohort. The prevalence of elevated blood pressure is common in

  13. Revascularization in a 17-Year-Old Girl with Neurofibromatosis and Severe Hypertension Caused by Renal Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Geavlete, Oliviana D.; Botezatu, Simona; Postu, Marin; Popescu, Bogdan A.; Ginghina, Carmen; Coman, Ioan M.

    2017-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis caused by neurofibromatosis is a rare cause of renovascular hypertension. This hypertension can develop during childhood and is one of the leading causes of poor outcome. We report the case of a 17-year-old girl who was incidentally diagnosed with severe hypertension. During her examination for secondary hypertension, we reached a diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1 on the basis of a cluster of typical findings: optic nerve glioma, café au lait spots, nodular neurofibromas, and axillary freckling. Renal angiograms revealed a hemodynamically significant left renal artery stenosis (70%). Renal angioplasty with a self-expanding stent was performed one month later for rapidly progressive renal artery stenosis (90%) and uncontrolled blood pressure. Excellent blood pressure control resulted immediately and was maintained as of the 2-year follow-up evaluation. We think that percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty can be effective in select patients who have neurofibromatosis type 1 and refractory hypertension caused by renal artery stenosis. PMID:28265213

  14. An Exploration of High School (12 17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2007-03-01

    The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal decisions. The aim of this study was to examine the development of understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes as students progress through high school. In a cross-sectional case study, data was obtained from student interviews and written surveys of students aged 12 to 17 years. The results indicate that students' ability to provide a generally accepted definition and examples of biotechnology, cloning and genetically modified foods was relatively poor amongst 12 13 year old students but improved in older students. Most students approved of the use of biotechnology processes involving micro-organisms, plants and humans and disapproved of the use of animals. Overall, 12 13 year old students' attitudes were less favourable than older students regardless of the context. An awareness of the development and range of students' understandings and attitudes may lead to a more appropriate use of biotechnology curriculum materials and thus improved biotechnology education in schools.

  15. Stability of executive functioning measures in 8-17-year-old children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Piovesana, Adina M; Ross, Stephanie; Whittingham, Koa; Ware, Robert S; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the stability of executive functioning (EF) measures in children and adolescents aged 8-17 years with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Here 44 participants with unilateral CP (mean age = 11 years, 11 months; Manual Abilities Classification Scale Level I = 6 and Level II = 37; Gross Motor Function Classification Scale Level I = 22 and Level II = 22) were randomized into the wait-list control group of a large randomized controlled trial. Participants had baseline testing with Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition Short Form (WISC-IV-SF) and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) subtests. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF). Participants were re-assessed 20 ±2 weeks later with a shortened test battery including the D-KEFS subtests; Digit Span, Coding and Symbol Search (WISC-IV); and BRIEF. Pearson's test-retest reliabilities and Reliable change scores were calculated. Results indicated excellent to fair test-retest reliabilities (r = 0.91-0.74) for all measures except Digit Span Backwards (r = 0.62), Inhibition (r = 0.69), and Initiate (r = 0.68). Reliable change scores applying 90% confidence intervals for estimating reliable change while accounting for practice effects were provided for all measures. The data support the stability of EF measures in this population.

  16. Primary vaginal Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a 17-year-old woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Primary Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the genital tract of women is uncommon. Rarer still is its occurrence in the vagina, with only five cases described so far. Out of these, only one case was confirmed using molecular analysis. Case presentation We present an extremely rare case of Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a 17-year-old Indian girl. She presented with a vaginal mass that was initially diagnosed as a malignant round cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed diffuse positivity for vimentin, membranous positivity for MIC2, and positivity for BCL2 and FLI-1. On the other hand, she was negative for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, Myo D-1, myogenin and smooth muscle actin. A diagnosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumor was thus offered. Furthermore, a molecular analysis of our patient using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique showed positivity for t(11; 22) (q24; q12) (EWSR1-FLI1), thus confirming the diagnosis of a Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Our patient was offered chemotherapy on Institutional protocol EFT 2001. Conclusion This is a rare case of primary vaginal Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor, which was confirmed with molecular analysis, in the youngest patient known so far. This study reinforces the value of integrating morphological features with membranous MIC2 positivity, along with application of molecular techniques in objective identification of an Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor at uncommon sites. PMID:20233457

  17. The International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW TBE): Review of 17 years of activity and commitment.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Ursula

    2016-04-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been a growing public health problem in Europe and other parts of the world for the past 20 years. In 1999, in order to encourage the control of TBE, international experts created a new body: The International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE). This Working Group has been composed of internationally recognized scientific experts from tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEv)-endemic and non-endemic regions with extensive personal expertise in the field and a high level of commitment to improve the knowledge of TBE and to increase the public awareness of TBE. Since the foundation of the Working Group, ISW-TBE members meet annually. Every meeting is dedicated to a specific topic, and since 2004 a yearly conference report has been published to inform the scientific community about the latest developments. Among the specific issues that have been extensively discussed over the years were the following: clinical aspects of the disease, TBE in children and golden agers, epidemiology, possible causes for the increase in TBE incidence in Europe, TBE and awareness, TBE and travel, (low) vaccination rates, and the cooperation with the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). This paper gives an overview of the most important activities and achievements of the ISW-TBE over the past 17 years.

  18. Height, weight, body composition, and waist circumference references for 7- to 17-year-old children from rural Portugal.

    PubMed

    Chaves, R; Baxter-Jones, A; Souza, M; Santos, D; Maia, J

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to develop references of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and body fat for rural Portuguese children and adolescents and (2) to compare these results with other international references. The sample comprised 3094 children and adolescents aged 7-17 years from Vouzela, a central region in Portugal. Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference and body fat were measured. Centile curves were constructed using the LMS method. The Vouzela sample showed similar height median values compared to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) percentile curves but greater values for weight and BMI. Percent body fat 50th percentile was greater in Vouzela children and adolescents compared to their international peers, except for boys aged 8-12 years. Boys' waist circumference median values were similar to those from the USA, whilst girls were similar until 12 years of age, after which the differences increased with age. The percentile curves constructed provide population specific references for growth and body composition of children and adolescents from rural Portugal. It is expected that they will be a useful tool for clinical and public health settings in rural Portugal.

  19. Perforating eyelid injury extending to the brain stem in a 17-year-old woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This case report describes a patient who had a perforating eyelid injury that extended to the brain stem. Case presentation A 17-year-old Japanese woman complained of decreased vision in her right eye, with severe ocular pain and headaches, after the metal tip of an umbrella struck her upper right eyelid accidentally. Her vision in the right eye decreased to light perception with commotio retinae, intraretinal hemorrhage, and severe lid swelling. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated edema of the head of the caudate nucleus and putamen, and the edema extended to the hypothalamus. The MRI findings indicated that the umbrella tip had penetrated through the eyelid and the posterior orbital wall. Vision improved to 20/50 in the right eye, with subretinal fibrosis caused by the choroidal rupture. Conclusions We recommend that MRI be performed on the orbit and brain in patients who appear to have symptoms that are inconsistent with the observed injury and when a severe orbitocranial injury is suspected. PMID:20205766

  20. A mixed longitudinal anthropometric study of craniofacial growth of Colombian mestizos 6-17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Arboleda, Cleidy; Buschang, Peter H; Camacho, Jesus A; Botero, Paola; Roldan, Samuel

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the craniofacial growth of Colombian mestizos. Four age cohorts, including a total of 458 children and adolescents (262 males and 216 females), were included in this mixed-longitudinal study. The cohorts were first measured at ages 6, 9, 12, and 15 and every year thereafter for 3 years. Eight anthropometric measurements were taken, including three cranial (head perimeter, head width, and head length), two craniofacial (maxillary and mandibular length), and three facial (face height, bizygomatic width, and bigonial width). Multilevel analyses showed that all dimensions increased between 6 and 17 years of age. The cranium grew less than the craniofacial, which in turn grew less than the facial dimensions. In addition, vertical dimensions showed more growth than antero-posterior dimensions, which in turn grew more than transverse dimensions. None of the measurement showed statistically significant growth differences between subjects with normal occlusion and Class I or Class II malocclusions. Males were generally larger than females and showed greater growth rates. Except for facial width, whose yearly velocities decreased regularly with age, an adolescent growth spurt was evident for most of the male measurements. Yearly velocities for females followed a simpler decelerating pattern. The results provide reference data for Colombian mestizos, for whom normative data of other ethnic groups are not applicable. While occlusion had little or no effect, there were gender differences, as well as important growth differences between cranial and facial measurements.

  1. Multi-district coronary tree involvement in a 17-year-old girl with Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Serena, Tiziana; Valerio, Enrico; Castaldi, Biagio; Reffo, Elena; Milanesi, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of 17-year-old Chinese girl referred to our Pediatric Cardiology Unit for asthenia, reduced exercise tolerance, and dyspnea. Past medical history was relevant for multiple chest pain episodes in childhood and several syncopal episodes, for which the patient had been never evaluated. Clinical examination, electrocardiogram, and echocardiography were compatible with Williams-Beuren syndrome; such condition was later confirmed by genetic analysis. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed transmural fibrosis of the apex with impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (29 %), severe stenosis of aortic sinotubular junction with left and right coronary ostia involvement; more importantly, the whole coronary artery tree beyond ostia was affected by multiple stenosis and aneurysmatic tracts. Ascending aorta proved hypoplastic, with post-stenotic dilation and multiple aneurysms. At the end of the diagnostic process, surgical risk was considered too high to proceed with the correction. The presented case is of educational value since it provides good iconographical illustration of diffuse, multiple-site coronary artery tree involvement, a rather rare co-morbidity in Williams-Beuren syndrome.

  2. Intra-individual reaction time variability and all-cause mortality over 17 years: a community-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Philip J; Bunce, David; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Christensen, Helen

    2014-01-01

    very few studies have examined the association between intra-individual reaction time variability and subsequent mortality. Furthermore, the ability of simple measures of variability to predict mortality has not been compared with more complex measures. a prospective cohort study of 896 community-based Australian adults aged 70+ were interviewed up to four times from 1990 to 2002, with vital status assessed until June 2007. From this cohort, 770-790 participants were included in Cox proportional hazards regression models of survival. Vital status and time in study were used to conduct survival analyses. The mean reaction time and three measures of intra-individual reaction time variability were calculated separately across 20 trials of simple and choice reaction time tasks. Models were adjusted for a range of demographic, physical health and mental health measures. greater intra-individual simple reaction time variability, as assessed by the raw standard deviation (raw SD), coefficient of variation (CV) or the intra-individual standard deviation (ISD), was strongly associated with an increased hazard of all-cause mortality in adjusted Cox regression models. The mean reaction time had no significant association with mortality. intra-individual variability in simple reaction time appears to have a robust association with mortality over 17 years. Health professionals such as neuropsychologists may benefit in their detection of neuropathology by supplementing neuropsychiatric testing with the straightforward process of testing simple reaction time and calculating raw SD or CV.

  3. Beach response dynamics of a littoral cell using a 17-year single-point time series of sand thickness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, P.L.; Hubbard, D.M.; Dugan, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    A 17-year time series of near-daily sand thickness measurements at a single intertidal location was compared with 5. years of semi-annual 3-dimensional beach surveys at the same beach, and at two other beaches within the same littoral cell. The daily single point measurements correlated extremely well with the mean beach elevation and shoreline position of ten high-spatial resolution beach surveys. Correlations were statistically significant at all spatial scales, even for beach surveys 10s of kilometers downcoast, and therefore variability at the single point monitoring site was representative of regional coastal behavior, allowing us to examine nearly two decades of continuous coastal evolution. The annual cycle of beach oscillations dominated the signal, typical of this region, with additional, less intense spectral peaks associated with seasonal wave energy fluctuations (~. 45 to 90. days), as well as full lunar (~. 29. days) and semi-lunar (~. 13. days; spring-neap cycle) tidal cycles. Sand thickness variability was statistically linked to wave energy with a 2. month peak lag, as well as the average of the previous 7-8. months of wave energy. Longer term anomalies in sand thickness were also apparent on time scales up to 15. months. Our analyses suggest that spatially-limited morphological data sets can be extremely valuable (with robust validation) for understanding the details of beach response to wave energy over timescales that are not resolved by typical survey intervals, as well as the regional behavior of coastal systems. ?? 2011.

  4. A randomized trial of candidate inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine versus trivalent influenza vaccines in children aged 3-17 years.

    PubMed

    Domachowske, Joseph B; Pankow-Culot, Heidemarie; Bautista, Milagros; Feng, Yang; Claeys, Carine; Peeters, Mathieu; Innis, Bruce L; Jain, Varsha

    2013-06-15

    Two antigenically distinct influenza B lineages have cocirculated since 2001, yet trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) contain 1 influenza B antigen, meaning lineage mismatch with the vaccine is frequent. We assessed a candidate inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) containing both B lineages vs TIV in healthy children aged 3-17 years. Children were randomized 1:1:1 to receive QIV or 1 of 2 TIVs (either B/Victoria or B/Yamagata lineage; N = 2738). Hemagglutination-inhibition assays were performed 28 days after 1 or 2 doses in primed and unprimed children, respectively. Immunological noninferiority of QIV vs TIV against shared strains, and superiority against alternate-lineage B strains was based on geometric mean titers (GMTs) and seroconversion rates. Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01196988). Noninferiority against shared strains and superiority against alternate-lineage B strains was demonstrated for QIV vs TIV. QIV was highly immunogenic; seroconversion rates were 91.4%, 72.3%, 70.0%, and 72.5% against A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata, respectively. Reactogenicity and safety of QIV was consistent with TIV. QIV vs TIV showed superior immunogenicity for the additional B strain without interfering with immune responses to shared strains. QIV may offer improved protection against influenza B in children compared with current trivalent vaccines.

  5. A Randomized Trial of Candidate Inactivated Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine versus Trivalent Influenza Vaccines in Children Aged 3–17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Domachowske, Joseph B.; Pankow-Culot, Heidemarie; Bautista, Milagros; Feng, Yang; Claeys, Carine; Peeters, Mathieu; Innis, Bruce L.; Jain, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    Background. Two antigenically distinct influenza B lineages have cocirculated since 2001, yet trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) contain 1 influenza B antigen, meaning lineage mismatch with the vaccine is frequent. We assessed a candidate inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) containing both B lineages vs TIV in healthy children aged 3–17 years. Methods. Children were randomized 1:1:1 to receive QIV or 1 of 2 TIVs (either B/Victoria or B/Yamagata lineage; N = 2738). Hemagglutination-inhibition assays were performed 28 days after 1 or 2 doses in primed and unprimed children, respectively. Immunological noninferiority of QIV vs TIV against shared strains, and superiority against alternate-lineage B strains was based on geometric mean titers (GMTs) and seroconversion rates. Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01196988). Results. Noninferiority against shared strains and superiority against alternate-lineage B strains was demonstrated for QIV vs TIV. QIV was highly immunogenic; seroconversion rates were 91.4%, 72.3%, 70.0%, and 72.5% against A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata, respectively. Reactogenicity and safety of QIV was consistent with TIV. Conclusions. QIV vs TIV showed superior immunogenicity for the additional B strain without interfering with immune responses to shared strains. QIV may offer improved protection against influenza B in children compared with current trivalent vaccines. PMID:23470848

  6. Analysis of eating disorders among 12-17 year-old adolescents in the island of Gran Canaria.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Padorno, C; Scoffier, S; Polifrone, M; Martínez-Patiño, M J; Martínez-Vidal, A; Zagalaz Sánchez, M L

    2010-09-01

    A clinical pathology characterized by disturbances in eating behaviour has been often associated to socio-cultural factors that influence the psychopathology of these disorders. The alarming increase in the number of teenagers with eating disorders underscores the need to promote research on the underlying causes, and to identify high-risk subpopulations in need of effective targeted treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of eating disorders among an adolescent population of both sexes on the island of Gran Canaria. The sample was composed of adolescent boys and girls aged 12 to 17 years old (N=1364) who resided in different municipalities of Gran Canaria. The EAT-40 questionnaire was administered (cut-off point at 30), and body mass index measurements were assessed. The mean BMI for the 1364 subjects was 21.8 Kg/m²; 15% were underweight, and of these at least 1% obtained BMI values below 15 Kg/m². Thus, 13.4% of adolescents were potentially at risk of eating disorders according to the EAT-40 questionnaire. Moreover, the BMI was not significantly correlated to the EAT-40 and was not considered a sufficient parameter to establish the incidence of eating disorders.

  7. Video games use patterns and parenteral supervision in a clinical sample of Hispanic adolescents 13-17 years old.

    PubMed

    Colón-de Martí, Luz N; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Linnette; Nazario, Lelis L; Gutiérrez, Roberto; González, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Video games have become a popular entertainment among adolescents. Although some video games are educational, there are others with high content of violence and the potential for other harmful effects. Lack of appropriate supervision of video games use during adolescence, a crucial stage of development, may lead to serious behavioral consequences in some adolescents. There is also concern about time spent playing video games and the subsequent neglect of more developmentally appropriate activities, such as completing academic tasks. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess video game use patterns and parental supervision among 55 adolescent patients 13-17 years old (mean age 14.4 years; 56.4% males) and their parents. Parental supervision /monitoring of the adolescents video games use was not consistent and gender related differences were found regarding their video game use. Close to one third (32%) of the participants reported video game playing had interfered with their academic performance. Parents who understood video games rating system were more likely to prohibit their use due to rating. These findings underscore the need for clear and consistently enforced rules and monitoring of video games use by adolescents. Parents need to be educated about the relevance of their supervision, video games content and rating system; so they will decrease time playing and exposure to potentially harmful video games. It also supports the relevance of addressing supervision, gender-based parental supervisory styles, and patterns of video games use in the evaluation and treatment of adolescents.

  8. A cicada that ensures its fitness during climate warming by synchronizing its hatching time with the rainy season.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Minoru; Numata, Hideharu

    2011-12-01

    A shift in phenology due to climate change is associated with some recent changes in populations, as it can disrupt the synchrony between organisms' requirements and resource availability. This conceptual framework has been developed mostly in systems of trophic interactions. Many coincidental changes, however, are involved in trophic interactions, preventing us from describing the direct impact of phenological shifts on fitness consequences. Here we address the phenological relationship in a simple non-trophic interaction to document a causal process of a warming-driven fitness change in a cicada, Cryptotympana facialis, whose numbers increased dramatically in Osaka, Japan in the late 20th century. We show that synchrony of the rainy season and hatching time may have a substantial influence on hatching success, by 1) shifting the time of completion of embryonic development, and 2) supplying water at various intervals. We estimate the change in hatching time over the last eleven decades (1901-2009) based on meteorological records and the temperature-dependent rate of C. facialis embryogenesis. Our estimate shows that hatching had initially occurred after the rainy season, and that warming had advanced it into the rainy season in the late 20th century. The probability of hatching success was markedly variable, and often very low before this synchronization occurred, but became stably high thereafter. Our findings suggest that the stabilizing effect of this synchrony on fitness was indispensable to the recent population increase of C. facialis.

  9. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers useful for exploring introgression among species in the diverse New Zealand cicada genus Kikihia.

    PubMed

    Wade, Elizabeth J; Simon, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand cicada genus Kikihia Dugdale 1971 exhibits more than 20 contact zones between species pairs that vary widely in their divergence times (between 20,000 and 2 million years) in which some level of hybridization is evident. Mitochondrial phylogenies suggest some movement of genes across species boundaries. Biparentally inherited and quickly evolving molecular markers like microsatellites are useful for assessing gene flow levels. Here, we present six polymorphic microsatellite loci that amplify DNA from seven species across the genus Kikihia; Kikihia "northwestlandica," Kikihia "southwestlandica," Kikihia muta, Kikihia angusta, Kikihia "tuta," Kikihia "nelsonensis," and Kikihia "murihikua." The markers were developed using whole-genome shotgun sequencing on the 454 pyrosequencing platform. Moderate to high levels of polymorphisms were observed with 14-47 alleles for 213 individuals from 15 populations. Observed and expected heterozygosity range from 0 to 1 and 0.129 to 0.945, respectively. These new markers will be instrumental for the assessment of gene flow across multiple contact zones in Kikihia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  10. Development of mouthparts in the cicada Meimuna mongolica (Distant): successive morphological patterning and sensilla differentiation from nymph to adult

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yanan; Dietrich, Christopher H.; Dai, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Development of the mouthparts in the cicada Meimuna mongolica (Distant) is investigated here for the first time using scanning electron microscopy in order to document changes occurring in different nymphal instars and from nymph to adult, during which a shift from subterranean root-feeding to feeding on aboveground parts of the host plant occurs. The structure and component of mouthparts is similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. Fourteen types of sensilla and five types of cuticular processes were found on the mouthparts of nymphs and adults. Significant general transformations during development include changes in: (a) the size and shape of the labrum from square to long and shovel-shaped; (b) increases in type and quantity of sensilla with the stage of development; (c) the ridges at the tips of the mandiblar stylets become more prominent in later stages of nymphal development, while odontoid protrusions more prominent in the female than in the male of the adult; and (d) the cross section of the stylets is subcircular in nymphal stages but oblong elliptical in the adult. The implications of these mouthpart transformations on the feeding ability of nymphs and adults and their possible relationship to the feeding niche are discussed. PMID:27901084

  11. [Association between early age at menarche and blood pressure in Chinese girls aged 7 to 17 years].

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhi-yong; Ma, Jun; Wang, Hai-jun; Fu, Lian-guo; Dong, Bin; Yang, Yi-de

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the association between early age at menarche and blood pressure in Chinese girls aged 7 to 17 years. A total of 76 869 girls aged 7 to 17 years old were selected from the national physical fitness and health research in 2010, and probit analyses were used to calculate the average age of menarche for each province. Girls whose age were lower than the P 10 of age at menarche were judged as early age at menarche, and matched with two selected participant without menarche based on the age and the same urban or rural areas. High blood pressure was defined as whose systolic pressure and/or diastolic pressure was higher than P 95 of systolic pressure or diastolic pressure at the same age group. The difference of the rate of high blood pressure in girls with and without menarche by Chi-square test, and multilevel model was used to analyze the relationship between early age at menarche and blood pressure. In 76 869 girls, the values of height and BMI were separately (152.2 ± 10.4) cm and (18.7 ± 3.1) kg/m(2), while the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure were (103.4 ± 11.0) mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) and (65.0 ± 9.1) mm Hg respectively. In 47 942 girls (62.4%) had occurred menstruation while 28 927 girls (37.6%) without menstruation. The girls began to report menstruation at the age of 9, and 81.5% (7123/8736) girls had already reported menstruation at the age of 13. The rate of high blood pressure in menstruation group from 11 to 13 years were separately 6.71% (100/1490), 5.99% (265/4423) and 5.38% (383/7123), which was significant higher than 3.78% (265/7005), 3.33% (144/4328) and 4.09% (66/1613) in the same age group of non-menstruation (the values of Chi-square were separately 25.62, 32.36, 4.46, and all P values < 0.05) . The mean age of early age at menarche was 9 to 11 years old, and the rate of high blood pressure, high systolic pressure, and high diastolic pressure at 11 years group was separately 6.08% (49/806), 4.84% (39/806) and 3

  12. Secondhand smoke exposure predicted COPD and other tobacco-related mortality in a 17-year cohort study in China.

    PubMed

    He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Li, Liang Shou; Li, Lan Sun; Ko, Lisanne; Wu, Lei; Sun, Dong Ling; He, Shu Fang; Liang, Bao Qing; Hu, Frank B; Lam, Tai Hing

    2012-10-01

    Prospective evidence on the association between secondhand smoke (SHS) and COPD and ischemic stroke is scarce. We prospectively examined the relationship between SHS and major tobacco-related deaths, particularly COPD and stroke, in 910 Chinese (439 men, 471 women) who never smoked from a 17-year follow-up study in Xi’an, China. SHS exposure was defi ned as exposure to another person’s tobacco smoke at home or in the workplace. At baseline among the 910 subjects, 44.2% were exposed to SHS at home, 52.9% in the workplace, and 67.1% at home, work, or both. From March 1, 1994, to July 1, 2011, 249 (150 men,99 women) died within 14,016 person-years. Those who were exposed to SHS had increased mortality due to coronary heart disease (adjusted relative risk [RR], 2.15; 95% CI, 1.00-4.61), ischemic stroke (RR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.10-7.55), lung cancer (RR, 2.00; 95% CI, 0.62-6.40), COPD (RR, 2.30;95% CI, 1.06-5.00), and all causes (RR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.29-2.20), with significant dose-response relationships between cumulative SHS exposure at home and work and the increased risk of cause-specific and total mortality (P for linear trend ranged from .045 to , .001). This study shows dose-response relationships between SHS and major tobacco-related mortality and provides new evidence to support causation for COPD and ischemic stroke.

  13. Occurrence of asthma symptoms and of airflow obstruction in amateur swimmers between 8 and 17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Fiks, Iara Nely; Albuquerque, André Luis Pereira de; Dias, Leonardo; Carvalho, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of asthma symptoms and of airflow obstruction in amateur swimmers between 8 and 17 years of age, as well as to assess the awareness of asthma and asthma management among these swimmers, their parents, and their coaches. Our sample comprised 1,116 amateur swimmers who completed a modified version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood written questionnaire, to which questions regarding the reasons to initiate swimming and regarding asthma management had been added. In addition, the participants underwent spirometry prior to a swimming competition. The prevalence of asthma symptoms in the last 12 months was 11.5%, and 327 (29.4%) of the participants reported "wheezing or whistling" in the past. Of the 223 swimmers who reported "asthma ever" or "bronchitis ever", only 102 (45.7%) reported having ever been treated: the most common "treatment" was swimming (in 37.3%), and only 12.7% used inhaled corticosteroids. Of the 254 participants (22.7%) with airflow obstruction, only 52 (20.5%) reported having asthma symptoms. Asthma symptoms are present in amateur swimmers, and a considerable number of such swimmers have airflow obstruction without symptoms. It is therefore likely that the prevalence of asthma is underestimated in this population. It is worrisome that, in our study sample, the swimmers previously diagnosed with asthma were not using the recommended treatments for asthma. The clinical implications of these findings underscore the importance of implementing educational measures for amateur swimmers, as well as for their parents and coaches, to help them recognize asthma symptoms and the consequent risks in the sports environment, in order to allow prompt diagnosis and early clinical intervention.

  14. School smoking policies and educational inequalities in smoking behaviour of adolescents aged 14-17 years in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; de Korte, Rosaline; Soto, Victoria Eugenia; Richter, Matthias; Moor, Irene; Rimpelä, Arja H; Perelman, Julian; Federico, Bruno; Kunst, Anton E; Lorant, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    Studies on the effects of school smoking policies are inconclusive and there is no research on whether the effects of school policies vary by educational level. We examined the association between school smoking policies and smoking behaviour among adolescents aged 14-17 years in Europe and assessed educational inequalities in these associations. Data on 10,325 adolescents from 50 schools in six European cities were obtained from the 2013 SILNE survey. We measured student perceived policy, staff reported policy and its three subscales: regulations, communication and sanctions. The association between school policies and smoking outcomes (daily smoking and smoking on school premises) was adjusted for individual characteristics and for parental smoking. We tested interaction between school policies and educational level. Daily smoking was not associated with school smoking policies (eg, OR total policy=1.04, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.16 and OR student perceived policy=1.04, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.10). Smoking on school premises was less prevalent in schools with stronger staff reported total policy (OR=0.71, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.96). Other policy variables were also negatively associated with smoking on school premises, but not significantly (eg, OR student perceived policy=0.89, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.02). Associations between policy and smoking on school premises tended to be stronger in those with a low educational level, but none of the interactions tested were statistically significant. Our results suggest that school smoking policies may not have a direct effect on daily smoking but may reduce smoking on the school premises. We found no clear evidence for the effects of school policies to differ by educational level. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Contrasting Features of Monsoon Precipitation around the Meghalaya Plateau in Westerly and Easterly Regimes from a 17-year TRMM Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, H.; Fujinami, H.; Sato, T.; Murata, F.

    2016-12-01

    Precipitation features around the Meghalaya Plateau, northeast India, during summer were investigated using a 17-year (1998-2014) TRMM precipitation radar data. Precipitation features around the plateau change drastically between low-level southwesterly and southeasterly flows (westerly and easterly regimes respectively) over Bangladesh that fluctuate on intraseasonal timescales. In westerly regime (WR), strong moist southwesterly wind blows from the Bay of Bengal directly into the southern slope of the plateau through Bangladesh, resulting in very high precipitation along the southern slope due to orographic lifting of moist air. High rain frequency and intensity with high convective rain fraction primary causes the high rainfall. In contrast, in easterly regime (ER) strong moist southeasterly flow can flow out along the Gangetic Plain from northwestern Bangladesh without the orographic barriers, resulting in low precipitation around the plateau due to low rain frequency and intensity. A remarkable diurnal variation of rain frequency is commonly observed around the plateau in both regimes. The process of diurnal variation is crucial to get high rainfall over the southern slope as well as the intraseasonal oscillation. High rain frequency persists from 2100LT up to 1200LT over the southern slope in WR while modest rain frequency appears during 0000-0600 LT in ER. The vertically well-mixed layer due to surface heating below 950 hPa decelerates the prevailing low-level wind speed in the afternoon in both regimes over Bangladesh, while the wind speed accelerates during nighttime above a surface stable layer, resulting in higher wind speed in night than in noon in front of the southern slope. The stronger low-level horizontal wind toward the plateau during late night to early morning provides a favorable condition for frequent occurrence of precipitation along the southern slope. Thus, intraseasonal low-level wind regimes and land-atmosphere interaction over Bangladesh

  16. The relationship between birth weight, adiposity rebound and overweight at the age of 17 years (results of the Lithuanian longitudinal growth study, 1990 - 2008).

    PubMed

    Suchomlinov, Andrej; Tutkuviene, Janina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between overweight and obesity at the age of 17 years with a birth weight and time of an adiposity rebound. The results were based on data (N = 1535) collected from the personal health records of children born in 1990 in Vilnius city and region. The further growth of newborns with normal (3000 - 3999 g), suboptimal (2500 - 2999 g) and large (≥ 4000 g) birth weight was analyzed. Statistically significant results (p < 0.05) were obtained in girls: at the age of 17, the BMI of suboptimal, normal and large birth weight females was 19.87 ± 2.23 kg/m², 20.98 ± 2.78 kg/m² and 22.20 ± 3.52 kg/m² respectively. We also found that children with large birth weight had the highest risk to become overweight or obese later in their life. Both boys and girls overweight at the age of 17 had an earlier adiposity rebound (at the age of 5 years) in comparison with non-overweight children (their adiposity rebound had happened at the age of 6 - 7 years). However, the majority of children with an early adiposity rebound did not become overweight on the subsequent age period at once - it might happen later, already at the adolescence. Thus it is very important to carefully screen the growth of preschool children and start preventive measures against the overweight and obesity as early as possible.

  17. Safety and efficacy of calcipotriene plus betamethasone dipropionate topical suspension in the treatment of extensive scalp psoriasis in adolescents ages 12 to 17 years.

    PubMed

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Ganslandt, Cecilia; Kurvits, Merle; Schlessinger, Joel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the fixed combination calcipotriene 0.005% plus betamethasone dipropionate 0.064% topical suspension in adolescents with extensive scalp psoriasis. In this phase II, open-label, 8-week study, adolescents with psoriasis (ages 12-17 years) with 20% or more of the scalp area affected (at least moderate severity according to Investigator's Global Assessment [IGA]) were assigned to once-daily treatment with calcipotriene plus betamethasone dipropionate topical suspension. The primary endpoint was safety, focusing on calcium metabolism and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function. Secondary efficacy endpoints were the proportion of patient's achieving treatment success (clear or almost clear disease according to the IGA and clear or very mild disease according to the Patient's Global Assessment [PaGA]) and percentage change in investigator-assessed Total Sign Score (TSS). Pruritus was also assessed. Overall, 31 patients received treatment. Sixteen patients (52%) experienced a total of 20 adverse events; 19 were considered unrelated to study treatment, 14 were mild, and none were serious or lesional or perilesional on the scalp. One patient showed signs of mild adrenal suppression at week 4; the patient discontinued treatment and had normal test results at follow-up 4 weeks later. No cases of hypercalcemia were reported. By treatment end, treatment success was reported for 17 patients (55%) according to the IGA and 18 (58%) according to the PGA. Mean TSS improved from 6.9 at baseline to 2.9 at treatment end (59% improvement). By week 8, 28 patients (90%) experienced mild or no itching, versus 20 (65%) at baseline. Once-daily calcipotriene plus betamethasone dipropionate topical suspension was well tolerated and efficacious for the treatment of scalp psoriasis in adolescents. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Development of population structure and spatial distribution patterns of a restored forest during 17-year succession (1993-2010) in Pingshuo opencast mine spoil, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongqiu; Wang, Lianhua; Bai, Zhongke; Pan, Ziguan; Wang, Yun

    2015-07-01

    Afforestation of native tree species is often recommended for ecological restoration in mining areas, but the understanding of the ecological processes of restored vegetation is quite limited. In order to provide insight of the ecological processes of restored vegetation, in this study, we investigate the development of the population structure and spatial distribution patterns of restored Robinia pseudoacacia (ROPS) and Pinus tabuliformis (PITA) mixed forests during the 17 years of the mine spoil period of the Pingshuo opencast mine, Shanxi Province, China. After a 17-year succession, apart from the two planted species, Ulmus pumila (ULPU), as an invasive species, settled in the plot along with a large number of small diameter at breast height (DBH) size. In total, there are 10,062 living individual plants, much more than that at the plantation (5105), and ROPS had become the dominant species with a section area with a breast height of 9.40 m(2) hm(-2) and a mean DBH of 6.72 cm, much higher than both PITA and ULPU. The DBH size classes of all the total species showed inverted J-shaped distributions, which may have been a result of the large number of small regenerated ULPU trees. The DBH size classes of both ROPS and PITA showed peak-type structures with individuals mainly gathering in the moderate DBH size class, indicating a relatively healthy DBH size class structure. Meanwhile, invasive ULPU were distributed in a clear L shape, concentrating on the small DBH size class, indicating a relatively low survival rate for adult trees. Both ROPS and PITA species survival in the plantation showed uniform and aggregated distribution at small scales and random with scales increasing. ULPU showed a strong aggregation at small scales as well as random with scales increasing. Both the population structure and spatial distribution indicated that ROPS dominates and will continue to dominate the community in the future succession, which should be continuously monitored.

  19. Crisaborole Topical Ointment, 2% in Patients Ages 2 to 17 Years with Atopic Dermatitis: A Phase 1b, Open-Label, Maximal-Use Systemic Exposure Study.

    PubMed

    Zane, Lee T; Kircik, Leon; Call, Robert; Tschen, Eduardo; Draelos, Zoe Diana; Chanda, Sanjay; Van Syoc, Merrie; Hebert, Adelaide A

    2016-07-01

    Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) is a promising target in atopic dermatitis (AD) treatment. The pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and efficacy of crisaborole topical ointment, 2% (formerly AN2728) (Anacor Pharmaceuticals, Palo Alto, CA), a boron-based benzoxaborole PDE4 inhibitor, were evaluated in children with mild to moderate AD. This phase 1b, open-label, maximal-use study of crisaborole topical ointment, 2% applied twice daily (dose 3 mg/cm(2) ) for 28 days enrolled patients ages 2 to 17 years with extensive AD involving 25% or more or 35% or more treatable body surface area, depending on age. Primary PK and safety assessments included systemic exposure to crisaborole and its metabolites after 7 days of treatment and the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Secondary efficacy assessments included change from baseline in Investigator Static Global Assessment (ISGA), treatment success (ISGA score ≤1 with a two-grade or greater improvement from baseline), and improvement in five AD signs and symptoms. Of 34 patients enrolled, 31 completed the study. Crisaborole was rapidly absorbed, with limited systemic exposure between days 1 and 8. Twenty-three of 34 patients reported one or more TEAEs; 95% were mild or moderate and one patient discontinued because of a TEAE. Mean ISGA scores declined from 2.65 at baseline to 1.15 at day 29, 47.1% of patients achieved treatment success, and 64.7% of patients achieved ISGA scores of clear (0) or almost clear . Mean severity scores for AD signs and symptoms declined throughout the study. This open-label study provides evidence that crisaborole topical ointment, 2% was well tolerated, with limited systemic exposure under maximal-use conditions in patients ages 2 years and older. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Dermatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A new Neotibicen cicada subspecies (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from the southeastern USA forms hybrid zones with a widespread relative despite a divergent male calling song.

    PubMed

    Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R

    2017-05-31

    A morphologically cryptic subspecies of Neotibicen similaris (Smith and Grossbeck) is described from forests of the Apalachicola region of the southeastern United States. Although the new form exhibits a highly distinctive male calling song, it hybridizes extensively where it meets populations of the nominate subspecies in parapatry, by which it is nearly surrounded. This is the first reported example of hybridization between North American nonperiodical cicadas. Acoustic and morphological characters are added to the original description of the nominate subspecies, and illustrations of complex hybrid song phenotypes are presented. The biogeography of N. similaris is discussed in light of historical changes in forest composition on the southeastern Coastal Plain.

  1. Cicada genus Pomponia Stål, 1866 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from Vietnam and Cambodia, with a new species, a new record, and a key to the species.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hong-Thai; Lee, Young June; Constant, Jerome

    2015-03-03

    The genus Pomponia Stål, 1866 from Vietnam and Cambodia is reviewed . Pomponia brevialata Lee & Pham, sp. nov. is described from Vietnam. Pomponia backanensis Pham & Yang, 2009 is added to the Cambodian cicada fauna. A key to the seven Vietnamese and Cambodian species of the genus Pomponia Stål, 1866 is provided: P. linearis (Walker, 1850), P. backanensis Pham & Yang, 2009, P. brevialata Lee & Pham, sp. nov., P. subtilita Lee, 2009, P. piceata Distant, 1905, P. daklakensis Sanborn, 2009, and P. orientalis (Distant, 1912). Synonymic lists, information on geographical distributions, and material examined for the Vietnamese and Cambodian species of Pomponia are provided.

  2. Morphology and identification of the final instar nymphs of three cicadas (Hemiptera, Cicadidae) in Guanzhong Plain, China based on comparative morphometrics

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Zehai; Li, Qinglong; Wei, Cong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present investigation provides comparative morphometrics of the final instar nymphs of three dominant cicada species, i.e., Cryptotympana atrata (Fabricius), Meimuna mongolica (Distant) and Platypleura kaempferi (Fabricius), in Guanzhong Plain, China. Particularly, characters on the antennae, legs, and apex of abdomen of both males and females of these three species were investigated and analyzed. In addition, the numbers of hind tibial spines of the final instar nymphs of 21 representatives of Cicadoidea were compared. The results provide useful characteristics for nymph identification of related species and for further taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis of Cicadoidea. PMID:25147447

  3. Physician Office Visits for Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents Aged 4-17 Years: United States, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Albert, Micheal; Rui, Pinyao; Ashman, Jill J

    2017-01-01

    Data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey •During 2012-2013, an estimated annual average of 6.1 million physician office visits were made by children aged 4-17 years with a primary diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). •The ADHD visit rate among children aged 4-17 years was more than twice as high for boys (147 per 1,000 boys) as for girls (62 per 1,000 girls). •Central nervous system stimulant medications were provided, prescribed, or continued at about 80% of ADHD visits among children aged 4-17 years. •Among ADHD visits by children aged 4-17 years, 29% included a diagnostic code for an additional mental health disorder. •A total of 48% of visits for ADHD by children aged 4-17 years were with pediatricians, 36% were with psychiatrists, and 12% were with general and family practitioners. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioral disorders of childhood (1-3). ADHD is characterized clinically by inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development (4). This report describes the rate and characteristics of physician office visits by children aged 4-17 years with a primary diagnosis of ADHD. Four years of age was chosen as the lower limit because the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD begin at this age (5). All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  4. Drinking water nitrate and prevalence of methemoglobinemia among infants and children aged 1-7 years in Moroccan areas.

    PubMed

    Sadeq, Mina; Moe, Christine L; Attarassi, Benaissa; Cherkaoui, Imad; Elaouad, Rajae; Idrissi, Larbi

    2008-10-01

    Nitrate is ubiquitous in environmental media (air, water and soil) and other sources (some medicines, inorganic fertilizers and household's chemicals). It is a hemoglobin-oxidizing agent that can cause methemoglobinemia. The effect of nitrate on infants is well known but less is known about nitrate-induced methemoglobinemia in young children. Two cross-sectional studies were carried out in Salé, Morocco to determine the prevalence of methemoglobinemia among 411 infants and children aged 1-7 years in two adjacent areas that were similar in terms of the air quality, available vegetables and medicines but different in terms of the drinking water quality (nitrate-contaminated well water versus municipal water). In the exposed area, nitrate concentration was measured in 78 wells and ranged from 15.39 to 246.90mg/l as NO3-. Nitrate levels were higher than 50mg/l in 69.2% of the surveyed wells, and 64.2% of the participants were drinking nitrate contaminated well waters. The prevalence of methemoglobinemia among study children was 36.2% in the exposed area, and 27.4% in the non-exposed area. Study children drinking well water with a nitrate concentration >50mg/l were significantly more likely to have methemoglobinemia than those drinking well water with a nitrate concentration <50mg/l (p=0.001 at 95% CI=[1.22-2.64]) or than those drinking municipal water (p<0.01 at 95% CI=[1.16-2.21]). In the exposed area, the mean methemoglobin (MetHb) level increased with age (R2= 0.79, p=0.04), whereas in the unexposed area, the mean MetHb level remained relatively stable in the first 6 years of life (R2=0.21, p=0.44). Mean MetHb was normal when the nitrate concentration in water was below 50mg/l as NO3-, and reached an abnormal level, when the nitrate concentration in water ranged between 50 and 90mg/l as NO3-. This last level was statistically similar to mean MetHb at nitrate level above 90mg/l as NO3- (up to 246.9mg/l as NO3-). No association was observed between methemoglobinemia prevalence and gender. This is the first study about methemoglobinemia conducted in Morocco.

  5. Analysis of Molecular Geochemistry of Soil Organic Matter from 17-year Reciprocal Transplant Experiment in Arid Ecosystem: Simulated Climate Pertubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, N. J.; Tfaily, M.; Bailey, V. L.; McCue, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Successful development of chemical profiles that link soil carbon vulnerability and resilience to climate change would greatly facilitate assessment of soil ecosystems response to global climate change. Additionally these signatures could be used to support the design of sustainable agricultural and food/energy crop security practices. We test this possibility using soils obtained from a 17-year reciprocal soil transplant experiment between two elevations in the arid environment of eastern Washington [1]. 30-cm diameter soil cores were reciprocally transplanted between the upper and lower sites. Cores were also transplanted in place to control for disturbance. Extracted subcores were incubated in environmental chambers and measured microbial respiration revealed statically a significant decrease in respiratory response as a function of temperature in cores transferred from low elevation to high elevation. We use ultra high resolution mass spectrometry to identify thousands of organic molecules and changes in geochemistry that would indicate the vulnerability of the soil ecosystem to climate perturbation. In our experiments we used methanol extraction followed by direct injection to 12 T ESI FT-ICR MS to identify about 4000 of individual compounds in about 200 mg soils at sub ppm mass accuracy. Chemical formulae were assigned to approximately 65% of the measured peaks using a modified Kujawinski pipeline and second order Kendrick transformations [2] resulted in approximately 75% assigned peaks. Our preliminary analysis finds that while the bulk C content of soils from the cooler, wetter conditions at the upper elevation is approximately twice that of the warmer, drier conditions at lower elevation, the molecular soil geochemistry is remarkably similar. Detailed analysis reveals subtle differences in the lipid, carbohydrate, and condensed hydrocarbon compositional makeup of the soil. Additionally, of the more than 17,000 individual compounds identified approximately

  6. Prospective Use of a Standardized Nonoperative Early Weightbearing Protocol for Achilles Tendon Rupture: 17 Years of Experience.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Timo M; Bremer, Anne K; Krause, Fabian G; Müller, Thorsten; Weber, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Acute traumatic rupture of the Achilles tendon can be treated operatively or nonoperatively. Throughout the literature, there is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment protocol. To report on 17 years of experience with treating this injury with a standardized nonoperative treatment protocol. Case Series; Level of evidence, 4. The treatment protocol was based on a combination of an equinus cast and rehabilitation boot, which promoted immediate full weightbearing and early functional rehabilitation. A total of 171 patients were consecutively treated and prospectively followed from 1996 to 2013. Assessed were subjective parameters such as pain, loss of strength, return to previous activity level, meteosensitivity, and general satisfaction with the treatment outcome. Clinical assessment included testing of plantar flexion strength and endurance, calf circumference, and tendon length. Subjective and clinical parameters were then used to calculate a modified Thermann score. The correlation between tendon lengthening and function was calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. A total of 114 patients were followed for a minimum of 12 months (mean, 27 ± 20 months; range, 12-88 months). The mean Thermann score was 82 ± 13 (range, 41-100), and subjective satisfaction was rated "very good" and "good" in 90%. An inverse correlation was found between tendon length and muscle strength (R = -0.3). There were 11 reruptures (8 with and 3 without an adequate trauma). General complications were 5 deep venous thromboses, 1 complex regional pain syndrome, and minor problems such as transient heel pain (n = 3), heel numbness (n = 1), and cast-associated skin abrasions (n = 4). Seventeen years of experience with a nonoperative treatment protocol for acute rupture of the Achilles tendon confirmed good functional outcome and patient satisfaction. Reruptures mostly occurred with new traumatic events in the vulnerable phase from 6 to 12 weeks after the initial injury

  7. Isolation of the Entomopathogenic Fungal Strain Cod-MK1201 from a Cicada Nymph and Assessment of Its Antibacterial Activities.

    PubMed

    Sangdee, Kusavadee; Nakbanpote, Woranan; Sangdee, Aphidech

    2015-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Cod-MK1201 was isolated from a dead cicada nymph. Three regions of ribosomal nuclear DNA, the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA repeats (ITS), the partial small subunit of rDNA (nrSSU) , and the partial large subunit of rDNA (nrLSU), and two protein-coding regions, the elongation factor 1α (EF-1α), and the largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II (rpb1) gene, were sequenced and used for fungal identification. The phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and the combined data set of the five genes indicated that the fungal isolate Cod-MK1201 is a new strain of Cordyceps sp. that is closely related to Cordyceps nipponica and C. kanzashiana. Crude extracts of mycelium-cultured Cod-MK1201 were obtained using distilled water and 50% (v/v) ethanol, and the antibacterial activity of each was determined. Both extracts had activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but the ethanol extract was the more potent of the two. The antibacterial activity of the protein fractions of these extracts was also determined. The protein fraction from the ethanol extract was more antibacterial than the protein fraction from the aqueous extract. Three antibacterial constituents including adenosine, the total phenolic content (TPC), and the total flavonoid content (TFC) was also determined. The results showed that the adenosine content, the TPC, and the TFC of the ethanol extract were more active than those of the aqueous extract. Moreover, synergism was detected between these antibacterial constituents. In conclusion, the entomopathogenic fungal isolate Cod-MK1201 represents a natural source of antibacterial agents.

  8. Glacial refugia in a maritime temperate climate: cicada (Kikihia subalpina) mtDNA phylogeography in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R; Fontaine, Kathryn M; Buckley, Thomas R; Simon, Chris

    2009-05-01

    Understanding the biological significance of Pleistocene glaciations requires knowledge of the nature and extent of habitat refugia during glacial maxima. An opportunity to examine evidence of glacial forest refugia in a maritime, Southern Hemisphere setting is found in New Zealand, where the extent of Pleistocene forests remains controversial. We used the mitochondrial phylogeography of a forest-edge cicada (Kikihia subalpina) to test the hypothesis that populations of this species survived throughout South Island during the Last Glacial Maximum. We also compared mitochondrial DNA phylogeographic patterns with male song patterns that suggest allopatric divergence across Cook Strait. Cytochrome oxidase I and II sequences were analyzed using network analysis, maximum-likelihood phylogenetic estimation, Bayesian dating and Bayesian skyline plots. K. subalpina haplotypes from North Island and South Island form monophyletic clades that are concordant with song patterns. Song divergence corresponds to approximately 2% genetic divergence, and Bayesian dating suggests that the North Island and South Island population-lineages became isolated around 761,000 years BP. Almost all South Island genetic variation is found in the north of the island, consistent with refugia in Marlborough Sounds, central Nelson and northwest Nelson. All central and southern South Island and Stewart Island haplotypes are extremely similar to northern South Island haplotypes, a 'northern richness/southern purity' pattern that mirrors genetic patterns observed in many Northern Hemisphere taxa. Proposed southern South Island forest habitat fragments may have been too small to sustain populations of K. subalpina, and/or they may have harboured ecological communities with no modern-day analogues.

  9. Activation and proliferation signals in primary human T lymphocytes inhibited by ergosterol peroxide isolated from Cordyceps cicadae

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Y C; Weng, S C; Chou, C J; Chang, T T; Tsai, W J

    2003-01-01

    Effects of ergosterol peroxide (C28H44O3; Cpd 6A) from Cordyceps cicadae on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated cell proliferation were studied in primary human T cells. The results showed that Cpd 6A suppressed T-cell proliferation for about 24 h after stimulation with PHA. Cell cycle analysis indicated that Cpd 6A arrested the cell cycle progression of activated T cells from the G1 transition to the S phase. To localize the point in the cell cycle where arrest occurred, a set of key regulatory events leading to the G1/S boundary, including the expression of cyclins D2, E, A1, and B1, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and activating protein-1 (AP-1), was examined. Cpd 6A suppressed, in activated T lymphocytes, the production and mRNA expression of cyclin E, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of AP-1 proteins, consisting of c-Fos and c-Jun, in activated T lymphocytes was decreased by Cpd 6A. The kinetic study indicated that the inhibitory effects of Cpd 6A on IL-2 mRNA expressed in T cells might be related to blocking c-Fos protein synthesis. T-cell proliferation after Cpd 6A treatment was partially restored by addition of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ. These suppressant effects of Cpd 6A on T-cell proliferation, activated by PHA, appeared to be mediated, at least in part, through the inhibition of early gene transcripts, especially those of cyclin E, IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-4, and by arresting cell cycle progression in the cells. PMID:14504132

  10. Population characteristics of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum in La Parguera, Puerto Rico, 17 years after the mass mortality event.

    PubMed

    Weil, Ernesto; Torres, Juan L; Ashton, Mayra

    2005-12-01

    Recent reports indicate that populations of the black sea urchin Diadema antillarum are slowly coming back in several localities in the Caribbean after 15 years of absence. In La Parguera, Puerto Rico, urchins were totally absent from reef localities until 1996, when isolated, medium size individuals were observed in shallow reef habitats. To assess the status (distribution, densities and size structure) of populations of D. antillarum 17 years after the die-off, twelve 20 m2 (10 x 2 m) band transects in each of four depth interval (0-3, 3-7, 7-11 and >11 m) in each of four fringing coral reefs, and six-eight band-transects in each of two depth intervals (0-3 and >3 m) in three lagoonal mounds were surveyed in 2001. All urchins present in the band transects in two depth intervals (0-3 and 3-8 m) were collected and measured (test diameter) in situ to determine the average size and size (age) structure of populations. Overall, average densities were low and not significantly different (F = 1.29, p = 0.125) across reef sites (0.83-1.39 ind/m2) and the seagrass mounds (1.09 +/- 0.6-1.30 +/- 0.6 ind/m2). Urchins were only found in the shallow areas (<3 m) on the seagrass mounds where they formed tight aggregations during daytime. Densities decreased significantly with increasing depth (r2 = -0.60) in reef sites and were significantly higher (F = 5.97, p < 0.001) in shallow reef platforms (0.89 +/- 0.69 - 1.98 +/- 0.65 ind/m2) (0-3 m), and the upper fore-reef (0.56 +/- 0.14 - 2.33 +/- 1.1 ind/m2) habitats (3-7m), compared to deeper (> 7 m) habitats (0.01 +/- 0.02 - 0.88 +/- 1.06 ind/m2). Enrique reef had a significantly higher (K-W, H = 165.19, p < 0.001) population average size (Median = 7.7) compared to all other sites. Populations in the sea grass mounds were dominated by midsize to large individuals. Within reefs, the average size did not vary significantly across depth intervals with medium to large size urchins dominating. Higher number of aggregations and higher

  11. Family-Based Treatment of a 17-Year-Old Twin Presenting with Emerging Anorexia Nervosa: A Case Study Using the "Maudsley Method"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Katharine L.; Hirsch, Alicia M.; Greif, Rebecca; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the successful application of family-based treatment (FBT) for a 17-year-old identical twin presenting with a 4-month history of clinically significant symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN). FBT is a manualized treatment that has been studied in randomized controlled trials for adolescents with AN. This case study illustrates…

  12. Brachial artery injury following opened elbow dislocation associated with accessory brachial artery: two rare entities in a 17-year -old girl: case report.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Rita; Zrihni, Youssef; Naouli, Hamza; Bouarhroum, Abdellatif

    2015-01-01

    Elbow dislocations are the most frequently encountered after shoulder dislocations. In their vast majority, these injuries carry a good prognosis. Although, concomitant arterial injury is rare and make them more serious. In this paper, we report a case of a 17 year old woman with opened elbow dislocation with arterial injury associated to an artery variation: "accessory brachial artery".

  13. Brachial artery injury following opened elbow dislocation associated with accessory brachial artery: two rare entities in a 17-year –old girl: case report

    PubMed Central

    Hajji, Rita; Zrihni, Youssef; Naouli, Hamza; Bouarhroum, Abdellatif

    2015-01-01

    Elbow dislocations are the most frequently encountered after shoulder dislocations. In their vast majority, these injuries carry a good prognosis. Although, concomitant arterial injury is rare and make them more serious. In this paper, we report a case of a 17 year old woman with opened elbow dislocation with arterial injury associated to an artery variation: "accessory brachial artery" PMID:26161188

  14. Cardiovascular Conditions of Children 6-11 Years and Youths 12-17 Years: United States, 1963-1965 and 1966-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jean

    This report presents estimates of the prevalence of heart and other circulatory conditions of children and youths age 6 through 17 years in the noninstitutionalized population of the U.S. Estimates are based on diagnostic impression data from the direct, standardized examination findings of the Health Examination Surveys among national probability…

  15. The Mental Health of 13-17 Year-Olds in Australia: Findings from the National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, M. G.; Miller-Lewis, L. R.; Clark, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of 3 mental disorders (Depressive Disorder, Conduct Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder), the prevalence of mental health problems, and rates of health-risk behaviours among those with problems, along with patterns of service utilisation, are reported for 1490 adolescents aged 13-17 years in Australia. Mental…

  16. Supratentorial extraventricular WHO grade III (anaplastic) ependymoma 17 years after total removal of WHO grade II ependymoma of the fourth ventricle.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Naoya; Nishihara, Masamitsu; Harada, Tomoaki; Kidoguchi, Keiji; Hashimoto, Kimio

    2017-04-01

    We report a WHO grade III ependymoma of the supratentorial interhemispheric fissure and grew to form a large mass with anaplastic transformation without local recurrence 17 years after the total removal of a fourth ventricular WHO grade II ependymoma. We emphasize the necessity of long-term follow-up, even in benign ependymomas.

  17. Family-Based Treatment of a 17-Year-Old Twin Presenting with Emerging Anorexia Nervosa: A Case Study Using the "Maudsley Method"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Katharine L.; Hirsch, Alicia M.; Greif, Rebecca; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the successful application of family-based treatment (FBT) for a 17-year-old identical twin presenting with a 4-month history of clinically significant symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN). FBT is a manualized treatment that has been studied in randomized controlled trials for adolescents with AN. This case study illustrates…

  18. The cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka: an annotated provisional catalogue, regional checklist and bibliography

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Elizabeth Louise; Marathe, Kiran; Sarkar, Vivek; Simon, Chris; Kunte, Krushnamegh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The cicadas of the Indian subcontinent, like many other insects in the region, have remained understudied since the early part of the 20th Century, and await modern taxonomic, systematic and phylogenetic treatment. This paper presents an updated systematic catalogue of cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka, the first in over a century. New information This paper treats 281 species, including: India and Bangladesh (189 species), Bhutan (19 species), Myanmar (81 species), Nepal (46 species) and Sri Lanka (22 species). For each species all recognized junior synonyms are included with information on the type material and additional specimens where relevant. The global distributional range and notes on the taxonomy of each species are included where appropriate. Two lists are provided: (1) species known to occur in India and Bangladesh (treated as a geographic unit), Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka; and (2) species previously listed from these countries in error. A bibliography of species descriptions is provided, with the papers containing the original descriptions provided where copyright allows. PMID:27660527

  19. Neuroprotective effects of adenosine isolated from Cordyceps cicadae against oxidative and ER stress damages induced by glutamate in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Feng, Yan; Olatunji, Oyenike O; Tang, Jian; Ouyang, Zhen; Su, Zhaoliang; Wang, Dujun; Yu, Xiaofeng

    2016-06-01

    Glutamate has been proven to induce oxidative stress through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased calcium overload which results in neuronal injury, development of neurodegenerative diseases and death. Adenosine is one of the bioactive nucleosides found in Cordyceps cicadae and it has displayed several pharmacological activities including neuroprotection. In this study, the protective effects of adenosine from C. cicadae against glutamate-induce oxidative stress in PC12 cells were evaluated. The exposure of PC12 cells to glutamate (5mM) induced the formation of ROS, increased Ca(2+) influx, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and up regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic factor Bax. However, pretreatment with adenosine markedly increased cell viability, decreased the elevated levels of ROS and Ca(2+) induced by glutamate. Furthermore adenosine increased the activities of GSH-Px and SOD, as well as retained mitochondria membrane potential (MMP), increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and reduced the expression of ERK, p38, and JNK. Overall, our results suggest that adenosine may be a promising potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  20. Variation of the earth tide -seismicity compliance parameter p the last 17 years for the area of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabelos, Dimitrios; Contadakis, Michael E.; Vergos, George; Spatalas, Spyrous; Scordilis, Emmanouel M.

    2017-04-01

    Applying the Hi(stogram)Cum(ulation) method, which was introduced by Cadicheanu, van Ruymbecke and Zhu (2007), we analyze the series of the earthquakes with magnitude M>2.4 occurred in the last 16 years in Italy (area:36-480Ν, 6-190E). The result of the analysis for all the areas indicate that the monthly variation of the frequencies of earthquake occurrence is in accordance with the period of the tidal lunar monthly and semi-monthly (Mm and Mf) variations and the same happens with the corresponding daily variations of the frequencies of earthquake occurrence with the diurnal luni-solar (K1) and semidiurnal lunar (M2) tidal variations. In addition the confidence level for the identification of such period accordance between earthquakes occurrence and tidal periods varies with seismic activity, i.e. the higher confidence level corresponds to periods with stronger seismic activity. These results are in favor of a tidal triggering process on earthquakes when the stress in the focal area is near the critical level. Based on these results, we consider the confidence level of earthquake occurrence - tidal period accordance, p, as an index of tectonic stress criticality for earthquake occurrence and we construct maps of p's and we check on posterior if the variation of the confidence level index, p, indicate the fault maturity for earthquake occurrence in the case of the recent seismic activity at Central Italy. The result of this test is positive encouraging the inclusion of the following up of the compliance index p in earthquake risk assessment procedure. References Cadicheanu, N., van Ruymbeke, M andZhu P.,2007:Tidal triggering evidence of intermediate depth earthquakes in Vrancea zone(Romania), NHESS 7,733-740. Contadakis, M. E., Arabelos, D. N., Spatalas, S., 2009, Evidence for tidal triggering on the shallow earthquakes of the seismic area of Mygdonia basin, North Greece, in Terrestrial and Stellar Environment, eds.D. Arabelos, M.E.Contadakis, C

  1. Traumatic episodes and mental health effects in young men and women in Rwanda, 17 years after the genocide.

    PubMed

    Rugema, Lawrence; Mogren, Ingrid; Ntaganira, Joseph; Krantz, Gunilla

    2015-06-24

    To investigate mental health effects associated with exposure to trauma in Rwanda during the 1994 genocide period, and over the lifetime, in Rwandan men and women aged 20-35 years. This was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted in the southern province of Rwanda. Data was collected during December 2011 to January 2012. A total population of 917 individuals were included, 440 (48%) men and 477 (52%) women aged 20-35 years. Number of households for inclusion in each village was selected proportional to the total number of households in each selected village. The response rate was 99.8%. Face-to-face interviewing was done by experienced and trained clinical psychologists, following a structured questionnaire. Women were slightly less exposed during the genocide period (women 35.4% and men 37.5%; p=0.537), but more women than men were exposed to traumatic episodes over their lifetime (women 83.6%, n=399; men 73.4%, n=323; p<0.001). Current major depressive episodes (MDE) were twice as prevalent in women as in men. Traumatic episodes experienced in the genocide period severely affected men's current mental health status with relative risk (RR) 3.02 (95% CI 1.59 to 5.37) for MDE past and with RR 2.15 (95% CI 1.21 to 3.64) for suicidality. Women's mental health was also affected by trauma experienced in the genocide period but to an even higher extent, by similar trauma experienced in the lifetime with RR 1.91 (95% CI 1.03 to 3.22) for suicidality and RR 1.90 (95% CI 1.34 to 2.42) for generalised anxiety disorder, taking spousal physical/sexual violence into consideration. Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and suicidal attempts are prevalent in Rwanda, with rates twice as high in women compared with men. For women, exposure to physical and sexual abuse was independently associated with all these disorders. Early detection of gender-based violence through homes and community interventions is important. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  2. Precipitating circumstances of suicide among youth aged 10-17 years by sex: data from the National Violent Death Reporting System, 16 states, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Karch, Debra L; Logan, J; McDaniel, Dawn D; Floyd, C Faye; Vagi, Kevin J

    2013-07-01

    We examined the circumstances that precipitated suicide among 1,046 youth aged 10-17 years in 16 U.S. states from 2005 to 2008. The majority of deaths were among male subjects (75.2%), non-Hispanic whites (69.3%), those aged 16-17 years (58.1%), those who died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation (50.2%) and those who died in a house or an apartment (82.5%). Relationship problems, recent crises, mental health problems, and intimate partner and school problems were the most common precipitating factors and many differed by sex. School problems were reported for 25% of decedents, of which 30.3% were a drop in grades and 12.4% were bullying related. Prevention strategies directed toward relationship-building, problem-solving, and increasing access to treatment may be beneficial for this population.

  3. Safety and immunogenicity of a glycoprotein D genital herpes vaccine in healthy girls 10-17 years of age: results from a randomised, controlled, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Abu-Elyazeed, R R; Heineman, T; Dubin, G; Fourneau, M; Leroux-Roels, I; Leroux-Roels, G; Richardus, J H; Ostergaard, L; Diez-Domingo, J; Poder, A; Van Damme, P; Romanowski, B; Blatter, M; Silfverdal, S A; Berglund, J; Josefsson, A; Cunningham, A L; Flodmark, C E; Tragiannidis, A; Dobson, S; Olafsson, J; Puig-Barbera, J; Mendez, M; Barton, S; Bernstein, D; Mares, J; Ratner, P

    2013-12-09

    The investigational AS04-adjuvanted herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) subunit prophylactic vaccine ('HSV vaccine'; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) has been shown to be well tolerated in adults, but limited data exist for pre-teen and adolescent girls, a likely target population. The primary objective of this study was to compare the occurrence of serious adverse events (SAEs) over 12 months between HSV vaccine recipients and saline recipients (placebo control group) in pre-teen and adolescent girls. The immunogenicity of the HSV vaccine was also assessed. Healthy girls aged 10-17 years, stratified by age (10-15 years; 16-17 years), were randomised 2:1:1 to receive the HSV vaccine, a hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix™; HAV control) or placebo (saline) according to a 0-, 1-, 6-month schedule. Participants and study personnel not involved in the preparation or administration of vaccines were blinded to treatment. Safety and immunogenicity analyses were performed overall and by age (10-15 years; 16-17 years) and HSV serostatus. No statistically significant difference in the percentage of subjects with SAEs was observed between the HSV and saline group, or between the HSV and pooled control (HAV and saline) groups. The HSV vaccine was well tolerated, although a higher incidence of solicited local symptoms was observed in the HSV group than in the control group. Neither age nor HSV serostatus at the time of study entry had an impact on the safety profile of this vaccine. The HSV vaccine was immunogenic regardless of pre-vaccination HSV serostatus. Higher anti-gD geometric mean concentrations were observed in HSV-1 seropositive participants than in HSV-1 seronegative participants. The HSV vaccine had an acceptable safety profile, and was well tolerated and immunogenic when administered to girls aged 10-17 years regardless of age or HSV pre-vaccination serostatus. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Decline causes of Koalas in South East Queensland, Australia: a 17-year retrospective study of mortality and morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Allavena, Rachel; McKinnon, Allan; Larkin, Rebecca; Henning, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    Koala populations are in catastrophic decline in certain eastern Australian regions. Spanning from 1997–2013, a database derived from wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland with N = 20,250 entries was classified by causes of morbidity and mortality. A total of 11 aetiologies were identified, with chlamydiosis, trauma, and wasting being most common. The clinical diagnosis at submission varied significantly over the observation period. Combinations of aetiologies were observed in 39% of koalas submitted, with chlamydiosis frequently co-occurring. Urogenital (cystitis 26.8%, bursitis 13.5%) and ocular (conjunctivitis 17.2%) chlamydiosis were the most frequently diagnosed representations of the infection. Approximately 26% of submissions comprised koalas involved in vehicle accidents that were otherwise healthy. Age and sex of the koala as well as season and submission period were compared for the case outcomes of ‘dead on arrival’, ‘euthanized’, or ‘released’ for the four most common clinical diagnoses using multinomial logistic regression models. Exploratory space-time permutation scans were performed and overlapping space-time clusters for chlamydiosis, motor vehicle traumas and wasting unveiled high risk areas for koala disease and injury. Our results suggest that these aetiologies are acting jointly as multifactorial determinants for the continuing decline of koalas. PMID:28218272

  5. Decline causes of Koalas in South East Queensland, Australia: a 17-year retrospective study of mortality and morbidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Allavena, Rachel; McKinnon, Allan; Larkin, Rebecca; Henning, Joerg

    2017-02-01

    Koala populations are in catastrophic decline in certain eastern Australian regions. Spanning from 1997-2013, a database derived from wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland with N = 20,250 entries was classified by causes of morbidity and mortality. A total of 11 aetiologies were identified, with chlamydiosis, trauma, and wasting being most common. The clinical diagnosis at submission varied significantly over the observation period. Combinations of aetiologies were observed in 39% of koalas submitted, with chlamydiosis frequently co-occurring. Urogenital (cystitis 26.8%, bursitis 13.5%) and ocular (conjunctivitis 17.2%) chlamydiosis were the most frequently diagnosed representations of the infection. Approximately 26% of submissions comprised koalas involved in vehicle accidents that were otherwise healthy. Age and sex of the koala as well as season and submission period were compared for the case outcomes of ‘dead on arrival’, ‘euthanized’, or ‘released’ for the four most common clinical diagnoses using multinomial logistic regression models. Exploratory space-time permutation scans were performed and overlapping space-time clusters for chlamydiosis, motor vehicle traumas and wasting unveiled high risk areas for koala disease and injury. Our results suggest that these aetiologies are acting jointly as multifactorial determinants for the continuing decline of koalas.

  6. Decline causes of Koalas in South East Queensland, Australia: a 17-year retrospective study of mortality and morbidity.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Allavena, Rachel; McKinnon, Allan; Larkin, Rebecca; Henning, Joerg

    2017-02-20

    Koala populations are in catastrophic decline in certain eastern Australian regions. Spanning from 1997-2013, a database derived from wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland with N = 20,250 entries was classified by causes of morbidity and mortality. A total of 11 aetiologies were identified, with chlamydiosis, trauma, and wasting being most common. The clinical diagnosis at submission varied significantly over the observation period. Combinations of aetiologies were observed in 39% of koalas submitted, with chlamydiosis frequently co-occurring. Urogenital (cystitis 26.8%, bursitis 13.5%) and ocular (conjunctivitis 17.2%) chlamydiosis were the most frequently diagnosed representations of the infection. Approximately 26% of submissions comprised koalas involved in vehicle accidents that were otherwise healthy. Age and sex of the koala as well as season and submission period were compared for the case outcomes of 'dead on arrival', 'euthanized', or 'released' for the four most common clinical diagnoses using multinomial logistic regression models. Exploratory space-time permutation scans were performed and overlapping space-time clusters for chlamydiosis, motor vehicle traumas and wasting unveiled high risk areas for koala disease and injury. Our results suggest that these aetiologies are acting jointly as multifactorial determinants for the continuing decline of koalas.

  7. Fetal abnormalities leading to termination of twin pregnancies: the 17-year experience of a single medical center.

    PubMed

    Melcer, Yaakov; Svirsky, Ran; Vaknin, Zvi; Levinsohn-Tavor, Orna; Feldman, Noa; Maymon, Ron

    2017-02-01

    To assess fetal abnormalities leading to termination of pregnancy (TOP) performed in twin pregnancies. The current study consisted of all women with dichorionic twin pregnancies (study group) who underwent TOP due to fetal abnormalities in our institute from 1999 to 2015. The data were compared to our registry of all parturient women with a singleton pregnancy (control group) that underwent TOP due to fetal anomalies at the same period. There were 2495 cases of TOP because of fetal indications during the study period. Of them, 86 (3.4%) and 2409 (96.6%) were from the study and control group, respectively. Structural anomalies were the leading indication for TOP in twins compared with singleton pregnancies (81.4% versus 50.9%, respectively, p < 0.0001). For twins, the leading indication for TOP was central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities and it was more common compared with singleton pregnancies (26.1% versus 12.2%, respectively, p < 0.0001). This was followed by chromosomal/genetic abnormalities (16.3% versus 40.4%, respectively, p < 0.0001). We found a different distribution for fetal anomalies leading to TOP in twins versus singleton pregnancies. The main indication for TOP in the study group was structural malformations, with a predominance of CNS abnormalities.

  8. Inflation of Molecular Clock Rates and Dates: Molecular Phylogenetics, Biogeography, and Diversification of a Global Cicada Radiation from Australasia (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettini).

    PubMed

    Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R; Moulds, Max; Vanderpool, Dan; Cooley, John R; Mohagan, Alma B; Simon, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Dated phylogenetic trees are important for studying mechanisms of diversification, and molecular clocks are important tools for studies of organisms lacking good fossil records. However, studies have begun to identify problems in molecular clock dates caused by uncertainty of the modeled molecular substitution process. Here we explore Bayesian relaxed-clock molecular dating while studying the biogeography of ca. 200 species from the global cicada tribe Cicadettini. Because the available fossils are few and uninformative, we calibrate our trees in part with a cytochrome oxidase I (COI) clock prior encompassing a range of literature estimates for arthropods. We show that tribe-level analyses calibrated solely with the COI clock recover extremely old dates that conflict with published estimates for two well-studied New Zealand subclades within Cicadettini. Additional subclade analyses suggest that COI relaxed-clock rates and maximum-likelihood branch lengths become inflated relative to EF-1[Formula: see text] intron and exon rates and branch lengths as clade age increases. We present corrected estimates derived from: (i) an extrapolated EF-1[Formula: see text] exon clock derived from COI-calibrated analysis within the largest New Zealand subclade; (ii) post hoc scaling of the tribe-level chronogram using results from subclade analyses; and (iii) exploitation of a geological calibration point associated with New Caledonia. We caution that considerable uncertainty is generated due to dependence of substitution estimates on both the taxon sample and the choice of model, including gamma category number and the choice of empirical versus estimated base frequencies. Our results suggest that diversification of the tribe Cicadettini commenced in the early- to mid-Cenozoic and continued with the development of open, arid habitats in Australia and worldwide. We find that Cicadettini is a rare example of a global terrestrial animal group with an Australasian origin, with all non

  9. Hybridization, mitochondrial DNA phylogeography, and prediction of the early stages of reproductive isolation: lessons from New Zealand cicadas (genus Kikihia).

    PubMed

    Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R; Cooley, John R; Simon, Chris

    2011-07-01

    One of the major tenets of the modern synthesis is that genetic differentiation among subpopulations is translated over time into genetic differentiation among species. Phylogeographic exploration is therefore essential to the study of speciation because it can reveal the presence of subpopulations that may go on to become species or that may already represent cryptic species. Acoustic species-specific mating signals provide a significant advantage for the recognition of cryptic or incipient species. Because the majority of species do not have such easily recognized premating signals, data from acoustically signaling species can serve as a valuable heuristic tool. Acoustic signals are also convenient tools for recognizing hybridization events. Here, we demonstrate that evidence of hybridization in the form of intermediate song phenotypes is present in many contact zones between species of the New Zealand grass cicadas of the Kikihia muta species complex and that recurring mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) introgression has created misleading patterns that make it difficult to identify certain taxa using song or mtDNA alone. In one case, introgression appears to have occurred between allopatric taxa by dispersal of introgressed populations of an intermediary species ("hybridization by proxy"). We also present a comparison of mtDNA-tree- and song-based taxonomies obtained for the K. muta complex. We find that 12 mtDNA candidate species are identified using shifts in phylogenetic branching rate found by a single-threshold mixed Yule-coalescent lineage model, while only 7 candidate species are identified using songs. Results from the Yule-coalescent model are dependent on factors such as the number of modeled thresholds and the inclusion of duplicate haplotypes. Genetic distances within song species reach a maximum at about 0.028 substitutions/site when likely cases of hybridization and introgression are excluded. Large genetic breaks or "gaps" are not observed between some

  10. Comparison of Updated Weight and Height Percentiles with Previous References in 6-17-Year-Old Children in Kayseri, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Zararsız, Gökmen; Çiçek, Betül; Kondolot, Meda; Mazıcıoğlu, M. Mümtaz; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare updated weight and height percentiles of 6-17-year-old children from all socio-economic levels in Kayseri with previous local references and other national/international data. Methods: The second study “Determination of Anthropometric Measurements of Turkish Children and Adolescents study (DAMTCA II)” was conducted in Kayseri, between October 2007 and April 2008. Weight and height measurements from 4321 (1926 boys, 2395 girls) school children aged between 6 to 17 years were included in this cross-sectional study. Using these data, weight and height percentile curves were produced with generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) and compared with the most recent references. Results: Smoothed percentile curves including the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th, and 97th percentiles were obtained for boys and girls. These results were compared with DAMTCA I study and with two national (İstanbul and Ankara) and international data from Asia and from Europe. Conclusion: This study provides updated weight and height references for Turkish school children aged between 6 and 17 years residing in Kayseri. PMID:27507256

  11. Optimization of the Solid-state Fermentation and Properties of a Polysaccharide from Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel) Samson and Its Antioxidant Activities In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xueyong; He, Liang; Cheng, Junwen; Chang, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    The culture conditions for the yield of a polysaccharide (PCPS) produced by Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel) Samson on solid-state fermentation were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Plackett–Burman design (PBD) was applied to screen out significant factors, followed by the paths of steepest ascent to move to the nearest region of maximum response. Then Box-Behnken design (BBD) was conducted to optimize the final levels of the culture conditions. After analyzing the regression equation and the response surface contour plots, relative humidity 56.07%, inoculum 13.51 mL/100 g and temperature 27.09°C were found to be the optimal key parameters for PCPS production. The maximum predicted yield of PCPS was 10.76 mg/g under the optimized conditions. The resulting PCPS (FPCPS) generated at optimal conditions was purified by chromatography column and found to be composed of mannose (43.2%), rhamnose (32.1%), xylose (14.5%) and arabinose (10.2%). Based on the size exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) analysis, FPCPS adopted a Gaussian coil conformation in 0.1 M NaNO3 solution with 3.75×106 g/mol of the weight-average molar mass (Mw) and 41.1 nm of the root-mean square radius (Rg2)z1/2. Furthermore, both of the polysaccharides were revealed to have strong antioxidant activities by evaluating in DPPH radical, superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radical assay. These data suggest the polysaccharides of Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel) Samson produced by solid-state fermentation could be explored as potential natural antioxidants. PMID:24498337

  12. Cicada wing decorated by silver nanoparticles as low-cost and active/sensitive substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Zhang, Chang Xing; Deng, Li; Zhang, Guo Xin; Xu, Hai Jun; Sun, Xiao Ming

    2014-06-01

    A green, low-cost and highly efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was achieved by a chemical deposition of silver nanoparticles on a cicada wing, which has the large-scale nanosized protrusions on its surface. Employing the already-formed Ag/cicada wing as substrate for SERS detection, the detection limit for rhodamine 6G could reach 10-7M, the Raman enhancement factor of the substrate was as large as 106 and the relative standard deviation remains lower than 7%. The three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation results showed that two types of inter-Ag-nanoparticle nanogaps in the formed geometry created a huge number of SERS "hot spots" where the electromagnetic field is substantially amplified and contributes to the higher SERS sensitivity. Meanwhile, the water contact angle of the SERS substrate is roughly 150°, which indicates the super-hydrophobic surface of the substrate. This feature may be conducive to the gathering of target molecules during the SERS detection, which in turn further improves the detection limit of target molecules. In order to improve the application of the substrate, thiram was used as the probe molecule, and the detection limit also reached 10-7 M. Meanwhile, the calibration of the Raman peak intensities of Rhodamine 6G and thiram allowed their quantitative detection. Therefore, the green and low-cost SERS substrates could be used for fast and quantitative detection of trace organic molecules. Our findings may contribute to the development of the green and low-cost SERS substrates and will allow the fast and quantitative detection of trace organic molecules.

  13. Satellite Leaf Area Index: global scale analysis of the tendencies per vegetation type over the last 17 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munier, Simon; Carrer, Dominique; Planque, Carole; Albergel, Clément; Calvet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-04-01

    The dynamics of terrestrial vegetation is greatly altered by global environmental change. In particular, changes in vegetation greenness have been related to multiple biogeochemical drivers (such as CO2 concentration in the atmosphere or changes in temperature and precipitation) and land-use effects (fertilization, irrigation, etc.). Impacts of such drivers on the vegetation dynamics and Leaf Area Index (LAI) are expected to depend on the region of the globe but also on the vegetation type. With recent advances in remote sensing techniques, it has become possible to study the LAI variations at the global scale and in a consistent way over the last decades. For instance, the BIOPAR dataset from the Copernicus Global Land Service project (http://land.copernicus.eu/global/) provides satellite derived LAI every 10 days at a 1 km spatial resolution since 1999. Yet, in spite of the high spatial resolution of such datasets, they do not allow to discriminate between vegetation types over mixed pixels. In this study, we first developed a Kalman Filtering (KF) approach to disaggregate the satellite driven LAI from BIOPAR over nine main vegetation types, including broadleaves, conifers and grassland. We used as a prior information data from the ECOCLIMAP land cover database. Temporal fluctuations of the satellite signal are assumed to be due to changes of the properties of the dominant vegetation types in the pixel grid. The analysed LAI of the dominant cover type absorbs most of the temporal fluctuations that exist in the total LAI. This KF approach permits to separate the individual LAI of different vegetation types that co-exist in a grid pixel. Same approach has been developed by Carrer et al. (2013) to derive bare soil and vegetation albedos from total surface albedo products. In a second step a trend analysis has been conducted using the Mann-Kendall test for each vegetation type independently over the period 1999-2015 and comparisons with the original aggregated LAI

  14. [Analysis of protective effect of using chickenpox live attenuated vaccine among 4-17 years old children in Minhang district, Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Yu, Feng; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Xi; Jin, Baofang; Wang, Ye; Mei, Kewen; Lu, Jia; Jiang, Lufang

    2014-12-01

    To survey on the vaccination of varicella live attenuated vaccine among 4-17 children in Minhang District, and analyze the protective effect against varicella. We collected outbreak chickenpox cases reported from infectious disease report system and surveillance units in Minhang district from 1st May in 2012 to 30th Apr in 2013. The 1: 3 matched case-control study was conducted to questionnaire the legal guardian of the cases and control group, and calculate the protective effect and effective term of protection. The survey included vaccination, chickenpox exposure history, previous history of varicella illness, suffering from the symptoms of chickenpox, the vaccinations brand, etc. The criteria of accepted case were those healthy students who were in the same class with those chickenpox cases. The accepted matched controlling data were those children who were from the same class with outbreak chickenpox cases without varicelliform eruption, similar live condition, the closest house, the same gender, the closest age. This study investigated 390 cases of patients and the control group included 1 170 cases. Chi-square test was used to compare the vaccination of cases and controls, as well as the incidence of chickenpox vaccination different brands VarV, Mantel-Haenzel chi-square test was applied to compare the protective effect of the two groups. VarV overall vaccination rate was 68.3% (1 065/1 560), among them, the case group coverage was 45.1% (176/390), significantly lower than the control group (76.0% (889/1 170)) (χ² = 128.55, P < 0.01). The coverage in children of 4-10 years old group was 88.4% (375/424), significantly higher than the 11-17 years old group (60.7% (690/1 136)) (χ² = 109.40, P < 0.01). The overall protective effect of VarV was 78.10% (71.82%-82.98%).Vaccinated group incidence ratio was 16.5% (176/1 065), significantly lower than the unvaccinated group (43.2% (214/495)) (χ² = 128.55, P < 0.01). The chickenpox risk of the children who were

  15. Generic redescription, two new species, and a key to the species of the cicada genus Ariasa Distant, 1905 with the description of a new genus (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadinae: Fidicinini).

    PubMed

    Sanborn, Allen F

    2016-07-13

    The cicada genus Ariasa Distant, 1905 is redescribed.  Ariasa albimaculosa n. sp. is described from Colombia and A. bartletti n. sp. is described from Peru.  The current 14 species of Ariasa are listed along with their synonymies, known distribution of each species, and a key to the species is provided.  The first records of Ariasa bilaqueata (Uhler, 1903) for Peru and French Guiana are provided. Cracenpsaltria brasiliorum (Kirkaldy, 1909) rev. stat., n. comb. is determined to be the correct name for the taxon Cicada marginata Olivier, 1790 and the new genus Cracenpsaltria n. gen. is erected for the taxon.  The distribution of C. brasiliorum rev. stat., n. comb. is expanded to include Bolivia and Peru.

  16. [Study on vitamin A nutritional status of 6- to 17-year-old urban children and adolescents between 2010 and 2012 in China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Liu, X B; Yang, L C; Chen, J; Wang, R; Yang, X G; Piao, J H; Mao, D Q

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To investigate the vitamin A nutritional status of 6- to 17-year-old urban children and adolescents by analyzing serum retinol level, between 2010 and 2012 in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the China Nutrition and Health Survey in 2010-2012. Using multi-stage stratified sampling and the population proportional stratified random sampling method, 6 617 children aged 6-17 years from 32 metropolis and 41 middle-sized and small cities of China were selected. The questionnaire survey was used to collect demographic information. Blood samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography to determine serum retinol concentration, and the World Health Organization guidelines were used to evaluate the nutritional status of vitamin A. Vitamin A levels, vitamin A deficiency, and marginal vitamin A deficiency in children with different characteristics were compared. Results: A total of 3 785 cases with valid samples were obtained. The overall mean serum retinol concentration level was (1.49±0.71) μmol/L; the mean serum retinol concentration was (1.55±0.69) μmol/L for metropolis and (1.49±0.75) μmol/L for middle-sized and small cities (P>0.05). The mean serum retinol concentration was (1.52±0.78) μmol/L for boys and (1.47±0.68) μmol/L for girls (P>0.05). The mean serum retinol concentration level was (1.46±0.70) μmol/L for 6- to 11-year-old children and (1.54±0.65) μmol/L for 12- to 17-year-old children (P<0.05). The total vitamin A deficiency rate and marginal vitamin A deficiency rate was 7.69% (291/3 785) and 18.57% (703/3 785), respectively. The vitamin A deficiency rate was 8.00% (36/450) for metropolis and 7.64% (65/3 335) for middle-sized and small cities; 8.12% (155/1 908) for boys and 7.25% (136/1 877) for girls; and 8.04% (171/2 115) for 6- to 11-year-old children and 7.18% (120/1 670) for 12- to 17-year-old children. No significant differences were observed for region, sex, or age (P>0.05). The marginal vitamin A

  17. Hydrology of prairie pothole wetlands during drought and deluge: A 17-year study of the Cottonwood Lake wetland complex in North Dakota in the perspective of longer term measured and proxy hydrological records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.

    1998-01-01

    From 1988 to 1992 the north-central plains of North America had a drought that was followed by a wet period that continues to the present (1997). Data on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area (CWLA) collected for nearly 10 years before, and during, the recent dry and wet periods indicate that some prairie pothole wetlands served only a recharge function under all climate conditions. Transpiration from groundwater around the perimeter of groundwater discharge wetlands drew water from the wetlands by the end of summer, even during very wet years. Long-term records of a climate index (Palmer Drought Severity Index), stream discharge (Pembina River), and lake level (Devils Lake) were used to put the 17-year CWLA record into a longer term perspective. In addition, proxy records of climate determined from fossils in the sediments of Devils Lake were also used. These data indicate that the drought of 1988-92 may have been the second worst of the 20th century, but that droughts of that magnitude, and worse, were common during the past 500 years. In contrast, the present wet period may be the wettest it has been during the past 130 years, or possibly the past 500 years.

  18. [The concept of «multiple complex developmental disorder» - a disorder of social interaction, paranoid thinking and social anxiety in a 17-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Kamp-Becker, Inge; Baumann, Klaus; Sprenger, Linda; Becker, Katja

    2012-09-01

    Multiple complex developmental disorder (MCDD) is a little-known disorder characterized by disturbances in the regulation of emotions, social interactions and thought disorders. Neither the classification system of ICD-10 nor the DSM-IV lists MCDD as an independent disorder. The study presents an overview on diagnostic criteria, current research and illustration by a case report of a 17-year-old adolescent. MCDD, autistic disorders and schizophrenic disorders partially overlap. A clear classification or differentiation is currently not clearly possible. Many open questions remain, and further research is needed.

  19. [A case of malignant extrameningeal meningioma of the spinal canal with multiple metastases in a 17-year-old patient. Clinical and morphologic studies].

    PubMed

    Sobaniec, W; Czerwińska-Ciechan, K; Zimnoch, L; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Lewko, J

    1988-01-01

    A clinical description and pathological findings are reported in a case of extrameningeal, angiogenic malignant meningioma of the vertebral canal (Th7-Th11) in a patient aged 17 years. Clinical picture was that of transverse myelitis at the Th9 level, with spastic paraparesis, funicular loss of all sensory functions and sphincter disturbances. The authors suppose that the used combined treatment (chemotherapy and radiotherapy, surgery) improved greatly the health state inhibiting the spread of metastases and prolonged survival to 3 years. Autopsy demonstrated recurrence of he tumour in the vertebral canal and numerous metastases to the brain, lungs, liver, bones and pancreas.

  20. [Severe hypercalcemia as a complication of intensive treatment for osteoporosis due to steroid therpay in 17-year-old girl with the nephrotic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ksiazek, Ewelina; Majewski, Marek; Borzecka, Halina; Sikora, Przemysław; Bieniaś, Beata; Zajaczkowska, Małgorzata

    2008-01-01

    In the article, 17-year-old girl with iatrogenic severe hipercalcemia was presented. The girl was treated since the age of 12 years for steroid-sensitive minimal change disease. Due to steroid therapy osteoporosis developed and intensive treatment with active form of vitamin D and high doses of calcium was started. She was admitted to our clinic in severe general state with abdominal pain, vomiting, dehydration, muscle weakness, hypertension and mental confusion. Severe hipercalcemia with nephrocalcinosis was diagnosed. The history revealed that the girl had increased the doses of drugs intentionally. The authors emphasized the need for careful monitoring of prophylaxis and treatment for osteoporosis due to steroid therapy.

  1. Morphology, songs and genetics identify two new cicada species from Morocco: Tettigettalna afroamissa sp. nov. and Berberigetta dimelodica gen. nov. & sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadettini).

    PubMed

    Costa, Gonçalo João; Nunes, Vera L; Marabuto, Eduardo; Mendes, Raquel; Laurentino, Telma G; Quartau, José Alberto; Paulo, Octávio S; Simões, Paula Cristina

    2017-03-01

    Morocco has been the subject of very few expeditions on the last century with the objective of studying small cicadas. In the summer of 2014 an expedition was carried out to Morocco to update our knowledge with acoustic recordings and genetic data of these poorly known species. We describe here two new small-sized cicadas that could not be directly assigned to any species of North African cicadas: Tettigettalna afroamissa sp. nov. and Berberigetta dimelodica gen. nov. & sp. nov. In respect to T. afroamissa it is the first species of the genus to be found outside Europe and we frame this taxon within the evolutionary history of the genus. Acoustic analysis of this species allows us to confidently separate T. afroamissa from its congeners. With B. dimelodica, a small species showing a remarkable calling song characterized by an abrupt frequency modulation, a new genus had to be erected. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses with DNA-barcode sequences of Cytochrome C Oxidase 1 support the monophyly of both species, their distinctness and revealed genetic structure within B. dimelodica. Alongside the descriptions we also provide GPS coordinates of collection points, distributions and habitat preferences.

  2. Normative health-related fitness values for children: analysis of 85347 test results on 9-17-year-old Australians since 1985.

    PubMed

    Catley, Mark J; Tomkinson, Grant R

    2013-01-01

    To provide sex- and age-specific normative values for health-related fitness of 9-17-year-old Australians. A systematic literature search was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed studies reporting health-related fitness data on Australian children since 1985-the year of the last national fitness survey. Only data on reasonably representative s amples of apparently healthy (free from known disease or injury) 9-17-year-old Australians, who were tested using field tests of health-related fitness, were included. Both raw and pseudo data (generated using Monte Carlo simulation) were combined with sex- and age-specific normative centile values generated using the Lambda Mu and Sigma (LMS) method. Sex- and age-related differences were expressed as standardised effect sizes. Normative values were displayed as tabulated percentiles and as smoothed centile curves for nine health-related fitness tests based on a dataset comprising 85347 test performances. Boys typically scored higher than girls on cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, speed and power tests, but lower on the flexibility test. The magnitude of the age-related changes was generally larger for boys than for girls, especially during the teenage years. This study provides the most up-to-date sex- and age-specific normative centile values for the health-related fitness of Australian children that can be used as benchmark values for health and fitness screening and surveillance systems.

  3. ThinPrep Pap test of endocervical adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastasis: report of a case in a 17-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Wagner, David G; Weisensel, Joseph; Mentrikoski, Mark J; Leo, Sharon D; Bonfiglio, Thomas A; Hoda, Rana S

    2010-09-01

    Endocervical adenocarcinoma is an uncommon malignancy that is composed of multiple subtypes and accounts for approximately 15% of all cervical cancers. In this article, we describe the cytomorphology and differential diagnosis of an AJCC clinical stage IIIb, FIGO IB2 endocervical adenocarcinoma in a 17-year-old woman in a ThinPrep Pap test.The patient was a 17-year-old G0P0 white woman with no significant past medical history and no prior history of cervical dysplasia. She presented to her physician with a putrid vaginal discharge. A sample was sent to cytology that was interpreted as atypical endocervical cells, favor neoplasia. A subsequent cervical biopsy was diagnosed as endocervical adenocarcinoma with villoglandular features and ultimately, a hysterectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. The final diagnosis was endocervical adenocarcinoma with metastasis to three pelvic lymph nodes.The cytomorphology of endocervical adenocarcinoma on ThinPrep Pap test is similar to that described for conventionally-processed Pap smears. This difficult diagnosis should be considered on a ThinPrep Pap test, regardless of age when the characteristic cytomorphology is observed. On a cytology sample, it is advisable to state atypical endocervical cells, adenocarcinoma in situ, or endocervical adenocarcinoma without providing a specific subtype even if there is a predominance of features for a particular subtype.

  4. Family history of hypertension and serum triglycerides predict future insulin sensitivity: a 17-year follow-up study of young men.

    PubMed

    Skårn, Sigrid Nordang; Flaa, Arnljot; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Rostrup, Morten; Brunborg, Cathrine; Reims, Henrik M; Fossum, Eigil; Høieggen, Aud; Aksnes, Tonje Amb

    2015-09-01

    Low insulin sensitivity is closely related to both cardiovascular diseases and diabetes development. Still, correlates of insulin sensitivity have mainly been examined in cross-sectional studies. As far as we are aware, the longitudinal stability of insulin sensitivity in young men is largely unknown. We aimed for the first time to examine both the stability (tracking) and longitudinal predictors of future insulin sensitivity in healthy young men with and without a family history of diabetes or hypertension. We performed a 17-year follow-up study of a cohort of 100 healthy young men. Cardiovascular risk markers, including insulin sensitivity measured by the gold standard method--hyperinsulinaemic isoglycaemic glucose clamp--were examined both at baseline and at follow-up. Baseline insulin sensitivity showed no significant correlation with insulin sensitivity at follow-up, whereas all other measured cardiovascular risk markers had significant correlation (tracking coefficients 0.4-0.7). In multiple regression analyses, family history of hypertension and baseline triglycerides remained the negative predictors of future insulin sensitivity. This was driven by the strong correlations in men with family history of diabetes. Our data suggest that clamp-derived insulin sensitivity is not a stable feature in young men, and that family history of hypertension and baseline triglycerides were associated with future insulin sensitivity, especially in men with a family history of diabetes, and irrespective of blood pressure status 17 years earlier. These findings provide further insight into the development of insulin sensitivity and related diseases.

  5. Vaginal Recurrence More than 17 Years after Hysterectomy and Adjuvant Treatment for Uterine Carcinoma with Successful Salvage Brachytherapy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yechieli, Raphael; Robbins, Jared R.; Schultz, Daniel; Munkarah, Adnan; Elshaikh, Mohamed A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Although the majority of recurrences occur within the first 3 years of hysterectomy for endometrioid carcinoma, we report herein a successful salvage vaginal brachytherapy in a patient with endometrioid uterine carcinoma which recurred more than 17 years after initial treatment. Materials and Methods A 61-year-old female was diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus and treated with TAH-BSO, followed by adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to the whole pelvis. After remaining free of any recurrent or metastatic disease for more than 17 years, she was diagnosed with isolated vaginal cuff recurrence and successfully treated with a salvage high-dose-rate intracavitary vaginal brachytherapy. Results The patient remained disease free until her death from unrelated causes 7 years later. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the longest time to recurrence of endometrial cancer in someone who had been treated with TAH-BSO and adjuvant pelvic EBRT. This case highlights that even with adjuvant therapy, late recurrences may occur, and successful salvage brachytherapy is very effective. PMID:21589885

  6. Vaginal recurrence more than 17 years after hysterectomy and adjuvant treatment for uterine carcinoma with successful salvage brachytherapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yechieli, Raphael; Robbins, Jared R; Schultz, Daniel; Munkarah, Adnan; Elshaikh, Mohamed A

    2011-04-18

    Although the majority of recurrences occur within the first 3 years of hysterectomy for endometrioid carcinoma, we report herein a successful salvage vaginal brachytherapy in a patient with endometrioid uterine carcinoma which recurred more than 17 years after initial treatment. A 61-year-old female was diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus and treated with TAH-BSO, followed by adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to the whole pelvis. After remaining free of any recurrent or metastatic disease for more than 17 years, she was diagnosed with isolated vaginal cuff recurrence and successfully treated with a salvage high-dose-rate intracavitary vaginal brachytherapy. The patient remained disease free until her death from unrelated causes 7 years later. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the longest time to recurrence of endometrial cancer in someone who had been treated with TAH-BSO and adjuvant pelvic EBRT. This case highlights that even with adjuvant therapy, late recurrences may occur, and successful salvage brachytherapy is very effective.

  7. Treatment of 2,453 acne vulgaris patients aged 12-17 years with the fixed-dose adapalene-benzoyl peroxide combination topical gel: efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Eichenfield, Lawrence E; Jorizzo, Joseph L; Dirschka, Thomas; Taub, Amy Forman; Lynde, Charles; Graeber, Michael; Kerrouche, Nabil

    2010-11-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common disease in adolescents, and early treatment may minimize its physical and psychological effects. A fixed-dose combination gel of adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% (adapalene-BPO) is efficacious and safe in the treatment of acne patients aged 12 years or older, as demonstrated in three randomized and controlled studies. The current study is a subgroup analysis of the efficacy and safety of adapalene-BPO among 2,453 patients aged 12-17 years. After 12 weeks of treatment, significantly more patients in the adapalene-BPO group were "clear" or "almost clear" (30.9%, P < 0.001) compared to the monotherapies and vehicle. The percentage reduction from baseline in total, inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions was 56, 63 and 54.5 percent in the adapalene-BPO group, respectively, significantly higher than in the monotherapy groups and vehicle (all P < 0.001). Significantly earlier onset of effect was observed at week 1. Adapalene-BPO was also well tolerated, with the mean scores of dryness, erythema, scaling and stinging/burning less than 1 (mild) at all study visits. Overall, the adapalene-BPO combination gel provides significantly greater and synergistic efficacy and a fast onset of action compared to the monotherapies and vehicle in young acne patients aged 12-17 years.

  8. Receipt of tetanus-containing vaccinations among adolescents aged 13 to 17 years in the United States: National Immunization Survey-Teen 2007.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nidhi; Stokley, Shannon; Cohn, Amanda

    2010-08-01

    Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) was licensed in the United States in 2005 to be given in place of tetanus-diphtheria (Td) for single use in adolescents. This analysis was conducted to determine vaccination coverage with Td and Tdap among adolescents in the United States aged 13 to 17 years and to characterize adolescents who had not received a tetanus-containing booster vaccine. Data were analyzed from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) 2007, a random-digit-dialing telephone survey that is weighted to be nationally representative of adolescents aged 13 to 17 years. Parents gave verbal consent so that vaccination providers could be contacted to obtain the adolescents' immunization histories. Weighted coverage of Td and Tdap vaccines was estimated with bivariate analysis from returned vaccination data from the providers' records. A multivariable analysis was conducted to determine factors independently associated with nonreceipt of tetanus-containing vaccines. Missed opportunities for vaccination with Td or Tdap were determined from documented vaccination visits for other vaccines. Out of 69,289 households screened, 6572 had an eligible adolescent aged 13 to 17 years and 5486 (83.5%) completed the household interview. Among 5474 adolescents who met the age criterion and completed a household interview, consent to contact providers was obtained for 4114 (75.2%). A total of 2947 adolescents (53.7% of those with completed household interviews) had immunization histories returned from providers for verification. In 2007, a total of 2149 adolescents (weighted percentage, 72.3%) aged 13 to 17 years had received at least one tetanus booster since age 10 years; Tdap coverage was 30.4%. The mean (SE) age at Td or Tdap receipt was 13.04 (0.04) years (range, 10.00-17.84 years); the median age was 12.86 years. More than half (59.4%) of sampled adolescents had received their booster dose on or after January 1, 2005; among those vaccinated in 2007, 89

  9. [Juvenile primary lung cancer in a 17-year-old girl as a 2nd malignant neoplasm after osteosarcoma treatment in childhood].

    PubMed

    Konoeda, Chihiro; Murakawa, Tomohiro; Sano, Atsushi; Kawashima, Mitsuaki; Nakajima, Jun

    2012-12-01

    The patient was a 17-year-old girl. She underwent treatment for osteosarcoma when she was around 10 ~ 11 years old. A follow-up chest computed tomography(CT) revealed one small pulmonary nodule 6 years later. The orthopedist thought it was metastasis. The patient was referred to our division and treated with thoracoscopic partial resection. The final pathological diagnosis was a primary lung adenocarcinoma. This case is unique because the patient is juvenile and had a history of another cancer, i.e., osteosarcoma. Her primary lung cancer is a 2nd malignancy. The incidence of 2nd malignant neoplasm is one of the significant late effects of pediatric cancer treatment. When pulmonary lesions are detected in young patient with histories of neoplasms, primary lung cancer as a 2nd malignant neoplasm as well as pulmonary metastasis from 1st neoplasm, should be considered as differential diagnosis.

  10. A Case Report of Probable Paliperidone ER-Induced Serotonin Syndrome in a 17-Year-Old Taiwanese Female With New Onset Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung-Hao; Juang, Kai-Dih; Chou, Po-Han; Chan, Chin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A 17-year-old female with new-onset psychosis was treated with paliperidone. After increasing the paliperidone dose to 12 mg per day the patient developed a series of side effects; Tachycardia (140 bpm), severe drooling, restlessness, diaphoresis, whole-body tremor, inducible foot clonus, predominant lower limbs rigidity, bilateral pupil dilation, increased bowel sounds with watery diarrhea, and muscle hypertonicity. The symptoms subsided after stopping the paliperidone, and recurred after resuming paliperidone 9 mg per day. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a very clear and close relationship between the symptoms of serotonin syndrome and the use of paliperidone. We have to cautiously consider the diagnosis of serotonin syndrome in potential cases. PMID:26945397

  11. Use of medication prescribed for emotional or behavioral difficulties among children aged 6-17 years in the United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Howie, LaJeana D; Pastor, Patricia N; Lukacs, Susan L

    2014-04-01

    Mental health problems are common chronic conditions in children (1-3). Medication is often prescribed to treat the symptoms of these conditions (4-7). Few population-based studies have examined the use of prescription medication to treat mental health problems among younger as well as older school-aged children (8-10). This report describes the sociodemographic characteristics of children aged 6-17 years prescribed medication or taking medication during the past 6 months for emotional or behavioral difficulties, and describes parental reports of the perceived benefit of this medication. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  12. A 17-year-old male with pseudotumor cerebri secondary to performance-enhancing steroids triggering venous thrombosis in the brain.

    PubMed

    DeSena, Allen D; Weimer, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    This article is a case report of a 17-year-old male who presented with a headache and blurry vision. He subsequently was noted to have papilledema on a fundoscopic examination and an initial normal magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of his head; his condition was, therefore, diagnosed as pseudotumor cerebri. A subsequent magnetic resonance venography of his head revealed venous thrombosis, and other investigations revealed an elevated factor VIII level as well as a mutation at the MTHFR locus, consistent with an elevated risk for hypercoagulability. In addition, he admitted to steroid usage for purposes of performance enhancement in baseball. The patient's condition eventually improved with acetazolamide and serial lumbar punctures. Steroids have been linked to predisposition to hypercoagulable states, but there are no reports identified by these authors that link performance-enhancing steroids with pseudotumor cerebri as a result of a coagulation dyscrasia.

  13. A 20-Year Comparison of Football-Related Injuries in American and Canadian Youth Aged 6 to 17 Years: A Replication Study.

    PubMed

    Keays, Glenn; Friedman, Debbie; Gagnon, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Little is known about Canadian youth football injuries. The objectives of this study were (a) to contrast the injuries in Canadian and American football players aged 6 to 17 years and (b) compare the injuries sustained during organized football with those in nonorganized football. Methods Using a retrospective cohort design based on data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System a comparison of injuries was made. Results Trends in injuries were comparable. Proportions and odds of injuries were similar, except for a few exceptions. In Canada, more girls were injured and fractures were more prevalent. Compared with nonorganized football, organized football players were older, involved more males, and suffered more traumatic brain injuries and injuries to their lower extremities. Conclusion Canadian and American youth football injuries were similar. The type of football, be it organized or nonorganized, has an impact on injuries.

  14. Growth trends in boys and girls (10-17 years-old) from autonomous region of Madeira, Portugal between 1996-1998 and 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Sousa, B; Oliveira, B M P M; de Almeida, M D V

    2012-01-01

    Growth trends have never been studied in adolescents of the Autonomous Region of Madeira, Portugal. To analyse growth trends in weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and triceps skin-fold thickness (TST) of adolescents (10-17 years old) of the Autonomous Region of Madeira between 1996-1998 and 2007-2009. A cross-sectional study was carried out between 2007-2009, including 4314 adolescents, 2237 girls and 2077 boys (10-17 years old). To study secular growth trends, data were compared with a sample from 1996-1998, comparing the means for each anthropometric variable by age and sex using the independent-sample t-test. An average increase was found in weight of 5.8 kg in boys and 6.3 kg in girls; in height of 3.0 cm in boys and 3.7 cm in girls; in BMI of 1.5 kg/m(2) in boys and 1.7 kg/m(2) in girls; in WC a difference of 5.6 cm and 4.9 cm for boys and girls, respectively, and for MUAC a difference of 2.7 cm in boys and 2.0 cm in girls. No differences were found in TST in boys, but in girls an increase of 1.2 mm was observed. A general increase in anthropometric measurements, more marked in weight, BMI, WC and MUAC and at younger ages, was observed.

  15. Influence of premature birth on the health conditions, receipt of special education and sport participation of children aged 6-17 years in the USA.

    PubMed

    Kodjebacheva, Gergana D; Sabo, Tina

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the influence of premature birth on conditions among children aged 6-17 years. The National Survey of Children's Health in the USA added a question on premature birth for the first time in the 2011-12 wave. The influence of being born premature on different conditions while controlling for sociodemographic factors was assessed using logistic regression. A total of 6882 out of 62 078 (11.1%) of children aged 6-17 years were born premature. Compared with children who were not born premature, those who were born premature were more likely to have cerebral palsy [odds ratio (OR) = 9.6, confidence interval (CI): 7.4-12.4], vision problems (OR = 2.3, CI: 2.0-2.6), hearing problems (OR = 1.7, CI: 1.6-2.0) and a special healthcare need (OR = 1.7, CI: 1.6-1.8). Children who were born premature had an increased likelihood of not being on a sports team or not taking sports lessons after school or on weekends during the past 12 months than those who were not born premature (OR = 1.2, CI: 1.1-1.3). Prematurity may be associated with negative outcomes as infants transition into childhood and adolescence. Interventions within the life-course perspective are needed to alleviate the long-term consequences of prematurity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in pediatric patients (aged 6-17 years) with autistic disorder: results from a 52-week, open-label study.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Ronald N; Owen, Randall; Manos, George; Mankoski, Raymond; Kamen, Lisa; McQuade, Robert D; Carson, William H; Corey-Lisle, Patricia K; Aman, Michael G

    2011-06-01

    To report the long-term efficacy of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents (ages 6-17 years) with autistic disorder. This was a 52-week, open-label, flexible-dose (2-15 mg/day) study of aripiprazole for the treatment of children and adolescents with irritability associated with autistic disorder. Eligible subjects were enrolled from two 8-week randomized trials or were enrolled as de novo subjects. "Prior aripiprazole" subjects had received treatment with aripiprazole for 8 weeks before entering this study. Evaluation of efficacy, a secondary objective after evaluation of safety and tolerability in this study, was conducted using the caregiver-rated Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability subscale and the clinician-rated Clinical Global Impression-Improvement score. Three hundred thirty subjects received treatment (de novo, n = 86; prior aripiprazole, n = 174; prior placebo, n = 70) and 199 subjects (60.3%) completed 52 weeks of treatment. At their last study visit, 38.2% of subjects were receiving concomitant central nervous system medications (commonly antidepressants, 13.4%; psychostimulants, 11.5%; antiepileptics, 5.9%). At week 52 (observed cases data set), the mean change from baseline in Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale scores was -8.0 in de novo subjects and -6.1 in prior placebo subjects; prior aripiprazole subjects maintained symptom improvement that was achieved with treatment in the prior study. At endpoint, the majority of subjects had a Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement score of 2 (much improved) or 1 (very much improved). Aripiprazole reduced symptoms of irritability associated with autistic disorder in pediatric subjects ages 6-17 years who were studied for up to 1 year.

  17. Preliminary Finnish measures of eating competence suggest association with health-promoting eating patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10-17 year old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen

    2015-05-21

    Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10-17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10-17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group.

  18. Preliminary Finnish Measures of Eating Competence Suggest Association with Health-Promoting Eating Patterns and Related Psychobehavioral Factors in 10–17 Year Old Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen

    2015-01-01

    Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10–17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10–17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. PMID:26007335

  19. The effect of stricter licensing on road traffic injury events involving 15 to 17-year-old moped drivers in Sweden: A time series intervention study.

    PubMed

    Bonander, Carl; Andersson, Ragnar; Nilson, Finn

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and quantify the effect of the introduction of the AM driving license on non-fatal moped-related injuries in Sweden. With the introduction of the new license category in October 2009, prospective moped drivers are now required to pass a mandatory theory test following a practical and theoretical course. In addition, obtaining a license to operate a moped is now considerably more costly. Time series intervention analysis on monthly aggregated injury data (1st Jan 2007-31st Dec 2013) was performed using generalized additive models for location, shape and scale (GAMLSS) to quantify the effect size on injury events involving teenage (15-17 years) moped drivers, while controlling for trend and seasonality. Exposure was adjusted for by using the number of registered mopeds in traffic as a proxy. The introduction of AM license was associated with a 41% reduction in the rate of injury events involving 15-year-old moped drivers (IRR 0.59 [95% CI: 0.48-0.72]), and a 39% and 36% decrease in those involving 16-year-old (IRR 0.61 [95% CI: 0.48-0.79]) and 17-year-old drivers (IRR 0.64 [95% CI: 0.46-0.90]), respectively. The effect in the 15-year-old stratum was decreased roughly by half after adjusting for exposure, but remained significant, and the corresponding estimates in the other age groups did not change noticeably. This study provides quasi-experimental evidence of an effect on non-fatal moped-related injuries as a result of stricter licensing rules. Only part of the effect could be explained by a reduction in the number of mopeds in traffic, indicating that other mechanisms must be studied to fully understand the cause of the reduction in injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety Profile of PrePex Male Circumcision Device and Client Satisfaction With Adolescent Males Aged 13-17 Years in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Tshimanga, Mafuta; Hatzold, Karin; Mugurungi, Owen; Mangwiro, Tonderayi; Ncube, Getrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Chatikobo, Pesanai; Gundidza, Patricia; Samkange, Christopher; Dhlamini, Roy; Murwira, Munyaradzi; Gwinji, Gerald

    2016-06-01

    The safety and efficacy of the PrePex device for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been demonstrated in studies in Rwanda, Uganda, and Zimbabwe, leading to the conditional prequalification of the device for use in adults. Because the majority of VMMC clients in the 14 priority countries are adolescents under 18 years, research to establish the safety and efficacy of the device for males <18 years is required. One-arm, prospective study included 402 adolescents, aged 13-17 years, using PrePex device between August 2013 and January 2014 at a VMMC centre in Harare. Endpoints are number and grade of adverse events associated with device circumcision, time to complete wound healing, client satisfaction with the procedure, and outcome. The rate of medical ineligibility among adolescent males was high; 237/402 (35.9%) of study participants had to be excluded based on medical reasons. The severe/moderate adverse event rate was low at 2/402 (0.5%). No device displacements/self-removals were observed. Time to complete wound healing was shorter than in adults; 367/398 (92.2%) adolescents had completed wound healing by day 35, whereas 90% of adults had completed wound healing by day 56 as demonstrated in previous studies. Overall, adolescents were highly satisfied with the results of their circumcision. The study demonstrates that the PrePex device can be safely used in adolescents aged 13-17 years. The significant proportion of males opting for surgical circumcision and the high medical ineligibility suggest that surgical circumcision needs to be provided alongside PrePex services in programs targeting young age groups.

  1. 6-year periodicity and variable synchronicity in a mass-flowering plant.

    PubMed

    Kakishima, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Jin; Murata, Hiroko; Murata, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Periodical organisms, such as bamboos and periodical cicadas, are very famous for their synchronous reproduction. In bamboos and other periodical plants, the synchronicity of mass-flowering and withering has been often reported indicating these species are monocarpic (semelparous) species. Therefore, synchronicity and periodicity are often suspected to be fairly tightly coupled traits in these periodical plants. We investigate the periodicity and synchronicity of Strobilanthes flexicaulis, and a closely related species S. tashiroi on Okinawa Island, Japan. The genus Strobilanthes is known for several periodical species. Based on 32-year observational data, we confirmed that S. flexicaulis is 6-year periodical mass-flowering monocarpic plant. All the flowering plants had died after flowering. In contrast, we found that S. tashiroi is a polycarpic perennial with no mass-flowering from three-year individual tracking. We also surveyed six local populations of S. flexicaulis and found variation in the synchronicity from four highly synchronized populations (>98% of plants flowering in the mass year) to two less synchronized one with 11-47% of plants flowering before and after the mass year. This result might imply that synchrony may be selected for when periodicity is established in monocarpic species. We found the selective advantages for mass-flowering in pollinator activities and predator satiation. The current results suggest that the periodical S. flexicaulis might have evolved periodicity from a non-periodical close relative. The current report should become a key finding for understanding the evolution of periodical plants.

  2. 6-Year Periodicity and Variable Synchronicity in a Mass-Flowering Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kakishima, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Jin; Murata, Hiroko; Murata, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Periodical organisms, such as bamboos and periodical cicadas, are very famous for their synchronous reproduction. In bamboos and other periodical plants, the synchronicity of mass-flowering and withering has been often reported indicating these species are monocarpic (semelparous) species. Therefore, synchronicity and periodicity are often suspected to be fairly tightly coupled traits in these periodical plants. We investigate the periodicity and synchronicity of Strobilanthes flexicaulis, and a closely related species S. tashiroi on Okinawa Island, Japan. The genus Strobilanthes is known for several periodical species. Based on 32-year observational data, we confirmed that S. flexicaulis is 6-year periodical mass-flowering monocarpic plant. All the flowering plants had died after flowering. In contrast, we found that S. tashiroi is a polycarpic perennial with no mass-flowering from three-year individual tracking. We also surveyed six local populations of S. flexicaulis and found variation in the synchronicity from four highly synchronized populations (>98% of plants flowering in the mass year) to two less synchronized one with 11–47% of plants flowering before and after the mass year. This result might imply that synchrony may be selected for when periodicity is established in monocarpic species. We found the selective advantages for mass-flowering in pollinator activities and predator satiation. The current results suggest that the periodical S. flexicaulis might have evolved periodicity from a non-periodical close relative. The current report should become a key finding for understanding the evolution of periodical plants. PMID:22163279

  3. Morphology, bioacoustics, and ecology of Tibicen neomexicensis sp. n., a new species of cicada from the Sacramento Mountains in New Mexico, U.S.A. (Hemiptera, Cicadidae, Tibicen).

    PubMed

    Stucky, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    Tibicen neomexicensis sp. n., a new species of cicada found in the Sacramento Mountains of southcentral New Mexico, is described. Tibicen neomexicensis closely resembles Tibicen chiricahua Davis morphologically, but males of the two species have highly distinct calling songs that differ in phrasal structure, amplitude burst rates, and pulse structure. Unlike Tibicen chiricahua, male Tibicen neomexicensis use conspicuous dorso-ventral abdominal movements to modulate the amplitude and frequency of their calls. Tibicen neomexicensis is also smaller on average than Tibicen chiricahua, and differences in the color patterns of the wing venation identify these two species morphologically. Both species are dependent on pinyon-juniper woodlands and have similar emergence phenologies. These species appear to be allopatric, with Tibicen chiricahua found west of the Rio Grande in New Mexico, Arizona, and Mexico, and Tibicen neomexicensis so far known only from New Mexico, east of the Rio Grande. Tibicen chiricahua and Tibicen neomexicensis males share a common genitalic structure that separates them from all other species of Tibicen, and the possible evolutionary and biogeographic history of these likely sister species is also discussed.

  4. The cicada genus Guyalna Boulard & Martinelli, 1996 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadinae: Fidicinini): generic description, twelve new combinations, and a key to species.

    PubMed

    Sanborn, Allen F

    2016-04-25

    The cicada genus Guyalna Boulard and Martinelli, 1996 is described fully for the first time. Dorisiana bogotana (Distant, 1892), Dorisiana brisa (Walker, 1850), Fidicinoides coffea Sanborn, Moore & Young, 2008, Fidicinoides distanti (Goding, 1925), Fidicinoides flavipronotum Sanborn, 2007, Dorisiana glauca (Goding, 1925), Dorisiana panamensis (Davis, 1939), Fidicinoides variegata (Sanborn, 2005), and Dorisiana viridifemur (Walker, 1850) are transferred to the genus Guyalna to become Guyalna bogotana (Distant, 1892) n. comb., Guyalna brisa (Walker, 1850) n. comb., Guyalna coffea (Sanborn, Moore & Young, 2008) n. comb., Guyalna distanti (Goding, 1925) n. comb., Guyalna flavipronotum (Sanborn, 2007) n. comb., Guyalna glauca (Goding, 1925) n. comb., Guyalna panamensis (Davis, 1939) n. comb., Guyalna variegata (Sanborn, 2005) n. comb., and Guyalna viridifemur (Walker, 1850) n. comb., respectively. Fidicinoides cachla (Distant, 1899), Fidicinoides compostela (Davis, 1934), Fidicinoides guayabana Sanborn, Moore & Young, 2008, are transferred to Dorisiana Metcalf, 1952 to become Dorisiana cachla (Distant, 1899) n. comb., Dorisiana compostela (Davis, 1934) n. comb., and Dorisiana guayabana (Sanborn, Moore & Young, 2008) n. comb., respectively. The current 25 species of the genus are listed along with their synonymies and known distribution of each species. Finally, a key to the species of Guyalna is provided.

  5. Morphology, bioacoustics, and ecology of Tibicen neomexicensis sp. n., a new species of cicada from the Sacramento Mountains in New Mexico, U.S.A. (Hemiptera, Cicadidae, Tibicen)

    PubMed Central

    Stucky, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Tibicen neomexicensis sp. n., a new species of cicada found in the Sacramento Mountains of southcentral New Mexico, is described. Tibicen neomexicensis closely resembles Tibicen chiricahua Davis morphologically, but males of the two species have highly distinct calling songs that differ in phrasal structure, amplitude burst rates, and pulse structure. Unlike Tibicen chiricahua, male Tibicen neomexicensis use conspicuous dorso-ventral abdominal movements to modulate the amplitude and frequency of their calls. Tibicen neomexicensis is also smaller on average than Tibicen chiricahua, and differences in the color patterns of the wing venation identify these two species morphologically. Both species are dependent on pinyon-juniper woodlands and have similar emergence phenologies. These species appear to be allopatric, with Tibicen chiricahua found west of the Rio Grande in New Mexico, Arizona, and Mexico, and Tibicen neomexicensis so far known only from New Mexico, east of the Rio Grande. Tibicen chiricahua and Tibicen neomexicensis males share a common genitalic structure that separates them from all other species of Tibicen, and the possible evolutionary and biogeographic history of these likely sister species is also discussed. PMID:24146578

  6. Fish consumption and prenatal methylmercury exposure: cognitive and behavioral outcomes in the main cohort at 17 years from the Seychelles child development study.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Philip W; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Thurston, Sally W; Huang, Li-Shan; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Gunzler, Douglas; Watson, Gene; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Zareba, Grazyna; Klein, Jonathan D; Clarkson, Thomas W; Strain, J J; Myers, Gary J

    2011-12-01

    People worldwide depend upon daily fish consumption as a major source of protein and other nutrients. Fish are high in nutrients essential for normal brain development, but they also contain methylmercury (MeHg), a neurotoxicant. Our studies in a population consuming fish daily have indicated no consistent pattern of adverse associations between prenatal MeHg and children's development. For some endpoints we found performance improved with increasing prenatal exposure to MeHg. Follow up studies indicate this association is related to the beneficial nutrients present in fish. To determine if the absence of adverse outcomes and the presence of beneficial associations between prenatal MeHg and developmental outcomes previously reported persists into adolescence. This study was conducted on the Main Cohort of the Seychelles Child Development Study (SCDS). We examined the association between prenatal MeHg exposure and subjects' performance at 17 years of age on 27 endpoints. The test battery included the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), the Woodcock-Johnson (W-J-II) Achievement Test, subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), and measures of problematic behaviors. Analyses for all endpoints were adjusted for postnatal MeHg, sex, socioeconomic status, maternal IQ, and child's age at testing and the child's IQ was added for problematic behavioral endpoints. Mean prenatal MeHg exposure was 6.9 ppm. There was no association between prenatal MeHg and 21 endpoints. Increasing prenatal MeHg was associated with better scores on four endpoints (higher W-J-II math calculation scores, reduced numbers of trials on the Intra-Extradimensional Shift Set of the CANTAB), fewer reports of substance use and incidents of and referrals for problematic behaviors in school. Increasing prenatal MeHg was adversely associated with one level of referrals to a school counselor. At age 17 years there was no consistent

  7. Impact of exposure to conflict, tsunami and mental disorders on school absenteeism: findings from a national sample of Sri Lankan children aged 12-17 years.

    PubMed

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Pannala, Gayani; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula; Stewart, Robert

    2013-06-08

    Armed conflicts and natural disasters are common. Millions of people, including children are killed, injured, disabled and displaced as a result. The effects of conflict and natural disaster on mental health, especially of children are well established but effects on education have received less attention. This study investigated associations between conflict and/or tsunami exposure in Sri Lanka and their associations with absenteeism in a national sample of school children. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2006-7 among 1,505 randomly selected school children aged 12-17 years attending government schools in 17 districts. The hypotheses were that absenteeism would be more common in children previously affected by conflict or the 2004 tsunami and that at least part of this effect would be accounted for by mental disorders. Survey information included socio-demographic, conflict and tsunami exposure, mental health status (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and information on absenteeism (defined as 20% or greater non-attendance over one year). The total sample of consisted of 1,505 students aged 12-17 years with a mean age of 13.7 years. 120 children reported at least one conflict exposure and 65 reported at least one tsunami exposure while only 15 reported exposure to both conflict and tsunami. Prevalence of emotional disorder caseness was 2.7%, conduct disorder caseness 5.8%, hyperactivity disorder caseness 0.6%, and 8.5% were identified as having any psychiatric disorder. Absenteeism was present in 26.8%. Overall, previous exposure to tsunami (OR 2.29 95% CI 1.36-3.84) was significantly associated with absenteeism whereas exposure to conflict was not (OR 1.32 95% CI 0.88-1.97), although some specific conflict-related exposures were significant risk factors. Mental disorder was strongly associated with absenteeism but did not account for its association with tsunami or conflict exposure. Exposure to traumatic events may have a detrimental effect on

  8. Prevalence and correlates of anabolic-androgenic steroid use in a nationally representative sample of 17-year-old Norwegian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sagoe, Dominic; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Molde, Helge; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use has been identified as a serious public health problem. This study investigates the prevalence and correlates of AAS use among Norwegian adolescents. In 2012, a nationally representative sample of 2,055 17-year-old adolescents (963 males and 1,088 females) participated in a survey. The response rate was 70.4%. In addition to questions about AAS use, participants completed the Parental Monitoring Scale, the Family Relations/Cohesion Scale, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test C, the Mini-International Personality Item Pool-Five-Factor Model, the Eysenck Narrow Impulsiveness Subscale, the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking, the Short-Form Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. They also answered questions about demography, gambling, smoking, snus, and narcotic use. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. The lifetime prevalence of AAS use was 0.30% (0.52% in males and 0.09% in females), while current prevalence was 0.25%. Moreover, 19.39% of the sample reported having an acquaintance who used or had used AAS. Having an acquaintance who used or had used AAS was significantly related to snus use, depression, aggression, extraversion, and conscientiousness in both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Conclusions/Importance: Our findings suggest a high prevalence of AAS use among Norwegian adolescents and denote the significance of social, personality, and health factors in adolescents' exposure to AAS milieu.

  9. Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus detected in Pico, Azores, Portugal, revealed a unique endemic strain with more than 17 years of independent evolution.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Pedro J; Lopes, Ana M; Magalhães, Maria J; Pinheiro, Ana; Gonçalves, David; Abrantes, Joana

    2014-07-14

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is caused by a calicivirus, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), which is responsible for high mortality in domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). RHDV strains were sequenced from wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) collected in the Azorean island of Pico, Portugal. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Pico RHDV strains diverge from all of the others described so far, but cluster with the genogroups 1-5 (G1-G5). The genetic distance between the Pico RHDV sequences and each G1, G2 and G3-G5 genogroup (~0.08) is compatible with an RHDV introduction at least 17 years ago. Our results show that in Pico, RHDV is the outcome of an independent evolution from the original RHDV strain that appeared in its European rabbit population. These are the first sequences of RHDV obtained in the subspecies O. c. algirus, outside of its original region, the Iberian Peninsula. Furthermore, we discuss the risk of rabbit translocations from the Azores to the Iberian Peninsula, where the rabbit wild populations are suffering high mortalities.

  10. [Unstable hypertension due to renal artery compression by the developed diaphragm in a 17-year-old athlete: a case report].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Sayako; Yamamoto, Shinya; Makiishi, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    A 17-year-old high school boy was admitted to our hospital because of hypertension. Doppler ultrasound of the renal arteries and 3D-CT angiography showed a stenosis of the right renal artery, which was pushed against the aorta by the right crus of the diaphragm. He underwent aortography and selective renal arteriography. His right renal artery originated from the aorta at a higher level than the left renal artery, between the celiac artery and the superior mesenteric artery. Renal arteriography confirmed a 50% reduction in diameter (stenosis) of the proximal right renal artery entrapped by the right diaphragmatic crus. This pathology, unlike common renal artery stenosis, sometimes requires surgical decompression or an aortorenal bypass graft, because renal angioplasty with stenting is reported to be at risk of complication by a fracture of the stent. However, the patient rejected surgical decompression for fear of deterioration of his athletic ability. Therefore we decided to follow up his blood pressure and renal size by ultrasound every six months. Renovascular hypertension caused by diaphragmatic entrapment is a very rare disease. The diagnosis may be overlooked easily at angiography if optimal views are not obtained. It is important to display images of the renal arteries, the celiac artery and the superior mesenteric artery in both inspiration and expiration.

  11. [Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescents between 10 to 17 year-old attending schools in Chía, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Ospina-Ospina, Fanny del Carmen; Hinestrosa-Upegui, María F; Paredes, María C; Guzmán, Yahira; Granados, Carlos

    2011-12-01

    This study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety amongst 10 to 17 year-old adolescents still attending school using the CDI and SCARED questionnaires for early screening in Chía, a town near Bogota, from 2008 to 2010. This was a cross-sectional study of prevalence. 37% of the 538 adolescents interviewed had anxiety symptoms, 12.3% had depression symptoms and 9% presented anxiety and depression symptoms, males having greater prevalence for depression symptoms (6.9% cf 5.4% for females) but lacking statistical significance. There was a greater tendency for anxiety symptoms to be found in adolescents attending public schools. Concerning co morbidity, more anxiety symptoms were found in adolescents having depression symptoms. It was concluded that anxiety and depression symptoms are real at this age, this being reason enough why it is necessary to suspect and detect them on time so that adolescents can receive suitable attention. Protective factors must be strengthened for this to happen and there must be real awareness by everybody to create educational and health programmes directed towards ensuring good mental health.

  12. An exploratory investigation of the intuition of physical quantity among 15 to 17 year old high school students from an evolutionary epistemological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernavski, Ghennady

    This study examines the issue of perception of extreme amounts of various physical quantities among 14 to 17 year old public schools students. The methods used in this investigation consisted of combined multiple-choice-open response questions and clinical interviews. The subjects in this study have relatively well defined ideas about quantitative relationships of the physical world as long as the quantities involved lie within their perceptual limits. Beyond these limits, their quantitative understanding was vague across all concepts with respect to their inability to do adequate quantitative comparisons. Very small physical quantities as well as very small changes in quantities did not seem to be present in the mental frameworks of the subjects. Most subjects were able to comprehend micro-quantities and micro-changes by relating them to those within their mesocosmical range. Analogical reasoning appeared to be central to this process. The subjects failed to perceive identical physical situations as analogical if one of them involved mesocosmical quantities and the other contained those lying beyond their mental mesocosmical range. Crossing mesocosmical boundaries in one's mind caused interruption in analogical reasoning. Very large physical quantities, namely those beyond the human range of sensual perception, were present in the subjects' mental frameworks. However, they were unable to reason adequately about quantitative differences between distinct quantities of the same concept if these quantities were beyond their sensual range. The findings of this study provide empirical support to Vollmer's (1984) theory of mesocosmical mind.

  13. New Diagnosis of Atypical Ataxia-Telangiectasia in a 17-Year-Old Boy with T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and a Novel ATM mutation

    PubMed Central

    Roohi, Jasmin; Crowe, Jennifer; Loredan, Denis; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Mansukhani, Mahesh M.; Omesi, Lenore; Levine, Jennifer; Politi, Anya Revah; Zha, Shan

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive chromosome breakage disorder caused by mutations in the ATM gene. Typically it presents in early childhood with progressive cerebellar dysfunction along with immunodeficiency and oculocutaneous telangiectasia. An increased risk of malignancy is also associated with the syndrome and, rarely, may be the presenting feature in small children. We describe a 17-year-old boy with slurred speech, mild motor delays and learning disability diagnosed with atypical A-T in the setting of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Suspicion for A-T was raised after review of a peripheral blood karyotype demonstrating rearrangements involving chromosomes 7 and/or 14. The diagnosis was confirmed after molecular testing identified a novel homozygous missense variant in ATM (c.5585T>A; p.Leu1862His) that resulted in protein instability and abolished serine/threonine protein kinase activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of concurrent A-T and lymphoid malignancy diagnoses in an older child or adult with only mild neurological disease. Our experience suggests that screening for the disorder should be considered in any individual with lymphoid malignancy and neurological findings, especially as radiation and certain chemotherapy protocols are contraindicated in A-T. PMID:28123174

  14. New diagnosis of atypical ataxia-telangiectasia in a 17-year-old boy with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a novel ATM mutation.

    PubMed

    Roohi, Jasmin; Crowe, Jennifer; Loredan, Denis; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Mansukhani, Mahesh M; Omesi, Lenore; Levine, Jennifer; Revah Politi, Anya; Zha, Shan

    2017-04-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive chromosome breakage disorder caused by mutations in the ATM gene. Typically, it presents in early childhood with progressive cerebellar dysfunction along with immunodeficiency and oculocutaneous telangiectasia. An increased risk of malignancy is also associated with the syndrome and, rarely, may be the presenting feature in small children. We describe a 17-year-old boy with slurred speech, mild motor delays and learning disability diagnosed with atypical A-T in the setting of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Suspicion for A-T was raised after review of a peripheral blood karyotype demonstrating rearrangements involving chromosomes 7 and/or 14. The diagnosis was confirmed after molecular testing identified a novel homozygous missense variant in ATM (c.5585T>A; p.Leu1862His) that resulted in protein instability and abolished serine/threonine protein kinase activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of concurrent A-T and lymphoid malignancy diagnoses in an older child or adult with only mild neurological disease. Our experience suggests that screening for the disorder should be considered in any individual with lymphoid malignancy and neurological findings, especially as radiation and certain chemotherapy protocols are contraindicated in A-T.

  15. Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Detected in Pico, Azores, Portugal, Revealed a Unique Endemic Strain with More Than 17 Years of Independent Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Pedro J.; Lopes, Ana M.; Magalhães, Maria J.; Pinheiro, Ana; Gonçalves, David; Abrantes, Joana

    2014-01-01

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is caused by a calicivirus, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), which is responsible for high mortality in domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). RHDV strains were sequenced from wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) collected in the Azorean island of Pico, Portugal. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Pico RHDV strains diverge from all of the others described so far, but cluster with the genogroups 1–5 (G1–G5). The genetic distance between the Pico RHDV sequences and each G1, G2 and G3–G5 genogroup (~0.08) is compatible with an RHDV introduction at least 17 years ago. Our results show that in Pico, RHDV is the outcome of an independent evolution from the original RHDV strain that appeared in its European rabbit population. These are the first sequences of RHDV obtained in the subspecies O. c. algirus, outside of its original region, the Iberian Peninsula. Furthermore, we discuss the risk of rabbit translocations from the Azores to the Iberian Peninsula, where the rabbit wild populations are suffering high mortalities. PMID:25025834

  16. Body fatness in relation to physical activity and selected socioeconomic parameters of adolescents aged 15-17 years in Merida, Yucatan.

    PubMed

    Datta Banik, Sudip; Castillo, Teresa; Rodriguez, Luis; Dickinson, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Increasing rates of overweight and obesity in adolescents are major concerns in many countries, including Mexico. To study anthropometric and body composition characteristics (BCC) and their relations with socioeconomic status (SES), biological history and physical activity (PA) of school-going adolescent boys and girls in the city of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. In this cross-sectional study, a sample of 321 adolescents (156 boys and 165 girls) aged 15-17 years from public and private schools in Merida, was taken from a study carried out in 2008-2009. Body mass index had significant correlations to BCC (fat mass and fat-free mass). The rate of stunting was higher in girls (18.20%) than in boys (7.69%). Stunted adolescents had higher body fat (%) than normally growing peers. High rates of overweight (boys 26.28%, girls 24.24%) and obesity (boys 10.26%, girls 6.06%) were recorded. SES (parents' age, education and occupation; crowding index in the family; household food expenditure), participants' biological history and PA are related with height and BCC by age and sex. Adolescents with excess weight (overweight + obesity) reported being less physically active. SES and PA were strongly related to growth and body fatness in the studied adolescents.

  17. Microbial community responses to 17 years of altered precipitation are seasonally dependent and coupled to co-varying effects of water content on vegetation and soil C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorensen, Patrick O.; Germino, Matthew J.; Feris, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation amount and seasonal timing determine the duration and distribution of water available for plant and microbial activity in the cold desert sagebrush steppe. In this study, we sought to determine if a sustained shift in the amount and timing of precipitation would affect soil microbial diversity, community composition, and soil carbon (C) storage. Field plots were irrigated (+200 mm) during the dormant or growing-season for 17 years. Microbial community responses were assessed over the course of a year at two depths (15–20 cm, 95–100 cm) by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), along with co-occurring changes in plant cover and edaphic properties. Bacterial richness, Shannon Weaver diversity, and composition in shallow soils (15–20 cm) as well as evenness in deep soils (95–100 cm) differed across irrigation treatments during July. Irrigation timing affected fungal community diversity and community composition during the dormant season and most strongly in deep soils (95–100 cm). Dormant-season irrigation increased the ratio of shrubs to forbs and reduced soil C in shallow soils by 16% relative to ambient conditions. It is unclear whether or not soil C will continue to decline with continued treatment application or if microbial adaptation could mitigate sustained soil C losses. Future changes in precipitation timing will affect soil microbes in a seasonally dependent manner and be coupled to co-varying effects of water content on vegetation and soil C.

  18. Secular Trends in Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity from 2006 to 2009 in Urban Asian Indian Adolescents Aged 14-17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop; Bharadwaj, Swati; Gulati, Seema; Gupta, Nidhi; Sharma, Rekha; Pandey, Ravindra M.; Goel, Kashish

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the secular trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban Asian Indian adolescents in New Delhi (North India). The data were derived from cross-sectional sampling of children, 3493 in year 2006 and 4908 in year 2009, aged 14–17 years studying in privately-funded and government-funded schools. Age, gender and Asian Indian-specific cut offs of body mass index (BMI) were used to define overweight and obesity. The prevalence of obesity increased significantly from 9.8% in 2006 to 11.7% in 2009 (p<0.01), whereas underweight decreased from 11.3% to 3.9% (p<0.001). There was a significantly higher risk of being overweight (OR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15–1.42) and obese (OR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.24–1.66) in year 2009 than 2006, after adjusting for age, gender and type of school. Males and privately-funded school children had significantly higher increase in prevalence and risk of being overweight and obese over the three years. In conclusion, this study showed an increasing trend in prevalence of overweight and obesity in urban Asian Indian adolescents. More specifically, the study showed the association of this increasing trend of overweight and obesity prevalence with male gender and high socio-economic status, calling for an urgent need for immediate and targeted preventive measures. PMID:21383840

  19. Seroprevalence of pertussis antibodies in 6-17-year-old students in Ahvaz, south-west Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Shamsizadeh, A; Nikfar, R; Yusefi, H; Abbasi-Montazeri, E; Cheraghian, B

    2014-10-20

    Although pertussis is a vaccine-preventable infection, vaccine-induced immunity is not lifelong and booster doses are recommended according to national disease epidemiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate pertussis-IgG levels in school-aged students in Ahvaz, south-west Islamic Republic of Iran. In a descriptive, cross-sectional study, blood samples were obtained from 640 students (382 boys and 258 girls) aged 6-17 years during 2010-2011. All students had received a full course of pertussis whole-cell vaccination at ages 2, 4, 6 and 18 months and 4-6 years. Using a Bordetella IgG ELISA kit, pertussis-IgG was detected in 301 (47.0%) students. No statistically significant differences in pertussis-IgG levels were found between girls and boys or across different age groups. The findings show that the overall level of pertussis-IgG seropositivity was unacceptable. Booster vaccination with an acellular pertussis vaccine should be considered in adolescents and/or adults in our region.

  20. Cost effectiveness of management of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis with 1% pimecrolimus cream in children and adolescents 2-17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Charles N; Kahler, Kristijan H; Grueger, Jens; Chang, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) has the potential to cause a long-term economic impact on patients, their families, and the healthcare system. To determine if 1% pimecrolimus cream is cost-effective in treating mild-to-moderate AD in patients 2-17 years of age. Data on the efficacy of AD management with 1% pimecrolimus cream (Elidel, Novartis Pharma GmbH, Wehr, Germany) were obtained from a 12-month, randomized, double-blind, multinational, controlled clinical trial comparing pimecrolimus and conventional therapy. Markov modeling was used for the economic model, based on: (i) Investigator's Global Assessment scores assessed at each visit during the clinical trial; (ii) estimated costs for medication and physician visits for each level of disease severity; and (iii) utility values for each level of disease severity. The perspective was that of a third-party payer. In 2004 US dollars, the incremental cost-effectiveness of 1% pimecrolimus cream was 38,231 US dollars per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained compared with conventional therapy. Sensitivity analyses showed a range of 27,299 US dollarsto 63,457 US dollars per QALY gained. With an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of <50,000 US dollars per QALY gained, 1% pimecrolimus cream offers a cost-effective therapeutic option in the management of AD.

  1. Source of parental reports of child height and weight during phone interviews and influence on obesity prevalence estimates among children aged 3-17 years.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Miles, Donna; Perrin, Eliana M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Ford, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We compared parental reports of children's height and weight when the values were estimated vs. parent-measured to determine how these reports influence the estimated prevalence of childhood obesity. In the 2007 and 2008 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program surveys, parents reported height and weight for children aged 3-17 years. When parents reported the values were not measured (by doctor, school, or home), they were asked to measure their child and were later called back. We categorized body mass index status using standard CDC definitions, and we used Chi-square tests and the Stuart-Maxwell test of marginal homogeneity to examine reporting differences. About 80% (n=509) of the 638 parents who reported an unmeasured height and/or weight participated in a callback and provided updated measures. Children originally classified as obese were subsequently classified as obese (67%), overweight (13%), and healthy weight (19%). An estimated 28% of younger children (<10 years of age) vs. 6% of older children (aged ≥10 years) were reclassified on callback. Having parents who guessed the height and weight of their children and then reported updated values did not significantly change the overall population estimates of obesity. Our findings demonstrate that using parent-reported height and weight values may be sufficient to provide reasonable estimates of obesity prevalence. Systematically asking the source of height and weight information may help improve how it is applied to research of the prevalence of childhood obesity when gold-standard measurements are not available.

  2. [Analysis on the neglected conditions and influence factors of middle school students aged 12 to 17 years old in rural areas of Shaanxi Province and Chongqing City].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yin; Zhong, Zhaohui; Pan, Jianping; Li, Qunying; Zhong, Yun; Sun, Haoling

    2015-09-01

    10 learn about the neglected conditions and intuence factors of middle school students aged 12 to 17 years old in rural areas of Shaanxi Province and Chongqing City. The scale and evaluation method formulated in "The Normal Value of Evaluation on the Neglect of Middle School Students from 12 to 17 Years Old in Rural China" was adopted. 2257 respondents among which there were 1157 male students and 1,100 female students in the rural areas of Shaanxi Province and Chongqing City were selected according to the principle of multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. The severe degree of neglect was reflected through the indicator of neglect degree. The method of binary Logistic regression analysis was adopted to analyze the influence factors of neglect. Results The total neglect degree of respondents was (51. 80 ± 9. 06). The neglect degree of middle school students in the rural areas of Chongqing was (53. 21 ± 9. 03). The neglect degree of middle school students in the rural areas of Shaanxi was 50. 50 8. 90. The statistical significance was found in the difference between the two groups (U =6. 17, P <0. 01). The neglect degree of male students was (51. 93 ± 8. 67) while the neglect degree of female students was (51. 66 ± 9. 46). The statistical significance was not found in the difference between the two groups of total neglect degree of different sexes (U = 0. 60, P > 0. 05). The statistical significance was noticed in the differences of neglect degrees of middle school students in different grades at all levels (P <0. 05). The neglect degrees of junior three and senior three students were relatively high. Their total neglect degrees were (53. 54 ± 9. 70) and (53. 36 ± 8. 69) respectively. Except social neglect and safety neglect, there was statistical significance in the differences of neglect degrees of students with different family backgrounds at all levels (P <0. 01). The neglect degree of middle school students in a remarried family was the highest. The

  3. Biochemical activity and chemical-structural properties of soil organic matter after 17 years of amendments with olive-mill pomace co-compost.

    PubMed

    Aranda, V; Macci, C; Peruzzi, E; Masciandaro, G

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates soil fertility, biochemical activity and the soil's ability to stabilize organic matter after application of composted olive-mill pomace. This organic amendment was applied in two different olive groves in southern Spain having different soil typologies (carbonated and silicic). Olive grove soils after 17 years of organic management with application of olive-mill pomace co-compost were of higher quality than those with conventional management where no co-compost had been applied. The main chemical parameters studied (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable bases, cation exchange capacity, total extractable carbon (TEC), and humic-to-fulvic acids ratio), significantly increased in soils treated with the organic amendment. In particular, the more resistant pool of organic matter (TEC) enhanced by about six and eight fold in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively. Moreover, the amended silicic soils showed the most significant increases in enzyme activities linked to C and P cycles (β-glucosidase twenty-five fold higher and phosphatase seven fold higher). Organic management in both soils induced higher organic matter mineralization, as shown by the higher pyrrole/phenol index (increasing 40% and 150% in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively), and lower furfural/pyrrole index (decreasing 27% and 71% in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively). As a result of mineralization, organic matter incorporated was also more stable as suggested by the trend of the aliphatic/aromatic index (decreasing 36% and 30% in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively). Therefore, management system and soil type are key factors in increasing long-term C stability or sequestration in soils. Thus application of olive-oil extraction by-products to soils could lead to important mid-to -long-term agro-environmental benefits, and be a valuable alternative use for one of the most widespread polluting wastes in the Mediterranean

  4. Gender differences in the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among school-aged adolescents (11 – 17 years) in Sudan and South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Atari, Dominic Odwa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use is one of the leading and preventable causes of global morbidities and premature mortalities. The study explores gender differences in the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among school-aged adolescents (11-17years) in Sudan and South Sudan. Methods The study utilized the national Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data collected in 2005 for Sudan (4,277 unweighted; 131,631 weighted). Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the associations between the dependent (tobacco use status) and independent variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the key factors which influence tobacco consumption among adolescents in the 2 Sudans for ever cigarette users, current cigarette users, and users of noncigarette tobacco products. Results There were significant gender differences in the prevalence of ever cigarette users (21.8%; male=13.1%, female=6.5%, p<0.05) and current cigarette users (6.9%; male=4.9%, female = 1.3%, p<0.05) but not among users of noncigarette tobacco products (14.7%; male=6.8%, female=6.1%). Adolescent tobacco use was significantly associated with availability of monthly income or allowance, exposure to tobacco industry promotions, and tobacco-use behavior of familial relations. Knowledge about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke was related with decreased likelihood of tobacco use. Conclusion School programs that focus on health messages alone may not work for the adolescent population. Legislations that ban all types of tobacco advertisements, promotions, and sponsorships among adolescents are needed in the 2 countries. PMID:25404978