Science.gov

Sample records for 173-internet gov domain

  1. 41 CFR 102-173.70 - Where do I register my dot-gov domain name?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.70 Where do I register my dot-gov domain name? Registration...

  2. 41 CFR 102-173.70 - Where do I register my dot-gov domain name?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.70 Where do I register my dot-gov domain name? Registration...

  3. 41 CFR 102-173.30 - Who may register in the dot-gov domain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.30 Who may register in the dot-gov domain? Registration in...

  4. 41 CFR 102-173.70 - Where do I register my dot-gov domain name?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.70 Where do I register my dot-gov domain name? Registration...

  5. 41 CFR 102-173.30 - Who may register in the dot-gov domain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.30 Who may register in the dot-gov domain? Registration in...

  6. 41 CFR 102-173.70 - Where do I register my dot-gov domain name?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.70 Where do I register my dot-gov domain name? Registration...

  7. 41 CFR 102-173.30 - Who may register in the dot-gov domain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.30 Who may register in the dot-gov domain? Registration in...

  8. 41 CFR 102-173.30 - Who may register in the dot-gov domain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.30 Who may register in the dot-gov domain? Registration in...

  9. 41 CFR 102-173.30 - Who may register in the dot-gov domain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.30 Who may register in the dot-gov domain? Registration in...

  10. 41 CFR 102-173.95 - Are there any restrictions on the use of the dot-gov domain name?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.95 Are there any restrictions on the use of the dot... and are posted at the registration Web site at http://www.nic.gov and may be modified over...

  11. 41 CFR 102-173.5 - What is Internet GOV Domain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is Internet GOV... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN General § 102-173.5 What is Internet GOV Domain? Internet GOV Domain refers to the Internet...

  12. 41 CFR 102-173.5 - What is Internet GOV Domain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is Internet GOV... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN General § 102-173.5 What is Internet GOV Domain? Internet GOV Domain refers to the Internet...

  13. 41 CFR 102-173.5 - What is Internet GOV Domain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is Internet GOV... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN General § 102-173.5 What is Internet GOV Domain? Internet GOV Domain refers to the Internet...

  14. 41 CFR 102-173.5 - What is Internet GOV Domain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is Internet GOV... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN General § 102-173.5 What is Internet GOV Domain? Internet GOV Domain refers to the Internet...

  15. 41 CFR 102-173.5 - What is Internet GOV Domain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is Internet GOV... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN General § 102-173.5 What is Internet GOV Domain? Internet GOV Domain refers to the Internet...

  16. 41 CFR 102-173.10 - What is the authority or jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain? 102-173.10 Section 102-173.10 Public Contracts and Property Management... TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN General § 102-173.10 What is the authority or jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain? Jurisdiction of the Internet GOV (dot-gov) domain was delegated to the General...

  17. 41 CFR 102-173.10 - What is the authority or jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain? 102-173.10 Section 102-173.10 Public Contracts and Property Management... TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN General § 102-173.10 What is the authority or jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain? Jurisdiction of the Internet GOV (dot-gov) domain was delegated to the General...

  18. 41 CFR 102-173.10 - What is the authority or jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain? 102-173.10 Section 102-173.10 Public Contracts and Property Management... TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN General § 102-173.10 What is the authority or jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain? Jurisdiction of the Internet GOV (dot-gov) domain was delegated to the General...

  19. 41 CFR 102-173.10 - What is the authority or jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain? 102-173.10 Section 102-173.10 Public Contracts and Property Management... TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN General § 102-173.10 What is the authority or jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain? Jurisdiction of the Internet GOV (dot-gov) domain was delegated to the General...

  20. 41 CFR 102-173.10 - What is the authority or jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain? 102-173.10 Section 102-173.10 Public Contracts and Property Management... TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN General § 102-173.10 What is the authority or jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain? Jurisdiction of the Internet GOV (dot-gov) domain was delegated to the General...

  1. 41 CFR 102-173.95 - Are there any restrictions on the use of the dot-gov domain name?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.95 Are there any restrictions on the use of the...

  2. 41 CFR 102-173.95 - Are there any restrictions on the use of the dot-gov domain name?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.95 Are there any restrictions on the use of the...

  3. 41 CFR 102-173.45 - Is there a registration charge for domain names?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.45 Is there a registration charge for domain names? The...

  4. 41 CFR 102-173.45 - Is there a registration charge for domain names?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.45 Is there a registration charge for domain names? The...

  5. 41 CFR 102-173.45 - Is there a registration charge for domain names?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.45 Is there a registration charge for domain names? The...

  6. 41 CFR 102-173.45 - Is there a registration charge for domain names?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.45 Is there a registration charge for domain names? The...

  7. 41 CFR 102-173.70 - Where do I register my dot-gov domain name?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.70 Where do I register my dot-gov domain name? Registration is an online process at the General Services Administration's Web site at http://www.nic.gov. At...

  8. 41 CFR 102-173.15 - What is the scope of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV... second-level domain names used in the Internet GOV Domain. This registration process assures that...

  9. 41 CFR 102-173.15 - What is the scope of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV... second-level domain names used in the Internet GOV Domain. This registration process assures that...

  10. 41 CFR 102-173.15 - What is the scope of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV... second-level domain names used in the Internet GOV Domain. This registration process assures that...

  11. 41 CFR 102-173.15 - What is the scope of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV... second-level domain names used in the Internet GOV Domain. This registration process assures that...

  12. 41 CFR 102-173.15 - What is the scope of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV... second-level domain names used in the Internet GOV Domain. This registration process assures that...

  13. 41 CFR 102-173.60 - What is the naming convention for Counties or Parishes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.60 What is the naming convention for Counties...

  14. 41 CFR 102-173.40 - Who is my Chief Information Officer (CIO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.40 Who is my Chief Information Officer (CIO)? Your...

  15. 41 CFR 102-173.40 - Who is my Chief Information Officer (CIO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.40 Who is my Chief Information Officer (CIO)? Your...

  16. 41 CFR 102-173.65 - What is the naming convention for Native Sovereign Nations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.65 What is the naming convention for...

  17. 41 CFR 102-173.60 - What is the naming convention for Counties or Parishes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.60 What is the naming convention for Counties...

  18. 41 CFR 102-173.65 - What is the naming convention for Native Sovereign Nations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.65 What is the naming convention for...

  19. 41 CFR 102-173.65 - What is the naming convention for Native Sovereign Nations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.65 What is the naming convention for...

  20. 41 CFR 102-173.60 - What is the naming convention for Counties or Parishes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.60 What is the naming convention for Counties...

  1. 41 CFR 102-173.40 - Who is my Chief Information Officer (CIO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.40 Who is my Chief Information Officer (CIO)? Your...

  2. 41 CFR 102-173.60 - What is the naming convention for Counties or Parishes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.60 What is the naming convention for Counties...

  3. 41 CFR 102-173.40 - Who is my Chief Information Officer (CIO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.40 Who is my Chief Information Officer (CIO)? Your...

  4. 41 CFR 102-173.95 - Are there any restrictions on the use of the dot-gov domain name?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and are posted at the registration Web site at http://www.nic.gov and may be modified over time. Organizations that operate web sites that are not in compliance with the conditions of use may have their...

  5. 41 CFR 102-173.95 - Are there any restrictions on the use of the dot-gov domain name?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and are posted at the registration Web site at http://www.nic.gov and may be modified over time. Organizations that operate web sites that are not in compliance with the conditions of use may have their...

  6. 41 CFR 102-173.35 - Who authorizes domain names?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who authorizes domain names? 102-173.35 Section 102-173.35 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET...

  7. 41 CFR 102-173.35 - Who authorizes domain names?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who authorizes domain names? 102-173.35 Section 102-173.35 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET...

  8. 41 CFR 102-173.35 - Who authorizes domain names?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who authorizes domain names? 102-173.35 Section 102-173.35 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET...

  9. 41 CFR 102-173.35 - Who authorizes domain names?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who authorizes domain names? 102-173.35 Section 102-173.35 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET...

  10. 41 CFR 102-173.35 - Who authorizes domain names?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who authorizes domain names? 102-173.35 Section 102-173.35 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET...

  11. 41 CFR 102-173.50 - What is the naming convention for States?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.50 What is the naming convention for States? (a) To register...

  12. 41 CFR 102-173.80 - How will I know if my request is approved?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.80 How will I know if my request is approved? A...

  13. 41 CFR 102-173.50 - What is the naming convention for States?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.50 What is the naming convention for States? (a) To register...

  14. 41 CFR 102-173.50 - What is the naming convention for States?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.50 What is the naming convention for States? (a) To register...

  15. 41 CFR 102-173.80 - How will I know if my request is approved?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.80 How will I know if my request is approved? A...

  16. 41 CFR 102-173.80 - How will I know if my request is approved?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.80 How will I know if my request is approved? A...

  17. 41 CFR 102-173.60 - What is the naming convention for Counties or Parishes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Examples of preferred domain names include— (1) Richmondcounty-ga.gov; (2) Pwc-county-va.gov; and (3... TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.60 What is the naming convention for Counties or Parishes? (a) To register any second-level domain within dot-gov, County or Parish governments...

  18. ClinicalTrials.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry and results database of publicly and privately supported clinical studies of ... This Site ClinicalTrials.gov Background About the Results Database History, Policies, and Laws Media/Press Resources Linking ...

  19. Linking | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Links to individual pages within the Smokefree.gov Web site are permissible, provided attribution is made to Smokefree.gov and any descriptive notes accurately reflect the content of the linked page(s).

  20. Vaccines.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Getting Vaccinated More Info Glossary Our Partners Related Websites AIDS.gov Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) CDC Vaccines Countermeasures Injury Compensation Program ...

  1. How Frequently Do the Results from Completed US Clinical Trials Enter the Public Domain? - A Statistical Analysis of the ClinicalTrials.gov Database

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Hiroki; Gill, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Achieving transparency in clinical trials, through either publishing results in a journal or posting results to the ClinicalTrials.gov (CTG) web site, is an essential public health good. However, it remains unknown what proportion of completed studies achieve public disclosure of results (PDOR), or what factors explain these differences. Methods We analyzed data from 400 randomly selected studies within the CTG database that had been listed as ‘completed’ and had at least four years in which to disclose results. Using Kaplan-Meier curves, we calculated times from completion to PDOR (defined as publishing the primary outcomes in a journal and/or posting results to CTG), and identified explanatory variables predicting these outcomes using Cox proportional hazards models. Findings Among the 400 clinical trials, 118 (29.5%) failed to achieve PDOR within four years of completion. The median day from study completion to PDOR among 282 studies (70.5%) that achieved PDOR was 602 days (mean 647 days, SD 454 days). Studies were less likely to achieve PDOR if at earlier stages (phase 2 vs. phase 3/4, adjusted HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.47–0.78), if they only included adult subjects (adjusted HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45–0.83), involved randomization (adjusted HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46–0.83), or had smaller sample sizes (≤50 subjects vs. >50, adjusted HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.44–0.83). Industry-funded studies were significantly less likely to be published than non-industry or blended studies (adjusted HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.36–0.66). Conclusions A significant proportion of completed studies did not achieve PDOR within the four years of follow-up, particularly smaller studies at earlier stages of development with industry funding. This constitutes reporting bias and threatens the validity of the clinical research literature in the US. PMID:25025477

  2. HealthIT.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... health data. Learn more ABOUT HealthIT.gov Health information technology (health IT) makes it possible for health care ... The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) Learn more about the National Learning Consortium ...

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  4. 41 CFR 102-173.55 - What is the naming convention for Cities and Townships?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... convention for Cities and Townships? 102-173.55 Section 102-173.55 Public Contracts and Property Management... TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.55 What is the naming convention for Cities and Townships? (a) To register any second-level domain within dot-gov, City (town) governments must register...

  5. 41 CFR 102-173.55 - What is the naming convention for Cities and Townships?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... convention for Cities and Townships? 102-173.55 Section 102-173.55 Public Contracts and Property Management... TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.55 What is the naming convention for Cities and Townships? (a) To register any second-level domain within dot-gov, City (town) governments must register...

  6. 41 CFR 102-173.55 - What is the naming convention for Cities and Townships?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... convention for Cities and Townships? 102-173.55 Section 102-173.55 Public Contracts and Property Management... TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.55 What is the naming convention for Cities and Townships? (a) To register any second-level domain within dot-gov, City (town) governments must register...

  7. 41 CFR 102-173.55 - What is the naming convention for Cities and Townships?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... convention for Cities and Townships? 102-173.55 Section 102-173.55 Public Contracts and Property Management... TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.55 What is the naming convention for Cities and Townships? (a) To register any second-level domain within dot-gov, City (town) governments must register...

  8. 41 CFR 102-173.55 - What is the naming convention for Cities and Townships?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... convention for Cities and Townships? 102-173.55 Section 102-173.55 Public Contracts and Property Management... TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.55 What is the naming convention for Cities and Townships? (a) To register any second-level domain within dot-gov, City (town) governments must register...

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    Cancer.gov

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  10. CLINICAL TRIALS.GOV

    EPA Science Inventory

    ClinicalTrials.gov provides patients, family members, health care professionals, and members of the public easy access to information on clinical trials for a wide range of diseases and conditions. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its National Library of Medi...

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  13. ChooseMyPlate.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Communicator's Guide Dietary Guidelines Stay connected Get email updates USDA.gov Site Map Policies & Links Our Performance Report Fraud on USDA Contracts Visit OIG FOIA Accessibility Statement About Us Ask ...

  14. 41 CFR 102-173.25 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV... part: Domain is a region of jurisdiction on the Internet for naming assignment. The General Services... Internet server. This is the name that you request from GSA. Typically, you would apply this name to...

  15. 41 CFR 102-173.85 - How long will my application be held, pending approval by the Chief Information Officer (CIO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application be held, pending approval by the Chief Information Officer (CIO)? 102-173.85 Section 102-173.85...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.85 How long will my application be held, pending approval by the Chief Information Officer...

  16. 41 CFR 102-173.50 - What is the naming convention for States?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is the naming convention for States? 102-173.50 Section 102-173.50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration §...

  17. 41 CFR 102-173.25 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV... part: Domain is a region of jurisdiction on the Internet for naming assignment. The General Services... Internet server. This is the name that you request from GSA. Typically, you would apply this name to...

  18. ChooseMyPlate.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Day You don’t have to be an Olympic athlete to be active. Taking the stairs instead of the elevator, mowing the lawn, and gardening count too! TWITTER FEED 2 days ChooseMyPlate.gov @MyPlate Make family dinner more fun with a game or activity. Challenge kids to solve a riddle ...

  19. Domain Naming Practices and World Wide Web Search Tactics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Wallace Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses Internet domain naming practices and indicates which Web search engines can effectively search on domain names. Explains top-level domain (TLD) (ex. http://www.access.gpo.gov - ".gov" = top level; ".gpo" = second level; ".access" = third level; and "www" = fourth level domain). Outlines seven new TLD names and discusses using domains in…

  20. MedlinePlus.gov on Twitter

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. MedlinePlus.gov on Twitter Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents You can now follow MedlinePlus.gov on Twitter: twitter.com/medlineplus4you The medlineplus4you Twitter feed provides ...

  1. Regulations.gov Federal Regulatory Portal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashlin, John; Davis, Richard; Dalecky, Selene; Grasso, Richard; LaPlant, Lisa; Morales, Oscar; Nelson, Jennifer; White, Michael; Whitt, Sharon A.

    2004-01-01

    The Regulations.gov Online Rulemaking Project is 1 of the 24 e-Government Initiatives on the President's Management Agenda (PMA), which was announced by the White House in 2001. The Regulations.gov Web site is the central electronic rulemaking portal for the federal government. Through a single Web site, citizens can search, view, and comment on…

  2. Why Grants.gov Should Be Abolished

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolmertern, Carol

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author explains why Grants.gov, a web site for US Federal Government grants, should be abolished. Her recent attempt to submit a grant proposal to the National Institutes of Health is a case in point. She recounts how frustrating her experience was to the grant-submission process of Grants.gov. She points out that Grants.gov…

  3. 41 CFR 102-173.45 - Is there a registration charge for domain names?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.45 Is there a registration charge for domain names? The General... operations. For current registration charges, please visit the GSA Web site at http://www.nic.gov. GSA...

  4. MedlinePlus.gov Turns 10!

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Photo courtesy of Michael Spencer, NIH NIH MedlinePlus Advisory Group celebrates 10 years of success. Photo courtesy of Michael Spencer, NIH NIH's MedlinePlus.gov , the popular, consumer- ...

  5. MedlinePlus.gov Turns 10!

    MedlinePlus

    ... 10 years of bringing trusted health information to people across the country and around the world. What a difference a decade makes. Since its debut in 1998, MedlinePlus.gov has grown to include: Information on hundreds ... Nearly 500 million people in more than 200 countries have turned to ...

  6. Towards Interoperable Data Access through Climate.gov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, S. R.; Marshall, J.; Stewart, J.; Ansari, S.; O'Brien, K.; Phillips, M. B.; Herring, D.

    2012-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Climate.gov team is enhancing users' ability to locate, preview, and acquire climate data. The Climate.gov team has created the Data Access and Interoperability project to design a web-based platform where interoperability between systems can be leveraged to allow greater data discovery, access, visualization and delivery. The team envisions an Interoperable Data Platform wherein systems can integrate with each other to support the synthesis of Climate data. Interoperability is the ability for users to discover the available climate data, preview and interact with the data, and acquire the data in common digital formats through a simple web-based interface. The Climate.gov Interoperable Data Platform uses the concepts of Representational State Transfer (REST) and common best practices for Web Services. Emerging standards for automation of machine-to-machine operations, such as OpenSearch autodiscovery, are being implemented throughout the Data Platform to ensure harmonization between data service providers, integrators and consumers. Implementation of common specifications will ensure compatibility between systems within NOAAand non-NOAA systems. The goal of the Interoperable Data Platform is to leverage existing web services, standards and existing solutions across the Earth sciences domain instead of creating new technologies. The Data Platform strives to become an integral part of the integration mechanisms supporting a system-of-systems ecosystem for Earth sciences information. As the team works across the organization, it will evaluate the capabilities of the participating systems to capture and assess the relative maturity of each system according to the Technology Infusion Working Group (TIWG) Interoperability Readiness Levels (IRL) as the reference for the interoperability mapping within NOAA. This will help establish the gaps and opportunities for integrating systems across a common set of

  7. Tsunami.gov: NOAA's Tsunami Information Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiro, B.; Carrick, J.; Hellman, S. B.; Bernard, M.; Dildine, W. P.

    2014-12-01

    We present the new Tsunami.gov website, which delivers a single authoritative source of tsunami information for the public and emergency management communities. The site efficiently merges information from NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers (TWC's) by way of a comprehensive XML feed called Tsunami Event XML (TEX). The resulting unified view allows users to quickly see the latest tsunami alert status in geographic context without having to understand complex TWC areas of responsibility. The new site provides for the creation of a wide range of products beyond the traditional ASCII-based tsunami messages. The publication of modern formats such as Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) can drive geographically aware emergency alert systems like FEMA's Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS). Supported are other popular information delivery systems, including email, text messaging, and social media updates. The Tsunami.gov portal allows NOAA staff to easily edit content and provides the facility for users to customize their viewing experience. In addition to access by the public, emergency managers and government officials may be offered the capability to log into the portal for special access rights to decision-making and administrative resources relevant to their respective tsunami warning systems. The site follows modern HTML5 responsive design practices for optimized use on mobile as well as non-mobile platforms. It meets all federal security and accessibility standards. Moving forward, we hope to expand Tsunami.gov to encompass tsunami-related content currently offered on separate websites, including the NOAA Tsunami Website, National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, NOAA Center for Tsunami Research, National Geophysical Data Center's Tsunami Database, and National Data Buoy Center's DART Program. This project is part of the larger Tsunami Information Technology Modernization Project, which is consolidating the software architectures of NOAA's existing TWC's into

  8. Down the Block... Around the World...MedlinePlus.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Down the Block... Around the World...MedlinePlus.gov Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... on. No matter where you are in the world, www.medlineplus.gov is your best global source ...

  9. Down the Block... Around the World...MedlinePlus.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Down the Block... Around the World...MedlinePlus.gov Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... on. No matter where you are in the world, medlineplus.gov is your best global source for ...

  10. 77 FR 5252 - Federal Travel Regulation; GSA E-Gov Travel Service (ETS) Transition to E-Gov Travel Service 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation; GSA E-Gov Travel Service (ETS) Transition to E-Gov Travel Service 2..., DC 22202 E-GOV TRAVEL SERVICE GSA Bulletin ETS 12-01 TO: Heads of Federal Agencies SUBJECT: GSA E-Gov... Regulation (FTR) Part 301-73 requires all agencies to deploy and implement an E-Gov Travel Service (ETS)....

  11. Domain Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørner, Dines

    Before software can be designed we must know its requirements. Before requirements can be expressed we must understand the domain. So it follows, from our dogma, that we must first establish precise descriptions of domains; then, from such descriptions, “derive” at least domain and interface requirements; and from those and machine requirements design the software, or, more generally, the computing systems.

  12. Healthcare.gov: Opportunity out of Disaster. Teaching Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cundiff, Jacob; McCallum, Taylor; Rich, Andrew; Truax, Michael; Ward, Tamara; Havelka, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The launch of HealthCare.gov, the website of the Affordable Care Act (AKA Obamacare), was a major public relations disaster for the Obama administration. This case examines some of the factors that contributed to the failure of the launch and then details how Optum, an information technology service provider, considered the opportunity provided by…

  13. Science.gov: gateway to government science information.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2010-01-01

    Science.gov is a portal to more than 40 scientific databases and 200 million pages of science information via a single query. It connects users to science information and research results from the U.S. government. This column will provide readers with an overview of the resource, as well as basic search hints. PMID:20391165

  14. 77 FR 59614 - Office of Citizen Services and Innovative Technologies; Information Collection; Data.gov Feedback...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Citizen Services and Innovative Technologies; Information Collection; Data.gov Feedback... regarding Data.gov Feedback Mechanisms. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this collection... Collection 3090- 0284, Data.gov Feedback Mechanisms, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  15. Analysis of eligibility criteria from ClinicalTrials.gov.

    PubMed

    Doods, Justin; Dugas, Martin; Fritz, Fleur

    2014-01-01

    Electronic health care records are being used more and more for patient documentation. This electronic data can be used for secondary purposes, for example through systems that support clinical research. Eligibility criteria have to be processable for such systems to work, but criteria published on ClinicalTrials.gov have been shown to be complex, making them challenging to re-use. We analysed the eligibility criteria on ClinicalTrials.gov using automatic methods to determine whether the criteria definition and number changed over time. From 1998 to 2012 the average number of words used to describe eligibility criteria per year increased by 46%, while the average number of lines used per year only slightly increases until 2000 and stabilizes afterwards. Whether the increase of words resulted in increased criteria complexity or whether more data elements are used to describe eligibility needs further investigation. PMID:25160308

  16. CPTAC Contributes to Healthdata.gov - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    Recently, proteomic data generated by the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) funded by National Cancer Institute (NCI) was highlighted to the wider research community at Healthdata.gov. Healthdata.gov aims to make health data more acces

  17. 78 FR 60868 - Amendment of the Federal Docket Management System (EPA/GOV-2)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... AGENCY Amendment of the Federal Docket Management System (EPA/GOV-2) AGENCY: Environmental Protection...-HQ- OEI-2012-0483 by one of the following methods: www.regulations.gov : Follow the online instructions for submitting comments. Email: oei.docket@epa.gov . Fax: 202-566-1752. Mail: OEI...

  18. 78 FR 56229 - Information Collection; DigitalGov Customer Satisfaction Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Information Collection; DigitalGov Customer Satisfaction Survey AGENCY: Office of Citizen Services... regarding the DigitalGov Web site Customer Satisfaction Survey. DATES: Submit comments on or before November... Customer Satisfaction Survey by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  19. ClinicalTrials.gov as a Data Source for Semi-Automated Point-Of-Care Trial Eligibility Screening

    PubMed Central

    Pfiffner, Pascal B.; Oh, JiWon; Miller, Timothy A.; Mandl, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Implementing semi-automated processes to efficiently match patients to clinical trials at the point of care requires both detailed patient data and authoritative information about open studies. Objective To evaluate the utility of the ClinicalTrials.gov registry as a data source for semi-automated trial eligibility screening. Methods Eligibility criteria and metadata for 437 trials open for recruitment in four different clinical domains were identified in ClinicalTrials.gov. Trials were evaluated for up to date recruitment status and eligibility criteria were evaluated for obstacles to automated interpretation. Finally, phone or email outreach to coordinators at a subset of the trials was made to assess the accuracy of contact details and recruitment status. Results 24% (104 of 437) of trials declaring on open recruitment status list a study completion date in the past, indicating out of date records. Substantial barriers to automated eligibility interpretation in free form text are present in 81% to up to 94% of all trials. We were unable to contact coordinators at 31% (45 of 146) of the trials in the subset, either by phone or by email. Only 53% (74 of 146) would confirm that they were still recruiting patients. Conclusion Because ClinicalTrials.gov has entries on most US and many international trials, the registry could be repurposed as a comprehensive trial matching data source. Semi-automated point of care recruitment would be facilitated by matching the registry's eligibility criteria against clinical data from electronic health records. But the current entries fall short. Ultimately, improved techniques in natural language processing will facilitate semi-automated complex matching. As immediate next steps, we recommend augmenting ClinicalTrials.gov data entry forms to capture key eligibility criteria in a simple, structured format. PMID:25334031

  20. Human Genome Program Image Gallery (from genomics.energy.gov)

    DOE Data Explorer

    This collection contains approximately 240 images from the genome programs of DOE's Office of Science. The images are divided into galleries related to biofuels research, systems biology, and basic genomics. Each image has a title, a basic citation, and a credit or source. Most of the images are original graphics created by the Genome Management Information System (GMIS). GMIS images are recognizable by their credit line. Permission to use these graphics is not needed, but please credit the U.S. Department of Energy Genome Programs and provide the website http://genomics.energy.gov. Other images were provided by third parties and not created by the U.S. Department of Energy. Users must contact the person listed in the credit line before using those images. The high-resolution images can be downloaded.

  1. CDD: a Conserved Domain Database for protein classification.

    PubMed

    Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Anderson, John B; Cherukuri, Praveen F; DeWeese-Scott, Carol; Geer, Lewis Y; Gwadz, Marc; He, Siqian; Hurwitz, David I; Jackson, John D; Ke, Zhaoxi; Lanczycki, Christopher J; Liebert, Cynthia A; Liu, Chunlei; Lu, Fu; Marchler, Gabriele H; Mullokandov, Mikhail; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Simonyan, Vahan; Song, James S; Thiessen, Paul A; Yamashita, Roxanne A; Yin, Jodie J; Zhang, Dachuan; Bryant, Stephen H

    2005-01-01

    The Conserved Domain Database (CDD) is the protein classification component of NCBI's Entrez query and retrieval system. CDD is linked to other Entrez databases such as Proteins, Taxonomy and PubMed, and can be accessed at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=cdd. CD-Search, which is available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/cdd/wrpsb.cgi, is a fast, interactive tool to identify conserved domains in new protein sequences. CD-Search results for protein sequences in Entrez are pre-computed to provide links between proteins and domain models, and computational annotation visible upon request. Protein-protein queries submitted to NCBI's BLAST search service at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/BLAST are scanned for the presence of conserved domains by default. While CDD started out as essentially a mirror of publicly available domain alignment collections, such as SMART, Pfam and COG, we have continued an effort to update, and in some cases replace these models with domain hierarchies curated at the NCBI. Here, we report on the progress of the curation effort and associated improvements in the functionality of the CDD information retrieval system. PMID:15608175

  2. Improving the consistency of domain annotation within the Conserved Domain Database

    PubMed Central

    Derbyshire, Myra K.; Gonzales, Noreen R.; Lu, Shennan; He, Jane; Marchler, Gabriele H.; Wang, Zhouxi; Marchler-Bauer, Aron

    2015-01-01

    When annotating protein sequences with the footprints of evolutionarily conserved domains, conservative score or E-value thresholds need to be applied for RPS-BLAST hits, to avoid many false positives. We notice that manual inspection and classification of hits gathered at a higher threshold can add a significant amount of valuable domain annotation. We report an automated algorithm that ‘rescues’ valuable borderline-scoring domain hits that are well-supported by domain architecture (DA, the sequential order of conserved domains in a protein query), including tandem repeats of domain hits reported at a more conservative threshold. This algorithm is now available as a selectable option on the public conserved domain search (CD-Search) pages. We also report on the possibility to ‘suppress’ domain hits close to the threshold based on a lack of well-supported DA and to implement this conservatively as an option in live conserved domain searches and for pre-computed results. Improving domain annotation consistency will in turn reduce the fraction of NR sequences with incomplete DAs. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/cdd/wrpsb.cgi PMID:25767294

  3. MyPyramid.gov knowledge and access among rural southwest Mississippi African American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study used a qualitative approach to identify knowledge of food recommendations found on MyPyramid.gov and access to MyPyramid.gov among limited-income African American youth. We conducted 5 single-sex focus groups with 9 boys and 30 girls (grades 5th and 6th). Data processing and analysis incl...

  4. 78 FR 9694 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; MyGov

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ...: Platform--The MyGov profile, which serves to enable a consistent experience from transaction to transaction... profile is completely optional. Additionally, MyGov notifications enable agencies to sustain communication... is architected as a series of applications built on an open platform, not unlike a Facebook or...

  5. 78 FR 12063 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for healthfinder.gov Mobile App Challenge; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ...-6113. Correction In the Federal Register of December 6, 2012, in FR Doc. 2012-29520, on pages 72864... HUMAN SERVICES Announcement of Requirements and Registration for healthfinder.gov Mobile App Challenge... Register of December 6, 2012, announcing the requirements and criteria for the healthfinder.gov Mobile...

  6. ClinicalTrials.gov Turns 10! | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... On the ClinicalTrials.gov Web site, you can search for a trial by the name of the ... incidence of breast cancer. Also, it lets you search medical journal references via NLM's PubMed ( www.pubmed. ...

  7. 78 FR 304 - Office of Citizen Services and Innovative Technologies; Submission for OMB Review; Data.gov...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... regarding Data.gov Feedback Mechanisms. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 59614, on.... ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 3090- 0284, Data.gov Feedback Mechanisms, by... corresponds with ``Information Collection 3090-0284, Data.gov Feedback Mechanisms''. Follow the...

  8. A Machine Learning Approach to Identify Clinical Trials Involving Nanodrugs and Nanodevices from ClinicalTrials.gov

    PubMed Central

    de la Iglesia, Diana; García-Remesal, Miguel; Anguita, Alberto; Muñoz-Mármol, Miguel; Kulikowski, Casimir; Maojo, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical Trials (CTs) are essential for bridging the gap between experimental research on new drugs and their clinical application. Just like CTs for traditional drugs and biologics have helped accelerate the translation of biomedical findings into medical practice, CTs for nanodrugs and nanodevices could advance novel nanomaterials as agents for diagnosis and therapy. Although there is publicly available information about nanomedicine-related CTs, the online archiving of this information is carried out without adhering to criteria that discriminate between studies involving nanomaterials or nanotechnology-based processes (nano), and CTs that do not involve nanotechnology (non-nano). Finding out whether nanodrugs and nanodevices were involved in a study from CT summaries alone is a challenging task. At the time of writing, CTs archived in the well-known online registry ClinicalTrials.gov are not easily told apart as to whether they are nano or non-nano CTs—even when performed by domain experts, due to the lack of both a common definition for nanotechnology and of standards for reporting nanomedical experiments and results. Methods We propose a supervised learning approach for classifying CT summaries from ClinicalTrials.gov according to whether they fall into the nano or the non-nano categories. Our method involves several stages: i) extraction and manual annotation of CTs as nano vs. non-nano, ii) pre-processing and automatic classification, and iii) performance evaluation using several state-of-the-art classifiers under different transformations of the original dataset. Results and Conclusions The performance of the best automated classifier closely matches that of experts (AUC over 0.95), suggesting that it is feasible to automatically detect the presence of nanotechnology products in CT summaries with a high degree of accuracy. This can significantly speed up the process of finding whether reports on ClinicalTrials.gov might be relevant to a

  9. Timing and Completeness of Trial Results Posted at ClinicalTrials.gov and Published in Journals

    PubMed Central

    Riveros, Carolina; Dechartres, Agnes; Perrodeau, Elodie; Haneef, Romana; Boutron, Isabelle; Ravaud, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background The US Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act requires results from clinical trials of Food and Drug Administration–approved drugs to be posted at ClinicalTrials.gov within 1 y after trial completion. We compared the timing and completeness of results of drug trials posted at ClinicalTrials.gov and published in journals. Methods and Findings We searched ClinicalTrials.gov on March 27, 2012, for randomized controlled trials of drugs with posted results. For a random sample of these trials, we searched PubMed for corresponding publications. Data were extracted independently from ClinicalTrials.gov and from the published articles for trials with results both posted and published. We assessed the time to first public posting or publishing of results and compared the completeness of results posted at ClinicalTrials.gov versus published in journal articles. Completeness was defined as the reporting of all key elements, according to three experts, for the flow of participants, efficacy results, adverse events, and serious adverse events (e.g., for adverse events, reporting of the number of adverse events per arm, without restriction to statistically significant differences between arms for all randomized patients or for those who received at least one treatment dose). From the 600 trials with results posted at ClinicalTrials.gov, we randomly sampled 50% (n = 297) had no corresponding published article. For trials with both posted and published results (n = 202), the median time between primary completion date and first results publicly posted was 19 mo (first quartile = 14, third quartile = 30 mo), and the median time between primary completion date and journal publication was 21 mo (first quartile = 14, third quartile = 28 mo). Reporting was significantly more complete at ClinicalTrials.gov than in the published article for the flow of participants (64% versus 48% of trials, p<0.001), efficacy results (79% versus 69%, p = 0

  10. Application Profiling for Rural Communities: eGov Services and Training Resources in Rural Inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamolegkos, Pantelis; Maroudas, Axel; Manouselis, Nikos

    Metadata plays a critical role in the design and development of online repositories. The efficiency and ease of use of the repositories are directly associated with the metadata structure, since end-user functionalities such as search, retrieval and access are highly dependent on how the metadata schema and application profile have been conceptualized and implemented. The need for efficient and interoperable application profiles is even more substantial when it comes to services related to the e-government (eGov) paradigm, given a) the close association between services related to eGov and the metadata usage and b) the fact that the eGov concept is associated with time and cost critical processes, i.e. interaction of citizens and services with public authorities. In this paper, we outline an effort related to application profiling for eGov services and training resources, used in the platform of RuralObservatory2.0, which will underpin a major objective of the ICT PSP Rural Inclusion project, i.e. the eGov paradigm uptake by rural communities.

  11. 76 FR 10364 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human...

  12. 76 FR 10035 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human...

  13. 76 FR 10034 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human...

  14. MyPyramid.gov knowledge and access among rural Southwest Mississippi African-American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our learning outcomes were: 1) To identify need for a culturally specific media campaign on the use of MyPyramid.gov targeting African-American adolescents, and 2) To identify need for nutrition education tools designed to reinforce food guide pyramid recommendations. This study used a qualitative ...

  15. Going Beyond. gov: Using Government Information to Teach Evaluation of Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogenboom, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Many instruction librarians teach students that the URL extension .gov is one sign of a reliable, authoritative Internet source. This is true in many cases, but there are other very important reasons that government information deserves a larger place in information literacy sessions. It offers a clear example of several concepts students must…

  16. ClinicalTrials.gov registration can supplement information in abstracts for systematic reviews: a comparison study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The inclusion of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported in conference abstracts in systematic reviews is controversial, partly because study design information and risk of bias is often not fully reported in the abstract. The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) requires trial registration of abstracts submitted for their annual conference as of 2007. Our goal was to assess the feasibility of obtaining study design information critical to systematic reviews, but not typically included in conference abstracts, from the trial registration record. Methods We reviewed all conference abstracts presented at the ARVO meetings from 2007 through 2009, and identified 496 RCTs; 154 had a single matching registration record in ClinicalTrials.gov. Two individuals independently extracted information from the abstract and the ClinicalTrials.gov record, including study design, sample size, inclusion criteria, masking, interventions, outcomes, funder, and investigator name and contact information. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. We assessed the frequencies of reporting variables appearing in the abstract and the trial register and assessed agreement of information reported in both sources. Results We found a substantial amount of study design information in the ClinicalTrials.gov record that was unavailable in the corresponding conference abstract, including eligibility criteria associated with gender (83%; 128/154); masking or blinding of study participants (53%, 82/154), persons administering treatment (30%, 46/154), and persons measuring the outcomes (40%, 61/154)); and number of study centers (58%; 90/154). Only 34% (52/154) of abstracts explicitly described a primary outcome, but a primary outcome was included in the “Primary Outcome” field in the ClinicalTrials.gov record for 82% (126/154) of studies. One or more study interventions were reported in each abstract, but agreed exactly with those reported in ClinicalTrials.gov

  17. Domains and Naive Theories

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Noles, Nicholaus S.

    2013-01-01

    Human cognition entails domain-specific cognitive processes that influence memory, attention, categorization, problem-solving, reasoning, and knowledge organization. This review examines domain-specific causal theories, which are of particular interest for permitting an examination of how knowledge structures change over time. We first describe the properties of commonsense theories, and how commonsense theories differ from scientific theories, illustrating with children’s classification of biological and non-biological kinds. We next consider the implications of domain-specificity for broader issues regarding cognitive development and conceptual change. We then examine the extent to which domain-specific theories interact, and how people reconcile competing causal frameworks. Future directions for research include examining how different content domains interact, the nature of theory change, the role of context (including culture, language, and social interaction) in inducing different frameworks, and the neural bases for domain-specific reasoning. PMID:24187603

  18. Learning and Domain Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Yishay

    Domain adaptation is a fundamental learning problem where one wishes to use labeled data from one or several source domains to learn a hypothesis performing well on a different, yet related, domain for which no labeled data is available. This generalization across domains is a very significant challenge for many machine learning applications and arises in a variety of natural settings, including NLP tasks (document classification, sentiment analysis, etc.), speech recognition (speakers and noise or environment adaptation) and face recognition (different lighting conditions, different population composition).

  19. INL receives GreenGov Presidential Award for fleet fuel efficiency improvements

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-28

    Idaho National Laboratory has received a 2010 GreenGov Presidential Award for outstanding achievement in fuel efficiency in its bus and automotive fleets. The award was presented today in Washington, D.C., as part of a three-day symposium on improving sustainability and energy efficiency across the federal government. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  20. INL receives GreenGov Presidential Award for fleet fuel efficiency improvements

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory has received a 2010 GreenGov Presidential Award for outstanding achievement in fuel efficiency in its bus and automotive fleets. The award was presented today in Washington, D.C., as part of a three-day symposium on improving sustainability and energy efficiency across the federal government. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  1. Causal Learning Across Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Laura E.; Gopnik, Alison

    2004-01-01

    Five studies investigated (a) children's ability to use the dependent and independent probabilities of events to make causal inferences and (b) the interaction between such inferences and domain-specific knowledge. In Experiment 1, preschoolers used patterns of dependence and independence to make accurate causal inferences in the domains of…

  2. Modeling Protein Domain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton "Buck"; Hull, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This simple but effective laboratory exercise helps students understand the concept of protein domain function. They use foam beads, Styrofoam craft balls, and pipe cleaners to explore how domains within protein active sites interact to form a functional protein. The activity allows students to gain content mastery and an understanding of the…

  3. Domain wall filters

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Oliver; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert; Witzel, Oliver

    2007-03-15

    We propose using the extra dimension separating the domain walls carrying lattice quarks of opposite handedness to gradually filter out the ultraviolet fluctuations of the gauge fields that are felt by the fermionic excitations living in the bulk. This generalization of the homogeneous domain wall construction has some theoretical features that seem nontrivial.

  4. Optical Frequency Domain Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Vakoc, Benjamin; Yun, Seok Hyun

    In this chapter, we discuss a frequency-domain approach, optical frequency-domain imaging (OFDI), which is based on optical frequency-domain reflectometry and uses a wavelength-swept laser and standard single-element photodetectors. The chapter begins with an overview of the fundamental aspects of the technology, including the detected signal, sensitivity, depth range, and resolution, and then goes on to discuss specific component technologies including the light source, interferometer and acquisition electronics, and image processing. The final section of the chapter provides a brief glimpse at some of the biomedical applications that most directly take advantage of the improved speed and sensitivity of OFDI.

  5. Visualizing Knowledge Domains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borner, Katy; Chen, Chaomei; Boyack, Kevin W.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews visualization techniques for scientific disciplines and information retrieval and classification. Highlights include historical background of scientometrics, bibliometrics, and citation analysis; map generation; process flow of visualizing knowledge domains; measures and similarity calculations; vector space model; factor analysis;…

  6. Oscillons and domain walls

    SciTech Connect

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Salmi, Petja

    2008-05-15

    Oscillons, extremely long-lived localized oscillations of a scalar field, are shown to be produced by evolving domain wall networks in {phi}{sup 4} theory in two spatial dimensions. We study the oscillons in frequency space using the classical spectral function at zero momentum, and obtain that the velocity distribution is suppressed as {gamma}{sup -2} at large Lorentz factor {gamma}, with oscillons produced up to at least {gamma}{approx}10. This leads us to speculate that oscillons are produced at cusps, regions of the domain wall travelling near the speed of light. In order to gain some insight onto the dilute oscillon 'gas' produced by the domain walls, we prepare a denser gas by filling the simulation volume with oscillons boosted in random directions. We finish the study by revisiting collisions between oscillons and between an oscillon and a domain wall, showing that in the latter case they can pass straight through with minimal distortion.

  7. Tandem BRCT Domains

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Rafael D.; Woods, Nicholas T.; Seabra-Junior, Eloy S.; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.

    2010-01-01

    The cell’s ability to sense and respond to specific stimuli is a complex system derived from precisely regulated protein-protein interactions. Some of these protein-protein interactions are mediated by the recognition of linear peptide motifs by protein modular domains. BRCT (BRCA1 C-terminal) domains and their linear motif counterparts, which contain phosphoserines, are one such pair-wise interaction system that seems to have evolved to serve as a surveillance system to monitor threats to the cell’s genetic integrity. Evidence indicates that BRCT domains found in tandem can cooperate to provide sequence-specific binding of phosphorylated peptides as is the case for the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 and the PAX transcription factor–interacting protein PAXIP1. Particular interest has been paid to tandem BRCT domains as “readers” of signaling events in the form of phosphorylated serine moieties induced by the activation of DNA damage response kinases ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK. However, given the diversity of tandem BRCT-containing proteins, questions remain as to the origin and evolution of this domain. Here, we discuss emerging views of the origin and evolving roles of tandem BRCT domain repeats in the DNA damage response. PMID:21533002

  8. User study of a Spanish-language ClinicalTrials.gov prototype system.

    PubMed

    Rosemblat, Graciela; Tse, Tony

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a user study of monolingual and bilingual Spanish-speaking consumers (n=36) to evaluate a Spanish-language ClinicalTrials.gov prototype. The prototype leverages an existing English-only consumer health resource by combining (1) Spanish-English cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) and (2) English-Spanish document display techniques. We collected user feedback on expectations, usability, and satisfaction. Preliminary results suggest improved online information access by Spanish-speakers. The goal is to develop a general approach for other systems and languages. PMID:17238423

  9. Domains in Ferroelectric Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Marty

    2010-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials have great potential in influencing the future of small scale electronics. At a basic level, this is because ferroelectric surfaces are charged, and so interact strongly with charge-carrying metals and semiconductors - the building blocks for all electronic systems. Since the electrical polarity of the ferroelectric can be reversed, surfaces can both attract and repel charges in nearby materials, and can thereby exert complete control over both charge distribution and movement. It should be no surprise, therefore, that microelectronics industries have already looked very seriously at harnessing ferroelectric materials in a variety of applications, from solid state memory chips (FeRAMs) to field effect transistors (FeFETs). In all such applications, switching the direction of the polarity of the ferroelectric is a key aspect of functional behavior. The mechanism for switching involves the field-induced nucleation and growth of domains. Domain coarsening, through domain wall propagation, eventually causes the entire ferroelectric to switch its polar direction. It is thus the existence and behavior of domains that determine the switching response, and ultimately the performance of the ferroelectric device. A major issue, associated with the integration of ferroelectrics into microelectronic devices, has been that the fundamental properties associated with ferroelectrics, when in bulk form, appear to change quite dramatically and unpredictably when at the nanoscale: new modes of behaviour, and different functional characteristics from those seen in bulk appear. For domains, in particular, the proximity of surfaces and boundaries have a dramatic effect: surface tension and depolarizing fields both serve to increase the equilibrium density of domains, such that minor changes in scale or morphology can have major ramifications for domain redistribution. Given the importance of domains in dictating the overall switching characteristics of a device

  10. Milestones in Medical Research, The Human Genome and ClinicalTrials.gov | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Milestones in Medical Research, The Human Genome and ClinicalTrials.gov Past Issues / Fall 2010 ... milestone in understanding the genetic foundation of all human beings; the second, a comprehensive information service to ...

  11. Comparison of published orthopaedic trauma trials following registration in Clinicaltrials.gov

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background After the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997, the registration of all clinical trials became mandatory prior to publication. Our primary objective was to determine publication rates for orthopaedic trauma trials registered with ClinicalTrials.gov. We further evaluated methodological consistency between registration and publication. Methods We searched Clinical Trials.gov for all trials related to orthopaedic trauma. We excluded active trials and trials not completed by July 2009, and performed a systematic search for publications resulting from registered closed trials. Information regarding primary and secondary outcomes, intervention, study sponsors, and sample size were extracted from registrations and publications. Results Of 130 closed trials, 37 eligible trials resulted in 16 publications (43.2%). We found no significant differences in publication rates between funding sources for industry sponsored studies and nongovernment/nonindustry sponsored studies (p > 0.05). About half the trials (45%) did not include the NCT ID in the publication. Two (10%) publications had major changes to the primary outcome measure and ten (52.6%) to sample size. Conclusions Registration of orthopaedic trauma trials does not consistently result in publication. When trials are registered, many do not cite NCT ID in the publication. Furthermore, changes that are not reflected in the registry of the trial are frequently made to the final publication. PMID:22151841

  12. Axion domain wall baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new scenario of baryogenesis, in which annihilation of axion domain walls generates a sizable baryon asymmetry. Successful baryogenesis is possible for a wide range of the axion mass and decay constant, m≃10{sup 8}–10{sup 13} GeV and f≃10{sup 13}–10{sup 16} GeV. Baryonic isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed in our model, in contrast to various spontaneous baryogenesis scenarios in the slow-roll regime. In particular, the axion domain wall baryogenesis is consistent with high-scale inflation which generates a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the reach of future CMB B-mode experiments. We also discuss the gravitational waves produced by the domain wall annihilation and its implications for the future gravitational wave experiments.

  13. Predicting domain-domain interactions using a parsimony approach

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Katia S; Jothi, Raja; Zotenko, Elena; Przytycka, Teresa M

    2006-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to predict domain-domain interactions from a protein-protein interaction network. In our method we apply a parsimony-driven explanation of the network, where the domain interactions are inferred using linear programming optimization, and false positives in the protein network are handled by a probabilistic construction. This method outperforms previous approaches by a considerable margin. The results indicate that the parsimony principle provides a correct approach for detecting domain-domain contacts. PMID:17094802

  14. Time-domain imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolliver, C. L.

    1989-01-01

    The quest for the highest resolution microwave imaging and principle of time-domain imaging has been the primary motivation for recent developments in time-domain techniques. With the present technology, fast time varying signals can now be measured and recorded both in magnitude and in-phase. It has also enhanced our ability to extract relevant details concerning the scattering object. In the past, the interface of object geometry or shape for scattered signals has received substantial attention in radar technology. Various scattering theories were proposed to develop analytical solutions to this problem. Furthermore, the random inversion, frequency swept holography, and the synthetic radar imaging, have two things in common: (1) the physical optic far-field approximation, and (2) the utilization of channels as an extra physical dimension, were also advanced. Despite the inherent vectorial nature of electromagnetic waves, these scalar treatments have brought forth some promising results in practice with notable examples in subsurface and structure sounding. The development of time-domain techniques are studied through the theoretical aspects as well as experimental verification. The use of time-domain imaging for space robotic vision applications has been suggested.

  15. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.; Doi, R.

    1998-11-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  16. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  17. The Experiences of State-Run Insurance Marketplaces That Use HealthCare.gov.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Justin; Lucia, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    States have flexibility in implementing the Affordable Care Act's health insurance marketplaces and may choose to become more (or less) involved in marketplace operations over time. Interest in new implementation approaches has increased as states seek to ensure the long-term financial stability of their exchanges and exercise local control over marketplace oversight. This brief explores the experiences of four states--Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and Oregon--that established their own exchanges but have operated them with support from the federal HealthCare.gov eligibility and enrollment platform. Drawing on discussions with policymakers, insurers, and brokers, we examine how these supported state-run marketplaces perform their key functions. We find that this model may offer states the ability to maximize their influence over their insurance markets, while limiting the financial risk of running an exchange. PMID:26445740

  18. Portfolio of Clinical Research in Adult Cardiovascular Disease as Reflected in ClinicalTrials.gov

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Karen P.; Kong, David F.; Starr, Aijing Z.; Kramer, Judith; Chiswell, Karen; Tasneem, Asba; Califf, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular medicine is widely regarded as a vanguard for evidence‐based drug and technology development. Our goal was to describe the cardiovascular clinical research portfolio from ClinicalTrials.gov. Methods and Results We identified 40 970 clinical research studies registered between 2007 and 2010 in which patients received diagnostic, therapeutic, or other interventions per protocol. By annotating 18 491 descriptors from the National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Heading thesaurus and 1220 free‐text terms to select those relevant to cardiovascular disease, we identified studies that related to the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of diseases of the heart and peripheral arteries in adults (n=2325 [66%] included from review of 3503 potential studies). The study intervention involved a drug in 44.6%, a device or procedure in 39.3%, behavioral intervention in 8.1%, and biological or genetic interventions in 3.0% of the trials. More than half of the trials were postmarket approval (phase 4, 25.6%) or not part of drug development (no phase, 34.5%). Nearly half of all studies (46.3%) anticipated enrolling 100 patients or fewer. The majority of studies assessed biomarkers or surrogate outcomes, with just 31.8% reporting a clinical event as a primary outcome. Conclusions Cardiovascular studies registered on ClinicalTrials.gov span a range of study designs. Data have limited verification or standardization and require manual processes to describe and categorize studies. The preponderance of small and late‐phase studies raises questions regarding the strength of evidence likely to be generated by the current portfolio and the potential efficiency to be gained by more research consolidation. PMID:24072529

  19. Comparison of Endoscopic Variceal Ligation and Endoscopic Variceal Obliteration in Patients with GOV1 Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hyoung Ju; Jun, Chung Hwan; Lee, Du Hyeon; Cho, Eun Ae; Park, Seon Young; Cho, Sung Bum; Park, Chang Hwan; Joo, Young Eun; Kim, HyunSoo; Rew, Jong Sun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, rebleeding rates, survival, and complications of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) with those of endoscopic variceal obliteration (EVO) in patients with acute type 1 gastroesophageal variceal (GOV1) bleeding. Data were collected retrospectively at a single center. A total of 84 patients were selected (20 patients underwent EVL; 64 patients underwent EVO) from February 2004 to September 2011. Their clinical characteristics, laboratory results, vital signs, Child-Pugh score, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, and overall mortality were evaluated. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. The success rate in initial control of active bleeding was not significantly different between the EVL and EVO groups (18/20 EVL, or 90.0%, compared with 62/64 EVO, or 96.9%; p=0.239). The early rebleeding rate was also not significantly different between the groups (3/18 EVL, or 16.7% compared with 17/62 EVO, or 27.4%; p=0.422). The late rebleeding rate of the EVL group was lower than that of the EVO group (3/18 EVL, or 16.7%, compared with 26/59 EVO, or 44.1%; p=0.042). The time-to-rebleeding was 594 days for the EVL group and 326 days for the EVO group (p=0.054). In the multivariate analysis, portal vein thrombosis (PVT) was a significant risk factor for early rebleeding. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and previous history of bleeding were significant risk factors for very late rebleeding. In conclusion, EVL is better than EVO in reducing late rebleeding in acute GOV1 bleeding. HCC, PVT, and previous bleeding history were significant risk factors for rebleeding. PMID:23678472

  20. Simplified Parallel Domain Traversal

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson III, David J

    2011-01-01

    Many data-intensive scientific analysis techniques require global domain traversal, which over the years has been a bottleneck for efficient parallelization across distributed-memory architectures. Inspired by MapReduce and other simplified parallel programming approaches, we have designed DStep, a flexible system that greatly simplifies efficient parallelization of domain traversal techniques at scale. In order to deliver both simplicity to users as well as scalability on HPC platforms, we introduce a novel two-tiered communication architecture for managing and exploiting asynchronous communication loads. We also integrate our design with advanced parallel I/O techniques that operate directly on native simulation output. We demonstrate DStep by performing teleconnection analysis across ensemble runs of terascale atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate data, and we show scalability results on up to 65,536 IBM BlueGene/P cores.

  1. Magnetic bubble domain memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ypma, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Some attractive features of Bubble Domain Memory and its relation to existing technologies are discussed. Two promising applications are block access mass memory and tape recorder replacement. The required chip capabilities for these uses are listed, and the specifications for a block access mass memory designed to fit between core and HPT disk are presented. A feasibility model for a tape recorder replacement is introduced.

  2. Active and Passive Supplier Assessment Program (ASAP & PSAP) WWW Sites http://nepp.nasa.gov/imd/asap http://nepp.nasa.gov/imd/psap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brusse, Jay

    2000-01-01

    The Active and Passive Supplier Assessment Programs (ASAP and PSAP) WWW Sites provide general information to the electronic parts community regarding the availability of electronic parts. They also provide information to NASA regarding modifications to commonly used procurement specifications and test methods. The ASAP and PSAP www sites are ongoing resources produced by Code 562 in support of the NASA HQ funded NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. These WWW sites do not provide information pertaining to patented or proprietary information. All of the information contained in these www sites is available through various other public domain resources such as US Military Qualified Producers Listings (QPLs) and Qualified Manufacturer Listings (QMLs) and industry working groups such as the Electronics Industry Alliance (EIA) and the Space Parts Working Group (SPWG).

  3. Domain Specific vs Domain General: Implications for Dynamic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaniel, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    The article responds to the need for evidence-based dynamic assessment. The article is divided into two sections: In Part 1 we examine the scientific answer to the question of how far human mental activities and capabilities are domain general (DG) / domain specific (DS). A highly complex answer emerges from the literature review of domains such…

  4. Frequency domain nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legare, Francois

    2016-05-01

    The universal dilemma of gain narrowing occurring in fs amplifiers prevents ultra-high power lasers from delivering few-cycle pulses. This problem is overcome by a new amplification concept: Frequency domain Optical Parametric Amplification - FOPA. It enables simultaneous up-scaling of peak power and amplified spectral bandwidth and can be performed at any wavelength range of conventional amplification schemes, however, with the capability to amplify single cycles of light. The key idea for amplification of octave-spanning spectra without loss of spectral bandwidth is to amplify the broad spectrum ``slice by slice'' in the frequency domain, i.e. in the Fourier plane of a 4f-setup. The striking advantages of this scheme, are its capability to amplify (more than) one octave of bandwidth without shorting the corresponding pulse duration. This is because ultrabroadband phase matching is not defined by the properties of the nonlinear crystal employed but the number of crystals employed. In the same manner, to increase the output energy one simply has to increase the spectral extension in the Fourier plane and to add one more crystal. Thus, increasing pulse energy and shortening its duration accompany each other. A proof of principle experiment was carried out at ALLS on the sub-two cycle IR beam line and yielded record breaking performance in the field of few-cycle IR lasers. 100 μJ two-cycle pulses from a hollow core fibre compression setup were amplified to 1.43mJ without distorting spatial or temporal properties. Pulse duration at the input of FOPA and after FOPA remains the same. Recently, we have started upgrading this system to be pumped by 250 mJ to reach 40 mJ two-cycle IR few-cycle pulses and latest results will be presented at the conference. Furthermore, the extension of the concept of FOPA to other nonlinear optical processes will be discussed. Frequency domain nonlinear optics.

  5. The Egyptian clinical trials’ registry profile: Analysis of three trial registries (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry and clinicaltrials.gov)

    PubMed Central

    Zeeneldin, Ahmed A.; Taha, Fatma M.

    2015-01-01

    Registering clinical trials (CTs) in public domains enhances transparency, increases trust in research, improves participation and safeguards against publication bias. This work was done to study the profile of clinical research in Egypt in three CT registries with different scopes: the WHO International CT Registry Platform (ICTRP), the continental Pan-African CT Registry (PACTR) and the US clinicaltrials.gov (CTGR). In March 2014, ICTRP, PACTR and CTGR were searched for clinical studies conducted in Egypt. It was found that the number of studies conducted in Egypt (percentage) was 686 (0.30%) in ICTRP, 56 (11.3%) in PACTR and 548 (0.34%) in CTGR. Most studies were performed in universities and sponsored by university/organization, industry or individual researchers. Inclusion of adults from both genders predominated. The median number of participants per study in the three registries ranged between 63 and 155. The conditions researched differed among the three registries and study purpose was mostly treatment followed by prevention. Endpoints were mostly efficacy followed by safety. Observational:Interventional studies (i.e. clinical trials) represented 15.5%:84.5% in ICTRP, 0%:100% in PACTR and 16.4%:83.6% in CTGR. Most interventions were drugs or procedures. Observational studies were mostly prospective and cohort studies. Most CTs were phase 3 and tested drugs or procedures. Parallel group assignment and random allocation predominated. Blinding was implemented in many of trials and was mostly double-blind. We conclude that CTs from Egypt in trial registries are apparently low and do not accurately reflect clinical research conducted in Egypt or its potential. Development of an Egyptian CT registry is eagerly needed. Registering all Egyptian CTs in public domains is highly recommended. PMID:26843968

  6. On Probability Domains III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frič, Roman; Papčo, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Domains of generalized probability have been introduced in order to provide a general construction of random events, observables and states. It is based on the notion of a cogenerator and the properties of product. We continue our previous study and show how some other quantum structures fit our categorical approach. We discuss how various epireflections implicitly used in the classical probability theory are related to the transition to fuzzy probability theory and describe the latter probability theory as a genuine categorical extension of the former. We show that the IF-probability can be studied via the fuzzy probability theory. We outline a "tensor modification" of the fuzzy probability theory.

  7. Transfer of high domain knowledge to a similar domain.

    PubMed

    Jessup, Ryan K

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have widely examined domain knowledge yet rarely investigate the transfer of knowledge from one domain to another. This study sought to fill in the literature gap concerning the impact of domain knowledge on memory in a similar situation. Specifically, this study examined whether high knowledge of baseball could enhance memory for the similar yet unknown domain of cricket, using a 2 (knowledge) x 2 (prime) design. An interaction occurred, indicating that when primed, baseball knowledge improves memory for cricket events in participants with high baseball knowledge but reduces memory in their low-knowledge counterparts. These results suggest that extensive knowledge in one domain allows it to serve as an organizational framework for incoming information in a similar domain; conversely, priming poorly understood domain knowledge results in negative transfer. PMID:19353932

  8. Grants Management: Grants.gov Has Systemic Weaknesses That Require Attention. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-09-589

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerwinski, Stanley J.

    2009-01-01

    In response to the Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act of 1999, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), among other things, developed Grants.gov as the central grant identification and application portal for federal grant programs. OMB oversees the initiative and named the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) its…

  9. 76 FR 47216 - Expediting Research Tools to NIH Licensees Through the Use of Pay.gov for Rapid Processing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... bank-to-bank transfer system at Pay.gov has shortened the processing time for research tool and other... & Entrepreneurship, Office of Technology Transfer, National Institutes of Health. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  10. Understanding Statistical Concepts and Terms in Context: The GovStat Ontology and the Statistical Interactive Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Stephanie W.; Pattuelli, Maria Cristina; Brown, Ron T.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Statistical Interactive Glossary (SIG), an enhanced glossary of statistical terms supported by the GovStat ontology of statistical concepts. Presents a conceptual framework whose components articulate different aspects of a term's basic explanation that can be manipulated to produce a variety of presentations. The overarching…

  11. STAS Domain Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Alok K.; Rigby, Alan C.; Alper, Seth L.

    2011-01-01

    Pendrin shares with nearly all SLC26/SulP anion transporters a carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic segment organized around a Sulfate Transporter and Anti-Sigma factor antagonist (STAS) domain. STAS domains of divergent amino acid sequence exhibit a conserved fold of 4 β strands interspersed among 5 α helices. The first STAS domain proteins studied were single-domain anti-sigma factor antagonists (anti-anti-σ). These anti-anti-σ indirectly stimulate bacterial RNA polymerase by inactivating inhibitory anti-σ kinases, liberating σ factors to direct specific transcription of target genes or operons. Some STAS domains are nucleotide-binding phosphoproteins or nucleotidases. Others are interaction/transduction modules within multidomain sensors of light, oxygen and other gasotransmitters, cyclic nucleotides, inositol phosphates, and G proteins. Additional multidomain STAS protein sequences suggest functions in sensing, metabolism, or transport of nutrients such as sugars, amino acids, lipids, anions, vitamins, or hydrocarbons. Still other multidomain STAS polypeptides include histidine and serine/threonine kinase domains and ligand-activated transcription factor domains. SulP/SLC26 STAS domains and adjacent sequences interact with other transporters, cytoskeletal scaffolds, and with enzymes metabolizing transported anion substrates, forming putative metabolons. STAS domains are central to membrane targeting of many SulP/SLC26 anion transporters, and STAS domain mutations are associated with at least three human recessive diseases. This review summarizes STAS domain structure and function. PMID:22116355

  12. Beyond the Number Domain

    PubMed Central

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Platt, Michael L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    In a world without numbers, we would be unable to build a skyscraper, hold a national election, plan a wedding, or pay for a chicken at the market. The numerical symbols used in all these behaviors build on the approximate number system (ANS) which represents the number of discrete objects or events as a continuous mental magnitude. In this review, we first discuss evidence that the ANS bears a set of behavioral and brain signatures that are universally displayed across animal species, human cultures, and development. We then turn to the question of whether the ANS constitutes a specialized cognitive and neural domain--a question central to understanding how this system works, the nature of its evolutionary and developmental trajectory, and its physical instantiation in the brain. PMID:19131268

  13. Crystallization of PTP Domains.

    PubMed

    Levy, Colin; Adams, James; Tabernero, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Protein crystallography is the most powerful method to obtain atomic resolution information on the three-dimensional structure of proteins. An essential step towards determining the crystallographic structure of a protein is to produce good quality crystals from a concentrated sample of purified protein. These crystals are then used to obtain X-ray diffraction data necessary to determine the 3D structure by direct phasing or molecular replacement if the model of a homologous protein is available. Here, we describe the main approaches and techniques to obtain suitable crystals for X-ray diffraction. We include tools and guidance on how to evaluate and design the protein construct, how to prepare Se-methionine derivatized protein, how to assess the stability and quality of the sample, and how to crystallize and prepare crystals for diffraction experiments. While general strategies for protein crystallization are summarized, specific examples of the application of these strategies to the crystallization of PTP domains are discussed. PMID:27514806

  14. Multifunctionalities driven by ferroic domains

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J. C.; Huang, Y. L.; Chu, Y. H.; He, Q.

    2014-08-14

    Considerable attention has been paid to ferroic systems in pursuit of advanced applications in past decades. Most recently, the emergence and development of multiferroics, which exhibit the coexistence of different ferroic natures, has offered a new route to create functionalities in the system. In this manuscript, we step from domain engineering to explore a roadmap for discovering intriguing phenomena and multifunctionalities driven by periodic domain patters. As-grown periodic domains, offering exotic order parameters, periodic local perturbations and the capability of tailoring local spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom, are introduced as modeling templates for fundamental studies and novel applications. We discuss related significant findings on ferroic domain, nanoscopic domain walls, and conjunct heterostructures based on the well-organized domain patterns, and end with future prospects and challenges in the field.

  15. Climate Literacy: Climate.gov Follow-Up Evaluation—A Study of the Four NOAA Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepold, F., III; Sullivan, S. B.; Gold, A. U.; Lynds, S. E.; Kirk, K.

    2014-12-01

    NOAA Climate.gov provides science and information for a climate-smart nation. Americans' health, security, and economic well-being are closely linked to climate and weather. NOAA Climate.gov's goals are to promote public understanding of climate science and climate-related events, to make our data products and services easy to access and use, to support educators in improving the nations climate literacy, and to serve people making climate-related decisions with tools and resources that help them answer specific questions.The Climate.Gov Follow-Up Study of the four NOAA Audiences (climate interested public, educators, scientists, policy-makers) built upon the previous literature review and evaluation study conducted by Mooney and Phillips in 2010 and 2012, http://tinyurl.com/ma8vo83. The CIRES Education and Outreach team at the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at University of Colorado at Boulder and the NOAA Climate.gov team will present results of the new study that used the Quality of Relationship index (awareness, trust, satisfaction, usability, and control mutuality). This index was developed in the previous study and places a new emphasis on the experience of individual users from the four audiences in their regular work or home setting. This new evaluation project used mixed methods, including an online survey, usability studies, phone interviews, and web statistics, providing multiple lines of evidence from which to draw conclusion and recommendations.In the session, we will explore how the NOAA Climate.gov teams used the literature review and new CIRES research to address underlying challenges to achieving the portal's goals. The research in these studies finds that people seek information in ways that are complex and that they do so by consulting a vast array of technologies. Improved and different modes of access to information have, throughout history, been led by technological innovation, but human behavior tends to be

  16. Dynamical domain wall and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyozato, Yuta; Higuchi, Masafumi; Nojiri, Shin'ichi

    2016-03-01

    Based on the previous works (Toyozato et al., 2013 [24]; Higuchi and Nojiri, 2014 [25]), we investigate the localization of the fields on the dynamical domain wall, where the four-dimensional FRW universe is realized on the domain wall in the five-dimensional space-time. Especially we show that the chiral spinor can localize on the domain wall, which has not been succeeded in the past works as the seminal work in George et al. (2009) [23].

  17. Domain transfer multiple kernel learning.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lixin; Tsang, Ivor W; Xu, Dong

    2012-03-01

    Cross-domain learning methods have shown promising results by leveraging labeled patterns from the auxiliary domain to learn a robust classifier for the target domain which has only a limited number of labeled samples. To cope with the considerable change between feature distributions of different domains, we propose a new cross-domain kernel learning framework into which many existing kernel methods can be readily incorporated. Our framework, referred to as Domain Transfer Multiple Kernel Learning (DTMKL), simultaneously learns a kernel function and a robust classifier by minimizing both the structural risk functional and the distribution mismatch between the labeled and unlabeled samples from the auxiliary and target domains. Under the DTMKL framework, we also propose two novel methods by using SVM and prelearned classifiers, respectively. Comprehensive experiments on three domain adaptation data sets (i.e., TRECVID, 20 Newsgroups, and email spam data sets) demonstrate that DTMKL-based methods outperform existing cross-domain learning and multiple kernel learning methods. PMID:21646679

  18. Hydrophilic Domains Enhance Nanobubble Stability.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Takashi; Takahashi, Koji; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Yamada, Yutaka; Takata, Yasuyuki

    2016-05-18

    Highly stable nanoscale gas states at solid/liquid interfaces, referred to as nanobubbles, have been widely studied for over a decade. In this study, nanobubbles generated on a hydrophobic Teflon amorphous fluoroplastic thin film in the presence and absence of hydrophilic carbon domains are investigated by peak force quantitative nanomechanics. On the hydrophobic surface without hydrophilic domains, a small number of nanobubbles are generated and then rapidly decrease in size. On the hydrophobic surface with hydrophilic domains, the hydrophilic domains have a significant effect on the generation and stability of nanobubbles, with bubbles remaining on the surface for up to three days. PMID:26864857

  19. 78 FR 46953 - CDC and ATSDR Use of the SF-424 Research and Related Forms (Application Packages) in Grants.gov...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Related Forms (Application Packages) in Grants.gov and the eRA Commons AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control... electronic Research Administration (eRA) periodically implements updated versions of the federal grant... form sets available through Grants.gov . CDC and other agencies serviced by eRA use the `Competition...

  20. 41 CFR 301-73.105 - What are the consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS? 301-73.105 Section 301-73.105 Public... What are the consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS? If an employee does not use the ETS (when available) or your agency's designated TMS, he/she is responsible for...

  1. 41 CFR 301-73.105 - What are the consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS? 301-73.105 Section 301-73.105 Public... What are the consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS? If an employee does not use the ETS (when available) or your agency's designated TMS, he/she is responsible for...

  2. 41 CFR 301-73.105 - What are the consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS? 301-73.105 Section 301-73.105 Public... What are the consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS? If an employee does not use the ETS (when available) or your agency's designated TMS, he/she is responsible for...

  3. 41 CFR 301-50.5 - What is my liability if I do not use my agency's TMS or the E-Gov Travel Service, and an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... do not use my agency's TMS or the E-Gov Travel Service, and an exception has not been approved? 301... REIMBURSEMENT 50-ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES § 301-50.5 What is my liability if I do not use my agency's TMS... resulting from the failure to use the TMS or E-Gov Travel Service, including service fees,...

  4. 41 CFR 301-50.5 - What is my liability if I do not use my agency's TMS or the E-Gov Travel Service, and an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I do not use my agency's TMS or the E-Gov Travel Service, and an exception has not been approved... REIMBURSEMENT 50-ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES § 301-50.5 What is my liability if I do not use my agency's TMS... resulting from the failure to use the TMS or E-Gov Travel Service, including service fees,...

  5. 41 CFR 301-50.5 - What is my liability if I do not use my agency's TMS or the E-Gov Travel Service, and an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I do not use my agency's TMS or the E-Gov Travel Service, and an exception has not been approved... REIMBURSEMENT 50-ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES § 301-50.5 What is my liability if I do not use my agency's TMS... resulting from the failure to use the TMS or E-Gov Travel Service, including service fees,...

  6. 41 CFR 301-73.105 - What are the consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS? 301-73.105 Section 301-73.105 Public... What are the consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS? If an employee does not use the ETS (when available) or your agency's designated TMS, he/she is responsible for...

  7. 41 CFR 301-50.5 - What is my liability if I do not use my agency's TMS or the E-Gov Travel Service, and an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... I do not use my agency's TMS or the E-Gov Travel Service, and an exception has not been approved... REIMBURSEMENT 50-ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES § 301-50.5 What is my liability if I do not use my agency's TMS... resulting from the failure to use the TMS or E-Gov Travel Service, including service fees,...

  8. 41 CFR 301-50.5 - What is my liability if I do not use my agency's TMS or the E-Gov Travel Service, and an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I do not use my agency's TMS or the E-Gov Travel Service, and an exception has not been approved... REIMBURSEMENT 50-ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES § 301-50.5 What is my liability if I do not use my agency's TMS... resulting from the failure to use the TMS or E-Gov Travel Service, including service fees,...

  9. 41 CFR 301-73.105 - What are the consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS? 301-73.105 Section 301-73.105 Public... What are the consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS? If an employee does not use the ETS (when available) or your agency's designated TMS, he/she is responsible for...

  10. Mapping the Moral Domain

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182

  11. Experience with Subgam, a Subcutaneously Administered Human Normal Immunoglobulin (ClinicalTrials.gov - NCT02247141)

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Clive; Gascoigne, Ernie; Gillanders, Kate; Gooi, Hock

    2015-01-01

    in the treatment of PID. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02247141 PMID:26222441

  12. Ontology development for Sufism domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Rizwan

    2012-01-01

    Domain ontology is a descriptive representation of any particular domain which in detail describes the concepts in a domain, the relationships among those concepts and organizes them in a hierarchal manner. It is also defined as a structure of knowledge, used as a means of knowledge sharing to the community. An Important aspect of using ontologies is to make information retrieval more accurate and efficient. Thousands of domain ontologies from all around the world are available online on ontology repositories. Ontology repositories like SWOOGLE currently have over 1000 ontologies covering a wide range of domains. It was found that up to date there was no ontology available covering the domain of "Sufism". This unavailability of "Sufism" domain ontology became a motivation factor for this research. This research came up with a working "Sufism" domain ontology as well a framework, design of the proposed framework focuses on the resolution to problems which were experienced while creating the "Sufism" ontology. The development and working of the "Sufism" domain ontology are covered in detail in this research. The word "Sufism" is a term which refers to Islamic mysticism. One of the reasons to choose "Sufism" for ontology creation is its global curiosity. This research has also managed to create some individuals which inherit the concepts from the "Sufism" ontology. The creation of individuals helps to demonstrate the efficient and precise retrieval of data from the "Sufism" domain ontology. The experiment of creating the "Sufism" domain ontology was carried out on a tool called Protégé. Protégé is a tool which is used for ontology creation, editing and it is open source.

  13. Ontology development for Sufism domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Rizwan

    2011-12-01

    Domain ontology is a descriptive representation of any particular domain which in detail describes the concepts in a domain, the relationships among those concepts and organizes them in a hierarchal manner. It is also defined as a structure of knowledge, used as a means of knowledge sharing to the community. An Important aspect of using ontologies is to make information retrieval more accurate and efficient. Thousands of domain ontologies from all around the world are available online on ontology repositories. Ontology repositories like SWOOGLE currently have over 1000 ontologies covering a wide range of domains. It was found that up to date there was no ontology available covering the domain of "Sufism". This unavailability of "Sufism" domain ontology became a motivation factor for this research. This research came up with a working "Sufism" domain ontology as well a framework, design of the proposed framework focuses on the resolution to problems which were experienced while creating the "Sufism" ontology. The development and working of the "Sufism" domain ontology are covered in detail in this research. The word "Sufism" is a term which refers to Islamic mysticism. One of the reasons to choose "Sufism" for ontology creation is its global curiosity. This research has also managed to create some individuals which inherit the concepts from the "Sufism" ontology. The creation of individuals helps to demonstrate the efficient and precise retrieval of data from the "Sufism" domain ontology. The experiment of creating the "Sufism" domain ontology was carried out on a tool called Protégé. Protégé is a tool which is used for ontology creation, editing and it is open source.

  14. Fractional diffusion on bounded domains

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Defterli, Ozlem; D'Elia, Marta; Du, Qiang; Gunzburger, Max Donald; Lehoucq, Richard B.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2015-03-13

    We found that the mathematically correct specification of a fractional differential equation on a bounded domain requires specification of appropriate boundary conditions, or their fractional analogue. In this paper we discuss the application of nonlocal diffusion theory to specify well-posed fractional diffusion equations on bounded domains.

  15. Polarized domains of myelinated axons.

    PubMed

    Salzer, James L

    2003-10-01

    The entire length of myelinated axons is organized into a series of polarized domains that center around nodes of Ranvier. These domains, which are crucial for normal saltatory conduction, consist of distinct multiprotein complexes of cell adhesion molecules, ion channels, and scaffolding molecules; they also differ in their diameter, organelle content, and rates of axonal transport. Juxtacrine signals from myelinating glia direct their sequential assembly. The composition, mechanisms of assembly, and function of these molecular domains will be reviewed. I also discuss similarities of this domain organization to that of polarized epithelia and present emerging evidence that disorders of domain organization and function contribute to the axonopathies of myelin and other neurologic disorders. PMID:14556710

  16. The monocyte binding domain(s) on human immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Woof, J M; Nik Jaafar, M I; Jefferis, R; Burton, D R

    1984-06-01

    Monocyte binding has previously been assigned to the C gamma 3 domain of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) largely on the ability of the pFc' fragment to inhibit the monocyte-IgG interaction. This ability is markedly reduced compared to the intact parent IgG. We find this result with a conventional pFc' preparation but this preparation is found to contain trace contamination of parent IgG as demonstrated by reactivity with monoclonal antibodies directed against C gamma 2 domain and light-chain epitopes of human IgG. Extensive immunoaffinity purification of the pFc' preparation removes its inhibitory ability indicating that this originates in the trace contamination of parent IgG (or Fc). Neither of the human IgG1 paraproteins TIM, lacking the C gamma 2 domain, or SIZ, lacking the C gamma 3 domain, are found to inhibit the monocyte-IgG interaction. The hinge-deleted IgG1 Dob protein shows little or no inhibitory ability. Indirect evidence for the involvement of the C gamma 2 domain in monocyte binding is considered. We suggest finally that the site of interaction is found either on the C gamma 2 domain alone or between the C gamma 2 and C gamma 3 domains. PMID:6235444

  17. Domain walls riding the wave.

    SciTech Connect

    Karapetrov, G.; Novosad, V.; Materials Science Division

    2010-11-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid proliferation of electronic gadgets around the world. These devices are used for both communication and entertainment, and it is a fact that they account for a growing portion of household energy consumption and overall world consumption of electricity. Increasing the energy efficiency of these devices could have a far greater and immediate impact than a gradual switch to renewable energy sources. The advances in the area of spintronics are therefore very important, as gadgets are mostly comprised of memory and logic elements. Recent developments in controlled manipulation of magnetic domains in ferromagnet nanostructures have opened opportunities for novel device architectures. This new class of memories and logic gates could soon power millions of consumer electronic devices. The attractiveness of using domain-wall motion in electronics is due to its inherent reliability (no mechanical moving parts), scalability (3D scalable architectures such as in racetrack memory), and nonvolatility (retains information in the absence of power). The remaining obstacles in widespread use of 'racetrack-type' elements are the speed and the energy dissipation during the manipulation of domain walls. In their recent contribution to Physical Review Letters, Oleg Tretiakov, Yang Liu, and Artem Abanov from Texas A&M University in College Station, provide a theoretical description of domain-wall motion in nanoscale ferromagnets due to the spin-polarized currents. They find exact conditions for time-dependent resonant domain-wall movement, which could speed up the motion of domain walls while minimizing Ohmic losses. Movement of domain walls in ferromagnetic nanowires can be achieved by application of external magnetic fields or by passing a spin-polarized current through the nanowire itself. On the other hand, the readout of the domain state is done by measuring the resistance of the wire. Therefore, passing current through the ferromagnetic wire is

  18. CHOROIDAL IMAGING USING SPECTRAL-DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Regatieri, Caio V.; Branchini, Lauren; Fujimoto, James G.; Duker, Jay S.

    2012-01-01

    Background A structurally and functionally normal choroidal vasculature is essential for retinal function. Therefore, a precise clinical understanding of choroidal morphology should be important for understanding many retinal and choroidal diseases. Methods PUBMED (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed) was used for most of the literature search for this article. The criterion for inclusion of an article in the references for this review was that it included materials about both the clinical and the basic properties of choroidal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Results Recent reports show successful examination and accurate measurement of choroidal thickness in normal and pathologic states using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography systems. This review focuses on the principles of the new technology that make choroidal imaging using optical coherence tomography possible and on the changes that subsequently have been documented to occur in the choroid in various diseases. Additionally, it outlines future directions in choroidal imaging. Conclusion Optical coherence tomography is now proven to be an effective noninvasive tool to evaluate the choroid and to detect choroidal changes in pathologic states. Additionally, choroidal evaluation using optical coherence tomography can be used as a parameter for diagnosis and follow-up. PMID:22487582

  19. Modeling software systems by domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippolito, Richard; Lee, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    The Software Architectures Engineering (SAE) Project at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) has developed engineering modeling techniques that both reduce the complexity of software for domain-specific computer systems and result in systems that are easier to build and maintain. These techniques allow maximum freedom for system developers to apply their domain expertise to software. We have applied these techniques to several types of applications, including training simulators operating in real time, engineering simulators operating in non-real time, and real-time embedded computer systems. Our modeling techniques result in software that mirrors both the complexity of the application and the domain knowledge requirements. We submit that the proper measure of software complexity reflects neither the number of software component units nor the code count, but the locus of and amount of domain knowledge. As a result of using these techniques, domain knowledge is isolated by fields of engineering expertise and removed from the concern of the software engineer. In this paper, we will describe kinds of domain expertise, describe engineering by domains, and provide relevant examples of software developed for simulator applications using the techniques.

  20. Information Fusion: Moving from domain independent to domain literate approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinness, D.

    2008-12-01

    Information Fusion has been a focus of research within the field of computer science for a number of years. Numerous environments aimed at general schema evaluation, diagnosis, and evolution have evolved within those communities including for example the Chimaera Ontology Evolution Environment and the Prompt environment for mapping schema alignment. General (domain independent) efforts have produced useful research results and numerous tools, however these results have predominantly been generated and used by computer scientists and have been focused largely on information schema integration and diagnosis. More recently semantically-enabled web-centric approaches have emerged that utilize domain knowledge to provide tools and services aimed at natural scientists needs for data fusion. In this talk, we will introduce some foundations for information fusion and provide deployed examples of how these foundations and evolving tools have been and are being used today in natural science domains by domain scientists. Some examples will be provided from deployed virtual observatory settings.

  1. Matching Recommendation Technologies and Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Robin; Ramezani, Maryam

    Recommender systems form an extremely diverse body of technologies and approaches. The chapter aims to assist researchers and developers to identify the recommendation technologies that are most likely to be applicable to different domains of recommendation. Unlike other taxonomies of recommender systems, our approach is centered on the question of knowledge: what knowledge does a recommender system need in order to function, and where does that knowledge come from? Different recommendation domains (books vs condominiums, for example) provide different opportunities for the gathering and application of knowledge. These considerations give rise to a mapping between domain characteristics and recommendation technologies.

  2. NASA Parts Selection List (NPSL) WWW Site http://nepp.nasa.gov/npsl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brusse, Jay

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Parts Selection List (NPSL) is an on-line resource for electronic parts selection tailored for use by spaceflight projects. The NPSL provides a list of commonly used electronic parts that have a history of satisfactory use in spaceflight applications. The objective of this www site is to provide NASA projects, contractors, university experimenters, et al with an easy to use resource that provides a baseline of electronic parts from which designers are encouraged to select. The NPSL is an ongoing resource produced by Code 562 in support of the NASA HQ funded NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. The NPSL is produced as an electronic format deliverable made available via the referenced www site administered by Code 562. The NPSL does not provide information pertaining to patented or proprietary information. All of the information contained in the NPSL is available through various other public domain resources such as US Military procurement specifications for electronic parts, NASA GSFC's Preferred Parts List (PPL-21), and NASA's Standard Parts List (MIL-STD975).

  3. Engineered CH2 domains (nanoantibodies).

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2009-01-01

    Currently, almost all FDA approved therapeutic antibodies (except ReoPro, Lucentis and Cimzia which are Fabs), and the vast majority of those in clinical trials are full-size antibodies mostly in IgG1 format of about 150 kDa size. A fundamental problem for such large molecules is their poor penetration into tissues (e.g., solid tumors) and poor or absent binding to regions on the surface of some molecules (e.g., on the HIV envelope glycoprotein) which are fully accessible only by molecules of smaller size. Therefore, much work especially during the last decade has been aimed at developing novel scaffolds of much smaller size and high stability. Here I briefly describe a proposition to use the immunoglobulin (Ig) constant CH2 domain (CH3 for IgE and IgM) as a scaffold. CH2 is critical for the Ig effector functions. Isolated CH2 is stable monomer in contrast to all other constant domains and most of the variable domains. CH2 and engineered CH2 domains with improved stability can be used as scaffolds for construction of libraries containing diverse binders to various antigens. Such binders based on a CH2 scaffold could also confer some effector functions. Because the CH2 domains are the smallest independently folded antibody domains that can be engineered to contain simultaneously antigen-binding sites and binding sites mediating effector and stability functions, and to distinguish them from domain antibodies which are used to denote engineered VH or VL domains or nanobodies which are used to denote camelid VHH, I termed them nanoantibodies (nAbs). PMID:20046570

  4. Domain Walls with Strings Attached

    SciTech Connect

    Shmakova, Marina

    2001-08-20

    We have constructed a bulk and brane action of IIA theory which describes a pair of BPS domain walls on S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2}, with strings attached. The walls are given by two orientifold O8-planes with coincident D8-branes and F1-D0-strings are stretched between the walls. This static configuration satisfies all matching conditions for the string and domain wall sources and has 1/4 of unbroken supersymmetry.

  5. Domain and Specification Models for Software Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iscoe, Neil; Liu, Zheng-Yang; Feng, Guohui

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses our approach to representing application domain knowledge for specific software engineering tasks. Application domain knowledge is embodied in a domain model. Domain models are used to assist in the creation of specification models. Although many different specification models can be created from any particular domain model, each specification model is consistent and correct with respect to the domain model. One aspect of the system-hierarchical organization is described in detail.

  6. Localization of resistive domains in inhomogeneous superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, A.V.; Mints, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    The properties of resistive domains due to the Joule heating in inhomogeneous superconductors with transport currents are studied. The equilibrium of a domain at an inhomogeneity of arbitrary type and with dimensions much smaller than the dimensions of the domain is investigated. It is shown that resistive domains can become localized at inhomogeneities. The temperature distribution in a domain and the current--voltage characteristic of the domain are determined. The stability of localized domains is discussed. It is shown that such domains give rise to a hysteresis in the destruction (recovery) of the superconductivity by the transport current.

  7. Functional domain walls in multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Dennis

    2015-11-01

    During the last decade a wide variety of novel and fascinating correlation phenomena has been discovered at domain walls in multiferroic bulk systems, ranging from unusual electronic conductance to inseparably entangled spin and charge degrees of freedom. The domain walls represent quasi-2D functional objects that can be induced, positioned, and erased on demand, bearing considerable technological potential for future nanoelectronics. Most of the challenges that remain to be solved before turning related device paradigms into reality, however, still fall in the field of fundamental condensed matter physics and materials science. In this topical review seminal experimental findings gained on electric and magnetic domain walls in multiferroic bulk materials are addressed. A special focus is put on the physical properties that emerge at so-called charged domain walls and the added functionality that arises from coexisting magnetic order. The research presented in this review highlights that we are just entering a whole new world of intriguing nanoscale physics that is yet to be explored in all its details. The goal is to draw attention to the persistent challenges and identify future key directions for the research on functional domain walls in multiferroics.

  8. Functional domain walls in multiferroics.

    PubMed

    Meier, Dennis

    2015-11-25

    During the last decade a wide variety of novel and fascinating correlation phenomena has been discovered at domain walls in multiferroic bulk systems, ranging from unusual electronic conductance to inseparably entangled spin and charge degrees of freedom. The domain walls represent quasi-2D functional objects that can be induced, positioned, and erased on demand, bearing considerable technological potential for future nanoelectronics. Most of the challenges that remain to be solved before turning related device paradigms into reality, however, still fall in the field of fundamental condensed matter physics and materials science. In this topical review seminal experimental findings gained on electric and magnetic domain walls in multiferroic bulk materials are addressed. A special focus is put on the physical properties that emerge at so-called charged domain walls and the added functionality that arises from coexisting magnetic order. The research presented in this review highlights that we are just entering a whole new world of intriguing nanoscale physics that is yet to be explored in all its details. The goal is to draw attention to the persistent challenges and identify future key directions for the research on functional domain walls in multiferroics. PMID:26523728

  9. Predicting cognitive change within domains

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Kevin; Beglinger, Leigh J.; Moser, David J.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2010-01-01

    Standardized regression based (SRB) formulas, a method for predicting cognitive change across time, traditionally use baseline performance on a neuropsychological measure to predict future performance on that same measure. However, there are instances in which the same tests may not be given at follow-up assessments (e.g., lack of continuity of provider, avoiding practice effects). The current study sought to expand this methodology by developing SRBs to predict performance on different tests within the same cognitive domain. Using a sample of 127 non-demented community-dwelling older adults assessed at baseline and after one year, two sets of SRBs were developed: 1. those predicting performance on the same test, and 2. those predicting performance on a different test within the same cognitive domain. The domains examined were learning and memory, processing speed, and language. Across both sets of SRBs, one year scores were significantly predicted by baseline scores, especially for the learning and memory and processing speed measures. Although SRBs developed for the same test were comparable to those developed for different tests within the same domain, less variance was accounted for as tests became less similar. The current results lend preliminary support for additional development of SRBs, both for same- and different-tests, as well as beginning to examine domain-based SRBs. PMID:20358479

  10. Faraday instability in deformable domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, Giuseppe; Ben Amar, Martine; Couder, Yves

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the Faraday instability in floating liquid lenses, as an example of hydrodynamic instability that develops in a domain with flexible boundaries. We show that a mutual adaptation of the instability pattern and the domain shape occurs, as a result of the competition between the wave radiation pressure and the capillary response of the lens border. Two archetypes of behaviour are observed. In the first, stable shapes are obtained experimentally and predicted theoretically as the exact solutions of a Riccati equation, and they result from the equilibrium between wave radiation pressure and capillarity. In the second, the radiation pressure exceeds the capillary response of the lens border and leads to non-equilibrium behaviours, with breaking into smaller domains that have a complex dynamics including spontaneous propagation. The authors are grateful to Université Franco-Italienne (UFI) for financial support.

  11. Domain walls inside localised orientifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blåbäck, J.; van der Woerd, E.; Van Riet, T.; Williams, M.

    2015-12-01

    The equations of motion of toroidal orientifold compactifications with fluxes are in one-to-one correspondence with gauged supergravity if the orientifold (and D-brane) sources are smeared over the compact space. This smeared limit is identical to the approximation that ignores warping. It is therefore relevant to compare quantities obtained from the gauged supergravity with the true 10d solution with localised sources. In this paper we find the correspondence between BPS domain walls in gauged SUGRA and 10D SUGRA with localised sources. Our model is the simplest orientifold with fluxes we are aware of: an O6/D6 compactification on {T}^3/{Z}_2 in massive IIA with H 3-flux. The BPS domain walls correspond to a O6/D6/NS5/D8 bound state. Our analysis reveals that the domain wall energy computed in gauged SUGRA is unaffected by the localisation of the O6/D6 sources.

  12. Inferring Domain-Domain Interactions from Protein-Protein Interactions with Formal Concept Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Identifying reliable domain-domain interactions will increase our ability to predict novel protein-protein interactions, to unravel interactions in protein complexes, and thus gain more information about the function and behavior of genes. One of the challenges of identifying reliable domain-domain interactions is domain promiscuity. Promiscuous domains are domains that can occur in many domain architectures and are therefore found in many proteins. This becomes a problem for a method where the score of a domain-pair is the ratio between observed and expected frequencies because the protein-protein interaction network is sparse. As such, many protein-pairs will be non-interacting and domain-pairs with promiscuous domains will be penalized. This domain promiscuity challenge to the problem of inferring reliable domain-domain interactions from protein-protein interactions has been recognized, and a number of work-arounds have been proposed. This paper reports on an application of Formal Concept Analysis to this problem. It is found that the relationship between formal concepts provides a natural way for rare domains to elevate the rank of promiscuous domain-pairs and enrich highly ranked domain-pairs with reliable domain-domain interactions. This piggybacking of promiscuous domain-pairs onto less promiscuous domain-pairs is possible only with concept lattices whose attribute-labels are not reduced and is enhanced by the presence of proteins that comprise both promiscuous and rare domains. PMID:24586450

  13. A Method to Examine Content Domain Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agostino, Jerome; Karpinski, Aryn; Welsh, Megan

    2011-01-01

    After a test is developed, most content validation analyses shift from ascertaining domain definition to studying domain representation and relevance because the domain is assumed to be set once a test exists. We present an approach that allows for the examination of alternative domain structures based on extant test items. In our example based on…

  14. Tensor distinction of domains in ferroic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvin, D. B.

    2009-10-01

    Ferroic crystals contain two or more domains and may be distinguished by the values of components of tensorial physical properties of the domains. We have extended Aizu’s global tensor distinction by magnetization, polarization, and strain of all domains which arise in a ferroic phase transition to include distinction by toroidal moment, and from phases invariant under time reversal to domains which arise in transitions from all magnetic and non-magnetic phases. For determining possible switching of domains, a domain pair tensor distinction is also considered for all pairs of domains which arise in each ferroic phase transition.

  15. Protein structural domains: definition and prediction.

    PubMed

    Ezkurdia, Iakes; Tress, Michael L

    2011-11-01

    Recognition and prediction of structural domains in proteins is an important part of structure and function prediction. This unit lists the range of tools available for domain prediction, and describes sequence and structural analysis tools that complement domain prediction methods. Also detailed are the basic domain prediction steps, along with suggested strategies for different protein sequences and potential pitfalls in domain boundary prediction. The difficult problem of domain orientation prediction is also discussed. All the resources necessary for domain boundary prediction are accessible via publicly available Web servers and databases and do not require computational expertise. PMID:22045561

  16. Development in the Food Domain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozin, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Discusses problems of general interest in developmental psychology that can be successfully studied in the domain of food; these include (1) development of food likes and dislikes; (2) establishment of the edible/inedible distinction; (3) disgust and contagion; (4) transgenerational communication of preferences; and (5) transition to food…

  17. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  18. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  19. Enabling Interoperability in Heliophysical Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Robert

    2013-04-01

    There are many aspects of science in the Solar System that are overlapping - phenomena observed in one domain can have effects in other domains. However, there are many problems related to exploiting the data in cross-disciplinary studies because of lack of interoperability of the data and services. The CASSIS project is a Coordination Action funded under FP7 that has the objective of improving the interoperability of data and services related Solar System science. CASSIS has been investigating how the data could be made more accessible with some relatively minor changes to the observational metadata. The project has been looking at the services that are used within the domain and determining whether they are interoperable with each other and if not what would be required make them so. It has also been examining all types of metadata that are used when identifying and using observations and trying to make them more compliant with techniques and standards developed by bodies such as the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). Many of the lessons that are being learnt in the study are applicable to domains that go beyond those directly involved in heliophysics. Adopting some simple standards related to the design of the services interfaces and metadata that are used would make it much easier to investigate interdisciplinary science topics. We will report on our finding and describe a roadmap for the future. For more information about CASSIS, please visit the project Web site on cassis-vo.eu

  20. Identification of alternative topological domains in chromatin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome conformation capture experiments have led to the discovery of dense, contiguous, megabase-sized topological domains that are similar across cell types and conserved across species. These domains are strongly correlated with a number of chromatin markers and have since been included in a number of analyses. However, functionally-relevant domains may exist at multiple length scales. We introduce a new and efficient algorithm that is able to capture persistent domains across various resolutions by adjusting a single scale parameter. The ensemble of domains we identify allows us to quantify the degree to which the domain structure is hierarchical as opposed to overlapping, and our analysis reveals a pronounced hierarchical structure in which larger stable domains tend to completely contain smaller domains. The identified novel domains are substantially different from domains reported previously and are highly enriched for insulating factor CTCF binding and histone marks at the boundaries. PMID:24868242

  1. Diversity in protein recognition by PTB domains.

    PubMed

    Forman-Kay, J D; Pawson, T

    1999-12-01

    Phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domains were originally identified as modular domains that recognize phosphorylated Asn-Pro-Xxx-p Tyr-containing proteins. Recent binding and structural studies of PTB domain complexes with target peptides have revealed a number of deviations from the previously described mode of interaction, with respect to both the sequences of possible targets and their structures within the complexes. This diversity of recognition by PTB domains extends and strengthens our general understanding of modular binding domain recognition. PMID:10607674

  2. Analysis of multi-domain protein dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Amitava; Hua, Duy P; Post, Carol Beth

    2016-01-01

    Proteins with a modular architecture of multiple domains connected by linkers often exhibit diversity in the relative positions of domains while the domain tertiary structure remains unchanged. The biological function of these modular proteins, or the regulation of their activity depends on the variation in domain orientation and separation. Accordingly, careful characterization of inter-domain motion and correlated fluctuations of multi-domain systems is relevant for understanding the functional behavior of modular proteins. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provides a powerful approach to study these motions in atomic detail. Nevertheless, the common procedure for analyzing fluctuations from MD simulations after overall rigid-body alignment fails for multi-domain proteins; it greatly overestimates correlated positional fluctuations in the presence of relative domain motion. We show here that expressing the atomic motions of a multi-domain protein as a combination of displacement within the domain reference frame and motion of the relative domains correctly separates the internal motions to allow a useful description of correlated fluctuations. We illustrate the methodology of separating the domain fluctuations and local fluctuations by application to the tandem SH2 domains of human Syk protein kinase and by characterizing an effect of phosphorylation on the dynamics. Correlated motions are assessed from a distance covariance rather than the more common vector-coordinate covariance. The approach makes it possible to calculate the proper correlations in fluctuations internal to a domain as well as between domains. PMID:26675644

  3. Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, Supraja

    Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography (TD-OCT), first reported in 1991, makes use of the low temporal coherence properties of a NIR broadband laser to create depth sectioning of up to 2mm under the surface using optical interferometry and point to point scanning. Prior and ongoing work in OCT in the research community has concentrated on improving axial resolution through the development of broadband sources and speed of image acquisition through new techniques such as Spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT). In SD-OCT, an entire depth scan is acquired at once with a low numerical aperture (NA) objective lens focused at a fixed point within the sample. In this imaging geometry, a longer depth of focus is achieved at the expense of lateral resolution, which is typically limited to 10 to 20 mum. Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM), introduced in 1994, combined the advantages of high axial resolution obtained in OCT with high lateral resolution obtained by increasing the NA of the microscope placed in the sample arm. However, OCM presented trade-offs caused by the inverse quadratic relationship between the NA and the DOF of the optics used. For applications requiring high lateral resolution, such as cancer diagnostics, several solutions have been proposed including the periodic manual re-focusing of the objective lens in the time domain as well as the spectral domain C-mode configuration in order to overcome the loss in lateral resolution outside the DOF. In this research, we report for the first time, high speed, sub-cellular imaging (lateral resolution of 2 mum) in OCM using a Gabor domain image processing algorithm with a custom designed and fabricated dynamic focus microscope interfaced to a Ti:Sa femtosecond laser centered at 800 nm within an SD-OCM configuration. It is envisioned that this technology will provide a non-invasive replacement for the current practice of multiple biopsies for skin cancer diagnosis. The research reported here presents three important advances

  4. Spline interpolation on unbounded domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeel, Robert D.

    2016-06-01

    Spline interpolation is a splendid tool for multiscale approximation on unbounded domains. In particular, it is well suited for use by the multilevel summation method (MSM) for calculating a sum of pairwise interactions for a large set of particles in linear time. Outlined here is an algorithm for spline interpolation on unbounded domains that is efficient and elegant though not so simple. Further gains in efficiency are possible via quasi-interpolation, which compromises collocation but with minimal loss of accuracy. The MSM, which may also be of value for continuum models, embodies most of the best features of both hierarchical clustering methods (tree methods, fast multipole methods, hierarchical matrix methods) and FFT-based 2-level methods (particle-particle particle-mesh methods, particle-mesh Ewald methods).

  5. Certifying Domain-Specific Policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael; Pressburger, Thomas; Rosu, Grigore; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Proof-checking code for compliance to safety policies potentially enables a product-oriented approach to certain aspects of software certification. To date, previous research has focused on generic, low-level programming-language properties such as memory type safety. In this paper we consider proof-checking higher-level domain -specific properties for compliance to safety policies. The paper first describes a framework related to abstract interpretation in which compliance to a class of certification policies can be efficiently calculated Membership equational logic is shown to provide a rich logic for carrying out such calculations, including partiality, for certification. The architecture for a domain-specific certifier is described, followed by an implemented case study. The case study considers consistency of abstract variable attributes in code that performs geometric calculations in Aerospace systems.

  6. Frequency domain optical parametric amplification

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Bruno E.; Thiré, Nicolas; Boivin, Maxime; Laramée, Antoine; Poitras, François; Lebrun, Guy; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Ibrahim, Heide; Légaré, François

    2014-01-01

    Today’s ultrafast lasers operate at the physical limits of optical materials to reach extreme performances. Amplification of single-cycle laser pulses with their corresponding octave-spanning spectra still remains a formidable challenge since the universal dilemma of gain narrowing sets limits for both real level pumped amplifiers as well as parametric amplifiers. We demonstrate that employing parametric amplification in the frequency domain rather than in time domain opens up new design opportunities for ultrafast laser science, with the potential to generate single-cycle multi-terawatt pulses. Fundamental restrictions arising from phase mismatch and damage threshold of nonlinear laser crystals are not only circumvented but also exploited to produce a synergy between increased seed spectrum and increased pump energy. This concept was successfully demonstrated by generating carrier envelope phase stable, 1.43 mJ two-cycle pulses at 1.8 μm wavelength. PMID:24805968

  7. Pyramidal inversion domain boundaries revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Remmele, T.; Albrecht, M.; Irmscher, K.; Fornari, R.; Strassburg, M.

    2011-10-03

    The structure of pyramidal inversion domain boundaries in GaN:Mg was investigated by aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy. The analysis shows the upper (0001) boundary to consist of a single Mg layer inserted between polarity inverted GaN layers in an abcab stacking. The Mg bound in these defects is at least one order of magnitude lower than the chemical Mg concentration. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements show that up to 27% of the Mg acceptors is electrically compensated.

  8. System time-domain simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, C. T.; Eggleston, T. W.; Goris, A. C.; Fashano, M.; Paynter, D.; Tranter, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    Complex systems are simulated by engineers without extensive computer experience. Analyst uses free-form engineering-oriented language to input "black box" description. System Time Domain (SYSTID) Simulation Program generates appropriate algorithms and proceeds with simulation. Program is easily linked to postprocessing routines. SYSTID program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on UNIVAC 1110 under control of EXEC 8, Level 31.

  9. Flexible time domain averaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

    2013-09-01

    Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

  10. Subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking.

    PubMed

    Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Wieser, Wolfgang; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Huber, Robert

    2009-03-15

    We demonstrate a subharmonically Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength-swept laser source with a substantially reduced cavity fiber length. In contrast to a standard Fourier domain mode-locked configuration, light is recirculated repetitively in the delay line with the optical bandpass filter used as switch. The laser has a fundamental optical round trip frequency of 285 kHz and can be operated at integer fractions thereof (subharmonics). Sweep ranges up to 95 nm full width centred at 1317 nm are achieved at the 1/5th subharmonic. A maximum sensitivity of 116 dB and an axial resolution of 12 microm in air are measured at an average sweep power of 12 mW. A sensitivity roll-off of 11 dB over 4 mm and 25 dB over 10 mm is observed and optical coherence tomography imaging is demonstrated. Besides the advantage of a reduced fiber length, subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking (shFDML) enables simple scaling of the sweep speed by extracting light from the delay part of the resonator. A sweep rate of 570 kHz is achieved. Characteristic features of shFDML operation, such as power leakage during fly-back and cw breakthrough, are investigated. PMID:19282912

  11. Mapping knowledge domains: Characterizing PNAS

    PubMed Central

    Boyack, Kevin W.

    2004-01-01

    A review of data mining and analysis techniques that can be used for the mapping of knowledge domains is given. Literature mapping techniques can be based on authors, documents, journals, words, and/or indicators. Most mapping questions are related to research assessment or to the structure and dynamics of disciplines or networks. Several mapping techniques are demonstrated on a data set comprising 20 years of papers published in PNAS. Data from a variety of sources are merged to provide unique indicators of the domain bounded by PNAS. By using funding source information and citation counts, it is shown that, on an aggregate basis, papers funded jointly by the U.S. Public Health Service (which includes the National Institutes of Health) and non-U.S. government sources outperform papers funded by other sources, including by the U.S. Public Health Service alone. Grant data from the National Institute on Aging show that, on average, papers from large grants are cited more than those from small grants, with performance increasing with grant amount. A map of the highest performing papers over the 20-year period was generated by using citation analysis. Changes and trends in the subjects of highest impact within the PNAS domain are described. Interactions between topics over the most recent 5-year period are also detailed. PMID:14963238

  12. Elastic Domain Architectures in Constrained Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutsker, J.; Artemev, A.; Roytburd, A. L.

    2002-08-01

    The formation of elastic domains in transforming constrained films is a mechanism of relaxation of internal stresses caused by the misfit between a film and a substrate. The formation and evolution of polydomain microstructure as a result of the cubic-tetragonal transformation in a constrained layer are investigated by phase-field simulation. It has been shown that the three-domain hierarchical structure can be formed in the epitaxial films. With changing a fraction of out-of-plane domain there are two types of morphological transitions: from the three-domain structure to the two-domain one and from the hierarchical three-domain structure to the cellular three-domain structure. The results of the phase-field simulation are compared with available experimental data on 90deg domain structures in epitaxial ferroelectric films.

  13. Characterization of lipid domains in erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, W; Glaser, M

    1991-01-01

    Fluorescence digital imaging microscopy was used to study the lateral distribution of the lipid components in erythrocyte membranes. Intact erythrocytes labeled with phospholipids containing a fluorophore attached to one fatty acid chain showed an uneven distribution of the phospholipids in the membrane thereby demonstrating the presence of membrane domains. The enrichment of the lipotropic compound chlor-promazine in domains in intact erythrocytes also suggested that the domains are lipid-enriched regions. Similar membrane domains were present in erythrocyte ghosts. The phospholipid enrichment was increased in the domains by inducing membrane protein aggregation. Double-labeling experiments were done to determine the relative distributions of different phospholipids in the membrane. Vesicles made from extracted lipids did not show the presence of domains consistent with the conclusion that membrane proteins were responsible for creating the domains. Overall, it was found that large domains exist in the red blood cell membrane with unequal enrichment of the different phospholipid species. Images PMID:1996337

  14. Generic domain models in software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiden, Neil

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of generic models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these generic models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of generic domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.

  15. Medicaid.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... States’ Medicaid Delivery System Reform Activities: The Medicaid Innovation Accelerator Program This July the Medicaid Innovation Accelerator Program (IAP) celebrates its second year of ...

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    MedlinePlus

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  17. Disability.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Look for Housing View all resources in Housing Technology Keyboard Users: Use the up and down arrow ... select a subtopic A Guide to Assistive & Accessible Technologies Accessible Technology Guidelines & Standards Assistive Technology in the ...

  18. Smokefree.gov

    MedlinePlus

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    MedlinePlus

    ... health officials have been investigating a multi-state outbreak of Listeria . Learn more about this investigation, and see the most recent recalls announced by USDA and FDA. ... Stay Connected Our ...

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    MedlinePlus

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    MedlinePlus

    ... Pandemics Current Situation Global Activities Research Activities History Flu Symptoms & Severity The flu is different from a ... you know if you have the flu? (CDC) Flu Vaccine Finder The flu vaccine is your best ...

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    MedlinePlus

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    MedlinePlus

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    MedlinePlus

    ... organizations with expertise in these areas. What is Alzheimer's disease? How do you know if someone has it? ... more What kind of care does someone with Alzheimer's disease need? Find out what to expect during different ...

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    MedlinePlus

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  6. FoodSafety.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Frozen Vegetables, Fruit & Other Products Linked to Listeria Outbreak Posted May 17, 2016 Federal agencies and ... have been investigating a multi-state outbreak of Listeria . Learn more about this investigation, and see the ...

  7. Frequency domain photoacoustic and fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Gregor; Buchegger, Bianca; Jacak, Jaroslaw; Klar, Thomas A.; Berer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We report on simultaneous frequency domain optical-resolution photoacoustic and fluorescence microscopy with sub-µm lateral resolution. With the help of a blood smear, we show that photoacoustic and fluorescence images provide complementary information. Furthermore, we compare theoretically predicted signal-to-noise ratios of sinusoidal modulation in frequency domain with pulsed excitation in time domain. PMID:27446698

  8. Frequency domain photoacoustic and fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Langer, Gregor; Buchegger, Bianca; Jacak, Jaroslaw; Klar, Thomas A; Berer, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    We report on simultaneous frequency domain optical-resolution photoacoustic and fluorescence microscopy with sub-µm lateral resolution. With the help of a blood smear, we show that photoacoustic and fluorescence images provide complementary information. Furthermore, we compare theoretically predicted signal-to-noise ratios of sinusoidal modulation in frequency domain with pulsed excitation in time domain. PMID:27446698

  9. Pectin Homogalacturonans: Nanostructural Characterization of Methylesterified Domains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functionality of pectic hydrocolloids is largely dependent on the two major domains commonly found in their homogalacturonan (HG) regions, i.e., methylester protected domains (MPDs)and non methylesterified domains (NMDs). MPDs can participate in hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions but unli...

  10. 22 CFR 120.11 - Public domain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public domain. 120.11 Section 120.11 Foreign... Public domain. (a) Public domain means information which is published and which is generally accessible or available to the public: (1) Through sales at newsstands and bookstores; (2) Through...

  11. The Promise of Domain Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahabal, Ashish A.; Li, Jingling; Vaijanapurkar, Samarth; Bue, Brian; Miller, Adam; Donalek, Ciro; Djorgovski, Stanislav G.; Drake, Andrew J.; Graham, Matthew; CRTS, iPTF

    2016-01-01

    Most new surveys spend an appreciable time in collecting data on which to train classifiers before they can be used on future observations from the same dataset. The result generating phase can start much earlier if the training could incorporate data accumulated from older surveys enhanced with a small set from the new survey. This is exactly what Domain Adaptation (DA) allows us to do. The main idea behind DAs can be summarized thus: if we have two classes of separable objects in some feature space of a Source survey (S), we can define a hyperplane to separate the two types. In a second Target survey (T), for the same features the hyperplane would be inclined differently. DA methods get the mapping between the two hyperplanes using a small fraction of data from the Target (T) survey and can then be used to predict the classes of the remaining majority of data in T. We discuss the parameters that need to be tuned, the difficulties involved, and ways to improve the results. As we move towards bigger, and deeper surveys, being able to use existing labelled information to conduct classification in future surveys will be more cost-effective and promote time efficiency as well. Starting with the light curve data of 50,000 periodic objects from Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS), we have applied domain adaptation techniques such as Geodesic Flow Kernel (GFK) with Random forest classifier and Co-training for domain adaptation (CODA) to the CRTS data which has 35,000 points overlapping with Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), and 12,000 with Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR). The results suggest that domain adaptation is an area worth exploring as the knowledge between these surveys is transferable and the approaches to find the mappings between these surveys can be applied to the remaining data as well as for near future surveys such as CRTS-II, Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) to name a few at the optical

  12. AIDA: ab initio domain assembly for automated multi-domain protein structure prediction and domain–domain interaction prediction

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Li, Zhanwen; Godzik, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Most proteins consist of multiple domains, independent structural and evolutionary units that are often reshuffled in genomic rearrangements to form new protein architectures. Template-based modeling methods can often detect homologous templates for individual domains, but templates that could be used to model the entire query protein are often not available. Results: We have developed a fast docking algorithm ab initio domain assembly (AIDA) for assembling multi-domain protein structures, guided by the ab initio folding potential. This approach can be extended to discontinuous domains (i.e. domains with ‘inserted’ domains). When tested on experimentally solved structures of multi-domain proteins, the relative domain positions were accurately found among top 5000 models in 86% of cases. AIDA server can use domain assignments provided by the user or predict them from the provided sequence. The latter approach is particularly useful for automated protein structure prediction servers. The blind test consisting of 95 CASP10 targets shows that domain boundaries could be successfully determined for 97% of targets. Availability and implementation: The AIDA package as well as the benchmark sets used here are available for download at http://ffas.burnham.org/AIDA/. Contact: adam@sanfordburnham.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25701568

  13. 41 CFR 301-73.103 - What must we do when we approve an exception to the use of the E-Gov Travel Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must we do when we approve an exception to the use of the E-Gov Travel Service? 301-73.103 Section 301-73.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL...

  14. 41 CFR 301-73.103 - What must we do when we approve an exception to the use of the E-Gov Travel Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What must we do when we approve an exception to the use of the E-Gov Travel Service? 301-73.103 Section 301-73.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL...

  15. 41 CFR 301-73.103 - What must we do when we approve an exception to the use of the E-Gov Travel Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must we do when we approve an exception to the use of the E-Gov Travel Service? 301-73.103 Section 301-73.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL...

  16. Domain wall fermion quenched spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malureanu, Catalin Ionut

    We measure y and the hadron spectrum on quenched ensembles using the domain wall fermion formulation. For the first time a 1/mf behavior of y for small valence masses has been observed. Our measurements of y on two different volumes of 83 x 32 and 163 x 32 at β = 5.85 suggest the behavior goes away on large enough volumes. Extensive spectrum calculations were done on 8 3 x 32 lattices at β = 5.7 and 5.85 corresponding roughly to a box size of 1.6 fm and 1.0 fm respectively. We have investigated five values of the extent of the fifth dimension Ls = 10, 16, 24, 32 and 48 with valence masses in the range 0.02 to 0.2 for the β = 5.7 ensemble and two values of Ls = 10 and 16 with valence masses in the range 0.02 to 0.08 for the β = 5.85 ensemble. Our pion remains massive in the infinite Ls extrapolation. This may be a finite volume effect. The nucleon to rho mass ratio stays constant at 1.4(1). Scaling violations for domain wall fermions are smaller roughly by a factor of four compared to the scaling violations in similar calculations done with staggered fermions.

  17. Frequency-domain Hadamard spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupče, Ēriks; Freeman, Ray

    2003-05-01

    A new technique is proposed for multichannel excitation and detection of NMR signals in the frequency domain, an alternative to the widely used pulse-excited Fourier transform method. An extensive array of N radiofrequency irradiation channels covers the spectrum of interest. A selective radiofrequency pulse sequence is applied to each channel, generating a steady-state NMR response acquired one-point-at-a-time in the intervals between pulses. The excitation pattern is repeated N times, phase-encoded according to a Hadamard matrix, and the corresponding N composite responses are decoded by reference to the same matrix. This multiplex technique offers the same sensitivity advantage as conventional Fourier transform spectroscopy. The irradiation pattern may be tailored to concentrate on interesting spectral regions, to facilitate homonuclear double resonance, or to avoid exciting strong solvent peaks. As no free induction decay is involved, the new method avoids problems of pulse breakthrough or lineshape distortion by premature termination of the time-domain signal.

  18. Interfaces between Block Copolymer Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaeup; Jeong, Seong-Jun; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2011-03-01

    Block copolymers naturally form nanometer scale structures which repeat their geometry on a larger scale. Such a small scale periodic pattern can be used for various applications such as storage media, nano-circuits and optical filters. However, perfect alignment of block copolymer domains in the macroscopic scale is still a distant dream. The nanostructure formation usually occurs with spontaneously broken symmetry; hence it is easily infected by topological defects which sneak in due to entropic fluctuation and incomplete annealing. Careful annealing can gradually reduce the number of defects, but once kinetically trapped, it is extremely difficult to remove all the defects. One of the main reasons is that the defect finds a locally metastable morphology whose potential depth is large enough to prohibit further morphology evolution. In this work, the domain boundaries between differently oriented lamellar structures in thin film are studied. For the first time, it became possible to quantitatively study the block copolymer morphology in the transitional region, and it was shown that the twisted grain boundary is energetically favorable compared to the T-junction grain boundary. [Nano Letters, 9, 2300 (2010)]. This theoretical method successfully explained the experimental results.

  19. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  20. Single-domain antibodies for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Krah, Simon; Schröter, Christian; Zielonka, Stefan; Empting, Martin; Valldorf, Bernhard; Kolmar, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Single-domain antibodies are the smallest antigen-binding units of antibodies, consisting either only of one variable domain or one engineered constant domain that solely facilitates target binding. This class of antibody derivatives comprises naturally occurring variable domains derived from camelids and sharks as well as engineered human variable or constant antibody domains of the heavy or light chain. Because of their high affinity and specificity as well as stability, small size and benefit of multiple re-formatting opportunities, those molecules emerged as promising candidates for biomedical applications and some of these entities have already proven to be successful in clinical development. PMID:26551147

  1. Terminated Trials in the ClinicalTrials.gov Results Database: Evaluation of Availability of Primary Outcome Data and Reasons for Termination

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rebecca J.; Tse, Tony; DiPiazza, Katelyn; Zarin, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical trials that end prematurely (or “terminate”) raise financial, ethical, and scientific concerns. The extent to which the results of such trials are disseminated and the reasons for termination have not been well characterized. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional, descriptive study of terminated clinical trials posted on the ClinicalTrials.gov results database as of February 2013 was conducted. The main outcomes were to characterize the availability of primary outcome data on ClinicalTrials.gov and in the published literature and to identify the reasons for trial termination. Approximately 12% of trials with results posted on the ClinicalTrials.gov results database (905/7,646) were terminated. Most trials were terminated for reasons other than accumulated data from the trial (68%; 619/905), with an insufficient rate of accrual being the lead reason for termination among these trials (57%; 350/619). Of the remaining trials, 21% (193/905) were terminated based on data from the trial (findings of efficacy or toxicity) and 10% (93/905) did not specify a reason. Overall, data for a primary outcome measure were available on ClinicalTrials.gov and in the published literature for 72% (648/905) and 22% (198/905) of trials, respectively. Primary outcome data were reported on the ClinicalTrials.gov results database and in the published literature more frequently (91% and 46%, respectively) when the decision to terminate was based on data from the trial. Conclusions Trials terminate for a variety of reasons, not all of which reflect failures in the process or an inability to achieve the intended goals. Primary outcome data were reported most often when termination was based on data from the trial. Further research is needed to identify best practices for disseminating the experience and data resulting from terminated trials in order to help ensure maximal societal benefit from the investments of trial participants and others involved with the study

  2. Domain swapping: entangling alliances between proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, M J; Choe, S; Eisenberg, D

    1994-01-01

    The comparison of monomeric and dimeric diphtheria toxin (DT) reveals a mode for protein association which we call domain swapping. The structure of dimeric DT has been extensively refined against data to 2.0-A resolution and a three-residue loop has been corrected as compared with our published 2.5-A-resolution structure. The monomeric DT structure has also been determined, at 2.3-A resolution. Monomeric DT is a Y-shaped molecule with three domains: catalytic (C), transmembrane (T), and receptor binding (R). Upon freezing in phosphate buffer, DT forms a long-lived, metastable dimer. The protein chain tracing discloses that upon dimerization an unprecedented conformational rearrangement occurs: the entire R domain from each molecule of the dimer is exchanged for the R domain from the other. This involves breaking the noncovalent interactions between the R domain and the C and T domains, rotating the R domain by 180 degrees with atomic movements up to 65 A, and re-forming the same noncovalent interactions between the R domain and the C and T domains of the other chain of the dimer. This conformational transition explains the long life and metastability of the DT dimer. Several other intertwined, dimeric protein structures satisfy our definition of domain swapping and suggest that domain swapping may be the molecular mechanism for evolution of these oligomers and possibly of oligomeric proteins in general. Images PMID:8159715

  3. Enhanced protein domain discovery using taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Coin, Lachlan; Bateman, Alex; Durbin, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Background It is well known that different species have different protein domain repertoires, and indeed that some protein domains are kingdom specific. This information has not yet been incorporated into statistical methods for finding domains in sequences of amino acids. Results We show that by incorporating our understanding of the taxonomic distribution of specific protein domains, we can enhance domain recognition in protein sequences. We identify 4447 new instances of Pfam domains in the SP-TREMBL database using this technique, equivalent to the coverage increase given by the last 8.3% of Pfam families and to a 0.7% increase in the number of domain predictions. We use PSI-BLAST to cross-validate our new predictions. We also benchmark our approach using a SCOP test set of proteins of known structure, and demonstrate improvements relative to standard Hidden Markov model techniques. Conclusions Explicitly including knowledge about the taxonomic distribution of protein domains can enhance protein domain recognition. Our method can also incorporate other context-specific domain distributions – such as domain co-occurrence and protein localisation. PMID:15137915

  4. Domain adaptive boosting method and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jie; Miao, Zhenjiang

    2015-03-01

    Differences of data distributions widely exist among datasets, i.e., domains. For many pattern recognition, nature language processing, and content-based analysis systems, a decrease in performance caused by the domain differences between the training and testing datasets is still a notable problem. We propose a domain adaptation method called domain adaptive boosting (DAB). It is based on the AdaBoost approach with extensions to cover the domain differences between the source and target domains. Two main stages are contained in this approach: source-domain clustering and source-domain sample selection. By iteratively adding the selected training samples from the source domain, the discrimination model is able to achieve better domain adaptation performance based on a small validation set. The DAB algorithm is suitable for the domains with large scale samples and easy to extend for multisource adaptation. We implement this method on three computer vision systems: the skin detection model in single images, the video concept detection model, and the object classification model. In the experiments, we compare the performances of several commonly used methods and the proposed DAB. Under most situations, the DAB is superior.

  5. Domain wall conduction in multiaxial ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Eliseev, E. A.; Morozovska, A. N.; Svechnikov, S. V.; Maksymovych, Petro; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2012-01-01

    The conductance of domain wall structures consisting of either stripes or cylindrical domains in multiaxial ferroelectric-semiconductors is analyzed. The effects of the flexoelectric coupling, domain size, wall tilt, and curvature on charge accumulation are analyzed using the Landau-Ginsburg Devonshire theory for polarization vector combined with the Poisson equation for charge distributions. The proximity and size effect of the electron and donor accumulation/depletion by thin stripe domains and cylindrical nanodomains are revealed. In contrast to thick domain stripes and wider cylindrical domains, in which the carrier accumulation (and so the static conductivity) sharply increases at the domain walls only, small nanodomains of radii less than 5-10 correlation lengths appeared conducting across the entire cross-section. Implications of such conductive nanosized channels may be promising for nanoelectronics.

  6. Functional innovation from changes in protein domains and their combinations.

    PubMed

    Lees, Jonathan G; Dawson, Natalie L; Sillitoe, Ian; Orengo, Christine A

    2016-06-01

    Domains are the functional building blocks of proteins. In this work we discuss how domains can contribute to the evolution of new functions. Domains themselves can evolve through various mechanisms, altering their intrinsic function. Domains can also facilitate functional innovations by combining with other domains to make novel proteins. We discuss the mechanisms by which domain and domain combinations support functional innovations. We highlight interesting examples where changes in domain combination promote changes at the domain level. PMID:27309309

  7. Structure and Function of KH Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Valverde, R.; Regan, E

    2008-01-01

    The hnRNP K homology (KH) domain was first identified in the protein human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) 14 years ago. Since then, KH domains have been identified as nucleic acid recognition motifs in proteins that perform a wide range of cellular functions. KH domains bind RNA or ssDNA, and are found in proteins associated with transcriptional and translational regulation, along with other cellular processes. Several diseases, e.g. fragile X mental retardation syndrome and paraneoplastic disease, are associated with the loss of function of a particular KH domain. Here we discuss the progress made towards understanding both general and specific features of the molecular recognition of nucleic acids by KH domains. The typical binding surface of KH domains is a cleft that is versatile but that can typically accommodate only four unpaired bases. Van der Waals forces and hydrophobic interactions and, to a lesser extent, electrostatic interactions, contribute to the nucleic acid binding affinity. 'Augmented' KH domains or multiple copies of KH domains within a protein are two strategies that are used to achieve greater affinity and specificity of nucleic acid binding. Isolated KH domains have been seen to crystallize as monomers, dimers and tetramers, but no published data support the formation of noncovalent higher-order oligomers by KH domains in solution. Much attention has been given in the literature to a conserved hydrophobic residue (typically Ile or Leu) that is present in most KH domains. The interest derives from the observation that an individual with this Ile mutated to Asn, in the KH2 domain of fragile X mental retardation protein, exhibits a particularly severe form of the syndrome. The structural effects of this mutation in the fragile X mental retardation protein KH2 domain have recently been reported. We discuss the use of analogous point mutations at this position in other KH domains to dissect both structure and function.

  8. An Analysis of Sponsors/Collaborators of 69,160 Drug Trials Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov

    PubMed Central

    Keezhupalat, Shruthi Muralidharan; Naik, Ankeet; Gupta, Saurabh; Srivatsan, Raghunathan; Saberwal, Gayatri

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical trials have been criticized on various counts. Any attempt to improve how trials are conducted or reported requires—amongst other things—an understanding of the number, the nature and the location of those that sponsor them or collaborate on them. Here we sought to identify the nature and location of each sponsor/collaborator. Methods and Findings We examined the 'sponsor/collaborator' field for the 69,160 drug trials that were registered with ClinicalTrials.gov over a 9-year period (2005–2014). Of the 12,823 unique sponsors, 56% had sponsored only one and 27% had sponsored 2–5 trials each. Just 18% were involved with six or more trials each, and we have (arbitrarily) labeled these organizations as 'more experienced' in sponsoring/collaborating on trials. These 18% (2,266 sponsors/collaborators) were analyzed further: (a) 951 were corporate organizations and (b) 1,145 were non-corporates (including 31 individuals) with (c) 170 unclassified. Further, we identified the location of each organization in (a) and (b). Conclusions Clinical trials are an important part of a nation's research endeavors, and ultimately contribute to the health of its people. Thus, understanding the clinical trial landscape—including the number and nature of sponsors, and how active they are—is important for every country. We believe that policy makers in particular should be interested in this study to understand the current situation, and to use the numbers as a baseline for the evolving landscape, to assess the impact of their strategies in future. PMID:26886868

  9. Listening natively across perceptual domains?

    PubMed

    Langus, Alan; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Uysal, Ertuğrul; Pirmoradian, Sahar; Marino, Caterina; Asaadi, Sina; Eren, Ömer; Toro, Juan M; Peña, Marcela; Bion, Ricardo A H; Nespor, Marina

    2016-07-01

    Our native tongue influences the way we perceive other languages. But does it also determine the way we perceive nonlinguistic sounds? The authors investigated how speakers of Italian, Turkish, and Persian group sequences of syllables, tones, or visual shapes alternating in either frequency or duration. We found strong native listening effects with linguistic stimuli. Speakers of Italian grouped the linguistic stimuli differently from speakers of Turkish and Persian. However, speakers of all languages showed the same perceptual biases when grouping the nonlinguistic auditory and the visual stimuli. The shared perceptual biases appear to be determined by universal grouping principles, and the linguistic differences caused by prosodic differences between the languages. Although previous findings suggest that acquired linguistic knowledge can either enhance or diminish the perception of both linguistic and nonlinguistic auditory stimuli, we found no transfer of native listening effects across auditory domains or perceptual modalities. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26820498

  10. Analysis of DCC domain structure

    SciTech Connect

    Randrup, J.; Thews, R.L.

    1997-10-01

    Wavelet-type methods are employed for the analysis of pion field configurations that have been obtained by dynamical simulations in idealized scenarios relevant to the formation of disoriented chiral condensates. It is illustrated how the measurement of the isospin domain structure depends on the ability to zoom in on limited parts of the phase space, due to the interplay between the pion correlation length and the effective source geometry. The need for advanced analysis methods is underscored by the fact that the extracted neutral-fraction distribution would differ significantly from the ideal form, even under perfect experimental conditions, and, moreover, by the circumstance that thermal sources with suitably adjusted temperatures can lead to distributions that may be practically indistinguishable from those arising from DCC-type nonequilibrium evolutions. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Analysis of DCC domain structure

    SciTech Connect

    Randrup, J.; Thews, R.L.

    1997-05-07

    Wavelet-type methods are employed for the analysis of pion field configurations that have been obtained by dynamical simulations in idealized scenarios relevant to the formation of disoriented chiral condensates. It is illustrated how the measurement of the isospin domain structure depends on the ability to zoom in on limited parts of the phase space, due to the interplay between the pion correlation length and the effective source geometry. The need for advanced analysis methods is underscored by the fact that the extracted neutral-fraction distribution would differ significantly from the ideal form, even under perfect experimental conditions, and, moreover, by the circumstance that thermal sources with suitably adjusted temperatures can lead to distributions that may be practically indistinguishable from those arising from DCC-type nonequilibrium evolutions.

  12. Time domain electromagnetic metal detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, P.

    1996-04-01

    This presentation focuses on illustrating by case histories the range of applications and limitations of time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems for buried metal detection. Advantages claimed for TDEM metal detectors are: independent of instrument response (Geonics EM61) to surrounding soil and rock type; simple anomaly shape; mitigation of interference by ambient electromagnetic noise; and responsive to both ferrous and non-ferrous metallic targets. The data in all case histories to be presented were acquired with the Geonics EM61 TDEM system. Case histories are a test bed site on Molokai, Hawaii; Fort Monroe, Virginia; and USDOE, Rocky Flats Plant. The present limitations of this technology are: discrimination capabilities in terms of type of ordnance, and depth of burial is limited, and ability of resolving targets with small metallic ambient needs to be improved.

  13. Frequency domain modelling of wind turbine structures

    SciTech Connect

    Soerensen, P.; Larsen, G.C.; Christensen, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The present paper describes a frequency domain model of the structure of an operating horizontal axis wind turbine. The frequency domain model is implemented along with an analogous time domain modeling the Risoe PC code Design Basis 2, and a more detailed description of the model is offered in a Risoe report by Soerensen (1994). The structure of an operating wind turbine is affected by essential non-linearities between structural variables on blades and tower respectively. These non-linearities are caused by the rotation of the blades. The transformations between the blade coordinate systems and the tower coordinate system will depend on the instantaneous azimuth positions of the blades as they rotate. Frequency domain analysis are much faster than time simulations and in some respects they give more insight into the dynamics of the structure. However, the non-linear terms in the dynamic equations for a complex wind turbine structure are usually thought to preclude the use of frequency domain methods. Design Basis 2 is used to verify the frequency domain model comparing loads on the structure calculated with the frequency domain model both to loads calculated with the time domain model and to measured loads. Examples show that frequency and time domain calculations of typical PSD`s of loads are in very good agreement. Also the agreement between the calculated and measured PSD`s is good. Moreover, Design Basis 2 has shown that the frequency domain model results in an extremely fast calculation method.

  14. Imaging Ferroelectric Domains and Domain Walls Using Charge Gradient Microscopy: Role of Screening Charges.

    PubMed

    Tong, Sheng; Jung, Il Woong; Choi, Yoon-Young; Hong, Seungbum; Roelofs, Andreas

    2016-02-23

    Advanced scanning probe microscopies (SPMs) open up the possibilities of the next-generation ferroic devices that utilize both domains and domain walls as active elements. However, current SPMs lack the capability of dynamically monitoring the motion of domains and domain walls in conjunction with the transport of the screening charges that lower the total electrostatic energy of both domains and domain walls. Charge gradient microscopy (CGM) is a strong candidate to overcome these shortcomings because it can map domains and domain walls at high speed and mechanically remove the screening charges. Yet the underlying mechanism of the CGM signals is not fully understood due to the complexity of the electrostatic interactions. Here, we designed a semiconductor-metal CGM tip, which can separate and quantify the ferroelectric domain and domain wall signals by simply changing its scanning direction. Our investigation reveals that the domain wall signals are due to the spatial change of polarization charges, while the domain signals are due to continuous removal and supply of screening charges at the CGM tip. In addition, we observed asymmetric CGM domain currents from the up and down domains, which are originated from the different debonding energies and the amount of the screening charges on positive and negative bound charges. We believe that our findings can help design CGM with high spatial resolution and lead to breakthroughs in information storage and energy-harvesting devices. PMID:26751281

  15. Is the myonuclear domain size fixed?

    PubMed

    Van der Meer, S F T; Jaspers, R T; Degens, H

    2011-12-01

    It has been suggested that the number of myonuclei in a muscle fibre changes in proportion to the change in fibre size, resulting in a constant myonuclear domain size, defined as the cytoplasmic volume per myonucleus. The myonuclear domain size varies, however, between fibre types and is inversely related with the oxidative capacity of a fibre. Overall, the observations of an increase in myonuclear domain size during both maturational growth and overload-induced hypertrophy, and the decrease in myonuclear domain size during disuse- and ageing-associated muscle atrophy suggest that the concept of a constant myonuclear domain size needs to be treated cautiously. It also suggests that only when the myonuclear domain size exceeds a certain threshold during growth or overload-induced hypertrophy acquisition of new myonuclei is required for further fibre hypertrophy. PMID:22130137

  16. Protein Domain Decomposition Using a Graph-Theoretic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.; Xu, D.; Gabow, H.N.

    2000-08-20

    This paper presents a new algorithm for the decomposition of a multi-domain protein into individual structural domains. The underlying principle used is that residue-residue contacts are denser within a domain than between domains.

  17. Domain Transfer Learning for MCI Conversion Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Liu, Mingxia; Zhang, Daoqiang; Munsell, Brent C.; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-01-01

    Machine learning methods have been increasingly used to predict the conversion of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD), by classifying MCI converters (MCI-C) from MCI non-converters (MCI-NC). However, most of existing methods construct classifiers using only data from one particular target domain (e.g., MCI), and ignore data in the other related domains (e.g., AD and normal control (NC)) that could provide valuable information to promote the performance of MCI conversion prediction. To this end, we develop a novel domain transfer learning method for MCI conversion prediction, which can use data from both the target domain (i.e., MCI) and the auxiliary domains (i.e., AD and NC). Specifically, the proposed method consists of three key components: 1) a domain transfer feature selection (DTFS) component that selects the most informative feature-subset from both target domain and auxiliary domains with different imaging modalities, 2) a domain transfer sample selection (DTSS) component that selects the most informative sample-subset from the same target and auxiliary domains with different data modalities, and 3) a domain transfer support vector machine (DTSVM) classification component that fuses the selected features and samples to separate MCI-C and MCI-NC patients. We evaluate our method on 202 subjects from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) with MRI, FDG-PET and CSF data. The experimental results show that the proposed method can classify MCI-C patients from MCI-NC patients with an accuracy of 79.4%, with the aid of additional domain knowledge learned from AD and NC. PMID:25751861

  18. Domain decomposition for the SPN solver MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Jamelot, Erell; Baudron, Anne-Marie; Lautard, Jean-Jacques

    2012-07-01

    In this article we present a domain decomposition method for the mixed SPN equations, discretized with Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec finite elements. This domain decomposition is based on the iterative Schwarz algorithm with Robin interface conditions to handle communications. After having described this method, we give details on how to optimize the convergence. Finally, we give some numerical results computed in a realistic 3D domain. The computations are done with the MINOS solver of the APOLLO3 (R) code. (authors)

  19. Domain Transfer Learning for MCI Conversion Prediction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Liu, Mingxia; Zhang, Daoqiang; Munsell, Brent C; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-07-01

    Machine learning methods have successfully been used to predict the conversion of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD), by classifying MCI converters (MCI-C) from MCI nonconverters (MCI-NC). However, most existing methods construct classifiers using data from one particular target domain (e.g., MCI), and ignore data in other related domains (e.g., AD and normal control (NC)) that may provide valuable information to improve MCI conversion prediction performance. To address is limitation, we develop a novel domain transfer learning method for MCI conversion prediction, which can use data from both the target domain (i.e., MCI) and auxiliary domains (i.e., AD and NC). Specifically, the proposed method consists of three key components: 1) a domain transfer feature selection component that selects the most informative feature-subset from both target domain and auxiliary domains from different imaging modalities; 2) a domain transfer sample selection component that selects the most informative sample-subset from the same target and auxiliary domains from different data modalities; and 3) a domain transfer support vector machine classification component that fuses the selected features and samples to separate MCI-C and MCI-NC patients. We evaluate our method on 202 subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) that have MRI, FDG-PET, and CSF data. The experimental results show the proposed method can classify MCI-C patients from MCI-NC patients with an accuracy of 79.4%, with the aid of additional domain knowledge learned from AD and NC. PMID:25751861

  20. Domain wall dynamics in cylindrical nanomagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Soumik; Singh, Amrita; Ghosh, Arindam

    2011-06-01

    The stochasticity associated with domain wall nucleation and propagation in a cylinderical nanowire has been studied using time resolved resistance measurement in presence of magnetic field. We have shown that the propagation stochasticity of domain wall in a cylindrical nanowire is reflected in the magnetic field dependent velocity distribution whereas the stochasticity involved in the domain wall nucleation can be effectively tuned by varying the angle between the direction of applied magnetic field and the long axis of the cylinder.

  1. Spread spectrum time domain reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Paul Samuel

    For many years, wiring has been treated as a system that could be installed and expected to work for the life of the aircraft. As aircraft age far beyond their original expected life span, this attitude is rapidly changing. Wiring problems have recently been identified as the cause of several tragic mishaps and hundreds of thousands of lost mission hours. Intermittent wiring faults have been and continue to be difficult to resolve. Test methods that pinpoint faults on the ground can miss intermittent failures. New test methods involving spread spectrum signals are investigated that could be used in flight to locate intermittent failures, including open circuits, short circuits, and arcs. Spread spectrum time domain reflectometry (SSTDR) and sequence time domain reflectometry (STDR) are analyzed in light of the signals commonly present on aircraft wiring. Pseudo noise codes used for the generation of STDR and SSTDR signals are analyzed for application in a STDR/SSTDR test system in the presence of noise. The effects of Mil-Std 1553 and white noise on the STDR and SSTDR signals are discussed analytically, through simulations, and with the use of test hardware. A test system using STDR and SSTDR is designed, built, and used to collect STDR and SSTDR test data. The data collected with the STDR/SSTDR test hardware is analyzed and compared to the theoretical results. Experimental data for open and short circuits collected using SSTDR and a curve fitting algorithm shows a maximum range estimation error of +/-0.2 ft for 75O coaxial cable up to 100ft, and +/-0.6ft for a sample 32.5ft non-controlled impedance aircraft cable. Mil-Std 1553 is specified to operate reliably with a signal-to-noise ratio of 17.5dB, and the SSTDR test system was able to locate an open circuit on a cable also carrying simulated Mil-Std 1553 data where the SSTDR signal was 50dB below the Mil-Std 1553 signal. STDR and SSTDR are shown to be effective in detecting and locating dry and wet arcs on wires.

  2. Cross-domain human action recognition.

    PubMed

    Bian, Wei; Tao, Dacheng; Rui, Yong

    2012-04-01

    Conventional human action recognition algorithms cannot work well when the amount of training videos is insufficient. We solve this problem by proposing a transfer topic model (TTM), which utilizes information extracted from videos in the auxiliary domain to assist recognition tasks in the target domain. The TTM is well characterized by two aspects: 1) it uses the bag-of-words model trained from the auxiliary domain to represent videos in the target domain; and 2) it assumes each human action is a mixture of a set of topics and uses the topics learned from the auxiliary domain to regularize the topic estimation in the target domain, wherein the regularization is the summation of Kullback-Leibler divergences between topic pairs of the two domains. The utilization of the auxiliary domain knowledge improves the generalization ability of the learned topic model. Experiments on Weizmann and KTH human action databases suggest the effectiveness of the proposed TTM for cross-domain human action recognition. PMID:21954214

  3. Transform domain steganography with blind source separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouny, Ismail

    2015-05-01

    This paper applies blind source separation or independent component analysis for images that may contain mixtures of text, audio, or other images for steganography purposes. The paper focuses on separating mixtures in the transform domain such as Fourier domain or the Wavelet domain. The study addresses the effectiveness of steganography when using linear mixtures of multimedia components and the ability of standard blind sources separation techniques to discern hidden multimedia messages. Mixing in the space, frequency, and wavelet (scale) domains is compared. Effectiveness is measured using mean square error rate between original and recovered images.

  4. Cooperative interactions between paired domain and homeodomain.

    PubMed

    Jun, S; Desplan, C

    1996-09-01

    The Pax proteins are a family of transcriptional regulators involved in many developmental processes in all higher eukaryotes. They are characterized by the presence of a paired domain (PD), a bipartite DNA binding domain composed of two helix-turn-helix (HTH) motifs,the PAI and RED domains. The PD is also often associated with a homeodomain (HD) which is itself able to form homo- and hetero-dimers on DNA. Many of these proteins therefore contain three HTH motifs each able to recognize DNA. However, all PDs recognize highly related DNA sequences, and most HDs also recognize almost identical sites. We show here that different Pax proteins use multiple combinations of their HTHs to recognize several types of target sites. For instance, the Drosophila Paired protein can bind, in vitro, exclusively through its PAI domain, or through a dimer of its HD, or through cooperative interaction between PAI domain and HD. However, prd function in vivo requires the synergistic action of both the PAI domain and the HD. Pax proteins with only a PD appear to require both PAI and RED domains, while a Pax-6 isoform and a new Pax protein, Lune, may rely on the RED domain and HD. We propose a model by which Pax proteins recognize different target genes in vivo through various combinations of their DNA binding domains, thus expanding their recognition repertoire. PMID:8787739

  5. Frequency domain FIR and IIR adaptive filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    A discussion of the LMS adaptive filter relating to its convergence characteristics and the problems associated with disparate eigenvalues is presented. This is used to introduce the concept of proportional convergence. An approach is used to analyze the convergence characteristics of block frequency-domain adaptive filters. This leads to a development showing how the frequency-domain FIR adaptive filter is easily modified to provide proportional convergence. These ideas are extended to a block frequency-domain IIR adaptive filter and the idea of proportional convergence is applied. Experimental results illustrating proportional convergence in both FIR and IIR frequency-domain block adaptive filters is presented.

  6. Safety and Efficacy of Gammaplex® in Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ClinicalTrials.gov - NCT00504075)

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Clive H.; Gillanders, Kate R.; Stratford Bobbitt, Margaret E.; Gascoigne, Ernie W.; Leach, Samantha J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives This multicentre, open-label study investigated the safety and efficacy of Gammaplex, a 5% Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg), in patients with idiopathic (immune) thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Materials and Methods Patients were between the ages of 6 and 70 years; had ITP for at least six months and had a platelet count ≤20×109/L. Eligible patients were dosed with 1 g/kg of Gammaplex on two consecutive days, followed by assessment of safety and efficacy on Days 3, 5, 9, 14, 21, 32 and 90. Response was defined as the increase in platelet count to a threshold of ≥50×109/L on or before Day 9 after the first dose of Gammaplex. Results All 35 patients received at least one infusion of Gammaplex. Twenty-nine (83%) patients responded to Gammaplex, similar to the historical control, with a 95% lower one-sided confidence interval of 68.9%. Median duration of response was 10.0 days, with an overall reduction in bleeding episodes. Gammaplex provided supranormal concentrations of total IgG; mean peak concentration (Cmax) of 45.3 g/L (4.53 g/dL), with a mean half-life of 28.5 days. Fifteen patients reported 63 Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs); the most common were headache (10 patients), vomiting (6 patients) and pyrexia (5 patients). Five of these ADRs were considered serious, one patient had three concurrent Serious Adverse Events (SAEs); these were vomiting, dehydration and headache. Two other patients each had one SAE (headache). There were no unexpected Adverse Events (AEs) or thromboembolic episodes and no significant changes in vital signs, biochemical, haematological and virology results. Conclusion: Gammaplex achieved a very high concentration of serum IgG but was well-tolerated and effective in the treatment of ITP with a similar degree of efficacy to the pre-determined historical control group and the pre-set statistical criteria. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00504075 Clinical Trials Registry India 000016 PMID:24892422

  7. SmartGrid: Quarterly Data Summaries from the Data Hub and SmartGrid Project Information (from OpenEI and SmartGrid.gov)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Both OpenEI and SmartGrid.gov are DOE portals to a wealth of information about the federal initiatives that support the development of the technologies, policies and projects transforming the electric power industry. Projects funded through the U.S. Recovery Act are organized by type and pinned to an interactive map at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Smart_Grid. Each project title links to more detailed information. The Quarterly Data Summaries from the Data Hub at SmartGrid.gov are also available on OpenEI at http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/928. In addition, the SmartGrid Information Center contains documents and reports that can be searched or browsed. Smart Grid Resources introduces international SmartGrid programs and sites, while OpenEI encourages users to add SmartGrid information to the repository.

  8. Discoidin domain receptors in disease.

    PubMed

    Borza, Corina M; Pozzi, Ambra

    2014-02-01

    Discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, lie at the intersection of two large receptor families, namely the extracellular matrix and tyrosine kinase receptors. As such, DDRs are uniquely positioned to function as sensors for extracellular matrix and to regulate a wide range of cell functions from migration and proliferation to cytokine secretion and extracellular matrix homeostasis/remodeling. While activation of DDRs by extracellular matrix collagens is required for normal development and tissue homeostasis, aberrant activation of these receptors following injury or in disease is detrimental. The availability of mice lacking DDRs has enabled us to identify key roles played by these receptors in disease initiation and progression. DDR1 promotes inflammation in atherosclerosis, lung fibrosis and kidney injury, while DDR2 contributes to osteoarthritis. Furthermore, both DDRs have been implicated in cancer progression. Yet the mechanisms whereby DDRs contribute to disease progression are poorly understood. In this review we highlight the mechanisms whereby DDRs regulate two important processes, namely inflammation and tissue fibrosis. In addition, we discuss the challenges of targeting DDRs in disease. Selective targeting of these receptors requires understanding of how they interact with and are activated by extracellular matrix, and whether their cellular function is dependent on or independent of receptor kinase activity. PMID:24361528

  9. Discoidin Domain Receptors in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Borza, Corina M; Pozzi, Ambra

    2014-01-01

    Discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, lie at the intersection of two large receptor families, namely the extracellular matrix and tyrosine kinase receptors. As such, DDRs are uniquely positioned to function as sensors for extracellular matrix and to regulate a wide range of cell functions from migration and proliferation to cytokine secretion and extracellular matrix homeostasis/remodeling. While activation of DDRs by extracellular matrix collagens is required for normal development and tissue homeostasis, aberrant activation of these receptors following injury or in disease is detrimental. The availability of mice lacking DDRs has enabled us to identify key roles played by these receptors in disease initiation and progression. DDR1 promotes inflammation in atherosclerosis, lung fibrosis and kidney injury, while DDR2 contributes to osteoarthritis. Furthermore, both DDRs have been implicated in cancer progression. Yet the mechanisms whereby DDRs contribute to diseases progression are poorly understood. In this review we highlight the mechanisms whereby DDRs regulate two important processes, namely inflammation and tissue fibrosis. In addition, we discuss the challenges of targeting DDRs in disease. Selective targeting of these receptors requires understanding of how they interact with and are activated by extracellular matrix, and whether their cellular function is dependent on or independent of receptor kinase activity. PMID:24361528

  10. Charged domain walls in ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluka, Tomas

    2014-03-01

    Solid interfaces including compositionally homogeneous ferroic domain walls (DWs) display uniquely distorted electronic structures and ionic displacements. Their intrinsic properties may therefore be fundamentally different from those of their parent matrices. Indeed, phenomena like semiconductor-metal transition, the quantum Hall effect, magnetoresistance and superconductivity were discovered at hetero-interfaces between transition metal oxides and elevated photoactivity and conductivity were reported at (multi-) ferroic DWs. Unlike hetero-interfaces, the DWs provide ``perfect'' structure by nature and can be written, displaced, and erased inside a material monolith of functioning devices. Theory predicts the existence of charged DWs which seemingly violate electrostatic compatibility due to head-to-head and tail-to-tail polarization discontinuity, but are stable because bound polarization charge is compensated by mobile charge carriers including quasi-two-dimensional electron gas. This talk will introduce current theory, engineering, control and characteristics of charged DWs, which are mobile, extremely wide and exhibit steady metallic-like conductivity up to 109 times that of the insulating bulk.

  11. Bioconvection in spatially extended domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, A.; Paul, M. R.

    2013-05-01

    We numerically explore gyrotactic bioconvection in large spatially extended domains of finite depth using parameter values from available experiments with the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas nivalis. We numerically integrate the three-dimensional, time-dependent continuum model of Pedley [J. Fluid Mech.10.1017/S0022112088002393 195, 223 (1988)] using a high-order, parallel, spectral-element approach. We explore the long-time nonlinear patterns and dynamics found for layers with an aspect ratio of 10 over a range of Rayleigh numbers. Our results yield the pattern wavelength and pattern dynamics which we compare with available theory and experimental measurement. There is good agreement for the pattern wavelength at short times between numerics, experiment, and a linear stability analysis. At long times we find that the general sequence of patterns given by the nonlinear evolution of the governing equations correspond qualitatively to what has been described experimentally. However, at long times the patterns in numerics grow to larger wavelengths, in contrast to what is observed in experiment where the wavelength is found to decrease with time.

  12. Optical coherence domain reflectometry guidewire

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Billy W.; Everett, Matthew; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Matthews, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    A guidewire with optical sensing capabilities is based on a multiplexed optical coherence domain reflectometer (OCDR), which allows it to sense location, thickness, and structure of the arterial walls or other intra-cavity regions as it travels through the body during minimally invasive medical procedures. This information will be used both to direct the guidewire through the body by detecting vascular junctions and to evaluate the nearby tissue. The guidewire contains multiple optical fibers which couple light from the proximal to distal end. Light from the fibers at the distal end of the guidewire is directed onto interior cavity walls via small diameter optics such as gradient index lenses and mirrored corner cubes. Both forward viewing and side viewing fibers can be included. The light reflected or scattered from the cavity walls is then collected by the fibers, which are multiplexed at the proximal end to the sample arm of an optical low coherence reflectometer. The guidewire can also be used in nonmedical applications.

  13. Domain adaptation for microscopy imaging.

    PubMed

    Becker, Carlos; Christoudias, C Mario; Fua, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    Electron and light microscopy imaging can now deliver high-quality image stacks of neural structures. However, the amount of human annotation effort required to analyze them remains a major bottleneck. While machine learning algorithms can be used to help automate this process, they require training data, which is time-consuming to obtain manually, especially in image stacks. Furthermore, due to changing experimental conditions, successive stacks often exhibit differences that are severe enough to make it difficult to use a classifier trained for a specific one on another. This means that this tedious annotation process has to be repeated for each new stack. In this paper, we present a domain adaptation algorithm that addresses this issue by effectively leveraging labeled examples across different acquisitions and significantly reducing the annotation requirements. Our approach can handle complex, nonlinear image feature transformations and scales to large microscopy datasets that often involve high-dimensional feature spaces and large 3D data volumes. We evaluate our approach on four challenging electron and light microscopy applications that exhibit very different image modalities and where annotation is very costly. Across all applications we achieve a significant improvement over the state-of-the-art machine learning methods and demonstrate our ability to greatly reduce human annotation effort. PMID:25474809

  14. Public domain optical character recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garris, Michael D.; Blue, James L.; Candela, Gerald T.; Dimmick, Darrin L.; Geist, Jon C.; Grother, Patrick J.; Janet, Stanley A.; Wilson, Charles L.

    1995-03-01

    A public domain document processing system has been developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The system is a standard reference form-based handprint recognition system for evaluating optical character recognition (OCR), and it is intended to provide a baseline of performance on an open application. The system's source code, training data, performance assessment tools, and type of forms processed are all publicly available. The system recognizes the handprint entered on handwriting sample forms like the ones distributed with NIST Special Database 1. From these forms, the system reads hand-printed numeric fields, upper and lowercase alphabetic fields, and unconstrained text paragraphs comprised of words from a limited-size dictionary. The modular design of the system makes it useful for component evaluation and comparison, training and testing set validation, and multiple system voting schemes. The system contains a number of significant contributions to OCR technology, including an optimized probabilistic neural network (PNN) classifier that operates a factor of 20 times faster than traditional software implementations of the algorithm. The source code for the recognition system is written in C and is organized into 11 libraries. In all, there are approximately 19,000 lines of code supporting more than 550 subroutines. Source code is provided for form registration, form removal, field isolation, field segmentation, character normalization, feature extraction, character classification, and dictionary-based postprocessing. The recognition system has been successfully compiled and tested on a host of UNIX workstations. This paper gives an overview of the recognition system's software architecture, including descriptions of the various system components along with timing and accuracy statistics.

  15. Time Domain Challenges for Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Rebekah Ilene

    2016-01-01

    Over the past couple decades, thousands of extra-solar planets have been discovered orbiting other stars. Most have been detected and characterized using transit and/or radial velocity time series, and these techniques have undergone huge improvements in instrumental precision. However, the improvements in precision have brought to light new statistical challenges in detecting and characterizing exoplanets in the presence of correlated noise caused by stellar activity (transits and radial velocities) and gaps in the time sampling (radial velocities). These challenges have afflicted many of the most interesting exoplanets, from Earth-like planets to planetary systems whose orbital dynamics place important constraints on how planetary systems form and evolve. In the first part of the talk, I will focus on the problem of correlated noise for characterizing transiting exoplanets using transit timing variations. I will present a comparison of several techniques using wavelets, Gaussian processes, and polynomial splines to account for correlated noise in the likelihood function when inferring planetary parameters. I will also present results on the characteristics of correlated noise that cause planets to be missed by the Kepler and homegrown pipelines despite high nominal signal-to-noise. In the second part of the talk, I will focus on the problem of aliasing caused by gaps in the radial-velocity time series on yearly, daily, and monthly timescales. I will present results on identifying aliases in the Fourier domain by taking advantage of aliasing on multiple timescales and discuss the interplay between aliasing and stellar activity for several habitable-zone "planets" that have recently been called into question as possible spurious signals caused by activity. As we push toward detecting and characterizing lower mass planets, it is essential that astrostatistical advances keep pace with advances in instrumentation.

  16. Omics.pnl.gov: A Portal for the Distribution and Sharing of Multi-Disciplinary Pan-Omics Information

    SciTech Connect

    Auberry, Kenneth J.; Kiebel, Gary R.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The data production of scientific studies is growing at a nearly exponential rate, leading to challenges in disseminating primary experimental results for peer review and public access, while simultaneously providing information that enables reproducing the studies and/or analyzing the results in a proper context. Recent mandates from various public funding agencies are requiring data release plans be included as a project goal. This requirement is coupled with an increased need for transparency in complex research, as evidenced by the data release policies of respected peer-reviewed journals. This combination of good scientific citizenship and funding requirements has brought the data distribution issue to the domain of scientific information management researchers. Herein, we present a web site designed to address these goals, the Biological MS Data and Software Distribution Center. This site leverages vast amounts of pre-existing experimental metadata stored in our purpose-built data management system to streamline the process of making these data available.

  17. Multiple hypothesis tracking for the cyber domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwoegler, Stefan; Blackman, Sam; Holsopple, Jared; Hirsch, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    This paper discusses how methods used for conventional multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) can be extended to domain-agnostic tracking of entities from non-kinematic constraints such as those imposed by cyber attacks in a potentially dense false alarm background. MHT is widely recognized as the premier method to avoid corrupting tracks with spurious data in the kinematic domain but it has not been extensively applied to other problem domains. The traditional approach is to tightly couple track maintenance (prediction, gating, filtering, probabilistic pruning, and target confirmation) with hypothesis management (clustering, incompatibility maintenance, hypothesis formation, and Nassociation pruning). However, by separating the domain specific track maintenance portion from the domain agnostic hypothesis management piece, we can begin to apply the wealth of knowledge gained from ground and air tracking solutions to the cyber (and other) domains. These realizations led to the creation of Raytheon's Multiple Hypothesis Extensible Tracking Architecture (MHETA). In this paper, we showcase MHETA for the cyber domain, plugging in a well established method, CUBRC's INFormation Engine for Real-time Decision making, (INFERD), for the association portion of the MHT. The result is a CyberMHT. We demonstrate the power of MHETA-INFERD using simulated data. Using metrics from both the tracking and cyber domains, we show that while no tracker is perfect, by applying MHETA-INFERD, advanced nonkinematic tracks can be captured in an automated way, perform better than non-MHT approaches, and decrease analyst response time to cyber threats.

  18. Domains of the Florida Performance Measurement System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This monograph sets forth in detail the concepts included in the five domains of teaching as identified by the Florida Coalition for the Development of a Performance Evaluation System. The first domain, planning, includes the concepts: (1) content coverage; (2) utilization of instructional materials; (3) activity structure; (4) goal focusing; and…

  19. Domain Collapse in Grooved Magnetic Garnet Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peredo, J.; Fedyunin, Y.; Patterson, G.

    1995-01-01

    Domain collapse fields in grooved garnet material were investigated by experimental observation and numerical simulation. The results indicate that the change in domain collapse field is largely due to magnetostatic effects produced by the groove edge. A simplified model based on the effective field produced at a groove edge, and local changes in the material thickness explain the observed trends very well.!.

  20. 32 CFR 701.33 - Public domain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public domain. 701.33 Section 701.33 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.33 Public domain. Agency records released under the provisions of FOIA and the instruction in this part to a member of the public....

  1. Domain 2: Sport Safety and Injury Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurchiek, Larry; Mokha, Monique Butcher

    2004-01-01

    Most coaches recognize the importance of creating a safe environment and preventing injuries of their athletes. Domain 2 is dedicated to this important aspect of coaching, and outlines specific areas within safety and injury prevention that coaches should address. Domain 2 sets the standards for facility, equipment, and environmental safety…

  2. Immunosilencing a Highly Immunogenic Protein Trimerization Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Sliepen, Kwinten; van Montfort, Thijs; Melchers, Mark; Isik, Gözde; Sanders, Rogier W.

    2015-01-01

    Many therapeutic proteins and protein subunit vaccines contain heterologous trimerization domains, such as the widely used GCN4-based isoleucine zipper (IZ) and the T4 bacteriophage fibritin foldon (Fd) trimerization domains. We found that these domains induced potent anti-IZ or anti-Fd antibody responses in animals when fused to an HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) immunogen. To dampen IZ-induced responses, we constructed an IZ domain containing four N-linked glycans (IZN4) to shield the underlying protein surface. When fused to two different vaccine antigens, HIV-1 Env and influenza hemagglutinin (HA), IZN4 strongly reduced the antibody responses against the IZ, but did not affect the antibody titers against Env or HA. Silencing of immunogenic multimerization domains with glycans might be relevant for therapeutic proteins and protein vaccines. PMID:25635058

  3. Investigation of multilayer magnetic domain lattice file

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torok, E. J.; Kamin, M.; Tolman, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of the self structured multilayered bubble domain memory as a mass memory medium for satellite applications is examined. Theoretical considerations of multilayer bubble supporting materials are presented, in addition to the experimental evaluation of current accessed circuitry for various memory functions. The design, fabrication, and test of four device designs is described, and a recommended memory storage area configuration is presented. Memory functions which were demonstrated include the current accessed propagation of bubble domains and stripe domains, pinning of stripe domain ends, generation of single and double bubbles, generation of arrays of coexisting strip and bubble domains in a single garnet layer, and demonstration of different values of the strip out field for single and double bubbles indicating adequate margins for data detection. All functions necessary to develop a multilayer self structured bubble memory device were demonstrated in individual experiments.

  4. Optimal Control of Flows in Moving Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protas, Bartosz; Liao, Wenyuan; Glander, Donn

    2006-11-01

    This investigation concerns adjoint--based optimization of viscous incompressible flows (the Navier-Stokes problem) coupled with heat conduction involving change of phase (the Stefan problem) and occurring in domains with moving boundaries such as the free and solidification surfaces. This problem is motivated by optimization of advanced welding techniques used in automotive manufacturing. We characterize the sensitivity of a suitable cost functional defined for the system with respect to control (the heat input) using adjoint equations. Given that the shape of the domain is also a dependent variable, characterizing sensitivities necessitates the introduction of ``non-cylindrical'' calculus required to differentiate a cost functional defined on a variable domain. As a result, unlike the forward problem, the adjoint system is defined on a domain with a predetermined evolution in time and also involves ordinary differential equations defined on the domain boundary (``the adjoint transverse system''). We will discuss certain computational issues related to numerical solution of such adjoint problems.

  5. Automotion of domain walls for spintronic interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2014-06-07

    We simulate “automotion,” the transport of a magnetic domain wall under the influence of demagnetization and magnetic anisotropy, in nanoscale spintronic interconnects. In contrast to spin transfer driven magnetic domain wall motion, the proposed interconnects operate without longitudinal charge current transfer, with only a transient current pulse at domain wall creation and have favorable scaling down to the 20 nm dimension. Cases of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization are considered. Analytical dependence of the velocity of domain walls on the angle of magnetization are compared with full micromagnetic simulations. Deceleration, attenuation and disappearance, and reflection of domain walls are demonstrated through simulation. Dependences of the magnetization angle on the current pulse parameters are studied. The energy and delay analysis suggests that automotion is an attractive option for spintronic logic interconnects.

  6. Discoidin Domains as Emerging Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    Villoutreix, Bruno O; Miteva, Maria A

    2016-08-01

    Discoidin (DS) domains are found in eukaryotic and prokaryotic extracellular and transmembrane multidomain proteins. These small domains play different functional roles and can interact with phospholipids, glycans, and proteins, including collagens. DS domain-containing proteins are often involved in cellular adhesion, migration, proliferation, and matrix-remodeling events, while some play a major role in blood coagulation. Mutations in DS domains have been associated with various disease conditions. This review provides an update on the structure, function, and modulation of the DS domains, with a special emphasis on two circulating blood coagulation cofactors, factor V and factor VIII, and the transmembrane neuropilin receptors that have been targeted for inhibition by biologics and small chemical compounds. PMID:27372370

  7. Automotion of domain walls for spintronic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2014-06-01

    We simulate "automotion," the transport of a magnetic domain wall under the influence of demagnetization and magnetic anisotropy, in nanoscale spintronic interconnects. In contrast to spin transfer driven magnetic domain wall motion, the proposed interconnects operate without longitudinal charge current transfer, with only a transient current pulse at domain wall creation and have favorable scaling down to the 20 nm dimension. Cases of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization are considered. Analytical dependence of the velocity of domain walls on the angle of magnetization are compared with full micromagnetic simulations. Deceleration, attenuation and disappearance, and reflection of domain walls are demonstrated through simulation. Dependences of the magnetization angle on the current pulse parameters are studied. The energy and delay analysis suggests that automotion is an attractive option for spintronic logic interconnects.

  8. Requirements analysis, domain knowledge, and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, Colin

    1988-01-01

    Two improvements to current requirements analysis practices are suggested: domain modeling, and the systematic application of analysis heuristics. Domain modeling is the representation of relevant application knowledge prior to requirements specification. Artificial intelligence techniques may eventually be applicable for domain modeling. In the short term, however, restricted domain modeling techniques, such as that in JSD, will still be of practical benefit. Analysis heuristics are standard patterns of reasoning about the requirements. They usually generate questions of clarification or issues relating to completeness. Analysis heuristics can be represented and therefore systematically applied in an issue-based framework. This is illustrated by an issue-based analysis of JSD's domain modeling and functional specification heuristics. They are discussed in the context of the preliminary design of simple embedded systems.

  9. Using ontology for domain specific information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashirekha, H. L.; Murali, S.; Nagabhushan, P.

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a system for retrieving information from a domain specific document collection made up of data rich unnatural language text documents. Instead of conventional keyword based retrieval, our system makes use of domain ontology to retrieve the information from a collection of documents. The system addresses the problem of representing unnatural language text documents and constructing a classifier model that helps in the efficient retrieval of relevant information. Query to this system may be either the key phrases in terms of concepts or a domain specific unnatural language text document. The classifier used in this system can also be used to assign multiple labels to the previously unseen text document belonging to the same domain. An empirical evaluation of the system is conducted on the domain of text documents describing the classified matrimonial advertisements to determine its performance.

  10. NOAA's contribution to an informed society anticipating and responding to climate and its impacts through Climate.gov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepold, F.

    2012-12-01

    audiences to enhance society's ability to understand and plan and respond to climate variability and change. As part of a broad NOAA effort, the Climate Portal teams are working to design, test, and develop the NOAA Climate Services portal (climate.gov) that will provide ready access to climate data, information resources and educational products. The portal features customized interfaces for four audiences: scientists and sectoral data users, policy leaders, educators and students, and the public. The portal delivers climate science content that is free, readily accessible, and easily understandable, provided in flexible formats that maximize its usefulness. Important measures of success for NOAA's climate services will be the ease with which diverse public user communities are able to access and use the data products and information services that NOAA provides, the frequency with which they do so, and the trust they place in NOAA's climate resources. In addition to data and products, the Portal will offer a broad array of climate communications, outreach, and educational materials that demonstrate NOAA's leadership in providing climate science research, observations, and modeling products as a service to society. This session will discuss the partnerships and recent advancements of the climate portal and its plans for the coming year.

  11. Cholesterol stabilizes fluid phosphoinositide domains

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhiping; Redfern, Roberta E.; Isler, Yasmin; Ross, Alonzo H.

    2014-01-01

    Local accumulation of phosphoinositides (PIPs) is an important factor for a broad range of cellular events including membrane trafficking and cell signaling. The negatively charged phosphoinositide headgroups can interact with cations or cationic proteins and this electrostatic interaction has been identified as the main phosphoinositide clustering mechanism. However, an increasing number of reports show that phosphoinositide-mediated signaling events are at least in some cases cholesterol dependent, suggesting other possible contributors to the segregation of phosphoinositides. Using fluorescence microscopy on giant unilamellar vesicles and monolayers at the air/water interface, we present data showing that cholesterol stabilizes fluid phosphoinositide-enriched phases. The interaction with cholesterol is observed for all investigated phosphoinositides (PI(4)P, PI(3,4)P2, PI(3,5)P2, PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3) as well as phosphatidylinositol. We find that cholesterol is present in the phosphoinositide-enriched phase and that the resulting phase is fluid. Cholesterol derivatives modified at the hydroxyl group (cholestenone, cholesteryl ethyl ether) do not promote formation of phosphoinositide domains, suggesting an instrumental role of the cholesterol hydroxyl group in the observed cholesterol/phosphoinositide interaction. This leads to the hypothesis that cholesterol participates in an intermolecular hydrogen bond network formed among the phosphoinositide lipids. We had previously reported that the intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bond network between the phosphoinositide lipids leads to a reduction of the charge density at the phosphoinositide phosphomonoester groups (Kooijman et al. Biochemistry 48, (2009) 9360). We believe that cholesterol acts as a spacer between the phosphoinositide lipids, thereby reducing the electrostatic repulsion, while participating in the hydrogen bond network, leading to its further stabilization. To illustrate the effect of

  12. Nucleation of reversed domain and pinning effect on domain wall motion in nanocomposite magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. B.; Shen, B. G.; Niu, E.; Sun, J. R.

    2013-08-01

    The magnetization behaviors show a strong pinning effect on domain wall motion in optimally melt-spun Pr8Fe87B5 ribbons at room temperature. According to analysis, the coercivity is determined by the nucleation field of reversed domain, and the pinning effect, which results from the weak exchange coupling at interface, makes domain nucleation processes independent and leads to non-uniform magnetization reversals. At a temperature of 60 K, owing to the weak exchange coupling between soft-hard grains, magnetization reversal undergoes processes of spring domain nucleation in soft grains and irreversible domain nucleation in hard grains, and the pinning effect remains strong among hard grains.

  13. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Domain Walls in Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretiakov, Oleg; Goussev, Arseni; Robbins, J. M.; Slastikov, Valeriy

    2015-03-01

    We study domain walls in thin ferromagnetic nanotubes with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). Dramatic effects arise from the interplay of space curvature and spin-orbit induced DMI on the domain wall structure in these systems. The domain walls become narrower in systems with DMI and curvature. Moreover, the domain walls created in such nanotubes can propagate without Walker breakdown for arbitrary applied currents, thus allowing for a robust and controlled domain-wall motion. The domain-wall velocity is directly proportional to the non-adiabatic spin transfer torque current term and is insensitive to the adiabatic current term. Application of an external magnetic field along the nanotube axis triggers rich dynamical response of the curved domain wall. In particular, we show that the propagation velocity is a non-linear function of both the applied field and DMI, and strongly depends on the orientation and chirality of the wall. We acknowledge support by the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 25800184 and No. 25247056) from the MEXT, Japan and SpinNet.

  14. Domain reduction method for atomistic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Medyanik, Sergey N. . E-mail: medyanik@northwestern.edu; Karpov, Eduard G. . E-mail: edkarpov@gmail.com; Liu, Wing Kam . E-mail: w-liu@northwestern.edu

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, a quasi-static formulation of the method of multi-scale boundary conditions (MSBCs) is derived and applied to atomistic simulations of carbon nano-structures, namely single graphene sheets and multi-layered graphite. This domain reduction method allows for the simulation of deformable boundaries in periodic atomic lattice structures, reduces the effective size of the computational domain, and consequently decreases the cost of computations. The size of the reduced domain is determined by the value of the domain reduction parameter. This parameter is related to the distance between the boundary of the reduced domain, where MSBCs are applied, and the boundary of the full domain, where the standard displacement boundary conditions are prescribed. Two types of multi-scale boundary conditions are derived: one for simulating in-layer multi-scale boundaries in a single graphene sheet and the other for simulating inter-layer multi-scale boundaries in multi-layered graphite. The method is tested on benchmark nano-indentation problems and the results are consistent with the full domain solutions.

  15. Benchmark Generation using Domain Specific Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, Ngoc B.; Zhu, Liming; Gorton, Ian; Liu, Yan

    2007-08-01

    Performance benchmarks are domain specific applications that are specialized to a certain set of technologies and platforms. The development of a benchmark application requires mapping the performance specific domain concepts to an implementation and producing complex technology and platform specific code. Domain Specific Modeling (DSM) promises to bridge the gap between application domains and implementations by allowing designers to specify solutions in domain-specific abstractions and semantics through Domain Specific Languages (DSL). This allows generation of a final implementation automatically from high level models. The modeling and task automation benefits obtained from this approach usually justify the upfront cost involved. This paper employs a DSM based approach to invent a new DSL, DSLBench, for benchmark generation. DSLBench and its associated code generation facilities allow the design and generation of a completely deployable benchmark application for performance testing from a high level model. DSLBench is implemented using Microsoft Domain Specific Language toolkit. It is integrated with the Visual Studio 2005 Team Suite as a plug-in to provide extra modeling capabilities for performance testing. We illustrate the approach using a case study based on .Net and C#.

  16. Structural domain walls in polar hexagonal manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Yu

    2014-03-01

    The domain structure in the multiferroic hexagonal manganites is currently intensely investigated, motivated by the observation of intriguing sixfold topological defects at their meeting points [Choi, T. et al,. Nature Mater. 9, 253 (2010).] and nanoscale electrical conductivity at the domain walls [Wu, W. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 077203 (2012).; Meier, D. et al., Nature Mater. 11, 284 (2012).], as well as reports of coupling between ferroelectricity, magnetism and structural antiphase domains [Geng, Y. et al., Nano Lett. 12, 6055 (2012).]. The detailed structure of the domain walls, as well as the origin of such couplings, however, was previously not fully understood. In the present study, we have used first-principles density functional theory to calculate the structure and properties of the low-energy structural domain walls in the hexagonal manganites [Kumagai, Y. and Spaldin, N. A., Nature Commun. 4, 1540 (2013).]. We find that the lowest energy domain walls are atomically sharp, with {210}orientation, explaining the orientation of recently observed stripe domains and suggesting their topological protection [Chae, S. C. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 167603 (2012).]. We also explain why ferroelectric domain walls are always simultaneously antiphase walls, propose a mechanism for ferroelectric switching through domain-wall motion, and suggest an atomistic structure for the cores of the sixfold topological defects. This work was supported by ETH Zurich, the European Research Council FP7 Advanced Grants program me (grant number 291151), the JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowships for Research Abroad, and the MEXT Elements Strategy Initiative to Form Core Research Center TIES.

  17. Domain adaptation from multiple sources: a domain-dependent regularization approach.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lixin; Xu, Dong; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new framework called domain adaptation machine (DAM) for the multiple source domain adaption problem. Under this framework, we learn a robust decision function (referred to as target classifier) for label prediction of instances from the target domain by leveraging a set of base classifiers which are prelearned by using labeled instances either from the source domains or from the source domains and the target domain. With the base classifiers, we propose a new domain-dependent regularizer based on smoothness assumption, which enforces that the target classifier shares similar decision values with the relevant base classifiers on the unlabeled instances from the target domain. This newly proposed regularizer can be readily incorporated into many kernel methods (e.g., support vector machines (SVM), support vector regression, and least-squares SVM (LS-SVM)). For domain adaptation, we also develop two new domain adaptation methods referred to as FastDAM and UniverDAM. In FastDAM, we introduce our proposed domain-dependent regularizer into LS-SVM as well as employ a sparsity regularizer to learn a sparse target classifier with the support vectors only from the target domain, which thus makes the label prediction on any test instance very fast. In UniverDAM, we additionally make use of the instances from the source domains as Universum to further enhance the generalization ability of the target classifier. We evaluate our two methods on the challenging TRECIVD 2005 dataset for the large-scale video concept detection task as well as on the 20 newsgroups and email spam datasets for document retrieval. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that FastDAM and UniverDAM outperform the existing multiple source domain adaptation methods for the two applications. PMID:24808555

  18. Asymmetric counter propagation of domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade-Silva, I.; Clerc, M. G.; Odent, V.

    2016-07-01

    Far from equilibrium systems show different states and domain walls between them. These walls, depending on the type of connected equilibria, exhibit a rich spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we investigate the asymmetrical counter propagation of domain walls in an in-plane-switching cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal. Experimentally, we characterize the shape and speed of the domain walls. Based on the molecular orientation, we infer that the counter propagative walls have different elastic deformations. These deformations are responsible of the asymmetric counter propagating fronts. Theoretically, based on symmetry arguments, we propose a simple bistable model under the influence of a nonlinear gradient, which qualitatively describes the observed dynamics.

  19. Quasiparticles near domain walls in hexagonal superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S. P.; Samokhin, K. V.

    2016-02-01

    We calculate the energy spectrum of quasiparticles trapped by a domain wall separating different time-reversal symmetry-breaking ground states in a hexagonal superconductor, such as UPt3. The bound-state energy is found to be strongly dependent on the gap symmetry, the domain-wall orientation, the quasiparticle's direction of semiclassical propagation, and the phase difference between the domains. We calculate the corresponding density of states and show how one can use its prominent features, in particular, the zero-energy singularity, to distinguish between different pairing symmetries.

  20. Domain-decomposed preconditionings for transport operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Tony F.; Gropp, William D.; Keyes, David E.

    1991-01-01

    The performance was tested of five different interface preconditionings for domain decomposed convection diffusion problems, including a novel one known as the spectral probe, while varying mesh parameters, Reynolds number, ratio of subdomain diffusion coefficients, and domain aspect ratio. The preconditioners are representative of the range of practically computable possibilities that have appeared in the domain decomposition literature for the treatment of nonoverlapping subdomains. It is shown that through a large number of numerical examples that no single preconditioner can be considered uniformly superior or uniformly inferior to the rest, but that knowledge of particulars, including the shape and strength of the convection, is important in selecting among them in a given problem.

  1. Quasiparticles near domain walls in hexagonal superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Soumya; Samokhin, Kirill

    We calculate the energy spectrum of quasiparticles trapped by a domain wall separating different time reversal symmetry-breaking ground states in a hexagonal superconductor, such as UPt3. The bound state energy is found to be strongly dependent on the gap symmetry, the domain wall orientation, the quasiparticle's direction of semiclassical propagation, and the phase difference between the domains. We calculate the corresponding density of states and show how one can use its prominent features, in particular, the zero-energy singularity, to distinguish between different pairing symmetries. Discovery Grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  2. Separating Cognitive and Content Domains in Mathematical Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harks, Birgit; Klieme, Eckhard; Hartig, Johannes; Leiss, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the empirical separability of mathematical (a) content domains, (b) cognitive domains, and (c) content-specific cognitive domains. There were 122 items representing two content domains (linear equations vs. theorem of Pythagoras) combined with two cognitive domains (modeling competence vs. technical competence)…

  3. Supporting multiple domains in a single reuse repository

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichmann, David

    1992-01-01

    Domain analysis typically results in the construction of a domain-specific repository. Such a repository imposes artificial boundaries on the sharing of similar assets between related domains. A lattice-based approach to repository modeling can preserve a reuser's domain specific view of the repository, while avoiding replication of commonly used assets and supporting a more general perspective on domain interrelationships.

  4. Searching ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to inform systematic reviews: what are the optimal search approaches?*

    PubMed Central

    Glanville, Julie M.; Duffy, Steven; McCool, Rachael; Varley, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since 2005, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) member journals have required that clinical trials be registered in publicly available trials registers before they are considered for publication. Objectives: The research explores whether it is adequate, when searching to inform systematic reviews, to search for relevant clinical trials using only public trials registers and to identify the optimal search approaches in trials registers. Methods: A search was conducted in ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) for research studies that had been included in eight systematic reviews. Four search approaches (highly sensitive, sensitive, precise, and highly precise) were performed using the basic and advanced interfaces in both resources. Results: On average, 84% of studies were not listed in either resource. The largest number of included studies was retrieved in ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP when a sensitive search approach was used in the basic interface. The use of the advanced interface maintained or improved sensitivity in 16 of 19 strategies for Clinicaltrials.gov and 8 of 18 for ICTRP. No single search approach was sensitive enough to identify all studies included in the 6 reviews. Conclusions: Trials registers cannot yet be relied upon as the sole means to locate trials for systematic reviews. Trials registers lag behind the major bibliographic databases in terms of their search interfaces. Implications: For systematic reviews, trials registers and major bibliographic databases should be searched. Trials registers should be searched using sensitive approaches, and both the registers consulted in this study should be searched. PMID:25031558

  5. Time domain reflectometry for SLC BPM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. R.

    1985-03-01

    A maintenance manual for troubleshooting installed SLC Position Monitor stripline assemblies and the associated cabling, using time Domain Reflectometry is presented. Once a technician becomes familiar with this manual's procedures, the Table of Contents can serve as a checklist.

  6. Domain wall manipulation with a magnetic tip.

    PubMed

    Stapelfeldt, T; Wieser, R; Vedmedenko, E Y; Wiesendanger, R

    2011-07-01

    A theoretical concept of local manipulation of magnetic domain walls is introduced. In the proposed procedure, a domain wall is driven by a spin-polarized current induced by a magnetic tip, as used in a scanning tunneling microscope, placed above a magnetic nanostripe and then moved along its long axis with a current flowing through the vacuum barrier. The angular momentum from the spin-polarized current exerts a torque on the magnetic moments underneath the tip and leads to a displacement of the domain wall. Particularly, the manipulation of a ferromagnetic 180° transverse domain wall has been studied by means of Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. Different relative orientations of the tip and the sample magnetization have been considered. PMID:21797636

  7. Substructure coupling in the frequency domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Frequency domain analysis was found to be a suitable method for determining the transient response of systems subjected to a wide variety of loads. However, since a large number of calculations are performed within the discrete frequency loop, the method loses it computational efficiency if the loads must be represented by a large number of discrete frequencies. It was also discovered that substructure coupling in the frequency domain work particularly well for analyzing structural system with a small number of interface and loaded degrees of freedom. It was discovered that substructure coupling in the frequency domain can lead to an efficient method of obtaining natural frequencies of undamped structures. It was also found that the damped natural frequencies of a system may be determined using frequency domain techniques.

  8. Resistance domain in type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, A.V.; Mints, R.G.

    1980-01-05

    We show that traveling domains with a finite resistance can exist in type II superconductors in the presence of a transport current. An experiment in which this effect generates an alternating electric field and current is proposed.

  9. Notch Transmembrane Domain: Secondary Structure and Topology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is critical in development, neuronal maintenance, and hematopoiesis. An obligate step in the activation of this pathway is cleavage of its transmembrane (TM) domain by γ-secretase. While the soluble domains have been extensively studied, little has been done to characterize its TM and flanking juxtamembrane (JM) segments. Here, we present the results of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of the human Notch1 TM/JM domain. The TM domain is largely α-helical. While the flanking JM segments do not adopt regular secondary structure, they interact with the membrane surface, suggesting membrane interactions may play a role in modulating its cleavage by γ-secretase and subsequent NOTCH signaling function. PMID:26023825

  10. Electric fingerprint of voltage sensor domains.

    PubMed

    Souza, Caio S; Amaral, Cristiano; Treptow, Werner

    2014-12-01

    A dynamic transmembrane voltage field has been suggested as an intrinsic element in voltage sensor (VS) domains. Here, the dynamic field contribution to the VS energetics was analyzed via electrostatic calculations applied to a number of atomistic structures made available recently. We find that the field is largely static along with the molecular motions of the domain, and more importantly, it is minimally modified across VS variants. This finding implies that sensor domains transfer approximately the same amount of gating charges when moving the electrically charged S4 helix between fixed microscopic configurations. Remarkably, the result means that the observed operational diversity of the domain, including the extension, rate, and voltage dependence of the S4 motion, as dictated by the free energy landscape theory, must be rationalized in terms of dominant variations of its chemical free energy. PMID:25422443

  11. Electric fingerprint of voltage sensor domains

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Caio S.; Amaral, Cristiano; Treptow, Werner

    2014-01-01

    A dynamic transmembrane voltage field has been suggested as an intrinsic element in voltage sensor (VS) domains. Here, the dynamic field contribution to the VS energetics was analyzed via electrostatic calculations applied to a number of atomistic structures made available recently. We find that the field is largely static along with the molecular motions of the domain, and more importantly, it is minimally modified across VS variants. This finding implies that sensor domains transfer approximately the same amount of gating charges when moving the electrically charged S4 helix between fixed microscopic configurations. Remarkably, the result means that the observed operational diversity of the domain, including the extension, rate, and voltage dependence of the S4 motion, as dictated by the free energy landscape theory, must be rationalized in terms of dominant variations of its chemical free energy. PMID:25422443

  12. Gravitational waves from collapsing domain walls

    SciTech Connect

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Saikawa, Ken'ichi E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2010-05-01

    We study the production of gravitational waves from cosmic domain walls created during phase transition in the early universe. We investigate the process of formation and evolution of domain walls by running three dimensional lattice simulations. If we introduce an approximate discrete symmetry, walls become metastable and finally disappear. This process might occur by a pressure difference between two vacua if a quantum tunneling is neglected. We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves produced by collapsing metastable domain walls. Extrapolating the numerical results, we find that the signal of gravitational waves produced by domain walls whose energy scale is around 10{sup 10}-10{sup 12}GeV will be observable in the next generation gravitational wave interferometers.

  13. Broken-Line Functions with Unbroken Domains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satianov, Pavel; Fried, Michael; Amit, Miriam

    1999-01-01

    Presents a method for introducing students to broken-line functions with unbroken domains. Concludes that a unit on broken-line functions should enhance students' understanding of the function concept. (ASK)

  14. Tuning Protein Autoinhibition by Domain Destabilization

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae-Hyun; Muralidharan, Vasant; Vila-Perello, Miquel; Raleigh, Daniel P.; Muir, Tom W.; Palmer, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of many multi-domain signaling proteins requires rearrangement of autoinhibitory interdomain interactions that occlude activator binding sites. In one model for activation, the major inactive conformation exists in equilibrium with activated-like conformations that can be stabilized by ligand binding or post-translational modifications. The molecular basis for this model is established for the archetypal signaling adapter protein Crk-II by measuring the thermodynamics and kinetics of the equilibrium between autoinhibited and activated-like states using fluorescence and NMR spectroscopies, together with segmental isotopic labeling via expressed protein ligation. The results demonstrate that intramolecular domain-domain interactions both stabilize the autoinhibited state and induce the activated-like conformation. A combination of favorable interdomain interactions and unfavorable intradomain structural changes fine-tunes the population of the activated-like conformation and allows facile response to activators. This mechanism suggests a general strategy for optimization of autoinhibitory interactions of multi-domain proteins. PMID:21532593

  15. Between-domain relations of students' academic emotions and their judgments of school domain similarity

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Thomas; Haag, Ludwig; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Keller, Melanie M.; Frenzel, Anne C.; Collier, Antonie P. M.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to deepen our understanding of the between-domain relations of academic emotions, a series of three studies was conducted. We theorized that between-domain relations of trait (i.e., habitual) emotions reflected students' judgments of domain similarities, whereas between-domain relations of state (i.e., momentary) emotions did not. This supposition was based on the accessibility model of emotional self-report, according to which individuals' beliefs tend to strongly impact trait, but not state emotions. The aim of Study 1 (interviews; N = 40; 8th and 11th graders) was to gather salient characteristics of academic domains from students' perspective. In Study 2 (N = 1709; 8th and 11th graders) the 13 characteristics identified in Study 1 were assessed along with academic emotions in four different domains (mathematics, physics, German, and English) using a questionnaire-based trait assessment. With respect to the same domains, state emotions were assessed in Study 3 (N = 121; 8th and 11th graders) by employing an experience sampling approach. In line with our initial assumptions, between-domain relations of trait but not state academic emotions reflected between-domain relations of domain characteristics. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25374547

  16. Dual-domain point diffraction interferometer.

    PubMed

    Naulleau, P P; Goldberg, K A

    1999-06-01

    The phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer has recently been developed and implemented at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to meet the significant metrology challenge of characterizing extreme ultraviolet projection lithography systems. Here we present a refined version of this interferometer that overcomes the original design's susceptibility to noise attributed to scattered light. The theory of the new hybrid spatial- and temporal-domain (dual-domain) point diffraction interferometer is described in detail and experimental results are presented. PMID:18319953

  17. Planning with Continuous Resources in Stochastic Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mausam, Mausau; Benazera, Emmanuel; Brafman, Roneu; Hansen, Eric

    2005-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimal planning in stochastic domains with metric resource constraints. Our goal is to generate a policy whose expected sum of rewards is maximized for a given initial state. We consider a general formulation motivated by our application domain--planetary exploration--in which the choice of an action at each step may depend on the current resource levels. We adapt the forward search algorithm AO* to handle our continuous state space efficiently.

  18. A time domain technique for mechanism extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominek, Allen K.; Peters, Leon, Jr.; Burnside, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of scattered fields from a structure can be better evaluated from the characteristics of the individual scatterers. Decomposition techniques can be classified either as a matrix or an integral formulation. With either formulation, aspect pattern of frequency information of a scattering center can be obtained. Emphasis is placed on an integral (time domain) isolation extraction technique to obtain the frequency characteristics of scattering mechanisms. This technique has its origins in the time domain interpretation of scattered fields.

  19. Moving Towards Domain Wall Devices in Ferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Marty

    Domain walls in ferroelectric, ferroelastic and multiferroic oxides are distinct functional materials in their own right. They can be conducting, or even superconducting, when surrounding domains are insulating; they can demonstrate magnetism when the surrounding bulk is non-magnetic and they can contain ordered electrical dipoles when the matrix containing them is non-polar. Since domain walls can also be created, destroyed, and controllably moved from place to place, there is an amazing opportunity for us to design new forms of devices in which functionality is actively and dynamically deployed (now you see it; now you don't). This is the essence of the emerging field known as ``domain wall nanoelectronics''. In time, this arena of research could change the way we think of nanoscale functional devices, moving increasingly towards agile circuitry and neuromorphic device architectures. While the control of domain wall injection, movement and annihilation has been developed rather well in the nanomagnetics community (in race-track and domain wall logic research), similar research has not been widely performed in nanoscale ferroelectrics, ferroelastics and multiferroics. This talk will discuss progress that has been made to date and the way in which nanomagnetics research can be used as a source of inspiration. Site-specific domain wall injection and motion control in both proper and improper ferroelectrics using inhomogeneous electric and elastic fields, as well as dielectric patterning in uniaxial ferroelectrics, will be specifically considered. As will be shown, sufficient control has been developed to allow the creation of a diode for domain wall motion in ferroelectrics, for example. The author acknowledges support from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).

  20. Multi-domain training enhances attentional control.

    PubMed

    Binder, Julia C; Martin, Mike; Zöllig, Jacqueline; Röcke, Christina; Mérillat, Susan; Eschen, Anne; Jäncke, Lutz; Shing, Yee Lee

    2016-06-01

    Multi-domain training potentially increases the likelihood of overlap in processing components with transfer tasks and everyday life, and hence is a promising training approach for older adults. To empirically test this, 84 healthy older adults aged 64 to 75 years were randomly assigned to one of three single-domain training conditions (inhibition, visuomotor function, spatial navigation) or to the simultaneous training of all three cognitive functions (multi-domain training condition). All participants trained on an iPad at home for 50 training sessions. Before and after the training, and at a 6-month follow-up measurement, cognitive functioning and training transfer were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery including tests targeting the trained functions (near transfer) and transfer to executive functions (far transfer: attentional control, working memory, speed). Participants in all four training groups showed a linear increase in training performance over the 50 training sessions. Using a latent difference score model, the multi-domain training group, compared with the single-domain training groups, showed more improvement on the far transfer attentional control composite. Individuals with initially lower baseline performance showed higher training-related improvements, indicating that training compensated for lower initial cognitive performance. At the 6-month follow-up, performance on the cognitive test battery remained stable. This is one of the first studies to investigate systematically multi-domain training including comparable single-domain training conditions. Our findings suggest that multi-domain training enhances attentional control involved in handling several different tasks at the same time, an aspect in everyday life that is particularly challenging for older people. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27294719

  1. Constant Domain-regulated Antibody Catalysis*

    PubMed Central

    Sapparapu, Gopal; Planque, Stephanie; Mitsuda, Yukie; McLean, Gary; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Paul, Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    Some antibodies contain variable (V) domain catalytic sites. We report the superior amide and peptide bond-hydrolyzing activity of the same heavy and light chain V domains expressed in the IgM constant domain scaffold compared with the IgG scaffold. The superior catalytic activity of recombinant IgM was evident using two substrates, a small model peptide that is hydrolyzed without involvement of high affinity epitope binding, and HIV gp120, which is recognized specifically by noncovalent means prior to the hydrolytic reaction. The catalytic activity was inhibited by an electrophilic phosphonate diester, consistent with a nucleophilic catalytic mechanism. All 13 monoclonal IgMs tested displayed robust hydrolytic activities varying over a 91-fold range, consistent with expression of the catalytic functions at distinct levels by different V domains. The catalytic activity of polyclonal IgM was superior to polyclonal IgG from the same sera, indicating that on average IgMs express the catalytic function at levels greater than IgGs. The findings indicate a favorable effect of the remote IgM constant domain scaffold on the integrity of the V-domain catalytic site and provide a structural basis for conceiving antibody catalysis as a first line immune function expressed at high levels prior to development of mature IgG class antibodies. PMID:22948159

  2. Domain wall geometry controls conduction in ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, R K; Morozovska, A N; Eliseev, E A; Britson, J; Yang, J-C; Chu, Y-H; Maksymovych, P; Chen, L Q; Nagarajan, V; Kalinin, S V

    2012-11-14

    A new paradigm of domain wall nanoelectronics has emerged recently, in which the domain wall in a ferroic is itself an active device element. The ability to spatially modulate the ferroic order parameter within a single domain wall allows the physical properties to be tailored at will and hence opens vastly unexplored device possibilities. Here, we demonstrate via ambient and ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) scanning probe microscopy (SPM) measurements in bismuth ferrite that the conductivity of the domain walls can be modulated by up to 500% in the spatial dimension as a function of domain wall curvature. Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire calculations reveal the conduction is a result of carriers or vacancies migrating to neutralize the charge at the formed interface. Phase-field modeling indicates that anisotropic potential distributions can occur even for initially uncharged walls, from polarization dynamics mediated by elastic effects. These results are the first proof of concept for modulation of charge as a function of domain wall geometry by a proximal probe, thereby expanding potential applications for oxide ferroics in future nanoscale electronics. PMID:22994244

  3. Structured hints : extracting and abstracting domain expertise.

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, M.; Stevens, R.; Sterling, T.; Gao, G. R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; California Inst. of Tech.; Louisiana State Univ.; Univ. of Delaware

    2009-03-16

    We propose a new framework for providing information to help optimize domain-specific application codes. Its design addresses problems that derive from the widening gap between the domain problem statement by domain experts and the architectural details of new and future high-end computing systems. The design is particularly well suited to program execution models that incorporate dynamic adaptive methodologies for live tuning of program performance and resource utilization. This new framework, which we call 'structured hints', couples a vocabulary of annotations to a suite of performance metrics. The immediate target is development of a process by which a domain expert describes characteristics of objects and methods in the application code that would not be readily apparent to the compiler; the domain expert provides further information about what quantities might provide the best indications of desirable effect; and the interactive preprocessor identifies potential opportunities for the domain expert to evaluate. Our development of these ideas is progressing in stages from case study, through manual implementation, to automatic or semi-automatic implementation. In this paper we discuss results from our case study, an examination of a large simulation of a neural network modeled after the neocortex.

  4. POU domain factors in neural development.

    PubMed

    Schonemann, M D; Ryan, A K; Erkman, L; McEvilly, R J; Bermingham, J; Rosenfeld, M G

    1998-01-01

    Transcription factors serve critical roles in the progressive development of general body plan, organ commitment, and finally, specific cell types. Comparison of the biological roles of a series of individual members within a family permits some generalizations to be made regarding the developmental events that are likely to be regulated by a particular class of transcription factors. Here, we evidence that the developmental functions of the family of transcription factors characterized by the POU DNA binding motif exerts roles in mammalian development. The POU domain family of transcription factors was defined following the observation that the products of three mammalian genes, Pit-1, Oct-1, and Oct-2, and the protein encoded by the C. elegans gene unc-86, shared a region of homology, known as the POU domain. The POU domain is a bipartite DNA binding domain, consisting of two highly conserved regions, tethered by a variable linker. The approximately 75 amino acid N-terminal region was called the POU-specific domain and the C-terminal 60 amino acid region, the POU-homeodomain. High-affinity site-specific DNA binding by POU domain transcription factors requires both the POU-specific and the POU-homeodomain. Resolution of the crystal structures of Oct-1 and Pit-1 POU domains bound to DNA as a monomer and homodimer, respectively, confirmed several of the in vitro findings regarding interactions of this bipartite DNA binding domain with DNA and has provided important information regarding the flexibility and versatility of POU domain proteins. Overall the crystal structure of a monomer of the Oct-1 POU domain bound to the octamer element was similar to that predicted by the NMR solution structures of the POU-specific domain and the POU-homeodomain in isolation, with the POU-specific domain consists of four alpha helices, with the second and third helices forming a structure similar to the helix-turn-helix motif of the lambda and 434 repressors; several of the DNA base

  5. Human-computer interface incorporating personal and application domains

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2004-04-20

    The present invention provides a human-computer interface. The interface includes provision of an application domain, for example corresponding to a three-dimensional application. The user is allowed to navigate and interact with the application domain. The interface also includes a personal domain, offering the user controls and interaction distinct from the application domain. The separation into two domains allows the most suitable interface methods in each: for example, three-dimensional navigation in the application domain, and two- or three-dimensional controls in the personal domain. Transitions between the application domain and the personal domain are under control of the user, and the transition method is substantially independent of the navigation in the application domain. For example, the user can fly through a three-dimensional application domain, and always move to the personal domain by moving a cursor near one extreme of the display.

  6. Human-computer interface incorporating personal and application domains

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2011-03-29

    The present invention provides a human-computer interface. The interface includes provision of an application domain, for example corresponding to a three-dimensional application. The user is allowed to navigate and interact with the application domain. The interface also includes a personal domain, offering the user controls and interaction distinct from the application domain. The separation into two domains allows the most suitable interface methods in each: for example, three-dimensional navigation in the application domain, and two- or three-dimensional controls in the personal domain. Transitions between the application domain and the personal domain are under control of the user, and the transition method is substantially independent of the navigation in the application domain. For example, the user can fly through a three-dimensional application domain, and always move to the personal domain by moving a cursor near one extreme of the display.

  7. A simple method for converting frequency domain aerodynamics to the time domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.

    1980-01-01

    A simple, direct procedure was developed for converting frequency domain aerodynamics into indicial aerodynamics. The data required for aerodynamic forces in the frequency domain may be obtained from any available (linear) theory. The method retains flexibility for the analyst and is based upon the particular character of the frequency domain results. An evaluation of the method was made for incompressible, subsonic, and transonic two dimensional flows.

  8. Low energy electron imaging of domains and domain walls in magnesium-doped lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Nataf, G F; Grysan, P; Guennou, M; Kreisel, J; Martinotti, D; Rountree, C L; Mathieu, C; Barrett, N

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of domain structures, specifically domain walls, currently attracts a significant attention in the field of (multi)-ferroic materials. In this article, we analyze contrast formation in full field electron microscopy applied to domains and domain walls in the uniaxial ferroelectric lithium niobate, which presents a large 3.8 eV band gap and for which conductive domain walls have been reported. We show that the transition from Mirror Electron Microscopy (MEM - electrons reflected) to Low Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM - electrons backscattered) gives rise to a robust contrast between domains with upwards (Pup) and downwards (Pdown) polarization, and provides a measure of the difference in surface potential between the domains. We demonstrate that out-of-focus conditions of imaging produce contrast inversion, due to image distortion induced by charged surfaces, and also carry information on the polarization direction in the domains. Finally, we show that the intensity profile at domain walls provides experimental evidence for a local stray, lateral electric field. PMID:27608605

  9. Low energy electron imaging of domains and domain walls in magnesium-doped lithium niobate

    PubMed Central

    Nataf, G. F.; Grysan, P.; Guennou, M.; Kreisel, J.; Martinotti, D.; Rountree, C. L.; Mathieu, C.; Barrett, N.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of domain structures, specifically domain walls, currently attracts a significant attention in the field of (multi)-ferroic materials. In this article, we analyze contrast formation in full field electron microscopy applied to domains and domain walls in the uniaxial ferroelectric lithium niobate, which presents a large 3.8 eV band gap and for which conductive domain walls have been reported. We show that the transition from Mirror Electron Microscopy (MEM – electrons reflected) to Low Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM – electrons backscattered) gives rise to a robust contrast between domains with upwards (Pup) and downwards (Pdown) polarization, and provides a measure of the difference in surface potential between the domains. We demonstrate that out-of-focus conditions of imaging produce contrast inversion, due to image distortion induced by charged surfaces, and also carry information on the polarization direction in the domains. Finally, we show that the intensity profile at domain walls provides experimental evidence for a local stray, lateral electric field. PMID:27608605

  10. A new and unexpected domain-domain interaction in the AraC protein.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stephanie Dirla; Schleif, Robert

    2012-05-01

    An interaction between the dimerization domains and DNA binding domains of the dimeric AraC protein has previously been shown to facilitate repression of the Escherichia coli araBAD operon by AraC in the absence of arabinose. A new interaction between the domains of AraC in the presence of arabinose is reported here, the regulatory consequences of which are unknown. Evidence for the interaction is the following: the dissociation rate of arabinose-bound AraC from half-site DNA is considerably faster than that of free DNA binding domain, and the affinity of the dimerization domains for arabinose is increased when half-site DNA is bound. In addition, an increase in the fluorescence intensity of tryptophan residues located in the arabinose-bound dimerization domain is observed upon binding of half-site DNA to the DNA binding domains. Direct physical evidence of the new domain-domain interaction is demonstrated by chemical crosslinking and NMR experiments. PMID:22383259

  11. Dual-domain point diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid spatial/temporal-domain point diffraction interferometer (referred to as the dual-domain PS/PDI) that is capable of suppressing the scattered-reference-light noise that hinders the conventional PS/PDI is provided. The dual-domain PS/PDI combines the separate noise-suppression capabilities of the widely-used phase-shifting and Fourier-transform fringe pattern analysis methods. The dual-domain PS/PDI relies on both a more restrictive implementation of the image plane PS/PDI mask and a new analysis method to be applied to the interferograms generated and recorded by the modified PS/PDI. The more restrictive PS/PDI mask guarantees the elimination of spatial-frequency crosstalk between the signal and the scattered-light noise arising from scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam. The new dual-domain analysis method is then used to eliminate scattered-light noise arising from both the scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam and the scattered-reference-light interfering with the "true" pinhole-diffracted reference light. The dual-domain analysis method has also been demonstrated to provide performance enhancement when using the non-optimized standard PS/PDI design. The dual-domain PS/PDI is essentially a three-tiered filtering system composed of lowpass spatial-filtering the test-beam electric field using the more restrictive PS/PDI mask, bandpass spatial-filtering the individual interferogram irradiance frames making up the phase-shifting series, and bandpass temporal-filtering the phase-shifting series as a whole.

  12. Algorithms for propagating uncertainty across heterogeneous domains

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Heyrim; Yang, Xiu; Venturi, D.; Karniadakis, George E.

    2015-12-30

    We address an important research area in stochastic multi-scale modeling, namely the propagation of uncertainty across heterogeneous domains characterized by partially correlated processes with vastly different correlation lengths. This class of problems arise very often when computing stochastic PDEs and particle models with stochastic/stochastic domain interaction but also with stochastic/deterministic coupling. The domains may be fully embedded, adjacent or partially overlapping. The fundamental open question we address is the construction of proper transmission boundary conditions that preserve global statistical properties of the solution across different subdomains. Often, the codes that model different parts of the domains are black-box and hence a domain decomposition technique is required. No rigorous theory or even effective empirical algorithms have yet been developed for this purpose, although interfaces defined in terms of functionals of random fields (e.g., multi-point cumulants) can overcome the computationally prohibitive problem of preserving sample-path continuity across domains. The key idea of the different methods we propose relies on combining local reduced-order representations of random fields with multi-level domain decomposition. Specifically, we propose two new algorithms: The first one enforces the continuity of the conditional mean and variance of the solution across adjacent subdomains by using Schwarz iterations. The second algorithm is based on PDE-constrained multi-objective optimization, and it allows us to set more general interface conditions. The effectiveness of these new algorithms is demonstrated in numerical examples involving elliptic problems with random diffusion coefficients, stochastically advected scalar fields, and nonlinear advection-reaction problems with random reaction rates.

  13. Polar domain walls trigger magnetoelectric coupling

    PubMed Central

    Fontcuberta, Josep; Skumryev, Vassil; Laukhin, Vladimir; Granados, Xavier; Salje, Ekhard K. H.

    2015-01-01

    Interface physics in oxides heterostructures is pivotal in material’s science. Domain walls (DWs) in ferroic systems are examples of naturally occurring interfaces, where order parameter of neighboring domains is modified and emerging properties may develop. Here we show that electric tuning of ferroelastic domain walls in SrTiO3 leads to dramatic changes of the magnetic domain structure of a neighboring magnetic layer (La1/2Sr1/2MnO3) epitaxially clamped on a SrTiO3 substrate. We show that the properties of the magnetic layer are intimately connected to the existence of polar regions at twin boundaries of SrTiO3, developing at , that can be electrically modulated. These findings illustrate that by exploiting the responsiveness of DWs nanoregions to external stimuli, even in absence of any domain contribution, prominent and adjustable macroscopic reactions of neighboring layers can be obtained. We conclude that polar DWs, known to exist in other materials, can be used to trigger tunable responses and may lead to new ways for the manipulation of interfacial emerging properties. PMID:26387597

  14. The architecture of the protein domain universe.

    PubMed

    Dokholyan, Nikolay V

    2005-03-14

    Understanding the design of the universe of protein structures may provide insights into protein evolution. We study the architecture of the protein domain universe, which has been found to poses peculiar scale-free properties. We examine the origin of these scale-free properties of the graph of protein domain structures (PDUG) and determine that that the PDUG is not modular, i.e. it does not consist of modules with uniform properties. Instead, we find the PDUG to be self-similar at all scales. We further characterize the PDUG architecture by studying the properties of the hub nodes that are responsible for the scale-free connectivity of the PDUG. We introduce a measure of the betweenness centrality of protein domains in the PDUG and find a power-law distribution of the betweenness centrality values. The scale-free distribution of hubs in the protein universe suggests that a set of specific statistical mechanics models, such as the self-organized criticality model, can potentially identify the principal driving forces of protein evolution. We also find a gatekeeper protein domain, removal of which partitions the largest cluster into two large sub-clusters. We suggest that the loss of such gatekeeper protein domains in the course of evolution is responsible for the creation of new fold families. PMID:15777630

  15. Direct measurement of antiferromagnetic domain fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Shpyrko, O G; Isaacs, E D; Logan, J M; Feng, Yejun; Aeppli, G; Jaramillo, R; Kim, H C; Rosenbaum, T F; Zschack, P; Sprung, M; Narayanan, S; Sandy, A R

    2007-05-01

    Measurements of magnetic noise emanating from ferromagnets owing to domain motion were first carried out nearly 100 years ago, and have underpinned much science and technology. Antiferromagnets, which carry no net external magnetic dipole moment, yet have a periodic arrangement of the electron spins extending over macroscopic distances, should also display magnetic noise. However, this must be sampled at spatial wavelengths of the order of several interatomic spacings, rather than the macroscopic scales characteristic of ferromagnets. Here we present a direct measurement of the fluctuations in the nanometre-scale superstructure of spin- and charge-density waves associated with antiferromagnetism in elemental chromium. The technique used is X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, where coherent X-ray diffraction produces a speckle pattern that serves as a 'fingerprint' of a particular magnetic domain configuration. The temporal evolution of the patterns corresponds to domain walls advancing and retreating over micrometre distances. This work demonstrates a useful measurement tool for antiferromagnetic domain wall engineering, but also reveals a fundamental finding about spin dynamics in the simplest antiferromagnet: although the domain wall motion is thermally activated at temperatures above 100 K, it is not so at lower temperatures, and indeed has a rate that saturates at a finite value-consistent with quantum fluctuations-on cooling below 40 K. PMID:17476263

  16. Generalized vector calculus on convex domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Om P.; Xu, Yufeng

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we apply recently proposed generalized integral and differential operators to develop generalized vector calculus and generalized variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In particular, we present some generalization of Green's and Gauss divergence theorems involving some new operators, and apply these theorems to generalized variational calculus. For fractional power kernels, the formulation leads to fractional vector calculus and fractional variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In special cases, when certain parameters take integer values, we obtain formulations for integer order problems. Two examples are presented to demonstrate applications of the generalized variational calculus which utilize the generalized vector calculus developed in the paper. The first example leads to a generalized partial differential equation and the second example leads to a generalized eigenvalue problem, both in two dimensional convex domains. We solve the generalized partial differential equation by using polynomial approximation. A special case of the second example is a generalized isoperimetric problem. We find an approximate solution to this problem. Many physical problems containing integer order integrals and derivatives are defined over arbitrary domains. We speculate that future problems containing fractional and generalized integrals and derivatives in fractional mechanics will be defined over arbitrary domains, and therefore, a general variational calculus incorporating a general vector calculus will be needed for these problems. This research is our first attempt in that direction.

  17. Domain switching of fatigued ferroelectric thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tak Lim, Yun; Yeog Son, Jong E-mail: hoponpop@ulsan.ac.kr; Shin, Young-Han E-mail: hoponpop@ulsan.ac.kr

    2014-05-12

    We investigate the domain wall speed of a ferroelectric PbZr{sub 0.48}Ti{sub 0.52}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film using an atomic force microscope incorporated with a mercury-probe system to control the degree of electrical fatigue. The depolarization field in the PZT thin film decreases with increasing the degree of electrical fatigue. We find that the wide-range activation field previously reported in ferroelectric domains result from the change of the depolarization field caused by the electrical fatigue. Domain wall speed exhibits universal behavior to the effective electric field (defined by an applied electric field minus the depolarization field), regardless of the degree of the electrical fatigue.

  18. Multilevel domain decomposition for electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Barrault, M. . E-mail: maxime.barrault@edf.fr; Cances, E. . E-mail: cances@cermics.enpc.fr; Hager, W.W. . E-mail: hager@math.ufl.edu; Le Bris, C. . E-mail: lebris@cermics.enpc.fr

    2007-03-01

    We introduce a new multilevel domain decomposition method (MDD) for electronic structure calculations within semi-empirical and density functional theory (DFT) frameworks. This method iterates between local fine solvers and global coarse solvers, in the spirit of domain decomposition methods. Using this approach, calculations have been successfully performed on several linear polymer chains containing up to 40,000 atoms and 200,000 atomic orbitals. Both the computational cost and the memory requirement scale linearly with the number of atoms. Additional speed-up can easily be obtained by parallelization. We show that this domain decomposition method outperforms the density matrix minimization (DMM) method for poor initial guesses. Our method provides an efficient preconditioner for DMM and other linear scaling methods, variational in nature, such as the orbital minimization (OM) procedure.

  19. Entropic inequalities in classical and quantum domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2010-09-01

    Different kinds of entropy associated with probability distribution functions characterizing the system state in classical and quantum domains are reviewed. Shannon entropy and Rényi entropy are discussed. The notion of tomographic entropy determined by the probability distribution in the phase space of the classical system and by the density operator of the quantum system is considered. Inequalities for the tomographic entropies in classical and quantum domains are studied, and a difference in the form of these inequalities in corresponding domains is suggested as a test to clarify the classicality and quantumness of the system state in quantum optics experiments. A new bound for tomographic entropy (ln πe)Φ(θ) depending on the local oscillator phase difference in homodyne photon detection experiments is discussed.

  20. Domain walls as probes of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Dvali, Gia; Gabadadze, Gregory; Pujolas, Oriol; Rahman, Rakibur

    2007-06-15

    We show that domain walls are probes that enable one to distinguish large-distance modified gravity from general relativity (GR) at short distances. For example, low-tension domain walls are stealth in modified gravity, while they do produce global gravitational effects in GR. We demonstrate this by finding exact solutions for various domain walls in the DGP model. A wall with tension lower than the fundamental Planck scale does not inflate and has no gravitational effects on a 4D observer, since its 4D tension is completely screened by gravity itself. We argue that this feature remains valid in a generic class of models of infrared modified gravity. As a byproduct, we obtain exact solutions for supermassive codimension-2 branes.

  1. On automating domain connectivity for overset grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Ing-Tsau; Meakin, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    An alternative method for domain connectivity among systems of overset grids is presented. Reference uniform Cartesian systems of points are used to achieve highly efficient domain connectivity, and form the basis for a future fully automated system. The Cartesian systems are used to approximate body surfaces and to map the computational space of component grids. By exploiting the characteristics of Cartesian systems, Chimera type hole-cutting and identification of donor elements for intergrid boundary points can be carried out very efficiently. The method is tested for a range of geometrically complex multiple-body overset grid systems. A dynamic hole expansion/contraction algorithm is also implemented to obtain optimum domain connectivity; however, it is tested only for geometry of generic shapes.

  2. Domain Size Distribution in Segregating Binary Superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Hiromitsu

    2016-05-01

    Domain size distribution in phase separating binary Bose-Einstein condensates is studied theoretically by numerically solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equations at zero temperature. We show that the size distribution in the domain patterns arising from the dynamic instability obeys a power law in a scaling regime according to the dynamic scaling analysis based on the percolation theory. The scaling behavior is kept during the relaxation dynamics until the characteristic domain size becomes comparable to the linear size of the system, consistent with the dynamic scaling hypothesis of the phase-ordering kinetics. Our numerical experiments indicate the existence of a different scaling regime in the size distribution function, which can be caused by the so-called coreless vortices.

  3. On thick domain walls in general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Guenter; Noetzold, Dirk

    1989-01-01

    Planar scalar field configurations in general relativity differ considerably from those in flat space. It is shown that static domain walls of finite thickness in curved space-time do not possess a reflection symmetry. At infinity, the space-time tends to the Taub vacuum on one side of the wall and to the Minkowski vacuum (Rindler space-time) on the other. Massive test particles are always accelerated towards the Minkowski side, i.e., domain walls are attractive on the Taub side, but repulsive on the Minkowski side (Taub-vacuum cleaner). It is also proved that the pressure in all directions is always negative. Finally, a brief comment is made concerning the possibility of infinite, i.e., bigger than horizon size, domain walls in our universe. All of the results are independent of the form of the potential V(phi) greater than or equal to 0 of the scalar field phi.

  4. Time domain reflectometry in time variant plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherner, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of time-dependent electron density fluctuations on a synthesized time domain reflectometry response of a one-dimensional cold plasma sheath are considered. Numerical solutions of the Helmholtz wave equation, which describes the electric field of a normally incident plane wave in a specified static electron density profile, are used. A study of the effects of Doppler shifts resulting from moving density fluctuations in the electron density profile of the sheath is included. Varying electron density levels corrupt time domain and distance measurements. Reducing or modulating the electron density levels of a given electron density profile affects the time domain response of a plasma and results in motion of the turning point, and the effective motion has a significant effect on measuring electron density locations.

  5. Domain walls and the creation of strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Gran, Ulf; Linares, Román; Nielsen, Mikkel; Roest, Diederik

    2003-08-01

    The phenomenon of creation of strings, occurring when particles pass through a domain wall and related to the Hanany Witten effect via dualities, is discussed in ten and nine dimensions. We consider both the particle actions in massive backgrounds and the 1/4-supersymmetric particle string domain-wall supergravity solutions and discuss their physical interpretation. In 10D we discuss the D0 F1 D8 system in massive IIA theory while in 9D the SL(2, Bbb R)-generalization is constructed. It consists of (p, q)-particles, (r, s)-strings and the double domain-wall solution of the three different 9D gauged supergravities where a subgroup of SL(2, Bbb R) is gauged.

  6. Targeting SH2 domains in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morlacchi, Pietro; Robertson, Fredika M; Klostergaard, Jim; McMurray, John S

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is among the most commonly diagnosed cancer types in women worldwide and is the second leading cause of cancer-related disease in the USA. SH2 domains recruit signaling proteins to phosphotyrosine residues on aberrantly activated growth factor and cytokine receptors and contribute to cancer cell cycling, metastasis, angiogenesis and so on. Herein we review phosphopeptide mimetic and small-molecule approaches targeting the SH2 domains of Grb2, Grb7 and STAT3 that inhibit their targets and reduce proliferation in in vitro breast cancer models. Only STAT3 inhibitors have been evaluated in in vivo models and have led to tumor reduction. Taken together, these studies suggest that targeting SH2 domains is an important approach to the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25495984

  7. Comparing and Contrasting Consensus versus Empirical Domains

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Kot, Bobby; Sunnquist, Madison; Brown, Abigail; Reed, Jordan; Furst, Jacob; Newton, Julia L.; Strand, Elin Bolle; Vernon, Suzanne D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Since the publication of the CFS case definition [1], there have been a number of other criteria proposed including the Canadian Consensus Criteria [2] and the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria. [3] Purpose The current study compared these domains that were developed through consensus methods to one obtained through more empirical approaches using factor analysis. Methods Using data mining, we compared and contrasted fundamental features of consensus-based criteria versus empirical latent factors. In general, these approaches found the domain of Fatigue/Post-exertional malaise as best differentiating patients from controls. Results Findings indicated that the Fukuda et al. criteria had the worst sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions These outcomes might help both theorists and researchers better determine which fundamental domains to be used for the case definition. PMID:26977374

  8. Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, Jan; Martin, Lane W; He, Q; Zhan, Q; Rother, A; Hawkridge, M. E.; Maksymovych, Petro; Yu, Pu; Gajek, Martin; Balke, Nina; Kalinin, Sergei V; Gemming, S; Catalan, G; Scott, J F; Spalding, Nicola A; Orenstein, J; Ramesh, R.

    2009-01-01

    Domain walls may play an important role in future electronic devices, given their small size as well as the fact that their location can be controlled. Here, we report the observation of room-temperature electronic conductivity at ferroelectric domain walls in the insulating multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3}. The origin and nature of the observed conductivity are probed using a combination of conductive atomic force microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and first-principles density functional computations. Our analyses indicate that the conductivity correlates with structurally driven changes in both the electrostatic potential and the local electronic structure, which shows a decrease in the bandgap at the domain wall. Additionally, we demonstrate the potential for device applications of such conducting nanoscale features.

  9. A Domain Description Language for Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith

    2003-01-01

    We discuss an application of planning to data processing, a planning problem which poses unique challenges for domain description languages. We discuss these challenges and why the current PDDL standard does not meet them. We discuss DPADL (Data Processing Action Description Language), a language for describing planning domains that involve data processing. DPADL is a declarative, object-oriented language that supports constraints and embedded Java code, object creation and copying, explicit inputs and outputs for actions, and metadata descriptions of existing and desired data. DPADL is supported by the IMAGEbot system, which we are using to provide automation for an ecological forecasting application. We compare DPADL to PDDL and discuss changes that could be made to PDDL to make it more suitable for representing planning domains that involve data processing actions.

  10. Electric-field-driven dynamics of magnetic domain walls in magnetic nanowires patterned on ferroelectric domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Wiele, Ben; Leliaert, Jonathan; Franke, Kévin J. A.; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2016-03-01

    Strong coupling of magnetic domain walls onto straight ferroelastic boundaries of a ferroelectric layer enables full and reversible electric-field control of magnetic domain wall motion. In this paper, the dynamics of this new driving mechanism is analyzed using micromagnetic simulations. We show that transverse domain walls with a near-180° spin structure are stabilized in magnetic nanowires and that electric fields can move these walls with high velocities. Above a critical velocity, which depends on material parameters, nanowire geometry and the direction of domain wall motion, the magnetic domain walls depin abruptly from the ferroelastic boundaries. Depinning evolves either smoothly or via the emission and annihilation of a vortex or antivortex core (Walker breakdown). In both cases, the magnetic domain wall slows down after depinning in an oscillatory fashion and eventually comes to a halt. The simulations provide design rules for hybrid ferromagnetic-ferroelectric domain-wall-based devices and indicate that material disorder and structural imperfections only influence Walker-breakdown-like depinning at high domain wall velocities.

  11. Matter antimatter domains: A possible solution to the CP domain wall problem in the early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohanty, A. K.; Stecker, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    An SU(5) grand unified theory model is used to show how the degeneracy between vacua with different spontaneously broken charge parity can be dynamically lifted by a condensate of heavy fermion pairs. This drives a phase transition to a unique vacuum state with definite charge parity. The transition eliminates the domain walls in a matter antimatter symmetric domain cosmology.

  12. Structural basis for the regulation of enzymatic activity of Regnase-1 by domain-domain interactions

    PubMed Central

    Yokogawa, Mariko; Tsushima, Takashi; Noda, Nobuo N.; Kumeta, Hiroyuki; Enokizono, Yoshiaki; Yamashita, Kazuo; Standley, Daron M.; Takeuchi, Osamu; Akira, Shizuo; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Regnase-1 is an RNase that directly cleaves mRNAs of inflammatory genes such as IL-6 and IL-12p40, and negatively regulates cellular inflammatory responses. Here, we report the structures of four domains of Regnase-1 from Mus musculus—the N-terminal domain (NTD), PilT N-terminus like (PIN) domain, zinc finger (ZF) domain and C-terminal domain (CTD). The PIN domain harbors the RNase catalytic center; however, it is insufficient for enzymatic activity. We found that the NTD associates with the PIN domain and significantly enhances its RNase activity. The PIN domain forms a head-to-tail oligomer and the dimer interface overlaps with the NTD binding site. Interestingly, mutations blocking PIN oligomerization had no RNase activity, indicating that both oligomerization and NTD binding are crucial for RNase activity in vitro. These results suggest that Regnase-1 RNase activity is tightly controlled by both intramolecular (NTD-PIN) and intermolecular (PIN-PIN) interactions. PMID:26927947

  13. Continuous and discontinuous domains: an algorithm for the automatic generation of reliable protein domain definitions.

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, A. S.; Barton, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for the fast and accurate definition of protein structural domains from coordinate data without prior knowledge of the number or type of domains. The algorithm explicitly locates domains that comprise one or two continuous segments of protein chain. Domains that include more than two segments are also located. The algorithm was applied to a nonredundant database of 230 protein structures and the results compared to domain definitions obtained from the literature, or by inspection of the coordinates on molecular graphics. For 70% of the proteins, the derived domains agree with the reference definitions, 18% show minor differences and only 12% (28 proteins) show very different definitions. Three screens were applied to identify the derived domains least likely to agree with the subjective definition set. These screens revealed a set of 173 proteins, 97% of which agree well with the subjective definitions. The algorithm represents a practical domain identification tool that can be run routinely on the entire structural database. Adjustment of parameters also allows smaller compact units to be identified in proteins. PMID:7663343

  14. Intellectual Growth in Children as a Function of Domain Specific and Domain General Working Memory Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether children's growth on measures of fluid (Raven Colored Progressive Matrices) and crystallized (reading and math achievement) intelligence was attributable to domain-specific or domain-general functions of working memory (WM). A sample of 290 elementary school children was tested on measures of intelligence across three…

  15. Application of modern tensor calculus to engineered domain structures. 2. Tensor distinction of domain states.

    PubMed

    Kopský, Vojtech

    2006-03-01

    The theory of domain states is reviewed as a prerequisite for consideration of tensorial distinction of domain states. It is then shown that the parameters of the first domain in a ferroic phase transition from a set of isomorphic groups of the same oriented Laue class can be systematically and suitably represented in terms of typical variables. On replacing these variables by actual tensor components according to the previous paper, we can reveal the tensorial parameters associated with each particular symmetry descent. Parameters are distinguished by the ireps to which they belong and this can be used to determine which of them are the principal parameters that distinguish all domain states, in contrast to secondary parameters which are common to several domain states. In general, the parameters are expressed as the covariant components of the tensors. A general procedure is described which is designed to transform the results to Cartesian components. It consists of two parts: the first, called the labelling of covariants, and its inverse, called the conversion equations. Transformation of parameters from the first domain state to other states is now reduced to irreducible subspaces whose maximal dimension is three in contrast with higher dimensions of tensor spaces. With this method, we can explicitly calculate tensor parameters for all domain states. To find the distinction of pairs of domain states, it is suitable to use the concept of the twinning group which is briefly described. PMID:16489243

  16. Conducting Ferroelectric Walls, Domain Topology, and Domain Switching Kinetics in a Hybrid Improper Ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Sang-Wook; Rutgers Center For Emergent Materials Team

    Charged polar interfaces such as charged ferroelectric domain walls or heterostructured interfaces of ZnO/(Zn,Mg)O and LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 , across which the normal component of electric polarization changes suddenly, can host large two-dimensional conduction. Charged ferroelectric domain walls can be highly conducting but energetically unfavored; however, they were found to be mysteriously abundant in hybrid improper ferroelectric (Ca,Sr) 3 Ti 2 O 7 single crystals. From the exploration of antiphase domain boundaries, which are hidden in piezoresponse force microscopy, using dark-field electron microscopy, we have explored the macroscopic topology of polarization domains and antiphase domains. We found that the macroscopic domain topology is directly responsible for the presence of charged domain walls, and is closely related with the polarization domain switching mechanism in (Ca,Sr) 3 Ti 2 O 7 . Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.

  17. SH3 Domains Differentially Stimulate Distinct Dynamin I Assembly Modes and G Domain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Sai; Collett, Michael; Robinson, Phillip J.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamin I is a highly regulated GTPase enzyme enriched in nerve terminals which mediates vesicle fission during synaptic vesicle endocytosis. One regulatory mechanism involves its interactions with proteins containing Src homology 3 (SH3) domains. At least 30 SH3 domain-containing proteins bind dynamin at its proline-rich domain (PRD). Those that stimulate dynamin activity act by promoting its oligomerisation. We undertook a systematic parallel screening of 13 glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged endocytosis-related SH3 domains on dynamin binding, GTPase activity and oligomerisation. No correlation was found between dynamin binding and their potency to stimulate GTPase activity. There was limited correlation between the extent of their ability to stimulate dynamin activity and the level of oligomerisation, indicating an as yet uncharacterised allosteric coupling of the PRD and G domain. We examined the two variants, dynamin Iab and Ibb, which differ in the alternately splice middle domain α2 helix. They responded differently to the panel of SH3s, with the extent of stimulation between the splice variants varying greatly between the SH3s. This study reveals that SH3 binding can act as a heterotropic allosteric regulator of the G domain via the middle domain α2 helix, suggesting an involvement of this helix in communicating the PRD-mediated allostery. This indicates that SH3 binding both stabilises multiple conformations of the tetrameric building block of dynamin, and promotes assembly of dynamin-SH3 complexes with distinct rates of GTP hydrolysis. PMID:26659814

  18. Structural basis for the regulation of enzymatic activity of Regnase-1 by domain-domain interactions.

    PubMed

    Yokogawa, Mariko; Tsushima, Takashi; Noda, Nobuo N; Kumeta, Hiroyuki; Enokizono, Yoshiaki; Yamashita, Kazuo; Standley, Daron M; Takeuchi, Osamu; Akira, Shizuo; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Regnase-1 is an RNase that directly cleaves mRNAs of inflammatory genes such as IL-6 and IL-12p40, and negatively regulates cellular inflammatory responses. Here, we report the structures of four domains of Regnase-1 from Mus musculus-the N-terminal domain (NTD), PilT N-terminus like (PIN) domain, zinc finger (ZF) domain and C-terminal domain (CTD). The PIN domain harbors the RNase catalytic center; however, it is insufficient for enzymatic activity. We found that the NTD associates with the PIN domain and significantly enhances its RNase activity. The PIN domain forms a head-to-tail oligomer and the dimer interface overlaps with the NTD binding site. Interestingly, mutations blocking PIN oligomerization had no RNase activity, indicating that both oligomerization and NTD binding are crucial for RNase activity in vitro. These results suggest that Regnase-1 RNase activity is tightly controlled by both intramolecular (NTD-PIN) and intermolecular (PIN-PIN) interactions. PMID:26927947

  19. Enriched domain detector: a program for detection of wide genomic enrichment domains robust against local variations

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Eivind; Oldenburg, Anja R.; Collas, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear lamins contact the genome at the nuclear periphery through large domains and are involved in chromatin organization. Among broad peak calling algorithms available to date, none are suited for mapping lamin–genome interactions genome wide. We disclose a novel algorithm, enriched domain detector (EDD), for analysis of broad enrichment domains from chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-seq data. EDD enables discovery of genomic domains interacting with broadly distributed proteins, such as A- and B-type lamins affinity isolated by ChIP. The advantages of EDD over existing broad peak callers are sensitivity to domain width rather than enrichment strength at a particular site, and robustness against local variations. PMID:24782521

  20. A non-chromatographic protein purification strategy using Src 3 homology domains as generalized capture domains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejae; Chen, Wilfred

    2016-09-20

    Protein purification using inverse phase transition of elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) domains is a useful alternative to chromatography. Genetic fusions of ELP domains to various proteins have the ability to reversibly transition between soluble monomers and micron-sized aggregates and this has been used to selectively purify many ELP fusions. Affinity domains can enhance this technology by using specific protein binding domains to enable ELP mediated affinity capture (EMAC) of proteins of interest (POI) that have been fused to corresponding affinity ligands. In this paper, we highlight the use of Src homology 3 (SH3) domains and corresponding peptide ligands in EMAC that have differential binding affinities towards SH3 for efficient capture and elution of proteins. Furthermore, differences between capture and elution of a monomeric and a multimeric protein were also studied. PMID:27457699

  1. Elongation factor TFIIS contains three structural domains: solution structure of domain II.

    PubMed Central

    Morin, P E; Awrey, D E; Edwards, A M; Arrowsmith, C H

    1996-01-01

    Transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II is regulated by the general elongation factor TFIIS. This factor stimulates RNA polymerase II to transcribe through regions of DNA that promote the formation of stalled ternary complexes. Limited proteolytic digestion showed that yeast TFIIS is composed of three structural domains, termed I, II, and III. The two C-terminal domains (II and III) are required for transcription activity. The structure of domain III has been solved previously by using NMR spectroscopy. Here, we report the NMR-derived structure of domain II: a three-helix bundle built around a hydrophobic core composed largely of three tyrosines protruding from one face of the C-terminal helix. The arrangement of known inactivating mutations of TFIIS suggests that two surfaces of domain II are critical for transcription activity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8855225

  2. On automating domain connectivity for overset grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Ing-Tsau

    1994-01-01

    An alternative method for domain connectivity among systems of overset grids is presented. Reference uniform Cartesian systems of points are used to achieve highly efficient domain connectivity, and form the basis for a future fully automated system. The Cartesian systems are used to approximated body surfaces and to map the computational space of component grids. By exploiting the characteristics of Cartesian Systems, Chimera type hole-cutting and identification of donor elements for intergrid boundary points can be carried out very efficiently. The method is tested for a range of geometrically complex multiple-body overset grid systems.

  3. Time-domain Raman analytical forward solvers.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Fabrizio; Binzoni, Tiziano; Sekar, Sanathana Konugolu Venkata; Farina, Andrea; Cavalieri, Stefano; Pifferi, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    A set of time-domain analytical forward solvers for Raman signals detected from homogeneous diffusive media is presented. The time-domain solvers have been developed for two geometries: the parallelepiped and the finite cylinder. The potential presence of a background fluorescence emission, contaminating the Raman signal, has also been taken into account. All the solvers have been obtained as solutions of the time dependent diffusion equation. The validation of the solvers has been performed by means of comparisons with the results of "gold standard" Monte Carlo simulations. These forward solvers provide an accurate tool to explore the information content encoded in the time-resolved Raman measurements. PMID:27607645

  4. Biodiversity of voltage sensor domain proteins.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Yasushi

    2007-06-01

    The six-transmembrane type voltage-gated ion channels play an essential role in neuronal excitability, muscle contraction, and secretion. The voltage sensor domain (VSD) is the key element of voltage-gated ion channels for sensing transmembrane potential, and has been studied at the levels of both biophysics and protein structure. Two recently identified proteins containing VSD without a pore domain showed unexpected biological roles: regulation of phosphatase activity and proton permeation. These proteins not only provide novel platforms to understand mechanisms of voltage sensing and ion permeation but also highlight previously unappreciated roles of membrane potential in non-neuronal cells. PMID:17347852

  5. Convergence Analysis of a Domain Decomposition Paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, R E; Vassilevski, P S

    2006-06-12

    We describe a domain decomposition algorithm for use in several variants of the parallel adaptive meshing paradigm of Bank and Holst. This algorithm has low communication, makes extensive use of existing sequential solvers, and exploits in several important ways data generated as part of the adaptive meshing paradigm. We show that for an idealized version of the algorithm, the rate of convergence is independent of both the global problem size N and the number of subdomains p used in the domain decomposition partition. Numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the procedure.

  6. Casimir forces in the time domain: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; McCauley, Alexander P.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2009-07-15

    We present a method to compute Casimir forces in arbitrary geometries and for arbitrary materials based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) scheme. The method involves the time evolution of electric and magnetic fields in response to a set of current sources, in a modified medium with frequency-independent conductivity. The advantage of this approach is that it allows one to exploit existing FDTD software, without modification, to compute Casimir forces. In this paper, we focus on the derivation, implementation choices, and essential properties of the time-domain algorithm, both considered analytically and illustrated in the simplest parallel-plate geometry.

  7. Standing gravitational waves from domain walls

    SciTech Connect

    Gogberashvili, Merab; Myrzakul, Shynaray; Singleton, Douglas

    2009-07-15

    We construct a plane symmetric, standing gravitational wave for a domain wall plus a massless scalar field. The scalar field can be associated with a fluid which has the properties of 'stiff' matter, i.e., matter in which the speed of sound equals the speed of light. Although domain walls are observationally ruled out in the present era, the solution has interesting features which might shed light on the character of exact nonlinear wave solutions to Einstein's equations. Additionally this solution may act as a template for higher dimensional 'brane-world' model standing waves.

  8. Detector nonlinearity in frequency-domain fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Wirth, M J; Burbage, J D; Zulli, S L

    1993-02-20

    Frequency-domain fluorometry relies on the measurement of the phase and amplitudes of the Fourier components of the time-dependent fluorescence signal. Experimental results that show that a conventional photomultiplier is subject to intensity-dependent phase shifts are presented. The measurements indicate that this is a problem well below the maximum linear current of the photomultiplier response. These results have important implications in frequency-domain fluorescence anisotropy experiments, in which the parallel and the perpendicular components of the emission intensity are inherently different from one another: a phase shift can be introduced by the photomultiplier. PMID:20802776

  9. [Development of domain specific search engines].

    PubMed

    Takai, T; Tokunaga, M; Maeda, K; Kaminuma, T

    2000-01-01

    As cyber space exploding in a pace that nobody has ever imagined, it becomes very important to search cyber space efficiently and effectively. One solution to this problem is search engines. Already a lot of commercial search engines have been put on the market. However these search engines respond with such cumbersome results that domain specific experts can not tolerate. Using a dedicate hardware and a commercial software called OpenText, we have tried to develop several domain specific search engines. These engines are for our institute's Web contents, drugs, chemical safety, endocrine disruptors, and emergent response for chemical hazard. These engines have been on our Web site for testing. PMID:11534132

  10. Predicting detection performance with model observers: Fourier domain or spatial domain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baiyu; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; Kofler, James; Favazza, Christopher; Vrieze, Thomas; McCollough, Cynthia

    2016-03-01

    The use of Fourier domain model observer is challenged by iterative reconstruction (IR), because IR algorithms are nonlinear and IR images have noise texture different from that of FBP. A modified Fourier domain model observer, which incorporates nonlinear noise and resolution properties, has been proposed for IR and needs to be validated with human detection performance. On the other hand, the spatial domain model observer is theoretically applicable to IR, but more computationally intensive than the Fourier domain method. The purpose of this study is to compare the modified Fourier domain model observer to the spatial domain model observer with both FBP and IR images, using human detection performance as the gold standard. A phantom with inserts of various low contrast levels and sizes was repeatedly scanned 100 times on a third-generation, dual-source CT scanner at 5 dose levels and reconstructed using FBP and IR algorithms. The human detection performance of the inserts was measured via a 2-alternative-forced-choice (2AFC) test. In addition, two model observer performances were calculated, including a Fourier domain non-prewhitening model observer and a spatial domain channelized Hotelling observer. The performance of these two mode observers was compared in terms of how well they correlated with human observer performance. Our results demonstrated that the spatial domain model observer correlated well with human observers across various dose levels, object contrast levels, and object sizes. The Fourier domain observer correlated well with human observers using FBP images, but overestimated the detection performance using IR images.

  11. Predicting detection performance with model observers: Fourier domain or spatial domain?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baiyu; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; Kofler, James; Favazza, Christopher; Vrieze, Thomas; McCollough, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The use of Fourier domain model observer is challenged by iterative reconstruction (IR), because IR algorithms are nonlinear and IR images have noise texture different from that of FBP. A modified Fourier domain model observer, which incorporates nonlinear noise and resolution properties, has been proposed for IR and needs to be validated with human detection performance. On the other hand, the spatial domain model observer is theoretically applicable to IR, but more computationally intensive than the Fourier domain method. The purpose of this study is to compare the modified Fourier domain model observer to the spatial domain model observer with both FBP and IR images, using human detection performance as the gold standard. A phantom with inserts of various low contrast levels and sizes was repeatedly scanned 100 times on a third-generation, dual-source CT scanner at 5 dose levels and reconstructed using FBP and IR algorithms. The human detection performance of the inserts was measured via a 2-alternative-forced-choice (2AFC) test. In addition, two model observer performances were calculated, including a Fourier domain non-prewhitening model observer and a spatial domain channelized Hotelling observer. The performance of these two mode observers was compared in terms of how well they correlated with human observer performance. Our results demonstrated that the spatial domain model observer correlated well with human observers across various dose levels, object contrast levels, and object sizes. The Fourier domain observer correlated well with human observers using FBP images, but overestimated the detection performance using IR images. PMID:27239086

  12. Rsp5 WW domains interact directly with the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Chang, A; Cheang, S; Espanel, X; Sudol, M

    2000-07-01

    RSP5 is an essential gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and was recently shown to form a physical and functional complex with RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II). The amino-terminal half of Rsp5 consists of four domains: a C2 domain, which binds membrane phospholipids; and three WW domains, which are protein interaction modules that bind proline-rich ligands. The carboxyl-terminal half of Rsp5 contains a HECT (homologous to E6-AP carboxyl terminus) domain that catalytically ligates ubiquitin to proteins and functionally classifies Rsp5 as an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. The C2 and WW domains are presumed to act as membrane localization and substrate recognition modules, respectively. We report that the second (and possibly third) Rsp5 WW domain mediates binding to the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the RNA pol II large subunit. The CTD comprises a heptamer (YSPTSPS) repeated 26 times and a PXY core that is critical for interaction with a specific group of WW domains. An analysis of synthetic peptides revealed a minimal CTD sequence that is sufficient to bind to the second Rsp5 WW domain (Rsp5 WW2) in vitro and in yeast two-hybrid assays. Furthermore, we found that specific "imperfect" CTD repeats can form a complex with Rsp5 WW2. In addition, we have shown that phosphorylation of this minimal CTD sequence on serine, threonine and tyrosine residues acts as a negative regulator of the Rsp5 WW2-CTD interaction. In view of the recent data pertaining to phosphorylation-driven interactions between the RNA pol II CTD and the WW domain of Ess1/Pin1, we suggest that CTD dephosphorylation may be a prerequisite for targeted RNA pol II degradation. PMID:10781604

  13. A PH domain in ACAP1 possesses key features of the BAR domain in promoting membrane curvature.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaoyun; Fan, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Kai; Gao, Bingquan; Ma, Jun; Li, Jian; Deng, Yuchen; Zhou, Qiangjun; Egelman, Edward H; Hsu, Victor W; Sun, Fei

    2014-10-13

    The BAR (Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs) domain undergoes dimerization to produce a curved protein structure, which superimposes onto membrane through electrostatic interactions to sense and impart membrane curvature. In some cases, a BAR domain also possesses an amphipathic helix that inserts into the membrane to induce curvature. ACAP1 (Arfgap with Coil coil, Ankyrin repeat, and PH domain protein 1) contains a BAR domain. Here, we show that this BAR domain can neither bind membrane nor impart curvature, but instead requires a neighboring PH (Pleckstrin Homology) domain to achieve these functions. Specific residues within the PH domain are responsible for both membrane binding and curvature generation. The BAR domain adjacent to the PH domain instead interacts with the BAR domains of neighboring ACAP1 proteins to enable clustering at the membrane. Thus, we have uncovered the molecular basis for an unexpected and unconventional collaboration between PH and BAR domains in membrane bending. PMID:25284369

  14. Critical role of domain crystallinity, domain purity and domain interface sharpness for reduced bimolecular recombination in polymer solar cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Chen, Jihua; Ngo, Evan C.; Dubey, Ashish; Khatiwada, Devendra; Zhang, Cheng; Qiao, Qiquan

    2014-12-31

    In this study, inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) blended with two different fullerene derivatives namely phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM) and indene-C60 bis-adduct (IC60BA). The effects of annealing temperatures on the morphology, optical and structural properties were studied and correlated to differences in photovoltaic device performance. It was observed that annealing temperature significantly improved the performance of P3HT:IC60BA solar cells while P3HT:PC60BM cells showed relatively less improvement. The performance improvement is attributed to the extent of fullerene mixing with polymer domains. Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that ICBAmore » mixes with disordered P3HT much more readily than PC60BM which leads to lower short circuit current density and fill factor for P3HT:IC60BA cells annealed below 120°C. Annealing above 120°C improves the crystallinity of P3HT in case of P3HT:IC60BA whereas in P3HT:PC60BM films, annealing above 80°C leads to negligible change in crystallinity. Crystallization of P3HT also leads to higher domain purity as seen EFTEM. Further it is seen that cells processed with additive nitrobenzene (NB) showed enhanced short circuit current density and power conversion efficiency regardless of the fullerene derivative used. Addition of NB led to nanoscale phase separation between purer polymer and fullerene domains. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) images showed that enhanced domain purity in additive casted films led to a sharper interface between polymer and fullerene. Lastly, enhanced domain purity and interfacial sharpness led to lower bimolecular recombination and higher mobility and charge carrier lifetime in NB modified devices.« less

  15. The Loyal Opposition Comments on Plan Domain Description Languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Golden, Keith; Jonsson, Ari

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we take a critical look at PDDL 2.1 as designers and users of plan domain description languages. We describe planning domains that have features which are hard to model using PDDL 2.1. We then offer some suggestions on domain description language design, and describe how these suggestions make modeling our chosen domains easier.

  16. Reporting Valid and Reliable Overall Scores and Domain Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2010-01-01

    In educational assessment, overall scores obtained by simply averaging a number of domain scores are sometimes reported. However, simply averaging the domain scores ignores the fact that different domains have different score points, that scores from those domains are related, and that at different score points the relationship between overall…

  17. Conceptualizing Indicator Domains for Evaluating Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen; Rowe, Wendy; Ferkins, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to share thinking about meta-level evaluation of action research (AR), and to introduce indicator domains for assessing and measuring inputs, outputs and outcomes. Meta-level and multi-site evaluation has been rare in AR beyond project implementation and participant satisfaction. The paper is the first of several…

  18. Value Added Reselling and Public Domain Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Lizzie; Cronin, Blaise

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the reasons behind the trend of distribution of public domain statistics by private, commercial agencies in the United States and Great Britain, identifies marketable materials and marketing strategies, and explores possible disadvantages in terms of the public good and the possibility that governments will no longer collect statistical…

  19. Factor Score Reliabilities and Domain Validities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Richard L.

    1980-01-01

    Kaiser and Michael reported a formula for factor scores giving an internal consistency reliability and its square root, the domain validity. Using this formula is inappropriate if variables are included which have trival weights rather than salient weights for the factor for which the score is being computed. (Author/RL)

  20. Domain General Constraints on Statistical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiessen, Erik D.

    2011-01-01

    All theories of language development suggest that learning is constrained. However, theories differ on whether these constraints arise from language-specific processes or have domain-general origins such as the characteristics of human perception and information processing. The current experiments explored constraints on statistical learning of…

  1. Promoting the Affective Domain within Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade Higher Education Institutions have experienced tremendous growth in enrollments. To meet this demand, many higher education institutions have embraced online education and its requisite technologies. Online education has matured, and studies focusing on the cognitive domain indicate that distance education is as effective as the…

  2. The Different Roles of Aggrecan Interaction Domains

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aggregating proteoglycans of the lectican family are important components of extracellular matrices. Aggrecan is the most well studied of these and is central to cartilage biomechanical properties and skeletal development. Key to its biological function is the fixed charge of the many glycosaminoglycan chains, that provide the basis for the viscoelastic properties necessary for load distribution over the articular surface. This review is focused on the globular domains of aggrecan and their role in anchoring the proteoglycans to other extracellular matrix components. The N-terminal G1 domain is vital in that it binds the proteoglycan to hyaluronan in ternary complex with link protein, retaining the proteoglycan in the tissue. The importance of the C-terminal G3 domain interactions has recently been emphasized by two different human hereditary disorders: autosomal recessive aggrecan-type spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia and autosomal dominant familial osteochondritis dissecans. In these two conditions, different missense mutations in the aggrecan C-type lectin repeat have been described. The resulting amino acid replacements affect the ligand interactions of the G3 domain, albeit with widely different phenotypic outcomes. PMID:23019016

  3. Kinesin tail domains are intrinsically disordered.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Mark A; Zhang, Yongbo; Rice, Sarah E

    2012-10-01

    Kinesin motor proteins transport a wide variety of molecular cargoes in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Kinesin motor domains, which hydrolyze ATP to produce a directed mechanical force along a microtubule, are well conserved throughout the entire superfamily. Outside of the motor domains, kinesin sequences diverge along with their transport functions. The nonmotor regions, particularly the tails, respond to a wide variety of structural and molecular cues that enable kinesins to carry specific cargoes in response to particular cellular signals. Here, we demonstrate that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature of kinesins. A bioinformatics survey of the full-length sequences of all 43 human kinesins predicts that significant regions of intrinsically disordered residues are present in all kinesins. These regions are concentrated in the nonmotor domains, particularly in the tails and near sites for ligand binding or post-translational modifications. In order to experimentally verify these predictions, we expressed and purified the tail domains of kinesins representing three different families (Kif5B, Kif10, and KifC3). Circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy experiments demonstrate that the isolated tails are disordered in vitro, yet they retain their functional microtubule-binding activity. On the basis of these results, we propose that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature that confers functional specificity to kinesins. PMID:22674872

  4. Kinesin Tail Domains Are Intrinsically Disordered

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, Mark A.; Zhang, Yongbo; Rice, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Kinesin motor proteins transport a wide variety of molecular cargoes in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Kinesin motor domains, which hydrolyze ATP to produce a directed mechanical force along a microtubule, are well conserved throughout the entire superfamily. Outside of the motor domains, kinesin sequences diverge along with their transport functions. The non-motor regions, particularly the tails, respond to a wide variety of structural and molecular cues that enable kinesins to carry specific cargoes in response to particular cellular signals. Here, we demonstrate that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature of kinesins. A bioinformatics survey of the full-length sequences of all 43 human kinesins predicts that significant regions of intrinsically disordered residues are present in all kinesins. These regions are concentrated in the non-motor domains, particularly in the tails and near sites for ligand binding or post-translational modifications. In order to experimentally verify these predictions, we expressed and purified the tail domains of kinesins representing three different families (Kif5B, Kif10, and KifC3). Circular dichroism (CD) and NMR spectroscopy experiments demonstrate that the isolated tails are disordered in vitro, yet they retain their functional microtubule-binding activity. Based on these results, we propose that intrinsic disorder is a common structural feature that confers functional specificity to kinesins. PMID:22674872

  5. Microdissection of Shoot Meristem Functional Domains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintains a pool of indeterminate cells within the SAM proper, while lateral organs are initiated from the SAM periphery. Laser microdissection–microarray technology was used to compare transcriptional profiles within these SAM domains to identify novel maize genes th...

  6. Efficient integration method for fictitious domain approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duczek, Sascha; Gabbert, Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    In the current article, we present an efficient and accurate numerical method for the integration of the system matrices in fictitious domain approaches such as the finite cell method (FCM). In the framework of the FCM, the physical domain is embedded in a geometrically larger domain of simple shape which is discretized using a regular Cartesian grid of cells. Therefore, a spacetree-based adaptive quadrature technique is normally deployed to resolve the geometry of the structure. Depending on the complexity of the structure under investigation this method accounts for most of the computational effort. To reduce the computational costs for computing the system matrices an efficient quadrature scheme based on the divergence theorem (Gauß-Ostrogradsky theorem) is proposed. Using this theorem the dimension of the integral is reduced by one, i.e. instead of solving the integral for the whole domain only its contour needs to be considered. In the current paper, we present the general principles of the integration method and its implementation. The results to several two-dimensional benchmark problems highlight its properties. The efficiency of the proposed method is compared to conventional spacetree-based integration techniques.

  7. Adaptive Random Testing with Combinatorial Input Domain

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Random testing (RT) is a fundamental testing technique to assess software reliability, by simply selecting test cases in a random manner from the whole input domain. As an enhancement of RT, adaptive random testing (ART) has better failure-detection capability and has been widely applied in different scenarios, such as numerical programs, some object-oriented programs, and mobile applications. However, not much work has been done on the effectiveness of ART for the programs with combinatorial input domain (i.e., the set of categorical data). To extend the ideas to the testing for combinatorial input domain, we have adopted different similarity measures that are widely used for categorical data in data mining and have proposed two similarity measures based on interaction coverage. Then, we propose a new version named ART-CID as an extension of ART in combinatorial input domain, which selects an element from categorical data as the next test case such that it has the lowest similarity against already generated test cases. Experimental results show that ART-CID generally performs better than RT, with respect to different evaluation metrics. PMID:24772036

  8. The formation and evolution of domain walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Press, William H.; Ryden, Barbara S.; Spergel, David N.

    1991-01-01

    Domain walls are sheet-like defects produced when the low energy vacuum has isolated degenerate minima. The researchers' computer code follows the evolution of a scalar field, whose dynamics are determined by its Lagrangian density. The topology of the scalar field determines the evolution of the domain walls. This approach treats both wall dynamics and reconnection. The researchers investigated not only potentials that produce single domain walls, but also potentials that produce a network of walls and strings. These networks arise in axion models where the U(1) Peccei-Quinn symmetry is broken into Z sub N discrete symmetries. If N equals 1, the walls are bounded by strings and the network quickly disappears. For N greater than 1, the network of walls and strings behaved qualitatively just as the wall network shown in the figures given here. This both confirms the researchers' pessimistic view that domain walls cannot play an important role in the formation of large scale structure and implies that axion models with multiple minimum can be cosmologically disastrous.

  9. Behavior Domains in Theory and in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Roderick P.

    2003-01-01

    The concept of a behavior domain is a reasonable and essential foundation for psychometric work based on true score theory, the linear model of common factor analysis, and the nonlinear models of item response theory. Investigators applying these models to test data generally treat the true scores or factors or traits as abstractive psychological…

  10. Time-Domain Simulation of RF Couplers

    SciTech Connect

    Smithe, David; Carlsson, Johan; Austin, Travis

    2009-11-26

    We have developed a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) fluid-like approach to integrated plasma-and-coupler simulation [1], and show how it can be used to model LH and ICRF couplers in the MST and larger tokamaks.[2] This approach permits very accurate 3-D representation of coupler geometry, and easily includes non-axi-symmetry in vessel wall, magnetic equilibrium, and plasma density. The plasma is integrated with the FDTD Maxwell solver in an implicit solve that steps over electron time-scales, and permits tenuous plasma in the coupler itself, without any need to distinguish or interface between different regions of vacuum and/or plasma. The FDTD algorithm is also generalized to incorporate a time-domain sheath potential [3] on metal structures within the simulation, to look for situations where the sheath potential might generate local sputtering opportunities. Benchmarking of the time-domain sheath algorithm has been reported in the references. Finally, the time-domain software [4] permits the use of particles, either as field diagnostic (test particles) or to self-consistently compute plasma current from the applied RF power.

  11. The Fourth Domain of Educational Objectives: Induction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleman, Wes

    1985-01-01

    Tests the claim to comprehensiveness of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives by analyzing educational objectives of some freshmen orientation programs and those connected with human developmental tasks. It is concluded that the taxonomy should be enlarged with a fourth domain: actual induction into tasks for which students are being…

  12. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1996-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  13. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1996-03-05

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 15 figs.

  14. Public Domain Microcomputer Software for Forestry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Les

    A project was conducted to develop a computer forestry/forest products bibliography applicable to high school and community college vocational/technical programs. The project director contacted curriculum clearinghouses, computer companies, and high school and community college instructors in order to obtain listings of public domain programs for…

  15. Memetic Algorithms, Domain Knowledge, and Financial Investing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jie

    2012-01-01

    While the question of how to use human knowledge to guide evolutionary search is long-recognized, much remains to be done to answer this question adequately. This dissertation aims to further answer this question by exploring the role of domain knowledge in evolutionary computation as applied to real-world, complex problems, such as financial…

  16. Domain structure of Fe-based microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, S. A.; Laroze, D.; Vargas, P.; Vazquez, M.

    2006-02-01

    Some magnetic characteristics of the Fe-based cast amorphous glass-coated microwires with positive magnetostriction constant are investigated. The residual stress distributions in this type of microwires determine the domain structures and the switching field behavior; in particular, we present a phenomenological law of its temperature dependence, which has a very good agreement with the experimental data.

  17. An English language interface for constrained domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Brenda J.

    1989-01-01

    The Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) Jargon Interpreter (MJI) demonstrates an English language interface for a constrained domain. A constrained domain is defined as one with a small and well delineated set of actions and objects. The set of actions chosen for the MJI is from the domain of MSOCC Applications Executive (MAE) Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) directives and contains directives for signing a cathode ray tube (CRT) on or off, calling up or clearing a display page, starting or stopping a procedure, and controlling history recording. The set of objects chosen consists of CRTs, display pages, STOL procedures, and history files. Translation from English sentences to STOL directives is done in two phases. In the first phase, an augmented transition net (ATN) parser and dictionary are used for determining grammatically correct parsings of input sentences. In the second phase, grammatically typed sentences are submitted to a forward-chaining rule-based system for interpretation and translation into equivalent MAE STOL directives. Tests of the MJI show that it is able to translate individual clearly stated sentences into the subset of directives selected for the prototype. This approach to an English language interface may be used for similarly constrained situations by modifying the MJI's dictionary and rules to reflect the change of domain.

  18. The dynamics of domain walls and strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Ruth; Haws, David; Garfinkle, David

    1989-01-01

    The leading order finite-width corrections to the equation of motion describing the motion of a domain wall are derived. The regime in which this equation of motion is invalid is discussed. Spherically and cylindrically symmetric solutions to this equation of motion are found. A misconception that has arisen in recent years regarding the rigidity (or otherwise) of cosmic strings is also clarified.

  19. Attractive membrane domains control lateral diffusion.

    PubMed

    Forstner, Martin B; Martin, Douglas S; Rückerl, Florian; Käs, Josef A; Selle, Carsten

    2008-05-01

    Lipid membranes play a fundamental role in vital cellular functions such as signal transduction. Many of these processes rely on lateral diffusion within the membrane, generally a complex fluid containing ordered microdomains. However, little attention has been paid to the alterations in transport dynamics of a diffusing species caused by long-range interactions with membrane domains. In this paper, we address the effect of such interactions on diffusive transport by studying lateral diffusion in a phase-separated Langmuir phospholipid monolayer via single-particle tracking. We find that attractive dipole-dipole interactions between condensed phase domains and diffusing probe beads lead to transient confinement at the phase boundaries, causing a transition from two- to one-dimensional diffusion. Using Brownian dynamics simulations, the long-term diffusion constant for such a system is found to have a sensitive, Boltzmann-like, dependence on the interaction strength. In addition, this interaction strength is shown to be a strong function of the ratio of domain to particle size. As similar interactions are expected in biological membranes, the modulation of diffusive transport dynamics by varying interaction strength and/or domain size may offer cells selective spatial and temporal control over signaling processes. PMID:18643101

  20. Domain growth kinetics in stratifying foam films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-11-01

    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Typical foam films consist of two surfactant-laden surfaces that are ~ 5 nm - 10 micron apart. Sandwiched between these interfacial layers is a fluid that drains primarily under the influence of viscous and interfacial forces, including disjoining pressure. Interestingly, a layered ordering of micelles inside the foam films (thickness <100 nm) leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification, which results in a thickness-dependent variation in reflected light intensity, visualized as progressively darker shades of gray. Thinner, darker domains spontaneously grow within foam films. We show that the domain expansion dynamics exhibit two distinct growth regimes with characteristic scaling laws. Though several studies have focused on the expansion dynamics of isolated domains that exhibit a diffusion-like scaling, the change in expansion kinetics observed after domains contact with the Plateau border has not been reported and analyzed before.

  1. Scalable Domain Decomposed Monte Carlo Particle Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Matthew Joseph

    In this dissertation, we present the parallel algorithms necessary to run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on large numbers of processors (millions of processors). Previous algorithms were not scalable, and the parallel overhead became more computationally costly than the numerical simulation. The main algorithms we consider are: • Domain decomposition of constructive solid geometry: enables extremely large calculations in which the background geometry is too large to fit in the memory of a single computational node. • Load Balancing: keeps the workload per processor as even as possible so the calculation runs efficiently. • Global Particle Find: if particles are on the wrong processor, globally resolve their locations to the correct processor based on particle coordinate and background domain. • Visualizing constructive solid geometry, sourcing particles, deciding that particle streaming communication is completed and spatial redecomposition. These algorithms are some of the most important parallel algorithms required for domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport. We demonstrate that our previous algorithms were not scalable, prove that our new algorithms are scalable, and run some of the algorithms up to 2 million MPI processes on the Sequoia supercomputer.

  2. Simplified technique demonstrates magnetic domain switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Light from a conventional photographic light source is polarized and projected through thin samples of gadolinium iron garnet and then observed with a conventional polarizing microscope. A distinctive change in color from red to yellow is observed as the magnetic domains are switched.

  3. Layer tracking, asymptotics, and domain decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. L.; Chin, R. C. Y.; Hedstrom, G. W.; Manteuffel, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary report is presented on the work on the tracking of internal layers in a singularly-perturbed convection-diffusion equation. It is shown why such tracking may be desirable, and it is also shown how to do it using domain decomposition based on asymptotic analysis.

  4. Center domains and their phenomenological consequences.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Masayuki; Bass, Steffen A; Müller, Berndt

    2013-05-17

    We argue that the domain structure of deconfined QCD matter, which can be inferred from the properties of the Polyakov loop, can simultaneously explain the two most prominent experimentally verified features of the quark-gluon plasma, namely its large opacity as well as its near ideal fluid properties. PMID:25167399

  5. Scalable Domain Decomposed Monte Carlo Particle Transport

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Matthew Joseph

    2013-12-05

    In this dissertation, we present the parallel algorithms necessary to run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on large numbers of processors (millions of processors). Previous algorithms were not scalable, and the parallel overhead became more computationally costly than the numerical simulation.

  6. Teachers' Domain Evaluation Report. CCT Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasnik, Shelley; Keisch, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    This report is the result of a five-month study; it is comprised of two components: (1) an overview of the current knowledge base regarding how rich media resources, like Teachers' Domain, can support teaching and learning in K-12 schools; and (2) case studies of teachers, technology coordinators and administrators' perceptions and potential use…

  7. Developing Domain Ontologies for Course Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Sinead; Pahl, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Ontologies have the potential to play an important role in instructional design and the development of course content. They can be used to represent knowledge about content, supporting instructors in creating content or learners in accessing content in a knowledge-guided way. While ontologies exist for many subject domains, their quality and…

  8. Kernel Manifold Alignment for Domain Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Tuia, Devis; Camps-Valls, Gustau

    2016-01-01

    The wealth of sensory data coming from different modalities has opened numerous opportunities for data analysis. The data are of increasing volume, complexity and dimensionality, thus calling for new methodological innovations towards multimodal data processing. However, multimodal architectures must rely on models able to adapt to changes in the data distribution. Differences in the density functions can be due to changes in acquisition conditions (pose, illumination), sensors characteristics (number of channels, resolution) or different views (e.g. street level vs. aerial views of a same building). We call these different acquisition modes domains, and refer to the adaptation problem as domain adaptation. In this paper, instead of adapting the trained models themselves, we alternatively focus on finding mappings of the data sources into a common, semantically meaningful, representation domain. This field of manifold alignment extends traditional techniques in statistics such as canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to deal with nonlinear adaptation and possibly non-corresponding data pairs between the domains. We introduce a kernel method for manifold alignment (KEMA) that can match an arbitrary number of data sources without needing corresponding pairs, just few labeled examples in all domains. KEMA has interesting properties: 1) it generalizes other manifold alignment methods, 2) it can align manifolds of very different complexities, performing a discriminative alignment preserving each manifold inner structure, 3) it can define a domain-specific metric to cope with multimodal specificities, 4) it can align data spaces of different dimensionality, 5) it is robust to strong nonlinear feature deformations, and 6) it is closed-form invertible, which allows transfer across-domains and data synthesis. To authors' knowledge this is the first method addressing all these important issues at once. We also present a reduced-rank version of KEMA for computational

  9. Kernel Manifold Alignment for Domain Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Tuia, Devis; Camps-Valls, Gustau

    2016-01-01

    The wealth of sensory data coming from different modalities has opened numerous opportunities for data analysis. The data are of increasing volume, complexity and dimensionality, thus calling for new methodological innovations towards multimodal data processing. However, multimodal architectures must rely on models able to adapt to changes in the data distribution. Differences in the density functions can be due to changes in acquisition conditions (pose, illumination), sensors characteristics (number of channels, resolution) or different views (e.g. street level vs. aerial views of a same building). We call these different acquisition modes domains, and refer to the adaptation problem as domain adaptation. In this paper, instead of adapting the trained models themselves, we alternatively focus on finding mappings of the data sources into a common, semantically meaningful, representation domain. This field of manifold alignment extends traditional techniques in statistics such as canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to deal with nonlinear adaptation and possibly non-corresponding data pairs between the domains. We introduce a kernel method for manifold alignment (KEMA) that can match an arbitrary number of data sources without needing corresponding pairs, just few labeled examples in all domains. KEMA has interesting properties: 1) it generalizes other manifold alignment methods, 2) it can align manifolds of very different complexities, performing a discriminative alignment preserving each manifold inner structure, 3) it can define a domain-specific metric to cope with multimodal specificities, 4) it can align data spaces of different dimensionality, 5) it is robust to strong nonlinear feature deformations, and 6) it is closed-form invertible, which allows transfer across-domains and data synthesis. To authors’ knowledge this is the first method addressing all these important issues at once. We also present a reduced-rank version of KEMA for computational

  10. Simplicity and Specificity in Language: Domain-General Biases Have Domain-Specific Effects

    PubMed Central

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Kirby, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which the linguistic system—its architecture, the representations it operates on, the constraints it is subject to—is specific to language has broad implications for cognitive science and its relation to evolutionary biology. Importantly, a given property of the linguistic system can be “specific” to the domain of language in several ways. For example, if the property evolved by natural selection under the pressure of the linguistic function it serves then the property is domain-specific in the sense that its design is tailored for language. Equally though, if that property evolved to serve a different function or if that property is domain-general, it may nevertheless interact with the linguistic system in a way that is unique. This gives a second sense in which a property can be thought of as specific to language. An evolutionary approach to the language faculty might at first blush appear to favor domain-specificity in the first sense, with individual properties of the language faculty being specifically linguistic adaptations. However, we argue that interactions between learning, culture, and biological evolution mean any domain-specific adaptations that evolve will take the form of weak biases rather than hard constraints. Turning to the latter sense of domain-specificity, we highlight a very general bias, simplicity, which operates widely in cognition and yet interacts with linguistic representations in domain-specific ways. PMID:26793132

  11. PTEN-PDZ domain interactions: binding of PTEN to PDZ domains of PTPN13.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Natalia S; Schepens, Jan T G; Valiente, Miguel; Hendriks, Wiljan J A J; Pulido, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    Protein modular interactions mediated by PDZ domains are essential for the establishment of functional protein networks controlling diverse cellular functions. The tumor suppressor PTEN possesses a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (PDZ-BM) that is recognized by a specific set of PDZ domains from scaffolding and regulatory proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge on PTEN-PDZ domain interactions and tumor suppressor networks, describe methodology suitable to analyze these interactions, and report the binding of PTEN and the PDZ domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN13. Yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down analyses showed that PTEN binds to PDZ2/PTPN13 domain in a manner that depends on the specific PTPN13 PDZ domain arrangement involving the interdomain region between PDZ1 and PDZ2. Furthermore, a specific binding profile of PTEN to PDZ2/PTPN13 domain was observed by mutational analysis of the PTEN PDZ-BM. Our results disclose a PDZ-mediated physical interaction of PTEN and PTPN13 with potential relevance in tumor suppression and cell homeostasis. PMID:25448478

  12. Bacterial Pleckstrin Homology Domains: A Prokaryotic Origin for the PH Domain

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingping; Bateman, Alex; Finn, Robert D.; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Chiu, Michelle; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Ernst, Dustin; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Wooten, Tiffany; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    Pleckstrin homology (PH) domains have been identified only in eukaryotic proteins to date. We have determined crystal structures for three members of an uncharacterized protein family (Pfam PF08000), which provide compelling evidence for the existence of PH-like domains in bacteria (PHb). The first two structures contain a single PHb domain that forms a dome-shaped, oligomeric ring with C5 symmetry. The third structure has an additional helical hairpin attached at the C-terminus and forms a similar but much larger ring with C12 symmetry. Thus, both molecular assemblies exhibit rare, higher-order, cyclic symmetry but preserve a similar arrangement of their PHb domains, which gives rise to a conserved hydrophilic surface at the intersection of the β-strands of adjacent protomers that likely mediates protein–protein interactions. As a result of these structures, additional families of PHb domains were identified, suggesting that PH domains are much more widespread than originally anticipated. Thus, rather than being a eukaryotic innovation, the PH domain superfamily appears to have existed before prokaryotes and eukaryotes diverged. PMID:19913036

  13. Crystallographic studies on protein misfolding: Domain swapping and amyloid formation in the SH3 domain.

    PubMed

    Cámara-Artigas, Ana

    2016-07-15

    Oligomerization by 3D domain swapping is found in a variety of proteins of diverse size, fold and function. In the early 1960s this phenomenon was postulated for the oligomers of ribonuclease A, but it was not until the 1990s that X-ray diffraction provided the first experimental evidence of this special manner of oligomerization. Nowadays, structural information has allowed the identification of these swapped oligomers in over one hundred proteins. Although the functional relevance of this phenomenon is not clear, this alternative folding of protomers into intertwined oligomers has been related to amyloid formation. Studies on proteins that develop 3D domain swapping might provide some clues on the early stages of amyloid formation. The SH3 domain is a small modular domain that has been used as a model to study the basis of protein folding. Among SH3 domains, the c-Src-SH3 domain emerges as a helpful model to study 3D domain swapping and amyloid formation. PMID:26924596

  14. Simplicity and Specificity in Language: Domain-General Biases Have Domain-Specific Effects.

    PubMed

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Kirby, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which the linguistic system-its architecture, the representations it operates on, the constraints it is subject to-is specific to language has broad implications for cognitive science and its relation to evolutionary biology. Importantly, a given property of the linguistic system can be "specific" to the domain of language in several ways. For example, if the property evolved by natural selection under the pressure of the linguistic function it serves then the property is domain-specific in the sense that its design is tailored for language. Equally though, if that property evolved to serve a different function or if that property is domain-general, it may nevertheless interact with the linguistic system in a way that is unique. This gives a second sense in which a property can be thought of as specific to language. An evolutionary approach to the language faculty might at first blush appear to favor domain-specificity in the first sense, with individual properties of the language faculty being specifically linguistic adaptations. However, we argue that interactions between learning, culture, and biological evolution mean any domain-specific adaptations that evolve will take the form of weak biases rather than hard constraints. Turning to the latter sense of domain-specificity, we highlight a very general bias, simplicity, which operates widely in cognition and yet interacts with linguistic representations in domain-specific ways. PMID:26793132

  15. Crystal structure of domain-swapped STE20 OSR1 kinase domain

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Cobb, Melanie H.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.

    2009-09-15

    OSR1 (oxidative stress-responsive-1) and SPAK (Ste20/Sps1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) belong to the GCK-VI subfamily of Ste20 group kinases. OSR1 and SPAK are key regulators of NKCCs (Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/2Cl{sup -} cotransporters) and activated by WNK family members (with-no-lysine kinase), mutations of which are known to cause Gordon syndrome, an autosomal dominant form of inherited hypertension. The crystal structure of OSR1 kinase domain has been solved at 2.25 {angstrom}. OSR1 forms a domain-swapped dimer in an inactive conformation, in which P+1 loop and {alpha}EF helix are swapped between dimer-related monomers. Structural alignment with nonswapped Ste20 TAO2 kinase indicates that the integrity of chemical interactions in the kinase domain is well preserved in the domain-swapped interfaces. The OSR1 kinase domain has now been added to a growing list of domain-swapped protein kinases recently reported, suggesting that the domain-swapping event provides an additional layer of complexity in regulating protein kinase activity.

  16. The acidic domains of the Toc159 chloroplast preprotein receptor family are intrinsically disordered protein domains

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Toc159 family of proteins serve as receptors for chloroplast-destined preproteins. They directly bind to transit peptides, and exhibit preprotein substrate selectivity conferred by an unknown mechanism. The Toc159 receptors each include three domains: C-terminal membrane, central GTPase, and N-terminal acidic (A-) domains. Although the function(s) of the A-domain remains largely unknown, the amino acid sequences are most variable within these domains, suggesting they may contribute to the functional specificity of the receptors. Results The physicochemical properties of the A-domains are characteristic of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Using CD spectroscopy we show that the A-domains of two Arabidopsis Toc159 family members (atToc132 and atToc159) are disordered at physiological pH and temperature and undergo conformational changes at temperature and pH extremes that are characteristic of IDPs. Conclusions Identification of the A-domains as IDPs will be important for determining their precise function(s), and suggests a role in protein-protein interactions, which may explain how these proteins serve as receptors for such a wide variety of preprotein substrates. PMID:20042108

  17. Comparison of frequency-domain and time-domain rotorcraft vibration control methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, N. K.

    1984-01-01

    Active control of rotor-induced vibration in rotorcraft has received significant attention recently. Two classes of techniques have been proposed. The more developed approach works with harmonic analysis of measured time histories and is called the frequency-domain approach. The more recent approach computes the control input directly using the measured time history data and is called the time-domain approach. The report summarizes the results of a theoretical investigation to compare the two approaches. Five specific areas were addressed: (1) techniques to derive models needed for control design (system identification methods), (2) robustness with respect to errors, (3) transient response, (4) susceptibility to noise, and (5) implementation difficulties. The system identification methods are more difficult for the time-domain models. The time-domain approach is more robust (e.g., has higher gain and phase margins) than the frequency-domain approach. It might thus be possible to avoid doing real-time system identification in the time-domain approach by storing models at a number of flight conditions. The most significant error source is the variation in open-loop vibrations caused by pilot inputs, maneuvers or gusts. The implementation requirements are similar except that the time-domain approach can be much simpler to implement if real-time system identification were not necessary.

  18. Leveraging domain information to restructure biological prediction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is commonly believed that including domain knowledge in a prediction model is desirable. However, representing and incorporating domain information in the learning process is, in general, a challenging problem. In this research, we consider domain information encoded by discrete or categorical attributes. A discrete or categorical attribute provides a natural partition of the problem domain, and hence divides the original problem into several non-overlapping sub-problems. In this sense, the domain information is useful if the partition simplifies the learning task. The goal of this research is to develop an algorithm to identify discrete or categorical attributes that maximally simplify the learning task. Results We consider restructuring a supervised learning problem via a partition of the problem space using a discrete or categorical attribute. A naive approach exhaustively searches all the possible restructured problems. It is computationally prohibitive when the number of discrete or categorical attributes is large. We propose a metric to rank attributes according to their potential to reduce the uncertainty of a classification task. It is quantified as a conditional entropy achieved using a set of optimal classifiers, each of which is built for a sub-problem defined by the attribute under consideration. To avoid high computational cost, we approximate the solution by the expected minimum conditional entropy with respect to random projections. This approach is tested on three artificial data sets, three cheminformatics data sets, and two leukemia gene expression data sets. Empirical results demonstrate that our method is capable of selecting a proper discrete or categorical attribute to simplify the problem, i.e., the performance of the classifier built for the restructured problem always beats that of the original problem. Conclusions The proposed conditional entropy based metric is effective in identifying good partitions of a classification

  19. ECOD: An Evolutionary Classification of Protein Domains

    PubMed Central

    Kinch, Lisa N.; Pei, Jimin; Shi, Shuoyong; Kim, Bong-Hyun; Grishin, Nick V.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of a protein, including both close and distant relationships, often reveals insight into its structure and function. Fast and easy access to such up-to-date information facilitates research. We have developed a hierarchical evolutionary classification of all proteins with experimentally determined spatial structures, and presented it as an interactive and updatable online database. ECOD (Evolutionary Classification of protein Domains) is distinct from other structural classifications in that it groups domains primarily by evolutionary relationships (homology), rather than topology (or “fold”). This distinction highlights cases of homology between domains of differing topology to aid in understanding of protein structure evolution. ECOD uniquely emphasizes distantly related homologs that are difficult to detect, and thus catalogs the largest number of evolutionary links among structural domain classifications. Placing distant homologs together underscores the ancestral similarities of these proteins and draws attention to the most important regions of sequence and structure, as well as conserved functional sites. ECOD also recognizes closer sequence-based relationships between protein domains. Currently, approximately 100,000 protein structures are classified in ECOD into 9,000 sequence families clustered into close to 2,000 evolutionary groups. The classification is assisted by an automated pipeline that quickly and consistently classifies weekly releases of PDB structures and allows for continual updates. This synchronization with PDB uniquely distinguishes ECOD among all protein classifications. Finally, we present several case studies of homologous proteins not recorded in other classifications, illustrating the potential of how ECOD can be used to further biological and evolutionary studies. PMID:25474468

  20. REvolver: modeling sequence evolution under domain constraints.

    PubMed

    Koestler, Tina; von Haeseler, Arndt; Ebersberger, Ingo

    2012-09-01

    Simulating the change of protein sequences over time in a biologically realistic way is fundamental for a broad range of studies with a focus on evolution. It is, thus, problematic that typically simulators evolve individual sites of a sequence identically and independently. More realistic simulations are possible; however, they are often prohibited by limited knowledge concerning site-specific evolutionary constraints or functional dependencies between amino acids. As a consequence, a protein's functional and structural characteristics are rapidly lost in the course of simulated evolution. Here, we present REvolver (www.cibiv.at/software/revolver), a program that simulates protein sequence alteration such that evolutionarily stable sequence characteristics, like functional domains, are maintained. For this purpose, REvolver recruits profile hidden Markov models (pHMMs) for parameterizing site-specific models of sequence evolution in an automated fashion. pHMMs derived from alignments of homologous proteins or protein domains capture information regarding which sequence sites remained conserved over time and where in a sequence insertions or deletions are more likely to occur. Thus, they describe constraints on the evolutionary process acting on these sequences. To demonstrate the performance of REvolver as well as its applicability in large-scale simulation studies, we evolved the entire human proteome up to 1.5 expected substitutions per site. Simultaneously, we analyzed the preservation of Pfam and SMART domains in the simulated sequences over time. REvolver preserved 92% of the Pfam domains originally present in the human sequences. This value drops to 15% when traditional models of amino acid sequence evolution are used. Thus, REvolver represents a significant advance toward a realistic simulation of protein sequence evolution on a proteome-wide scale. Further, REvolver facilitates the simulation of a protein family with a user-defined domain architecture at

  1. Architecture and function of metallopeptidase catalytic domains

    PubMed Central

    Cerdà-Costa, Núria; Gomis-Rüth, Francesc Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The cleavage of peptide bonds by metallopeptidases (MPs) is essential for life. These ubiquitous enzymes participate in all major physiological processes, and so their deregulation leads to diseases ranging from cancer and metastasis, inflammation, and microbial infection to neurological insults and cardiovascular disorders. MPs cleave their substrates without a covalent intermediate in a single-step reaction involving a solvent molecule, a general base/acid, and a mono-or dinuclear catalytic metal site. Most monometallic MPs comprise a short metal-binding motif (HEXXH), which includes two metal-binding histidines and a general base/acid glutamate, and they are grouped into the zincin tribe of MPs. The latter divides mainly into the gluzincin and metzincin clans. Metzincins consist of globular ∼130–270-residue catalytic domains, which are usually preceded by N-terminal pro-segments, typically required for folding and latency maintenance. The catalytic domains are often followed by C-terminal domains for substrate recognition and other protein–protein interactions, anchoring to membranes, oligomerization, and compartmentalization. Metzincin catalytic domains consist of a structurally conserved N-terminal subdomain spanning a five-stranded β-sheet, a backing helix, and an active-site helix. The latter contains most of the metal-binding motif, which is here characteristically extended to HEXXHXXGXX(H,D). Downstream C-terminal subdomains are generally shorter, differ more among metzincins, and mainly share a conserved loop—the Met-turn—and a C-terminal helix. The accumulated structural data from more than 300 deposited structures of the 12 currently characterized metzincin families reviewed here provide detailed knowledge of the molecular features of their catalytic domains, help in our understanding of their working mechanisms, and form the basis for the design of novel drugs. PMID:24596965

  2. A mixed finite element domain decomposition method for nearly elastic wave equations in the frequency domain

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Xiaobing

    1996-12-31

    A non-overlapping domain decomposition iterative method is proposed and analyzed for mixed finite element methods for a sequence of noncoercive elliptic systems with radiation boundary conditions. These differential systems describe the motion of a nearly elastic solid in the frequency domain. The convergence of the iterative procedure is demonstrated and the rate of convergence is derived for the case when the domain is decomposed into subdomains in which each subdomain consists of an individual element associated with the mixed finite elements. The hybridization of mixed finite element methods plays a important role in the construction of the discrete procedure.

  3. The BTB domains of the potassium channel tetramerization domain proteins prevalently assume pentameric states.

    PubMed

    Smaldone, Giovanni; Pirone, Luciano; Pedone, Emilia; Marlovits, Thomas; Vitagliano, Luigi; Ciccarelli, Luciano

    2016-06-01

    Potassium channel tetramerization domain-containing (KCTD) proteins are involved in fundamental physio-pathological processes. Here, we report an analysis of the oligomeric state of the Bric-à-brack, Tram-track, Broad complex (BTB) domains of seven distinct KCTDs belonging to five major clades of the family evolution tree. Despite their functional and sequence variability, present electron microscopy data highlight the occurrence of well-defined pentameric states for all domains. Our data also show that these states coexist with alternative forms which include open pentamers. Thermal denaturation analyses conducted using KCTD1 as a model suggest that, in these proteins, different domains cooperate to their overall stability. Finally, negative-stain electron micrographs of KCTD6(BTB) in complex with Cullin3 show the presence of assemblies with a five-pointed pinwheel shape. PMID:27152988

  4. High order expanding domain methods for the solution of Poisson's equation in infinite domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Christopher R.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present a discrete Fourier transform based procedure to evaluate the infinite domain solution of Poisson's equation at points in a rectangular computational region. The numerical procedure is a modification of an "expanding domain" type method where one obtains approximations of increasing accuracy by expanding the computational domain. The modification presented here is one that leads to approximations that converge with high order rates of convergence with respect to domain size. Spectrally accurate approximations are used to approximate differential operators and so the method possesses very high rates of convergence with respect to mesh size as well. Computational results on both two and three dimensional test problems are presented that demonstrate the accuracy and computational efficiency of the procedure.

  5. Critical role of domain crystallinity, domain purity and domain interface sharpness for reduced bimolecular recombination in polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Chen, Jihua; Ngo, Evan C.; Dubey, Ashish; Khatiwada, Devendra; Zhang, Cheng; Qiao, Qiquan

    2014-12-31

    In this study, inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) blended with two different fullerene derivatives namely phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM) and indene-C60 bis-adduct (IC60BA). The effects of annealing temperatures on the morphology, optical and structural properties were studied and correlated to differences in photovoltaic device performance. It was observed that annealing temperature significantly improved the performance of P3HT:IC60BA solar cells while P3HT:PC60BM cells showed relatively less improvement. The performance improvement is attributed to the extent of fullerene mixing with polymer domains. Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that ICBA mixes with disordered P3HT much more readily than PC60BM which leads to lower short circuit current density and fill factor for P3HT:IC60BA cells annealed below 120°C. Annealing above 120°C improves the crystallinity of P3HT in case of P3HT:IC60BA whereas in P3HT:PC60BM films, annealing above 80°C leads to negligible change in crystallinity. Crystallization of P3HT also leads to higher domain purity as seen EFTEM. Further it is seen that cells processed with additive nitrobenzene (NB) showed enhanced short circuit current density and power conversion efficiency regardless of the fullerene derivative used. Addition of NB led to nanoscale phase separation between purer polymer and fullerene domains. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) images showed that enhanced domain purity in additive casted films led to a sharper interface between polymer and fullerene. Lastly, enhanced domain purity and interfacial sharpness led to lower bimolecular recombination and higher mobility and charge carrier lifetime in NB modified devices.

  6. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core.

    PubMed

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S; Okafor, C Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O'Neill, Eric B; Hud, Nicholas V; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-01-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2'OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit. PMID:26876483

  7. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S.; Okafor, C. Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O'Neill, Eric B.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-02-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2‧OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit.

  8. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core

    PubMed Central

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S.; Okafor, C. Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O’Neill, Eric B.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-01-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2′OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit. PMID:26876483

  9. An Internet-Mediated Pedometer-Based Program Improves Health-Related Quality-of-Life Domains and Daily Step Counts in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Marilyn L.; Collins, Riley J.; Martinez, Carlos H.; Kadri, Reema; Roman, Pia; Holleman, Robert G.; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Cohen, Miriam D.; Goodrich, David E.; Giardino, Nicholas D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low levels of physical activity (PA) are associated with poor outcomes in people with COPD. Interventions to increase PA could improve outcomes. METHODS: We tested the efficacy of a novel Internet-mediated, pedometer-based exercise intervention. Veterans with COPD (N = 239) were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to the (1) intervention group (Omron HJ-720 ITC pedometer and Internet-mediated program) or (2) wait-list control group (pedometer). The primary outcome was health-related quality of life (HRQL), assessed by the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), at 4 months. We examined the SGRQ total score (SGRQ-TS) and three domain scores: Symptoms, Activities, and Impact. The secondary outcome was daily step counts. Linear regression models assessed the effect of intervention on outcomes. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 67 ± 9 years, and 94% were men. There was no significant between-group difference in mean 4-month SGRQ-TS (2.3 units, P = .14). Nevertheless, a significantly greater proportion of intervention participants than control subjects had at least a 4-unit improvement in SGRQ-TS, the minimum clinically important difference (53% vs 39%, respectively, P = .05). For domain scores, the intervention group had a lower (reflecting better HRQL) mean than the control group by 4.6 units for Symptoms (P = .046) and by 3.3 units for Impact (P = .049). There was no significant difference in Activities score between the two groups. Compared with the control subjects, intervention participants walked 779 more steps per day at 4 months (P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: An Internet-mediated, pedometer-based walking program can improve domains of HRQL and daily step counts at 4 months in people with COPD. TRIAL REGISTRY: Clinical Trials.gov; No.: NCT01102777; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:25811395

  10. Skyrmion domain wall collision and domain wall-gated skyrmion logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xiangjun; Pong, Philip W. T.; Zhou, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Skyrmions and domain walls are significant spin textures of great technological relevance to magnetic memory and logic applications, where they can be used as carriers of information. The unique topology of skyrmions makes them display emergent dynamical properties as compared with domain walls. Some studies have demonstrated that the two topologically inequivalent magnetic objects could be interconverted by using cleverly designed geometric structures. Here, we numerically address the skyrmion domain wall collision in a magnetic racetrack by introducing relative motion between the two objects based on a specially designed junction. An electric current serves as the driving force that moves a skyrmion toward a trapped domain wall pair. We see different types of collision dynamics depending on the driving parameters. Most importantly, the modulation of skyrmion transport using domain walls is realized in this system, allowing a set of domain wall-gated logical NOT, NAND, and NOR gates to be constructed. This work provides a skyrmion-based spin-logic architecture that is fully compatible with racetrack memories.

  11. Scalable video coding in frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civanlar, Mehmet R.; Puri, Atul

    1992-11-01

    Scalable video coding is important in a number of applications where video needs to be decoded and displayed at a variety of resolution scales. It is more efficient than simulcasting, in which all desired resolution scales are coded totally independent of one another within the constraint of a fixed available bandwidth. In this paper, we focus on scalability using the frequency domain approach. We employ the framework proposed for the ongoing second phase of Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG-2) standard to study the performance of one such scheme and investigate improvements aimed at increasing its efficiency. Practical issues related to multiplexing of encoded data of various resolution scales to facilitate decoding are considered. Simulations are performed to investigate the potential of a chosen frequency domain scheme. Various prospects and limitations are also discussed.

  12. Myonuclear domains in muscle adaptation and disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. L.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1999-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle fibers are among the few cell types that are truly multinucleated. Recently, evidence has accumulated supporting a role for the modulation of myonuclear number during muscle remodeling in response to injury, adaptation, and disease. These studies have demonstrated that muscle hypertrophy is associated with, and is dependent on, the addition of newly formed myonuclei via the fusion of myogenic cells to the adult myofiber, whereas muscle atrophy and disease appear to be associated with the loss of myonuclei, possibly through apoptotic-like mechanisms. Moreover, these studies also have demonstrated that myonuclear domain size, i. e., the amount of cytoplasm per myonucleus, is unchanged following the acute phase of hypertrophy but is reduced following atrophy. Together these data demonstrate that modulation of myonuclear number or myonuclear domain size (or both) is a mechanism contributing to the remodeling of adult skeletal muscle in response to alterations in the level of normal neuromuscular activity. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Space Domain Awareness for Manned GEO Servicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, T.

    2010-09-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is embarking on a joint program to service spacecraft in Geosynchronous (GEO) Orbit. This ambitious program, known as R5 (Rendezvous, Refuel, Refurbish, Repair, and Reposition), will develop the technologies required to extend the life of billions of dollars of invested in building, launching and operating GEO spacecraft. Inherent in the R5 program, is the need for high quality awareness of the space domain at GEO. Servicing non-operational spacecraft in GEO will require enhanced debris detect/track and space weather monitoring for crew safety, as well as high resolution characterization of the spacecraft to understand the status of the spacecraft to manifest the repair mission. This paper will briefly describe the GEO space domain sensor and data processing requirements to support the R5 program and outline DARPA’s program plans to develop these capabilities. Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR case 15410.

  14. Membrane Domain Formation on Nanostructured Scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Charles; Liu, Fangjie; Srijanto, Bernadeta

    The spatial organization of lipids and proteins in biological membranes seems to have a functional role in the life of a cell. Separation of the lipids into distinct domains of greater order and anchoring to the cytoskeleton are two main mechanisms for organizing the membrane in cells. We propose a novel model membrane consisting of a lipid bilayer suspended over a nanostructured scaffold consisting of arrays of fabricated nanopillars. Unlike traditional model membranes, our model will have well-defined lateral structure and distributed substrate attachments that will emulate the connections of cellular membranes to the underlying cytoskeleton. Membranes will be characterized using neutron reflectometry, atomic force microscopy and fluorescence to verify a suspended, planar geometry with restricted diffusion at suspension points, and free diffusion in between. This architecture will allow the controlled study of lipid domain reorganization, viral infection and signal transduction that depend on the lateral structure of the membrane.

  15. Inhomogeneous rotation in ferroelastic domain patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, A. E.; Curnoe, S. H.; Desai, R. C.

    2004-03-01

    We study static, two-dimensional domain patterns obtained by numerical minimization of the strain energy for proper triangular→centered-rectangular (T-CR) and square→rectangular ferroelastics. Applications are made to hexagonal→orthorhombic and related materials (lead orthovanadate, Mg_3Cd, Ta_4N, etc) and YBa_2Cu_3O_7-δ. Examinatin of the local rotation, the local energy density and the non-order-parameter strains reveals wedge and other disclinations responsible for the complexity of the patterns. The rotation might be observed in birefringence imaging. We report also unusual structures obtained near Tc in T-CR systems, including trapped high-T phase and pencil-like domains.

  16. Domain Growth Kinetics in Stratifying Foam Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-03-01

    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Typical foam films consist of two surfactant-laden surfaces that are μ 5 nm - 10 micron apart. Sandwiched between these interfacial layers is a fluid that drains primarily under the influence of viscous and interfacial forces, including disjoining pressure. Interestingly, for certain low molecular weight surfactants, a layered ordering of micelles inside the foam films (thickness <100 nm) leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification. We experimentally elucidate the influence of these different driving forces, and confinement on drainage kinetics of horizontal stratifying foam films. Thinner, darker domains spontaneously grow within foam films. Quantitative characterization of domain growth visualized in a using Scheludko-type thin film cell and a theoretical model based on lubrication analysis, provide critical insights into hydrodynamics of thin foam films, and the strength and nature of surface forces, including supramolecular oscillatory structural forces.

  17. Entropy gives rise to topologically associating domains

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Paula A.; Hult, Caitlin; Adalsteinsson, David; Lawrimore, Josh; Forest, Mark G.; Bloom, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    We investigate chromosome organization within the nucleus using polymer models whose formulation is closely guided by experiments in live yeast cells. We employ bead-spring chromosome models together with loop formation within the chains and the presence of nuclear bodies to quantify the extent to which these mechanisms shape the topological landscape in the interphase nucleus. By investigating the genome as a dynamical system, we show that domains of high chromosomal interactions can arise solely from the polymeric nature of the chromosome arms due to entropic interactions and nuclear confinement. In this view, the role of bio-chemical related processes is to modulate and extend the duration of the interacting domains. PMID:27257057

  18. Entropy gives rise to topologically associating domains.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Paula A; Hult, Caitlin; Adalsteinsson, David; Lawrimore, Josh; Forest, Mark G; Bloom, Kerry

    2016-07-01

    We investigate chromosome organization within the nucleus using polymer models whose formulation is closely guided by experiments in live yeast cells. We employ bead-spring chromosome models together with loop formation within the chains and the presence of nuclear bodies to quantify the extent to which these mechanisms shape the topological landscape in the interphase nucleus. By investigating the genome as a dynamical system, we show that domains of high chromosomal interactions can arise solely from the polymeric nature of the chromosome arms due to entropic interactions and nuclear confinement. In this view, the role of bio-chemical related processes is to modulate and extend the duration of the interacting domains. PMID:27257057

  19. LHC RF System Time-Domain Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mastorides, T.; Rivetta, C.; /SLAC

    2010-09-14

    Non-linear time-domain simulations have been developed for the Positron-Electron Project (PEP-II) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These simulations capture the dynamic behavior of the RF station-beam interaction and are structured to reproduce the technical characteristics of the system (noise contributions, non-linear elements, and more). As such, they provide useful results and insight for the development and design of future LLRF feedback systems. They are also a valuable tool for the study of diverse longitudinal beam dynamics effects such as coupled-bunch impedance driven instabilities and single bunch longitudinal emittance growth. Results from these studies and related measurements from PEP-II and LHC have been presented in multiple places. This report presents an example of the time-domain simulation implementation for the LHC.

  20. Defect junctions and domain wall dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Avelino, P.P.; Oliveira, J.C.R.E.; Martins, C.J.A.P.; Menezes, J.; Menezes, R.

    2006-06-15

    We study a number of domain wall forming models where various types of defect junctions can exist. These illustrate some of the mechanisms that will determine the evolution of defect networks with junctions. Understanding these mechanisms is vital for a proper assessment of a number of cosmological scenarios: we will focus on the issue of whether or not cosmological frustrated domain wall networks can exist at all, but our results are also relevant for the dynamics of cosmic (super)strings, where junctions are expected to be ubiquitous. We also define and discuss the properties that would make up the ideal model in terms of hypothetical frustrated wall networks, and provide an explicit construction for such a model. We carry out a number of numerical simulations of the evolution of these networks, analyze and contrast their results, and discuss their implications for our no-frustration conjecture.

  1. Structural and Histone Binding Ability Characterizations of Human PWWP Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hong; Zeng, Hong; Lam, Robert; Tempel, Wolfram; Amaya, Maria F.; Xu, Chao; Dombrovski, Ludmila; Qiu, Wei; Wang, Yanming; Min, Jinrong

    2013-09-25

    The PWWP domain was first identified as a structural motif of 100-130 amino acids in the WHSC1 protein and predicted to be a protein-protein interaction domain. It belongs to the Tudor domain 'Royal Family', which consists of Tudor, chromodomain, MBT and PWWP domains. While Tudor, chromodomain and MBT domains have long been known to bind methylated histones, PWWP was shown to exhibit histone binding ability only until recently. The PWWP domain has been shown to be a DNA binding domain, but sequence analysis and previous structural studies show that the PWWP domain exhibits significant similarity to other 'Royal Family' members, implying that the PWWP domain has the potential to bind histones. In order to further explore the function of the PWWP domain, we used the protein family approach to determine the crystal structures of the PWWP domains from seven different human proteins. Our fluorescence polarization binding studies show that PWWP domains have weak histone binding ability, which is also confirmed by our NMR titration experiments. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structures of the BRPF1 PWWP domain in complex with H3K36me3, and HDGF2 PWWP domain in complex with H3K79me3 and H4K20me3. PWWP proteins constitute a new family of methyl lysine histone binders. The PWWP domain consists of three motifs: a canonical {beta}-barrel core, an insertion motif between the second and third {beta}-strands and a C-terminal {alpha}-helix bundle. Both the canonical {beta}-barrel core and the insertion motif are directly involved in histone binding. The PWWP domain has been previously shown to be a DNA binding domain. Therefore, the PWWP domain exhibits dual functions: binding both DNA and methyllysine histones.

  2. An intelligent tutor for the space domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swigger, Kathleen; Loveland, Harry

    1987-01-01

    An intelligent tutoring system for the space domain is described. This system was developed on a Xerox 1108 using LOOPS and provides an environment for discovering principles of ground tracks as a direct function of the orbital elements. Some of the more practical design and implementation issues associated with the development of intelligent tutoring systems are examined. Some solutions to the problems and some suggestions for future research are offered.

  3. Time Domain Modelling of a Reciprocating Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Stone, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a time domain systems approach to the modelling of a reciprocating engine. The engine model includes the varying inertia effects resulting from the motion of the piston and con-rod. The cylinder pressure measured under operating conditions is used to force the model and the resulting motion compared with the measured response. The results obtained indicate that the model is very good.

  4. Domain adaptation for Alzheimer's disease diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Wachinger, Christian; Reuter, Martin

    2016-10-01

    With the increasing prevalence of Alzheimer's disease, research focuses on the early computer-aided diagnosis of dementia with the goal to understand the disease process, determine risk and preserving factors, and explore preventive therapies. By now, large amounts of data from multi-site studies have been made available for developing, training, and evaluating automated classifiers. Yet, their translation to the clinic remains challenging, in part due to their limited generalizability across different datasets. In this work, we describe a compact classification approach that mitigates overfitting by regularizing the multinomial regression with the mixed ℓ1/ℓ2 norm. We combine volume, thickness, and anatomical shape features from MRI scans to characterize neuroanatomy for the three-class classification of Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. We demonstrate high classification accuracy via independent evaluation within the scope of the CADDementia challenge. We, furthermore, demonstrate that variations between source and target datasets can substantially influence classification accuracy. The main contribution of this work addresses this problem by proposing an approach for supervised domain adaptation based on instance weighting. Integration of this method into our classifier allows us to assess different strategies for domain adaptation. Our results demonstrate (i) that training on only the target training set yields better results than the naïve combination (union) of source and target training sets, and (ii) that domain adaptation with instance weighting yields the best classification results, especially if only a small training component of the target dataset is available. These insights imply that successful deployment of systems for computer-aided diagnostics to the clinic depends not only on accurate classifiers that avoid overfitting, but also on a dedicated domain adaptation strategy. PMID:27262241

  5. Image domain propeller fast spin echo☆

    PubMed Central

    Skare, Stefan; Holdsworth, Samantha J.; Lilja, Anders; Bammer, Roland

    2013-01-01

    A new pulse sequence for high-resolution T2-weighted (T2-w) imaging is proposed –image domain propeller fast spin echo (iProp-FSE). Similar to the T2-w PROPELLER sequence, iProp-FSE acquires data in a segmented fashion, as blades that are acquired in multiple TRs. However, the iProp-FSE blades are formed in the image domain instead of in the k-space domain. Each iProp-FSE blade resembles a single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) sequence with a very narrow phase-encoding field of view (FOV), after which N rotated blade replicas yield the final full circular FOV. Our method of combining the image domain blade data to a full FOV image is detailed, and optimal choices of phase-encoding FOVs and receiver bandwidths were evaluated on phantom and volunteers. The results suggest that a phase FOV of 15–20%, a receiver bandwidth of ±32–63 kHz and a subsequent readout time of about 300 ms provide a good tradeoff between signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency and T2 blurring. Comparisons between iProp-FSE, Cartesian FSE and PROPELLER were made on single-slice axial brain data, showing similar T2-w tissue contrast and SNR with great anatomical conspicuity at similar scan times –without colored noise or streaks from motion. A new slice interleaving order is also proposed to improve the multislice capabilities of iProp-FSE. PMID:23200683

  6. Metrology for terahertz time-domain spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molloy, John F.; Naftaly, Mira

    2015-12-01

    In recent years the terahertz time-domain spectrometer (THz TDS) [1] has emerged as a key measurement device for spectroscopic investigations in the frequency range of 0.1-5 THz. To date, almost every type of material has been studied using THz TDS, including semiconductors, ceramics, polymers, metal films, liquid crystals, glasses, pharmaceuticals, DNA molecules, proteins, gases, composites, foams, oils, and many others. Measurements with a TDS are made in the time domain; conversion from the time domain data to a frequency spectrum is achieved by applying the Fourier Transform, calculated numerically using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. As in many other types of spectrometer, THz TDS requires that the sample data be referenced to similarly acquired data with no sample present. Unlike frequency-domain spectrometers which detect light intensity and measure absorption spectra, a TDS records both amplitude and phase information, and therefore yields both the absorption coefficient and the refractive index of the sample material. The analysis of the data from THz TDS relies on the assumptions that: a) the frequency scale is accurate; b) the measurement of THz field amplitude is linear; and c) that the presence of the sample does not affect the performance characteristics of the instrument. The frequency scale of a THz TDS is derived from the displacement of the delay line; via FFT, positioning errors may give rise to frequency errors that are difficult to quantify. The measurement of the field amplitude in a THz TDS is required to be linear with a dynamic range of the order of 10 000. And attention must be given to the sample positioning and handling in order to avoid sample-related errors.

  7. Domain decomposition methods for mortar finite elements

    SciTech Connect

    Widlund, O.

    1996-12-31

    In the last few years, domain decomposition methods, previously developed and tested for standard finite element methods and elliptic problems, have been extended and modified to work for mortar and other nonconforming finite element methods. A survey will be given of work carried out jointly with Yves Achdou, Mario Casarin, Maksymilian Dryja and Yvon Maday. Results on the p- and h-p-version finite elements will also be discussed.

  8. Domain decomposition multigrid for unstructured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-01-01

    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of elliptic boundary value problems using finite element schemes on possibly unstructured meshes is introduced. It is based on a domain decomposition and a Galerkin scheme for the coarse level vertex unknowns. For both the implementation and the analysis, it is not required that the curves of discontinuity in the coefficients of the PDE match the interfaces between subdomains. Generalizations to nonmatching or overlapping grids are made.

  9. Dynamic Domains in Data Production Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Pang, Wanlin

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a planner-based approach to automating data production tasks, such as producing fire forecasts from satellite imagery and weather station data. Since the set of available data products is large, dynamic and mostly unknown, planning techniques developed for closed worlds are unsuitable. We discuss a number of techniques we have developed to cope with data production domains, including a novel constraint propagation algorithm based on planning graphs and a constraint-based approach to interleaved planning, sensing and execution.

  10. MBT domain proteins in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Bonasio, Roberto; Lecona, Emilio; Reinberg, Danny

    2013-01-01

    The Malignant Brain Tumor (MBT) domain is a “chromatin reader”, a protein module that binds to post-translational modifications on histone tails that are thought to affect a variety of chromatin processes, including transcription. More specifically, MBT domains recognize mono- and di-methylated lysines at a number of different positions on histone H3 and H4 tails. Three Drosophila proteins, SCM, L(3)MBT and SFMBT contain multiple adjacent MBT repeats and have critical roles in development, maintenance of cell identity, and tumor suppression. Although they function in different pathways, these proteins all localize to chromatin in vivo and repress transcription by a currently unknown molecular mechanism that requires the MBT domains. The human genome contains several homologues of these MBT proteins, some of which have been linked to important gene regulatory pathways, such as E2F/Rb- and Polycomb-mediated repression, and to the insurgence of certain neurological tumors. Here, we review the genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology of MBT proteins and their role in development and disease. PMID:19778625

  11. Time-Domain Filtering of Metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakatsuchi, Hiroki

    2015-11-01

    In general electromagnetic response of each material to a continuous wave does not vary in time domain if the frequency component remains the same. Recently, it turned out that integrating several circuit elements including schottky diodes with periodically metallised surfaces, or the so-called metasurfaces, leads to selectively absorbing specific types of waveforms or pulse widths even at the same frequency. These waveform-selective metasurfaces effectively showed different absorbing performances for different widths of pulsed sine waves by gradually varying their electromagnetic responses in time domain. Here we study time-filtering effects of such circuit-based metasurfaces illuminated by continuous sine waves. Moreover, we introduce extra circuit elements to these structures to enhance the time-domain control capability. These time-varying properties are expected to give us another degree of freedom to control electromagnetic waves and thus contribute to developing new kinds of electromagnetic applications and technologies, e.g. time-windowing wireless communications and waveform conversion.

  12. Time-Domain Filtering of Metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Wakatsuchi, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    In general electromagnetic response of each material to a continuous wave does not vary in time domain if the frequency component remains the same. Recently, it turned out that integrating several circuit elements including schottky diodes with periodically metallised surfaces, or the so-called metasurfaces, leads to selectively absorbing specific types of waveforms or pulse widths even at the same frequency. These waveform-selective metasurfaces effectively showed different absorbing performances for different widths of pulsed sine waves by gradually varying their electromagnetic responses in time domain. Here we study time-filtering effects of such circuit-based metasurfaces illuminated by continuous sine waves. Moreover, we introduce extra circuit elements to these structures to enhance the time-domain control capability. These time-varying properties are expected to give us another degree of freedom to control electromagnetic waves and thus contribute to developing new kinds of electromagnetic applications and technologies, e.g. time-windowing wireless communications and waveform conversion. PMID:26564027

  13. Allosteric Communication in the Dynein Motor Domain

    PubMed Central

    Bhabha, Gira; Cheng, Hui-Chun; Zhang, Nan; Moeller, Arne; Liao, Maofu; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Cheng, Yifan; Vale, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Dyneins power microtubule motility using ring-shaped, AAA-containing motor domains. Here, we report X-ray and electron microscopy (EM) structures of yeast dynein bound to different ATP analogs, which collectively provide insight into the roles of dynein’s two major ATPase sites, AAA1 and AAA3, in the conformational change mechanism. ATP binding to AAA1 triggers a cascade of conformational changes that propagate to all six AAA domains and cause a large movement of the “linker,” dynein’s mechanical element. In contrast to the role of AAA1 in driving motility, nucleotide transitions in AAA3 gate the transmission of conformational changes between AAA1 and the linker, suggesting that AAA3 acts as a regulatory switch. Further structural and mutational studies also uncover a role for the linker in regulating the catalytic cycle of AAA1. Together, these results reveal how dynein’s two major ATP-binding sites initiate and modulate conformational changes in the motor domain during motility. PMID:25417161

  14. Time-domain robotic vision application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolliver, C. L.

    1987-01-01

    The quest for the highest resolution microwaves imaging and the principle of time-domain imaging is the primary motivation for recent developments in time-domain techniques. With the present technology fast time varying signals can now be measured and recorded both in magnitude and in phase. It has also enhanced the ability to extract relevant details concerning the scattering object. In the past, the inference of object geometry or shape from scattered signals has received substantial attention in radar technology. Various inverse scattering theories were proposed to develop analytical solutions to this problem. Furthermore, the random inversion, frequenty swept holography, and the synthetic radar imaging, all of which have two things in common: the physical optic far-field approximation and the utilization of the channels as an extra physical dimension, were also advanced significantly. Despite the inherent vectorial nature of electromagnetic waves, these scalar treatments have brought forth some promising results in practice with notable examples in subsurface and structure sounding. The use of time-domain imaging for space robotic vision applications was proposed. A multisensor approach to vision was shown to have several advantages over the video-only approach.

  15. PDZ domain from Dishevelled -- a specificity study.

    PubMed

    Śmietana, Katarzyna; Mateja, Agnieszka; Krężel, Artur; Otlewski, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular signaling cascades induced by Wnt proteins play a key role in developmental processes and are implicated in cancerogenesis. It is still unclear how the cell determines which of the three possible Wnt response mechanisms should be activated, but the decision process is most likely dependent on Dishevelled proteins. Dishevelled family members interact with many diverse targets, however, molecular mechanisms underlying these binding events have not been comprehensively described so far. Here, we investigated the specificity of the PDZ domain from human Dishevelled-2 using C-terminal phage display, which led us to identification of a leucine-rich binding motif strongly resembling the consensus sequence of a nuclear export signal. PDZ interactions with several peptide and protein motifs (including the nuclear export signal sequence from Dishevelled-2 protein) were investigated in detail using fluorescence spectroscopy, mutational analysis and immunoenzymatic assays. The experiments showed that the PDZ domain can bind the nuclear export signal sequence of the Dishevelled-2 protein. Since the intracellular localization of Dishevelled is governed by nuclear localization and nuclear export signal sequences, it is possible that the intramolecular interaction between PDZ domain and the export signal could modulate the balance between nuclear and cytoplasmic pool of the Dishevelled protein. Such a regulatory mechanism would be of utmost importance for the differential activation of Wnt signaling cascades, leading to selective promotion of the nucleus-dependent Wnt β-catenin pathway at the expense of non-canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:21666888

  16. Time-Domain Filtering of Metasurfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wakatsuchi, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    In general electromagnetic response of each material to a continuous wave does not vary in time domain if the frequency component remains the same. Recently, it turned out that integrating several circuit elements including schottky diodes with periodically metallised surfaces, or the so-called metasurfaces, leads to selectively absorbing specific types of waveforms or pulse widths even at the same frequency. These waveform-selective metasurfaces effectively showed different absorbing performances for different widths of pulsed sine waves by gradually varying their electromagnetic responses in time domain. Here we study time-filtering effects of such circuit-based metasurfaces illuminated by continuous sine waves. Moreover, we introduce extra circuit elements to these structures to enhance the time-domain control capability. These time-varying properties are expected to give us another degree of freedom to control electromagnetic waves and thus contribute to developing new kinds of electromagnetic applications and technologies, e.g. time-windowing wireless communications and waveform conversion. PMID:26564027

  17. Domain wall motion in ferroelectrics: Barkhausen noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, V.; Rumyantsev, E.; Kozhevnikov, V.; Nikolaeva, E.; Shishkin, E.

    2002-03-01

    The switching current noise has been recorded during polarization reversal in single-crystalline gadolinium molybdate (GMO) and lithium tantalate (LT). Analysis of Barkhausen noise (BN) data allows to classify the noise types by determination of the critical indexes and fractal dimensions. BN is manifested as the short pulses during the polarization reversal. We have analyzed the BN data recorded in GMO and LT with various types of controlled domain structure. The data treatment in terms of probability distribution of duration, area and energy of individual pulses reveals the critical behavior typical for the fractal records in time. We used the Fourier transform and Hurst's rescaled range analysis for obtaining the Hurst factor, fractal dimension and classifying the noise types. We investigated by computer simulation the mechanism of sideways motion of 180O domain wall by nucleation at the wall taking into account the nuclei-nuclei interaction. It was shown that the moving domain walls display the fractal shape and their motion is accompanied by Flicker noise, which is in accord with experimental data. The research was made possible in part by Programs "Basic Research in Russian Universities" and "Priority Research in High School. Electronics", by Grant No. 01-02-17443 of RFBR, by Award No.REC-005 of CRDF.

  18. Folding and Aggregation of Mucin Domains.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanc, Brigita; Bansil, Rama; Turner, Bradley

    2007-03-01

    Mucin glycoproteins consist of tandem repeating glycosylated regions flanked by non-repetitive protein domains with little glycosylation. These non-repetitive domains are involved in polymerization of mucin via disulfide bonds and play an important role in the pH dependent gelation of gastric mucin, which is essential to protecting the stomach from autodigestion. We have examined the folding and aggregation of the non-repetitive sequence of von Willebrand factor vWF-C1 domain (67 amino acids) and PGM 2X (242 amino acids) using Discrete Molecular Dynamics (four-bead protein model with hydrogen bonding and amino acid-specific hydrophobic/hydrophilic and electrostatic interactions of side chains). Simulations of vWF C1 show 4-6 β-strands separated by turns/loops with more loops at lower pH. A simulation of several vWF C1 proteins at low pH shows aggregates still with a high content of β-strands and enhanced turn/loop regions. For the PGM 2X simulation the contact map shows several salt bridges enclosing hairpin turns. The implications of these simulations for describing the aggregation/gelation of PGM will be discussed.

  19. Domain specific software design for decision aiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Kirby; Stanley, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    McDonnell Aircraft Company (MCAIR) is involved in many large multi-discipline design and development efforts of tactical aircraft. These involve a number of design disciplines that must be coordinated to produce an integrated design and a successful product. Our interpretation of a domain specific software design (DSSD) is that of a representation or framework that is specialized to support a limited problem domain. A DSSD is an abstract software design that is shaped by the problem characteristics. This parallels the theme of object-oriented analysis and design of letting the problem model directly drive the design. The DSSD concept extends the notion of software reusability to include representations or frameworks. It supports the entire software life cycle and specifically leads to improved prototyping capability, supports system integration, and promotes reuse of software designs and supporting frameworks. The example presented in this paper is the task network architecture or design which was developed for the MCAIR Pilot's Associate program. The task network concept supported both module development and system integration within the domain of operator decision aiding. It is presented as an instance where a software design exhibited many of the attributes associated with DSSD concept.

  20. Nuclear domain 10 of the viral aspect

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Molina, Yisel A; Martínez, Francisco Puerta; Tang, Qiyi

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear domain 10 (ND10) are spherical bodies distributed throughout the nucleoplasm and measuring around 0.2-1.0 μm. First observed under an electron microscope, they were originally described as dense bodies found in the nucleus. They are known by a number of other names, including Promyelocytic Leukemia bodies (PML bodies), Kremer bodies, and PML oncogenic domains. ND10 are frequently associated with Cajal bodies and cleavage bodies. It has been suggested that they play a role in regulating gene transcription. ND10 were originally characterized using human autoantisera, which recognizes Speckled Protein of 100 kDa, from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. At the immunohistochemical level, ND10 appear as nuclear punctate structures, with 10 indicating the approximate number of dots per nucleus observed. ND10 do not colocalize with kinetochores, centromeres, sites of mRNA processing, or chromosomes. Resistance of ND10 antigens to nuclease digestion and salt extraction suggest that ND10 are associated with the nuclear matrix. They are often identified by immunofluorescent assay using specific antibodies against PML, Death domain-associated protein, nuclear dot protein (NDP55), and so on. The role of ND10 has long been the subject of investigation, with the specific connection of ND10 and viral infection having been a particular focus for almost 20 years. This review summarizes the relationship of ND10 and viral infection. Some future study directions are also discussed. PMID:24255882

  1. Interactions between domain walls and spin currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaui, M.; Laufenberg, M.; Backes, D.; Buhrer, W.; Rudiger, U.; Vila, L.; Vouille, C.; Faini, G.

    2006-03-01

    A promising novel approach for switching magnetic nanostructures is current-induced domain wall propagation (CIDP), where due to a spin torque effect, electrons transfer angular momentum to a head-to-head domain wall and thereby push it in the direction of the electron flow without any externally applied fields. This effect has been observed with a variety of techniques including MFM [1] and spin polarized scanning electron microscopy [2] to directly observe current-induced domain wall propagation in ferromagnetic nanostructures and magnetoresistance measurements to systematically probe the critical current densities as a function of the geometry [3]. The observed wall velocities and critical current densities, where wall motion sets in at room temperature, do not agree well with theoretical 0K calculations [4]. We have therefore measured the critical current densities as a function of the sample temperature. We find that the spin torque effect becomes more efficient at low temperatures, which could account for some of the observed discrepancies between the 300K experiment and the 0K simulation. [1] A. Yamaguchi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 77205 (2004); [2] M. Klaui et al., PRL 95, 26601 (2005); [3] M. Klaui et al., PRL 94, 106601 (2005); [4] A. Thiaville et al., EPL 69, 990 (2005); G. Tatara et al., APL 86, 252509 (2005);

  2. Energy of domain walls in ferrite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, M. E.; Prieto, P.; Mendoza, A.; Guzman, O.

    2007-03-01

    MnZn Ferrite films were deposited by RF sputtering on (001) single crystal MgO substrates. AFM images show an increment in grain size with the film thickness. Grains with diameter between φ ˜ 70 and 700 nm have been observed. The coercive field Hc as a function of the grain size reaches a maximum value of about 80 Oe for φc˜ 300 nm. The existence of a multidomain structure associated with a critical grain size was identified by Magneto-optical Kerr effect technique (MOKE). The transition of the one-domain regime to the two-domain regime was observed at a critical grain size of Dc˜ 530 nm. This value agree with values predicted previously. The Jiles-Atherton model (JAM) was used to discuss the experimental hysteresis loops. The k pinning parameter obtained from JAM shows a maximum value of k/μo = 67 Am^2 for grains with Lc˜ 529 nm. The total energy per unit area E was correlated with k and D. We found a simple phenomenological relationship given by E α kD; where D is the magnetic domain width.

  3. Birdsong dialect patterns explained using magnetic domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burridge, James; Kenney, Steven

    2016-06-01

    The songs and calls of many bird species, like human speech, form distinct regional dialects. We suggest that the process of dialect formation is analogous to the physical process of magnetic domain formation. We take the coastal breeding grounds of the Puget Sound white crowned sparrow as an example. Previous field studies suggest that birds of this species learn multiple songs early in life, and when establishing a territory for the first time, retain one of these dialects in order to match the majority of their neighbors. We introduce a simple lattice model of the process, showing that this matching behavior can produce single dialect domains provided the death rate of adult birds is sufficiently low. We relate death rate to thermodynamic temperature in magnetic materials, and calculate the critical death rate by analogy with the Ising model. Using parameters consistent with the known behavior of these birds we show that coastal dialect domain shapes may be explained by viewing them as low-temperature "stripe states."

  4. Birdsong dialect patterns explained using magnetic domains.

    PubMed

    Burridge, James; Kenney, Steven

    2016-06-01

    The songs and calls of many bird species, like human speech, form distinct regional dialects. We suggest that the process of dialect formation is analogous to the physical process of magnetic domain formation. We take the coastal breeding grounds of the Puget Sound white crowned sparrow as an example. Previous field studies suggest that birds of this species learn multiple songs early in life, and when establishing a territory for the first time, retain one of these dialects in order to match the majority of their neighbors. We introduce a simple lattice model of the process, showing that this matching behavior can produce single dialect domains provided the death rate of adult birds is sufficiently low. We relate death rate to thermodynamic temperature in magnetic materials, and calculate the critical death rate by analogy with the Ising model. Using parameters consistent with the known behavior of these birds we show that coastal dialect domain shapes may be explained by viewing them as low-temperature "stripe states." PMID:27415293

  5. Lipid Bilayer Domain Fluctuations as a Probe of Membrane Viscosity

    PubMed Central

    Camley, Brian A.; Esposito, Cinzia; Baumgart, Tobias; Brown, Frank L.H.

    2010-01-01

    We argue that membrane viscosity, ηm, plays a prominent role in the thermal fluctuation dynamics of micron-scale lipid domains. A theoretical expression is presented for the timescales of domain shape relaxation, which reduces to the well-known ηm = 0 result of Stone and McConnell in the limit of large domain sizes. Experimental measurements of domain dynamics on the surface of ternary phospholipid and cholesterol vesicles confirm the theoretical results and suggest domain flicker spectroscopy as a convenient means to simultaneously measure both the line tension, σ, and the membrane viscosity, ηm, governing the behavior of individual lipid domains. PMID:20858410

  6. Antiferromagnetic Domain Wall Motion Driven by Spin-Orbit Torques.

    PubMed

    Shiino, Takayuki; Oh, Se-Hyeok; Haney, Paul M; Lee, Seo-Won; Go, Gyungchoon; Park, Byong-Guk; Lee, Kyung-Jin

    2016-08-19

    We theoretically investigate the dynamics of antiferromagnetic domain walls driven by spin-orbit torques in antiferromagnet-heavy-metal bilayers. We show that spin-orbit torques drive antiferromagnetic domain walls much faster than ferromagnetic domain walls. As the domain wall velocity approaches the maximum spin-wave group velocity, the domain wall undergoes Lorentz contraction and emits spin waves in the terahertz frequency range. The interplay between spin-orbit torques and the relativistic dynamics of antiferromagnetic domain walls leads to the efficient manipulation of antiferromagnetic spin textures and paves the way for the generation of high frequency signals from antiferromagnets. PMID:27588878

  7. Tunable conductance of magnetic nanowires with structured domain walls.

    PubMed

    Dugaev, V K; Berakdar, J; Barnaś, J

    2006-02-01

    We show that in a magnetic nanowire with double magnetic domain walls, quantum interference results in spin-split quasistationary states localized mainly between the domain walls. Spin-flip-assisted transmission through the domain structure increases strongly when these size-quantized states are tuned on resonance with the Fermi energy, e.g., upon varying the distance between the domain walls which results in resonance-type peaks of the wire conductance. This novel phenomenon is shown to be utilizable to manipulate the spin density in the domain vicinity. The domain wall parameters are readily controllable, and the predicted effect is hence exploitable in spintronic devices. PMID:16486888

  8. SARS Coronavirus-unique Domain (SUD): Three-domain Molecular Architecture in Solution and RNA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Margaret A.; Chatterjee, Amarnath; Neuman, Benjamin W.; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) includes a “SARS-unique region” (SUD) consisting of three globular domains separated by short linker peptide segments. This paper reports NMR structure determinations of the C-terminal domain (SUD-C) and of a two-domain construct (SUD-MC) containing the middle domain (SUD-M) and the C-terminal domain, and NMR data on the conformational states of the N-terminal domain (SUD-N) and the SUD-NM two-domain construct. Both SUD-N and SUD-NM are monomeric and globular in solution, and in SUD-NM there is high mobility in the two-residue interdomain linking sequence, with no preferred relative orientation of the two domains. SUD-C adopts a frataxin-like fold and has structural similarity to DNA-binding domains of DNA-modifying enzymes. The structures of both SUD-M (previously determined) and SUD-C (from the present study) are maintained in SUD-MC, where the two domains are flexibly linked. Gel shift experiments showed that both SUD-C and SUD-MC bind to single-stranded RNA and recognize purine bases more strongly than pyrimidine bases, whereby SUD-MC binds to a more restricted set of purine-containing RNA sequences than SUD-M. NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments with observation of the 15N-labeled proteins further resulted in the delineation of the RNA binding sites, i.e., in SUD-M a positively charged surface area with a pronounced cavity, and in SUD-C several residues of an antiparallel β-sheet. Overall, the present data provide evidence for molecular mechanisms involving concerted actions of SUD-M and SUD-C, which result in specific RNA-binding that might be unique to the SUD, and thus to the SARS-CoV. PMID:20493876

  9. Cache Domains That are Homologous to, but Different from PAS Domains Comprise the Largest Superfamily of Extracellular Sensors in Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Amit A.; Fleetwood, Aaron D.; Adebali, Ogun; Finn, Robert D.; Zhulin, Igor B.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular receptors usually contain a designated sensory domain that recognizes the signal. Per/Arnt/Sim (PAS) domains are ubiquitous sensors in thousands of species ranging from bacteria to humans. Although PAS domains were described as intracellular sensors, recent structural studies revealed PAS-like domains in extracytoplasmic regions in several transmembrane receptors. However, these structurally defined extracellular PAS-like domains do not match sequence-derived PAS domain models, and thus their distribution across the genomic landscape remains largely unknown. Here we show that structurally defined extracellular PAS-like domains belong to the Cache superfamily, which is homologous to, but distinct from the PAS superfamily. Our newly built computational models enabled identification of Cache domains in tens of thousands of signal transduction proteins including those from important pathogens and model organisms. Furthermore, we show that Cache domains comprise the dominant mode of extracellular sensing in prokaryotes. PMID:27049771

  10. A two-domain model for the R domain of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator based on sequence similarities.

    PubMed

    Dulhanty, A M; Riordan, J R

    1994-04-25

    CFTR belongs to a group of proteins sharing the structural motif of six transmembrane helices and a nucleotide binding domain. Unique to CFTR is the R domain, a charged cytoplasmic domain. Comparison of R domain sequences from ten species revealed that the N-terminal third is highly conserved, while the C-terminal two-thirds is poorly conserved. The R domain shows no strong sequence similarity to known proteins; however, 14 viral pol proteins show limited similarity to fragments of the R domain. Analysis revealed a relationship between the N- and C-terminal fragments of the R domain and two discontinuous fragments of the pol protein. These observations support a two-domain model for the R domain. PMID:7513286

  11. Structure-dependent electrical conductivity of protein: its differences between alpha-domain and beta-domain structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X Y; Shao, Jian; Jiang, S X; Wang, Biao; Zheng, Yue

    2015-03-27

    Electron transports in the α-domain and β-domain of proteins have been comprehensively investigated. The structure-dependent electron transport of proteins has been experimentally measured and theoretically simulated, and both the theoretical and experimental results demonstrate significant differences in electrical conductivity between the α-domain and β-domain. By controlling the feedback system of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM), the conductance of a single α-domain protein hemoglobin (Hgb) and a β-domain protein superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD) were measured, respectively. The current signal of Hgb is obviously stronger, indicating that the α-domain is more conductive. To confirm our finding, molecular orbitals of both the β-domain in SOD and α-domain in Hgb have been analyzed based on first-principles calculations. As expected, tunneling transport and hopping in the α-domain are both more efficient, indicating that it is easier for electrons to transport through the α-domain, which are in great agreement with our experimental data. In order to explain our results, molecular structures of α- and β-domains have been carefully analyzed and show that the explanation should lie in the differences in packing mode between the α-domain and β-domain. This research should be very important to application prospects in molecular electronics. PMID:25736549

  12. Structure-dependent electrical conductivity of protein: its differences between alpha-domain and beta-domain structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Shao, Jian; Jiang, S. X.; Wang, Biao; Zheng, Yue

    2015-03-01

    Electron transports in the α-domain and β-domain of proteins have been comprehensively investigated. The structure-dependent electron transport of proteins has been experimentally measured and theoretically simulated, and both the theoretical and experimental results demonstrate significant differences in electrical conductivity between the α-domain and β-domain. By controlling the feedback system of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM), the conductance of a single α-domain protein hemoglobin (Hgb) and a β-domain protein superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD) were measured, respectively. The current signal of Hgb is obviously stronger, indicating that the α-domain is more conductive. To confirm our finding, molecular orbitals of both the β-domain in SOD and α-domain in Hgb have been analyzed based on first-principles calculations. As expected, tunneling transport and hopping in the α-domain are both more efficient, indicating that it is easier for electrons to transport through the α-domain, which are in great agreement with our experimental data. In order to explain our results, molecular structures of α- and β-domains have been carefully analyzed and show that the explanation should lie in the differences in packing mode between the α-domain and β-domain. This research should be very important to application prospects in molecular electronics.

  13. Thermomagnetic Stability in Pseudo Single Domain Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Lesleis; Williams, Wyn; Muxworthy, Adrian; Fabian, Karl; Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.

    2016-04-01

    The reliability of paleomagnetic remanences are well understood for fine grains of magnetite that are single-domain (SD, uniformly magnetized). In particular Néel's theory [1] outlined the thermal energies required to block and unblock magnetic remanences. This lead to determination of thermal stability for magnetization in fine grains as outlined in Pullaiah et. al. [2] and a comprehensive understanding of SD paleomagnetic recordings. It has been known for some time that single domain magnetite is possible only in the grain size range 30 - 80nm, which may only account for a small fraction of the grain size distribution in any rock sample. Indeed rocks are often dominated by grains in the pseudo single domain (PSD) size range, at approximately 80 - 1000nm. Toward the top end of this range multi-domain features begin to dominate. In order to determine thermomagnetic stability in PSD grains we need to identify the energy barriers between all possible pairs of local energy minima (LEM) domain states as a function of both temperature and grain size. We have attempted to do this using the nudged elastic band (NEB) method [3] which searches for minimum energy paths between any given pair of LEM states. Using this technique we have determined, for the first time, complete thermomagnetic stability curves for PSD magnetite. The work presented is at a preliminary stage. However it can be shown that PSD grains of magnetite with simple geometries (e.g. cubes or cuboctahedra) have very few low energy transition paths and the stability is likely to be similar to that observed for SD grains (as expected form experimental observations). The results will provide a basis for a much more rigorous understanding of the fidelity of paleomagnetic signals in assemblages of PSD grains and their ability to retain ancient recordings of the geomagnetic field. References: [1] Néel, Louis. "Théorie du traînage magnétique des ferromagnétiques en grains fins avec applications aux terres

  14. Ezrin NH2-terminal domain inhibits the cell extension activity of the COOH-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Overexpression in insect cells of the full coding sequence of the human membrane cytoskeletal linker ezrin (1-586) was compared with that of a NH2-terminal domain (ezrin 1-233) and that of a COOH-terminal domain (ezrin 310-586). Ezrin (1-586), as well as ezrin (1-233) enhanced cell adhesion of infected Sf9 cells without inducing gross morphological changes in the cell structure. Ezrin (310-586) enhanced cell adhesion and elicited membrane spreading followed by microspike and lamellipodia extensions by mobilization of Sf9 cell actin. Moreover some microspikes elongated into thin processes, up to 200 microns in length, resembling neurite outgrowths by a mechanism requiring microtubule assembly. Kinetics of videomicroscopic and drug-interference studies demonstrated that mobilization of actin was required for tubulin assembly to proceed. A similar phenotype was observed in CHO cells when a comparable ezrin domain was transiently overexpressed. The shortest domain promoting cell extension was localized between residues 373-586. Removal of residues 566-586, involved in in vitro actin binding (Turunen, O., T. Wahlstrom, and A. Vaheri. 1994. J. Cell Biol. 126:1445- 1453), suppressed the extension activity. Coexpression of ezrin (1-233) with ezrin (310-586) in the same insect cells blocked the constitutive activity of ezrin COOH-terminal domain. The inhibitory activity was mapped within ezrin 115 first NH2-terminal residues. We conclude that ezrin has properties to promote cell adhesion, and that ezrin NH2- terminal domain negatively regulates membrane spreading and elongation properties of ezrin COOH-terminal domain. PMID:7896873

  15. Translocation of the Catalytic Domain of Diphtheria Toxin across Planar Phospholipid Bilayers by Its Own T Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Kyoung Joon; Senzel, Lisa; Collier, R. John; Finkelstein, Alan

    1999-07-01

    The T domain of diphtheria toxin is known to participate in the pH-dependent translocation of the catalytic C domain of the toxin across the endosomal membrane, but how it does so, and whether cellular proteins are also required for this process, remain unknown. Here, we report results showing that the T domain alone is capable of translocating the entire C domain across model, planar phospholipid bilayers in the absence of other proteins. The T domain therefore contains the entire molecular machinery for mediating transfer of the catalytic domain of diphtheria toxin across membranes.

  16. Binding to retinoblastoma pocket domain does not alter the inter-domain flexibility of the J domain of SV40 large T antigen.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christina K; Vaithiyalingam, Sivaraja; Hammel, Michal; Pipas, James; Chazin, Walter J

    2012-02-15

    Simian Virus 40 uses the large T antigen (Tag) to bind and inactivate retinoblastoma tumor suppressor proteins (Rb), which can result in cellular transformation. Tag is a modular protein with four domains connected by flexible linkers. The N-terminal J domain of Tag is necessary for Rb inactivation. Binding of Rb is mediated by an LXCXE consensus motif immediately C-terminal to the J domain. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) were used to study the structural dynamics and interaction of Rb with the LXCXE motif, the J domain and a construct (N(260)) extending from the J domain through the origin binding domain (OBD). NMR and SAXS data revealed substantial flexibility between the domains in N(260). Binding of pRb to a construct containing the LXCXE motif and the J domain revealed weak interactions between pRb and the J domain. Analysis of the complex of pRb and N(260) indicated that the OBD is not involved and retains its dynamic independence from the remainder of Tag. These results support a 'chaperone' model in which the J domain of Tag changes its orientation as it acts upon different protein complexes. PMID:22227098

  17. Privacy Policy | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) respects the privacy of users of its Web sites. This is why we have taken the time to disclose our privacy policy and information collection practices. NCI does not disclose, give, sell, or transfer any personal information about visitors unless required to do so by law. NCI automatically collects a limited amount of information about the use of Web sites for statistical purposes, that is, to measure the numbers of visitors. This information may be helpful when considering changes that improve our web sites for future visitors.

  18. Menthol Cigarettes | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Menthol is a substance naturally found in mint plants such as peppermint and spearmint. It gives a cooling sensation. It is often used to relieve minor pain and irritation and prevent infection.    Menthol is added to many products. These include lozenges, syrups, creams and ointments, nasal sprays, powders, and candy. But none of these products are lighted or smoked when used. That makes them different from menthol cigarettes.  

  19. ,:YUZ - history.nasa.gov

    NASA Website

    ... YUZ 'r;;,~~T PR\\.) .. 'E\\~t f':~r;~~.~ ... -,J~/r~rl .... ~~~j,:~r~~y, :€.:,,:r.r.i\\.:~l liit'"~:l .. t('t·~ ~i. ~:. " ... t r-:'.1". ... tu srend ...

  20. Success Tips | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    15 Ways to Take a “Smokefree Break” Find a quiet place and spend a few minutes on yourself. Read a magazine or book for 10 minutes. Read information about not using tobacco. Work on your craving management plan. Make a list of the benefits of not smoking. Eat a fruit snack. Talk with others who do not use tobacco. Write in a journal. Relax! Try deep breathing. Add up savings of not using tobacco so far. Listen to your favorite music.

  1. Eat Healthier | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    */ 6 Tips for Managing Portion Size Eating healthy is about enjoying your food while also managing portion size. Most people eat and drink more than their bodies need especially when they are served larger portions

  2. Viewing Files | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    In addition to standard HTML Web pages, our Web site contains files in other formats. You may need additional software or browser plug-ins to view some of these files. The following list shows each format along with links to the corresponding freely available plug-ins or viewers.

  3. BeTobaccoFree.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health ... Menthol Doesn’t Make Cigarettes “Safer” All cigarette smoking is linked to cancer and other diseases. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is ... Services | 200 Independence Avenue S.W. | Washington DC 20201

  4. Get Active | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    */ Want to Be More Physically Active? START By Taking These 5 Steps Trying to meet the expert recommendations for maintaining your health and physical fitness might feel overwhelming at first. Give yourself time to develop an exercise routine that works for you

  5. Smokefree Apps | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Get 24/7 help with a Smokefree app for your smartphone. These free apps give you the support and skills you need to get ready to quit and stay smokefree. Explore the apps to discover the features that will be most helpful for your smokefree journey.

  6. Veterans Home | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Quitting smoking is part of the transition from being in the military to being a civilian, from where you are to where you want to be. Smoking is no longer a part of most of people’s lives, whether at work, home, school, restaurants, or other public places. Only about 20% of American adults are smokers. Quitting smoking is one of the best things you can do for your physical health, emotional well-being, and quality of life.

  7. Solution structure of leptospiral LigA4 Big domain.

    PubMed

    Mei, Song; Zhang, Jiahai; Zhang, Xuecheng; Tu, Xiaoming

    2015-11-13

    Pathogenic Leptospiraspecies express immunoglobulin-like proteins which serve as adhesins to bind to the extracellular matrices of host cells. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein A (LigA), a surface exposed protein containing tandem repeats of bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, has been proved to be involved in the interaction of pathogenic Leptospira with mammalian host. In this study, the solution structure of the fourth Big domain of LigA (LigA4 Big domain) from Leptospira interrogans was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The structure of LigA4 Big domain displays a similar bacterial immunoglobulin-like fold compared with other Big domains, implying some common structural aspects of Big domain family. On the other hand, it displays some structural characteristics significantly different from classic Ig-like domain. Furthermore, Stains-all assay and NMR chemical shift perturbation revealed the Ca(2+) binding property of LigA4 Big domain. PMID:26449456

  8. Generalization Bounds Derived IPM-Based Regularization for Domain Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Juan; Hu, Guyu; Li, Dong; Zhang, Yanyan; Pan, Zhisong

    2016-01-01

    Domain adaptation has received much attention as a major form of transfer learning. One issue that should be considered in domain adaptation is the gap between source domain and target domain. In order to improve the generalization ability of domain adaption methods, we proposed a framework for domain adaptation combining source and target data, with a new regularizer which takes generalization bounds into account. This regularization term considers integral probability metric (IPM) as the distance between the source domain and the target domain and thus can bound up the testing error of an existing predictor from the formula. Since the computation of IPM only involves two distributions, this generalization term is independent with specific classifiers. With popular learning models, the empirical risk minimization is expressed as a general convex optimization problem and thus can be solved effectively by existing tools. Empirical studies on synthetic data for regression and real-world data for classification show the effectiveness of this method. PMID:26819589

  9. Periodic magnetic domains in single-crystalline cobalt filament arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Wang, Fan; Jia, Fei; Li, Jingning; Liu, Kai; Huang, Sunxiang; Luan, Zhongzhi; Wu, Di; Chen, Yanbin; Zhu, Jianmin; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic structures with controlled domain wall pattern may be applied as potential building blocks for three-dimensional magnetic memory and logic devices. Using a unique electrochemical self-assembly method, we achieve regular single-crystalline cobalt filament arrays with specific geometric profile and crystallographic orientation, and the magnetic domain configuration can be conveniently tailored. We report the transition of periodic antiparallel magnetic domains to compressed vortex magnetic domains depending on the ratio of height to width of the wires. A "phase diagram" is obtained to describe the dependence of the type of magnetic domain and the geometrical profiles of the wires. Magnetoresistance of the filaments demonstrates that the contribution of a series of 180∘ domain walls is over 0.15 % of the zero-field resistance ρ (H =0 ) . These self-assembled magnetic nanofilaments, with controlled periodic domain patterns, offer an interesting platform to explore domain-wall-based memory and logic devices.

  10. Generating target system specifications from a domain model using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugumaran, Vijayan; Gomaa, Hassan; Kerschberg, Larry

    1991-01-01

    The quest for reuse in software engineering is still being pursued and researchers are actively investigating the domain modeling approach to software construction. There are several domain modeling efforts reported in the literature and they all agree that the components that are generated from domain modeling are more conducive to reuse. Once a domain model is created, several target systems can be generated by tailoring the domain model or by evolving the domain model and then tailoring it according to the specified requirements. This paper presents the Evolutionary Domain Life Cycle (EDLC) paradigm in which a domain model is created using multiple views, namely, aggregation hierarchy, generalization/specialization hierarchies, object communication diagrams and state transition diagrams. The architecture of the Knowledge Based Requirements Elicitation Tool (KBRET) which is used to generate target system specifications is also presented. The preliminary version of KBRET is implemented in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS).

  11. Domain structure of black hole space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Harmark, Troels

    2009-07-15

    We introduce the domain structure for stationary black hole space-times. The domain structure lives on the submanifold of fixed points of the Killing vector fields. Depending on which Killing vector field has fixed points the submanifold is naturally divided into domains. The domain structure provides invariants of the space-time, both topological and continuous. It is defined for any space-time dimension and any number of Killing vector fields. We examine the domain structure for asymptotically flat space-times and find a canonical form for the metric of such space-times. The domain structure generalizes the rod structure introduced for space-times with D-2 commuting Killing vector fields. We analyze in detail the domain structure for Minkowski space, the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole and the Myers-Perry black hole in six and seven dimensions. Finally, we consider the possible domain structures for asymptotically flat black holes in six and seven dimensio0008.

  12. Generalization Bounds Derived IPM-Based Regularization for Domain Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Juan; Hu, Guyu; Zhang, Yanyan

    2016-01-01

    Domain adaptation has received much attention as a major form of transfer learning. One issue that should be considered in domain adaptation is the gap between source domain and target domain. In order to improve the generalization ability of domain adaption methods, we proposed a framework for domain adaptation combining source and target data, with a new regularizer which takes generalization bounds into account. This regularization term considers integral probability metric (IPM) as the distance between the source domain and the target domain and thus can bound up the testing error of an existing predictor from the formula. Since the computation of IPM only involves two distributions, this generalization term is independent with specific classifiers. With popular learning models, the empirical risk minimization is expressed as a general convex optimization problem and thus can be solved effectively by existing tools. Empirical studies on synthetic data for regression and real-world data for classification show the effectiveness of this method. PMID:26819589

  13. Apoplastic domains and sub-domains in the shoots of etiolated corn seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epel, B. L.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    Light Green, an apoplastic probe, was applied to the cut mesocotyl base or to the cut coleoptile apex of etiolated seedlings of Zea mays L. cv. Silver Queen. Probe transport was measured and its tissue distribution determined. In the mesocotyl, there is an apoplastic barrier between cortex and stele. This barrier creates two apoplastic domains which are non-communicating. A kinetic barrier exists between the apoplast of the mesocotyl stele and that of the coleoptile. This kinetic barrier is not absolute and there is limited communication between the apoplasts of the two regions. This kinetic barrier effectively creates two sub-domains. In the coleoptile, there is communication between the apoplast of the vascular strands and that of the surrounding cortical tissue. No apoplastic communication was observed between the coleoptile cortex and the mesocotyl cortex. Thus, the apoplastic space of the coleoptile cortex is a sub-domain of the integrated coleoptile domain and is separate from that of the apoplastic domain of the mesocotyl cortex.

  14. Prediction of Domain Behavior through Dynamic Well-Being Domain Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bosems, Steven; van Sinderen, Marten

    2015-01-01

    As the concept of context-awareness is becoming more popular the demand for improved quality of context-aware systems increases too. Due to the inherent challenges posed by context-awareness, it is harder to predict what the behavior of the systems and their context will be once provided to the end-user than is the case for non-context-aware systems. A domain where such upfront knowledge is highly important is that of well-being. In this paper, we introduce a method to model the well-being domain and to predict the effects the system will have on its context when implemented. This analysis can be performed at design time. Using these predictions, the design can be fine-tuned to increase the chance that systems will have the desired effect. The method has been tested using three existing well-being applications. For these applications, domain models were created in the Dynamic Well-being Domain Model language. This language allows for causal reasoning over the application domain. The models created were used to perform the analysis and behavior prediction. The analysis results were compared to existing application end-user evaluation studies. Results showed that our analysis could accurately predict success and possible problems in the focus of the systems, although certain limitation regarding the predictions should be kept into consideration. PMID:26351660

  15. Entropy production by domain wall decay in the NMSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Hironori; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Omoto, Naoya; Seto, Osamu

    2015-11-01

    We consider domain walls in the Z3 symmetric next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model. The spontaneous Z3 discrete symmetry breaking produces domain walls, and the stable domain walls are problematic. Thus, we assume the Z3 symmetry is slightly but explicitly broken and the domain walls decay. Such a decay causes a large late-time entropy production. We study its cosmological implications on unwanted relics such as the moduli, gravitino, lightest superparticle, and axion.

  16. Credentialing Data Scientists: A Domain Repository Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Furukawa, H.

    2015-12-01

    A career in data science can have many paths: data curation, data analysis, metadata modeling - all of these in different commercial or scientific applications. Can a certification as 'data scientist' provide the guarantee that an applicant or candidate for a data science position has just the right skills? How valuable is a 'generic' certification as data scientist for an employer looking to fill a data science position? Credentials that are more specific and discipline-oriented may be more valuable to both the employer and the job candidate. One employment sector for data scientists are the data repositories that provide discipline-specific data services for science communities. Data science positions within domain repositories include a wide range of responsibilities in support of the full data life cycle - from data preservation and curation to development of data models, ontologies, and user interfaces, to development of data analysis and visualization tools to community education and outreach, and require a substantial degree of discipline-specific knowledge of scientific data acquisition and analysis workflows, data quality measures, and data cultures. Can there be certification programs for domain-specific data scientists that help build the urgently needed workforce for the repositories? The American Geophysical Union has recently started an initiative to develop a program for data science continuing education and data science professional certification for the Earth and space sciences. An Editorial Board has been charged to identify and develop curricula and content for these programs and to provide input and feedback in the implementation of the program. This presentation will report on the progress of this initiative and evaluate its utility for the needs of domain repositories in the Earth and space sciences.

  17. Stochastic finite-difference time-domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Steven Michael

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation presents the derivation of an approximate method to determine the mean and the variance of electro-magnetic fields in the body using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method. Unlike Monte Carlo analysis, which requires repeated FDTD simulations, this method directly computes the variance of the fields at every point in space at every sample of time in the simulation. This Stochastic FDTD simulation (S-FDTD) has at its root a new wave called the Variance wave, which is computed in the time domain along with the mean properties of the model space in the FDTD simulation. The Variance wave depends on the electro-magnetic fields, the reflections and transmission though the different dielectrics, and the variances of the electrical properties of the surrounding materials. Like the electro-magnetic fields, the Variance wave begins at zero (there is no variance before the source is turned on) and is computed in the time domain until all fields reach steady state. This process is performed in a fraction of the time of a Monte Carlo simulation and yields the first two statistical parameters (mean and variance). The mean of the field is computed using the traditional FDTD equations. Variance is computed by approximating the correlation coefficients between the constituitive properties and the use of the S-FDTD equations. The impetus for this work was the simulation time it takes to perform 3D Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) FDTD analysis of the human head model for cell phone power absorption in the human head due to the proximity of a cell phone being used. In many instances, Monte Carlo analysis is not performed due to the lengthy simulation times required. With the development of S-FDTD, these statistical analyses could be performed providing valuable statistical information with this information being provided in a small fraction of the time it would take to perform a Monte Carlo analysis.

  18. Spatial-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, L.; Gay, D.; Piché, M.

    2008-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique invented in 1991 and allowing the observation of biological tissues with millimeter depth of penetration and a few micrometer resolution. In the standard time-domain OCT setup (TD-OCT), a broadband light source is used with a Michelson interferometer where one of the mirrors is replaced by the sample (which is mechanically moved transversally during data acquisition) while the other is axially vibrating. By analyzing the temporal signal at the exit of the interferometer, a high resolution tomographic cut of the sample can be obtained. A number of new OCT setups have been proposed since 1991 in order to improve the data acquisition speed. In particular, Fourier-domain OCT (FD-OCT) has allowed in vivo observation of samples by eliminating the necessity of the axial motion of the reference mirror in the setup. We propose in this paper new OCT setups having the same potential without requiring numerical treatment of the signal (as it is the case in FD-OCT). Because those setups are such that the axial information of the sample becomes linearly distributed at different points of space in an interference pattern, we call them spatial-domain OCT setups (SD-OCT). SD-OCT setups use a tilted mirror in a Michelson interferometer to produce an interference pattern which is imaged on a CCD detector. The pattern contains all the information on the sample and is obtained without mechanical motion or numerical treatment of the recorded signal. In order to validate the proposed scheme, prototypes of the setups have been made in the laboratories of COPL at Laval University; biological samples such as onion peels and phloem of trees have been tested in order to produce their tomographic images. Comparisons of some of our results with those from a commercial setup with the same samples had notably confirmed the capacity of ours prototypes to effectively image biological samples.

  19. Functional domains in Fok I restriction endonuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Li, L; Wu, L P; Chandrasegaran, S

    1992-01-01

    The PCR was used to alter transcriptional and translational signals surrounding the Flavobacterium okeanokoites restriction endonuclease (fokIR) gene, so as to achieve high expression in Escherichia coli. By changing the ribosome-binding site sequence preceding the fokIR gene to match the consensus E. coli signal and by placing a positive retroregulator stem-loop sequence downstream of the gene, Fok I yield was increased to 5-8% of total cellular protein. Fok I was purified to homogeneity with phosphocellulose, DEAE-Sephadex, and gel chromatography, yielding 50 mg of pure Fok I endonuclease per liter of culture medium. The recognition and cleavage domains of Fok I were analyzed by trypsin digestion. Fok I in the absence of a DNA substrate cleaves into a 58-kDa carboxyl-terminal and 8-kDa amino-terminal fragment. The 58-kDa fragment does not bind the DNA substrate. Fok I in the presence of a DNA substrate cleaves into a 41-kDa amino-terminal fragment and a 25-kDa carboxyl-terminal fragment. On further digestion, the 41-kDa fragment degrades into 30-kDa amino-terminal and 11-kDa carboxyl-terminal fragments. The cleaved fragments both bind DNA substrates, as does the 41-kDa fragment. Gel-mobility-shift assays indicate that all the protein contacts necessary for the sequence-specific recognition of DNA substrates are encoded within the 41-kDa fragment. Thus, the 41-kDa amino-terminal fragment constitutes the Fok I recognition domain. The 25-kDa fragment, purified by using a DEAE-Sephadex column, cleaves nonspecifically both methylated (pACYCfokIM) and nonmethylated (pTZ19R) DNA substrates in the presence of MgCl2. Thus, the 25-kDa carboxyl-terminal fragment constitutes the Fok I cleavage domain. Images PMID:1584761

  20. Microseismic source imaging in a compressed domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera Rodriguez, Ismael; Sacchi, Mauricio D.

    2014-08-01

    Microseismic monitoring is an essential tool for the characterization of hydraulic fractures. Fast estimation of the parameters that define a microseismic event is relevant to understand and control fracture development. The amount of data contained in the microseismic records however, poses a challenge for fast continuous detection and evaluation of the microseismic source parameters. Work inspired by the emerging field of Compressive Sensing has showed that it is possible to evaluate source parameters in a compressed domain, thereby reducing processing time. This technique performs well in scenarios where the amplitudes of the signal are above the noise level, as is often the case in microseismic monitoring using downhole tools. This paper extends the idea of the compressed domain processing to scenarios of microseismic monitoring using surface arrays, where the signal amplitudes are commonly at the same level as, or below, the noise amplitudes. To achieve this, we resort to the use of an imaging operator, which has previously been found to produce better results in detection and location of microseismic events from surface arrays. The operator in our method is formed by full-waveform elastodynamic Green's functions that are band-limited by a source time function and represented in the frequency domain. Where full-waveform Green's functions are not available, ray tracing can also be used to compute the required Green's functions. Additionally, we introduce the concept of the compressed inverse, which derives directly from the compression of the migration operator using a random matrix. The described methodology reduces processing time at a cost of introducing distortions into the results. However, the amount of distortion can be managed by controlling the level of compression applied to the operator. Numerical experiments using synthetic and real data demonstrate the reductions in processing time that can be achieved and exemplify the process of selecting the