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  1. Intraoperative transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiography: a basic vertical plane patient examination sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, T. D.; Tousignant, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have previously reported a standardized stepwise transesophageal echocardiography transverse plane (monoplane) patient examination sequence suitable for intraoperative use. Biplane transesophageal echocardiography furnishes images of the heart and great vessels in both transverse and vertical planes. This report describes a seven-step vertical plane examination, the completion component of a comprehensive intraoperative biplane evaluation. Each step is illustrated by presentation of a two-dimensional echocardiographic image, a matching diagram and a schematic representation of the corresponding axis of interrogation. Examples of clinical presentations complete the report. Images Figure 2 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14a Figure 14b Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21a Figure 21b Figure 21c PMID:8792603

  2. Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Female Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Kevin E.; Arrigo, Christopher; Andrews, James R.; Clancy, William G.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the rehabilitation program after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the female athlete. In addition, we will discuss 8 unique characteristics identified in the female athlete and specific training drills to address and correct the potentially deleterious effects of these unique characteristics. Background: The female athlete appears to be more susceptible to noncontact ACL injuries than the male athlete. There seem to be many differences between the female and male athlete that may contribute to the increased injury rate in the female athlete. These variations include anatomical and neuromuscular considerations and differences. Description: Based on the unique characteristics of the female athlete and the anatomical and neuromuscular dissimilarities, a specially designed rehabilitation program has been established for the female athlete after ACL surgery. Clinical Advantages: The rehabilitation drills discussed in this article challenge the neuromuscular system through proprioception, kinesthesia, dynamic joint stability, neuromuscular control, and perturbation training activities. Improving the female athlete's neuromuscular system will, we believe, expedite the injured athlete's recovery after ACL injury or surgery. Although the concepts discussed are part of a postoperative rehabilitation program after ACL surgery, these concepts may also be implemented as a preventive program to assist in reducing the incidence of ACL injuries in the female athlete. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13.Figure 14.Figure 15.Figure 16.Figure 17.Figure 18.Figure 19.Figure 20.Figure 21.Figure 22.Figure 23. PMID:16558561

  3. Reconstruction of the lids of a child with microblepharon and multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Merriam, J C; Stalnecker, M C; Merriam, G R

    1988-01-01

    The initial stages in the rehabilitation of a male child with severe microblepharon, corneal opacities, bilateral facial clefts, bilateral complete cleft lip and palate, and unilateral syndactyly are described. Review of the literature suggests that severe microblepharon is associated with other craniofacial anomalies, and often the child is stillborn or retarded. Surviving children have been abandoned because of their appearance. The child described in this case appears to be unique because his intelligence is normal, and, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of penetrating keratoplasty after reconstruction of functional eyelids. The principal problems after corneal grafting appear to have been chronic partial exposure due to inadequate lid length and a poor Bell's reflex and the persistence of a rim of vascularized fibrous tissue around the corneal graft. Future reconstructive surgery is outlined. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 PMID:2979029

  4. Intraoperative two-dimensional echocardiography and color flow Doppler imaging: a basic transesophageal single plane patient examination sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, T. D.; Lippmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in technology have allowed application of transesophageal echocardiography to intraoperative care of critically ill patients. Early clinical application primarily involved evaluation of left ventricular regional wall motion. However, valid intraoperative use of transesophageal echocardiography should also encompass systematic assessment of the entire heart as well as the great vessels. This report describes a 10-step sequence of single plane, two-dimensional echocardiographic views which constitute a basic patient examination capable of being performed by a practitioner whose primary responsibility is the delivery of anesthesia care. A 5-step color flow Doppler examination sequence is also presented. These views complement the two-dimensional echocardiographic steps. Representations of methods for grading Doppler-defined valvular regurgitation complete the report. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 PMID:7825339

  5. An experimental mouse testicular teratoma as a model for neuroepithelial neoplasia and differentiation. II. Electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Herman, M. M.; Sipe, J. C.; Rubinstein, L. J.; Vandenberg, S. R.; Spence, A. M.; Vraa-Jensen, J.

    1975-01-01

    The electron microscopic features of the stages of divergent neuroepithelial differentiation in the solid implants of a transplantable mouse testicular teratoma (OTT-6050) are presented and compared to the sequential stages of cytogenesis that have been described in the developing avian and mammalian central nervous system. Primitive neuroepithelial tumor cells showed the features of undifferentiated multipotential matrix (or ventricular) cells of the neural tube. They formed primitive medullary rosettes, from which various transitions were traced to more differentiated, cilia-containing ependymoblastomatous rosettes; the transitional features included increased granular endoplasmic reticulum and microvilli formation. Glial differentiation was characterized by the presence of mature ependymal rosettes and of astrocytes containing glial filaments. Neuronal differentiation included the development of synapses and the presence of dense-core vesicles in nerve cell processes. No intermediate cell forms were found that suggested multiple lines of differentiation occurring within a single cell. Images Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 21 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:171962

  6. A method for volume determination of the orbit and its contents by high resolution axial tomography and quantitative digital image analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, W C

    1985-01-01

    The various congenital and acquired conditions which alter orbital volume are reviewed. Previous investigative work to determine orbital capacity is summarized. Since these studies were confined to postmortem evaluations, the need for a technique to measure orbital volume in the living state is presented. A method for volume determination of the orbit and its contents by high-resolution axial tomography and quantitative digital image analysis is reported. This procedure has proven to be accurate (the discrepancy between direct and computed measurements ranged from 0.2% to 4%) and reproducible (greater than 98%). The application of this method to representative clinical problems is presented and discussed. The establishment of a diagnostic system versatile enough to expand the usefulness of computerized axial tomography and polytomography should add a new dimension to ophthalmic investigation and treatment. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 A FIGURE 26 B FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 PMID:3938582

  7. Age as a factor in the bacteriology and response to treatment of subperiosteal abscess of the orbit.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, G J

    1993-01-01

    The clinical course of SPA of the orbit is associated with the age of the patient. That association might be explained through a series of intermediate relationships: the clinical course correlates with the bacterial constituency, the bacterial constituency is related to physiologic derangement within the sinuses, the physiologic derangement may vary with the degree of obstruction of the sinus ostia, and the ostial caliber relative to the volume of the cavity that must be drained decreases with patient age into late adolescence. The controversy between pediatricians and surgeons over the appropriate indications for drainage might be resolved with the acknowledgement that each side is correct on the basis of the patient populations treated. It is hoped that recognition of the age-related variations in SPA will permit a more systematic approach to the management of this complex infectious disease. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 PMID:8140703

  8. Light- and electron-microscopic histochemistry of Fabry's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Faraggiana, T.; Churg, J.; Grishman, E.; Strauss, L.; Prado, A.; Bishop, D. F.; Schuchman, E.; Desnick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A histochemical study was performed on light- and electron-microscopic level in a case of Fabry's disease. The patient underwent kidney transplantation for renal failure and died of heart failure 6 months later. Patient's tissues were studied at the light- and electron-microscopic levels with various embedding and staining techniques for lipids and carbohydrates. Two peroxidase-labeled lectins (from Ricinus communis and from Bandeiraea simplicifolia) known to have affinity for alpha- and beta-D-galactose, were strongly reactive with the storage material on frozen sections. The ultrahistochemical and extraction tests showed that the typical granules had a variable reactivity and morphologic characteristics in different cells, probably reflecting different composition. A small number of typical deposits were also observed in the transplanted kidney. This is the first reported case of recurrence of the storage disease in the allograft. Of interest was also the fact that the patient's blood inhibited normal alpha-galactosidase activity, suggesting a possible inhibitor-related mechanism in the pathogenesis of the recurrence. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 PMID:6786101

  9. The relation of experimental arthritis to the distribution of streptococcal cell wall fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Dalldorf, F. G.; Cromartie, W. J.; Anderle, S. K.; Clark, R. L.; Schwab, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The intraperitoneal injection of peptidoglycan-carbohydrate fragments from Group A streptococci produces a chronic, polyarticular, erosive synovitis in rats. The cell wall material accumulates rapidly in the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes, where it causes little injury. At the same time, selective localization and persistence of the material in the synovial and periarticular tissues occurs. Its presence in the joint is associated with acute and recurrent inflammation with focal synotivitis, pannus formation, joint destruction, and ankylosis. Cell wall fragments become localized in the synovial and periarticular tissues at a time when there are leukocytes in the bloodstream, which appear to contain the material. During this early phase vascular lesions appear in the synovium and in periarticular tissues with collections of fibrin, neutrophils, macrophages, and cell wall fragments near the venules and capillaries. Recurrent episodes of inflammation and joint injury, associated with persistent cell wall antigen within macrophages, were observed over a period of 90 days. Images Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:6996490

  10. Autopsy pathology in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, C. M.; O'Leary, T. J.; Levens, D. L.; Simrell, C. R.; Macher, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new illness which appears to be sexually and parenterally transmissible. AIDS was first described in the male homosexual community; however, the disease has more recently been described among intravenous drug abusers, Haitians, hemophiliacs, and others. The etiologic agent is unknown. AIDS may represent an infection by a previously undescribed organism, a mutant of a known microorganism, or a multifactorial combination of environmental, immunologic, and genetic factors. As a consequence of the disease's seemingly irreversible ablation of the cell-mediated immune system, AIDS victims succumb to a variety of infections and/or unusual neoplasms. In its fully developed form, mortality approaches 100%. At autopsy the gross and microscopic pathology of the syndrome can be divided into three general categories: 1) morphologic manifestations of profound lymphoid depletion; 2) infections, usually with mixed opportunistic pathogens; and 3) unusual neoplasms, most frequently Kaposi's sarcoma or high-grade lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 PMID:6311021

  11. Before Nugent took charge: early efforts to reform chiropractic education, 1919-1941

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2003-01-01

    John J. Nugent, D.C. is remembered by many as either the “Abraham Flexner of Chiropractic” or the “anti-Christ of Chiropractic.” From 1941 until his forced retirement in 1959, the Irish-born Palmer graduate was one of the most important factors in the profession's educational reforms. Yet Nugent's work as the National Chiropractic Association's (NCA's) director of research was not the beginning of the campaign to upgrade chiropractic education. This paper looks at earlier influences and events which set the stage for Nugent's campaign. Among these were the introduction of licensure for chiropractors, the self-defeating actions of B.J. Palmer, the introduction of basic science legislation, the lethargy of the schools, and the struggle for control of education between the schools, on the one hand, and the NCA and the Council of State Chiropractic Examining Boards on the other ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 23Figure 24Figure 25Figure 26Figure 28Figure 29Figure 30Figure 31Figure 32Figure 33Figure 34Figure 35Figure 36Figure 37Figure 38

  12. A brief history of historical scholarship in chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a cursory overview of attempts to discover, preserve and disseminate the history of the chiropractic profession, up to and including the organization of the Association for the History of Chiropractic (AHC). A surprisingly wide range of materials have been available for many decades, but sustained efforts at historical scholarship are more recent (past quarter century). The quality of these works has been uneven, but has improved with the emergence of chiropractic scholarly periodicals and interest from non-chiropractor investigators. Affiliates of the American-based AHC are located in Australia and Canada; organized historical scholarship in other regions of the world has yet to develop. Several substantial archival resources for historical investigations are available, and merit greater scrutiny and support within the profession. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 23Figure 24Figure 25p136-ap136-bp136-cp136-dp136-e

  13. The association of viruses with urveal melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, D M

    1979-01-01

    Electron microscopic examination of 57 ocular melanomas (54 human, two feline and one canine) revealed the presence of viral particles in six specimens. Herpesviruses particles were observed in one human specimen and were passed in human fibroblasts (WI-38), where they gave rise to intranuclear inclusions. A-type oncornavirus particles (oncogenic RNA virus) were observed in a second case, both in cells of tumor directly removed from an enucleated eye as well as in cells grown in tissue culture. In three human specimens and one feline specimen, togavirus particles were observed. Rubella is a member of this group, and the possibility that the presence of togavirus in these tumors is the result of latent ocular infection by rubella virus is raised. Herpes virus and RNA tumor viruses are widely considered as having a possible etiologic role for certain human cancers. The observation of togavirus is unexpected, as this virus has not been previously implicated in human or animal tumors. Injection of an RNA tumor virus (Gardner strain feline sarcoma virus) into the anterior chamber of newborn kittens resulted in the development of iris and ciliary body melanomas, many of which showed invasion and, in one instance, metastasis. This is the first animal model of a viral-induced uveal melanoma, and the histology and ultrastructure are described. These results emphasize the need for the continued investigation of the role of these viruses in uveal melanoma. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 PMID:545833

  14. Glomerular lesions induced in the rabbit by physicochemically altered homologous IgG.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalot, F.; Miyata, M.; Vladutiu, A.; Terranova, V.; Dubiski, S.; Burlingame, R.; Tan, E.; Brentjens, J.; Milgrom, F.; Andres, G.

    1992-01-01

    Immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous or even autologous IgG induces formation of antibodies combining with IgG of rabbit and of foreign species. Cardiac but not renal lesions were reported in such animals. This study examined the nephritogenic potential of the immune response to cationized or heat-aggregated homologous IgG of b9 or b4 allotype in rabbits of the b4 allotype. Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 cationized IgG produced antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and with histones; they also developed abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 corresponding to alterations of the glomerular basement membranes (GBM). Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 aggregated IgG developed antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 in the GBM and in the mesangium with subendothelial and mesangial electron-dense deposits. Some rabbits in both groups had proliferative and exudative glomerulonephritis and proteinuria. The results showed that immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous IgG induces an immune response to rabbit and human IgG and to histones as well as glomerular deposits of autologous IgG and C3 and other glomerular lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 PMID:1546743

  15. Polyelectrolytes and Their Biological Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Katchalsky, A.

    1964-01-01

    Polyelectrolytes are water-soluble electrically charged polymers. Their properties are determined by the interplay of the electrical forces, the Brownian motion of the macromolecular chain, and intermolecular Van der Waals forces. Charged polyacids or polybases are stretched by the electrostatic forces, as evidenced by increase in solution viscosity, or by the stretching of polyelectrolyte gels. The electrical field of the polyions is neutralized by a dense atmosphere of counter-ions. The counter-ion attraction to the polyions is expressed by a reduction of the osmotic activity of the polyion—the osmotic pressure being only 15 to 20 per cent of the ideal in highly charged polyelectrolytes neutralized by monovalent counter-ions, and as low as 1 to 3 per cent of the ideal for polyvalent counter-ions. Since the ionic atmosphere is only slightly dependent on added low molecular salt, the osmotic pressure of polyelectrolyte salt mixtures is approximately equal to the sum of the osmotic pressure of polyelectrolyte and salt alone. Acidic and basic polyelectrolytes interact electrostatically with precipitation at the point of polymeric electroneutrality. At higher salt concentrations the interaction is inhibited by the screening of polymeric fixed charges. The importance of these interactions in enzymatic processes is discussed. The electrical double layer is polarizable as may be deduced from dielectric and conductometric studies. The polarizability leads to strong dipole formation in an electrical field. These macromolecular dipoles may play a role in the adsorption of polyelectrolytes on charged surfaces. The final part of the paper is devoted to interactions of polyelectrolytes with cell membranes and the gluing of cells to higher aggregates by charged biocolloids. ImagesFigure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20 PMID:14104085

  16. Intraluminal fibrosis in interstitial lung disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Basset, F.; Ferrans, V. J.; Soler, P.; Takemura, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Crystal, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    involved. Under these circumstances, intraluminal organization can mediate the fusion of adjacent alveolar structures by intraluminal connective tissue. Images Figure 15 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 18 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3953768

  17. The ophthalmic implications of the correction of late enophthalmos following severe midfacial trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Iliff, N T

    1991-01-01

    enophthalmos for which measurements were available produced an improvement; in 1 case the enophthalmos was thought to be worse postoperatively. Dystopia operations resulted in improvement in 40 of 48 operations; in 2 instances dystopia was worse postoperatively. Diplopia was unchanged by 33 operations, improved by 11 procedures, and worsened by 6. If patients are considered before and after their total reconstruction course, diplopia was improved in 9 of the 29 patients. In seven of these nine, diplopia was eliminated. There was no change in or production of diplopia in 19 patients, and 5 patients had worsening of their double vision.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE20 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 PMID:1808816

  18. Rat hepatocarcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine and N-nitrosomorpholine continuously administered at low doses. From basophilic areas of hepatocytes to hepatocellular tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Cortinovis, C.; Klimek, F.; Nogueira, E.

    1991-01-01

    application of some carcinogens at high doses, they are not obligatory precursors of hepatocellular tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 PMID:1951631

  19. Advanced Coats' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Haik, B G

    1991-01-01

    further study. Specimens from patients with intraocular hemorrhage should be viewed cautiously, since erythrocytes contain high levels of enolase. Analysis of subretinal aspirates is an extremely accurate method of confirming the diagnosis of Coats' disease. The key diagnostic findings are the presence of cholesterol crystals and pigment-laden macrophages and the absence of tumor cells on fresh preparations. The technique should be reserved for patients where retinoblastoma has been ruled out by all noninvasive means and massive subretinal drainage is anticipated. The natural progression in advanced Coats' disease is toward the development of a blind, painful eye. Spontaneous regression does rarely occur, and some eyes quietly progress to a phthisical state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 A FIGURE 34 B FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 A FIGURE 46 B FIGURE 47 A FIGURE 47 B FIGURE 48 A FIGURE 48 B FIGURE 49 FIGURE 50 FIGURE 51 FIGURE 52 FIGURE 54 FIGURE 54 (cont.) FIGURE 55 FIGURE 57 FIGURE 58 FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 FIGURE 61 FIGURE 62 FIGURE 63 FIGURE 64 FIGURE 65 FIGURE 66 A FIGURE 66 B FIGURE 67 A FIGURE 67 B PMID:1808814

  20. Mammary gland neoplasia in long-term rodent studies.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, I H; Russo, J

    1996-01-01

    in cancer initiation. Comparative studies with the development of the human breast and the pathogenesis of breast cancer have contributed to validate rodent-to-human extrapolations. However, it has not been definitively established what type of information is necessary for human risk assessment, whether currently toxicity testing methodologies are sufficient for fulfilling those needs, or whether treatment-induced tumorigenic responses in rodents are predictive of potential human risk. An alternative to the traditional bioassays are mechanism-based toxicology and molecular and cellular approaches, combined with comparative in vitro systems. These approaches might allow the rapid screen of chemicals for setting priorities for further studies to determine the dose-response relationship for chemical effects at low doses, to assess effects other than mutagenesis and/or tumorigenesis, or to establish qualitative and quantitative relationships of biomarkers to toxic effects. Until there is enough information on the predictive value of mechanism-based toxicology for risk assessment, this approach should be used in conjunction with and validated by the traditional in vivo long-term bioassays. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. A Figure 7. B Figure 8. A Figure 8. B Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. Figure 13. Figure 14. Figure 15. Figure 16. Figure 17. Figure 18. Figure 19. Figure 20. Figure 21. Figure 22. Figure 23. Figure 24. Figure 25. Figure 26. PMID:8899375

  1. Acquired mitochondrial impairment as a cause of optic nerve disease.

    PubMed Central

    Sadun, A

    1998-01-01

    . ( Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURES 24 FIGURES 25 FIGURES 26 FIGURES 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 PMID:10360310

  2. Myocardial diseases of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1986-01-01

    seen less frequently; and, in contrast to man, coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia are rather infrequent in animals. The present review shows clearly that the spectrum of myocardial diseases in animals is enlarging and that many newly recognized diseases are emerging and assuming considerable importance. For example, various heritable cardiomyopathies have recently been described in the KK mouse, cattle, and rats. Increasingly recognized myocardial diseases include cardiomyopathies in cats, dogs, and birds; anthracycline cardiotoxicity; furazolidone cardiotoxicity; ionophore cardiotoxicity; myocardial damage associated with central nervous system injuries; myocardial hypertrophy in Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 79 Figure 75 Figure 76 Figure 77 Figure 78 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 & 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 65 Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70 Figure 71 & 72 Figure 73 & 74 PMID:3524254

  3. The ultrastructure of conjunctival melanocytic tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobiec, F A

    1984-01-01

    melanocytes and exhibited more haphazard arrangements of the melanofilaments, which were only partially melaninized. Mitochondria were more numerous than in dendritic melanocytes, and monoribosomes predominated over polyribosomes. Cytoplasmic filaments were inconspicuous. Cells in the immediate subepithelial connective tissue zone had features identical to those of the cells within the junctional nests. Smaller, lymphocytoid cells with less numerous and more rudimentary melanosomes were found in the middle and deeper portions of the lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 67 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 62 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 47 FIGURE 48 FIGURE 49 FIGURE 50 FIGURE 51 FIGURE 52 FIGURE 53 FIGURE 54 FIGURE 55 FIGURE 56 FIGURE 57 FIGURE 58 FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 FIGURE 61 FIGURE 63 FIGURE 64 FIGURE 65 FIGURE 66 FIGURE 68 FIGURE 69 FIGURE 70 FIGURE 71 FIGURE 72 FIGURE 73 FIGURE 74 FIGURE 75 FIGURE 76 FIGURE 77 FIGURE 78 FIGURE 79 FIGURE 80 FIGURE 81 FIGURE 82 FIGURE 83 FIGURE 84 FIGURE 85 FIGURE 86 FIGURE 87 FIGURE 88 FIGURE 89 PMID:6398936

  4. Scar remodeling after strabismus surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, I H

    1999-01-01

    limitation of versions, less separation of the tendons from sclera, and thicker appearance of the scar segments. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in the repair procedure reduced the recurrence rate. Histologic examination of the clinical stretched scar specimens showed dense connective tissue that was less well organized compared with normal tendon. In the tissue culture studies, cells cultured from the stretched scar specimens grew rapidly and were irregularly shaped. A high-molecular-weight protein was identified in the culture medium. By contrast, cells cultured from normal tendon (controls) grew more slowly and regularly, stopped growing at 4 days, and produced less total protein than cultured stretched scar specimens. In the animal model studies, the collagenase-treated sites showed elongated scars with increased collagen between the muscle and the sclera, as well as increased collagen creep rates, compared with the saline-treated controls. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in collagenase-treated animal model surgery sites was associated with shorter, thicker scars compared with similar sites sutured with absorbable sutures. CONCLUSIONS: A lengthened or stretched, remodeled scar between an operated muscle tendon and sclera is a common occurrence and is a factor contributing to the variability of outcome after strabismus repair, even years later. This abnormality may be revealed by careful exploration of previously operated muscles. Definitive repair requires firm reattachment of tendon to sclera with nonabsorbable suture support. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 52

  5. A proposal for a standardized system of reporting human lymph node morphology in relation to immunological function

    PubMed Central

    Cottier, H.; Turk, J.; Sobin, L.

    1972-01-01

    This Memorandum proposes a standardized system of reporting the histology of human lymph nodes based on commonly used simple staining techniques. The purpose is to provide a uniform, internationally acceptable system by which the histological structure of lymph nodes can be correlated with other parameters of immunological status. The proposed protocols are intended to provide information that is not available in conventional written reports, that use such terms as “hyperplasia” or “nonspecific lymphadenitis”. ImagesFigure 22Figure 13Figure 5Figure 4Figure 3Figure 14Figure 15Figure 9Figure 21Figure 8Figure 12Figure 17Figure 16Figure 2Figure 7Figure 6Figure 20Figure 19Figure 11Figure 10Figure 18 PMID:4539822

  6. Early chiropractic education in Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2002-01-01

    Chiropractic education in the northwestern United States has its origins in the Marsh School & Cure in 1904. Most of the early schools were located in Portland, Oregon, including the D.D. Palmer College of Chiropractic (1908-1910), and several of these had merged by 1912 or 1913 to form the Pacific Chiropractic College, forerunner of today's Western States College. The latter was organized as a non-profit institution during the Great Depression, and struggled not only to survive but to create a higher standard. The early broad-scope of chiropractic training in the state probably encouraged the liberal scope of practice enjoyed in Oregon to this day. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 24

  7. Experimental lead nitrate poisoning: microscopic and ultrastructural study of the gills of tench (Tinca tinca, L.).

    PubMed Central

    Roncero, V; Vincente, J A; Redondo, E; Gãzquez, A; Duran, E

    1990-01-01

    A microscopic, ultrastructural, and morphometric study was made of the gills of tench (Tinca tinca, L.) subjected to acute experimental lead nitrate poisoning. Twenty-one adult tench were subjected to poisoning and a further 22 were used as controls. Lesions were characterized by the appearance of edema and epithelial hyperplasia and necrosis, both in cells forming part of the filtration barrier and in those in the interlamellar space. These processes developed in the course of the experiment, leading to the death of tench after 12 to 15 days of exposure to 75 ppm lead nitrate, at which point the concentrations of lead in the gills had reached their maximum. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE 18. FIGURE 19. PMID:2088740

  8. Anaerobic orbital cellulitis: a clinical and experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Jedrzynski, M S; Bullock, J D; McGuire, T W; Elder, B L; Bullock, J D

    1991-01-01

    In this article we have reviewed the clinical and bacteriologic aspects of anaerobic orbital cellulitis and have presented six patients to illustrate these points. Physicians who treat patients with orbital cellulitis should have a high index of suspicion for possible instances involving anaerobes, so that appropriate management can be started early. To investigate this problem further, we created an animal model of anaerobic orbital cellulitis. This model may be useful in future studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of this serious and often devastating disease. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 PMID:1808813

  9. Transvitreal endocyclophotocoagulation.

    PubMed Central

    Haller, J A

    1996-01-01

    Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 PMID:8981713

  10. The ocular manifestations of congenital infection: a study of the early effect and long-term outcome of maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, J F

    1998-01-01

    and may vary from blindness and severe mental retardation to minor retinochoroidal lesions of little consequence. Effective solutions for either the prevention or treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis have not been developed in this country but are under intensive and continuing investigation. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B FIGURE 5C FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15A FIGURE 15B FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20A FIGURE 20B FIGURE 20C FIGURE 20D FIGURE 20E FIGURE 20F FIGURE 20G FIGURE 20H FIGURE 20J FIGURE 20K FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 A FIGURE 24B FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 PMID:10360309

  11. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy of a superstructure of fluid dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Klösgen, B; Helfrich, W

    1997-01-01

    Using cryo-transmission electron microscopy, we have obtained abundant and reproducible evidence for a superstructure of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers. Dispersions of vesicles were prepared by gentle shaking of a 2% suspension of DOPC in water followed in part by extrusion through a porous technical membrane. Sampling and cryofixation took place at various times within 3 weeks after the preparation. From the micrographs we infer that the small fraction of vesicles enclosing one another develop passages (connections) between the bilayers. In contrast, the superstructure is basically a feature of disconnected membranes. Among its modifications are isolated membrane bends or folds and a grainy membrane texture with a minimal grain spacing of 4-6 nm. In the extruded dispersions the passages and the superstructure seem to be formed mostly within the first day. The fraction of smooth and unilamellar vesicles is large at all times and in all dispersions. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 PMID:9414216

  12. Pulmonary and thoracic macrophage subpopulations and clearance of particles from the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Lehnert, B E

    1992-01-01

    Pulmonary macrophages consist of several subpopulations that can be defined by their anatomical locations as well as by other criteria. In addition to the well-known alveolar macrophages that reside on the alveolar surface, pulmonary macrophages also occur in the conducting airways, in various pulmonary interstitial regions, and, in some mammalian species, in the lung's intravascular compartment. Other thoracic macrophages of relevance to pulmonary defense and some lung disease processes are the pleural macrophages resident in the pleural space and macrophages present in regional lymph nodes that receive lymphatic drainage from the lung. Of the above subpopulations of pulmonary and thoracic macrophages, the alveolar macrophages have received the most experimental attention in the context of the pulmonary clearance and retention of deposited particles. Accordingly, less information is currently available regarding the roles other pulmonary and thoracic populations of macrophages may play in the removal of particles from the lower respiratory tract and associated tissue compartments. This report provides an overview of the various subpopulations of pulmonary and thoracic macrophages, as defined by their anatomical locations. The known and postulated roles of macrophages in the pulmonary clearance and retention of particles are reviewed, with particular emphasis on macrophage-associated processes involved in the pulmonary clearance of relatively insoluble particles. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE 18. FIGURE 19. A FIGURE 19. B FIGURE 21. FIGURE 22. PMID:1396454

  13. Effect of angiotensin-induced hypertension on rat coronary arteries and myocardium.

    PubMed Central

    Giacomelli, F.; Anversa, P.; Wiener, J.

    1976-01-01

    Acute hypertension has been produced in rats by the intravenous infusion of angiotensin amide for 4 hours. Both control and hypertensive animals were injected intravenously prior to sacrifice with either horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or colloidal carbon. Epicardial arteries and blocks of ventricular myocardium containing intramyocardial arteries and arterioles have been processed for electron microscopy. HRP appears to penetrate the endoethelium of epicardial arteries from control animals within vesicles that bypass endothelial junctions and empty into interendoethelial clefts. Peroxidase does not traverse the endothelium of intramural arteries and arterioles of controls over the 10-minute period of observation. There is acceleration of lateral vesicular transport in the endothelium of epicardial arteries after angiotensin infusion and direct permeation of interendothelial clefts of intramural arterial vessels. Medial fragmentation and more extensive necrosis are observed in intramyocardial but not in epicardial arterial vessels. Foci of myocardial damage resembling irreversible ischemic or anoxic injury followed by reflow are described. It is suggested that the increased permeability of epicardial arteries may be due to elevated pressure, while the altered permeability and vascular lesions of intramural arteries and arterioles are more readily attributable to the vasoconstriction produced by angiotension. The vascular and myocardial lesions are also discussed in relation to the regional actions of angiotensin on the coronary circulation and known effects of this vasoactive peptide on myocardium. Images Figure 19 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figures 20 and 21 Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figures 5-8 Figure 9 Figure 22 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:937512

  14. Proliferative and morphologic changes in rat colon following bypass surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Barkla, D. H.; Tutton, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    In this study the proliferative and morphologic changes that occur in the colon of normal and dimethylhydrazine-treated rats following surgical bypass of the middle third of the colon are reported. Proliferative changes were measured by estimating accumulated mitotic indexes following vinblastine treatment and morphologic changes were observed with the use of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, 30, and 72 after surgery. The results show that surgical bypass produces contrasting effects in the segments proximal to and distal to the suture line. In the proximal segment there was morphologic evidence of hyperplasia, although proliferative activity was unchanged except for an increase at 7 days in normal rats. In the distal segment there was a long-lived increase in the mitotic index, although morphologic changes were not seen. The results for DMH-treated rats were similar to those in normal rats. Groups of isolated dysplastic epithelial cells were often seen in the submucosa adjacent to sutures up to 72 days after surgery. Increased lymphoid infiltration was seen in segments proximal to but not distal to the suture line. It is hypothesized that the different responses of the proximal and distal segments may be related to the different embryologic origins of those segments. It is also hypothesized that the seeding of the submucosa with epithelial cells during suturing may be a factor in tumor recurrence. Images Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:4014432

  15. An elastic network model based on the structure of the red blood cell membrane skeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, J C; Skalak, R; Chien, S; Hoger, A

    1996-01-01

    A finite element network model has been developed to predict the macroscopic elastic shear modulus and the area expansion modulus of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane skeleton on the basis of its microstructure. The topological organization of connections between spectrin molecules is represented by the edges of a random Delaunay triangulation, and the elasticity of an individual spectrin molecule is represented by the spring constant, K, for a linear spring element. The model network is subjected to deformations by prescribing nodal displacements on the boundary. The positions of internal nodes are computed by the finite element program. The average response of the network is used to compute the shear modulus (mu) and area expansion modulus (kappa) for the corresponding effective continuum. For networks with a moderate degree of randomness, this model predicts mu/K = 0.45 and kappa/K = 0.90 in small deformations. These results are consistent with previous computational models and experimental estimates of the ratio mu/kappa. This model also predicts that the elastic moduli vary by 20% or more in networks with varying degrees of randomness. In large deformations, mu increases as a cubic function of the extension ratio lambda 1, with mu/K = 0.62 when lambda 1 = 1.5. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 20 FIGURE A1 FIGURE A2 FIGURE A3 PMID:8770194

  16. Eduard Jaeger's Test-Types (Schrift-Scalen) and the historical development of vision tests.

    PubMed Central

    Runge, P E

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Eduard Jaeger's original Test-Types were carefully evaluated: (1) to determine whether Jaeger had maintained a consistent standard, (2) to establish the correct Snellen equivalent for Jaeger's Test-Types, (3) to answer the question of why and how the standard was lost, and (4) to compare the visual angle of optotypes to lines of continuous text. METHODS: All original Viennese editions of Jaeger's Test-Types, as well as first generation United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US) versions, were evaluated. Data were collected objectively using a microruler with a 20X loupe and subjectively using a laser distance-measuring device. The data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. All previous measurements of Jaeger's Test-Types, objective and subjective, collected over the past 133 years were compared to the current data and to each other. RESULTS: The correct Snellen equivalent of Jaeger's Test-Types was determined. The visual angle created from the measurement of the height of lowercase letters, without ascenders or descenders, provides an accurate method of assigning a visual angle of a line of continuous text. Comparing the typefaces used in printing first generation UK and US versions of Jaeger's Test-Types to the Viennese editions provided an explanation for the absence of a consistent standard for Jaeger's Test-Types today. CONCLUSIONS: All 10 versions of Jaeger's original Test-Types are virtually identical and established a gold standard for reading vision tests. Jaeger's standard was lost when his Test-Types were first printed in the UK and the US using local typefaces. The Jaeger standard has been re-established. Visual angles determined using continuous text are comparable to those obtained by using optotypes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7C FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19A FIGURE 19B p409-a FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE

  17. The Pathogenesis of Experimentally Induced Trypanosoma brucei Infection in the Dog

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, W. I.; Murray, Max; Sayer, P. D.; Preston, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    polymorphonuclear leukocytes, along with extensive deposition of fibrin, were commonly found in the subcapsular sinuses. During this period, foci of erythropoietic cells were present throughout the red pulp of the spleen. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19 PMID:6110341

  18. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 18 to Part 679 - Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve 18 Figure 18 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 18 Figure 18 to Part 679—Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve ER09NO00.011 b....

  4. 50 CFR Figure 18 to Part 679 - Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve 18 Figure 18 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 18 Figure 18 to Part 679—Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve ER09NO00.011 b....

  5. 50 CFR Figure 18 to Part 679 - Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve 18 Figure 18 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 18 Figure 18 to Part 679—Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve ER09NO00.011 b....

  6. 50 CFR Figure 18 to Part 679 - Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve 18 Figure 18 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 18 Figure 18 to Part 679—Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve ER09NO00.011 b....

  7. 50 CFR Figure 18 to Part 679 - Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve 18 Figure 18 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 18 Figure 18 to Part 679—Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve ER09NO00.011 b....

  8. Retinal photic injury in normal and scorbutic monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Tso, M O

    1987-01-01

    disruption of the blood-retinal barrier. The photo-oxidative reaction appears to linger, resulting in chronic retinal degeneration. It is hypothesized that in some forms of age-related macular degeneration, patients suffer from repeated mild photic insult throughout their lifetime. Aging has been associated with subclinical scurvy, which leads to even greater susceptibility to photic injury. Although ascorbate moderates many biochemical functions of the body and helps the retina ameliorate photo-oxidative injury, it should be regarded as a nutritional supplement to maintain health when consumed in appropriate amounts and not as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of severe insults. Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 4 E FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 5 C FIGURE 5 D FIGURE 5 E FIGURE 5 F FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 7 E FIGURE 7 F FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 8 C FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C FIGURE 9 D FIGURE 9 E FIGURE 9 F FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 10 C FIGURE 10 D FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 11 C FIGURE 11 D FIGURE 11 E FIGURE 11 F FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 13 A FIGURE 13 B FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 A FIGURE 15 B FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 A FIGURE 18 B FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 A FIGURE 20 B FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 A FIGURE 22 B FIGURE 23 A FIGURE 23 B FIGURE 24 A FIGURE 24 B FIGURE 25 A FIGURE 25 B FIGURE 26 A FIGURE 26 B FIGURE 26 C FIGURE 26 D FIGURE 27 A FIGURE 27 B PMID:3447341

  9. AVLIS production plant waste management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    Following the executive summary, this document contains the following: (1) waste management facilities design objectives; (2) AVLIS production plant wastes; (3) waste management design criteria; (4) waste management plan description; and (5) waste management plan implementation. 17 figures, 18 tables.

  10. Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy: a disease characterized by epithelial-like endothelial cells which influence management and prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Krachmer, J H

    1985-01-01

    endothelial rejection, three because of glaucoma, one because of a retrocorneal membrane, two from both a retrocorneal membrane and glaucoma, and one from both an endothelial rejection and glaucoma. Thus, glaucoma was involved in six of the nine failures (27% of all grafts). Clinically visible retrocorneal membranes formed in 4 of the 22 grafts. All four eyes had preoperative slit lamp-visible iridocorneal adhesions. The factor that most prominently influences keratoplasty prognosis is the presence of iridocorneal adhesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 PMID:3914130

  11. Magic Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featonby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article examines several readily available "magic tricks" which base their "trickery" on physics principles, and questions the use of the word "magic" in the 21st century, both in popular children's science and in everyday language. (Contains 18 figures.)

  12. 50 CFR Figures 19a and 19b to Part... - Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details 19a Figures 19a and 19b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Figs. 19 Figures 19a and 19b to Part 223—Chauvin Shrimp...

  13. 16 CFR Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 - Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only 16 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Figs. 16, 17 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633—Label for Domestic Mattress Only...

  14. 16 CFR Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 - Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only 16 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Figs. 16, 17 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633—Label for Domestic Mattress Only...

  15. 16 CFR Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 - Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only 16 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Figs. 16, 17 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633—Label for Domestic Mattress Only...

  16. 16 CFR Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 - Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only 16 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Figs. 16, 17 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633—Label for Domestic Mattress Only...

  17. Solid electrolyte-electrode system for an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Tuller, H.L.; Kramer, S.A.; Spears, M.A.

    1995-04-04

    An electrochemical device including a solid electrolyte and solid electrode composed of materials having different chemical compositions and characterized by different electrical properties but having the same crystalline phase is provided. A method for fabricating an electrochemical device having a solid electrode and solid electrolyte characterized by the same crystalline phase is also provided. 17 figures.

  18. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 223 - Boone Wedge Cut Escape Opening

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boone Wedge Cut Escape Opening 17 Figure 17 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 223 - Boone Wedge Cut Escape Opening

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boone Wedge Cut Escape Opening 17 Figure 17 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  20. Developing Inventory Records Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing inventory records in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 17 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the inventory records…

  1. Properties of nuclei at very high spin

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, F.S.

    1980-09-01

    Nuclear structure at very high spins involves an interplay between collective (often rotational) and noncollective (individual particle alignment) behavior. The new techniques for studying ..gamma..-ray energy correlations promise to give detailed information about both of these aspects of nuclear behavior up to the very highest spins that can be populated. 17 figures.

  2. 16 CFR Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 - Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only 16 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Figs. 16, 17 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633—Label for Domestic Mattress Only...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.011...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  8. Karst-controlled reservoir heterogeneity in Ellenburger group carbonates of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kerans, C.

    1988-10-01

    Petroleum production from restricted shelf carbonates of the Lower Ordovician Ellenburger group is commonly considered to have been a result of a pervasive, relatively homogeneous tectonic fracture system within the reservoir rock. However, regional facies and diagenetic (paleokarst) studies of Ellenburger strata, based on cores and wireline logs, have demonstrated that significant reservoir compartmentalization was caused by karst modification in the upper part of the unit. 19 figures.

  9. Petrologic and geochemical characterization of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff: outcrop samples used in waste package experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Knauss, K.G.

    1983-09-01

    In support of the Waste Package Task within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI), experiments on hydrothermal rock/water interaction, corrosion, thermomechanics, and geochemical modeling calculations are being conducted. All of these activities require characterization of the initial bulk composition, mineralogy, and individual phase geochemistry of the potential repository host rock. This report summarizes the characterization done on samples of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff (Tcfb) used for Waste Package experimental programs. 11 references, 17 figures, 3 tables.

  10. BTD building uranium mass balance study

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, S.L.; Johnston, J.W.; Glissmeyer, J.A.; Athey, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    Fifteen test firings of depleted uranium (DU) munitions were made during the qualification study of the new target building at the BTD Range operated by the US Army Combat Systems Test Activity (CSTA) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Following these test firings, the total mass and mass distribution of DU inside the BTD facility was determined to define decontamination requirements for the new target building. 4 references, 17 figures, 17 tables.

  11. Drawing Control System report. [DCS, for Univac 1108

    SciTech Connect

    Shumway, K.J.; Esch, G.L.

    1980-02-01

    The Drawing Control System (DCS) is described which is a computer-based network for releasing, distributing, and accounting for drawings at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque. The System utilizes the resources of the Univac 1108 and the attached teleprocessing equipment. The hardware, computer prorams, terminal dialogs, and files are discussed. The project management techniques used to control and carry out this Sandia project are also described. 17 figures, 1 table.

  12. Parachute Creek shale-oil program. [Brochure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Union Oil Company has a plan for commercial shale-oil production at the Parachute Creek area of Colorado. This brochure describes the property and the company's concept for room and pillar mining and upflow retorting. Environmental precautions will preserve and restore vegetation on disturbed land and will safeguard local streams and underground basinx. Union will assist local communities to provide housing and services. 17 figures. (DCK)

  13. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.K.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1993-12-14

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation. 18 figures.

  14. Microbial stabilization and mass reduction of wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals

    DOEpatents

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1991-09-10

    A process is provided to treat wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals with Clostridium sp. BFGl to release a large fraction of the waste solids into solution and convert the radionuclides and toxic metals to a more concentrated and stable form with concurrent volume and mass reduction. The radionuclides and toxic metals being in a more stable form are available for recovery, recycling and disposal. 18 figures.

  15. Report of the Subpanel on Accelerator Research and Development of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Accelerator R and D in the US High Energy Physics (HEP) program is reviewed. As a result of this study, some shift in priority, particularly as regards long-range accelerator R and D, is suggested to best serve the future needs of the US HEP program. Some specific new directions for the US R and D effort are set forth. 18 figures, 5 tables. (RWR)

  16. Relativistic nuclear collisions: theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.

    1980-07-01

    Some of the recent theoretical developments in relativistic (0.5 to 2.0-GeV/nucleon) nuclear collisions are reviewed. The statistical model, hydrodynamic model, classical equation of motion calculations, billiard ball dynamics, and intranuclear cascade models are discussed in detail. Inclusive proton and pion spectra are analyzed for a variety of reactions. Particular attention is focused on how the complex interplay of the basic reaction mechanism hinders attempts to deduce the nuclear matter equation of state from data. 102 references, 19 figures.

  17. Site survey method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oldham, J.G.; Spencer, C.R.; Begley, C.L.; Meyer, H.R.

    1991-06-18

    The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment. 19 figures.

  18. Performance, durability and low temperature evaluation of sunflower oil as a diesel fuel extender

    SciTech Connect

    Baranescu, R.A.; Lusco, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a research project to evaluate performance and durability of direct injection turbocharged diesel engines using sunflower oil and blends thereof. Alcaline refined sunflower oil and three different blends of sunflower oil and diesel fuel were comparatively tested against No. 2 diesel fuel for: physical and chemical characteristics, fuel injection system performance, short term engine performance, propensity to nozzle deposits buildup, limited durability operation and low temperature starting capability. Results are presented for the various phases of the project and correlations between the fuel characteristics and engine accept-ability are discussed. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Energy, vulnerability, and war: alternatives for America

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, W.; Page, J.

    1981-01-01

    With an analysis of energy problems in relation to defense-related problems, this book presents a blueprint for an orderly restructuring of energy and resource programs needed to make the nation safe in an increasingly perilous era. Based on a report commissioned by the Defense Department, it explains how moving to a decentralized energy base will lessen our inflationary and dangerous dependence on unreliable countries, but will also provide a new approach to civil defense. The technology already exists, and the economic incentives beckon. This book evaluates and details the national and local policies required to put them to work. 120 references, 19 figures.

  20. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

  1. Hadronic physics of q anti q light quark mesons, quark molecules and glueballs

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1980-10-01

    A brief introduction reviews the development of QCD and defines quark molecules and glueballs. This review is concerned primarily with u, d, and s quarks, which provide practically all of the cross section connected with hadronic interactions. The following topics form the bulk of the paper: status of quark model classification for conventional u, d, s quark meson states; status of multiquark or quark molecule state predictions and experiments; glueballs and how to find them; and the OZI rule in decay and production and how glueballs might affect it. 17 figures, 1 table. (RWR)

  2. Analysis of rock bolt material failures at the WIPP site

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, J.P.

    1984-09-01

    The report describes an investigation conducted on rock bolt material (AISI 1040 plain carbon steel), as called for in ASTM F-432. Failure analysis was performed on rock bolts that failed in-service, and mechanical tests were conducted on rock bolt materials in a simulated WIPP environment. The mechanical tests results indicate that fracture was environmentally assisted. Strong evidence indicated that hydrogen embrittlement influenced the fracture mechanisms. In the most agressive test environment, the ductility loss during sustained-load tensile testing was large. Such ductility loss was attributed to embrittlement caused by the absorption of hydrogen. 10 references, 17 figures, 8 tables.

  3. Titanium alloy corrosion in nuclear waste environments. [Ti-50A; TiCode 12; Ti-Pd

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, J.W.; Magnani, N.J.; Munford, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    A corrosion study has been conducted on the titanium alloys Ti-50A, TiCode 12, and Ti-Pd to evaluate their suitability as a long lifetime (300 to 600 year) canister material for the isolation of nuclear wastes. TiCode 12, selected as the primary candidate material, is shown to be very resistant to environmental attack. Results of electrochemical, general corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking experiments are presented. These data, including those from severe overtests, have shown that TiCode 12 is a viable candidate material for long-term waste isolation. 17 figures.

  4. Hypernuclear research at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Although the field of hypernuclear research is over 30 years old, progress in exploring the detailed behavior of hypernuclei has been slow. This fact is due mainly to the technical problems of producing and studying these strange objects. Indeed each step in the improvement of technique has been accompanied by a breakthrough in our understanding of this fascinating subject. In this paper, the aim is to describe the evolution of hypernuclear research, stressing especially the contributions of the program based on the Brookhaven AGS. 23 references, 17 figures, 1 table.

  5. Nonpenetrating Clips Successfully Replacing Sutures in Base of Skull Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Wolff M.; Zhu, Yong Hua; Hardesty, Robert A.; Petti, George; Furnas, David

    1993-01-01

    Reconstructive challenges engendered by skull base surgery are critical determinants of outcome. A novel nonpenetrating, arcuate-legged clip has proven to be both technically and biologically effective for management of these difficult closures. Clips have facilitated reconstructions associated with the surgical management of eight skull base cases: leiomyosarcoma of the orbit, middle fossa, ptyergopalatine fossa, two meningiomas (petrotentorial, cavernous sinus), vagus nerve paraganglioma, complex traumatic orbital dural tear, and one basilar and two vertebral artery aneurysms. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 14Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18 PMID:17170909

  6. Determination of three-dimensional low-resolution viral structure from solution x-ray scattering data.

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Y; Doerschuk, P C; Johnson, J E

    1995-01-01

    The capsid is modeled as a region of constant electron density located between inner and outer envelopes that exhibit icosahedral symmetry. For computational purposes the envelopes are represented as truncated sums of weighted icosahedral harmonics. Methods are described for estimating the weights from x-ray solution scattering patterns based on nonlinear least squares, and two examples of the procedure, for viruses with known atomic-resolution structures, are given. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 23 PMID:8527677

  7. Descriptive epidemiology and geographic variation of childhood brain cancer in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Bunin, G.R.

    1984-11-01

    The descriptive epidemiology and geographic variation of childhood brain cancer by cell type was studied. For each cell type, the study indicates time trends, sex ratios, geographic variation, racial differences, urban-rural differences, and socioeconomic differences. Since, in animals, one virus or chemical often causes tumors at several sites, the sex, race, age and socio-economic status of childhood brain cancer cases was compared to the epidemiologic profile of childhood leukemias. Similar epidemiological profiles would imply similar etiologies. 116 references, 18 figures, 71 tables.

  8. Paleogeographic evolution of early deep-water Gulf of Mexico and margins, Jurassic to middle Cretaceous (Comanchean)

    SciTech Connect

    Winker, C.D.; Buffler, R.T.

    1988-03-01

    The paleobathymetric configuration of the early Gulf of Mexico is inferred from (1) Cretaceous carbonate shelf margins interpreted from seismic profiles and other stratigraphic data; (2) distribution of Jurassic and Cretaceous platform and basinal facies; and (3) hindcasting of subsidence history in the central basin. Substantial paleogeographic ambiguity results from uncertainty about (1) kinematics and timing of Late Triassic to Jurassic extensional opening of the Gulf basin, which probably involved major strike-slip faulting, (2) the magnitude of subsequent compressive deformation on the western and southern basin margins, and (3) possible accretion of allochthonous terranes. 18 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser

    DOEpatents

    Hadley, G.R.; Hohimer, J.P.; Owyoung, A.

    1991-02-19

    A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet. 18 figures.

  10. Final report on cermet high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Aaron, W.S.

    1981-08-01

    Cermets are being developed as an alternate method for the fixation of defense and commercial high level radioactive waste in a terminal disposal form. Following initial feasibility assessments of this waste form, consisting of ceramic particles dispersed in an iron-nickel base alloy, significantly improved processing methods were developed. The characterization of cermets has continued through property determinations on samples prepared by various methods from a variety of simulated and actual high-level wastes. This report describes the status of development of the cermet waste form as it has evolved since 1977. 6 tables, 18 figures.

  11. High pressure furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  12. Laser-based instrumentation for the detection of chemical agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hartford, A. Jr.; Sander, R.K.; Quigley, G.P.; Radziemski, L.J.; Cremers, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Several laser-based techniques are being evaluated for the remote, point, and surface detection of chemical agents. Among the methods under investigation are optoacoustic spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF). Optoacoustic detection has already been shown to be capable of extremely sensitive point detection. Its application to remote sensing of chemical agents is currently being evaluated. Atomic emission from the region of a laser-generated plasma has been used to identify the characteristic elements contained in nerve (P and F) and blister (S and Cl) agents. Employing this LIBS approach, detection of chemical agent simulants dispersed in air and adsorbed on a variety of surfaces has been achieved. Synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence provides an attractive alternative to conventional LIF, in that an artificial narrowing of the fluorescence emission is obtained. The application of this technique to chemical agent simulants has been successfully demonstrated. 19 figures.

  13. ARMA models for earthquake ground motions. Seismic safety margins research program

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, M. K.; Kwiatkowski, J. W.; Nau, R. F.; Oliver, R. M.; Pister, K. S.

    1981-02-01

    Four major California earthquake records were analyzed by use of a class of discrete linear time-domain processes commonly referred to as ARMA (Autoregressive/Moving-Average) models. It was possible to analyze these different earthquakes, identify the order of the appropriate ARMA model(s), estimate parameters, and test the residuals generated by these models. It was also possible to show the connections, similarities, and differences between the traditional continuous models (with parameter estimates based on spectral analyses) and the discrete models with parameters estimated by various maximum-likelihood techniques applied to digitized acceleration data in the time domain. The methodology proposed is suitable for simulating earthquake ground motions in the time domain, and appears to be easily adapted to serve as inputs for nonlinear discrete time models of structural motions. 60 references, 19 figures, 9 tables.

  14. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in coal liquefaction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, V. B.; Keiser, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The liquefaction of coal to produce clean-burning synthetic fuels has been demonstrated at the pilot plant level. However, some significant materials problems must be solved before scale-up to commercial levels of production can be completed. Failures due to inadequate materials performance have been reported in many plant areas: in particular, stress corrosion cracking has been found in austenitic stainless steels in the reaction and separation areas and several corrosion has been observed in fractionation components. In order to screen candidate materials of construction, racks of U-bend specimens in welded and as-wrought conditions and unstressed surveillance coupons were exposed in pilot plant vessels and evaluated. Failed components were analyzed on-site and by subsequent laboratory work. Laboratory tests were also performed. From these studies alloys have been identified that are suitable for critical plant locations. 19 figures, 7 tables.

  15. Evaluations of average level spacings

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Chemical Engineering Division Fuel Cycle Programs. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Steindler, M.J.; Bates, J.K.; Cannon, T.F.

    1982-05-01

    Methods of measuring rates of leaching from simulated waste glasses using neutron activation analysis and radiotracers have been developed. Laboratory-scale impact tests of solid alternative waste forms are being performed to obtain a size analysis of the fragments. Logging techniques are being developed to measure the relative amount of residual oil in a depleted oil reservoir by injecting gamma-active solution into it. Work to test the behavior of radionuclides leached from proposed nuclear-waste repositories using laboratory-analog experiments is in progress. High potassium levels in crushed granite from a Northern Illinois drill hole are probably derived by the leaching of potassium feldspar. Testing and development of equipment for the destructive analysis of full-length irradiated fuel rods from the LWBR are in progress. 19 figures, 13 tables.

  17. Economics of hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Much of the current interest in hydrogen (H/sub 2/) centers around its potential to displace oil and gas as a fuel. The results of this study should be useful to research and development managers making funding decisions, and they should also be of interest to energy analysts, economists, and proponents of a hydrogen economy. We examined the current costs of H/sub 2/ produced by commercially available technologies (from fossil fuels and by electrolysis) and projected these costs to 2010, to set cost goals for H/sub 2/ produced via new technologies. We also examined the sensitivity of H/sub 2/ costs to varying energy price forecasts, capital costs and the required rate of return on investment, and by-product credits. We find that conventionally produced H/sub 2/ will not break into the fuel market before 2010. 23 references, 19 figures, 12 tables.

  18. Nukespeak: nuclear language, visions, and mindset

    SciTech Connect

    Hilgartner, S.; Bell, R.C.; O'Connor, R.

    1982-01-01

    George Orwell's argument that language can manipulate and shape public understanding is the basis for this analysis of the language of nuclear development, or Nukespeak. Nukespeak characterizes a mind already encoded with a set of beliefs and able to filter information accordingly. The authors analyze how information-management techniques worked as the nuclear age was greeted first with enthusiasm and vision, then with secrecy as the hazards of radiation exposure began troubling the public. He traces the effort to find a satisfactory solution to waste management, the arguments for a nuclear economy, and the shift from atoms for peace to atoms for war. Nukespeak limits the way nuclear weapons are perceived, artificially constraining policy choices. The authors feel that mankind must acknowledge this mindset before alternatives to the nuclear arms race will become available. 974 references, 19 figures. (DCK)

  19. Manual on indoor air quality. Final report. [Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1984-02-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. 112 references, 19 figures, 13 tables.

  20. Radio frequency accelerating cavity having slotted irises for damping certain electromagnetic modes

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, R.B.

    1991-05-21

    An accelerating cavity is disclosed having one or more iris structures mounted therein for strongly damping unwanted frequencies that are generated in the cavity by bunches of particles in a particle beam that is accelerated through the cavity during its operation. Each of the iris structures is characterized by containing a plurality of radial slots therein that extend from the central aperture through the iris member to the perimeter thereof. The outer end of each of the radial slots includes an enlarged portion that is effective to prevent undesired frequencies from being reflected back into the center aperture of the iris member. Waveguide means connect the outer ends of the radial slots to frequency damping means or to a dump or dumps. 17 figures.

  1. AFBC bed material performance with low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Goblirsch, G.M.; Benson, S.A.; Karner, F.R.; Rindt, D.K.; Hajicek, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the reasons for carefully screening any candidate bed material for use in low-rank coal atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, before the final selection is made. The sections of this paper describe: (1) the experimental equipment used to obtain the data, as well as the experimental and analytical procedures used in evaluation; (2) the results of tests utilizing various bed materials with particular emphasis on the problem of bed material agglomeration; and (3) the conclusions and recommendations for bed material selection and control for use with low-rank coal. Bed materials of aluminum oxide, quartz, limestone, dolomite, granite, gabbro, and mixtures of some of these materials have been used in the testing. Of these materials, gabbro appears most suitable for use with high available sodium lignites. 17 figures, 8 tables. (DMC)

  2. Laser capillary spectrophotometric acquisition of bivariate drop size and concentration data for liquid-liquid dispersion

    DOEpatents

    Tavlarides, L.L.; Bae, J.H.

    1991-12-24

    A laser capillary spectrophotometric technique measures real time or near real time bivariate drop size and concentration distribution for a reactive liquid-liquid dispersion system. The dispersion is drawn into a precision-bore glass capillary and an appropriate light source is used to distinguish the aqueous phase from slugs of the organic phase at two points along the capillary whose separation is precisely known. The suction velocity is measured, as is the length of each slug from which the drop free diameter is calculated. For each drop, the absorptivity at a given wavelength is related to the molar concentration of a solute of interest, and the concentration of given drops of the organic phase is derived from pulse heights of the detected light. This technique permits on-line monitoring and control of liquid-liquid dispersion processes. 17 figures.

  3. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables.

  4. Pulmonary mineral dust. A study of ninety patients by electron microscopy, electron microanalysis, and electron microdiffraction.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, J. P.; Henoc, P.; Galle, P.; Pariente, R.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a study of 90 patients are presented. Intrapulmonary mineral deposits were characterized by electron diffraction and electron probe microanalysis. Using this method, pneumoconioses may be distinguidhed from other pneumopathies. In cases of pneumoconiosis, there exists a specific relationship between the etiology of the dust exposure and the crystallographic characteristics of the intrapulmonary deposits. The nature of the deposits may be indicative of a specific type of pneumoconiosis. This method is particularly useful in differentiating between asbestos bodies and ferruginous bodies. The value of the method in general and its importance in the study of pneumoconiosis are discussed. Images Figure 4 Figure 13 Figure 5 Figure 14 Figure 6 Figure 15 Figure 7 Figure 16 Figure 8 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 3 Figure 12 PMID:937507

  5. Petrous Bone Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Mario; Zini, Carlo; Gamoletti, Roberto; Frau, Niccolò; Taibah, Abdel Kader; Russo, Alessandra; Pasanisi, Enrico

    1993-01-01

    Petrous bone cholesteatoma is a rare pathologic entity and may be a difficult surgical challenge because of potential involvement of the facial nerve, carotid artery, dura mater, otic capsule, and risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak. The objective of this article is to present a personal classification of petrous bone cholesteatomas, a survey of recent surgical attitudes, and our present surgical strategy based on our experience with 54 operations between 1978 and 1990. Radical petromastoid exenteration with marsupialization and the middle cranial fossa approach were used only for small pure infra- or supralabyrinthine cholesteatomas, respectively. The enlarged transcochlear approach with closure of the external auditory canal was used for infralabyrinthine, infralabyrinthine-apical, and massive petrous bone cholesteatomas. Five cases with petrous bone cholesteatomas in different locations are described in detail to present the signs and symptoms together with the management. ImagesFigure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18 PMID:17170912

  6. Radial particle distributions in PARMILA simulation beams

    SciTech Connect

    Boicourt, G.P.

    1984-03-01

    The estimation of beam spill in particle accelerators is becoming of greater importance as higher current designs are being funded. To the present, no numerical method for predicting beam-spill has been available. In this paper, we present an approach to the loss-estimation problem that uses probability distributions fitted to particle-simulation beams. The properties of the PARMILA code's radial particle distribution are discussed, and a broad class of probability distributions are examined to check their ability to fit it. The possibility that the PARMILA distribution is a mixture is discussed, and a fitting distribution consisting of a mixture of two generalized gamma distributions is found. An efficient algorithm to accomplish the fit is presented. Examples of the relative prediction of beam spill are given. 26 references, 18 figures, 1 table.

  7. Heat capacity measurements - Progress in experimental techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmikumar, S. T.; Gopal, E. S. R.

    1981-11-01

    The heat capacity of a substance is related to the structure and constitution of the material and its measurement is a standard technique of physical investigation. In this review, the classical methods are first analyzed briefly and their recent extensions are summarized. The merits and demerits of these methods are pointed out. The newer techniques such as the a.c. method, the relaxation method, the pulse methods, the laser flash calorimetry and other methods developed to extend the heat capacity measurements to newer classes of materials and to extreme conditions of sample geometry, pressure and temperature are comprehensively reviewed. Examples of recent work and details of the experimental systems are provided for each method. The introduction of automation in control systems for the monitoring of the experiments and for data processing is also discussed. Two hundred and eight references and 18 figures are used to illustrate the various techniques.

  8. Farm scale electrical power production from animal waste. Volume I. Final report, 30 June 1981-30 December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, P.A.

    1984-01-31

    A 1 1/2 (dry) tons per day biodigester cogeneration plant has been designed and constructed. This project is part of a federal program to promote energy conservation and the use of non-conventional energy resources. The main purpose of the project is to demonstrate that a dairy farm can generate its own power and supply excess power to a local utility. Such a facility can produce significant energy savings to livestock farms and small communities by allowing them to get energy from raw animal and human waste. Also, an odorless by-product is produced that is nearly pathogenically free and has the possibility of several end uses such as: fertilizer and soil conditioner, protein-rich animal refeed, livestock bedding material, and aquatic food for fish farming. 53 references, 18 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Analysis of large urban fires

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.W.; Reitter, T.A.; Takata, A.N.

    1984-11-01

    Fires in urban areas caused by a nuclear burst are analyzed as a first step towards determining their smoke-generation chacteristics, which may have grave implications for global-scale climatic consequences. A chain of events and their component processes which would follow a nuclear attack are described. A numerical code is currently being developed to calculate ultimately the smoke production rate for a given attack scenario. Available models for most of the processes are incorporated into the code. Sample calculations of urban fire-development history performed in the code for an idealized uniform city are presented. Preliminary results indicate the importance of the wind, thermal radiation transmission, fuel distributions, and ignition thresholds on the urban fire spread characteristics. Future plans are to improve the existing models and develop new ones to characterize smoke production from large urban fires. 21 references, 18 figures.

  10. Flood of August 1950 in the Waimea area, Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chun, R.K.

    1952-01-01

    This report presents detailed records of stages and discharges at four gaging stations in the basin during the flood period August 15-18 in the Waimea River basin, a summary of flood discharges at gaging stations on the principal streams on the island of Kauai, a description of the physical features of the drainage basin, a description of the two types of storms that prevail on the Hawaiian Islands, and a section on the meteorology of the storm of August 15-18. Figure 46 is a map of the island of Kauai, which shows the location of the gaging stations referred to in this report, the location of .rain gages in the area where rainfall was the greatest, and lines of equal rainfall for the period August 14-19, 1950.

  11. In-line rotating capacitive torque sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-09-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for measuring torques developed along a rotating mechanical assembly comprising a rotating inner portion and a stationary outer portion. The rotating portion has an electrically-conductive flexing section fitted between two coaxial shafts in a configuration which varies radially in accordance with applied torque. The stationary portion comprises a plurality of conductive plates forming a surface concentric with and having a diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the rotating portion. The capacitance between the outer, nonrotating and inner, rotating portion varies with changes in the radial configuration of the rotating portion. Signal output varies approximately linearly with torque for small torques, nonlinearly for larger torques. The sensor is preferably surrounded by a conductive shell to minimize electrical interference from external sources. 18 figures.

  12. C/sub 4/ photosynthesis in Euphorbia degeneri and E. remyi: a comparison of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in leaves, callus cultures and regenerated plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzin, S.E.

    1984-04-01

    Based on analysis of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation kinetics and assays of enzymes related to C/sub 4/ metabolism (NAD-ME, NADP-ME, NAD-MDH, NADP-MDH, AST, ALT), leaves and regenerated plants of Euphorbia degeneri exhibit a modified NADP-ME-type photosynthesis. Apparently, both aspartate and malate are used for transport of CO/sub 2/ to bundle sheath cells. Callus grown on either non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media fixes CO/sub 2/ into RPP-cycle intermediates and sucrose, as well as malate and aspartate. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse/chase kinetics show no significant loss of label from C/sub 4/ acids throughout a one minute chase. Analysis of PEPCase revealed the presence of 2 isoenzymes in both leaf and regenerated plant tissues (K/sub m/ (PEP) = 0.080 and 0.550) but only one isoenzyme in callus (K/sub m/ = 0.100). It appears that C/sub 4/ photosynthesis does not occur in callus derived from this C/sub 4/ dicot but is regenerated concomitant with shoot regeneration, and ..beta..-carboxylation of PEP in callus, mediated by the low K/sub m/ isoenzyme of PEPCase, produces C/sub 4/ acids that are not involved in the CO/sub 2/ shuttle mechanism characteristic of C/sub 4/ photosynthesis. 161 references, 19 figures, 12 tables.

  13. Hydrovolcanic explosions. II. Evolution of basaltic tuff rings and tuff cones

    SciTech Connect

    Wohletz, K.H.; Sheridan, M.F.

    1983-05-01

    Eleven basaltic volcanoes from a variety of geologic settings were studied in order to compare vent morphology, deposit stratigraphy, and emplacement mechanisms at tuff rings with those at tuff cones. The tuff rings consist of thinly bedded, poorly indurated, relatively fresh pyroclasts deposited with bedding angles less than 12. The tuff cones consist of massive, thickly bedded, high indurated, and hydrated pyroclasts deposited at bedding angles up to 30. This massive tuff contains ash-fall layers interspersed with nearly equal volumes of base-surge beds. Stratigraphic data and models of pyroclastic surge suggest that the massive bedding of tuff cones results from a cool (below 100 C), wet emplacement. In contrast, the thinly-bedded deposits of tuff rings are typically emplaced while hot (above 100 C) and relatively dry. As the volume of water that explosively mixed with magma increases, the amount of steam produced increases, but the level of superheating of that steam decreases. This leads to an increased wetness of the resulting surge blasts. With increasing ratios of water to magma, activity changes from lava fountains to dry surges to wet surges. The resulting volcanic landforms are respectively cinder cones, tuff rings, and tuff cones. Accordingly, a dry environment would contain cinder cones; abundant ground water promotes tuff rings; and a shallow body of standing water favors development of tuff cones. 48 references, 19 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Organic geochemistry and source rock characteristics of the Zagros Petroleum Province, southwest Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Ala, M.A.; Kinghorn, R.R.F.; Rahman, M.

    1980-07-01

    The Zagros sector of SW Iran and its continuation into N Iraq forms the tectonized NE margin of the Middle East basin. Sedimentation in the Zagros began in the late Precambrian and continued with comparatively few interruptions until the Pliocene, when strong earth movements affected the area and gave rise to the present day large, elongated NW-SE trending structures. Some of the world's largest structurally-controlled oil fields are located in the Zagros. The most productive pay zone is the Oligo-Miocene Asmari Formation, although significant oil pools are present also in the Cenomanian-Turonian Sarvak limestone and in the Neocomian-Jurassic Khami Group carbonates. Recently, large gas deposits have been discovered in the Permo-Triassic carbonates assigned to the Deh Ram Group. Geochemical studies were carried out in five potential source beds of Eocene-Palaeocene (Pabdeh Formation), Maestrichtian-Campanian (Gurpi Formation), Albian (Kazhdumi Formation), Coniacian-Neocomian (Garau Formation) and Silurian (Gahkum Formation) age. The results showed that the organic matter in these formations is almost exclusively of marine algal origin, and that the Kazhdumi is the major source of the hydrocarbons in the Asmari and Sarvak reservoirs. The origin of the hydrocarbons in the Khami and Deh Ram reservoirs is at present speculative. 19 figures, 1 table.

  15. Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coals. Final report. Part IV. A petrographic and chemical model for the evolution of the Tradewater Formation coals in Western Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Graese, A.M.; Hower, J.C.; Ferm, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    A depositional model for the coals of the Tradewater Formation and associated rock units was constructed as a predictive device for the occurrence of economically important low sulfur coal. Twenty-one cores were examined and ninety-eight coal samples were analyzed for maceral, ash, and sulfur contents. These data were then analyzed to determine regional variation as well as vertical variation in single coal columns. Core data indicate that the majority of the Tradewater rocks consist of irregularly distributed, coarsening-upward, fine-grained detrital material which was deposited in shallow bodies of water. Minor fossiliferous shales and limestones suggest a marine influence. Less common coarse-grained, fining-upward sequences appear to be deposits of meandering channels. Like the detrital rocks, the coal seams are also irregularly distributed and exhibit variable petrographic and chemical properties reflecting changes in the Eh and pH of the coal swamp waters as well as detrital influx into the swamps. These swamps were relatively limited in extent and probably occupied the upper reaches of the tidal zone. The lack of significant stratigraphic and geographic trends in the regional data suggests that this mode of deposition was widespread and continued for a long period of time. 42 references, 19 figures, 9 tables.

  16. Oil and gas developments in Europe in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbrough, S.C.

    1985-10-01

    Western Europe rebounded from the recent recession, recording an increase in most oil- and gas-related activities except development drilling and downstream operations. Exploration and appraisal drilling boomed in the North Sea, where a record 266 wells (182 in the United Kingdom sector alone) were spudded in 1984. Italy and the United Kingdom sector of the North Sea led Europe in discoveries, each reporting 22 successful new-field wildcats. Significant activities in 1984 included Malta's first hydrocarbon discovery. Italy and Yugoslavia shifted focus of exploration activity to the Adriatic Sea from onshore areas. Interest surged in France's Paris basin, where a 60% increase in licensed acreage was reported. Oil production in the Paris basin nearly doubled, threatening to overtake output from the 30-year-old Aquitaine fields. Oil production increased overall in Europe by 8.9%, boosted primarily by North Sea crude. Licensing rounds announced for offshore Norway, United Kingdom, and Ireland in 1984 should ensure a continuing high level of activity in northwest Europe. 19 figures, 6 tables.

  17. Three-dimensional dip analysis of offset VSP data

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, J.H.; Jacewitz, C.A.; Lin, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    Often offset VSP data are available from only a few source positions. This creates difficulties with many standard imaging techniques. Using geometric ideas, a simple imaging technique is presented which is similar to a velocity spectra analysis of 2-D seismic data. The method involves a coherency measurement over the data along a traveltime curve corresponding to a specific dip and depth. The result for that dip and depth is placed appropriately (imaged). This coherency measurement is repeated for a range of dips at a specific depth. All depths are searched. This enables the construction of a dip spectrum of reflectors near a borehole. The dip spectrum contains information pertaining to the coordinates of source image points of reflectors. By the correlation study of coordinates of source image points obtained from a few source positions, the dip and strike of reflectors may be determined. This procedure locates the reflector in three dimensions if three source positions are available which do not lie on a straight line. 6 referenes, 19 figures.

  18. Ozone in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Prather, M.J.

    1981-06-20

    A detailed photochemical model of the upper stratosphere and mesosphere is compared with three extensive sets of ozone observations: Atmospheric Explorer-E backscattered ultraviolet experiment (BUV), Nimbus-4 BUV, and rocket flights from Wallops Flight Center (ROCOZ). The Nimbus-4 and rocket observations are most sensitive to ozone between 30 and 50 km, whereas observations from AE-E measure the abundance of ozone up to 70 km. The photochemical model accurately reproduces the observed relationship between BUV intensity and local solar zenith angle, although the absolute calibration on AE-E appears to be in error. The AE-E observations and the model both exhibit a morning-afternoon asymmetry, with more ozone in the morning owing to the build up of HO/sub x/ species in the afternoon. Seasonal changes in atmospheric temperature produce an annual maximum in tropical mesospheric ozone during June-July-August. The amplitude of the observed effect is somewhat larger than calculated by the model. Some problems appear to remain with the presently accepted kinetic rates for HO/sub x/ species in the atmosphere. 71 references, 19 figures, 6 tables.

  19. Effect of heat treatment and heat-to-heat variations in the fatigue-crack growth response of Alloy 718. Part 2. Microscopic observation

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.

    1980-04-01

    The microstructural aspects that influenced the room temperature and elevated temperature fatigue-crack propagation response of annealed, conventional, and modified heat-treated Alloy 718 were studied. Electron fractographic examination of Alloy 718 fatigue fracture surfaces revealed that operative crack growth mechanisms were dependent on heat treatment, heat-to-heat variations, temperature, and prevailing crack tip stress intensity level. In the low temperature regime (below 538{sup 0}C), all fracture surfaces exhibited a faceted appearance at low {Delta} levels, which is indicative of crystallographic fracture along intense inhomogeneous slip bands. The facets in the modified Alloy 718, however, were found to be rather poorly defined since the modified heat treatment tends to promote more homogeneous slip processes. Under progressively higher stress intensity levels, the room temperature and elevated temperature fatigue fracture surfaces exhibited striations, followed by a combination of striations and dimple rupture at the highest {Delta} values. Striation spacing measurements in all three heat-treated conditions were generally found to be in agreement with macroscopic growth rates at 24 and 538{sup 0}C. Under high temperature conditions (above 538{sup 0}C), evidence of intergranular fracture was also detected on the fatigue fracture surfaces, particularly at low stress intensity levels. This intergranular failure mechanism was found to be more extensive in the modified heat-treated Alloy 718. 17 figures.

  20. Jet initiation and penetration of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, C.L.; Pimbley, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The two-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamic code 2DE with the shock initiation of heterogeneous explosive burn model called Forest Fire, is used to model numerically the interaction of jets of steel, copper, tantalum, aluminum, and water with steel, water, and explosive targets. The calculated and experimental critical condition for propagating detonation may be described by the Held V/sup 2/d expression (jet velocity squared times the jet diameter). In PBX 9502, jets initiate an overdriven detonation smaller than the critical diameter, which either fails or enlarges to greater than the critical diameter while the overdriven detonation decays to the C-J state. In PBX 9404, the jet initiates a detonation that propagates only if it is maintained by the jet for an interval sufficient to establish a stable curved detonation front. The calculated penetration velocities into explosives, initiated by a low-velocity jet, are significantly less than for non-reactive solids of the same density. The detonation products near the jet tip have a pressure higher than that of nonreactive explosives, and thus slow the jet penetration. At high jet velocities, the calculated penetration velocities are similar for reactive and inert targets. 8 references, 17 figures, 1 table.

  1. Macroeconomic effects under the proposed District Heating and Cooling Tax Incentives Act of 1982. Technology-related policy evaluation using a market penetration model and a macromodel

    SciTech Connect

    Teotia, A.P.S.; Poyer, D.A.

    1983-08-01

    In its energy conservation programs, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has supported research into and development of district heating and cooling systems to meet energy demands in the residential and commercial sectors. Toward this goal, DOE requested Argonne National Laboratory to estimate the macroeconomic effects of the Senate bill known as the ''District Heating and Cooling Tax Incentives Act of 1982.'' The first step was to estimate market penetration of district heating and cooling cogeneration energy systems under the provisions of the proposed act, using Argonne's district heating and cooling market penetration model. This model provided annual estimates of district heating and cooling investment and energy savings. In the second step, macroeconomic effects of district heating and cooling under the Act's provisions were estimated using the annual model of the US economy developed by Data Resources, Inc. The conclusion is that district heating and cooling penetration under the Act could have significant favorable effects on gross national product, US employment, fuel import costs, and similar factors. The analysis assumes that district heating and cooling can overcome the institutional and environmental barriers that have impeded it in the past. 16 references, 17 figures, 13 tables.

  2. Transuranic decontamination of nitric acid solutions by the TRUEX solvent extraction process: preliminary development studies. [Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Leonard, R.A.; Steindler, M.J.; Horwitz, E.P.; Basile, L.J.; Diamond, H.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.

    1984-07-01

    This report summarizes the work that has been performed to date at Argonne National Laboratory on the development of the TRUEX process, a solvent extraction process employing a bifunctional organophosphorous reagent in a PUREX process solvent (tributyl phosphate-normal paraffinic hydrocarbons). The purpose of this extraction process is to separate and concentrate transuranic (TRU) elements from nuclear waste. Assessments were made of the use of two TRUEX solvents: one incorporating the well-studied dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP) and a second incorporating an extractant with superior properties for a 1M HNO/sub 3/ acid feed, octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (O/sub phi/D(IB)CMPO). In this report, conceptual flowsheets for the removal of soluble TRUs from high-level nuclear wastes using these two TRUEX proces solvents are presented, and flowsheet features are discussed in detail. The conceptual flowsheet for TRU-element removal from a PUREX waste by the O/sub phi/D(IB)CMPO-TRUEX process solvent was tested in a bench-scale countercurrent experiment, and results of that experiment are presented and discussed. The conclusion of this study is that the TRUEX process is able to separate TRUs from high-level wastes so that the major portion of the solid waste (approx. 99%) can be classified as non-TRU. Areas where more experimentation is needed are listed at the end of the report. 45 references, 17 figures, 56 tables.

  3. Histogenesis of pancreatic carcinogenesis in the hamster: ultrastructural evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Flaks, B

    1984-01-01

    Pancreatic carcinogenesis in the Syrian hamster, induced by beta-oxidized derivatives of N-nitroso-di-n-propylamine, constitutes a valuable model of human cancer of the exocrine pancreas. In both species the majority of tumors are adenocarcinomas: superficially, on the basis of their histological appearance, these appear to be ductal in origin. However, sequential analysis, by electron microscopy, of the development of pancreatic neoplasia in the hamster model indicates that acinar cells may participate in the histogenesis of "ductal" adenomas and carcinomas. Acinar cells appear to undergo changes in differentiation, including pseudoductular transformation, giving rise to a new population of cells that resemble ductular or centroacinar types. This new population may then proliferate to form, first, cystic foci and subsequently cystadenomas and adenocarcinomas. Mucous metaplasia appears to develop at late stages of tumor development. Although the participation of ductular and centroacinar cells in pancreatic carcinogenesis cannot be excluded, very few tumors arise from the ductal epithelium. It is possible that some human pancreatic adenocarcinomas may also have their origin from dysplastic acinar cells, by analogy with the hamster model: focal acinar dysplasia being common in human pancreatic cancer patients. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE 18. PMID:6383797

  4. Quark and gluon decay functions in QCD and recombination model

    SciTech Connect

    Change, V.; Hwa, R.C.

    1980-04-01

    Inclusive longitudinal-momentum distributions of pions in jets initiated by quarks and gluons are determined in perturbative QCD and recombination model. The quark and antiquark joint distributions in jets are first calculated in the leading-order approximation at high Q/sup 2/. Gluons in the jets are completely converted to quark pairs. From the overall distribution q anti q pairs with definite quantum numbers then recombine to form pions. The recombination function for the process is well determined in the valon model. No adjustable parameters are involved in these calculations, and no data at low Q/sup 2/ are used as phenomenological input. The result for the quark decay functions can be compared with data on e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, and the agreement is very good in both shape and normalization. Predictions for the gluon decay functions are presented, but they cannot yet be checked by experiments. The x and Q/sup 2/ dependences of both types of decay functions have been parametrized in simple form suitable for use in theoretical and experimental applications. 17 figures, 1 table.

  5. Safer and healthier foods.

    PubMed

    1999-10-15

    During the early 20th century, contaminated food, milk, and water caused many foodborne infections, including typhoid fever, tuberculosis, botulism, and scarlet fever. In 1906, Upton Sinclair described in his novel The Jungle the unwholesome working environment in the Chicago meat-packing industry and the unsanitary conditions under which food was produced. Public awareness dramatically increased and led to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act. Once the sources and characteristics of foodborne diseases were identified--long before vaccines or antibiotics--they could be controlled by handwashing, sanitation, refrigeration, pasteurization, and pesticide application. Healthier animal care, feeding, and processing also improved food supply safety. In 1900, the incidence of typhoid fever was approximately 100 per 100,000 population; by 1920, it had decreased to 33.8, and by 1950, to 1.7 (Figure 1). During the 1940s, studies of autopsied muscle samples showed that 16% of persons in the United States had trichinellosis; 300-400 cases were diagnosed every year, and 10-20 deaths occurred. Since then, the rate of infection has declined markedly; from 1991 through 1996, three deaths and an average of 38 cases per year were reported. PMID:12432905

  6. Lymphoreticular and myeloid pathogenesis of Venezuelan equine encephalitis in hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D. H.; Harrison, A.; Murphy, K.; Flemister, M.; Murphy, F. A.

    1976-01-01

    Ultrastructural, histopathologic, and virologic studies of adult hamsters infected with virulent Venezuelan equine encelphalomyelitis (VEE) virus (Subtype I-B) demonstrated precise chronologic and topographic progression of lesions and viral replication in extraneural sites. Thymus contained the earliest lesions and the highest initial and subsequent viral titers. No particular cytotropism was observed as highly efficient viral replication and severe cytonecrosis proceded. Early cortical necrosis of splenic periarteriolar lymphocytic sheath was followed by lymphoblastoid repopulation of the peripheral zone. Massive bone marrow necrosis was accompained by ultrastructural evidence of VEE viral particle production in reticulum cells, rubricytes, myeloid cells, lymphoblastoid cells, and megakaryocytes. Speed, efficiency, destructiveness, and relative sensitivity of virtually all lymphoreticular and hematopoetic cells were hallmarks of virulent VEE infection in the hamster. Images Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 12A and B Figure 13 Figure 7 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:941983

  7. Responses of selected aquatic biota in Watts Bar Reservoir to thermal discharges from Kingston Steam-Electric Plant in 1978 and 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Craven, T.M.; Dycus, D.L.; Tomljanovich, D.A.

    1983-07-01

    Results of the 1978 and 1979 investigations on the effects of the power plant on the biota of Watts Bar Reservoir are presented and compared to the results of the 1973 to 1975 studies. Water chemistry, phytoplankton, periphyton, zooplankton and benthic macroinvertebrate data were collected. Water quality parameter values in 1978 and 1979 were within expected ranges. Upstream/downstream differences in phytoplankton density in 1978 and 1979 were not attributed to thermal effects but to plant operation. Lower cell density and chlorophyll a concentrations in 1979 were attributed to increased turbidity accompanying higher flows. Low abundance of blue-green algae (Cyanophyta) at thermally affected stations suggested that differences in composition among stations were not due to thermal effect but to complex mixing patterns of several water masses. Thermal effluent was not shown to adversely affect the periphyton community downstream of the plant. Substantial differences in zooplankton density between upstream and downstream stations were indicative of some type of plant effect. No adverse effects were observed on the benthic macroinvertebrate community in either 1978 or 1979. 57 references, 17 figures, 23 tables. (MDF)

  8. Naval Oil Shale Reserves 1 and 3. Five years of progress on the Oil Shale Predevelopment Program: summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This report summarizes the predevelopment work done to date, and discusses the work remaining to be accomplished for the policy options pertaining to continuing developmental activities. The work can be divided into three technical areas: resource assessment, technology assessment, and environmental assessment. The resource assessment results show that NOSR 1 could sustain a production rate of 50,000 barrels per day for well over 100 years. NOSR 1 has the largest in-place resource, the third largest recoverable resource, comparable recovery economics, a greater recovery potential with improvements in low-grade recovery technology, and fewer technical, environmental, and institutional impediments to development. An assessment of six mining technologies showed that the only option technically and economically feasible was room and pillar mining. There are approximately 17 options for retorting shale available for screening. These options fall broadly into the categories of surface and in situ retorting, solvent processing, and bioleaching. Processes retained after initial screening consist of only surface retorting options: Lurgi-Ruhrgas, Paraho, Tosco II, Union B, and Superior Circular Grate. Surface retorting is also planned for all nearby oil shale projects. Environmental assessment has focused on two major thrusts: environmental baseline determination and preparation of a programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 17 figures, 11 tables. (DMC)

  9. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOEpatents

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  10. Lacustrine and fluvial-deltaic depositional systems, Fort Union Formation (Paleocene), Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, W.B. Jr.

    1986-11-01

    The Powder River basin is a Laramide foreland basin that was filled by a combination of fluvial, deltaic, paludal, and lacustrine sediments. The depositional history of the Fort Union Formation was unraveled in a regional subsurface study using data from approximately 1400 geophysical well logs. The depositional model developed from the subsurface study was tested by selective fieldwork. The Powder River basin originated as a structural and depositional basin in earliest middle Paleocene. As a result of rapid subsidence, a lake (Lake Lebo) formed along the basin axis. Lake Lebo, documented in the mudstone of the Lebo Shale Member, spread rapidly to cover an area greater than 10,000 mi/sup 2/ (25,900 km/sup 2/). During the middle through late Paleocene, Lake Lebo was filled peripherally by fluvial-deltaic systems that are recorded in the coarser clastics of the Tongue River Member. Primary basin fill was from: (1) the eastern margin by elongate deltas fed by suspended to mixed-load fluvial systems issuing from the ancestral Black Hills, and (2) the southwestern margin by mixed to bed-load streams emanating from the Wind River basin. Secondary fill was from the northwest by an elongate delta system fed by a suspended to mixed-load fluvial system flowing from the Bull Mountain basin. 17 figures.

  11. Porosity evolution of upper Miocene reefs, Almeria Province, Southern Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, A.K.; Snavely, P.D. Jr.; Addicott, W.O.

    1980-02-01

    In the reef cores and fore-reef breccia beds, porosity in both primary and postdepositional. Primary porosity is of three types: (a) boring clam holes in the scleractinian coral heads, cemented reef rocks, and breccias; (b) intraparticle porosity within the corals, Halimeda plates, and vermetid worm tubes; and (c) interparticle porosity between bioclastic fragments and in the reef breccia. Postdepositional moldic porosity was formed by the solution of aragonitic material such as molluscan and coral fragments. The Polomo reef carbonate rocks have high porosity and permeability, and retain a great amount of depositional porosity. Pores range in size from a few micrometers to 30 cm. The extensive intercrystalline porosity and high permeability resulted from dolomitization of micritic matrix. Some porosity reduction has occured by incomplete and partial sparry calcite infilling of interparticular, moldic, and intercrystalline voids. The high porosity and permeability of these reefs make them important targets for petroleum exploration in the western Mediterranean off southern Spain. In these offshore areas in the subsuface the volcanic ridge and the Plomo reef complex are locally onlapped or overlapped by 350 m or more of Miocene and Pliocene fine-grained sedimentary rocks. The possibility exists that the buried Plomo reef deposits may form traps for oil and gas in the offshore areas southwest of the type locality. Stratigraphic traps also may occur where the Neogene sequence above the Plomo reef complex onlaps the volcanic ridge. 17 figures.

  12. Thermal stability of grafted fibers. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sundardi, F.; Kadariah; Marlianti, I.

    1983-10-01

    Presented the experimental results on the study of thermal stability of grafted fibers, i.e., polypropylene-, polyester-, and rayon-grafted fibers. These fibers were obtained by radiation grafting processes using hydrophylic monomers such as 1-vinyl 2-pyrolidone, acrylic acid, N-methylol acrylamide, and acrylonitrile. The thermal stability of the fibers was studied using a Shimadzu Thermal Analyzer DT-30. The thermal stability of the fibers, which can be indicated by the value of the activation energy for thermal degradation, was not improved by radiation grafting. The degree of improvement depends on the thermal stability of the monomers used for grafting. The thermal stability of a polypropylene fiber, either a grafted or an ungrafted one, was found to be inferior compared to the polyester of a rayon fiber, which may be due to the lack of C=O and C=C bonds in the polypropylene molecules. The thermal stability of a fiber grafted with acrylonitrile monomer was found to be better than that of an ungrafted one. However, no improvement was detected in the fibers grafted with 1-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone monomer, which may be due to the lower thermal stability of poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone), compared to the polypropylene or polyester fibers. 17 figures, 3 tables.

  13. /sup 238/Pu fuel form processes. Quarterly report, July-September 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    Fracture tendency of pellets after final heat treatment or vacuum outgassing during production has been reviewed. A statistical analysis of fracture tendency has revealed a cyclical trend. The period of the cycle on average is about every 50 pellets. Phosphorus is considered detrimental to the impact behavior of iridium. Tests show that phosphorus is easily picked up by PuO/sub 2/ through a variety of pathways and is difficult to remove by heating techniques such as are possible in the PuFF Facility. High-temperature impact ductility of CVS welds may be related to grain structure in the weld centerline. Heating at 1500/sup 0/C causes finely structured thorium-bearing patches on grain surfaces in welds to agglomerate into particles. Heating at 2000/sup 0/C appears to heal grain boundary cavities and pores. High-temperature creep has been identified as another mechanism for producing grain boundary cavities that cause weld-quench cracking. 17 figures, 11 tables.

  14. Nuclear structure studies with pions and heavy ions. Progress report, June 1, 1979-May 31, 1980. [Univ. of Minnesota, June 1, 1979-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Dehnhard, D.

    1980-03-01

    The elastic and inelastic scattering of ..pi../sup +/ and ..pi../sup -/ by /sup 13/C, /sup 16/O, and /sup 17/O was studied at pion energies close to the (3,3) resonance. Data were taken at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Large asymmetries were observed, two of which are consistent with pure neutron and pure proton excitations. Transitions to strongly excited states of /sup 13/C are in strikingly good agreement with theoretical predictions of Lee and Kurath. In sharp contrast, strong disagreements are found for the weakly excited states. The asymmetries for /sup 16/O + ..pi../sup + -/ were interpreted as due to isospin mixing between the excited states. High-resolution data for (t,t') and (/sup 3/He,/sup 3/He') on /sup 13/C were taken to supplement the pion work. Asymmetries were found for the relative cross sections for some states. In studies of the heavy-ion-nucleus potential the effect of potential resonances on the elastic scattering of /sup 16/O + /sup 28/Si was found to be small. A close similarity between the elastic exchange amplitude at 180/sup 0/ and the effect of the parity dependence on the elastic amplitude was found. Fits to the new data at 40 and 41.226 MeV required the use of a composite absorptive potential. The surface derivative part of this potential can be deduced from a coupled-channels calculation. 17 figures.

  15. XH1--a new cervical carcinoma cell line and xenograft model of tumour invasion, 'metastasis' and regression.

    PubMed Central

    Han, X.; Lyle, R.; Eustace, D. L.; Jewers, R. J.; Parrington, J. M.; Das, A.; Chana, T.; Dagg, B.; Money, S.; Bates, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    A new cell line, XH1, has been derived from an invasive focally keratinising adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix in a 32 year old patient. It has been maintained in long term monolayer culture for 26 months, and passaged over 100 times (much greater than 300 population doublings). It is aneuploid with a mean chromosome number of 78. Examination using two minisatellite hypervariable DNA probes has shown it to be different from other cell lines maintained in this laboratory and from HeLa. Two sublines, XH1a and XH1b, show marked differences in monolayer culture, growth in soft agar, and xenograft formation. XH1 and XH1a cells readily form subcutaneous xenografts, and lung colonies can be established by their intravenous injection. Subcutaneous injection of XH1b cells results in rapid cell growth for a few days after which the tumour undergoes degeneration and then regresses completely. The XH1 karyotype has many rearranged chromosomes. Parental XH1 cells and both sublines show integration of HPV16 into the genome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:1911212

  16. Bioassay data and a retention-excretion model for systemic plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    The estimation of systemic burdens from urinalyses has been the most common and useful method of quantifying occupational exposures to plutonium. Problems arise in using this technique, however, because of inadequate modeling of human retention, translocation, and excretion of this element. Present methods for estimating the systemic burden from urinalyses were derived to a large extent from patterns observed in the first few months after exposure, but there is now evidence that these same patterns do not persist over long periods. In this report we collect and discuss data needed for the interpretation of bioassay results for Pu. These data are used to develop a model that describes the movement, retention, and excretion of systemic Pu in the human body in terms of explicitly identified anatomical compartments. This model may be used in conjunction with existing models and/or case-specific information concerning the translocation of Pu from the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract or from wounds to the bloodstream. Attention is restricted to the behavior of Pu after it has gained access to the bloodstream. There remain significant uncertainties concerning some aspects of the movement of Pu, particularly its translocation from the liver. An attempt has been made to construct the model in such a way as to elucidate those areas needing further attention. 98 references, 18 figures, 16 tables.

  17. Syncrude stability study. Final report, June 9, 1980-March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, J.N.; Lee, G.H. II

    1983-01-01

    This program was initiated to investigate the storage stability of syncrudes derived from coal and oil shale, and upgraded syncrudes, by procedures utilized for petroleum-derived fuels. Initially, the syncrudes were placed in storage at 43/sup 0/C. After 4, 8, 16 and 24 weeks, aliquots were removed from storage for analysis of filterable precipitates, adherent gum, and soluble gum. Due to the high viscosity and boiling range of many of the syncrudes, special techniques were utilized to filter some of these samples for their measurements, which included heat and pressure. Investigation of other techniques for development of a test protocol that would successfully differentiate between various degrees of storage stability of syncrudes became a second objective of this program. To this end, solvent separations, accelerated stability tests at 80/sup 0/C, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Results of this work indicate that for the particular samples studied, the shale syncrudes are more stable than coal-derived syncrudes, and hydrotreatment of the shale syncrudes for upgrading tends to improve their stability. Thermal analysis by SC and/or TGA appears to show promise in evaluating syncrude stability, although finalized standard procedures still need to be developed. 10 references, 18 figures, 29 tables.

  18. Trophic status evaluation of TVA reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Placke, J.F.

    1983-10-01

    TVA tributary and mainstem reservoirs show generalized differences in morphometry, hydraulics, nutrient loads, and response to nutrient concentrations. Neither type of reservoir is strictly comparable to the natural lakes on which classical eutrophication studies have been based. The majority of published trophic state indices and standards (e.g., hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen depletion, Secchi depth, areas nutrient loading rates, in-reservoir phosphorus concentrations) are inappropriate for evaluation of some or all TVA reservoirs. No single trophic potential or trophic response variable summarizes the mechanisms and manifestations of eutrophication sufficiently to be used as a sole criterion for judging or regulating TVA reservoir water quality. Relative multivariate trophic state indices were developed for mainstem and tributary reservoirs. Ranking of the mainstem reservoirs is based on chlorophyll, macrophyte coverage, hydraulic retention time, reservoir area less than five feet deep, annual pool elevation drawdown, and Secchi depth. Based on available data, the rank from least eutrophic to most eutrophic is: Pickwick, Kentucky, Chickamauga, Nickajack, Wilson, Fort Loudoun, Watts Bar, Wheeler, and Guntersville Reservoirs. Ranking of the tributary reservoirs is based on chlorophyll, total phosphorus and total nitrogen weighted by the N:P ratio, and bio-available inorganic carbon levels. The rank from least eutrophic to most eutrophic is: Hiwassee, Blue Ridge, Chatuge, Norris and Fontana, Watauga, South Holston, Tims Ford, Cherokee, Douglas, and Boone Reservoirs. 130 references, 18 figures, 30 tables.

  19. Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage system

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1994-06-28

    An improved Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage System (SERODS) is disclosed. In the improved system, entities capable of existing in multiple reversible states are present on the storage device. Such entities result in changed Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) when localized state changes are effected in less than all of the entities. Therefore, by changing the state of entities in localized regions of a storage device, the SERS emissions in such regions will be changed. When a write-on device is controlled by a data signal, such a localized regions of changed SERS emissions will correspond to the data written on the device. The data may be read by illuminating the surface of the storage device with electromagnetic radiation of an appropriate frequency and detecting the corresponding SERS emissions. Data may be deleted by reversing the state changes of entities in regions where the data was initially written. In application, entities may be individual molecules which allows for the writing of data at the molecular level. A read/write/delete head utilizing near-field quantum techniques can provide for a write/read/delete device capable of effecting state changes in individual molecules, thus providing for the effective storage of data at the molecular level. 18 figures.

  20. Air sampler performance at Ford's farm range

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Johnston, J.W.

    1984-07-01

    An air-sampling system for a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator firing range was tested. The objectives of the test were: to determine the bias between the monitoring readings and DU concentrations; and to determine if the target bay real-time monitor (RTM) tracks the decaying dust concentration. The test procedure was to operate total and respirable airborne particle samplers adjacent to the target bay monitors. A series of air samples was also taken after the test firings adjacent to the target bay RTM. Exhaust particle samples were analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta and uranium content. The target bay RTM correlated well (0.977) with the sequential samples. Average concentration from the RTM did not correlate with either the long-term total or respirable sampler DU concentrations. The monitor used to confirm a low dust concentration when the door is open correlated well (0.810) with the RTM; the other bay monitor did not. In the ventilation discharge, the long-term average monitor readings did not correlate with DU concentrations, probably due to levels near lower detection limits. Smearable surface-contamination samples showed highest contamination on the equipment, gravel floor and exhaust intake. The location air-intake contamination increased over the first 3 rounds. Contamination was reduced by a low-pressure water spray washdown to about the same concentration as often the second round, then remained at about twice the level. 2 references, 18 figures, 16 tables. (MF)

  1. Experimental evidence of natural sources of CO from measurements in the troposphere

    SciTech Connect

    Marenco, A.; Delaunay, J.C.

    1980-10-20

    A very sensitive method of CO detection in the air, based on gas chromatography, has been developed in view of a study of the natural sources and atmospheric behavior of carbon monoxide. The CO variations found in forest air in France (44/sup 0/N) and in the Ivory Coast (5/sup 0/N) confirm the existence of a natural CO formation by vegetation. The similarity of the results suggests a homogeneous abundance in the planetary boundary layer over the continents. The tropospheric measurements are in good accordance with the data published in the literature except for the free atmosphere of the north hemisphere mid-latitudes where CO mixing ratios (70-110 ppB in oceanic air), inferior to those of Seiler (1974) (200-250 ppb), are obtained. From the CO budget based on various recent results it appears that the CO tropospheric residence time is short, of the order of 0.1 to 0.2 year. Consequently, the latitudinal CO distribution may be explained by the latitudinal repartition of natural sources rather than by the anthropogenic one (CO air concentrations, natural formation, residence time). 40 references, 18 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Non-contact capacitance based image sensing method and system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Wiczer, J.J.

    1994-01-25

    A system and a method for imaging desired surfaces of a workpiece is described. A sensor having first and second sensing electrodes which are electrically isolated from the workpiece is positioned above and in proximity to the desired surfaces of the workpiece. An electric field is developed between the first and second sensing electrodes of the sensor in response to input signals being applied thereto and capacitance signals are developed which are indicative of any disturbances in the electric field as a result of the workpiece. An image signal of the workpiece may be developed by processing the capacitance signals. The image signals may provide necessary control information to a machining device for machining the desired surfaces of the workpiece in processes such as deburring or chamfering. Also, the method and system may be used to image dimensions of weld pools on a workpiece and surfaces of glass vials. The sensor may include first and second preview sensors used to determine the feed rate of a workpiece with respect to the machining device. 18 figures.

  3. Non-contact capacitance based image sensing method and system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Wiczer, J.J.

    1995-01-03

    A system and a method is provided for imaging desired surfaces of a workpiece. A sensor having first and second sensing electrodes which are electrically isolated from the workpiece is positioned above and in proximity to the desired surfaces of the workpiece. An electric field is developed between the first and second sensing electrodes of the sensor in response to input signals being applied thereto and capacitance signals are developed which are indicative of any disturbances in the electric field as a result of the workpiece. An image signal of the workpiece may be developed by processing the capacitance signals. The image signals may provide necessary control information to a machining device for machining the desired surfaces of the workpiece in processes such as deburring or chamfering. Also, the method and system may be used to image dimensions of weld pools on a workpiece and surfaces of glass vials. The sensor may include first and second preview sensors used to determine the feed rate of a workpiece with respect to the machining device. 18 figures.

  4. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume I. Technical discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). The first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 referenvces and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2. 18 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Changing structure of the world refining industry: implications for the United States and other major consuming regions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    There are five chapters in this publication. Chapter I on refining industry in transition covers refining history highlights, and OPEC's downstream operations. Chapter II on demand for oil and oil products discusses supply and demand for OPEC oil, demand for oil products, historical growth trends, future growth trends and the case of East Asia - emergence of a fuel oil glut. Chapter III on the US and other traditional refining centers begins with an introduction on the structure of refining and continues on to cover the refining industry in OECD countries, USA, Western Europe, Japan, Singapore and Caribbean and closes with some conclusions. Chapter IV is on refining expansions in OPEC and the third World Nations. The following are covered: (1) nations of the Gulf (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, United Arab Emirates); (2) OPEC members beyond the Gulf (Indonesia, Africa, Libya, Algeria, Nigeria and Gabon, South America, Venezuela); (3) other major exporters (China, Egypt, Malaysia, Mexico); (4) non-OPEC developing countries - trends in the refining sector. The chapter ends with a short summary on capacity prospects and comparative economics. The final chapter has conclusions and recommendations on: price interactions between crude and products; product exports - impact on OPEC's internal; prices and market influence; importers and exporters - decisions; and course of action of the United States. 18 figures, 40 tables.

  6. Effects of a range of machined and ground surface finishes on the simulated reactor helium corrosion of several candidate structural materials. [Inconel MA 754

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.D.

    1981-02-01

    This report discusses the corrosion behavior of several candidate reactor structural alloys in a simulated advanced high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) environment over a range of lathe-machined and centerless-ground surface finishes. The helium environment contained 50 Pa H/sub 2//5 Pa CO/5 Pa CH/sub 4//<0.05 Pa H/sub 2/O (500 ..mu..atm H/sub 2//50 ..mu..atm CO/50 ..mu..atm CH/sub 4//<0.5 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/O) at 900/sup 0/C for a total exposure of 3000 h. The test alloys included two vacuum-cast superalloys (IN 100 and IN 713LC); a centrifugally cast austenitic alloy (HK 40); three wrought high-temperature alloys (Alloy 800H, Hastelloy X, and Inconel 617); and a nickel-base oxide-dispersion-strengthened alloy (Inconel MA 754). Surface finish variations did not affect the simulated advanced-HTGR corrosion behavior of these materials. Under these conditions, the availability of reactant gaseous impurities controls the kinetics of the observed gas-metal interactions. Variations in the near-surface activities and mobilities of reactive solute elements, such as chromium, which might be expected to be affected by changes in surface finish, do not seem to greatly influence corrosion in this simulated advanced HTGR environment. 18 figures, 4 tables.

  7. Theoretical and experimental studies of fixed-bed coal gasification reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, B.; Bhattacharya, A.; Salam, L.; Dudukovic, M.P.

    1983-09-01

    A laboratory fixed-bed gasification reactor was designed and built with the objective of collecting operational data for model validation and parameter estimation. The reactor consists of a 4 inch stainless steel tube filled with coal or char. Air and steam is fed at one end of the reactor and the dynamic progress of gasification in the coal or char bed is observed through thermocouples mounted at various radial and axial locations. Product gas compositions are also monitored as a function of time. Results of gasification runs using Wyoming coal are included in this report. In parallel with the experimental study, a two-dimensional model of moving bed gasifiers was developed, coded into a computer program and tested. This model was used to study the laboratory gasifier by setting the coal feed rate equal to zero. The model is based on prior work on steady state and dynamic modeling done at Washington University and published elsewhere in the literature. Comparisons are made between model predictions and experimental results. These are also included in this report. 23 references, 18 figures, 6 tables.

  8. Light water reactor fuel reprocessing: dissolution studies of voloxidized and nonvoloxidized fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.; Stone, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    Small-scale tests with irradiated Zircaloy-clad fuels from Robinson, Oconee, Saxton, and Point Beach reactors with burnups from about 200 to 28,000 MWD/MTHM have been made to determine the dissolution behavior of both voloxidized (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and nonvoloxidized (UO{sub 2}) fuel. No significant technical problems were encountered in batch-dissolving of either form. Dissolution rates were well-controlled in all tests. Significant characteristics of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} dissolution that differed from UO{sub 2} dissolution included: (1) reduced tritium and ruthenium ({sup 106}Ru) concentrations in product solutions, (2) increased insoluble noble metal fission product residue (about 2.2X greater), and (3) increased insoluble plutonium in the fission product residue. The insoluble plutonium is easily leached from the residue by 10M HNO{sub 3}. The weight of the fission product residue collected from both U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and UO{sub 2} fuels increased aproximately linearly with fuel burnup. A major fraction (>83%) of the {sup 85}Kr was evolved from U{sub 3}O{sub 8} fuel during dissolution rather than voloxidation. The {sup 85}Kr evolution rate was an appropriate monitor of fuel dissolution rate. Virtually all of the {sup 129}I was evolved by air sparging of the dissolver solution during dissolution. 30 tables, 18 figures.

  9. Southern Great Basin seismological data report for 1981 and preliminary data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, A.M.; Harmsen, S.C.; Carr, W.J.; Spence, W.

    1983-09-01

    Earthquake data for the calendar year 1981 are reported for earthquakes occurring within and adjacent to the southern Great Basin seismograph network. Locations, magnitudes, and selected focal mechanisms for these events and events from prior years of network operations are presented and discussed in relation to the geologic framework of the region. These data are being collected to aid in the evaluation of the seismic hazard to a potential repository site at Yucca Mountain in the southwestern Nevada Test Site. The regional stress field orientation, as inferred from focal mechanisms, is characterized by a northwest-directed least compressive stress and a northeast-directed greatest compressive stress. We infer from this stress orientation that faults of north to northeast trend are most susceptible to slip. Faults of this orientation exist within the Yucca Mountain block, but they probably have not moved significantly in the last 500,000 years. Yucca Mountain lies within a fairly large area of relatively low level seismicity extending west to the Funeral Mountains, south of the Black Mountains and Nopah Range, and southeast to the Spring Mountains. One M 1.7 earthquake has been located in the Yucca Mountain block in about 1 year of intense monitoring. At present somewhat conflicting geologic, seismologic, and stress evidence hinder definitive conclusions about the seismic hazard at the proposed repository site. 36 references, 18 figures, 1 table.

  10. Status of METC investigations of coal gas desulfurization at high temperature. [Zinc ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.

    1984-03-01

    This report documents the continuing effort at the US Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process for coal-derived gas, primarily for application to molten carbonate fuel cells. Metal oxide sorbents were tested on lab-scale test equipment, and it was determined that scale-up of the process was warranted. A larger, skid-mounted test unit was therefore designed, constructed, and installed on a sidestream of the DOE/METC fixed-bed gasifier. A first series of tests was conducted during Gasifier Run 101. These tests served to shake down the test unit, and provide data on the performance of the test unit operating on coal-derived gas. Overall, the process operated well on fixed-bed, air-blown gasifier gas. Sulfur levels in exit dry gas were reduced to less than 10 ppM. Regeneration appears to restore the sulfur-removing capacity of the sorbent. Sorbent integrity was maintained during the test period, which incorporated three sulfidations. It is recommended that treatment of the regeneration offgas be investigated, and that testing and development of a system to reduce the sulfur in this gas to elemental sulfur be initiated. In addition, it is suggested that a multiple reactor system be planned for continuous operation, to allow for long-term tests of downstream users of desulfurized gas. 7 references, 18 figures, 9 tables.

  11. Freezing of living cells: mechanisms and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.

    1984-01-01

    Cells can endure storage at low temperatures such as -196/sup 0/C for centuries. The challenge is to determine how they can survive both the cooling to such temperatures and the subsequent return to physiological conditions. A major factor is whether they freeze intracellularly. They do so if cooling is too rapid, because with rapid cooling insufficient cell water is removed osmotically to eliminate supercooling. Equations have been developed that describe the kinetics of this water loss and permit one to predict the likelihood of intracellular freezing as a function of cooling rate. Such predictions agree well with observations. Although the avoidance of intracellular freezing is usually necessary for survival, it is not sufficient. Slow freezing itself can be injurious. As ice forms outside the cell, the residual unfrozen medium forms channels of decreasing size and increasing solute concentration. The cells lie in the channels and shrink in osmotic response to the rising solute concentration. Prior theories have ascribed slow freezing injury to the concentration of solutes or the cell shrinkage. Recent experiments, however, indicate that the damage is due more to the decrease in the size of the unfrozen channels. This new view of the mechanism of slow freezing injury ought to facilitate the development of procedures for the preservation of complex assemblages of cells of biological, medical, and agricultural significance. 126 references, 18 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Radon attenuation handbook for uranium mill tailings cover design

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, V.C.; Nielson, K.K.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1984-04-01

    This handbook has been prepared to facilitate the design of earthen covers to control radon emission from uranium mill tailings. Radon emissions from bare and covered uranium mill tailings can be estimated from equations based on diffusion theory. Basic equations are presented for calculating surface radon fluxes from covered tailings, or alternately, the cover thicknesses required to satisfy a given radon flux criterion. Also described is a computer code, RAECOM, for calculating cover thicknesses and surface fluxes. Methods are also described for measuring diffusion coefficients for radon, or for estimating them from empirical correlations. Since long-term soil moisture content is a critical parameter in determining the value of the diffusion coefficient, methods are given for estimating the long-term moisture contents of soils. The effects of cover defects or advection are also discussed and guidelines are given for determining if they are significant. For most practical cases, advection and cover defect effects on radon flux can be neglected. Several examples are given to demonstrate cover design calculations, and an extensive list of references is included. 63 references, 18 figures, 6 tables.

  13. Calcium/calcium chromate thermal battery and thermal battery assignment at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department

    SciTech Connect

    Neale, J.B.; Walton, R.D.

    1980-10-10

    A nontechnical overview of thermal battery design and fabrication methods is given, along with a description of the role of the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) in the Department of Energy's battery program. A thermal battery is a primary, reserve electrochemical power source; that is, it can be used only once and then for a relatively short period, measured in minutes. To energize the battery, an external electrical signal ignites a heat source in the battery to melt the electrolyte and initiate an electrochemical reaction. The battery is made up of several series-connected cells, each with an anode, a cathode, and a current collector. A cell's anode is calcium; its cathode is hexavalent chromium. The electrochemical reaction takes place when the electrolyte is melted by heat supplied from ignition of an iron-potassium perchlorate disk. Since no reaction occurs while the electrolyte is in the solid state, the battery does not deteriorate with time and has a shelf life exceeding 20 years. Presented are such critical battery operating characteristics as temperature, rise time, active life, current capacity, etc. Design factors described include size and shape, pellet density, ignition methods, anode construction, etc. These batteries are designed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque. GEND acts as a procurement agency and provides engineering support to suppliers. 18 figures.

  14. Production of aluminum-silicon alloy and ferrosilicon and commercial purity aluminum by the direct reduction process. First interim technical report, Phase D, January 1-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, M.J.

    1981-04-01

    Operation of the bench AF-reactor on burden with all reducing carbon exterior to the ore pellet resulted in low metal alloy product yields and prematurely terminated runs, indicating the need for intimate contact between alumina and carbon to produce oxycarbide liquid prior to reaction with solid silicon carbide. Carbon solubility tests made on 60Al-40Si alloys at 2200/sup 0/C in graphite crucibles indicated continued reaction to form SiC for one hour. Efficiency of reduction to SiC ranged from 68 to 100%. The A-C two-electrode submerged arc reactor pilot, SAR-II, was successfully operated on both alumina-clay-coke and alumina-silicon carbide-coke (from the VSR prereduction) burdens. Metal alloy was produced and tapped in each of four runs. The pilot crystallizer was operated to evalute the two-stage (stop and go) crystallization technique on obtaining high yields of Al in Al-Si eutectic, with a limit of 1.0% Fe and 0.1% Ti in the alloy product. 18 figures, 19 tables. (DLC)

  15. Investigation of Stinson Beach Park storm damage and evaluation of alternative shore protection measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, R.M.; Whelan, G.

    1984-07-01

    An investigation was made of storm damage during the winter of 1982-83 to the National Park Service's Stinson Beach Park. The investigation included an assessment of the storm damage, evaluation of physical processes contributing to the damage, subsequent beach recovery, and the feasibility of implementing shoreline protection measure to reduce future risk. During the winter of 1982-83, the beach was almost completely denuded of sand, wave overwash damaged the foredune, vegetation on the foredune was destroyed, and backshore flooding occurred. Two structures and a parking lot were endangered as the shoreline receded. Subsequent recovery of the park beach was rapid. By January 1982 sand had moved back onshore and a beach berm was beginning to reform. The foredune and dune vegetation received the only permanent damage. Four shoreline protection alternatives were evaluated. These include no action, dune development/enhancement, construction of a rock riprap revetment, and offshore installation of artificial seaweed. The first costs (estimated costs, excluding maintenance) range from about $90,000 to $475,000. The least-cost protection measure is riprap revetment, which protects the two structures and parking lot endangered during the 1982-83 winter storms. Construction of a foredune along the entire park beach is the highest cost protection measure. If no shore protection action measures are implemented, wave overwash of the foredune can be expected to occur on the average of every 2 to 3 years, and beach degradation, similar to that during the 1982-83 winter, can be expected to occur on the average of every 10 to 12 years. 12 references, 19 figures, 18 tables.

  16. Hot-gas cleanup system model development. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ushimaru, K.; Bennett, A.; Bekowies, P.J.

    1982-11-01

    This two-volume report summarizes the state of the art in performance modeling of advanced high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) gas cleanup devices. Volume I contains the culmination of the research effort carried over the past 12 months and is a summary of research achievements. Volume II is the user's manual for the computer programs developed under the present research project. In this volume, Section 2 presents background information on pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion concepts, a description of the role of the advanced gas cleanup systems, and a list of advanced gas cleanup systems that are currently in development under DOE sponsorship. Section 3 describes the methodology for the software architecture that forms the basis of the well-disciplined and structured computer programs developed under the present project. Section 4 reviews the fundamental theories that are important in analyzing the cleanup performance of HTHP gas filters. Section 5 discusses the effect of alkali agents in HTHP gas cleanup. Section 6 evaluates the advanced HTHP gas cleanup models based on their mathematical integrity, availability of supporting data, and the likelihood of commercialization. As a result of the evaluation procedure detailed in Section 6, five performance models were chosen to be incorporated into the overall system simulation code, ASPEN. These five models (the electrocyclone, ceramic bag filter, moving granular bed filter, electrostatic granular bed filter, and electrostatic precipitator) are described in Section 7. The method of cost projection for these five models is discussed in Section 8. The supporting data and validation of the computer codes are presented in Section 9, and finally the conclusions and recommendations for the HTHP gas cleanup system model development are given in Section 10. 72 references, 19 figures, 25 tables.

  17. Characteristics of α-Amylase during Germination of Two High-Sugar Sweet Corn Cultivars of Zea mays L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Sanwo, Monica M.; DeMason, Darleen A.

    1992-01-01

    The role of the scutellum and the aleurone in α-amylase production in the high-sugar sweet corn cultivars Illini X-tra Sweet (shrunken-2, sh2) and Illinois 677a (sugary, sugary enhancer; su se) was compared to that in the starchy (Su) hybrid Funks G4646 with the use of α-amylase enzyme assays, isoelectric focusing, electron microscopy, and laser scanning confocal microscopy. The scutellum of Illinois 677a had low levels of α-amylase activity compared to that of Funks G4646 through 10 days after imbibition, and the aleurone of Illini X-tra Sweet had negligible activity. On the isoelectric focusing gels, the Illinois 677a scutellum had fewer α-amylase isozymes at 7 days compared to the Funks G4646 scutellum. The Illini X-tra Sweet aleurone had no α-amylase isozymes. Funks G4646 scutellar epithelial and aleurone cells contained abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, polysomes, and dictyosomes at 5 and 7 days, respectively. The scutellar epithelial cells of Illinois 677a contained fewer of these structures by 5 days, and the Illini X-tra Sweet aleurone contained mostly lipid bodies through 7 days. Few cytoplasmic membranes and little RNA were detected with laser scanning confocal microscopy in the Illini X-tra Sweet aleurone compared to Funks G4646 at 7 days. These data suggest that the scutellum of Illinois 677a and the aleurone of Illini X-tra Sweet have impaired abilities to produce α-amylase. ImagesFigure 5-13Figure 14-19Figure 3Figure 4Figure 20-23 PMID:16668987

  18. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 1983 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Griggs, K.S.; Myers, D.S.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1984-02-01

    The 1983 annual average airborne gross beta activity in Livermore Valley air samples, 1.4 x 10/sup -14/ ..mu..Ci/ml, was less than 1982. Airborne /sup 238/U concentrations at Site 300 were higher than those at Livermore because of the depleted uranium (a byproduct of /sup 235/U enrichment) used in high-explosive tests at the Site. However, these concentrations were well below the standards set by DOE. The average gross alpha activity shows no significant change from 1982. The annual average beryllium concentrations were less than 1% of the local air pollution standard at both sites and can be accounted for by the natural concentrations in airborne dust. The total tritium released to the atmosphere in 1983 was 3245 Ci. Water samples exhibited gross beta and tritium activities within the ranges previously observed in these areas. Two water samples from Site 300 showed an above-average level of gross alpha activity. This activity is due to naturally occurring uranium. The discharge of tritiated water (HTO) into the sanitary sewer system in 1982 was 1.7 Ci, unchanged from the previous year. Tritium concentrations observed in local wells in 1983 were generally the same as previous years measurements. Tritium levels found in the Livermore Valley and Site 300 vegetation were comparable to 1982. The 1983 average annual gamma-radiation doses at the Laboratory perimeter and off-site locations were 51 mrem and 50 mrem, essentially unchanged from previous year. A 14-MeV neutron generator (Bldg. 212) near the south perimeter continued to be a source of elevated radiation. 19 references, 19 figures, 36 tables. (MDF)

  19. Assessment of flood hazard at the radioactive waste management site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    French, R.H.; Lombardo, W.S.

    1984-07-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is located at the junction of major alluvial fans, to the east and west, with several smaller fans merging from the north. The conclusion is, the RWMS is likely to be hit several times during an assumed design life of 150 years by flash flood events of significant magnitude. This conclusion was arrived at by using regional peak flood equations developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and various hypotheses regarding flood processes on alluvial fans. It should be noted that the flood hazard at the RWMS is not necessarily greater than it would be for any facility of a similar size and design life located on any alluvial fan in Southern Nevada. Further, the berm on the upslope side of the RWMS may offer some protection; however, the degree of protection provided by this berm was not evaluated. Although this analysis is subject to a number of limitations, which are noted and discussed within, the conclusion is substantiated by the fact that the RWMS is located on a number of alluvial fans which were formed by erosional processes that are still active. Although protective measures for the site can be developed, the development of such mitigation plans should include not only a careful consideration of the probability that the site will be hit by a flood event, but also a careful consideration of the consequences of such a hit. This report is a focused analysis of the probability that the RWMS will be hit by a flash flood, but does not address what the consequences of such an event might be. 5 references, 19 figures, 18 tables.

  20. Effects of rock riprap design parameters on flood protection costs for uranium tailings impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, R.M.

    1984-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying the problem of long-term protection of earthen covers on decommissioned uranium tailings impoundments. The major erosive forces acting on these covers will be river flooding and overland flow from rainfall-runoff. For impoundments adjacent to rivers, overbank flooding presents the greater potential for significant erosion. To protect the earthen covers against flood erosion, rock riprap armoring will be placed over the cover surface. Because of the large size rock usually required for riprap, the quarrying, transport, and placement of the rock could be a significant part of the decommissioning cost. This report examines the sensitivity of riprap protection costs to certain design parameters at tailings impoundments. The parameters include flood discharge, riprap materials, impoundment side slopes, and an added safety factor. Two decommissioned tailings impoundments are used as case studies for the evaluation. These are the Grand Junction, Colorado, impoundment located adjacent to the Colorado River and the Slickrock, Colorado, impoundment located adjacent to the Dolores River. The evaluation considers only the cost of riprap protection against flood erosion. The study results show that embankment side slope and rock specific gravity can have optimum values or ranges at a specific site. For both case study sites the optimum side slope is about 5H:1V. Of the rock sources considered at Grand Junction, the optimum specific gravity would be about 2.50; however, an optimum rock specific gravity for the Slickrock site could not be determined. Other results indicate that the arbitrary safety factor usually added in riprap design can lead to large increases in protection costs. 22 references, 19 figures, 15 tables.

  1. Effects of improved modeling on best estimate BWR severe accident analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, C.R.; Ott, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1981, ORNL has completed best estimate studies analyzing several dominant BWR accident scenarios. These scenarios were identified by early Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) studies and detailed ORNL analysis complements such studies. In performing these studies, ORNL has used the MARCH code extensively. ORNL investigators have identified several deficiencies in early versions of MARCH with regard to BWR modeling. Some of these deficiencies appear to have been remedied by the most recent release of the code. It is the purpose of this paper to identify several of these deficiencies. All the information presented concerns the degraded core thermal/hydraulic analysis associated with each of the ORNL studies. This includes calculations of the containment response. The period of interest is from the time of permanent core uncovery to the end of the transient. Specific objectives include the determination of the extent of core damage and timing of major events (i.e., onset of Zr/H/sub 2/O reaction, initial clad/fuel melting, loss of control blade structure, etc.). As mentioned previously the major analysis tool used thus far was derived from an early version of MARCH. BWRs have unique features which must be modeled for best estimate severe accident analysis. ORNL has developed and incorporated into its version of MARCH several improved models. These include (1) channel boxes and control blades, (2) SRV actuations, (3) vessel water level, (4) multi-node analysis of in-vessel water inventory, (5) comprehensive hydrogen and water properties package, (6) first order correction to the ideal gas law, and (7) separation of fuel and cladding. Ongoing and future modeling efforts are required. These include (1) detailed modeling for the pressure suppression pool, (2) incorporation of B/sub 4/C/steam reaction models, (3) phenomenological model of corium mass transport, and (4) advanced corium/concrete interaction modeling. 10 references, 17 figures, 1 table.

  2. Plutonium, cesium, uranium and thorium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1983-November 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Anderson, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in sediment cores and suspended particle samples from the Hudson River estuary. Activities of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, and /sup 60/Co, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu and /sup 238/Pu indicate rapid accumulation in marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor adjacent to New York City, resulting in /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu accumulations of more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Fallout /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu moving downstream appears to be retained within the system by particle deposition, while more than 50% of the /sup 137/Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported. Significant movement of dissolved plutonium into the estuary from adjacent coastal waters may be occurring. Depth profiles of radionuclides are not significantly altered by physical mixing processes in areas accumulating particles at greater than 1 cm/yr. Transport of fallout radionuclides appears to have decreased faster than would be calculated from continuous removal from a well-mixed soil reservoir, indicating that sequestering of a substantial portion of the soil fallout burden has occurred in the watershed soils over the past two decades. Measurements of fallout /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities two orders of magnitude greater than that found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ions are likely to be important in regulating plutonium solubility in some environments and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility. 45 references, 17 figures, 14 tables.

  3. Development of BEACON technology. Quarterly report, April-June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    The BEACON process involves the catalytic deposition of a highly reactive form of carbon from a gas stream which contains carbon monoxide. The carbon-depleted gas is combusted with air to produce power, and the carbon is reacted with steam to produce methane or hydrogen. Experiments were continued this quarter with the objective of improving the carbon deposition efficiency using a Paraho retort off-gas mixture. Analysis has shown that the use of the Paraho off-gas to make hydrogen would be attractive if the ratio of the heat content of the feedgas to the heat content of the hydrogen produced is less than 3. Experimental conditions to achieve this ratio have been established. Recent work had shown that the volume of a BEACON supported catalyst bed increased with an increase in carbon loading level. Four series of experiments were performed where sieve analyses were made after one or more BEACON process cycles. These tests showed that the volume expansion is due to an increase in the number and size of the larger catalyst particles. The bench-scale testing of unsupported catalysts concentrated in two areas: (a) the completion of batch testing in the 4-inch reactor, and (b) the construction of the Tandem Reactor Unit which will permit the transfer of solids between the carbon deposition and steam gasification reactors during testing. It was found that a second stage of steaming enhanced the methane yield. Approximately 80% of the construction and instrumentation of the Tandem Reactor Unit was completed during the quarter. A conceptual design was completed for an Integrated Test Facility (ITF) which would permit research on the BEACON process at a scale sufficient for scale-up. 17 figures, 14 tables.

  4. Microalgae as a source of liquid fuels. Final technical report. [200 references

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.; Goebel, R.P.; Weissman, J.C.; Augenstein, D.C.

    1982-05-15

    The economics of liquid-fuels production from microalgae was evaluated. A detailed review of published economic analyses of microalgae biomass production revealed wide variations in the published costs, which ranged from several dollars per pound for existing commercial health-food production in the Far East, to less than .05/lb costs projected for microalgae biomass for fuel conversion. As little design information or specific cost data has been published, a credible cost estimate required the conceptual engineering design and cost estimating of microalgae to liquid-fuels processes. Two systems were analyzed, shallow (2 to 3'') covered ponds and deeper (1 ft) open ponds. Only the latter was selected for an in-depth analysis due to the many technical shortcomings of the former approach. Based on the cost analysis of a very simple and low cost process, the most optimistic costs extrapolated were about $60/barrel. These were based on many optimistic assumptions. Additional, more detailed, engieering and cost analyses would be useful. However, the major emphasis in future work in this area should be on demonstrating the basic premises on which this design was based: high productivity and oil content of microalgae strains that can dominate in open ponds and which can be harvested by a simple bioflocculation process. Several specific basic research needs were identified: (1) Fundamentals of species selection and control in open pond systems. Effects of environmental variables on species dominance is of particular interest. (2) Mechanisms of algae bioflocculation. (3) Photosynthetic pathways and efficiency under conditions of high lipid production. (4) Effects of non-steady state operating conditions, particularly pH (CO/sub 2/ availability), on productivity. 18 figures, 47 tables.

  5. Environmental analysis of the eastern shale hydroretorting data base

    SciTech Connect

    Rex, R.C. Jr.; Lynch, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform a preliminary environmental analysis of certain chemical aspects of Eastern shale hydroretorting utilizing the data from the twenty-one (21) bench scale unit runs conducted during the HYTORT Feasibility Study. The report contained herein primarily addresses the potential types and quantities of pollutants emanating directly from the hydroretorting of oil shale (i.e., the retort paper). The following areas are discussed in detail: nitrogen distribution; sulfur distribution; gas trace constituents; sour water constituents; and shale leachates. The results of the analysis have not identified any potential pollutants or quantities which cannot be brought to conformance with currently promulgated environmental standards using existing technology. Additional analysis of the process chemistry portion of the HYTORT data base, coupled with the process and mechanical design information, can provide a methodology for dealing with the identified environmental concerns as they pertain to a commercial facility. Section 5.0 of the report delineates the areas which should be addressed in a continuing analysis of environmental concerns. The suggested program divides naturally into three phases, of which Phase 1 has been completed: Phase 1 - Environmental Analysis of the Eastern Shale Hydroretorting Data Base; Phase 2 - Generic (non-site-specific) Environmental Analysis; and Phase 3 - Site-Specific Environmental Analysis. Phase 2 details the anticipated emissions from all areas of a commercial HYTORT facility operating on a typical Eastern shale using the results of this Phase 1 effort and the HYTORT data base. Phase 3 utilizes this information to assess the effects of plant emissions on chosen sites in the context of applicable laws and regulations. 7 references, 18 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Comparison of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/ measurement programs of GMCC/NOAA and SIO at Mauna Loa Observatory: results of the December 5-12, 1983 tests. Final draft

    SciTech Connect

    Gammon, R.; Thoning, K.; Keeling, C.D.; Moss, D.

    1984-05-03

    Field tests were conducted to assess possible instrumental sources of disagreement in a joint record of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ measurements at Mauna Loa Observatory. Results indicate that the CO/sub 2/ systems gave the same measured ambient atmospheric air value to within about 0.15 ppM. For tests through common plumbing the URAS-APC difference on average was 0.12 ppM. For tests through different plumbing a similar difference of 0.15 ppM was observed, disregarding the period of faulty pump performance during Test E. The sigma/sub m//sup -2/ weighted mean difference for all tests was 0.138 ppM with a weighted sigma/sub m/ = 0.016 ppM. A single cause was not discovered which accounted for these differences which did not appear to correlate with permutations in plumbing. On average no significant difference was observed when measuring CO/sub 2/-in-air from a pressurized cylinder with common plumbing. The observed differences are smaller but of the same sign as the mean difference provisionally computed between the NOAA and SIO systems. The overall level of agreement has been provisionally determined at the 0.3 to 0.6 ppM level for monthly means, with a relative drift of about 0.08 ppM y/sup -1/ from an initial difference of about -0.5 ppM in 1974 to + 0.6 ppM in 1982. 18 figures, 6 tables.

  7. Anatomy of collapsed and re-established delta front in lower Cretaceous of eastern Spitsbergen: gravitational sliding and sedimentation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Nemec, W.; Steel, R.J.; Gjelberg, J.; Collinson, J.D.; Prestholm, E.; Oxnevad, I.E.

    1988-04-01

    Spectacular coastal cliff exposures in an early Cretaceous deltaic succession near Kvalvagen in eastern Spitsbergen, Norwegian Arctic, show a variety of styles of gravity-driven deformation and resedimentation associated with delta-front progradation and instability. The large-scale collapse involved a distributary-channel sand unit, some 20 m thick, and the underlying delta slope/prodelta shaly heterolithics. The deformation was essentially brittle, whereby large blocks of the delta-front succession slid and rotated. Its gross style involved two large cuspate tear-away scars, at least 1-1.5 km wide and 50-60 m deep, separated by narrow remnant buttresses of in-situ strata. The basement in the region was tectonically active, and the delta-front failure was most likely seismically triggered. Initial infill of the collapse scars involved slumps and debris-flows, derived from scar walls and, locally, from the sliding blocks themselves. These deposits partly smoothed the local topography created by the slide blocks. This early infill was followed by deposition of thin, mainly muddy turbidites, probably shed from the scar walls by small localized failure. Renewal of fluvial supply of sand led to the main infill of the scar depressions. This stage involved effluent-generated turbidites (heterolithic), and increasingly sandier turbidites and liquefied sandflows derived from unstable, oversteepened distributary mouthbars. The mouth-bar systems eventually achieved stability and prograded across the infilled scars. They were affected by periodic storm-wave attack and sudden increases of water depth. The scar infill at that stage was subject to minor growth faulting, possibly related to new seismic tremors. 18 figures.

  8. Sedimentologic evolution of a submarine canyon in a forearc basin, Upper Cretaceous Rosario Formation, San Carlos, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, W.R.; Busby-Spera, C.J.

    1988-06-01

    The walls, floor, and fill of a submarine canyon are well-exposed near San Carlos, Mexico, in forecarc strata of the Upper Cretaceous Rosario Formation. The submarine canyon is about 7 km wide and at least 230 m deep and has eroded a minimum of 150 m into underlying fluvial red beds. It is unclear whether subaerial or submarine processes initiated the canyon cutting; however, marine processes, especially debris flows, modified the morphology of the submarine canyon. The submarine canyon fill and overlying slope deposits form two major fining-upward sequences. The first includes a 120 m thick lower conglomerate-sandstone unit (LCSU) at the base of the canyon fill overlain by a 50-110 m thick middle mudstone-sandstone unit (MMSU). The MMSU consists predominantly of mudstone and thin-bedded sandstone, but includes a channel filled with sandstone beds that form a fining- and thinning-upward sequence. This sequence is overlain by the second major sequence, a 0-60 m thick upper conglomerate-sandstone unit (UCSU), which is confined to three channels within the submarine canyon and passes gradationally upward into slope mudstone. Each of the two major fining-upward sequences records a gradual decrease in supply of coarse-grained sediment to the submarine canyon head. The first fining-upward sequence may correspond to a lowstand and subsequent rise in global sea level or, alternatively, may have resulted from local downdropping of the basin. The second fining-upward sequence does not correspond to global sea level fluctuations but is age-correlative with a drop then rise in relative sea level recognized by other workers 300-400 km to the north in the San Diego-Ensenada area. This sea level drop is inferred to have been a regional-scale tectonic event that affect the forearc basin along its length. 18 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Transuranic resuspension

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-04-01

    Characteristics of aged resuspension sources are more uncertain than those of new resuspension sources, which can be investigated using inert-particle controlled-tracer sources. Even though airborne concentrations are low, one aged uniform-area source which can be used for resuspension studies is the accumulated radionuclide fallout in the soil from stratospheric and tropospheric fallout debris. Airborne radionuclide concentrations from this source were investigated at convenient locations on the Hanford site. The objective is to summarize plutonium and americium resuspension research conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1977 to 1983. Airborne plutonium was determined at five sites in the Hanford area, and both plutonium and americium were determined at two Hanford sites. Airborne plutonium and americium were examined as a function of aerodynamic particle diameter, sampling height, wind speed increments, and wind direction increments. The following results are discussed: airborne radionuclide concentrations, ..mu..Ci/cm/sup 3/ of sampled air; radionuclide activity densities, ..mu..Ci/g of airborne solids; airborne plutonium fluxes, ..mu..Ci/(m/sup 2/ day); /sup 241/Am//sup 239 +240/Pu) activity ratios, (..mu..Ci /sup 241/Am)/(..mu..Ci/sup 239 +240/Pu); and airborne solid concentrations, ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ of sampled air. In addition, a relationship based on field data for aged plutonium sources at Bikini Atoll, the Hanford site, and Rocky Flats was developed to estimate the maximum expected plutonium activity density on airborne solids compared to activity densities for bulk surface-soil samples. As a result, it is possible to more accurately predict resuspension factor ranges as a function of the resuspension source activity densities. 31 references, 18 figures, 5 tables.

  10. Biological characterization of radiation exposure and dose estimates for inhaled uranium milling effluents. Annual progress report April 1, 1982-March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Eidson, A.F.

    1984-05-01

    The problems addressed are the protection of uranium mill workers from occupational exposure to uranium through routine bioassay programs and the assessment of accidental worker exposures. Comparisons of chemical properties and the biological behavior of refined uranium ore (yellowcake) are made to identify important properties that influence uranium distribution patterns among organs. These studies will facilitate calculations of organ doses for specific exposures and associated health risk estimates and will identify important bioassay procedures to improve evaluations of human exposures. A quantitative analytical method for yellowcake was developed based on the infrared absorption of ammonium diuranate and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ mixtures in KBr. The method was applied to yellowcake samples obtained from six operating mills. The composition of yellowcake from the six mills ranged from nearly pure ammonium diuranate to nearly pure U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. The composition of yellowcake samples taken from lots from the same mill was only somewhat less variable. Because uranium mill workers might be exposed to yellowcake either by contamination of a wound or by inhalation, a study of retention and translocation of uranium after subcutaneous implantation in rats was done. The results showed that 49% of the implanted yellowcake cleared from the body with a half-time (T sub 1/2) in the body of 0.3 days, and the remainder was cleared with a T sub 1/2 of 11 to 30 days. Exposures of Beagle dogs by nose-only inhalation to aerosols of commercial yellowcake were completed. Biochemical indicators of kidney dysfunction that appeared in blood and urine 4 to 8 days after exposure to the more soluble yellowcake showed significant changes in dogs, but levels returned to normal by 16 days after exposure. No biochemical evidence of kidney dysfunction was observed in dogs exposed to the less soluble yellowcake form. 18 figures, 9 tables.

  11. Expanding the scope of lamellar keratoplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Rich, L F

    1999-01-01

    FIGURE 14A FIGURE 14B FIGURE 15A FIGURE 15B FIGURE 15C FIGURE 16A FIGURE 16B FIGURE 18A FIGURE 18B FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 PMID:10703145

  12. The origins and insertions of the extraocular muscles: development, histologic features, and clinical significance.

    PubMed Central

    Sevel, D

    1986-01-01

    for muscle adjustments should be assessed from the limbus rather than from the sites of insertion of these tendons. In the series of patients with esotropia, no mechanical abnormalities were noted in relationship to the insertions of the medial or lateral recti muscles. Furthermore, no correlation was found between the site of insertion of the medial rectus muscle and the degree of esotropia. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 PMID:3590478

  13. Analysis of possible future atmospheric retention of fossil fuel CO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Reilly, J.; Trabalka, J.R.; Reichle, D.E.

    1984-09-01

    This report investigates the likely rates and the potential range of future CO/sub 2/ emissions, combined with knowledge of the global cycle of carbon, to estimate a possible range of future atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations through the year 2075. Historic fossil fuel usage to the present, growing at a rate of 4.5% per year until 1973 and at a slower rate of 1.9% after 1973, was combined with three scenarios of projected emissions growth ranging from approximately 0.2 to 2.8% per year to provide annual CO/sub 2/ emissions data for two different carbon cycle models. The emissions scenarios were constructed using an energy-economic model and by varying key parameters within the bounds of currently expected future values. The extreme values for CO/sub 2/ emissions in the year 2075 are 6.8 x 10/sup 15/ and 91 x 10/sup 15/ g C year/sup -1/. Carbon cycle model simulations used a range of year - 1800 preindustrial atmospheric concentrations of 245 to 292 ppM CO/sub 2/ and three scenarios of bioshere conversion as additional atmospheric CO/sub 2/ source terms. These simulations yield a range of possible atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations in year 2075 of approximately 500 to 1500 ppM, with a median of about 700 ppM. The time at which atmospheric CO/sub 2/ would potentially double from the preindustrial level ranges from year 2025 to >2075. The practical, programmatic value of this forecast exercise is that it forces quantitative definition of the assumptions, and the uncertainties therein, which form the basis of our understanding of the natural biogeochemical cycle of carbon and both historic and future human influences on the dynamics of the global cycle. Assumptions about the possible range of future atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels provide a basis on which to evaluate the implications of these changes on climate and the biosphere. 44 references, 17 figures, 21 tables.

  14. Acquired color vision loss and a possible mechanism of ganglion cell death in glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Nork, T M

    2000-01-01

    FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 PMID:11190032

  15. Locations of local anesthetic dibucaine in model membranes and the interaction between dibucaine and a Na+ channel inactivation gate peptide as studied by 2H- and 1H-NMR spectroscopies.

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Y; Ogawa, M; Nasu, H; Terashima, M; Kasahara, M; Kiyama, Y; Wakita, M; Fujiwara, Y; Fujii, N; Nakagawa, T

    1996-01-01

    the presence of lipids. In conclusion, we wish to propose that local anesthesia originates from the pi-stacking interaction between aromatic rings of an anesthetic molecule located at the polar headgroup region of the so-called boundary lipids and of the Phe in the intracellular linker between domains III and IV of the Na+ channel protein, prolonging the inactivated state and consequently making it impossible to proceed to the resting state. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 PMID:8873993

  16. Natural Propagation and Habitat improvement, Volume 2B, Washington, Similkameen River Habitat Inventory, 1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown Author

    1984-04-01

    During the summer low flow period, a habitat assessment of the Similkameen, Tulameen, Ashnola and Pasayten rivers in British Columbia and Washington State was conducted between August 10 and October 10, 1983. The biophysical survey assessed 400 km (250 mi) of stream at 77 stations. Fish sampling was conducted at each station to assess the resident fish populations and standing crop. Rainbow trout populations and standing crops were found to be very low. Large populations of mountain whitefish and bridgelip suckers were present in the manstem Similkameen River below Similkameen Falls. High densities of sculpins and longnose dace were found throughout the system except for sculpins above the falls, where none were captured. Approximately 961,000 m/sup 2/ (1,150,000 yd/sup 2/) of spawnable area for steelhead trout were estimated for the entire system which could accommodate 98,000 spawners. Nearly 367,000 m/sup 2/ (439,000 yd/sup 2/) of chinook salmon spawnable area was also estimated, capable of accommodating 55,000 chinook. Rearing area for steelhead trout smolts was estimated for the whole system at 1.8 million m/sup 2/ (2.2 million yd/sup 2/). Chinook salmon smolt rearing area was estimated at 700,000 m/sup 2/ (837,000 yd/sup 2/). Rearing area was found to be a limiting factor to anadromous production in a Similkameen River system. Smolt production from the system was estimated 610,000 steelhead trout and between 1.6 million and 4.8 million chinook salmon. No water quality, temperature or flow problems for anadromous salmonids were evident from the available data and the habitat inventory. In addition to an impassable falls on the Tulameen River at river mile 32.5, only two other areas of difficult passage exist in the system, Similkameen Falls (a series of chutes) and the steep, narrow lower section of the Ashnola River. 51 references, 18 figures, 25 tables.

  17. FY07 LDRD Final Report A Fracture Mechanics and Tribology Approach to Understanding Subsurface Damage on Fused Silica during Grinding and Polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E; Menapace, J A; Wong, L L; Steele, R A; Feit, M D; Davis, P J; Walmer, C D

    2008-02-05

    The objective of this work is to develop a solid scientific understanding of the creation and characteristics of surface fractures formed during the grinding and polishing of brittle materials, specifically glass. In this study, we have experimentally characterized the morphology, number density, and depth distribution of various surface cracks as a function of various grinding and polishing processes (blanchard, fixed abrasive grinding, loose abrasive, pitch polishing and pad polishing). Also, the effects of load, abrasive particle (size, distribution, foreign particles, geometry, velocity), and lap material (pitch, pad) were examined. The resulting data were evaluated in terms of indentation fracture mechanics and tribological interactions (science of interacting surfaces) leading to several models to explain crack distribution behavior of ground surfaces and to explain the characteristics of scratches formed during polishing. This project has greatly advanced the scientific knowledge of microscopic mechanical damage occurring during grinding and polishing and has been of general interest. This knowledge-base has also enabled the design and optimization of surface finishing processes to create optical surfaces with far superior laser damage resistance. There are five major areas of scientific progress as a result of this LDRD. They are listed in Figure 1 and described briefly in this summary below. The details of this work are summarized through a number of published manuscripts which are included this LDRD Final Report. In the first area of grinding, we developed a technique to quantitatively and statistically measure the depth distribution of surface fractures (i.e., subsurface damage) in fused silica as function of various grinding processes using mixtures of various abrasive particles size distributions. The observed crack distributions were explained using a model that extended known, single brittle indentation models to an ensemble of loaded, sliding particles. The model illustrates the importance of the particle size distribution of the abrasive and its influence on the resulting crack distribution. The results of these studies are summarized in references 1-7. In the second area of polishing, we conducted a series of experiments showing the influence of rogue particles (i.e., particles in the polishing slurry that are larger than base particles) on the creation of scratches on polished surfaces. Scratches can be thought of a as a specific type of sub-surface damage. The characteristics (width, length, type of fractures, concentration) were explained in terms of the rogue particle size, the rogue particle material, and the viscoelastic properties of the lap. The results of these studies are summarized in references 6-7. In the third area of etching, we conducted experiments aimed at understanding the effect of HF:NH{sub 4}F acid etching on surface fractures on fused silica. Etching can be used as a method: (a) to expose sub-surface mechanical damage, (b) to study the morphology of specific mechanical damage occurring by indentation, and (c) to convert a ground surface containing a high concentration of sub-surface mechanical damage into surface roughness. Supporting models have been developed to describe in detail the effect of etching on the morphology and evolution of surface cracks. The results of these studies are summarized in references 8-9. In the fourth area of scratch forensics or scratch fractography, a set of new scratch forensic rule-of-thumbs were developed in order to aid the optical fabricator and process engineer to interpret the cause of scratches and digs on surfaces. The details of how these rules were developed are described in each of the references included in this summary (1-9). Figure 2 provides as a summary of some of the more commonly used rules-of-thumbs that have been developed in this study. In the fifth and final area of laser damage, we demonstrated that the removal of such surface fractures from the surface during optical fabrication can dramatically improve the laser damage.

  18. Update on the aquifer/wetlands restoration project at Utica, Nebraska, with recommendations for remapping of the carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-20

    develop this treatment approach, additional groundwater sampling was conducted to update the distribution of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater identified in the preliminary studies in 1992-1993. In March 1998, detailed mapping of the carbon tetrachloride plume was performed by using the Argonne cone penetrometer (CPT) vehicle to collect groundwater samples for analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at 13 locations (PS01-PS09, PS12, PS16, PS17, PS19; Figure 1.2). The samples were collected in vertical profiles through the aquifer, at 10-ft intervals. The results of this 1998 study (Table 1.2) demonstrated that the three-dimensional distribution of carbon tetrachloride in the aquifer is complex, with multiple 'hot spots' occurring in the plume at various depths and distances along its length (Argonne 2000). In October 2002, the CCC/USDA requested that Argonne perform targeted groundwater sampling at Utica to document the migration of the carbon tetrachloride plume since the 1998 sampling event. In February 2003, vertical-profile groundwater sampling for VOCs analyses was conducted at 8 selected locations (PS01, PS04-PS07, PS12, PS19, PS20; Figure 1.2 and Table 1.3). The lateral and vertical configuration of the carbon tetrachloride plume, as identified in the 2003 study (Argonne 2003), is illustrated in Figures 1.3-1.7. On the basis of the 2003 groundwater sampling results, a remedial system employing four extraction wells (GWEX 1-GWEX 4), with groundwater treatment by spray irrigation and conventional air stripping, was implemented at Utica, with the concurrence of the CCC/USDA and the agencies identified in Table 1.1. The principal components of the Utica system (shown in Figure 1.8) are described briefly in Section 1.2. Operation of well GWEX4 and the associated air stripper began on October 29, 2004, and routine operation of wells GWEX1-GWEX3 and the spray irrigation treatment units began on November 22, 2004.

  19. Wound healing anomalies after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy: correlation of clinical outcomes, corneal topography, and confocal microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Steinert, R F

    1997-01-01

    anomalies persist. Central islands appear to consist of persistent dense subepithelial extracellular deposits. Local scars are caused by new collagen deposition. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9A FIGURE 9B FIGURE 9C FIGURE 10A FIGURE 10B FIGURE 11A FIGURE 11B FIGURE 11C FIGURE 12A FIGURE 12B FIGURE 13A FIGURE 13B FIGURE 13C FIGURE 14A FIGURE 14B FIGURE 14C FIGURE 14D FIGURE 14E FIGURE 15A FIGURE 15B FIGURE 15C FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18A FIGURE 18B FIGURE 21A FIGURE 21B FIGURE 20A FIGURE 20B FIGURE 19A FIGURE 19B FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 PMID:9440190

  20. Advances in corneal preservation.

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, R L

    1990-01-01

    view of the fact that anterior chamber environment limits cell regeneration of the endothelium, and supports wound healing via cell migration. In vivo, it is the complex interaction of the HCE cell and the extracellular matrix that signal the cell to respond to cell loss in this manner. As our knowledge of human corneal endothelium has increased so has our anticipation of developing the "optimum" medium. Thus additional components have been added to this basic medium to address specific complications encountered with 4 degrees C corneal preservation. Antioxidants, additional energy sources, and other nutritive substrates have been used to supplement and further define a chondroitin sulfate-based medium. These changes have been a part of our new awareness that, even at 4 degrees C, the cornea is metabolically active.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C FIGURE 9 D FIGURE 9 E FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 12 C FIGURE 12 D FIGURE 12 E FIGURE 12 F FIGURE 13 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 A FIGURE 18 B FIGURE 18 C FIGURE 18 D FIGURE 20 FIGURE 23 A FIGURE 23 B FIGURE 24 A FIGURE 24 B FIGURE 24 C FIGURE 24 D FIGURE 24 E FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 33 A FIGURE 33 B PMID:1710084

  1. Adverse external ocular effects of topical ophthalmic therapy: an epidemiologic, laboratory, and clinical study.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, F M

    1983-01-01

    probable ones. Factors relating to the development of papillary contact-lens reactions were daily wear, number of days of wear, and, especially, the preservatives to which the patients were exposed. Reactions occurred more often with soft lenses than with hard ones. Of patients with drug reactions, 5.22% had two different ones simultaneously. Coexisting reactions to pharmacologically active agents were also present in 15% of patients who reacted to preservatives in contact lens solutions. The ocular tissues that were affected by each kind of drug reaction were tabulated, and the relative degrees and sequences of involvement were discussed. The frequencies with which particular drugs, physical ag Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 15 A FIGURE 15 B FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 5 C FIGURE 5 D FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 6 C FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C FIGURE 9 D FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 10 C FIGURE 10 D FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 11 C FIGURE 11 D FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 12 C FIGURE 12 D FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 A FIGURE 16 B FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 A FIGURE 19 B FIGURE 20 A FIGURE 20 B FIGURE 21 A FIGURE 21 B FIGURE 22 A FIGURE 22 B FIGURE 22 C FIGURE 23 A FIGURE 23 B FIGURE 23 C FIGURE 23 D PMID:6676985

  2. Wilbrand's knee of the primate optic chiasm is an artefact of monocular enucleation.

    PubMed Central

    Horton, J C

    1997-01-01

    chiasm. It forms gradually over a period of years following monocular enucleation, presumably from shrinkage of the optic chiasm caused by atrophy of fibers from the enucleated eye. Therefore, the superior temporal hemianopia in the "other eye" seen in the anterior chiasmal syndrome cannot be due to compression of Wilbrand's Knee. I propose that it occurs from combined compression of the optic chiasm and one (or both) optic nerves. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 7 E FIGURE 7 F FIGURE 7 G FIGURE 7 H FIGURE 8A FIGURE 8B FIGURE 9A FIGURE 9B FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11A FIGURE 11B FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 20 PMID:9440188

  3. Brown's syndrome: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, K W

    1999-01-01

    forced duction testing by observing the pattern of strabismus including torsion. Because of the chance for spontaneous resolution, conservative management, not surgery, should be the first line of treatment for acquired Brown's syndrome. If surgery is indicated, a novel procedure, the silicone tendon expander, is an effective option with excellent long-term outcomes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 PMID:10703149