Science.gov

Sample records for 17th biennial waste

  1. Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister Categories of Transuranic Waste Stored Below Ground within Area G

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Kenneth Marshall

    2015-03-01

    A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned large areas near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2011 and heightened public concern and news media attention over transuranic (TRU) waste stored at LANL’s Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G waste management facility. The removal of TRU waste from Area G had been placed at a lower priority in budget decisions for environmental cleanup at LANL because TRU waste removal is not included in the March 2005 Compliance Order on Consent (Reference 1) that is the primary regulatory driver for environmental cleanup at LANL. The Consent Order is a settlement agreement between LANL and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) that contains specific requirements and schedules for cleaning up historical contamination at the LANL site. After the Las Conchas Fire, discussions were held by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the NMED on accelerating TRU waste removal from LANL and disposing it at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report summarizes available information on the origin, configuration, and composition of the waste containers within the Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister categories; their physical and radiological characteristics; the results of the radioassays; and potential issues in retrieval and processing of the waste containers.

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2004-10-25

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2004. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico.

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2000-12-01

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 1998, to March 31, 2000. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, and amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office's (hereinafter the ''CAO'') compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. An issue was identified in the 1998 BECR relating to a potential cross-connection between the fire-water systems and the site domestic water system. While the CAO and its managing and operating contractor (hereinafter the ''MOC'') believe the site was always in compliance with cross-connection control requirements, hardware and procedural upgrades w ere implemented in March 1999 to strengthen its compliance posture. Further discussion of this issue is presented in section 30.2.2 herein. During this reporting period WIPP received two letters and a compliance order alleging violation of certain requirements outlined in section 9(a)(1) of the LWA. With the exception of one item, pending a final decision by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), all alleged violations have been resolved without the assessment of fines or penalties. Non-mixed TRU waste shipments began on March 26, 1999. Shipments continued through November 26, 1999, the effective date of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF). No shipments regulated under the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit were received at WIPP during this BECR reporting period.

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washinton TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-30

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2002. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office's (CBFO) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. In the prior BECR, the CBFO and the management and operating contractor (MOC)committed to discuss resolution of a Letter of Violation that had been issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in August 1999, which was during the previous BECR reporting period. This Letter of Violation alleged noncompliance with hazardous waste aisle spacing, labeling, a nd tank requirements. At the time of publication of the prior BECR, resolution of the Letter of Violation was pending. On July 7, 2000, the NMED issued a letter noting that the aisle spacing and labeling concerns had been adequately addressed and that they were rescinding the violation alleging that the Exhaust Shaft Catch Basin failed to comply with the requirements for a hazardous waste tank. During the current reporting period, WIPP received a Notice of Violation and a compliance order alleging the violation of the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Regulations and the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP).

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2006-10-12

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents compliance with environmental regulations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. This BECR covers the reporting period from April 1, 2004, to March 31, 2006. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with regulations and permits issued pursuant to the following: (1) Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Subpart A, "Environmental Standards for Management and Storage"; (2) Clean Air Act (CAA) (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §7401, et seq.); (3) Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (42 U.S.C. §§6901-6992, et seq.); (4) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. §§300f, et seq.); (5) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (15 U.S.C. §§2601, et seq.); (6) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42 U.S.C. §§9601, et seq.); and all other federal and state of New Mexico laws pertaining to public health and safety or the environment.

  6. 17th Annual School Construction Report, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 "School Planning & Management"'s 17th Annual School Construction Report reports over the last two years although school construction had fallen from previous highs, the pipeline of projects funded before the recession was still full. And so, in 2009 total construction was a solid $16.4 billion. But the pipeline is not being…

  7. Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (2010-2012)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with environmental regulations applicable to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility.

  8. DIMMING OF THE 17TH CENTURY SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Foukal, Peter; Ortiz, Ada; Schnerr, Roald

    2011-06-01

    Reconstructions of total solar irradiance (TSI) rely mainly on linear relations between TSI variation and indices of facular area. When these are extrapolated to the prolonged 15th-17th century Spoerer and Maunder solar activity minima, the estimated solar dimming is insufficient to explain the mid-millennial climate cooling of the Little Ice Age. We draw attention here to evidence that the relation departs from linearity at the lowest activity levels. Imaging photometry and radiometry indicate an increased TSI contribution per unit area from small network faculae by a factor of 2-4 compared with larger faculae in and around active regions. Even partial removal of this more TSI-effective network at prolonged minima could enable climatically significant solar dimming, yet be consistent with the weakened but persistent 11 yr cycle observed in Be 10 during the Maunder Minimum. The mechanism we suggest would not alter previous findings that increased solar radiative forcing is insufficient to account for 20th century global warming.

  9. 17th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Judith

    2006-07-02

    The 17th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research was held at the University of Madison, Wisconsin from June 27- July 2, 2006. ICAR-2006 included approximately 625 scientists from across the world. The scientific program was of excellent quality featuring 73 talks, including 30 from invited speakers. There were also 6 community-organized workshops (facilitated by conference staff) featuring additional talks on topics including ‘Submitting data to long-term repositories,’ ‘TAIR introductory workshop,’ ‘Web services and demonstration,’ ‘Public engagement: broadening the impact of your research,’ ‘Systems biology approaches to analysis of metabolic and regulatory networks of Arabidopsis,’ and ‘Mechanotransduction in Arabidopsis.’ Approximately 440 posters were presented in general topic areas including, among others, Development, Modeling/Other Systems, Energy, Environment, and Genetic/Epigenetic mechanisms. Graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, junior faculty, and underrepresented minorities made up a significant portion of the oral presentations thereby promoting the training of young scientists and facilitating important career development opportunities for speakers. Several poster sessions provided an opportunity for younger participants to freely meet with more established scientists. The North American Arabidopsis Steering Committee (NAASC) continued its outreach effort and again sponsored two special luncheons to encourage personal and professional development of young scientists and also underrepresented minorities. The ‘Emerging Scientists Luncheon’ featured 10 graduate students selected on the basis of scientific excellence of their submitted research abstracts. The ‘Minority Funding Luncheon,’ featured 8 awardees selected by the NAASC through a widely-publicized application process. This luncheon was established specifically to provide an opportunity for underrepresented minorities, and/or scientists from

  10. 40 CFR 262.41 - Biennial report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.41 Biennial report. (a) A generator who ships any hazardous waste off-site to a treatment, storage or disposal facility within the... cover generator activities during the previous year, and must include the following information: (1)...

  11. 40 CFR 262.41 - Biennial report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.41 Biennial report. (a) A generator who ships any hazardous waste off-site to a treatment, storage or disposal facility within the... cover generator activities during the previous year, and must include the following information: (1)...

  12. 40 CFR 262.41 - Biennial report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.41 Biennial report. (a) A generator who ships any hazardous waste off-site to a treatment, storage or disposal facility within the... cover generator activities during the previous year, and must include the following information: (1)...

  13. 40 CFR 262.41 - Biennial report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.41 Biennial report. (a) A generator who ships any hazardous waste off-site to a treatment, storage or disposal facility within the... cover generator activities during the previous year, and must include the following information: (1)...

  14. 40 CFR 262.41 - Biennial report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.41 Biennial report. (a) A generator who ships any hazardous waste off-site to a treatment, storage or disposal facility within the... cover generator activities during the previous year, and must include the following information: (1)...

  15. Scientific Misconduct and Theft: Case Report from 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella

    2008-01-01

    Gjuro Armen Baglivi was one of the most famous medical authorities of the 17th century. Apart from his numerous books and publications, several extensive collections of his correspondence have been preserved and are available in libraries around the world. They provide new information about the 17th century scientific culture and place of Baglivi’s work in the scientific European context. Also, they shed light on his personality more than other writings intended for the public eye. In this paper I will present the case of a theft of intellectual property, which Baglivi described in one of his letters to Jean Jacques Manget. PMID:18293461

  16. High Life: 17th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Residence hall construction continues to be a priority for colleges and universities. With enrollments on the upswing, higher-education institutions are spending more and building larger facilities to entice students to live on campus. This article presents the findings of "American School & University's" 17th annual Residence Hall Construction…

  17. Harvard Humanities Students Discover the 17th Century Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article profiles Harvard professor Stephen Greenblatt's new course, "Travel and Transformation in the Early 17th Century." The product of an intense, months-long collaboration between computing specialists, graduate students, librarians, and scholars, the course makes innovative use of all the tools and technical know-how a major university…

  18. Report from 17th Hydrology Days Conference available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 17th annual Hydrology Days Conference was held from April 14-18,1997, at Colorado State University in Fort Collins. Highlights of the meeting included awards for the best student papers, given to Lyn Benjamin and Kevin Williams, both of Utah State University, and to Tom Sale of Colorado State University and Frank Barranco of the Colorado School of Mines. Proceedings from the meeting are available for $30 from H. J. Morel-Seytoux (57 Selby Lane, Atherton, CA 94027-3926 USA; tel. +1-415-365-4080semi; e-mail morelsey@usgs.gov)

  19. Anatomy and anatomists in Tuscany in the 17th century.

    PubMed

    Orlandini, Giovanni E; Paternostro, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The 17th century was characterized by a real revolution in the field of scientific research due to the introduction of the experimental method, promoted by Galileo Galilei who was the most representative scientist of this period. Therefore, medical disciplines, particularly Anatomy, underwent innovative and deep changes shattering traditional culture and representing the background for the modern science. In this fermenting period, Tuscany played a significant role since numerous distinguished scientists were gathered by Medici Grand Dukes (especially Ferdinando the 2nd and Cosimo the 3rd) at Pisa University and at their court in Florence. Among them, it must be mentioned Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, creator of iathromechanics, Marcello Malpighi, founder of microscopic Anatomy, Francesco Redi, who denied the insect spontaneous generation, Nils Steensen who continued in Florence his anatomical studies on lymph nodes and salivary glands while setting also the bases of modern geology. Moreover, at the end of the 17th century, the anatomical wax modelling techniques arose and developed in Florence thanks to the work of Gaetano Zumbo (or Zummo), capable of creating some real masterpieces, still very well preserved and collected in the Museum of Natural Sciences "La Specola".

  20. [Surgeons among the pirates in the 17th century].

    PubMed

    Snelders, S

    2005-12-24

    The memoirs of ship's surgeons that sailed with the Caribbean buccaneers and pirates of the 17th century are an important source of information on how they lived and worked. The surgeons enjoyed a full-fledged position among the egalitarian buccaneers. Known buccaneer surgeons whose memoirs have been preserved were apparently not entirely qualified according to the traditional guild system. Besides the usual work of ship's surgeons in general, the buccaneer surgeons had to be able to cope with the specific demands of the tropical climate. Botanical knowledge obtained from the Indian tribes played an important role in surviving the jungles of Central America. In addition, they were required to assist with duels, which played an important role among pirates and buccaneers in the settling of conflicts aboard ship, this in contrast to the situation on merchant and navy ships.

  1. 17th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The 17th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVII) Conference was held September 11-13, 2001, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Cleveland, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar technology. This year's conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVI; the use of new high-efficiency cells for commercial use and the development of novel array concepts such as Boeing's Solar Tile concept. In addition, new information was presented on space environmental interactions with solar arrays.

  2. JANNAF 17th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Volume 1, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 16 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 17th meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) held jointly with the 35th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS). The meeting was held on 7 - 11 December 1998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include projectile and shaped charge jet impact vulnerability of munitions; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; damage and hot spot initiation mechanisms with energetic materials; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  3. A Mediterranean derecho: Catalonia (Spain), 17th August 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. Manuel

    2007-02-01

    At approximately 6:10 UTC in the morning of 17th August 2003, a squall line developed over south Catalonia (the northeast region of Spain). During the next 9 h, the squall moved rapidly northeast and crossed Catalonia and the French regions of Languedoc-Roussillon and Province, damaging and uprooting hundreds of trees and blocking trains in the region. Wind gusts reached were recoded up to 52 m/s with evidence of F2 intensity damage. This case study shows the characteristics of a derecho (widespread convectively induced windstorm). Radar observations of the evolving squall line show signatures often correlated with damaging surface winds, including: Bow echoes, Rear inflow notches, Rear inflow jets, Medium altitude radial convergence, Narrow gradient of very marked reflectivity, Development of isolated cells ahead of the convective line, A band of convection off the northern end of the line known as a "warm advection wing". When examining the different surface observations, satellite, radar imagery and cloud-to-ground lightning data, this case shows many similarities to those investigated in the United States. The derecho is a hybrid case, but has many characteristics of warm season derechoes. This emanates from a mesoscale convective complex (MCC) moving along a quasi-stationary, low-level thermal boundary in an environment characterized by high potential instability and relatively strong mid-tropospheric winds.

  4. CaPTC Biennial Meetings

    Cancer.gov

    CaPTC hosts the 'Biennial Science of Global Prostate Cancer Disparities in Black Men' conference to address the growing global public health problem of prostate cancer among Black men in industrialized and developing countries.

  5. EDITORIAL The 17th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2011-02-01

    . The uncertainty relations for photon quadratures were also checked for the thermal photon state using experimental values of optical tomograms and avoiding the reconstruction procedure of the Wigner function and its associated precision constrains. In the tomographic-probability representation of quantum mechanics and quantum optics, tomograms are used for the description of quantum states as an alternative to the wave function and density matrix. The purity, fidelity, entropy and photon temperature associated with quantum states are expressed in terms of tomograms. This provides the possibility of measuring these characteristics directly by taking optical tomograms and checking basic inequalities like entropic uncertainty relations, temperature-dependent quadrature uncertainty relations, etc. The better understanding that quantum states can be identified with measurable probability distributions like optical tomograms opens new prospects in quantum optics, for example, to check experimentally the uncertainty relations for higher quadrature momenta and to control the precision with which the fundamental inequalities of quantum mechanics are experimentally confirmed. This Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented at the 17th Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO10) held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK, 6-11 June 2010. The other collaborators from different scientific centers who could not, due to different reasons, come to St Andrews but participated in the previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs also contributed to this issue. The paper by Ulf Leonhardt and Natalia Korolkova, the CEWQO10 Organizers, opens this issue. The order of the following papers corresponds to the alphabetical order of the first author of the paper. The history of CEWQOs can be found in the Preface to the Proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (2009 Phys. Scr. T135 011005). The Proceedings of the 16th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO09

  6. JANNAF 28th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and 17th Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Mulder, Edwin J. (Editor); Gomez-Knight, Sylvia J. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains 37 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers that were presented at the JANNAF 28th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) and 17th Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) Joint Meeting, held 26-30 April 1999 at the Town & Country Hotel and the Naval Submarine Base, San Diego, California. Volume II contains 29 unclassified/limited-distribution papers that were presented at the 28th PDCS and 17th S&EPS Joint Meeting. Volume III contains a classified paper that was presented at the 28th PDCS Meeting on 27 April 1999. Topics covered in PDCS sessions include: solid propellant rheology; solid propellant surveillance and aging; propellant process engineering; new solid propellant ingredients and formulation development; reduced toxicity liquid propellants; characterization of hypergolic propellants; and solid propellant chemical analysis methods. Topics covered in S&EPS sessions include: space launch range safety; liquid propellant hazards; vapor detection methods for toxic propellant vapors and other hazardous gases; toxicity of propellants, ingredients, and propellant combustion products; personal protective equipment for toxic liquid propellants; and demilitarization/treatment of energetic material wastes.

  7. Report on the 17th Annual Land O'Lakes Bioanalytical Conference.

    PubMed

    Burns, Erik C; Moran, Jeff; Breidinger, Sheila; Ho, Stacy; Guthrie, Randy; Amaravardi, Lakshmi

    2016-11-01

    17th Annual Land O'Lakes Bioanalytical Conference, Madison, WI, USA, 11-14 July 2016 The 17th Annual Land O'Lakes Bioanalytical Conference, titled 'Biomarker Validation, Stability, and Regulatory Concerns', was held on 11-14 July 2016 (Monday through Thursday) in Madison, WI, USA. The Land O'Lakes Conference is presented each year by the Division of Pharmacy Professional Development within the School of Pharmacy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (USA). The purpose of this 3-day conference is to provide an educational forum to discuss issues and applications associated with the analysis of xenobiotics, metabolites, biologics and biomarkers in biological matrices. The conference is designed to include and encourage an open exchange of scientific and methodological applications for bioanalysis. To increase the interactive nature of the conference, the program is a mixture of lectures, interactive discussions and a poster session. This report summarizes the presentations at the 17th Annual Conference.

  8. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 1: Pigments and glazes characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira Ferreira, L. F.; Casimiro, T. M.; Colomban, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    Two sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the first and second halves of the 17th century were studied carefully with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Laser Induced Luminescence (LIL) and Proton Induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for a Chinese Ming porcelain, Wanli period (16th/beginning of the 17th centuries), which served as an influence for the initial Lisbon's faience production. By combining information of the different non-destructive spectroscopic techniques used in this work, it was possible to conclude that: Co3O4 (Co II and Co III) can be found in the silicate matrix and is the blue pigment in the "Especieiro" sample (1st half of the 17th C.). Cobalt olivine silicate (Co2SiO4, Co II only) was clearly identified as the blue pigment in "Aranhões" sample (2nd half of the17th C.) - 824 cm-1 band in the micro-Raman-spectrum. Cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4, Co II only) is the blue pigment in the Wanli plate - 203 and 512 cm-1 bands in the micro-Raman spectrum. The blue pigment in the 1st half 17th century of Lisbon's production was obtained by addition of a cobalt ore in low concentrations, which gives no specific Raman signature, because of complete dissolution in the glass. However, in most cases of the 2nd half 17th century, the Raman signature was quite evident, from a cobalt silicate. These findings point to the use of higher temperature kilns in the second case.

  9. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 1: pigments and glazes characterization.

    PubMed

    Vieira Ferreira, L F; Casimiro, T M; Colomban, Ph

    2013-03-01

    Two sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the first and second halves of the 17th century were studied carefully with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Laser Induced Luminescence (LIL) and Proton Induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for a Chinese Ming porcelain, Wanli period (16th/beginning of the 17th centuries), which served as an influence for the initial Lisbon's faience production. By combining information of the different non-destructive spectroscopic techniques used in this work, it was possible to conclude that: Co(3)O(4) (Co II and Co III) can be found in the silicate matrix and is the blue pigment in the "Especieiro" sample (1st half of the 17th C.). Cobalt olivine silicate (Co(2)SiO(4), Co II only) was clearly identified as the blue pigment in "Aranhões" sample (2nd half of the 17th C.) - 824 cm(-1) band in the micro-Raman-spectrum. Cobalt aluminate (CoAl(2)O(4), Co II only) is the blue pigment in the Wanli plate - 203 and 512 cm(-1) bands in the micro-Raman spectrum. The blue pigment in the 1st half 17th century of Lisbon's production was obtained by addition of a cobalt ore in low concentrations, which gives no specific Raman signature, because of complete dissolution in the glass. However, in most cases of the 2nd half 17th century, the Raman signature was quite evident, from a cobalt silicate. These findings point to the use of higher temperature kilns in the second case.

  10. Molecular Medicine - CHI's 17th International Tri-Conference: Mastering Medicinal Chemistry - CHI's Seventh Annual Conference.

    PubMed

    Semple, Graeme

    2010-04-01

    CHI's 17th International Tri-Conference on Molecular Medicine, held in San Francisco, included topics covering the drug discovery process, with an emphasis on lead optimization. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the development of several launched and investigational drugs, including Plerixafor, Trox-1 (CombinatoRX Inc), lorcaserin (Arena Pharmaceuticals Inc), vorapaxar (Merck & Co Inc) and ulimorelin (Tranzyme Pharma Inc).

  11. Nonmilitary applications of the rocket between the 17th and 20th centuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    Nonmilitary uses of the rocket through history were investigated. It was found that through the 17th century rockets were used in whaling as harpoon drives. In later years, rockets were used in lifesaving and in commercial signalling at sea. Rocket utilization was traced up to the present application of sending the first men to the moon.

  12. Mosquito Vector Control and Biology in Latin America - A 17th Symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 17th Annual Latin America American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 73rd Annual Meeting in Orlando, FL, in April 2007. The principal objective, as for the previous 16 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector cont...

  13. Why "Worser" Is Better: The Double Comparative in 16th- to 17th-Century English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schluter, Julia

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the redundantly marked comparative "worser" in relation to its irregular, but etymologically justified, counterpart, "worse." Examines the diachronic development of the form as well as its distribution in the written language of the 16th and 17th centuries. (Author/VWL)

  14. Native American Games & European Religious Attitudes in the 16th & 17th Centuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, George

    Some aspects of the white-Indian relationship are reflected in the writings of 16th and 17th century observers of Indian pastimes. The Noble Savage image was apparently accepted by French colonists as a consequence of an intellectual disappointment in the contemporary societies. In an age of absolutism and religious intolerance, the picture of the…

  15. Concurrent phenomena of science and history in the 17th century and their essential interdependence.

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, H.

    1992-01-01

    The explanation for the explosion of science in the 17th century lies in history and medical historiography. Without this approach, it becomes fantasy, accidents, or success stories. Sigerist grasped the essential interdependence of science and history, and had no need for devised reasons or speculation. He realized that once the dark night of the Middle Ages was over, the sciences arose with undreamt of force and accelerated development. The advances in astronomy, mathematics, mechanics, and experimental science benefitted a society developing in seafaring, manufacture, and trade in the 17th century. Sigerist's views make the scientific explosion understandable in human and social terms. He did not overlook the capabilities of some extraordinary individuals, such as Paracelsus (1493-1541), to shape the course of medicine, nor the importance of the mechanistic philosophy in the 17th century. Man makes history and science; hence, we find concurrent phenomena of history and science essentially interdependent. The spirit of experimental science of 17th century England was inspired by the new needs of commercial enterprise for more means of transportation and communication. Likewise, the interest in the mechanics of the pump for waterworks and for the drainage of swamps led Harvey to think of the heart as a pump, and to explain the circulation of the blood in terms of its functioning. PMID:1608066

  16. Japanese Concepts of Child Development from the Mid-17th to Mid-19th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kojima, Hideo

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes beliefs and values about child rearing from documents written by experts on the mid-17th to mid-19th centuries. The experts argued that children are innately good rather than evil; environmental factors accounted for differences among children rather than innate factors; and children were autonomous rather than passive learners. (HOD)

  17. 8. Photocopy of photograph (from 17th Annual Report, 1912, The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph (from 17th Annual Report, 1912, The American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society) Unknown, Photographer, c. 1912 PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF WEST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE AS LOCATED AND ALTERED AT PRESENT SITE - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York County, NY

  18. My Experience with Alcohol, a 17th-Century Mathematician, and a Personal Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Dennis R.; Rector, Sheila M.

    2009-01-01

    This writing shares the first author's personal experience with alcohol, the negative consequences of his choices, and the ultimate answering of the question, "Am I an alcoholic and should I drink again?" The decision-making process and the eventual answer come from Blaise Pascal, a 17th-century mathematician. This process is explained and…

  19. Computers in Libraries Annual Conference (17th, Washington, DC, March 13-15, 2002): Collected Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Carol, Comp.

    This book contains presentations from the 17th annual Computers in Libraries Conference. Topics covered include: chatting with a librarian; verbots for library Web sites; collaborative IT (Information Technology) planning at Montgomery County Public Library (Maryland); designing a local government taxonomy; Weblogs; new roles for librarians in…

  20. Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple

    PubMed Central

    Guitton, Baptiste; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Velasco, Riccardo; Gardiner, Susan E.; Chagné, David; Costes, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F1 population of 122 genotypes, from a ‘Starkrimson’ (strong biennial bearer)בGranny Smith’ (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing. Inflorescence traits exhibited the highest genotypic effect, and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage group (LG) 4, LG8, and LG10 explained 50% of the phenotypic variability for biennial bearing. Apple orthologues of flowering and hormone-related genes were retrieved from the whole-genome assembly of ‘Golden Delicious’ and their position was compared with QTLs. Four main genomic regions that contain floral integrator genes, meristem identity genes, and gibberellin oxidase genes co-located with QTLs. The results indicated that flowering genes are less likely to be responsible for biennial bearing than hormone-related genes. New hypotheses for the control of biennial bearing emerged from QTL and candidate gene co-locations and suggest the involvement of different physiological processes such as the regulation of flowering genes by hormones. The correlation between tree architecture and biennial bearing is also discussed. PMID:21963613

  1. 47 CFR 53.209 - Biennial audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Biennial audit. 53.209 Section 53.209... PROVISIONS CONCERNING BELL OPERATING COMPANIES Separate Affiliate; Safeguards § 53.209 Biennial audit. (a) A... obtain and pay for a Federal/State joint audit every two years conducted by an independent auditor...

  2. 47 CFR 53.209 - Biennial audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Biennial audit. 53.209 Section 53.209... PROVISIONS CONCERNING BELL OPERATING COMPANIES Separate Affiliate; Safeguards § 53.209 Biennial audit. (a) A... obtain and pay for a Federal/State joint audit every two years conducted by an independent auditor...

  3. 49 CFR 229.29 - Biennial tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Biennial tests. 229.29 Section 229.29..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Inspections and Tests § 229.29 Biennial tests. (a) Except for the valves and valve portions on non-MU locomotives that are cleaned,...

  4. 47 CFR 53.209 - Biennial audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Biennial audit. 53.209 Section 53.209... PROVISIONS CONCERNING BELL OPERATING COMPANIES Separate Affiliate; Safeguards § 53.209 Biennial audit. (a) A... obtain and pay for a Federal/State joint audit every two years conducted by an independent auditor...

  5. John Hall and his epileptic patients--epilepsy management in early 17th century England.

    PubMed

    Betts, T; Betts, H

    1998-10-01

    John Hall, a physician, practised in Stratford in the early 17th century and was the son-in-law of William Shakespeare. During his career he kept records of his patients (in Latin) which he may have been preparing for publication when he died. Despite his instruction for them to be destroyed some were later translated into English and published by another physician. The case records were popular and have recently been reprinted with a commentaryl. We have searched the case records for descriptions of epilepsy and examined the treatments offered (and the attitudes to) this condition in early 17th century England. Treatment consisted of standard remedies ('fumes' of hartshorn and extracts of peony) related to the Galenic system of medicine, plus individual remedies. Interestingly, there is no evidence that the condition was stigmatized.

  6. 17th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest SupercomputersReseased

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack J.; Simon,Horst D.

    2001-06-21

    17th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released MANNHEIM, GERMANY; KNOXVILLE, TENN.; BERKELEY, CALIF. In what has become a much-anticipated event in the world of high-performance computing, the 17th edition of the TOP500 list of the world's fastest supercomputers was released today (June 21). The latest edition of the twice-yearly ranking finds IBM as the leader in the field, with 40 percent in terms of installed systems and 43 percent in terms of total performance of all the installed systems. In second place in terms of installed systems is Sun Microsystems with 16 percent, while Cray Inc. retained second place in terms of performance (13 percent). SGI Inc. was third both with respect to systems with 63 (12.6 percent) and performance (10.2 percent).

  7. 17th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B. L.

    2007-08-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 17th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 5-8, 2007. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'Expanding Technology for a Future Powered by Si Photovoltaics.'

  8. Acupuncture points & use of moxibustion, found in the popular literature & paintings of 17th century Japan.

    PubMed

    Omura, Y

    1984-01-01

    Acupuncture and moxibustion have long been an integral part of Far Eastern oriental medicine. Moxibustion and acupuncture cannot be discussed without each other since both use the same acupuncture point locations and nomenclatures. In the late 17th century, the famous travel diary of Basho, a Japanese master of haiku poetry, made reference to personal use of moxibustion on one of the well-known acupuncture points, stomach 36. Recently, the author found 2 paintings of a 17th century Kyoto geisha house and its surroundings in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, painted in realistic color by Moronobu, the originator of the Ukiyoe style and a contemporary of Basho. Part of the scene depicts some professional porters at work; on their legs are white scars at some of the well-known acupuncture points, including stomach 36 and spleen 6. The scars appear to be the result of moxibustion. This may indicate the common use of moxibustion on well-known acupuncture points of the lower extremities in late 17th century Japan for professional porters and for people making extensive journeys. Further support of the relatively widespread use of acupuncture and moxibustion is even found in the popular, non-medical literature of late 17th century Japan. In one of the short stories about the life of average people, written by the novelist Saikaku, the details of a young woman giving moxibustion on the back of a young man is realistically described with illustrations. Reports written by some of the foreign physicians who visited Japan during this period were published, describing these methods with illustrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Molecular Medicine - CHI's 17th International Tri-Conference: Mastering Medicinal Chemistry - CHI's Seventh Annual Conference.

    PubMed

    Terrett, Nick

    2010-04-01

    CHI's 17th International Tri-Conference on Molecular Medicine, held in San Francisco, included topics covering new developments in the field of medicinal chemistry. This conference report highlights selected presentations on fragment-based drug discovery, quantum mechanical energy decomposition for the analysis of SARs, medicinal chemistry strategies and the role of imaging in drug discovery. Investigational drugs discussed include MLN-4924 (Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc), GDC-0449 (Chugai Pharmaceutical Co Ltd/Curis Inc/F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd/Genentech Inc/NCI), RDEA-119 (Ardea Biosciences Inc/Bayer HealthCare AG) and tafamidis (Fx-1006A; FoldRx Pharmaceuticals Inc).

  10. Transient uplift after a 17th-century earthquake along the kuril subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawai, Y.; Satake, K.; Kamataki, T.; Nasu, H.; Shishikura, M.; Atwater, B.F.; Horton, B.P.; Kelsey, H.M.; Nagumo, T.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2004-01-01

    In eastern Hokkaido, 60 to 80 kilometers above a subducting oceanic plate, tidal mudflats changed into freshwater forests during the first decades after a 17th-century tsunami. The mudflats gradually rose by a meter, as judged from fossil diatom assemblages. Both the tsunami and the ensuing uplift exceeded any in the region's 200 years of written history, and both resulted from a shallow plate-boundary earthquake of unusually large size along the Kuril subduction zone. This earthquake probably induced more creep farther down the plate boundary than did any of the region's historical events.

  11. [Rules of hygiene and moral guidance in medical practice, 16th-17th centuries Spain].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Somavilla, María José

    2002-01-01

    In recent decades, we have seen how members of the illiterate, popular classes gained access to specific contents of elite culture by means of oral expression collected through texts. This development may be related to the target readership of medical texts published in Spain during the 16th and 17th centuries. The study also analyses how information about preventive measures in health care was passed on through medical books from professionals to lay-people. This represents one of the key methods used by medical practice in the modern world.

  12. Pigment characterization of important golden age panel paintings of the 17th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pięta, Ewa; Proniewicz, Edyta; Szmelter-Fausek, Bożena; Olszewska-Świetlik, Justyna; Proniewicz, Leonard M.

    2015-02-01

    Samples were obtained from two world-famous 17th century panel paintings of the Gdańsk school of panting: 'Seven Acts of Charity' (1607, in St. Mary's Church in Gdańsk, Poland) by Anton Möller and 'Angelic Concert' (1611, in Diocesan Museum in Pelplin, Poland) by Hermann Han. Micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS), optical microscopy (OM), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy studies of the samples were performed to characterize the pigments present in the individual painting layers (a rich palette of white, black, blue, red, and yellow pigments) and the pictorial techniques used by the artists.

  13. Too Little too Soon: The Literature of Deaf Education in 17th-Century Britain (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoolihan, Christopher

    1985-01-01

    The article describes the growth in literature on deaf education in 17th century Britain. Noted is the work of John Wallis, William Holder, George Dalgarno, Anton Deusing, and Johann Conrad Amman. (CL)

  14. Food flora in 17th century northeast region of Brazil in Historia Naturalis Brasiliae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This article reports historical ethnobotany research conducted from a study of the work Historia Naturalis Brasiliae (Natural History of Brazil), authored by Piso and Marcgrave and published in 1648, with main focus on Caatinga of northeast region of Brazil. Methods Focusing the content analysis on the section dedicated to plant species with multiple uses, Marcgrave's contribution to the aforementioned work, this research had the following objectives: the retrieval of 17th century knowledge about the food uses of the flora in the northeast region of Brazil, including the taxonomic classifications; the identification of plant parts, their modes of consumption and the ethnic group of consumers; and the verification of the use of these species over time. Results The use of 80 food species at the time of the publication of the work is indicated, some of which are endemic to the Caatinga, such as “umbu” (Spondias tuberosa Arruda), “mandacaru” (Cereus jamacaru DC.) and “carnauba” (Copernicia cerifera Mart.). It is noticeable that among the species listed by Marcgrave, some species still lack current studies indicating their real nutritional value. The present study is an unprecedented work because it introduces, in a systematic way, the food plants described in a study of 17th century Brazil. Conclusions Finally, this study makes information about plants consumed in the past accessible, aiming to provide material for studies that could develop new food products today. PMID:24965737

  15. Care of the insane in Lübeck during the 17th and 18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Dilling, Horst; Thomsen, Hans Peter; Hohagen, Fritz

    2010-12-01

    Only selected aspects of the history of the House of the Poor Insane in the Hanseatic Free City of Lübeck have been studied to date.This article presents the results of an entire source study of this small institution in the 17th and 18th centuries, and briefly also during the next 40 years after the opening of a new building. In addition to the minute-book of the Governors, now kept in the Lübeck Municipal Archives, the results are based primarily on the account-books,which illustrate the institution's social history and activities. Examples are given. During most of the 17th century, the House was generally rather like a prison for the insane, but at the end of this century and in the early 18th there was a reform phase.This was followed by phases of repression and 'containment' at the end of the 18th century and in the early 19th century, before a renewed reform by the medical profession.The findings for Lübeck are compared with the development of inpatient care in institutions elsewhere, and the decisive factors in Lübeck are discussed.

  16. LATIN AS A LANGUAGE OF INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATIVE STATUS: MEDICINE OF THE 16TH-17TH CENTURIES.

    PubMed

    Bieliaieva, O; Lysanets, Yu; Melaschenko, M

    2017-01-01

    The research paper is of interdisciplinary nature, written at the crossroads of the history of medicine, functional stylistics and terminology science. The choice of the 16th century as a starting point of the study is due to the fact that quality changes in book and manuscript writing that took place during this period led to unprecedented development and dissemination of scientific knowledge, including biomedical. The 16th century embraces the life and work of such prominent figures in the history of medicine, as Andreas Vesalius, Gabriele Fallopian, Bartolomeo Eustachi, and Girolamo Fracastoro. The 17th century, which is called the century of "scientific revolution", left not less honourable names in the history of medicine - William Harvey, Marcello Malpighi, Thomas Willis, Jean Pecquet, Francis Glisson, Thomas Sydenham. In the context of this study, these prominent figures are interesting due to the fact that their works were written in Latin and constitute the prototypes of modern scientific style, in particular of such genres as thesis, monograph, scientific article, scientific report, polemic presentation, textbook. On the basis of extensive factual material, it has been demonstrated that during 16th-17th centuries, Latin acted as a fully developed language with a clearly oriented international status. As one of basic tools in scientific knowledge, Latin not only performed the epistemological function which was the priority for the development of medicine, but also served as a means of accumulation, reception, transmission and popularization of achievements in various areas of medical science.

  17. PREFACE: Papers from the 17th European Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (Constanta, Romania, 1 5 September 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciupina, V.; Musa, G.; Vladoiu, R.

    2005-05-01

    The 17th European Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG-17) was held in Constanta, Romania, on 1-5 September 2004. ESCAMPIG is an important biennial European conference at which useful exchanges of ideas and discussion of new achievements in low temperature plasma physics take place. The meeting was held in the ambient location of Constanta, Romania, which provided the perfect location to encourage interaction between the related research communities attending the conference. The local organizers, as well as the plasma scientists of Romania, were all very much honoured that Constanta was selected by the International Scientific Committee as the location for ESCAMPIG-17. The conference was the second largest plasma physics conference ever to take place in Romania, second only to the ICPIG conference of 1969 in Bucharest—a huge conference with four parallel sections and simultaneous translation in four languages (English, German, French and Russian) in all four parallel sections. In contrast, ESCAMPIG-17 maintained the founding ideals and held single sessions only to encourage and strengthen the relationships between research communities. During ESCAMPIG-17 we had the opportunity to attend and hear excellent invited lectures presenting outstanding new results in plasma physics. A selection of those invited lectures from ESCAMPIG-17 is published in this issue of Plasma Sources Science and Technology. We would like to take this opportunity to express our thanks to all the invited lecturers and also to all the participants who attended ESCAMPIG-17. The Local Organizing Committee would particularly like to thank all the International Scientific Committee members. Special thanks are due to Professor Gerrit Kroesen and Professor Nader Sadeghi for their valuable and continuous support in solving our problems, no matter how complicated they were.

  18. Role of Melatonin in the Regulation of Differentiation of T Cells Producing Interleukin-17 (Th17).

    PubMed

    Kuklina, E M; Glebezdina, N S; Nekrasova, I V

    2016-03-01

    We studied the ability of melatonin in physiological and pharmacological concentrations to induce and/or regulate differentiation of T cells producing IL-17 (Th17). This hormone produced the opposite effect on CD4+T cells, which depended on their activation status. Melatonin induced the synthesis of IL-17A by intact T cells, but had little effect on activated cells. Melatonin in high (pharmacological) concentration decreased the intracellular expression of this cytokine under conditions of polyclonal activation. Melatonin had a dose-depended effect. Taking into the fact that Th17 cells play an important role in the immune defense, it can be suggested that the regulation of their activity by melatonin contributes to this process.

  19. Biological Warfare Plan in the 17th Century—the Siege of Candia, 1648–1669.

    PubMed

    Thalassinou, Eleni; Tsiamis, Costas; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-12-01

    A little-known effort to conduct biological warfare occurred during the 17th century. The incident transpired during the Venetian–Ottoman War, when the city of Candia (now Heraklion, Greece) was under siege by the Ottomans (1648–1669). The data we describe, obtained from the Archives of the Venetian State, are related to an operation organized by the Venetian Intelligence Services, which aimed at lifting the siege by infecting the Ottoman soldiers with plague by attacking them with a liquid made from the spleens and buboes of plague victims. Although the plan was perfectly organized, and the deadly mixture was ready to use, the attack was ultimately never carried out. The conception and the detailed cynical planning of the attack on Candia illustrate a dangerous way of thinking about the use of biological weapons and the absence of reservations when potential users, within their religious framework, cast their enemies as undeserving of humanitarian consideration.

  20. Biological Warfare Plan in the 17th Century—the Siege of Candia, 1648–1669

    PubMed Central

    Thalassinou, Eleni; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    A little-known effort to conduct biological warfare occurred during the 17th century. The incident transpired during the Venetian–Ottoman War, when the city of Candia (now Heraklion, Greece) was under siege by the Ottomans (1648–1669). The data we describe, obtained from the Archives of the Venetian State, are related to an operation organized by the Venetian Intelligence Services, which aimed at lifting the siege by infecting the Ottoman soldiers with plague by attacking them with a liquid made from the spleens and buboes of plague victims. Although the plan was perfectly organized, and the deadly mixture was ready to use, the attack was ultimately never carried out. The conception and the detailed cynical planning of the attack on Candia illustrate a dangerous way of thinking about the use of biological weapons and the absence of reservations when potential users, within their religious framework, cast their enemies as undeserving of humanitarian consideration. PMID:26894254

  1. In the sign of Galileo: pictorial representation in the 17th-century Copernican debate.

    PubMed

    Remmert, Volker R

    2003-03-01

    After Galileo had discovered the four moons of Jupiter in 1609 he became increasingly convinced that the Copernican, heliocentric system of the world was correct. However, this ran against the opinions of the Church and a large number of contemporary astronomers and natural philosophers. The ensuing development culminated in the condemnation of the Copernican system by the Church in 1616 and of Galileo himself, who had propagated the Copernican system in his Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632), in 1633. Nevertheless, there was a constant debate about the right world system during the whole 17th century. Pictorial representation played an important role in it and the illustrations used as book frontispieces were a significant medium for the dispute.

  2. [Vitalism and mechanism: their meanings in the milieu of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Hwang, S I

    1993-01-01

    The views on the life in the early modern period (the 17th and 18th centuries) with their socio-cultural backgrounds and their meanings at that time were discussed in this paper. Those views discussed here were the dualistic, mechanistic one of Rene Descartes (1596-1650), the animistic, vitalistic one of Georg Ernst Stahl (1660-1734), and the monistic, mechanistic one of Julien Offray de la Mettrie (1709-1751). Author stressed that the processes of their view formation were influenced by the wide range of the various political and religious factors as well as the scientific, medical facts and opinions at that time, and that not only the contents of the views but also their historical contexts should be pursued in the study on the medical thoughts.

  3. [Richard Morton (1637-1698)--the distinguished physician of the 17th century].

    PubMed

    Kontić, Olga; Vasiljević, Nadja; Jorga, Jagoda; Lakić, Aneta; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava

    2009-01-01

    Richard Morton was a distinguished physician of the 17th century. He was born in Suffolk, England, on July 30th 1637. Morton published three works but his landmark paper was "Phthisiologia, seu exercitationes de phthisi, tribus libris comprehensae" published in 1689, dedicated to William III. The book established his reputation at home and abroad lasting for over a century. Pulmonary tuberculosis was very frequent in the 17th century in England. He was the first physician ever to state that tubercles were always present in its pulmonary form. When we add to these momentous observations and their rational explanation the facts that he was the first physician to state categorically that tubercles are always present in phthisis, we must agree that Morton richly deserves his honoured place in the long list of those who have contributed to the solution of the problem of tuberculosis. Morton first described and gave conclusions of numerous today well known and already examined illnesses. In 1694 he gave first notes about the psychiatric illness which we today call "anorexia nervosa", calling it "nervous consumption". His chapters on treatment are long and contain a sound basis of common sense as indicated by his instructions on general management. He stresses the need for an adequate diet, an environment free from fog and smoke, and the desirability of ensuring a moderate amount of exercise. All Morton's therapeutic dicta are in their humanity and thoughtful care in striking contrast to the regimen of copious bleeding and semi-starvation inflicted by the later generation of physicians. Confirmation of his achievements and his teaching can be found in today's medical practice.

  4. European Climate and Pinot Noir Grape-Harvest Dates in Burgundy, since the 17th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourre, Y. M.

    2011-12-01

    Time-series of growing season air temperature anomalies in the Parisian region and of 'Pinot Noir' grape-harvest dates (GHD) in Burgundy (1676-2004) are analyzed in the frequency-domain. Variability of both time-series display three significant frequency-bands (peaks significant at the 5% level) i.e., a low-frequency band (multi-decadal) with a 25-year peak period; a 3-to-8 year band period (inter-annual) with a 3.1-year peak period; and a 2-to-3 year band period (quasi-biennial) with a 2.4-year peak period. Joint sea surface temperature/sea level pressure (SST/SLP) empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analyses during the 20th century, along with spatio-temporal patterns for the above frequency-bands are presented. It is found that SST anomalies display early significant spatial SST patterns in the North Atlantic Ocean (air temperature lagging by 6 months) similar to those obtained from EOF analyses. It is thus proposed that the robust power spectra for the above frequency-bands could be linked with Atlantic climate variability metrics modulating Western European climate i.e., 1) the global Multi-decadal Oscillation (MDO) with its Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) footprint; 2) the Atlantic Inter-Annual (IA) fluctuations; and 3) the Atlantic Quasi-Biennial (QB) fluctuations, respectively. Moreover these specific Western European climate signals have effects on ecosystem health and can be perceived as contributors to the length of the growing season and the timing of GHD in Burgundy. Thus advance knowledge on the evolution and phasing of the above climate fluctuations become important elements for viticulture and wine industry management. It is recognized that anthropogenic effects could have modified time-series patterns presented here, particularly since the mid 1980s.

  5. An Assessment of the 1983 "Biennial Survey."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles R.

    1985-01-01

    Assesses the value of the Government Printing Office's 1983 "Biennial Survey" as a tool to support depository library planning and decision making. The survey data are evaluated in terms of reliability, validity, and utility, and recommendations are offered for improving the design, administration, and analysis of the survey. (CLB)

  6. North Carolina Library Association 1997 Biennial Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Libraries, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Provides summaries of the presentations at the North Carolina Library Association's Biennial Conference, "Choose Quality, Choose Libraries," (Raleigh, NC, October 8-10, 1997). Some of the topics covered include library instruction, Internet access to public documents, outsourcing technical services, copyrights and the Internet, the…

  7. Geophysical Institute. Biennial report, 1993-1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The 1993-1994 Geophysical Institute Biennial Report was published in November 1995 by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. It contains an overview of the Geophysical Institute, the Director`s Note, and research presentations concerning the following subjects: Scientific Predictions, Space Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, Snow, Ice and Permafrost, Tectonics and Sedimentation, Seismology, Volcanology, Remote Sensing, and other projects.

  8. [Chemistry of life: ferments and fermentation in 17th-century iatrochemistry].

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The concepts of ferment and fermentation played an important, though heretofore neglected, role in 17th-century physiology. Though these notions can be found in ancient philosophy and medicine, as well as in medieval medicine, they became integral part of the chemical medicine that was advocated by Paracelsus and his school. Paracelsians made fermentation a central concept in their successful effort to give chemical foundation to medicine. Jean Baptiste van Helmont and Sylvius used the concepts of ferment and fermentation to explain a variety of physiological processes in human body. Corpuscular philosophers like Robert Boyle and Thomas Willis reinterpreted these notions in corpuscular terms and separated the concept of ferment from that of fermentation. In the second half of the seventeenth century, physiologist tried to explain fermentation by means of chemical reactions, as for instance acid -alkali, and ruled out the notion of ferment as superfluous to their investigations. At the end of hte seventeenth century fermentation attracted the interest of physicists like Johannes Bernoulli and Isaac Newton, who tried to explain fermentative processes in terms of matter and motion (Bernoulli) and short-range forces (Newton). George Ernst Stahl devoted a work to fermentation: the Zymotechnia. He explained fermentation as the outcome of the reactions of molecules formed of saline, oily and earthy corpuscles with particles of water. He saw fermentation as a mechanical process, i.e. as collision of different kinds of corpuscles.

  9. ICOS-based chimeric antigen receptors program bipolar TH17/TH1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Madar, Aviv; Carpenito, Carmine; McGettigan, Shannon E.; Frigault, Matthew J.; Lee, Jihyun; Posey, Avery D.; Scholler, John; Scholler, Nathalie; Bonneau, Richard

    2014-01-01

    With the notable exception of B-cell malignancies, the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells has been limited, and CAR T cells have not been shown to expand and persist in patients with nonlymphoid tumors. Here we demonstrate that redirection of primary human T cells with a CAR containing the inducible costimulator (ICOS) intracellular domain generates tumor-specific IL-17-producing effector cells that show enhanced persistence. Compared with CARs containing the CD3ζ chain alone, or in tandem with the CD28 or the 4-1BB intracellular domains, ICOS signaling increased IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 following antigen recognition. In addition, T cells redirected with an ICOS-based CAR maintained a core molecular signature characteristic of TH17 cells and expressed higher levels of RORC, CD161, IL1R-1, and NCS1. Of note, ICOS signaling also induced the expression of IFN-γ and T-bet, consistent with a TH17/TH1 bipolarization. When transferred into mice with established tumors, TH17 cells that were redirected with ICOS-based CARs mediated efficient antitumor responses and showed enhanced persistence compared with CD28- or 4-1BB-based CAR T cells. Thus, redirection of TH17 cells with a CAR encoding the ICOS intracellular domain is a promising approach to augment the function and persistence of CAR T cells in hematologic malignancies. PMID:24986688

  10. Radiological Diagnosis of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in 17th Century Korean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, In Sun; Jung, Go-Un; Kim, Myeung Ju; Oh, Chang Seok; Yoo, Dong Su; Lee, Won-Joon; Lee, Eunju; Cha, Soon Chul; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a birth defect of the diaphragm resulting in pulmonary sequelae that threaten the lives of infants. In computed tomography (CT) images of a 17th century middle-aged male mummy (the Andong mummy), we observed that the abdominal contents had protruded into the right thoracic cavity through the diaphragmatic defect, accompanied by a mediastinal shift to the left. On autopsy, the defect in the right posterolateral aspect of the diaphragm was reconfirmed, as was the herniation of the abdominal organs. The herniated contents included the right lobe of the liver, the pyloric part of the stomach, a part of the greater omentum, and the right colic flexure connecting the superior part of the ascending colon and the right part of the transverse colon. Taking our CT and autopsy results together, this case was diagnosed as the Bochdalek-type CDH. Herein we make the first ever report of a CT-assisted diagnosis of a pre-modern historical case of CDH. Our results show the promising utility of this modality in investigations of mummified human remains archaeologically obtained. PMID:24988465

  11. A Possible Case of Cherubism in a 17th-Century Korean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Spigelman, Mark; Sarig, Rachel; Lim, Do-Sun; Lee, In Sun; Oh, Chang Seok; May, Hila; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, Soong Deok; Peled, Nathan; Kim, Myeung Ju; Toledano, Talya; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2014-01-01

    Cherubism is a benign fibro-osseous disease of childhood limited specifically to the maxilla and mandible. The progressive replacement of the jaw bones with expansile multilocular cystic lesions causes eventual prominence of the lower face, and hence the classic “cherubic” phenotype reflecting variable extents of jaw hypertrophy. Histologically, this condition has been characterized as replacement of the normal bone matrix with multicystic pockets of fibrous stroma and osteoclastic giant cells. Because of radiographic features common to both, primarily the presence of multiloculated lucencies with heterogeneous “ground-glass” sclerosis on CT imaging, cherubism was long mistaken for a craniofacial subtype of fibrous dysplasia. In 1999, however, the distinct genetic basis for cherubism was mapped to chromosome 4p16.3 and the SH-3 binding protein SH3BP2. But while there are already three suspected cases of fibrous dysplasia amongst archaeological populations, no definitive cases of cherubism have yet been reported in historical populations. In the current study we describe micro- and macro-structural changes in the face of a 17th century Joseon Dynasty Korean mummy which may coincide with the clinic-pathologic and radiologic features of cherubism. PMID:25093864

  12. A shift in the spatial pattern of Iberian droughts during the 17th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Castro, F.; García-Herrera, R.; Ribera, P.; Barriendos, M.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, series of drought occurrence and drought extension in the Iberian Peninsula are constructed for the 1600-1750 period from seven rogation series. These rogation ceremony records come from Bilbao, Catalonia, Zamora, Zaragoza, Toledo, Murcia and Seville. They are distributed across the Peninsula and include the areas with the most characteristic Iberian climate types, influenced by the Atlantic and the Mediterranean conditions, described from modern data. A seasonal division of the series shows that spring is a critical season for rogation series in most of Iberia, being Bilbao the only site were the highest number of rogations is detected for a different season. The annual analysis of the series shows a dramatic difference between the first half of the 17th century when droughts are characterized by its local character; and the rest of the period, when they affect to broader regions or even to the whole Peninsula. The analysis of spring series confirms the existence of the two periods detected in the annual analysis. Finally, secondary documentary sources are used to further characterise the two most extended droughts in the period, 1664 and 1680, and to verify the extension of the areas affected by droughts recorded through rogation series.

  13. Reconstructing early 17th century estuarine drought conditions from Jamestown oysters.

    PubMed

    Harding, Juliana M; Spero, Howard J; Mann, Roger; Herbert, Gregory S; Sliko, Jennifer L

    2010-06-08

    Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were a central component of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem in 1607 when European settlers established Jamestown, VA, the first permanent English settlement in North America. These estuarine bivalves were an important food resource during the early years of the James Fort (Jamestown) settlement while the colonists were struggling to survive in the face of inadequate supplies and a severe regional drought. Although oyster shells were discarded as trash after the oysters were eaten, the environmental and ecological data recorded in the bivalve geochemistry during shell deposition remain intact over centuries, thereby providing a unique window into conditions during the earliest Jamestown years. We compare oxygen isotope data from these 17th century oyster shells with modern shells to quantify and contrast estuarine salinity, season of oyster collection, and shell provenance during Jamestown colonization (1609-1616) and the 21st century. Data show that oysters were collected during an extended drought between fall 1611 and summer 1612. The drought shifted the 14 psu isohaline above Jamestown Island, facilitating individual oyster growth and extension of oyster habitat upriver toward the colony, thereby enhancing local oyster food resources. Data from distinct well layers suggest that the colonists also obtained oysters from reefs near Chesapeake Bay to augment oyster resources near Jamestown Island. The oyster shell season of harvest reconstructions suggest that these data come from either a 1611 well with a very short useful period or an undocumented older well abandoned by late 1611.

  14. Gerrit Dou: 17th century Dutch artist portraying dentists at work.

    PubMed

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2002-07-01

    The Dutch painter, Gerrit Dou (1613-1675), was, during his lifetime, a prestigious and highly paid artist. Critics and collectors of that era marveled at his extraordinary technical skill, his masterful illusionism and his keen portrayal of everyday life. He was the first artist to perfect the technique of "fine painting"--the production of small, detailed pictures wherein subjects are painted in a photographically realistic style. Because of his exceptional skill in this technique, the brushwork in his painting was almost invisible. Additionally, he masterfully used light and shade to achieve the effect of a third dimension. In many of his portraits, subjects stare ahead from inside a window (or niche), whose sill is overflowing with small, familiar objects. Dou's focus was on 17th century Holland and his work included: portraits, genre (scenes of everyday life) and religious themes. Between 1628 and 1675, he painted about three hundred pictures: six of these portrayed dentists at work. Most artists of those days depicted dentists as plying their trade in theatrical, circus-like environments, as in crowded county fairs. However, Dou's dentists interact with their patients in a realistic, professional manner. In this article, his most famous dental painting, "The Dentist," created in 1672, is analyzed in detail. Over the centuries, Dou's public recognition has faded into obscurity. However, his exceptional talents are currently being rediscovered.

  15. ICOS-based chimeric antigen receptors program bipolar TH17/TH1 cells.

    PubMed

    Guedan, Sonia; Chen, Xi; Madar, Aviv; Carpenito, Carmine; McGettigan, Shannon E; Frigault, Matthew J; Lee, Jihyun; Posey, Avery D; Scholler, John; Scholler, Nathalie; Bonneau, Richard; June, Carl H

    2014-08-14

    With the notable exception of B-cell malignancies, the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells has been limited, and CAR T cells have not been shown to expand and persist in patients with nonlymphoid tumors. Here we demonstrate that redirection of primary human T cells with a CAR containing the inducible costimulator (ICOS) intracellular domain generates tumor-specific IL-17-producing effector cells that show enhanced persistence. Compared with CARs containing the CD3ζ chain alone, or in tandem with the CD28 or the 4-1BB intracellular domains, ICOS signaling increased IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 following antigen recognition. In addition, T cells redirected with an ICOS-based CAR maintained a core molecular signature characteristic of TH17 cells and expressed higher levels of RORC, CD161, IL1R-1, and NCS1. Of note, ICOS signaling also induced the expression of IFN-γ and T-bet, consistent with a TH17/TH1 bipolarization. When transferred into mice with established tumors, TH17 cells that were redirected with ICOS-based CARs mediated efficient antitumor responses and showed enhanced persistence compared with CD28- or 4-1BB-based CAR T cells. Thus, redirection of TH17 cells with a CAR encoding the ICOS intracellular domain is a promising approach to augment the function and persistence of CAR T cells in hematologic malignancies.

  16. Great Barrier Reef coral luminescence reveals rainfall variability over northeastern Australia since the 17th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lough, Janice M.

    2011-06-01

    Northeast tropical Queensland rainfall is concentrated in the summer half year and characterized by high interannual variability, partly related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. This results in highly variable river flows affecting nearshore coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Freshwater flood events are recorded in long-lived, annually banded massive coral skeletons as luminescent lines. Quantitative measurements of luminescence intensity were made for 20 Porites coral cores from nearshore reef sites between 11°S and 23°S. Seventeen of the coral luminescence series were significantly correlated with an instrumental record of northeast Queensland summer rainfall and were used to develop seven significantly calibrated and verified rainfall reconstructions based on between 17 (starting 1891) and 1 (starting 1639) coral series. The longest reconstruction, based on more than one coral, provides insights into northeast Queensland rainfall variability from the late 17th century. Comparisons with various independent climate proxies are equivocal: the magnitude and significance of relationships with, for example, a proxy ENSO index vary through time. An extended drier period reconstructed from approximately the 1760s to the 1850s is associated with lower interannual rainfall variability. Since the late 19th century average rainfall and its variability have significantly increased, with wet and dry extremes becoming more frequent than in earlier centuries. This suggests that a warming global climate maybe associated with more variable tropical Queensland rainfall.

  17. Equatorial All Sky Imager Images from the Seychelles during the March 17th, 2015 geomagnetic storm.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, B.

    2015-12-01

    An all sky imager was installed in the Seychelles earlier this year. The Seychelles islands are located northeast of Madagascar and east of Somalia in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The all sky imager is located on the island of Mahe (4.6667°S, 55.4667°E geographic), (10.55°S, 127.07°E geomagnetic), with filters of 557.7, 620.0, 630.0, 765.0 and 777.4 nm. Images with a 90 second exposure from Seychelles in 777.4nm and 630.0nm from the night before and night of the March 17th geomagnetic storm are discussed in comparison to solar wind measurements at ACE and the disturbance storm time (Dst) index. These images show line-of-sight intensities of photons received dependent on each filters wavelength. A time series of these images sometimes will show the movement of relatively dark areas, or depletions, in each emission. The depletion regions are known to cause scintillation in GPS signals. The direction and speed of movement of these depletions are related to changes observed in the solar wind.

  18. 76 FR 67005 - Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th Street, NW., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20036; Notice of Intention To Cancel Registration Pursuant...

  19. 76 FR 70178 - Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th Street NW., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20036; Notice of Intention to Cancel Registration Pursuant...

  20. The "System of Chymists" and the "Newtonian Dream" in Greek-Speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-01-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a "philosophy" of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This…

  1. ARES Biennial Report 2012 Final

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    serves as host to numerous students and visiting scientists as part of the services provided to the research community and conducts a robust education and outreach program. ARES scientists are recognized nationally and internationally by virtue of their success in publishing in peer-reviewed journals and winning competitive research proposals. ARES scientists have won every major award presented by the Meteoritical Society, including the Leonard Medal, the most prestigious award in planetary science and cosmochemistry; the Barringer Medal, recognizing outstanding work in the field of impact cratering; the Nier Prize for outstanding research by a young scientist; and several recipients of the Nininger Meteorite Award. One of our scientists received the Department of Defense (DoD) Joint Meritorious Civilian Service Award (the highest civilian honor given by the DoD). ARES has established numerous partnerships with other NASA Centers, universities, and national laboratories. ARES scientists serve as journal editors, members of advisory panels and review committees, and society officers, and several scientists have been elected as Fellows in their professional societies. This biennial report summarizes a subset of the accomplishments made by each of the ARES offices and highlights participation in ongoing human and robotic missions, development of new missions, and planning for future human and robotic exploration of the solar system beyond low Earth orbit.

  2. Assessment of soil-gas contamination at the 17th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir G.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of contaminants in soil gas were conducted in two study areas at Fort Gordon, Georgia, in July and August of 2011 to supplement environmental contaminant data for previous studies at the 17th Street landfill. The two study areas include northern and eastern parts of the 17th Street landfill and the adjacent wooded areas to the north and east of the landfill. These study areas were chosen because of their close proximity to the surface water in Wilkerson Lake and McCoys Creek. A total of 48 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the July 28 to August 3, 2011, assessment in the eastern study area. The assessment mostly identified detections of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and gasoline- and diesel-range compounds, but also identified the presence of chlorinated solvents in six samplers, chloroform in three samplers, 2-methyl naphthalene in one sampler, and trimethylbenzene in one sampler. The TPH masses exceeded 0.02 microgram (μg) in all 48 samplers and exceeded 0.9 μg in 24 samplers. Undecane, one of the three diesel-range compounds used to calculate the combined mass for diesel-range compounds, was detected in 17 samplers and is the second most commonly detected compound in the eastern study area, exceeded only by the number of TPH detections. Six samplers had detections of toluene, but other gasoline compounds were detected with toluene in three of the samplers, including detections of ethylbenzene, meta- and para-xylene, and octane. All detections of chlorinated organic compounds had soil-gas masses equal to or less than 0.08 μg, including three detections of trichloroethene, three detections of perchloroethene, three chloroform detections, one 1,4-dichlorobenzene detection, and one 1,1,2-trichloroethane detection. Three methylated compounds were detected in the eastern study area, but were detected at or below method detection levels. A total of 32 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the August 11–24, 2011, assessment in the northern study

  3. FOREWORD: 17th National Conference of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Barbara A.; Davis, Clem; Kiss, Andrew E.; Taylor, John R.

    2010-05-01

    The Australian Meteorology and Oceanography Society (AMOS) has held an annual conference each year since 1994. The venue for the 17th conference in this series was the Australian National University (ANU) in Canberra, Australia's capital city. The conference ran over three days from 27 to 29 January 2010. The conference title was Atmospheres, Oceans, Environment and Society with the conference themes: Weather, ocean and climate forecasting Observing and modelling the integrated earth system Climate trends, variability and extremes: past, present and future Climate impacts and adaptation Antarctic weather, ocean and climate systems Ocean systems and dynamics. Local co-hosts for the conference were the Fenner School of Environment and Society (ANU) and the Research School of Earth Sciences (ANU). The conference organising committee was drawn from the members of the Australian Capital Territory centre of AMOS. The conference was very successful, attracting 300 delegates presenting 160 oral and 68 poster presentations over the three days. In a first for an AMOS National Conference, the organisers decided to produce a refereed Conference Proceedings with all presenters being invited to contribute. Each submitted paper was refereed by two anonymous reviewers selected by the conference editorial committee. The refereeing process followed the guidelines for the IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. The result is the collection of 39 papers in this conference volume. The range of subjects covered in the papers reflects the diversity of the presentations prompted by the conference themes and the broad range of the research interests of the Australian climate, meteorology and oceanographic community. Within the proceedings the editors have presented the papers alphabetically within the theme area in which they were presented at the conference. The editorial committee wish to thank not only the authors for their contributions to this volume but also the

  4. [Semantics of learned quackery in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Füssel, Marian

    2004-06-01

    In the 17th and 18th century republic of letters the problem of scientific fraud was met with a discourse of charlatanism. Departing from Johann Burchhard Menckes famous treatise on the Charlatanry of the learned the following essay traces how the accusations of academic and scientific misconduct put in terms of 'charlatanry' primarily helped to produce the new species of the erudite 'charlatan'. Facing a growing complexity of scientific culture this new frame of meaning, structured by numerous examples of scientific misconduct offered a new way of orientation in the world of learning. But besides its cognitive impacts the discourse of charlatanry allowed to create symbolic boundaries, which determined decisions upon the affiliation or non affiliation to the new forming scientific community by separating honourable from dishonourable scientific personae. Speaking of charlatanry therefore always implied a social distinction as much as a scientific. The discourses on charlatanry also mirror differentiations within the scientific field. At first dominated by a critique built on courteous or bourgeois values, the scientific field later on developed its own criteria of appraisal like authorship, originality, transparency etc. Attracting the attention of a further growing public sphere, the explicit verbalisation of claims not relating to the value system of a republic of letters primarily concerned with the production and distribution of knowledge finally led up to a more implicit moral economy of science. A change that at a large scale level can be described both as an internalisation of the values of scientific conduct and differentiation between justiciable and unjusticiable transgressions of the norms set up by the scientific community.

  5. Plastic surgery in 17th century Europe. case study: Nicolae Milescu, the snub-nosed.

    PubMed

    Dumbravă, Daniela; Luchian, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The rising and the existence of plastic and aesthetic surgery in early modern Europe did not have a specific pattern, but was completely different from one nation to another. Colleges of Physicians could only be found in some places in Europe; different Parliaments of Europe's nations did not always elevate being a surgeon to the dignity of a profession, and being a surgeon did not always come with corporate and municipal privileges, or with attractive stipends. Conversely, corporal punishments for treacherous surgeons were ubiquitous. Rhinoplasty falls into the category of what Ambroise Paré named "facial plastic surgery". The technique is a medical source from which many histories derive, one more fascinating than the other: the history of those whose nose was cut off (because of state betrayal, adultery, abjuration, or duelling with swords), the history of those who invented the surgery of nose reconstruction (e.g. SuSruta-samhita or Tagliacozzi?), the history of surgeries kept secret in early modern Europe (e.g. Tropea, Calabria, Leiden, Padua, Paris, Berlin), and so on. Where does the history of Nicolae Milescu the Snub-nosed fall in all of this? How much of this history do the Moldavian Chronicles record? Is there any "scholarly gossip" in the aristocratic and diplomatic environments at Constantinople? What exactly do the British ambassadors learn concerning Rhinoplasty when they meet Milescu? How do we "walk" within these histories, and why should we be interested at all? What is their stike for modernity? Such are the interrogations that this article seeks to provoke; its purpose is to question (and eventually, synchronise) histories, and not exclusively history, both in academic terms but also by reassessing the practical knowledge of the 17th century.

  6. Tropical mathematics and the financial catastrophe of the 17th century. Thermoeconomics of Russia in the early 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, V. P.

    2010-03-01

    In the paper, an example is presented concerning relationships (which cannot be neglected) between mathematics and other sciences. In particular, the relationship between the tropical mathematics and the humanitarian-economic catastrophe of 17th century (related to slavery of Africans) is considered. The notion of critical state of economy of the 19th century is introduced by using the refined Fisher equation. A correspondence principle for thermodynamics of fluids and economics of the 19th century is presented.

  7. Invitation to the 17th international congress on photosynthesis research in 2016: photosynthesis in a changing world.

    PubMed

    van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

    2016-02-01

    The 17th International Congress on Photosynthesis will be held from August 7 to 12, 2016 in Maastricht, The Netherlands. The congress will include an opening reception, 15 plenary lectures, 28 scientific symposia, many poster sessions, displays by scientific companies, excursions, congress dinner, social activities, and the first photosynthesis soccer world championship. See http://www.ps2016.com/ . The congress is organized as an official event of the International Society of Photosynthesis Research (see http://www.photosynthesisresearch.org/).

  8. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, T.; Midgley, P. A.

    2011-11-01

    This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 17th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at Churchill College, University of Cambridge, on 4-7 April 2011. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Institute of Physics and supported by the Royal Microscopical Society as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and related techniques with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 131 delegates from 25 countries world-wide, a record in terms of internationality. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes of device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, the electronic structure, the chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two examples of topics at this meeting that have attracted a number of interesting studies were: the correlation of microstructural, optical and chemical information at atomic resolution with nanometre-scale resolved maps of the local electrical fields in (In,Al)GaN based semiconductors and tomographic approaches to characterise ensembles of nanowires and stacks of processed layers in devices Figure 1 Figure 1. Opening lecture by Professor Sir Colin J Humphreys. Each manuscript submitted for publication in this proceedings volume has been independently reviewed and revised

  9. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories (MBT17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholz, Heidi; Boronat, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    These are the proceedings of the XVII International Conference on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories, which was held from 8-13 September 2013 in Rostock, Germany. The conference continued the triennial series initiated in Trieste in 1978 and was devoted to new developments in the field of many-body theories. The conference series encourages the exchange of ideas between physicists working in such diverse areas as nuclear physics, quantum chemistry, lattice Hamiltonians or quantum uids. Many-body theories are an integral part in different fields of theoretical physics such as condensed matter, nuclear matter and field theory. Phase transitions and macroscopic quantum effects such as magnetism, Bose-Einstein condensation, super uidity or superconductivity have been investigated within ultra-cold gases, finite systems or various nanomaterials. The conference series on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories is devoted to foster the interaction and to cross-fertilize between different fields and to discuss future lines of research. The topics of the 17th meeting were Cluster Physics Cold Gases High Energy Density Matter and Intense Lasers Magnetism New Developments in Many-Body Techniques Nuclear Many-Body and Relativistic Theories Quantum Fluids and Solids Quantum Phase Transitions Topological Insulators and Low Dimensional Systems. 109 participants from 20 countries participated. 44 talks and 61 posters werde presented. As a particular highlight of the conference, The Eugene Feenberg Memorial Medal for outstanding results in the field of many-body theory and The Hermann Kümmel Early Achievement Award in Many-Body Physics for young scientists in that field were awarded. The Feenberg Medal went jointly to Patrick Lee (MIT, USA) for his fundamental contributions to condensed-matter theory, especially in regard to the quantum Hall effect, to universal conductance uctuations, and to the Kondo effect in quantum dots, and Douglas Scalapino (UC Santa Barbara, USA) for his

  10. [Effects of the periodical spread of rinderpest on famine, epidemic, and tiger disasters in the late 17th Century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Jin; Yoo, Han Sang; Lee, Hang

    2014-04-01

    This study clarifies the causes of the repetitive occurrences of such phenomena as rinderpest, epidemic, famine, and tiger disasters recorded in the Joseon Dynasty Chronicle and the Seungjeongwon Journals in the period of great catastrophe, the late 17th century in which the great Gyeongsin famine (1670~1671) and the great Eulbyeong famine (1695~1696) occurred, from the perspective that they were biological exchanges caused by the new arrival of rinderpest in the early 17th century. It is an objection to the achievements by existing studies which suggest that the great catastrophes occurring in the late 17th century are evidence of phenomena in a little ice age. First of all, rinderpest has had influence on East Asia as it had been spread from certain areas in Machuria in May 1636 through Joseon, where it raged throughout the nation, and then to the west part of Japan. The new arrival of rinderpest was indigenized in Joseon, where it was localized and spread periodically while it was adjusted to changes in the population of cattle with immunity in accordance with their life spans and reproduction rates. As the new rinderpest, which showed high pathogenicity in the early 17th century, was indigenized with its high mortality and continued until the late 17th century, it broke out periodically in general. Contrastively, epidemics like smallpox and measles that were indigenized as routine ones had occurred constantly from far past times. As a result, the rinderpest, which tried a new indigenization, and the human epidemics, which had been already indigenized long ago, were unexpectedly overlapped in their breakout, and hence great changes were noticed in the aspects of the human casualty due to epidemics. The outbreak of rinderpest resulted in famine due to lack of farming cattle, and the famine caused epidemics among people. The casualty of the human population due to the epidemics in turn led to negligence of farming cattle, which constituted factors that triggered

  11. Quasi-biennial oscillation above 10 mb

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, M.P. Dunkerton, T.J. )

    1991-07-01

    It is shown that the quasi-biennial oscillation of the equatorial lower stratosphere was correlated with mean zonal wind in the upper stratosphere, 1979-90. Correlations were positive near 60{degree}N and 30{degree}S during northern hemisphere (NH) winter and negative in the equatorial upper stratosphere during all seasons. Spatial autocorrelation of mean zonal wind during NH winter was actually largest in the upper stratosphere, between 10{degree}S and 62{degree}N, due to strong coupling between tropical and extratropical flow at upper levels.

  12. UNESCO-UNEVOC in Action: Biennial Report 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This biennial report provides a comprehensive overview of UNESCO-UNEVOC's activities in technical and vocational education and training in 2012-2013. It illustrates UNESCO-UNEVOC's contributions to the UNESCO 36 C/5 sectoral priorities and programmatic objectives. Specifically, UNESCO-UNEVOC contributed to the biennial sectoral priority in…

  13. 43 CFR 11.12 - Biennial review of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Biennial review of regulations. 11.12 Section 11.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction § 11.12 Biennial review of regulations. The regulations and procedures...

  14. 43 CFR 11.12 - Biennial review of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Biennial review of regulations. 11.12 Section 11.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction § 11.12 Biennial review of regulations. The regulations and procedures...

  15. Solar generated quasi-biennial geomagnetic variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.; Poros, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    The existence of highly correlated quasi-biennial variations in the geomagnetic field and in solar activity is demonstrated. The analysis uses a numerical filter technique applied to monthly averages of the geomagnetic horizontal component and of the Zurich relative sunspot number. Striking correlations are found between the quasi-biennial geomagnetic variations determined from several magnetic observatories located at widely different longitudes, indicating a worldwide nature of the obtained variation. The correlation coefficient between the filtered Dst index and the filtered relative sunspot number is found to be -0.79 at confidence level greater than 99% with a time-lag of 4 months, with solar activity preceding the Dst variation. The correlation between the unfiltered data of Dst and of the sunspot number is also high with a similar time-lag. Such a timelag has not been discussed in the literature, and a further study is required to establish the mode of sun-earth relationship that gives this time delay.

  16. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-01-01

    The 17th edition of the International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2014) was held in San Carlos de Bariloche, in the southern region of Argentina known as Patagonia, from August 31 to September 5, 2014. This meeting corresponds to a series of HCI conferences, which has been held every other year since 1982 in cities in Europe, USA, Japan and China. This was the first time that the conference took place in Latin America. This edition was organized by a Local Committee made up of physicists mainly from the cities of Bariloche and Rosario and also from Buenos Aires and Bahía Blanca, all sites where research on Atomic Collisions is developed. The conference was attended by delegates coming from 18 countries, more that 23% of whom were women. The field of highly charged ions has seen in recent years a promising evolution originating from bold progress in theory and significant advances in experimental techniques. The HCI conferences aim at bringing together experimentalists and theoreticians from as wide a range of fields as, for instance, Fundamental Aspects, Structure and Spectroscopy, Collisions with Electrons, Ions, Atoms and Molecules, Interaction with Clusters, Surfaces and Solids, Interactions with Photons and Plasmas, Strong Field Processes, and Production, Experimental Developments and Applications. The Scientific Programme, selected by an International Advisory Board, included 5 Review Lectures, 11 Progress Reports, 1 Local Report and 24 Special Reports. In addition, the results of 132 contributed works were presented as poster communications and a Public Lecture on 'The wonders of the Southern Skies' was delivered by an Argentinean expert. Thus, a wide range of subjects comprising a balanced mix of topics was covered throughout the course of the conference. The HCI 2014 was a resounding success for the international and local communities, from both the scientific and social aspects, considering that the attendees and accompanying

  17. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrotzki, Werner; Oertel, Carl-Georg

    2015-04-01

    The 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17) took place in Dresden, Germany, August 24-29, 2014. It belongs to the "triennial" series of ICOTOM meetings with a long tradition, starting in 1969 - Clausthal, 1971 - Cracow, 1973 - Pont-à-Mousson, 1975 - Cambridge, 1978 - Aachen, 1981 - Tokyo, 1984 - Noordwijkerhout, 1987 - Santa Fe, 1990 - Avignon, 1993 - Clausthal, 1996 - Xian, 1999 - Montreal, 2002 - Seoul, 2005 - Leuven, 2008 - Pittsburgh, 2011 - Mumbai, 2014 - Dresden. ICOTOM 17 was hosted by the Dresden University of Technology, Institute of Structural Physics. Following the tradition of the ICOTOM conferences, the main focus of ICOTOM-17 was to promote and strengthen the fundamental understanding of the basic processes that govern the formation of texture and its relation to the properties of polycrystalline materials. Nonetheless, it was the aim to forge links between basic research on model materials and applied research on engineering materials of technical importance. Thus, ICOTOM 17 provided a forum for the presentation and discussion of recent progress in research of texture and related anisotropy of mechanical and functional properties of all kinds of polycrystalline materials including natural materials like rocks. Particular attention was paid to recent advances in texture measurement and analysis as well as modeling of texture development for all kinds of processes like solidification, plastic deformation, recrystallization and grain growth, phase transformations, thin film deposition, etc. Hence, ICOTOM 17 was of great interest to materials scientists, engineers from many different areas and geoscientists. The topics covered by ICOTOM 17 were: 1. Mathematical, numerical and statistical methods of texture analysis 2. Deformation textures 3. Crystallization, recrystallization and growth textures 4. Transformation textures 5. Textures in functional materials 6. Textures in advanced materials 7. Textures in rocks 8. Texture

  18. EDITORIAL: 17th International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron, and Ion Technologies (VEIT 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Dimitrova, Miglena; Ghelev, Chavdar

    2012-03-01

    The International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT) has been organized biennially since 1977, when the VEIT Summer School series was launched by the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The aim was to act as a forum for the exchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas on the latest developments in electron-, ion- and plasma-assisted technologies. The organizers of the 2011 edition of the event were the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria and the Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Whilst the school initially provided a meeting place for researchers mainly from Eastern and Central European countries, its importance has grown issue by issue. The school is now a major scientific event and a meeting place for young scientists from Eastern and Western Europe involved in research and development associated with high-tech industries. Many former school participants have gone on to become leading scientists in research establishments and companies throughout the world. Leading international companies, such as High Voltage Engineering, Balzers, Varian, and Hauzer have used the VEIT forum to present their products through oral presentations, poster contributions and exhibits. The School Proceedings have been published in special issues of the international journals Vacuum, Plasma Processes and Polymers and Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Seventeenth edition of VEIT was held in the Black Sea resort of Sunny Beach, Bulgaria on 19-23 September 2011. It was attended by 96 participants from 18 countries: Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, The Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK and USA. Following the tradition of publishing the VEIT Proceedings, a selection of papers presented at the event is published in this special issue of Journal of

  19. Anatomical confirmation of computed tomography-based diagnosis of the atherosclerosis discovered in 17th century Korean mummy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeung Ju; Kim, Yi-Suk; Oh, Chang Seok; Go, Jai-Hyang; Lee, In Sun; Park, Won-Kyu; Cho, Seok-Min; Kim, Soon-Kwan; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In the present study on a newly discovered 17th century Korean mummy, computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple aortic calcifications within the aortic wall that were indicative of ancient atherosclerosis. The CT-based findings were confirmed by our subsequent post-factum dissection, which exhibited possible signs of the disease including ulcerated plaques, ruptured hemorrhages, and intimal thickening where the necrotic core was covered by the fibrous cap. These findings are strong indicators that the mummy suffered from aortic atherosclerosis during her lifetime. The present study is a good example of how CT images of vascular calcifications can be a useful diagnostic tool in forming at least preliminary diagnoses of ancient atherosclerosis.

  20. Union catalogue of printed books of 15th, 16th and 17th centuries in European astronomical observatories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, G.

    This catalogue deals with the scientific subjects of that historical period such as astronomy, astrology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, historia naturalis and so forth, and contains extremely rare volumes such as the first printed editions of the eminent Arab, Latin, Greek and Persian scientists Albumasar, Albohazen Aly, Aristoteles, Ptolemaeus, Pliny the Elder and Ulugh Beig. In addition the catalogue contains the first works of such great astronomers of the 16th and 17th centuries as Copernicus, Kepler, Clavius, Regiomontanus, Sacrobosco, Mercator, Newton, Gassendi, Galilei and Hevelius, just to quote the most representative ones. The catalogue is followed by a chronological index and an index of printers and publishers.

  1. Report from the 17th Annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference; Edmonton, Alberta; 11–12 September 2015

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, K.E.; Ahmed, S.; Davies, J.D.; Doll, C.M.; Dowden, S.; Gill, S.; Gordon, V.; Hebbard, P.; Lim, H.; McFadden, A.; McGhie, J.P.; Park, J.; Wong, R.

    2016-01-01

    The 17th annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference (wcgccc) was held in Edmonton, Alberta, 11–12 September 2015. The wcgccc is an interactive multidisciplinary conference attended by health care professionals from across Western Canada (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) who are involved in the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Surgical, medical, and radiation oncologists; pathologists; radiologists; and allied health care professionals participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management of gastric cancer. PMID:28050139

  2. A Statistical Investigation on a Seismic Transient Occurred in Italy Between the 17th and 20th Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragato, P. L.

    2016-11-01

    According to the historical earthquake catalog of Italy, the country experienced a pulse of seismicity between the 17th century, when the rate of destructive events increased by more than 100%, and the 20th century, characterized by a symmetric decrease. In the present work, I performed a statistical analysis to verify the reliability of such transient, considering different sources of bias and uncertainty, such as completeness and declustering of the catalog, as well as errors on magnitude estimation. I also searched for a confirmation externally to the catalog, analyzing the correlation with the volcanic activity. The similarity is high for the eruptive history of Vesuvius, which agrees on both the main rate changes of the 17th and 20th centuries and on minor variations in the intermediate period. Of general interest, beyond the specific case of Italy, the observed rate changes suggest the existence of large-scale crustal processes taking place within decades and lasting for centuries, responsible for the synchronous activation/deactivation of remote, loosely connected faults in different tectonic domains. Although their origin is still unexplained (I discuss a possible link with the climate changes and the consequent variations of the sea level), their existence and long lasting is critical for seismic hazard computation. In fact, they introduce a hardly predictable time variability that undermines any hypothesis of regularity of the earthquake cycle on individual faults and systems of interconnected faults.

  3. Chitinase Expression Due to Reduction in Fusaric Acid Level in an Antagonistic Trichoderma harzianum S17TH.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vivek; Bhandari, Pamita; Singh, Bikram; Bhatacharya, Amita; Shanmugam, Veerubommu

    2013-06-01

    To study the effect of reduction in phytotoxin level on fungal chitinases, antagonistic Trichoderma spp. were screened for their ability to reduce the level of fusaric acid (FA), the phytotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. A T. harzianum isolate S17TH was able to tolerate high levels of FA (up to 500 ppm) but was unable to reduce the toxin to a significant level (non-toxic) added to minimal synthetic broth (MSB). However, the isolate was able to reduce 400 ppm FA in the liquid medium after 7 days to a non-toxic level and displayed similar level of antagonism over the control (without FA). In studies of the effect of the reduction in FA (400 ppm) level on chitinase gene expression in PCR assays, nag1 was significantly repressed but ech42 expression was only slightly repressed. Chitinase activity was either reduced or absent in the extracellular proteins of MSB supplemented with 400 ppm FA, which could be attributed to the effect of residual FA or its breakdown products through unknown mechanisms. Selection of S17TH as a toxin insensitive isolate that could commensurate the negative effect on chitinase activity makes it a potential antagonist against Fusarium spp.

  4. A Statistical Investigation on a Seismic Transient Occurred in Italy Between the 17th and 20th Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragato, P. L.

    2017-03-01

    According to the historical earthquake catalog of Italy, the country experienced a pulse of seismicity between the 17th century, when the rate of destructive events increased by more than 100%, and the 20th century, characterized by a symmetric decrease. In the present work, I performed a statistical analysis to verify the reliability of such transient, considering different sources of bias and uncertainty, such as completeness and declustering of the catalog, as well as errors on magnitude estimation. I also searched for a confirmation externally to the catalog, analyzing the correlation with the volcanic activity. The similarity is high for the eruptive history of Vesuvius, which agrees on both the main rate changes of the 17th and 20th centuries and on minor variations in the intermediate period. Of general interest, beyond the specific case of Italy, the observed rate changes suggest the existence of large-scale crustal processes taking place within decades and lasting for centuries, responsible for the synchronous activation/deactivation of remote, loosely connected faults in different tectonic domains. Although their origin is still unexplained (I discuss a possible link with the climate changes and the consequent variations of the sea level), their existence and long lasting is critical for seismic hazard computation. In fact, they introduce a hardly predictable time variability that undermines any hypothesis of regularity of the earthquake cycle on individual faults and systems of interconnected faults.

  5. 40 CFR 264.75 - Biennial report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; (e) The method of treatment, storage, or disposal for each hazardous waste; (f) (g) The most recent... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Manifest...

  6. 40 CFR 264.75 - Biennial report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; (e) The method of treatment, storage, or disposal for each hazardous waste; (f) (g) The most recent... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Manifest...

  7. 40 CFR 265.75 - Biennial report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Manifest... off-site facilities, the EPA identification number of each hazardous waste generator from which...

  8. Anatomical Confirmation of Computed Tomography-Based Diagnosis of the Atherosclerosis Discovered in 17th Century Korean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeung Ju; Kim, Yi-Suk; Oh, Chang Seok; Go, Jai-Hyang; Lee, In Sun; Park, Won-Kyu; Cho, Seok-Min; Kim, Soon-Kwan; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In the present study on a newly discovered 17th century Korean mummy, computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple aortic calcifications within the aortic wall that were indicative of ancient atherosclerosis. The CT-based findings were confirmed by our subsequent post-factum dissection, which exhibited possible signs of the disease including ulcerated plaques, ruptured hemorrhages, and intimal thickening where the necrotic core was covered by the fibrous cap. These findings are strong indicators that the mummy suffered from aortic atherosclerosis during her lifetime. The present study is a good example of how CT images of vascular calcifications can be a useful diagnostic tool in forming at least preliminary diagnoses of ancient atherosclerosis. PMID:25816014

  9. Late Holocene history of Chaitén Volcano: new evidence for a 17th century eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lara, Luis E.; Moreno, Rodrigo; Amigo, Álvaro; Hoblitt, Richard P.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Prior to May 2008, it was thought that the last eruption of Chaitén Volcano occurred more than 5,000 years ago, a rather long quiescent period for a volcano in such an active arc segment. However, increasingly more Holocene eruptions are being identified. This article presents both geological and historical evidence for late Holocene eruptive activity in the 17th century (AD 1625-1658), which included an explosive rhyolitic eruption that produced pumice ash fallout east of the volcano and caused channel aggradation in the Chaitén River. The extents of tephra fall and channel aggradation were similar to those of May 2008. Fine ash, pumice and obsidian fragments in the pre-2008 deposits are unequivocally derived from Chaitén Volcano. This finding has important implications for hazards assessment in the area and suggests the eruptive frequency and magnitude should be more thoroughly studied.

  10. Aberrant expression of circulating Th17, Th1 and Tc1 cells in patients with active and inactive ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaogang; Du, Lutao; Xu, Xiaofei; Yang, Yongmei; Wang, Haiyan; Qu, Ailin; Qu, Xun; Wang, Chuanxin

    2013-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory bowel disease, yet its etiology and pathogenesis remain poorly understood. The aberrant expression of T lymphocytes plays an essential role in the progression of UC. This study aimed to evaluate the expression profile of circulating Th17, Th1 and Tc1 cells in patients with active and inactive UC. Our results revealed that the percentage of circulating Th17 cells (CD3+CD8-IL-17+) was significantly increased in patients with active UC when compared with the percentage in patients with inactive UC, Crohn's disease (CD) and healthy controls. The percentages of circulating Th1 (CD3+CD8-IFN-γ+) and Tc1 (CD3+CD8+IFN-γ+) cells were also higher in patients with active UC when compared with the percentages in patients with inactive UC and normal controls, although levels were lower than that in CD. Further analysis showed that Th17 cells were positively correlated with Th1 cells, but not with Tc1 cells. Notably, the three cells had a positive correlation with disease activity, extent of disease, detection of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and c-reactive protein in active UC. Moreover, plasma IL-17 was higher in patients with active UC, and a similar trend applied to the mRNA levels of RORγt and T-bet in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The levels of p-STAT3 and p-STAT5 in PBMCs, as well as the ratio of p-STAT3/p-STAT5, were also elevated in active UC patients. Taken together, our findings revealed that elevated circulating Th17, Th1 and Tc1 cells and the aberrant activation of the STAT pathway may be implicated in the progression of UC. These findings may provide preliminary experimental clues for the development of new therapies for UC.

  11. Laser Electron Gamma Source. Biennial progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Sandorfi, A.M.; Caracappa, A.; Kuczewski, A.; Kistner, O.C.; Lincoln, F.; Miceli, L.; Thorn, C.E.; Hoblit, S.; Khandaker, M. |

    1994-06-01

    The LEGS facility provides intense, polarized, monochromatic {gamma}-ray beams by Compton backscattering laser light from relativistic electrons circulating in the X-Ray storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. With the start of ring operations at 2.8 GeV, LEGS {gamma}-ray energies now extend to 370 MeV. Considerable progress has been made in the development of a new laser system that will increase the beam energies to 470 MeV, and this system is expected to come into operation before the next biennial report. The total flux is administratively held at 6 {times} 10{sup 6} s{sup {minus}1}. The {gamma}-ray energy is determined, with a resolution of 5.5 MeV, by detecting the scattering electrons in a magnetic spectrometer. This spectrometer can `tag` all {gamma}-rays with energies from 185 MeV up to the Compton edge. The beam spot size at the target position is 8 mm (V) {times} 18 mm (H), FWHM. For a single laser wavelength, the linear polarization of the beam is 98% at the Compton edge and decreases to 50% at about 1/2 the energy of the edge. By choosing the laser wavelengths appropriately the polarization can be maintained above 85% throughout the tagging range. During the last two years, experimental running at LEGS occupied an average of 3000 hours annually. Highlights of some of the programs are discussed below.

  12. 77 FR 22679 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended to allow fisheries to access more abundant groundfish stocks... Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule; inseason adjustments to biennial groundfish management...

  13. 77 FR 47322 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule; inseason adjustments to biennial groundfish management measures. SUMMARY: This final rule announces inseason changes to management measures in the Pacific Coast...

  14. 77 FR 24634 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Fishery Management Plan (FMP), is intended to allow fisheries to access more abundant groundfish stocks... Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule; inseason adjustments to biennial groundfish management...

  15. Acute Abdomen in the 17th Week of Twin Pregnancy due to Ovarian Torsion – A Late Complication of IVF

    PubMed Central

    Habek, D.; Bauman, R.; Rukavina Kralj, L.; Hafner, T.; Turudic, T.; Vujisic, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A 32-year-old woman with tubal factor infertility due to bilateral laparoscopic salpingectomy conceived twins with in vitro fertilization (IVF). She developed moderate ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome which was treated with anticoagulant therapy. The subsequent course of the twin pregnancy was normal until the 17th week of gestation when she presented to hospital because of a sharp pain in the right lower abdomen which ceased after admission. Case: Except for a single incident of vomiting, patient had no other subjective symptoms. The clinical examination showed tenderness of the lower right abdominal segment on palpation. The surgeon and the urologist found no signs of an acute surgical or urologic condition, and laboratory findings were within normal reference ranges for pregnant women. Two days after admission the pain reappeared; it was now much stronger and colic-like. The pain was initially located supraumbilically but subsequently spread diffusely across the lower abdomen. Abdominal guarding was present and laboratory findings showed an increase in inflammatory parameters. An enlarged and edematous right ovary was found on transvaginal ultrasound. Conclusion: Exploratory laparotomy via a vertical midline abdominal transection revealed a torqued necrotic right ovary with elements of inflammation and inflammatory adhesions involving the entire pelvis. The patient underwent right-sided ovariectomy and adhesiolysis. Recovered was normal and the patient was delivered of healthy twins in the 37th week of gestation. PMID:28017976

  16. [Principles of order in the color systems of the 17th century. (Franciscus Aguilonius--Athanasius Kircher--Isaac Newton)].

    PubMed

    Jaeger, W

    1984-04-01

    Since Aristotle there have been two colour order systems: The first is according to the subjective luminosity of colours, and the second is that which is found in the rainbow. Almost all the medieval concepts of colour order were based on the subjective luminosity of colours. At the beginning of the 17th century Franciscus Aguilonius still described the traditional sequence according to subjective luminosity: white, yellow, red, blue and black in his colour order system. - Athanasius Kircher demonstrated two sequences: The first was the same as Aguilonius 's, completed by lists of symbolic qualities attributed to the respective colours; The second was the sequence of the prismatic spectrum; red, orange, yellow, green and blue. Violet was still missing from his spectrum. For that reason the idea of arranging the colours in a closed circle did not occur to him. - Isaac Newton added violet to the prismatic spectrum. Hence he was able to bring the ends of the spectrum together, forming a colour circle. He completed the colours of his spectrum "with those purple hues which, although not present in the spectrum, were familiar to painters and dyers , and in this way closed up the colour-circle into a band returning on itself" (W. Ostwald). Thus he combined the perceptual concept of the colour wheel, containing pairs of complementary colours, with the physical concept of the prismatic spectrum.

  17. Aspects of informed consent in medical practice in the eastern Mediterranean region during the 17th and 18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Platon; Falagas, Matthew E; Gourzis, Philippos; Trompoukis, Constantinos

    2007-08-01

    Informed consent is a question of central importance in contemporary medical ethics, and clinical practice is inconceivable without considering the issues it raises. Although it is often vigorously argued that consent, informed or otherwise, is a recent phenomenon and that no sources testify to its existence before the 20th century, it is difficult to accept that a process for regulating the common and fundamental parameters in the relationship between doctor and patient and the planning of treatment had not concerned previous eras. A review of the Registers of the Islamic Court of Candia (Heraklion) in Crete, a series of records that touches on, among other things, matters of medical interest, reveals that the concept of informed consent was not only known during a period that stretched from the mid-17th to the early 19th century, but it was concerned with the same principles that prevail or have been a point of contention today. An extension of this study into other periods may thus provide contemporary researchers with material and information valuable in the discussion of today's bioethical issues.

  18. Providing Quality Education and Training for Rural Australians. SPERA National Conference Proceedings (17th, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia, July 8-11, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian, Ed.; Boylan, Colin, Ed.

    This proceedings of the 17th annual conference of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) contains 28 keynote addresses and conference papers. Major conference themes were vocational education and training (VET) in rural schools, small schools, flexible rural delivery systems, and the community as a resource and…

  19. Reports: Programme Commissions, Administrative Commission, Legal Committee. Records of the General Conference (17th, Paris, 17 October to 21 November 1972), Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Conference.

    The reports of the Programme Commissions, the Administrative Commission, and Legal Committee are presented as the records of the 17th session of the General Conference of UNESCO in 1972. Part 1 contains Programme Commissions reports on education; natural sciences and their application to development; social sciences, humanities, and culture;…

  20. Teaching Science in Art: Technical Examination of 17th-Century Dutch Painting as Interdisciplinary Coursework for Science Majors and Nonmajors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uffelman, Erich S.

    2007-01-01

    Two linked courses examining conservation science and art history of 17th-century Dutch painting are described. The two courses have been taught on campus and, most recently, as study-abroad courses in collaboration with the Center for European Studies, Universiteit Maastricht, The Netherlands. The highly interdisciplinary courses are intense, yet…

  1. Floods of the Lower Tisza from the late 17th century onwards: frequency, magnitude, seasonality and great flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The present paper is based on a recently developed database including contemporary original, administrative, legal and private source materials (published and archival) as well as media reports related to the floods occurred on the lower sections of the Tisza river in Hungary, with special emphasis on the area of Szeged town. The study area is well-represented by contemporary source evidence from the late 17th century onwards, when the town and its broader area was reoccupied from the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Concerning the applied source materials, the main bases of investigation are the administrative (archival) sources such as town council protocols of Szeged and county meeting protocols of Csanád and Csongrád Counties. In these (legal-)administrative documents damaging events (natural/environmental hazards) were systematically recorded. Moreover, other source types such as taxation-related damage accounts as well as private and official reports, letters and correspondence (published, unpublished) were also included. Concerning published evidence, a most important source is flood reports in contemporary newspapers as well as town chronicles and other contemporary narratives. In the presentation the main focus is on the analysis of flood-rich flood-poor periods of the last ca. 330 years; moreover, the seasonality distribution as well as the magnitude of Tisza flood events are also discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to provide a short overview, in the form of case studies, on the greatest flood events (e.g. duration, magnitude, damages, multi-annual consequences), and their further impacts on the urban and countryside development as well as on (changes in) flood defence strategies. In this respect, especially two flood events, the great (1815-)1816 and the catastrophic 1879 flood (shortly with causes and consequences) - that practically erased Szeged town from the ground - are presented in more detail.

  2. Hydrometeorological extremes reconstructed from documentary evidence for the Jihlava region in the 17th-19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolak, Lukas; Brazdil, Rudolf; Chroma, Katerina; Valasek, Hubert; Belinova, Monika; Reznickova, Ladislava

    2016-04-01

    Different documentary evidence (taxation records, chronicles, insurance reports etc.) is used for reconstruction of hydrometeorological extremes (HMEs) in the Jihlava region (central part of the recent Czech Republic) in the 17th-19th centuries. The aim of the study is description of the system of tax alleviation in Moravia, presentation of utilization of early fire and hail damage insurance claims and application of the new methodological approaches for the analysis of HMEs impacts. During the period studied more than 400 HMEs were analysed for the 16 estates (past basic economic units). Late frost on 16 May 1662 on the Nove Mesto na Morave estate, which destroyed whole cereals and caused damage in the forests, is the first recorded extreme event. Downpours causing flash floods and hailstorms are the most frequently recorded natural disasters. Moreover, floods, droughts, windstorms, blizzards, late frosts and lightning strikes starting fires caused enormous damage as well. The impacts of HMEs are classified into three categories: impacts on agricultural production, material property and the socio-economic impacts. Natural disasters became the reasons of losses of human lives, property, supplies and farming equipment. HMEs caused damage to fields and meadows, depletion of livestock and triggered the secondary consequences as lack of seeds and finance, high prices, indebtedness, poverty and deterioration in field fertility. The results are discussed with respect to uncertainties associated with documentary evidences and their spatiotemporal distribution. Archival records, preserved in the Moravian Land Archives in Brno and other district archives, create a unique source of data contributing to the better understanding of extreme events and their impacts.

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex detection in human remains: tuberculosis spread since the 17th century in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Leles, Daniela; Lima, Valdirene dos Santos; da Silva, Laura da Piedade; Dias, Ondemar; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2012-06-01

    Paleogenetic analysis for tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on bone and sediment samples dating from the 17th to 19th centuries from the archeological site of Nossa Senhora do Carmo Church in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Forty samples were analyzed, corresponding to 32 individuals from 28 burials, 22 of primary type and 6 of secondary type. The samples were collected following strict paleogenetic investigation guidelines and submitted to ancient DNA (aDNA) extraction. In order to detect TB infection, aDNA hybridizations with the molecular targets of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) IS6110 and IS1081 were applied. Additionally, the ancestry of individuals was assessed by human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis of hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) sequence polymorphisms. The results of aDNA hybridizations demonstrated varying levels of MTC intensity in 17/32 individuals (53.1%), using the IS6110 target. The IS1081 MTC target showed lower sensitivity, confirming TB positivity in 10/32 (31.2%) individuals. The mtDNA analysis allowed the recovery of HVS-I sequences in 23/32 individuals (71.8%). The majority of these individuals (21/23, 91.3%) were of European ancestry, especially in primary burials. Haplogroups U, J, V, T, K, N, H and R, were identified with haplogroup U being the most frequent at 6/23 (26.1%). African and Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups were observed in two individuals in secondary burials. In spite of the ecclesiastic and aristocratic bias of the population of the study, human ancestry analysis revealed the prominent contribution of Europeans in the introduction or spread of TB in the New World.

  4. The ``System of Chymists'' and the ``Newtonian dream'' in Greek-speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-06-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a “philosophy” of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This “philosophical” chemistry was not based on the existence of any academic institutions, it was focused on the ontology of principles and forces governing the analysis/synthesis of matter and formulated two didactic traditions. The one, named “the system of chymists”, close to the Boylean/Cartesian tradition, accepted, contrary to Aristotelianism, the five “chymical” principles and also the analytical ideal, but the “chymical” principles were not under a conceptual and experimental investigation, as they were in Europe. Also, a crucial issue for this tradition remained the “mechanical” principles which were under the influence of the metaphysical nature of the Aristotelian principles. The other, close to the Boylean/Newtonian tradition, was the integrated presentation of the Newtonian “dream”, which maintained a discursive attitude with reference to the “chemical attractions”-“chemical affinities” and actualised the mathematical atomism of Boscovich, according to which the elementary texture of matter could be causally explained within this complex architecture of mathematical “ punkta”. In this tradition also coexisted, in a discursive synthesis, the “chemical element” of Lavoisier and the arguments of the new theory and its opposition to the phlogiston theory, but the “chemical affinities” were under the realm of the “physical element” as “metaphysical point”.

  5. Working Together for Student Achievement. 5th Biennial Joint Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Washington state Board of Education (SBE) and the Professional Educator Standards Board (PESB) submitted this 5th biennial joint report to the Governor, Legislative Education Committees, and Superintendent of Public Instruction. The report outlines the collaborative work of the Boards, highlights accomplishments, and provides goals and…

  6. 47 CFR 74.797 - Biennial Ownership Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... licensee of a low power television station or Respondent (as defined in § 73.3615(a) of this chapter... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.797 Biennial Ownership Reports. The Ownership Report FCC Form...

  7. Biennial Performance Reports: Goals and Indicators. Quick Turn Around (QTA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    This brief document analyzes the goals and indicators provided by states as part of the second round of state Biennial Performance Reports (BPRs) covering the academic years 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 as required by the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Review of state (or other federal jurisdiction) BPRs examined:…

  8. Biennial Performance Reports--Disproportionality. Quick Turn Around (QTA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve; Markowitz, Joy

    This brief paper analyzes the types of information about disproportionality of particular racial/ethnic groups in special education that states provided in the Biennial Performance Reports (BPRs) submitted to the U.S. Department of Education in 2002 (covering the academic years 1991-2000 and 2000-2001). A section on the study's background notes…

  9. 20 Years of the MENC Biennial Conference: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palkki, Joshua; Albert, Daniel J.; Hill, Stuart Chapman; Shaw, Ryan D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the content and intended audiences for educational sessions offered at MENC biennial conferences in order to illuminate trends and topics in professional development. The researchers performed a content analysis of each session (N?= 2,593) using program booklets from conferences between 1988 and 2008,…

  10. Quasi-biennial corn yield cycles in Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quasi-biennial cycles are often reported in climate studies. The interannual El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are two phenomena containing quasi-periodicities of approximately 2.5 and 2.2 years. It is known that ENSO affects corn yield through weather patterns...

  11. Biennial Budget Recommendations for Indiana Higher Education. 1989-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Commission for Higher Education, Indianapolis.

    The 1989-91 biennial budget recommendations for Indiana institutions of higher education are presented in three parts: (1) an overview; (2) a review in detail; and (3) a section of supporting documentation. Part I includes discussions about the demographic changes in the workforce of Indiana, the relationship of education to productivity, and…

  12. Quantifying early 17th century changes in Chesapeake Bay estuarine carbon dynamics from James River, VA oyster geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, B. L.; Spero, H. J.; Harding, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    same shells provide seasonal signals and also show an offset from modern that is consistent with drought conditions during the early 17th century. These high fidelity records allow for a direct, high-resolution comparison of the residence time of carbon in the environment immediately prior to European colonization and during the first century of land use change in mid-Atlantic North America.

  13. The historical archaeology of the 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community of Nevis, British West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Michelle M.

    2000-11-01

    This is an historical archaeological examination of a 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies. Unlike earlier archaeological studies of the Jewish Caribbean Diaspora that focused on single sites, this investigation used a community-wide approach to elucidate the daily experience of Sephardic Jews within the colonial Caribbean. This project included an archaeological excavation at the purported location of the community's synagogue, an electrical resistivity survey of the surviving cemetery, the construction of a map of property ownership in 18th-century Charlestown, and archival research. This study was carded out within a multiscalar and contextual framework that emphasized the importance of understanding the diaspora that brought the Jews to the West Indies, the development of the colonial Caribbean, and the surrounding environs of the port city of Charlestown, Nevis. The archaeological analysis of the supposed site of the synagogue proved that it was in fact that of a late 18th-century townhouse, but the associated land record research revealed the actual location of the community's former synagogue. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the physical layout of colonial-period Charlestown from the land records indicated the presence of a distinct Jewish quarter in the undesirable southern portion of the town. Evidence from the public records of Nevis and the social history of the members of the Jewish population unveiled external social and political pressures placed upon the Sephardim as well as internal religious and ethnic ties dig bound the community together. It is argued in closing that the archival evidence, in conjunction with the continued presence of a clustered settlement pattern like that of European Jewish communities during the medieval period, indicates that the Jews of the Caribbean were not fully integrated socially or politically into British colonial society. This examination of the Nevis community

  14. Cosmic ray composition between 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 17th power eV obtained by air shower experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the air shower data, the chemical composition of the primary cosmic rays in the energy range 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 17th power eV was obtained. The method is based on a well known N sub e-N sub mu and N sub e-N sub gamma. The simulation is calibrated by the CERN SPS pp collider results.

  15. Proceedings of the Symposium on Electromagnetic Windows (17th) Held at Georgia Institute of Technology, Engineering Experiment Station, Atlanta, Georgia on 25-27 July 1984. Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    00 George H. Adams Department of Continuing Education September 1984 0-I U. S. Army Research Office P. 0. No. 84-M-0346 GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY...ATLANTA, GEORGIA 30332 r ) (ELEctEK D JN22 1985 APPROvED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE 91STRIBUTION UNLIMITED 7 .7 .7 7rr - COMPONENT PART NOTICE THIS PAPER IS...A COMPONENT PART OF THE FOLLOWING COMPILATION REPORT: (TITLE): Proceedingzs of the Symposium on Electromagnetic Windows (17th) Held at Georgia

  16. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 2: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes of the three main production centers.

    PubMed

    Vieira Ferreira, L F; Ferreira, D P; Conceição, D S; Santos, L F; Pereira, M F C; Casimiro, T M; Ferreira Machado, I

    2015-01-01

    Sherds representative of the three Portuguese faience production centers of the 17th century - Lisbon, Coimbra and Vila Nova were studied with the use of mostly non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence emission (XRF). X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments were also performed. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the pastes of the pottery produced Vila Nova and some of the ceramic pastes from Lisbon, in accordance with documental sources that described the use of Lisbon clays by Vila Nova potters, at least since mid 17th century. Quartz and Gehlenite are the main components of the Lisbon's pastes, but differences between the ceramic pastes were detected pointing out to the use of several clay sources. The spectroscopic trend exhibited Coimbra's pottery is remarkably different, Quartz and Diopside being the major components of these pastes, enabling one to well define a pattern for these ceramic bodies. The blue pigment from the Lisbon samples is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix, which enables the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals in most productions of the second half of the 17th century. No micro-Raman cobalt blue signature could be detected in the Vila Nova and Coimbra blue glazes. This is in accordance with the lower kiln temperatures in these two production centers and with Co(2+) ions dispersed in the silicate matrix. In all cases the white glaze is obtained with the use of tin oxide. Hausmannite was detected as the manganese oxide mineral used to produce the purple glaze (wine color "vinoso") in Lisbon.

  17. Elevated Frequencies of Circulating Th22 Cell in Addition to Th17 Cell and Th17/Th1 Cell in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Ting; Wang, Xiao-qi; Du, Rui-zhi; Zhang, Kai-ning; Liu, Xin-guang; Ma, Dao-xin; Yu, Shuang; Su, Guo-hai; Li, Zhen-hua; Guan, Yu-qing; Du, Nai-li

    2013-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by immune cells. Th22 cells are CD4+ T cells that secret IL-22 but not IL-17 or IFN-γ and are implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease. The roles of Th22 cells in the pathophysiologic procedures of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the profile of Th22, Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells in ACS patients, including unstable angina (UA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Design and Methods In this study, 26 AMI patients, 16 UA patients, 16 stable angina (SA) patients and 16 healthy controls were included. The frequencies of Th22, Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells in AMI, UA, SA patients and healthy controls were examined by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of IL-22, IL-17 and IFN-γ were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Th22, Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells were significantly increased in AMI and UA patients compared with SA patients and healthy controls. Moreover, plasma IL-22 level was significantly elevated in AMI and UA patients. In addition, Th22 cells correlated positively with IL-22 as well as Th17 cells in AMI and UA patients. Conclusion Our findings showed increased frequencies of both Th22 and Th17 cells in ACS patients, which suggest that Th22 and Th17 cells may play a potential role in plaque destabilization and the development of ACS. PMID:24312440

  18. [The beginnings of the nursing profession : the complementary relationship between secular caregivers and hospital nuns in France in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Diebolt, Evelyne

    2013-06-01

    The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salpêtrière hospital, Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charité" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied.

  19. [The magic universe of cures: the role of magic practices and witchcraft in the universe of 17th century Mato Grosso].

    PubMed

    Sá, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the role of healing agents played by practitioners of magic and witchcraft in Mato Grosso society during the 17th century. It observes that magic and witchcraft were developed as competitors, alternatives or associated with other forms of healing (official and lay). It points out how such roles contributed to the process of subjugating its practitioners, especially Africans, Indians and their descendents, and were appropriated as an opportunity for survival in the colonial slave society. The pastoral visit made by Bruno Pinna in 1785 to Cuiabá and nearby areas served as the principal source of knowledge regarding the practices and practitioners of magic and witchcraft.

  20. Traces and echoes of De Architectura by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio in the work of Xu Guangqi in 17th century China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigola, Michela; Fang, Yibing

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the role played by Xu Guangqi (1562-1633), minister of the Ming Dynasty, in the development of European scientific and technical knowledge in China between the 16th and 17th centuries by analyzing a book of Western technology that he wrote, namely, Taixi Shuifa ( On Western Hydraulics). Several Western books related to machine knowledge are searched to trace the source of the illustrations in Taixi Shuifa. We found that Archimedes' screw and Ctesibius' machine, which are included in Vitruvius' De Architectura volumes, also appear in the work of Xu Guangqi.

  1. 75 FR 42363 - Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002; Biennial Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Response Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select Agent and Toxin List AGENCY: Centers... biennial review and republication of the HHS list of select agents and toxins. Accordingly, we are soliciting public comment on the current HHS list of select agents and toxins, including whether...

  2. 44 CFR 354.5 - Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and other services. 354.5 Section 354.5... Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and other... exercise-related component services. (1) Schedule plume pathway EPZ biennial exercises. (2) Review...

  3. 44 CFR 354.5 - Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and other services. 354.5 Section 354.5... Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and other... exercise-related component services. (1) Schedule plume pathway EPZ biennial exercises. (2) Review...

  4. 44 CFR 354.5 - Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and other services. 354.5 Section 354.5... Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and other... exercise-related component services. (1) Schedule plume pathway EPZ biennial exercises. (2) Review...

  5. 44 CFR 354.5 - Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and other services. 354.5 Section 354.5... Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and other... exercise-related component services. (1) Schedule plume pathway EPZ biennial exercises. (2) Review...

  6. Historical and Metallurgical Characterization of a "Falchion" Sword Manufactured in Caino (Brescia, Italy) in the Early 17th Century A.D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonelli, G.; Faccoli, M.; Gotti, R.; Roberti, R.; Cornacchia, G.

    2016-08-01

    A historical and metallurgical characterization of a "falchion" sword manufactured in Caino (Brescia, northern Italy) and dating from the early 17th century was performed to understand the manufacture methods of a Renaissance sword. At first, a set of size measurements was carried out to look for the existence of constant and/or recurring macroscopic sizes, which would indicate a standardized production, or of any type of proportionality between different parts of a sword, which would prove an intentional design activity. Light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, quantometer analyses, and Vickers microhardness tests were then employed to analyze the microstructure and obtain the mechanical properties. All the metallurgical work is supported by an accurate study on the chemical composition of both metal-matrix and nonmetallic inclusions, which allowed for rebuilding and evaluating the efficiency of the whole production process.

  7. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-05

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  8. An unexpected disruption of the atmospheric quasi-biennial oscillation.

    PubMed

    Osprey, Scott M; Butchart, Neal; Knight, Jeff R; Scaife, Adam A; Hamilton, Kevin; Anstey, James A; Schenzinger, Verena; Zhang, Chunxi

    2016-09-23

    One of the most repeatable phenomena seen in the atmosphere, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) between prevailing eastward and westward wind jets in the equatorial stratosphere (approximately 16 to 50 kilometers altitude), was unexpectedly disrupted in February 2016. An unprecedented westward jet formed within the eastward phase in the lower stratosphere and cannot be accounted for by the standard QBO paradigm based on vertical momentum transport. Instead, the primary cause was waves transporting momentum from the Northern Hemisphere. Seasonal forecasts did not predict the disruption, but analogous QBO disruptions are seen very occasionally in some climate simulations. A return to more typical QBO behavior within the next year is forecast, although the possibility of more frequent occurrences of similar disruptions is projected for a warming climate.

  9. An unexpected disruption of the atmospheric quasi-biennial oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osprey, Scott M.; Butchart, Neal; Knight, Jeff R.; Scaife, Adam A.; Hamilton, Kevin; Anstey, James A.; Schenzinger, Verena; Zhang, Chunxi

    2016-09-01

    One of the most repeatable phenomena seen in the atmosphere, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) between prevailing eastward and westward wind jets in the equatorial stratosphere (approximately 16 to 50 kilometers altitude), was unexpectedly disrupted in February 2016. An unprecedented westward jet formed within the eastward phase in the lower stratosphere and cannot be accounted for by the standard QBO paradigm based on vertical momentum transport. Instead, the primary cause was waves transporting momentum from the Northern Hemisphere. Seasonal forecasts did not predict the disruption, but analogous QBO disruptions are seen very occasionally in some climate simulations. A return to more typical QBO behavior within the next year is forecast, although the possibility of more frequent occurrences of similar disruptions is projected for a warming climate.

  10. North Pacific Decadal Variability: Insights from a Biennial ENSO Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achuthavarier, Deepthi; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Vikhliaev, Yury V.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the mechanisms of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) in the NASA GEOS-5 general circulation model (GCM). Similar to several other state-of-the-art GCMs, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) simulated by the GEOS-5 has a strong biennial periodicity. Since this is a model bias that precludes a strong role of ENSO, it provides a unique environment to assess the other leading mechanisms of North Pacific decadal variability. Despite the biennial ENSO periodicity, the model simulates a realistic PDO pattern in the North Pacific that is resolved as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) of winter mean sea surface temperature (SST). The spectrum of the PDO indicates no preferred periodicity. The SST anomalies associated with the PDO, particularly its basin wide structure, are primarily forced by the Aleutian low through Ekman transport. The slow geostrophic transport in association with the meridional adjustment of the subtropical gyre is limited to a narrow region in the Kuroshio-Oyashio extension, north of 40degN. The atmosphere's response to the PDO, while weak, projects onto the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO), a meridional dipole in sea level pressure. Both the lack of preferred periodicity and the weak atmospheric response indicate an air-sea coupled oscillation is an unlikely mechanism in this model. In agreement with recent studies, the NPO is correlated with the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, which is another leading EOF of North Pacific SST variability. The results emphasize the role of atmospheric variability in the North Pacific SST modes, thereby bringing into question the potential for their predictability.

  11. North Pacific decadal variability: insights from a biennial ENSO environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achuthavarier, Deepthi; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Vikhliaev, Yury V.

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the mechanisms of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) in the NASA GEOS-5 general circulation model (GCM). Similar to several other state-of-the-art GCMs, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) simulated by the GEOS-5 has a strong biennial periodicity. Since this is a model bias that precludes a strong role of ENSO, it provides a unique environment to assess the other leading mechanisms of North Pacific decadal variability. Despite the biennial ENSO periodicity, the model simulates a realistic PDO pattern in the North Pacific that is resolved as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) of winter mean sea surface temperature (SST). The spectrum of the PDO indicates no preferred periodicity. The SST anomalies associated with the PDO, particularly its basin wide structure, are primarily forced by the Aleutian low through Ekman transport. The slow geostrophic transport in association with the meridional adjustment of the subtropical gyre is limited to a narrow region in the Kuroshio-Oyashio extension, north of 40°N. The atmosphere's response to the PDO, while weak, projects onto the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO), a meridional dipole in sea level pressure. Both the lack of preferred periodicity and the weak atmospheric response indicate an air-sea coupled oscillation is an unlikely mechanism in this model. In agreement with recent studies, the NPO is correlated with the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, which is another leading EOF of North Pacific SST variability. The results emphasize the role of atmospheric variability in the North Pacific SST modes, thereby bringing into question the potential for their predictability.

  12. Quasi-Biennial Oscillation as the Result of Planetary Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retejum, Alexey

    QUASI-BIENNIAL OSCILLATION AS THE RESULT OF PLANETARY MOTION A.Ju.Retejum Lomonosov Moscow State University, aretejum@yandex.ru A remarkable phenomenon of quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) attracts a growing attention for its unclear origin and possible global impact. A comprehensive theory of this phenomenon should answer the following questions: 1. Why does the phase change of the atmospheric circulation on average occur every 800 days? 2. When does the cycle length decreases or increases? 3. Wherefore the regular wind shift is observed in the equatorial stratosphere only? 4. What could cause a sudden reverse in zonal wind direction? 5. Why the generating impulse travels from the border between the atmosphere and outer space downwards without significant loss of power? 6. What is the reason of known differences in behavior patterns between west and east winds? 7. How do middle and upper latitudes respond to the remote signal? Unfortunately all the explanation of QBO that have been given so far, unable to meet the above criteria. The author proposes an alternative idea of the external forcing due to motion of Mars, Jupiter and Venus. This study is based on the QBO Index data at the 30-hPa Height for the 1979-2013 period (http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/data/indices/qbo.u30.index). Having in mind that the oscillation is symmetric about the Equator, where the Earth rotation speed is highest, one examined on the first stage relationships between the QBO manifestation and the length of day. A ten-year comparison of slow and fast spinning periods (1979-1983, 1991-1995 and 2000-2006, 2009-2011 respectively) reveals a significant difference in west and east winds strengths. The same picture can be observed if mean monthly data for March-April (the length of day maximum) and July (the length of day minimum) are collated. This is the answer to the question # 3. The exact answers to questions # 1 and # 2 give an analysis of the dependence of the wind reverse time on the moments

  13. Excerpts from the 1st international NTNU symposium on current and future clinical biomarkers of cancer: innovation and implementation, June 16th and 17th 2016, Trondheim, Norway.

    PubMed

    Robles, Ana I; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Tsui, Dana W T; Georgoulias, Vassilis; Creaney, Jenette; Dobra, Katalin; Vyberg, Mogens; Minato, Nagahiro; Anders, Robert A; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zhou, Jianwei; Sætrom, Pål; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Kirschner, Michaela B; Krokan, Hans E; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Tsamardinos, Ioannis; Røe, Oluf D

    2016-10-19

    The goal of biomarker research is to identify clinically valid markers. Despite decades of research there has been disappointingly few molecules or techniques that are in use today. The "1st International NTNU Symposium on Current and Future Clinical Biomarkers of Cancer: Innovation and Implementation", was held June 16th and 17th 2016, at the Knowledge Center of the St. Olavs Hospital in Trondheim, Norway, under the auspices of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the HUNT biobank and research center. The Symposium attracted approximately 100 attendees and invited speakers from 12 countries and 4 continents. In this Symposium original research and overviews on diagnostic, predictive and prognostic cancer biomarkers in serum, plasma, urine, pleural fluid and tumor, circulating tumor cells and bioinformatics as well as how to implement biomarkers in clinical trials were presented. Senior researchers and young investigators presented, reviewed and vividly discussed important new developments in the field of clinical biomarkers of cancer, with the goal of accelerating biomarker research and implementation. The excerpts of this symposium aim to give a cutting-edge overview and insight on some highly important aspects of clinical cancer biomarkers to-date to connect molecular innovation with clinical implementation to eventually improve patient care.

  14. Identification of resinous materials on 16th and 17th century reverse-glass objects by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumer, Ursula; Dietemann, Patrick; Koller, Johann

    2009-07-01

    Objects of hinterglasmalerei, reverse-glass paintings, are painted on the back side of glass panels. Obviously, the paint layers are applied in reverse order, starting with the uppermost layer. The finished hinterglas painting is viewed through the glass, thus revealing an impressive gloss and depth of colour. The binding media of two precious objects of hinterglasmalerei from the 16th and 17th century have been identified as almost exclusively resinous. Identification was performed by a special optimised analysis procedure, which is discussed in this paper: solvent extracts are analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, both with and without derivatisation or hydrolysis. In an additional step, oxalic acid is added to the methanol extracts prior to injection. This attenuates the peaks of the non-acidic compounds, whereas the acids elute with good resolution. The non-acidic compounds are emphasised after injection of the underivatised extracts. This approach minimises compositional changes caused by the sample preparation and derivatisation steps. Chromatograms of aged samples with a very complex composition are simplified, which allows a more reliable and straightforward identification of significant markers for various materials. The binding media of the hinterglas objects were thus shown to consist of mixtures of different natural resins, larch turpentine, heat-treated Pinaceae resin or mastic. Typical compounds of dragon's blood, a natural red resin, were also detectable in red glazes by the applied analysis routine. Identification of the binding media provides valuable information that can be used in the development of an adequate conservation treatment.

  15. Composition of Façon de Venise glass from early 17th century London in comparison with luxury glass of the same age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagno, S.; De Raedt, I.; Jeffries, T.; Janssens, K.

    SEM-EDX and LA-ICP-MS analyses were performed on a set of early 17th century London glass fragments. The samples originate from two archaeological sites (Aldgate and Old Broad Street) where glass workshops were active in this period. The great majority of the samples are made of soda glass. Two distinct compositional groups are observed, each typical of one site of provenance. The samples originating from the Old Broad Street excavation feature a silica-soda-lime composition, with a moderate amount of potash. The samples from Aldgate are richer in potassium and feature higher amounts of trace elements such as Rb, Zr and Cu. The distinction between the two groups stems from different flux and silica sources used for glassmaking. A comparison with different European glass compositions of that time reveals no resemblance with genuine Venetian production, yet the composition of the Old Broad Street glass shows a close similarity to that of fragments produced `à la façon de Venise' in Antwerp at the end of the 16th century. This coincides with historical sources attesting the arrival of glassworkers from the Low Countries in England and suggests that a transfer of technology took place near the turn of the century.

  16. Genotyping Yersinia pestis in Historical Plague: Evidence for Long-Term Persistence of Y. pestis in Europe from the 14th to the 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Lisa; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Harbeck, Michaela; Thomas, Astrid; Grupe, Gisela; Projahn, Michaela; Scholz, Holger C; Riehm, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from plague victims of the second plague pandemic (14th to 17th century), excavated from two different burial sites in Germany, and spanning a time period of more than 300 years, was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Of 30 tested skeletons 8 were positive for Yersinia pestis-specific nucleic acid, as determined by qPCR targeting the pla gene. In one individual (MP-19-II), the pla copy number in DNA extracted from tooth pulp was as high as 700 gene copies/μl, indicating severe generalized infection. All positive individuals were identical in all 16 SNP positions, separating phylogenetic branches within nodes N07_N10 (14 SNPs), N07_N08 (SNP s19) and N06_N07 (s545), and were highly similar to previously investigated plague victims from other European countries. Thus, beside the assumed continuous reintroduction of Y. pestis from central Asia in multiple waves during the second pandemic, long-term persistence of Y. pestis in Europe in a yet unknown reservoir host has also to be considered.

  17. Quantification of the early small-scale fishery in the north-eastern Baltic Sea in the late 17th century.

    PubMed

    Verliin, Aare; Ojaveer, Henn; Kaju, Katre; Tammiksaar, Erki

    2013-01-01

    Historical perspectives on fisheries and related human behaviour provide valuable information on fishery resources and their exploitation, helping to more appropriately set management targets and determine relevant reference levels. In this study we analyse historical fisheries and fish trade at the north-eastern Baltic Sea coast in the late 17th century. Local consumption and export together amounted to the annual removal of about 200 tonnes of fish from the nearby sea and freshwater bodies. The fishery was very diverse and exploited altogether one cyclostome and 17 fish species with over 90% of the catch being consumed locally. The exported fish consisted almost entirely of high-valued species with Stockholm (Sweden) being the most important export destination. Due to rich political history and natural features of the region, we suggest that the documented evidence of this small-scale fishery should be considered as the first quantitative summary of exploitation of aquatic living resources in the region and can provide a background for future analyses.

  18. Longitudinal Variation of the Stratospheric Quasi-Biennial Oscillation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Kevin; Hertzog, Albert; Vial, François; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2004-02-01

    The longitudinal dependence of interannual variations of tropical stratospheric wind is examined in a detailed general circulation model simulation and in the limited observations available. A version of the SKYHI model is run with an imposed zonally symmetric zonal momentum source that forces the zonal-mean zonal wind evolution in the tropical stratosphere to be close to an estimate of the observed zonal wind based on radiosonde observations at Singapore during the period 1978 99. This amounts to a kind of simple assimilation model in which only the zonal-mean wind field in the tropical stratosphere is assimilated, and other quantities are allowed to vary freely. A total of five experiments were run, one covering the full 1978 99 period and four for 1989 99.The results at and above about 30 hPa are fairly simple to characterize. When the zonal-mean wind near the equator at a particular level is easterly, the monthly mean wind has only very small zonal contrasts. When mean westerlies are present near the equator, significant zonal asymmetries occur at low latitudes, most notably easterly anomalies over South America and westerly anomalies in the eastern Pacific region. These anomalies generally display a continuous meridional phase propagation with the extratropical quasi-stationary eddy field in the winter hemisphere. The net result is a significantly weaker peak-to-peak amplitude of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in zonal wind over the South American sector than over the rest of the equatorial band. The zonal contrast in QBO amplitude near 10 hPa exceeds 10%.In the lower stratosphere the zonal asymmetries in the prevailing wind are fairly small. Asymmetries seem to reflect the upward extension of the tropospheric Walker circulation, and are less strongly modulated by the quasi-biennial oscillation in zonal-mean circulation.The model results were checked against limited station observations at Nairobi (1.3°S, 36.7°E), Singapore (1.4°N, 103.9

  19. The South Asian Monsoon and the Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehl, Gerald A.

    1997-08-01

    A mechanism is described that involves the south Asian monsoon as an active part of the tropospheric biennial oscillation (TBO) described in previous studies. This mechanism depends on coupled land-atmosphere-ocean interactions in the Indian sector, large-scale atmospheric east-west circulations in the Tropics, convective heating anomalies over Africa and the Pacific, and tropical-midlatitude interactions in the Northern Hemisphere. A key element for the monsoon role in the TBO is land-sea or meridional tropospheric temperature contrast, with area-averaged surface temperature anomalies over south Asia that are able to persist on a 1-yr timescale without the heat storage characteristics that contribute to this memory mechanism in the ocean. Results from a global coupled general circulation model show that soil moisture anomalies contribute to land-surface temperature anomalies (through latent heat flux anomalies) for only one season after the summer monsoon. A global atmospheric GCM in perpetual January mode is run with observed SSTs with specified convective heating anomalies to demonstrate that convective heating anomalies elsewhere in the Tropics associated with the coupled ocean-atmosphere biennial mechanism can contribute to altering seasonal midlatitude circulation. These changes in the midlatitude longwave pattern, forced by a combination of tropical convective heating anomalies over East Africa, Southeast Asia, and the western Pacific (in association with SST anomalies), are then able to maintain temperature anomalies over south Asia via advection through winter and spring to set up the land-sea meridional tropospheric temperature contrast for the subsequent monsoon. The role of the Indian Ocean, then, is to provide a moisture source and a low-amplitude coupled response component for meridional temperature contrast to help drive the south Asian monsoon. The role of the Pacific is to produce shifts in regionally coupled convection-SST anomalies. These regions

  20. The Teaching of Russian Language and Literature in Europe = L'enseignement de la langue et de la litterature russes en Europe = Prepodavanie russkogo yaeyka i literatury v Europe. Proceedings of the AIMAV Seminar (17th, Brussels, Belgium, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankoff, Jean, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from the Proceedings of the 17th meeting of the AIMAV (Association internationale pour le developpement de la communication interculturelle) are collected in this volume. Conference papers appear either in English, in French, or in Russian. For purposes of this abstract, all titles below have been translated into English. The…

  1. The Shaping of the Lutheran Teaching Profession and Lutheran Families of Teachers in the 16th and 17th Centuries (Illustrated by the Example of the Trencín, Liptov and Orava Superintendency)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernát, Libor

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with changes in the status of teachers and the shaping of Lutheran families of teachers in the 16th and 17th centuries in the Trencín, Liptov and Orava districts of the superintendency. It describes the formation of the families and their background.

  2. Proceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop, held January 11-13, 1999, was unique in that it assembled, for the first time, a broad cross section of NASA-funded biomedical researchers to present the current status of their projects and their plans for future investigations. All principal investigators with active, or recently-completed ground-based projects in NASA's Biomedical Research and Countermeasures Program that were funded through NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications were invited. Included were individual investigators funded through NASA Research Announcements, investigators with NASA Specialized Centers of Research and Training, investigators with the recently established National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), and NASA civil servant investigators. Seventy-seven percent of all eligible projects were presented at the workshop. Thus, these Proceedings should provide a useful snapshot of the status of NASA-funded space biomedical research as of January 1999. An important workshop objective was to achieve free and open communication among the presenting investigators. Therefore, presentation of new and incomplete results, as well as hypotheses and ideas for future research, was encouraged. Comments and constructive criticisms from the presenters' colleagues were also encouraged. These ground rules resulted in many lively and useful discussions, during both the presentation sessions and informal evening gatherings and breaks.

  3. Extratropical signature of the quasi-biennial oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Feynman, Joan; Jiang, Xun; Yung, Yuk L.

    2005-01-01

    Using the assimilated data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis, we show that the extratropical signature of the tropical quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is seen mostly in the North Annular Mode (NAM) of atmospheric variability. To understand the extratropical manifestation of the QBO, we discuss two effects that have been suggested earlier: (1) The extratropical circulation is driven by the QBO modulation of the planetary wave flux, and (2) the extratropical circulation is driven by the QBO-induced meridional circulation. We found that the first effect is seen in wave 1 in the beginning of winter and in wave 2 in the end of winter. The QBO-induced circulation affects midlatitude regions over the entire winter. To investigate the QBONAM coupling, we use an equation that relates the stream function of the meridional circulation and the polar cap averaged temperature, which is a proxy for the NAM index. In addition to the annual (omega)a and the QBO frequency (omega)Q the spectrum of its solutions indicates the satellite frequencies at (omega)a +/- (o.

  4. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  5. PREFACE: 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP): Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Nesheva, Diana; Pecheva, Emilia; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2012-12-01

    We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The Chairman of the School was Professor Alexander G Petrov. Like prior events, the School took place in the beautiful Black Sea resort of Saints Constantine and Helena near Varna, going back to the refurbished facilities of the Panorama hotel. Participants from 17 different countries delivered 31 invited lecturers and 78 posters, contributing through three sessions of poster presentations. Papers submitted to the Proceedings were refereed according to the high standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series and the accepted papers illustrate the diversity and the high level of the contributions. Not least significant factor for the success of the 17 ISCMP was the social program, both the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and the variety of pleasant local restaurants and beaches. Visits to the Archaeological Museum (rich in valuable gold treasures of the ancient Thracian culture) and to the famous rock monastery Aladja were organized for the participants from the Varna Municipality. These Proceedings are published for the second time by the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are grateful to the Journal's staff for supporting this idea. The Committee decided that the next event will take place again in Saints Constantine and Helena, 1-5 September 2014. It will be entitled: Challenges of the Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials and Applications. Doriana Dimova-Malinovska, Diana Nesheva, Emilia Pecheva, Alexander G Petrov and Marina T Primatarowa Editors

  6. Social differences in oral health: Dental status of individuals buried in and around Trakai Church in Lithuania (16th-17th c.c.).

    PubMed

    Miliauskienė, Žydrūnė; Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of social differences in dental health is based on the assumption that individuals belonging to a higher social class consumed a different diet than a common people. The aim of our study was to analyse and compare dental health of 16(th) - 17(th) c. individuals, buried inside and around the Roman Catholic Church in Trakai (Lithuania). All material (189 adult individuals) was divided in two samples of a presumably different social status: the Churchyard (ordinary townsmen) and the Presbytery (elite). Dental status analysis included that of tooth loss, tooth wear, caries, abscesses and calculus. Results revealed higher prevalence of dental disease in the Churchyard sample compared to the Presbytery. Individuals buried around the church had statistically higher prevalence of caries, antemortem tooth loss and abscesses compared to those who were buried inside the church. The Churchyard sample was also characterised by a higher increase in severity of caries with age, and a more rapid tooth wear. Differences in dental health between the samples the most probably reflect different dietary habits of people from different social groups: poor quality carbohydrate based diet of laymen buried in the churchyard and more varied diet with proteins and of a better quality of local elite, buried inside the church. Substantial sex differences in dental health were found only in the Churchyard sample: males had statistically higher prevalence of abscesses and calculus, while females had higher prevalence of caries and AMTL (antemortem tooth loss). Females were also characterised by a higher increase in the number of dental decay and tooth loss with age and had higher prevalence of gross caries, which indicates a more rapid progression of the disease. Worse dental health of females could be a result of culturally based dietary differences between females (more carbohydrates) and males (more proteins) and different physiological demands (hormonal fluctuations and

  7. Stellar Occultations by Large TNOs on 2012: The February 3rd by (208996) 2003 AZ84, and the February 17th by (50000) Quaoar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga Ribas, Felipe; Sicardy, B.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Lecacheux, J.; Colas, F.; Vachier, F.; Tanga, P.; Sposetti, S.; Brosch, N.; Kaspi, S.; Manulis, I.; Baug, T.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Ganesh, S.; Jain, J.; Mohan, V.; Sharma, A.; Garcia-Lozano, R.; Klotz, A.; Frappa, E.; Jehin, E.; Assafin, M.; Vieira Martins, R.; Behrend, R.; Roques, F.; Widemann, T.; Morales, N.; Thirouin, A.; Mahasena, P.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Daassou, A.; Rinner, C.; Ofek, E. O.

    2012-10-01

    On February 2012, two stellar occultation's by large Trans-neptunian Objects (TNO's) were observed by our group. On the 3rd, an event by (208996) 2003 AZ84 was recorded from Mont Abu Observatory and IUCAA Girawali Observatory in India and from Weizmann Observatory in Israel. On the 17th, a stellar occultation by (50000) Quaoar was observed from south France and Switzerland. Both occultations are the second observed by our group for each object, and will be used to improve the results obtained on the previous events. The occultation by 2003 AZ84 is the first multi-chord event recorded for this object. From the single chord event on January 8th 2011, Braga-Ribas et al. 2011 obtained a lower limit of 573 +/- 21 km. From the 2012 occultation the longest chord has a size of 662 +/- 50 km. The other chords will permit to determine the size and shape of the TNO, and derive other physical parameters, such as the geometric albedo. The Quaoar occultation was observed from south of France (Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, TAROT telescope and Valensole) and from Gnosca, Switzerland. Unfortunately, all three sites in France are almost at the same Quaoar's latitude, so in practice, we have two chords that can be used to fit Quaoar's limb. The resulting fit will be compared with the results obtained by Braga-Ribas et al. 2011. Braga-Ribas F., Sicardy B., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS2011, 1060.Ribas F., Sicardy B., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS2011, 1060.

  8. Quasi-biennial oscillation and tropical waves in total ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemke, J.R.; Stanford, J.L.

    1994-11-01

    Westward and eastward propagating tropical waves in total ozone are investigated in 13 years (1979-1991) of version 6 total column ozone data from the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument. A clear synchronization between the stratospheric quasi-biennial osciallation (QBO) zonal winds and the fast (periods less than 15 days) propagating waves in tropical TOMS data is detailed. Largest total ozone wave amplitudes (about 3-6 Dobson units) occur when their phase propagation direction is primarily opposite the Singapore QBO lower-stratospheric winds. This effect is most apparent in meridionally symmetric components. Examination of specific episodes, including cross-spectral calculations with Singapore rawinsonde wind data (10-70 hPa), reveals signatures of tropically confined eastward propagating Kelvin waves of zonal wavenumbers 1-2 during the descending eastward QBO phase, consistent with acceleration of that QBO phase by Kelvin waves. The TOMS results are also consistent with possible forcing of the westward QBO wind phase by episodes of both meridionally symmetric and asymmetric westward waves. However, in contrast to the case of eastward (Kelvin) waves the strongest westward events appear to be filtered by, rather than forcing, the westward phase of the stratospheric QBO wind. These dominant westward episodes are interpreted as meridionally symmetric westward global normal modes and tropically confined equatorial-Rossby waves 2-6. The events exhibit phase and group speeds characteristic of wave dynamics rather than simple wind advection. These results underscore the utility of the long time series and excellent horizontal coverage of TOMS data for dynamical investigations in the relatively observation-poor tropical stratosphere.

  9. Quasi-biennial oscillation and tropical waves in total ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Stanford, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Westward and eastward propagating tropical waves in total ozone are investigated in 13 years (1979-1991) of version 6 total column ozone data from the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument. A clear synchronization between the stratospheric quasi-biennial osciallation (QBO) zonal winds and the fast (periods less than 15 days) propagating waves in tropical TOMS data is detailed. Largest total ozone wave amplitudes (about 3-6 Dobson units) occur when their phase propagation direction is primarily opposite the Singapore QBO lower-stratospheric winds. This effect is most apparent in meridionally symmetric components. Examination of specific episodes, including cross-spectral calculations with Singapore rawinsonde wind data (10-70 hPa), reveals signatures of tropically confined eastward propagating Kelvin waves of zonal wavenumbers 1-2 during the descending eastward QBO phase, consistent with acceleration of that QBO phase by Kelvin waves. The TOMS results are also consistent with possible forcing of the westward QBO wind phase by episodes of both meridionally symmetric and asymmetric westward waves. However, in contrast to the case of eastward (Kelvin) waves the strongest westward events appear to be filtered by, rather than forcing, the westward phase of the stratospheric QBO wind. These dominant westward episodes are interpreted as meridionally symmetric westward global normal modes and tropically confined equatorial-Rossby waves 2-6. The events exhibit phase and group speeds characteristic of wave dynamics rather than simple wind advection. These results underscore the utility of the long time series and excellent horizontal coverage of TOMS data for dynamical investigations in the relatively observation-poor tropical stratosphere.

  10. Enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific due to Atlantic capacitor effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Jin-Yi; Paek, Houk

    2017-03-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the variability in the Pacific subtropical highs (PSHs) have major impacts on social and ecological systems. Here we present an Atlantic capacitor effect mechanism to suggest that the Atlantic is a key pacemaker of the biennial variability in the Pacific including that in ENSO and the PSHs during recent decades. The `charging' (that is, ENSO imprinting the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) sea surface temperature (SST) via an atmospheric bridge mechanism) and `discharging' (that is, the NTA SST triggering the following ENSO via a subtropical teleconnection mechanism) processes alternate, generating the biennial rhythmic changes in the Pacific. Since the early 1990s, a warmer Atlantic due to the positive phase of Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and global warming trend has provided more favourable background state for the Atlantic capacitor effect, giving rise to enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific that may increase the occurrence frequency of severe natural hazard events.

  11. Reconstructing hydroclimatic variability of the Bermejo River (Subtropical Andes of Argentina-Bolivia) through Archival Documents - 17th to 20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rosario Prieto, M.; Cueto, C.

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use climatic history for contributing to the general objectives of the IAI -CRN II-047 Project. It will reconstruct, from archival documents, the hydroclimatic variability occurring in the high basin of the Bermejo River during the last centuries and its effects on the floods and swellings in the middle basin. The Río Bermejo in the Southern Andes, is a binational (Argentina-Bolivia) river that contributes the largest proportion of the sediment load to the La Plata basin. Its headwaters are in the Subtropical Andes, near Tarija, Bolivia (22?00'14"S, 64?57'38"W). The main headwater tributaries are the Río Grande de Tarija, in Bolivia and the Iruya and San Francisco Rivers in Argentina. When the river abandons the mountain and turns eastwards (Gran Chaco), it acquires the characteristics of typical lowland rivers, widens its course, and occupies a large, low sedimentary plain with vast floodland areas. Quite often during very high sediment discharge the main river avulses and changes its course, creating big alluvial plains that are occupied for many years. Administrative documents from the colonial and republican periods have provided useful information to reconstruct climate and hydrology of the region. Documents from the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Archivo Nacional de Bolivia and Archivo General de la Nación (Argentina) have been used to identify extreme floods and swellings in the high and middle-basin of the Rio Bermejo from the 17th century to the first decades of the 20th century. Old maps of the region, reports from annals, chronicles, priests' and travelers' descriptions were also used. Diaries written by the military, explorers and government officials in charge of discovering and taking possession of the territory also provide important sources of information. The archival documents show abrupt hydrological changes in response to the climatic fluctuations in the headwaters region. These records document

  12. MicroRNA-155 may be involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis by modulating the differentiation and function of T helper type 17 (Th17) cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, L; Xue, H-B; Wang, F; Shu, C-M; Zhang, J-H

    2015-07-01

    Our aims were to identify the differential expression of microRNA (miR)-155, as well as to explore the possible regulatory effects of miR-155 on the differentiation and function of T helper type 17 (Th17) cells in atopic dermatitis (AD). The Th17 cell percentage and expression levels of miR-155, retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR)γt, interleukin (IL)-17 and suppressor of cytokine signalling-1 (SOCS1) in peripheral CD4(+) T cells, plasma and skin specimens were detected and compared in AD patients and healthy subjects. A miR-155 mimic and an inhibitor were transfected separately into AD CD4(+) T cells to confirm the in-vivo data. The Th17 cell percentage, miR-155 expression, RORγt mRNA expression, IL-17 mRNA expression and plasma concentration were increased significantly in AD patients compared with healthy subjects. Conversely, SOCS1 mRNA expression and plasma concentration were decreased significantly. Similar results were detected in cultured CD4(+) T cells transfected with the miR-155 mimic compared with a miR-155 inhibitor or a negative control. Additionally, there was a sequential decrease in miR-155 expression, as well as RORγt and IL-17 mRNA expression, but an increase in SOCS1 mRNA expression, from AD lesional skin and perilesional skin to normal skin. Positive correlations were found between miR-155 expression and AD severity, Th17 cell percentage, RORγt mRNA expression and IL-17 mRNA expression and plasma concentration, while negative correlations were observed between miR-155 expression and SOCS1 mRNA expression and plasma concentration in AD peripheral circulation and skin lesions. In conclusion, miR-155 is over-expressed and may be involved in AD pathogenesis by modulating the differentiation and function of Th17 cells.

  13. Paleoclimate Reconstruction during the 17th to 18th Century Using Fossil Coral Tsunami Boulders from Ishigaki Island, the Ryukyus, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Seki, A.; Kawakubo, Y.; Araoka, D.; Suzuki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) to reconstruct paleo SST during LIA (Kawakubo et al., 2014). LA-HR-ICPMS enables us to measure the long coral core rapidly. Our result shows SST variation in 17th-18th century in this area and SST declined in around 1700. This result reveals the response of Little Ice Age in the northwestern Pacific.

  14. [Spanish authors in the ideal library of G. Naudé (1627): a European view of the Spanish culture and science at the beginning of the 17th century].

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Evaristo álvarez

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyze a European view of the 17th century Spanish culture. Naudé's "Advis pour dresser une bibliothèque" (1627) - translated twice into English: "Instructions concerning erecting of a library" (1661) and "Advice on establishing a library" (1950) - represents a wide set of bibliographic recommendations that constitute, among many other things, an excellent observatory of the Spanish culture in such a delicate time.

  15. Electronic Transfer of Information and Its Impact on Aerospace and Defence Research and Development. Proceedings of the Technical Information Panel Specialists’ Meeting Held in Brussels, Belgium on 17th-19th October 1989 Abstracts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    INTRODUCTION 1 SUMMARIES OF PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS COMMENTS ON TECHNOLOGIES 13 RECOMMENDATIONS 15 p fl ton for DTIK TAs Ummnonn e a hJatirtca~io S...was heid from 17th- 19th October 1989 in Brussels, Belgium; and comments on the state of the art of the technologies presented, discusses their possible...introduction into scientific and technical organisations, and provides recommendations on the use of technologies with emphasis on the aerospace and

  16. Quasi-biennial oscillation of the tropical stratospheric aerosol layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, R.; Timmreck, C.; Giorgetta, M. A.; Graf, H. F.

    2015-05-01

    This study describes how aerosol in an aerosol-coupled climate model of the middle atmosphere is influenced by the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) during times when the stratosphere is largely unperturbed by volcanic material. In accordance with satellite observations, the vertical extent of the stratospheric aerosol layer in the tropics is modulated by the QBO by up to 6 km, or ~ 35% of its mean vertical extent between 100-7 hPa (about 16-33 km). Its largest vertical extent lags behind the occurrence of strongest QBO westerlies. The largest reduction lags behind maximum QBO easterlies. Strongest QBO signals in the aerosol surface area (30 %) and number densities (up to 100% e.g. in the Aitken mode) are found in regions where aerosol evaporates, that is above the 10 hPa pressure level (~ 31 km). Positive modulations are found in the QBO easterly shear, negative modulations in the westerly shear. Below 10 hPa, in regions where the aerosol mixing ratio is largest (50-20 hPa, or ~ 20-26 km), in most of the analysed parameters only moderate statistically significant QBO signatures (< 10%) have been found. QBO signatures in the model prognostic aerosol mixing ratio are significant at the 95% confidence level throughout the tropical stratosphere where modelled mixing ratios exceed 0.1 ppbm. In some regions of the tropical lower stratosphere the QBO signatures in other analysed parameters are partly not statistically significant. Peak-to-peak amplitudes of the QBO signature in the prognostic mixing ratios are up to twice as large as seasonal variations in the region where aerosols evaporate and between 70-30 hPa. Between the tropical tropopause and 70 hPa the QBO signature is relatively weak and seasonal variations dominate the variability of the simulated Junge layer. QBO effects on the upper lid of the tropical aerosol layer turn the quasi-static balance between processes maintaining the layer's vertical extent into a cyclic balance when considering this dominant mode

  17. Contemporary Art at School: The Educational Sector at the Sao Paulo Biennial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Almeida, Ana Cristina Pereira

    1989-01-01

    Describes how the Educational Sector of the Sao Paulo Biennial assists art teachers in introducing contemporary art into the schools. Outlines how students were observed viewing the exhibition and creating artworks. Describes how training programs and materials were provided to help the schools. (KM)

  18. 75 FR 50730 - Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002: Biennial Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Response Act of 2002: Biennial Review and Republication of the Select Agent and Toxin List AGENCY: Centers... current HHS list of select agents and toxins. This document is extending the comment period for that ANPRM... Proposed Rulemaking (75 FR 42363) should be marked ``Comments on the changes to the list of select...

  19. 75 FR 44724 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ...-AD09 Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select Agent and Toxin List; Reorganization of the Select Agent and Toxin List AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... regarding the list of select agents and toxins that have the potential to pose a severe threat to animal...

  20. 76 FR 77914 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ...-AD09 Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select Agent and Toxin List; Amendments to the Select Agent and Toxin Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant... reopening the comment period for our proposed rule that would amend and republish the list of select...

  1. Advances in berry research: the sixth biennial berry health benefits symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies to advance the potential health benefits of berries continue to increase as was evident at the sixth biennial meeting of the Berry Health Benefits Symposium (BHBS). The two and a half-day symposium was held on October 13-15, 2015, in Madison, Wisconsin, United States. The 2015 BHBS feature...

  2. 49 CFR 390.203 - PRISM State registration/biennial updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false PRISM State registration/biennial updates. 390.203... FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS; GENERAL Unified Registration System § 390.203 PRISM State... the Performance and Registration Information Systems Management (PRISM) program (authorized...

  3. 49 CFR 390.203 - PRISM State registration/biennial updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false PRISM State registration/biennial updates. 390.203... FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS; GENERAL Unified Registration System § 390.203 PRISM State... the Performance and Registration Information Systems Management (PRISM) program (authorized...

  4. Leaf architectural, vascular and photosynthetic acclimation to temperature in two biennials.

    PubMed

    Muller, Onno; Stewart, Jared J; Cohu, Christopher M; Polutchko, Stephanie K; Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, William W

    2014-12-01

    Acclimation of leaf features to growth temperature was investigated in two biennials (whose life cycle spans summer and winter seasons) using different mechanisms of sugar loading into exporting conduits, Verbascum phoeniceum (employs sugar-synthesizing enzymes driving symplastic loading through plasmodesmatal wall pores of phloem cells) and Malva neglecta (likely apoplastic loader transporting sugar via membrane transport proteins of phloem cells). In both species, acclimation to lower temperature involved greater maximal photosynthesis rates and vein density per leaf area in close correlation with modification of minor vein cellular features. While the symplastically loading biennial exhibited adjustments in the size of minor leaf vein cells (consistent with adjustment of the level of sugar-synthesizing enzymes), the putative apoplastic biennial exhibited adjustments in the number of cells (consistent with adjustment of cell membrane area for transporter placement). This upregulation of morphological and anatomical features at lower growth temperature likely contributes to the success of both the species during the winter. Furthermore, while acclimation to low temperature involved greater leaf mass per area in both species, this resulted from greater leaf thickness in V. phoeniceum vs a greater number of mesophyll cells per leaf area in M. neglecta. Both types of adjustments presumably accommodate more chloroplasts per leaf area contributing to photosynthesis. Both biennials exhibited high foliar vein densities (particularly the solar-tracking M. neglecta), which should aid both sugar export from and delivery of water to the leaves.

  5. 75 FR 43423 - 1998 Biennial Regulatory Review-Private Land Mobile Radio Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 95 1998 Biennial Regulatory Review--Private Land Mobile Radio Services AGENCY: Federal... Commission denies the petition filed by the Personal Radio Steering Group (PRSG) regarding certain Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) rules. In essence, the Commission finds that PRSG has not demonstrated that...

  6. Biennial Survey of Education, 1920-1922. Volume I. Bulletin, 1924, No. 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1924

    1924-01-01

    Volume I of the Biennial Survey of Education for the years 1920-1922 contains the following chapters: (1) A survey of public school finance in the United States (Fletcher H. Swift); (2) Some important school legislation, 1921 and 1922 (William R. Hood); (3) Higher education (George F. Zook; (4) Significant movements in city school systems (W. S.…

  7. North Dakota Department of Public Instruction 2007-2009 Biennial Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Biennial Report presents a summary of programs and services provided by the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction for 2007-2009. The State Superintendent notes that while North Dakota's education system is good, slippage in test scores is occurring, cracks in the education system are developing and some students are falling through…

  8. 77 FR 46374 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 41st Biennial Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference... of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) and the NPIP's 41st Biennial Conference. DATES: The..., National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1506 Klondike Road, Suite 300, Conyers, GA 30094-5173,...

  9. 75 FR 23222 - National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference Committee Meeting and 40th Biennial Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service National Poultry Improvement Plan; General Conference... of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) and the NPIP's 40th Biennial Conference. DATES: The.... Andrew R. Rhorer, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS, 1498 Klondike...

  10. 68 FR 7392 - Office of Policy Development Evaluation and Research; Call for Papers; Biennial National Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-02-13

    ... identification of areas where future research may be needed, and a review of possible research methodologies. In... Employment & Training Administration Office of Policy Development Evaluation and Research; Call for Papers; Biennial National Research Conference on ``Workforce Investment Issues in the United States'';...

  11. North Dakota Department of Public Instruction Biennial Report, 2003-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The Biennial Report presents a summary of programs and services provided by the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction. The State Superintendent noted a continued decline in enrollment, a shrinking tax base, expanded educator shortages, and concerns regarding school financing as realities impacting the state's constitutional responsibility…

  12. Toward a Learning Society. Director's Biennial Report to Congress. IES 2007-6004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Education Sciences, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) is to provide rigorous evidence on which to ground education practice and policy and to encourage its use. The Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002 (ESRA) requires that the Director of IES, on a biennial basis, transmit to the President, the National Board for Education Sciences, and the…

  13. Roots & Wings. Proceedings of the PEPNet 2006 Biennial Conference (Louisville, Kentucky, April 4-8, 2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet 2, 2006

    2006-01-01

    During April 2006, educators, students, service providers and professionals from across the nation and the world gathered together at the fifth biennial PEPNet Conference in Louisville, Kentucky, to share concepts, ideas, research, technologies and successful practices that have helped individuals who are deaf and hard of hearing establish strong…

  14. Dry matter partitioning and photosynthetic response to biennial bearing and freeze damage in 'Empire' apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biennial cropping is typically characterized as having 'ON' and 'OFF' years in which the 'ON' year produces an excessive crop load and the 'OFF' year has a very small crop load. Frost damage during the bloom period or winter freeze damage are another means of reducing the crop load that can initiat...

  15. What Language Teachers Want--Considering the Evaluation of 18th Biennial Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absalom, Matthew; Morgan, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Professional learning (PL) is an essential ingredient in the professional and personal lives of contemporary educators. PL can take many forms but large-scale conferences remain a touchstone in many fields, including languages education. In this paper, we review the evaluation of the 18th biennial conference of the Australian Federation of Modern…

  16. Biennial Survey of Education, 1916-18. Volume I. Bulletin, 1919, No. 88

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1921

    1921-01-01

    Volume I of the 1916-18 Biennial Survey of Education includes the following chapters: (1) A survey of higher education (Samuel P. Capen and Walton C. John); (2) Medical education (N. P. Colwell); (3) Engineering education (F. L. Bishop); (4) Commercial education (Frank V. Thompson); (5) Public education in the cities of the United States: The…

  17. Proceedings of the second biennial conference on research in Colorado Plateau National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Charles

    1995-01-01

    On 25-28 October 1993 in Flagstaff, Arizona, the National Biological Service Colorado Plateau Research Station (formerly National Park Service Cooperative Park Studies Unit) and Northern Arizona University hosted the Second Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau. The conference theme focused on research, inventory, and monitoring on the federal, state, and private lands in the Colorado Plateau biogeographic province.

  18. Biennial Survey of Education, 1916-18. Volume II. Bulletin, 1919, No. 89

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1921

    1921-01-01

    Volume II of the Biennial Survey of Education, 1916-1918 includes the following chapters: (1) Education in Great Britain and Ireland (I. L. Kandel); (2) Education in parts of the British Empire: Educational Developments in the Dominion of Canada (Walter A. Montgomery), Public School System of Jamaica (Charles A. Asbury), Recent Progress of…

  19. [Biennial Survey of Education, 1926-1928. Bulletin, 1930, No. 16. Chapter I - Chapter XX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education, United States Department of the Interior, 1930

    1930-01-01

    This document contains the first twenty chapters of the Biennial Survey of Education document, covering the years 1926-1928. The following chapters are included in this document: (1) Higher education (Arthur J. Klein); (2) Medical education (N. P. Colwell); (3) Legal education (Alfred Z. Reed); (4) Significant movements in city school systems (W.…

  20. Ecological, Evolutionary and Social Constraints on Reproductive Effort: Are Hoary Marmots Really Biennial Breeders?

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vijay P.; Karels, Timothy J.; Hik, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Biennial breeding is a rare life-history trait observed in animal species living in harsh, unproductive environments. This reproductive pattern is thought to occur in 10 of 14 species in the genus Marmota, making marmots useful model organisms for studying its ecological and evolutionary implications. Biennial breeding in marmots has been described as an obligate pattern which evolved as a mechanism to mitigate the energetic costs of reproduction (Evolved Constraint hypothesis). However, recent anecdotal evidence suggests that it is a facultative pattern controlled by annual variation in climate and food availability (Environmental Constraint hypothesis). Finally, in social animals like marmots, biennial breeding could result from reproductive competition between females within social groups (Social Constraint hypothesis). We evaluated these three hypotheses using mark-recapture data from an 8-year study of hoary marmot (Marmota caligata) population dynamics in the Yukon. Annual variation in breeding probability was modeled using multi-state mark-recapture models, while other reproductive life-history traits were modeled with generalized linear mixed models. Hoary marmots were neither obligate nor facultative biennial breeders, and breeding probability was insensitive to evolved, environmental, or social factors. However, newly mature females were significantly less likely to breed than older individuals. Annual breeding did not result in increased mortality. Female survival and, to a lesser extent, average fecundity were correlated with winter climate, as indexed by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Hoary marmots are less conservative breeders than previously believed, and the evidence for biennial breeding throughout Marmota, and in other arctic/alpine/antarctic animals, should be re-examined. Prediction of future population dynamics requires an accurate understanding of life history strategies, and of how life history traits allow animals to cope with changes in

  1. Ecological, evolutionary and social constraints on reproductive effort: are hoary marmots really biennial breeders?

    PubMed

    Patil, Vijay P; Karels, Timothy J; Hik, David S

    2015-01-01

    Biennial breeding is a rare life-history trait observed in animal species living in harsh, unproductive environments. This reproductive pattern is thought to occur in 10 of 14 species in the genus Marmota, making marmots useful model organisms for studying its ecological and evolutionary implications. Biennial breeding in marmots has been described as an obligate pattern which evolved as a mechanism to mitigate the energetic costs of reproduction (Evolved Constraint hypothesis). However, recent anecdotal evidence suggests that it is a facultative pattern controlled by annual variation in climate and food availability (Environmental Constraint hypothesis). Finally, in social animals like marmots, biennial breeding could result from reproductive competition between females within social groups (Social Constraint hypothesis). We evaluated these three hypotheses using mark-recapture data from an 8-year study of hoary marmot (Marmota caligata) population dynamics in the Yukon. Annual variation in breeding probability was modeled using multi-state mark-recapture models, while other reproductive life-history traits were modeled with generalized linear mixed models. Hoary marmots were neither obligate nor facultative biennial breeders, and breeding probability was insensitive to evolved, environmental, or social factors. However, newly mature females were significantly less likely to breed than older individuals. Annual breeding did not result in increased mortality. Female survival and, to a lesser extent, average fecundity were correlated with winter climate, as indexed by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Hoary marmots are less conservative breeders than previously believed, and the evidence for biennial breeding throughout Marmota, and in other arctic/alpine/antarctic animals, should be re-examined. Prediction of future population dynamics requires an accurate understanding of life history strategies, and of how life history traits allow animals to cope with changes in

  2. 78 FR 34380 - Biennial Determination of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With Applicable Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... Environmental Laws for the Period 2010 to 2012 AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Pilot Plant (WIPP), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or ``we'') determined that,...

  3. 76 FR 31611 - Biennial Determination of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance with Applicable Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Environmental Laws for the Period 2008 to 2010 AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Pilot Plant (WIPP), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or ``we'') determined that,...

  4. Modifications of the Quasi-biennial Oscillation by a Geoengineering Perturbation of the Stratospheric Aerosol Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aquila, V.; Garfinkel, C. I.; Newman, P. A.; Oman, L. D.; Waugh, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of geoengineering via stratospheric sulfate aerosol on the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Chemistry Climate Model. We performed four 30-year simulations with a continuous injection of sulfur dioxide on the equator at 0 degree longitude. The four simulations differ by the amount of sulfur dioxide injected (5Tg per year and 2.5 Tg per year) and the altitude of the injection (16km-25km and 22km-25km). We find that such an injection dramatically alters the quasi-biennial oscillation, prolonging the phase of easterly shear with respect to the control simulation. In the case of maximum perturbation, i.e. highest stratospheric aerosol burden, the lower tropical stratosphere is locked into a permanent westerly QBO phase. This locked QBO westerly phase is caused by the increased aerosol heating and associated warming in the tropical lower stratosphere.

  5. Quasi-biennial Oscillations (QBO) as seen in GPS/CHAMP Tropospheric and Ionospheric Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.; Pi, Xiaoqing; Ao, Chi O.; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on Quasi-biennial Oscillations (QBO) from Global Positioning System/Challenging Mini-Satellite Payload (GPS/CHAMP) tropospheric and ionsopheric data is shown. The topics include: 1) A brief review of QBO; 2) Characteristics of small-scale oscillations in GPS/CHAMP 50-Hz raw measurements; 3) Variations of lower atmospheric variances; and 4) Variations of E-region variances.

  6. Proceedings of the first biennial conference of research in Colorado Plateau National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowlands, Peter G.; van Riper, Charles; Sogge, Mark K.

    1993-01-01

    The 19 papers in this volume were selected from the 46 presentations given at the First Biennial Conference on Research in Colorado Plateau National Parks. The overall theme for this meeting was research, inventory, and monitoring in National Park Service units on the Colorado Plateau. The conference, held in Flagstaff Arizona, on 22-25 July 1991, was sponsored by the National Park Service Cooperative Park Studies Unit, Northern Arizona University, and the Petrified Forest, Zion, and Grand Canyon natural history associations.

  7. Archaeological Remains Accounting for the Presence and Exploitation of the North Atlantic Right Whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001–2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  8. Urban land for a growing city at the banks of a moving river: Vienna's spread into the Danube island Unterer Werd from the late 17th to the beginning of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Haidvogl, Gertrud; Guthyne-Horvath, Marianna; Gierlinger, Sylvia; Hohensinner, Severin; Sonnlechner, Christoph

    In the relation between urban development and the Viennese Danube different periods can be identified from the late 17th to the early 20th century. These periods were strongly intertwined with both the history of the river and the history of the city. Urban expansion into the floodplains is demonstrated in this paper by investigating the island Unterer Werd, next to the city centre. In the late 17th century the fluvial dynamic still hampered urban development on the island. First measures to stabilise the river banks and to protect buildings from floods were taken soon thereafter, but the majority of practices aimed at mitigating the risks and impacts of the frequent floods: inundation was a part of the arrangement and the main target was to minimise the potential impacts. This practice also prevailed after the 1830s, when urban expansion began to move into the north and northwest of the island and the Danube floodplains were considered an important land resource for the growing city. In connection with new technologies and available means to channelise the river, the relationship between Vienna and the Danube changed fundamentally. Urban development in the riverine landscape gained new momentum. This process was initiated before the Great Danube Regulation from 1870 to 1875 was completed, the rate of growth accelerated after 1875. The last decades of the 19th century mark a turning point in the urban development of Vienna, with expanding urban areas becoming dependent upon a well functioning and maintained flood protection system.

  9. Archaeological remains accounting for the presence and exploitation of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001-2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century.

  10. Inter-annual maintenance of the fine-scale genetic structure in a biennial plant.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Javier; Gómez, José María; García, Cristina; Sharbel, Timothy F; Jiménez, María Noelia; Perfectti, Francisco

    2016-11-24

    Within plant populations, space-restricted gene movement, together with environmental heterogeneity, can result in a spatial variation in gene frequencies. In biennial plants, inter-annual flowering migrants can homogenize gene frequencies between consecutive cohorts. However, the actual impact of these migrants on spatial genetic variation remains unexplored. Here, we used 10 nuclear microsatellite and one plastid genetic marker to characterize the spatial genetic structure within two consecutive cohorts in a population of the biennial plant Erysimum mediohispanicum (Brassicaceae). We explored the maintenance of this structure between consecutive flowering cohorts at different levels of complexity, and investigated landscape effects on gene flow. We found that cohorts were not genetically differentiated and showed a spatial genetic structure defined by a negative genetic-spatial correlation at fine scale that varied in intensity with compass directions. This spatial genetic structure was maintained when comparing plants from different cohorts. Additionally, genotypes were consistently associated with environmental factors such as light availability and soil composition, but to a lesser extent compared with the spatial autocorrelation. We conclude that inter-annual migrants, in combination with limited seed dispersal and environmental heterogeneity, play a major role in shaping and maintaining the spatial genetic structure among cohorts in this biennial plant.

  11. The Quasi-Biennial Vertical Oscillations at Global GPS Stations: Identification by Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuanjin; Shen, Wen-Bin; Ding, Hao; Hwang, Cheinway; Li, Jin; Zhang, Tengxu

    2015-01-01

    Modeling nonlinear vertical components of a GPS time series is critical to separating sources contributing to mass displacements. Improved vertical precision in GPS positioning at stations for velocity fields is key to resolving the mechanism of certain geophysical phenomena. In this paper, we use ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) to analyze the daily GPS time series at 89 continuous GPS stations, spanning from 2002 to 2013. EEMD decomposes a GPS time series into different intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), which are used to identify different kinds of signals and secular terms. Our study suggests that the GPS records contain not only the well-known signals (such as semi-annual and annual signals) but also the seldom-noted quasi-biennial oscillations (QBS). The quasi-biennial signals are explained by modeled loadings of atmosphere, non-tidal and hydrology that deform the surface around the GPS stations. In addition, the loadings derived from GRACE gravity changes are also consistent with the quasi-biennial deformations derived from the GPS observations. By removing the modeled components, the weighted root-mean-square (WRMS) variation of the GPS time series is reduced by 7.1% to 42.3%, and especially, after removing the seasonal and QBO signals, the average improvement percentages for seasonal and QBO signals are 25.6% and 7.5%, respectively, suggesting that it is significant to consider the QBS signals in the GPS records to improve the observed vertical deformations. PMID:26473882

  12. Enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific due to Atlantic capacitor effect

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Jin-Yi; Paek, Houk

    2017-01-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the variability in the Pacific subtropical highs (PSHs) have major impacts on social and ecological systems. Here we present an Atlantic capacitor effect mechanism to suggest that the Atlantic is a key pacemaker of the biennial variability in the Pacific including that in ENSO and the PSHs during recent decades. The ‘charging' (that is, ENSO imprinting the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) sea surface temperature (SST) via an atmospheric bridge mechanism) and ‘discharging' (that is, the NTA SST triggering the following ENSO via a subtropical teleconnection mechanism) processes alternate, generating the biennial rhythmic changes in the Pacific. Since the early 1990s, a warmer Atlantic due to the positive phase of Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and global warming trend has provided more favourable background state for the Atlantic capacitor effect, giving rise to enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific that may increase the occurrence frequency of severe natural hazard events. PMID:28317857

  13. Inter-annual maintenance of the fine-scale genetic structure in a biennial plant

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, Javier; Gómez, José María; García, Cristina; Sharbel, Timothy F.; Jiménez, María Noelia; Perfectti, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Within plant populations, space-restricted gene movement, together with environmental heterogeneity, can result in a spatial variation in gene frequencies. In biennial plants, inter-annual flowering migrants can homogenize gene frequencies between consecutive cohorts. However, the actual impact of these migrants on spatial genetic variation remains unexplored. Here, we used 10 nuclear microsatellite and one plastid genetic marker to characterize the spatial genetic structure within two consecutive cohorts in a population of the biennial plant Erysimum mediohispanicum (Brassicaceae). We explored the maintenance of this structure between consecutive flowering cohorts at different levels of complexity, and investigated landscape effects on gene flow. We found that cohorts were not genetically differentiated and showed a spatial genetic structure defined by a negative genetic-spatial correlation at fine scale that varied in intensity with compass directions. This spatial genetic structure was maintained when comparing plants from different cohorts. Additionally, genotypes were consistently associated with environmental factors such as light availability and soil composition, but to a lesser extent compared with the spatial autocorrelation. We conclude that inter-annual migrants, in combination with limited seed dispersal and environmental heterogeneity, play a major role in shaping and maintaining the spatial genetic structure among cohorts in this biennial plant. PMID:27883087

  14. The quasi-biennial vertical oscillations at global GPS stations: identification by ensemble empirical mode decomposition.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuanjin; Shen, Wen-Bin; Ding, Hao; Hwang, Cheinway; Li, Jin; Zhang, Tengxu

    2015-10-14

    Modeling nonlinear vertical components of a GPS time series is critical to separating sources contributing to mass displacements. Improved vertical precision in GPS positioning at stations for velocity fields is key to resolving the mechanism of certain geophysical phenomena. In this paper, we use ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) to analyze the daily GPS time series at 89 continuous GPS stations, spanning from 2002 to 2013. EEMD decomposes a GPS time series into different intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), which are used to identify different kinds of signals and secular terms. Our study suggests that the GPS records contain not only the well-known signals (such as semi-annual and annual signals) but also the seldom-noted quasi-biennial oscillations (QBS). The quasi-biennial signals are explained by modeled loadings of atmosphere, non-tidal and hydrology that deform the surface around the GPS stations. In addition, the loadings derived from GRACE gravity changes are also consistent with the quasi-biennial deformations derived from the GPS observations. By removing the modeled components, the weighted root-mean-square (WRMS) variation of the GPS time series is reduced by 7.1% to 42.3%, and especially, after removing the seasonal and QBO signals, the average improvement percentages for seasonal and QBO signals are 25.6% and 7.5%, respectively, suggesting that it is significant to consider the QBS signals in the GPS records to improve the observed vertical deformations.

  15. Proceedings of the Biennial EO/EEO Research Symposium (4th) Held in Cocoa Beach, Florida on December 5-7, 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    PROCEEDINGS 4th Biennial EO/EEO Research Symposium December 5-7, 2001 Cocoa Beach, Florida Published January 2003 DEOMI Research Report 03-01...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Proceedings 4th Biennial EO/EEO Research Symposium, Held in Cocoa Beach, Florida on December 5-7...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 ii Proceedings 4th Biennial EO/EEO Research Symposium December 5-7, 2001 Cocoa Beach, Florida Sponsored

  16. Hazardous-waste minimization assessment: Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmavaram, S.; Knowlton, D.A.; Heflin, C.; Donahue, B.A.

    1991-03-01

    Waste minimization is the process of reducing the net outflow of hazardous materials that may be solid, liquid, or gaseous effluents from a given source or generating process. It involves reducing air pollution emissions, contamination of surface and ground water, and land disposal by means of source reduction, waste recycling processes, and treatment leading to complete destruction. Among Federal regulations is a requirement that every generator of hazardous wastes producing in excess of 2205 pounds per month certify that a hazardous waste minimization program is in operation. Generators are required to submit biennial reports to the USEPA that describe efforts taken to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated during the year. The objective of this research was to develop a hazardous waste minimization plan for Fort Campbell, Kentucky, to include actions necessary to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes. Reduction should be in both volume and toxicity.

  17. Is There Really an Intermittent Biennial Oscillation in the Great Plains Low-Level Jet Over Texas?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, H. Mark

    2002-01-01

    In the 15-year GEOS-1 reanalysis data set, a maximum of interannual variance of low- level meridional flow for the warm season (May through August) occurs over southeast Texas. This variance maximum seems to be dominated by a marked biennial oscillation that occurs only during the first 6 (or possibly 8) years of the reanalysis period (1980-85 or possibly 1980-1987) and then completely disappears by the 9th year. This biennial oscillation seems to be associated with interannual fluctuations in ground wetness, surface temperature and surface pressure gradients over Texas. The periods of drier soil lead to warmer surface temperatures, lower surface pressures, stronger pressure gradients between Texas and the Gulf of Mexico and stronger southerly winds. This intermittent biennial oscillation is also evident in corresponding fields for the the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data set for the years 1978-1985 (and possibly from 1978- 1987) and 1995-2000, but not during other periods. There are also obvious biennial oscillations evident during these periods in U.S. Climate Division records for the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for Texas. Month-by-month correlations of this index with certain el Nino related indices are as high as .45 for the first period and as high as .55 or .6 for the second period for some regions in Texas. The seasonal cycle of the biennial signal in the PDSI and precipitation for the first period suggest that the drought in Texas and Mexico is ended (caused) by a reversal in the sign of anomalies in precipitation rate for the fall/winter season. Analysis of tropical Pacific SST patterns shows a .5 to .75 K biennial oscillation of SSTs along the precipitation-free track to the southwest of the Mexican coast during the fall and winter months of the 1978 to 1985 period that might explain the reversal in precipitation anomalies and hence the entire intermittent biennial oscillation in ground hydrology and low-level flow.

  18. Tick-borne encephalitis as a notifiable disease--Status quo and the way forward. Report of the 17th annual meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE).

    PubMed

    Kunze, Ursula

    2015-07-01

    The 17th meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE), a group of neurologists, general practicioners, clinicians, travel physicians, virologists, pediatricians, and epidemiologists, was held under the title "Tick-borne encephalitis as a notifiable disease--status quo and the way forward". The conference agenda was divided into three parts on the first day: "Epidemiology & Risk areas", "Poster Walk: Epidemiological Update in Europe", and "News in TBE Research". On the second day, a World Café Working Session took place where the participants could choose three tables out of six to join for discussion. Key topics on current epidemiological developments and investigations, risk areas, cases, travel and mobility, TBE in children, vaccination rates, and latest news on vaccination were presented and extensively discussed.

  19. Breakthrough cancer medicine and its impact on novel drug development in China: report of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) and Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) Joint Session at the 17th CSCO Annual Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Feng Roger; Ding, Jian; Chen, Helen X.; Liu, Hao; Fung, Man-Cheong; Koehler, Maria; Armand, Jean Pierre; Jiang, Lei; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Ge; Xu, Li; Qian, Pascal; Yan, Li

    2014-01-01

    The US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) teamed up with Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) to host a joint session at the17th CSCO Annual Meeting on September 20th, 2014 in Xiamen, China. With a focus on breakthrough cancer medicines, the session featured innovative approaches to evaluate breakthrough agents and established a platform to interactively share successful experiences from case studies of 6 novel agents from both the United States and China. The goal of the session is to inspire scientific and practical considerations for clinical trial design and strategy to expedite cancer drug development in China. A panel discussion further provided in-depth advice on advancing both early and full development of novel cancer medicines in China. PMID:25418191

  20. [Oral health on the public agenda: an analysis of Municipal Health Council records in cities from the 17th Regional Health Division in the State of Paraná, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Alves-Souza, Rosani Aparecida; Saliba, Orlando

    2003-01-01

    The present study analyzes interventions pertaining to oral health recorded in the minutes of meetings held by 15 Municipal Health Councils in cities from the 17th Regional Health Division of the State of Paraná, Brazil. Document analysis was performed by identifying health themes, emphasizing categorization of issues related to interventions in oral health. The most frequently analyzed themes were records concerning the programming and organization of oral health services, followed by health budget issues. In 90 of the 591 minutes studied, 134 records pertaining to oral health interventions were identified. An analysis of the latter showed that oral health interventions involve reports of actions already implemented and lack the characteristics of proposals when analyzed from the health planning perspective. This study highlights the need for dentists to expand their representation in such forums in order to play a broader role in the planning process and support oral health as a basic citizen's right.

  1. Quasi-biennial modulation of solar neutrino flux: connections with solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchio, A.; Laurenza, M.; D'alessi, L.; Carbone, V.; Storini, M.

    2011-12-01

    A quasi-biennial periodicity has been recently found (Vecchio et al., 2010) in the solar neutrino flux, as detected at the Homestake experiment, as well as in the flux of solar energetic protons, by means of the Empirical Modes Decomposition technique. Moreover, both fluxes have been found to be significantly correlated at the quasi-biennial timescale, thus supporting the hypothesis of a connection between solar neutrinos and solar activity. The origin of this connection is investigated, by modeling how the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect (the process for which the well-known neutrino flavor oscillations are modified in passing through the material) could be influenced by matter fluctuations. As proposed by Burgess et al., 2004, by introducing a background magnetic field in the helioseismic model, density fluctuations can be excited in the radiative zone by the resonance between helioseismic g-modes and Alfvén waves. In particular, with reasonable values of the background magnetic field (10-100 kG), the distance between resonant layers could be of the same order of neutrino oscillation length. We study the effect over this distance of a background magnetic field which is variable with a ~2 yr period, in agreement with typical variations of solar activity. Our findings suggest that the quasi-biennial modulation of the neutrino flux is theoretically possible as a consequence of the magnetic field variations in the solar interior. A. Vecchio, M. Laurenza, V. Carbone, M. Storini, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 709, L1-L5 (2010). C. Burgess, N. S. Dzhalilov, T. I. Rashba, V., B.Semikoz, J. W. F. Valle, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 348, 609-624 (2004).

  2. United States Air Force Summary, Amended FY 1990/1991 Biennial Budget. Fifteenth Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-15

    c . . ’I II UNITED STATES AIR FORCE USAF SUMMARY AMENDED FY 1990/1991 BIENNIAL BUDGET FIFTEENTH EDITION . RCS: SAF-FMC(A) 7203 Publication Date: 15... c . THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 • .. II FOREWORD This is the fifteenth edition of the...your work, if not explain. b. Would you like some additional areas covered, if so, explain. c . General comments? 2. Tables A-9 through A-11 (DoD

  3. On the development of the theory of the QBO. [Quasi-Biennial Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindzen, Richard S.

    1987-01-01

    The events that led to the discovery of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of the equatorial stratosphere are described together with the development of current QBO theory. Three independent areas of inquiry led to this theory: (1) the observational and theoretical studies of equatorial waves, (2) the theoretical study of the behavior of mountain waves at critical levels where the mean flow speed went to zero, and (3) the semiempirical study of the momentum budget of the QBO. The efforts in each of these three areas are discussed.

  4. The quasi-biennial variation in the geomagnetic field: a global characteristics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Jiaming; Du, Aimin

    2016-04-01

    The periodicity of 1.5-3 years, namely the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), has been identified in the solar, geophysical, and atmospheric variability. Sugiura (1976) investigated the observatory annual means over 1900-1970 and confirmed the QBO in the geomagnetic field. At present, studying the quasi-biennial oscillation becomes substantial for separating the internal/external parts in the geomagnetic observations. For the internal field, two typical periodicities, namely the 6-year oscillation in the geomagnetic secular acceleration (SA) and the geomagnetic jerk (occurs in 1-2 years), have close period to the QBO. Recently, a global quasi-biennial fluctuation was identified in the geomagnetic core field model (Silva et al., 2012). Silva et al. speculated this 2.5 years signal to either external source remaining in the core field model or consequence of the methods used to construct the model. As more high-quality data from global observatories are available, it is a good opportunity to characterize the geomagnetic QBO in the global range. In this paper, we investigate the QBO in the observatory monthly geomagnetic field X, Y, and Z components spanning 1985-2010. We employ the observatory hourly means database from the World Data Center for Geomagnetism (WDC) for the investigation. Wavelet analysis is used to detect and identify the QBO, while Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis to obtain the statistics of the QBO. We apply the spherical harmonic analysis on QBO's amplitude, in order to quantify and separate internal and external sources. Three salient periods respectively at 2.9, 2.2, and 1.7 years, are identified in the amplitude spectrum over 1988-2008. The oscillation with the period of ~2.2 years is most prominent in all field components and further studied. In the X component the QBO is attenuated towards the polar regions, while in the Z component the amplitude of QBO increases with increasing of the geomagnetic latitude. At the high latitudes, the QBO

  5. The quasi-biennial cycle of solar activity and dynamo theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E. P.; Yukhina, N. A.

    2013-10-01

    We have investigated the behavior of dynamo waves within the framework of a nonlinear αω-dynamo by taking into account the thickness of the convective zone, turbulent diffusivity, and meridional circulation. We show that there exists a regime in the model where short and longer patterns are simultaneously observed in the butterfly diagrams for the magnetic field. This regime is similar to the mixed cycle of the Sun, when fast quasi-biennial oscillations are observed against the background of the 22-year cycle.

  6. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1992--1993 (with an updated annotated bibliography)

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J.; Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L.

    1993-07-01

    This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1992 and 1993. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental research; resource assessment; research coat shared with industry; and technology transfer. The report also offers an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by persons in Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

  7. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1994--1995 with an updated annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, B.N.; Francfort, J.E.; Sommers, G.L.; Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1994 and 1995. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental Research; Resource Assessment; Research Cost-Shared with Industry; and Technology Transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

  8. A note on the modulation of Southern Oscillation-Southern Afican rainfall associations with the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, S.J.; Lindesay, J.A. )

    1993-05-20

    The authors look at correlations between the southern oscillation and rainfall in South Africa. Since the 1950's there has been a reasonably stable correlation, but there have been times when the correlation seems to have broken down. They look at the question of whether the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation can be involved in this correlation. There is a limited correlation found, but its evidence depends upon the westerly or easterly phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation, and only correlates certain seasonal conditions of the southern oscillation, South African rainfall data.

  9. The features of ozone quasi-biennial oscillation in tropical stratosphere and its numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. J.; Zheng, B.; Zhang, H.

    The interannual variation of the vertical distribiltion of ozone in the tropical stratosphere and its quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is analyzed Using HALOE data. The results are compared with the wind QBO. A numerical experiment is carried out to study the effects of wind QBO on the distribution, and variation OF ozone in the stratosphere by using the NCAR interactive chemical, dynamical, and radiative two-dimensional model (SOCRATES). Data analysis shows that the location of the maximum ozone mixing ratio in the stratosphere changes in the meridional and vertical directions, and assumes a quasi-biennial period, The meridional and vertical motion of the maximum mixing ratio leads to a QBO of column ozone and its hemispheric asymmetry. The QBO of the location of the maximum is closely connected with the zonal wind QBO. The data analysis also shows that in the tropical region, the phase of the QBO For ozone density changes many times with height. Numerical simulation shows that the meridional circulation induced by the wind QBO includes three pairs of cells in the stratosphere, which have hemispheric symmetry. The transport of ozone by the induced meridional circulation in various latitudes and heights is the main dynamic cause for the ozone QBO. Cells of the induced circulation in the middle stratosphere (25-35 km) play an important role in producing the ozone QBO.

  10. The features of ozone quasi—biennial oscillation in tropical stratosphere and its numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucjuan, Chen; Bin, Zheng; Hong, Zhang

    2002-09-01

    The inlcrunnual variation of the vertical distribution of ozone in the tropical stratosphere and its quasi—biennial oscillation (QBO) is analyzed using HALOE data. The results are compared with the wind QBO. A numerical experiment is carried out to study the effects of wind QBO on the distribution, and variation of ozone in the stratosphere by using (he NCAR interactive chemical, dynamical, and radiative two—dimensional model (SOCRATES). Data analysis shows that the location of the maximum ozone mixing ratio in the stratosphere changes in the meridional and vertical directions, and assumes a quasi—biennial period. The meridional and vertical motion of the maximum mixing ratio leads to a QBO of column ozone and its hemispheric asymmetry. The QBO of the location of the maximum is closely connected with the zonal wind QBO. The data analysis also shows that in the tropical region, the phase of the QBO for ozone density changes many times with height. Numerical simulation shows that the meridional circulation induced by the wind QBO includes three pairs of cells in the stratosphere, which have hemispheric symmetry. The transport of ozone by the induced meridional circulation in various latitudes and heights is the main dynamic cause for the ozone QBO. Cells of the induced circulation in the middle stratosphere (25-35 km) play an important role in producing the ozone QBO.

  11. Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1928-1930. Bulletin, 1931, No. 20. Volume II. [Chapter IV - Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education, United States Department of the Interior, 1932

    1932-01-01

    This document contains the four concluding chapters and index of the Biennial Survey of Education, covering the years 1928-1930. Chapter 4, Statistics of universities, colleges, and professional schools, 1929-30, is made up of three parts: (1) Personnel, receipts, and property (Emery M. Foster and Frederick J. Kelley); (2) Expenditures (Henry G.…

  12. Army Management Views: Report of the 4th Biennial Management Instructors' Seminar July 21-26, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Chester H.; And Others

    The report of the Fourth Biennial Management Instructors' Seminar (July 21-26, 1968) which deals with the improvement of management education in the Army, contains presentations of guest speakers and reports of seminar workshops. The former presents the components of management -- planning, decision-making, productivity, communication, and…

  13. The 17th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings of the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft tether, magnetic bearing suspension, explosive welding, and a deployable/retractable mast are also described.

  14. Electronics Manufacturing Seminar Proceedings. 17th Annual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    California Solderability Study of Sn/Pb Alloy After Artificial Aging by Electrochemical Reduction Analysis and Wetting Balance Tests...that Sn/Pb Nplating will be suitable, since not all solder alloys can be electroplated in this fashion. OPTIPAD*: A temporary polymer mold is used to...deposited metal alloy depends on the type of solder which is used in the OPTIPAD solder coating machine, and can be changed according to the requirements of

  15. Section 619 Profile. 17th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazara, Alex; Danaher, Joan; Kraus, Robert; Goode, Sue; Hipps, Cherie; Festa, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    With the passage of P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, now the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), and subsequent amendments, states and jurisdictions have made great strides in the provision of services to young children, ages 3 through 5 years, with disabilities. As of Fall 2007, America's…

  16. 17th International Microgravity Measurements Group Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Seventeenth International Microgravity Measurements Group (MGMG) meeting was held 24-26 March 1998 at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. This meeting focused on the transition of microgravity science research from the Shuttle, Mir, and free flyers to the International Space Station. The MGMG series of meetings are conducted by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project of the Microgravity Science Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The MGMG meetings provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas about the microgravity environment and microgravity acceleration research in the Microgravity Research Program. The meeting had participation from investigators in all areas of microgravity research. The attendees included representatives from: NASA centers; National Space Development Agency of Japan; European Space Agency; Daimler Benz Aerospace AG; Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt; Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales; Canadian Space Agency, national research institutions; Universities in U.S., Italy, Germany, and Russia; and commercial companies in the U.S. and Russia. Several agencies presented summaries of the measurement, analysis, and characterization of the microgravity environment of the Shuttle, Mir, and sounding rockets over the past fifteen years. This extensive effort has laid a foundation for pursuing a similar course during future microgravity science experiment operations on the ISS. Future activities of microgravity environment characterization were discussed by several agencies who plan to operate on the ISS.

  17. The 17th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period September 1980 to February 1981 is described. Included are reports on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area silicon sheet and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering, and operations. A report on and copies of visual presentations made at the Project Integration Meeting held at Pasadena, California on February 4 and 5, 1981 are also included.

  18. 17th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori

    2004-11-29

    It's not exactly Russian roulette, but scheduling October events outdoors is not risk-free, even in usually sunny California. An overflow crowd of more than 400 registered users, ALS staff, and vendors enjoyed a full indoor program featuring science highlights and workshops spread over two and a half days from October 18 to October 20. However, a major storm, heralding the onset of the San Francisco Bay Area rainy season, posed a few weather challenges for the events on the ALS patio.

  19. The potential for non-invasive study of mummies: validation of the use of computerized tomography by post factum dissection and histological examination of a 17th century female Korean mummy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Do-Seon; Lee, In Sun; Choi, Ki-Ju; Lee, Soong Deok; Oh, Chang Seok; Kim, Yi-Suk; Bok, Gi Dae; Kim, Myeung Ju; Yi, Yang Su; Lee, Eun-Joo; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2008-10-01

    The socio-cultural antipathies of some descendants with regard to invasive examinations of age-old human remains make permission for dissection of Korean mummies of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) difficult to obtain. Overcoming this obstacle necessitated the use of non-invasive techniques, such as multi-detector computerized tomography (MDCT) and endoscopic examination, enabling determination of the preservation status of internal organs of mummies without significantly damaging the mummies themselves. However, MDCT alone cannot clearly differentiate specific mummified organs. Therefore, in much the same way as diagnostic radiologists make their MDCT readings on living patients more reliable by means of comparison with accumulated post-factum data from autopsies or histological studies, examinations of mummies by invasive techniques should not be decried as mere destruction of age-old human remains. Rather, providing that due permission from descendants and/or other relevant authorities can be obtained, dissection and histological examination should be performed whenever opportunities arise. Therefore, in this study, we compared the radiological data acquired from a 17th century mummy with our dissection results for the same subject. As accumulation of this kind of data could be very crucial for correct interpretation of MDCT findings on Korean mummies, we will perform similar trials on other Korean mummies found in forthcoming days if conditions permit.

  20. The potential for non-invasive study of mummies: validation of the use of computerized tomography by post factum dissection and histological examination of a 17th century female Korean mummy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Do-Seon; Lee, In Sun; Choi, Ki-Ju; Lee, Soong Deok; Oh, Chang Seok; Kim, Yi-Suk; Bok, Gi Dae; Kim, Myeung Ju; Yi, Yang Su; Lee, Eun-Joo; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The socio-cultural antipathies of some descendants with regard to invasive examinations of age-old human remains make permission for dissection of Korean mummies of the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1910) difficult to obtain. Overcoming this obstacle necessitated the use of non-invasive techniques, such as multi-detector computerized tomography (MDCT) and endoscopic examination, enabling determination of the preservation status of internal organs of mummies without significantly damaging the mummies themselves. However, MDCT alone cannot clearly differentiate specific mummified organs. Therefore, in much the same way as diagnostic radiologists make their MDCT readings on living patients more reliable by means of comparison with accumulated post-factum data from autopsies or histological studies, examinations of mummies by invasive techniques should not be decried as mere destruction of age-old human remains. Rather, providing that due permission from descendants and/or other relevant authorities can be obtained, dissection and histological examination should be performed whenever opportunities arise. Therefore, in this study, we compared the radiological data acquired from a 17th century mummy with our dissection results for the same subject. As accumulation of this kind of data could be very crucial for correct interpretation of MDCT findings on Korean mummies, we will perform similar trials on other Korean mummies found in forthcoming days if conditions permit. PMID:19014355

  1. The proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Chelation: application of effective chelation therapies in iron loading and non iron loading conditions, and the gap in the prevention and treatment policies on thalassemia between developed and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2009-01-01

    Substantial progress in the use of chelating drugs for the treatment of iron overload and of non iron loading conditions has been presented during the 17th International Conference on Chelation (ICOC) held in November 2007 at Shenzhen, China. Major challenges lie ahead for the prevention and treatment of thalassemia in China, India, Thailand, Indonesia and many other developing countries where millions of heterozygote thalassemia carriers live and thousands of homozygote thalassemia patients are born annually. The progressive improvement of the economic climate in developing countries will increase the demand and resources for more prenatal and antenatal diagnoses, transfusions and chelation therapy in forthcoming years. Despite the major advances in diagnosis and treatment in developed countries, the vast majority of thalassemia patients in developing countries die untreated because they cannot afford the cost of transfusions and chelation therapy. New approaches and infrastructures and more efforts are needed to overcome the difficulties of supplying new techniques and treatments to patients in developing countries. International and local organizations need to be persuaded to act collectively and effectively to improve chelation and related treatments for thalassemia and other conditions, especially at this time that universally effective and inexpensive chelation therapies can be applied.

  2. A combined Raman microscopy, XRF and SEM-EDX study of three valuable objects - A large painted leather screen and two illuminated title pages in 17th century books of ordinances of the Worshipful Company of Barbers, London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, Tracey D.; Clark, Robin J. H.; Martinón-Torres, Marcos

    2010-07-01

    Raman microscopy has been used to identify the pigments decorating three valuable items owned by the Worshipful Company of Barbers (established in 1308 in London), one being a large leather screen dating to before 1712, the other two being illuminated title pages of books of ordinances of the Company dating to 1605 and 1658. Pigments which could not be fully characterised by this technique (particularly the green paints) have also been subject to XRF or SEM-EDX analysis. The combined analytical approach has shown that the pigments identified on all three items are typical of those in use as artists' pigments in the 17th C and include azurite, indigo, vermilion, red lead, pink and yellow lakes, verdigris, lead white, calcite (and chalk), gypsum, carbon-based black, and gold and silver leaf. However in the case of the screen alone, restoration in the 1980s has been carried out with different pigments - haematite, phthalocyanine green, rutile, and a mixture of azurite, malachite and barium sulfate. This work constitutes the first in-depth study of painted leatherwork and demonstrates that the palette used for this purpose is similar to that used on other works of art of the same date. It has also allowed the original colour schemes of the decorations to be determined where pigment degradation has occurred. The combined analysis has also provided a more complete understanding of the materials used for, or on, objects to which access is limited.

  3. Proceedings of the Biennial EO/EEO Research Symposium (2nd) Held in Cocoa Beach, Florida on December 2-4, 1997

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    PROCEEDINGS 2ND BIENNIAL EO/EEO RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM December 2-4, 1997 Cocoa Beach, Florida Sponsored by the Directorate of Research Defense Equal...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 298-102 USAPPC V1.00 PROCEEDINGS 2nd BIENNIAL EO/EEO RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM December 2-4, 1997 COCOA BEACH, FLORIDA...Proceedings Editor Published April 1998 Preface PROCEEDINGS 2nd BIENNIAL EO/EEO RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM December 2-4, 1997 COCOA BEACH, FLORIDA The EO/EEO

  4. A two-dimensional model of the quasi biennial oscillation of ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, L. J.; Pyle, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The largest amplitudes of the observed Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in column ozone are found in high latitudes and this must be taken into account in any explanation of the increased depletion of ozone in the southern polar spring during the 1980's. A QBO in zonal wind, temperature and column ozone has been successfully modelled in a two-dimensional dynamical/chemical model by the introduction of a parameterization scheme to model the transfer of momentum to the zonal flow associated with the damping of vertically propagating Kelvin and Rossby-Gravity waves. The largest anomalies in column ozone of approximately 20 DU are present at high latitudes. The equatorial ozone QBO is out of phase with the mid- and high-latitude ozone QBO, in good agreement with observations.

  5. The quasi-biennial oscillation of 2015-2016: Hiccup or death spiral?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkerton, Timothy J.

    2016-10-01

    Over the last 9 months, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of the equatorial lower stratosphere has deviated significantly from its normal behavior documented since 1953. Historically, the QBO has varied mainly in the duration of individual oscillation phases or, equivalently, the rate of azimuthal propagation in a 2-D phase space; in contrast, the oscillation in recent months seems to have ceased. Other features such as the magnitude of wind extrema, east-west phase asymmetry, and seasonal modulation have been fairly regular over all cycles save for the current one and its closest analog in 1960. Our comment on Newman et al. (2016) highlights features of the anomaly noted by them, contrasts this evolution with the standard QBO model, and draws attention to some unusual features of the 2015-2016 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm event.

  6. 250 years of hybridization between two biennial herb species without speciation.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Andrew; Emelianova, Katie; Hatimy, Abubakar A; Chester, Michael; Pellicer, Jaume; Ahmad, Khawaja Shafique; Guignard, Maité S; Rouhan, Germinal; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Leitch, Ilia J; Leitch, Andrew R; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V; Buggs, Richard J A

    2015-07-17

    Hybridization between plant species can generate novel morphological diversity and lead to speciation at homoploid or polyploid levels. Hybrids between biennial herbs Tragopogon pratensis and T. porrifolius have been studied in experimental and natural populations for over 250 years. Here we examine their current status in natural populations in southeast England. All hybrids found were diploid; they tended to grow taller and with more buds than their parental species; many showed partial fertility; a few showed evidence of backcrossing. However, we found no evidence to suggest that the hybrids are establishing as a new species, nor can we find literature documenting speciation of these hybrids elsewhere. This lack of speciation despite at least 250 years of hybridization contrasts with the fact that both parental species have formed new allopolyploid species through hybridization with another diploid, T. dubius. Understanding why hybrids often do not speciate, despite repeated opportunities, would enhance our understanding of both the evolutionary process and risk assessments of invasive species.

  7. Quasi-biennial oscillation signatures in the diurnal tidal winds over Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araújo, Luciana Rodrigues; Lima, Lourivaldo Mota; Jacobi, Christoph; Batista, Paulo Prado

    2017-03-01

    Mesosphere/lower thermosphere winds obtained by meteor radar over Cachoeira Paulista (22.7° S, 45.0° W), Brazil, have been used to investigate the interannual variability of the diurnal tidal (DT) wind amplitude. The monthly DT displays year to year variations and their amplitudes are strongest during the westerly phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) at the 30 hPa level. This can be observed in all seasons in the meridional component, whilst in the zonal component the signal is clearer during austral autumn, when the diurnal tide is strongest in this latitude. The spectrum obtained from the deseasonalized amplitudes shows a peak near 26 months in the meridional component, which can be associated to the stratospheric QBO. The QBO modulation of the DT amplitude shows a quasi-decadal variation, and it is stronger during the maximum of the solar cycle.

  8. Modulation of the boreal wintertime Madden-Julian oscillation by the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Changhyun; Son, Seok-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), the dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in the tropical troposphere, has a significant impact on global weather and climate. Here we present that the year-to-year variation of the MJO activity shows significant changes with the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the tropical stratosphere. Specifically, the boreal winter MJO amplitude, evaluated by various metrics, is typically stronger than normal during the QBO easterly phase at 50 hPa and weaker than normal during the QBO westerly phase at 50 hPa. This relationship, which is possibly mediated by the QBO-related static stability and/or vertical wind shear changes in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, is robust whether or not the activeness of the MJO or QBO is taken into account. This result suggests a new potential route from the stratosphere that regulates the organized tropical convection, helping to improve the prediction skill of the boreal winter MJO.

  9. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1996-1997 (with an updated annotated bibliography)

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, B.N.; Francfort, J.E.; Sommers, G.L.; Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    This report, the latest in a series of biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1996 and 1997. The report discusses the activities in the six areas of the hydropower program: advanced hydropower turbine systems; environmental research; hydropower research and development; renewable Indian energy resources; resource assessment; and technology transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

  10. A delayed action oscillator shared by biennial, interannual, and decadal signals in the Pacific Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Warren B.; Tourre, Y.M.; Barlow, M.; Dettinger, M.

    2003-01-01

    Biennial, interannual, and decadal signals in the Pacific basin are observed to share patterns and evolution in covarying sea surface temperature (SST), 18??C isotherm depth (Z18), zonal surface wind (ZSW), and wind stress curl (WSC) anomalies from 1955 to 1999. Each signal has warm SST anomalies propagating slowly eastward along the equator, generating westerly ZSW anomalies in their wake. These westerly ZSW anomalies produce cyclonic WSC anomalies off the equator which pump baroclinic Rossby waves in the western/central tropical North Pacific Ocean. These Rossby waves propagate westward, taking ???6, ???12, and ???36 months to reach the western boundary near ???7??N, ???12??N, and ???18??N on biennial, interannual, and decadal period scales, respectively. There, they reflect as equatorial coupled waves, propagating slowly eastward in covarying SST, Z18, and ZSW anomalies, taking ???6, ???12, and ???24 months to reach the central/eastern equatorial ocean. These equatorial coupled waves produce a delayed-negative feedback to the warm SST anomalies there. The decrease in Rossby wave phase speed with latitude, the increase in meridional scale of equatorial SST anomalies with period scale, and the associated increase in latitude of Rossby wave forcing are consistent with the delayed action oscillator (DAO) model used to explain El Nin??o. However, this is not true of the western-boundary reflection of Rossby waves into slow equatorial coupled waves. This requires modification of the extant DAO model. We construct a modified DAO model, demonstrating how the various mechanisms and the size and sources of their delays yield the resulting frequency of each signal.

  11. Time series in analysis of yerba-mate biennial growth modified by environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakocevic, Miroslava; Martim, Simoni Fernanda

    2011-03-01

    To assess differences in the lag-effect pattern in the relationship between yerba-mate biennial growth and environmental factors, a time-series analysis was performed. A generalized Poisson regression model was used to control time trends, temperature, growing degree days (GDD), rainfalls and night length (NL). It was hypothesized that the active growth and growth pauses in yerba-mate are controlled endogenously and modified by environment, and that genders would respond differently to environmental modifications. The patterns in the lag effect from the distributed-lag models were similar to those of time-series models with meteorological data means with lag = 0. GDD and NL were principal factors affecting biennial yerba-mate shoot elongation and the number of green leaves of females grown in monoculture, besides their significant effects on metamer emission and leaf area in males grown in monoculture. NL also had a significant influence on shoot elongation and leaf area of both genders grown in forest understorey (FUS), indicating that yerba-mate growth is synchronized by an internal clock sensitive to temperature adjustments. The morphological plasticity and the adaptation efforts of yerba-mate were more pronounced in monoculture than in FUS. Sexual dimorphism was expressed—males were more sensitive to environmental changes than females, especially in monoculture. Growth modifications were much more intense when plants were grown in a cultivation system that is less like yerba-mate natural habitat (monoculture) than in one resembling its natural habitat (FUS). Our data support the ecological specialization theory.

  12. Cribra orbitalia as a potential indicator of childhood stress: Evidence from paleopathology, stable C, N, and O isotopes, and trace element concentrations in children from a 17(th)-18(th) century cemetery in Jēkabpils, Latvia.

    PubMed

    Zariņa, Gunita; Sholts, Sabrina B; Tichinin, Alina; Rudovica, Vita; Vīksna, Arturs; Engīzere, Austra; Muižnieks, Vitolds; Bartelink, Eric J; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2016-12-01

    Cribra orbitalia (CO), or porotic hyperostosis (PH) of the orbital roof, is one of the most common pathological conditions found in archaeological subadult skeletal remains. Reaching frequencies higher than 50% in many prehistoric samples, CO has been generally attributed to a variety of factors including malnutrition (e.g., megaloblastic anemia) and parasitism. In this study, we tested the relationship between CO, trace element concentrations, and stable isotope values (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O) in subadult skeletons from a 17(th) to 18(th) century cemetery in the historic town of Jēkabpils, Latvia. A total of 28 subadults were examined, seven of which (25%) showed evidence of CO. Bioarchaeological evidence indicated high mortality for children in this cemetery: half of the burials were subadults under the age of 14, while a third were under the age of four. Life expectancy at birth was estimated to have been only 21.6 years. Trace element concentrations measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) showed no relationship between presence or absence of CO and levels of manganese, zinc, strontium, barium, copper, cadmium, or lead in the bones (p>0.05). However, a significant correlation (p<0.05) was found between the presence of CO and decreased levels of iron. The correlations between CO and decreased levels of copper and lead approached significance (p=0.056 for both elements). Individuals with CO furthermore displayed significantly lower δ(15)N isotope values, suggesting greater consumption of lower trophic level food resources than those unaffected by CO; δ(13)C and δ(18)O values, in contrast, showed no significant differences. These results suggest that the prevalence of CO may be related to dietary deficiencies. In this case, low iron levels may also signify a diet low in other key vitamins (e.g., B9 and B12), which are known to cause megaloblastic anemia.

  13. Magnolol Attenuates Concanavalin A-induced Hepatic Fibrosis, Inhibits CD4(+) T Helper 17 (Th17) Cell Differentiation and Suppresses Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation: Blockade of Smad3/Smad4 Signalling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongjun; Ju, Baoling; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhu, Yanfei; Nie, Ying; Xu, Yuanhong; Lei, Qiuxia

    2016-12-29

    Magnolol is a pharmacological biphenolic compound extracted from Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis, which displays anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study was aimed at exploring the potential effect of magnolol on immune-related liver fibrosis. Herein, BALB/c mice were injected with concanavalin A (ConA, 8 mg/kg/week) up to 6 weeks to establish hepatic fibrosis, and magnolol (10, 20, 30 mg/kg/day) was given to these mice orally throughout the whole experiment. We found that magnolol preserved liver function and attenuated liver fibrotic injury in vivo. In response to ConA stimulation, the CD4(+) T cells preferred to polarizing towards CD4(+) T helper 17 (Th17) cells in liver. Magnolol was observed to inhibit Th17 cell differentiation in ConA-treated liver in addition to suppressing interleukin (IL)-17A generation. Hepatic stellate cells were activated in fibrotic liver as demonstrated by increased alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin. More transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and activin A were secreted into the serum. Magnolol suppressed this abnormal HSC activation. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of Smad3 in its linker area (Thr179, Ser 204/208/213) was inhibited by magnolol. In vitro, the recombinant IL-17A plus TGF-β1 or activin A induced activation of human LX2 HSCs and promoted their collagen production. Smad3/Smad4 signalling pathway was activated in LX2 cells exposed to the fibrotic stimuli, as illustrated by the up-regulated phospho-Smad3 and the enhanced interaction between Smad3 and Smad4. These alterations were suppressed by magnolol. Collectively, our study reveals a novel antifibrotic effect of magnolol on Th17 cell-mediated fibrosis.

  14. Simultaneous analysis of T helper subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Tfh, Tr1 and Tregs) markers expression in periapical lesions reveals multiple cytokine clusters accountable for lesions activity and inactivity status

    PubMed Central

    ARAUJO-PIRES, Ana Claudia; FRANCISCONI, Carolina Favaro; BIGUETTI, Claudia Cristina; CAVALLA, Franco; ARANHA, Andreza Maria Fabio; LETRA, Ariadne; TROMBONE, Ana Paula Favaro; FAVERI, Marcelo; SILVA, Renato Menezes; GARLET, Gustavo Pompermaier

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators determines the stable or progressive nature of periapical granulomas by modulating the balance of the osteoclastogenic factor RANKL and its antagonist OPG. However, the cytokine networks operating in the development of periapical lesions are quite more complex than what the simple pro- versus anti-inflammatory mediators' paradigm suggests. Here we simultaneously investigated the patterns of Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Thf, Tr1 and Tregs cytokines/markers expression in human periapical granulomas. Methods The expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL23, IL21, IL-33, IL-10, IL-4, IL-9, IL-22, FOXp3 markers (via RealTimePCR array) was accessed in active/progressive (N=40) versus inactive/stable (N=70) periapical granulomas (as determined by RANKL/OPG expression ratio), and also to compare these samples with a panel of control specimens (N=26). A cluster analysis of 13 cytokine levels was performed to examine possible clustering between the cytokines in a total of 110 granulomas. Results The expression of all target cytokines was higher in the granulomas than in control samples. TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-21 mRNA levels were significantly higher in active granulomas, while in inactive lesions the expression levels of IL-4, IL-9, IL-10, IL-22 and FOXp3 were higher than in active granulomas. Five clusters were identified in inactive lesion groups, being the variance in the expression levels of IL-17, IL-10, FOXp3, IFN-γ, IL-9, IL-33 and IL-4 statistically significant (KW p<0.05). Three clusters were identified in active lesions, being the variance in the expression levels of IL-22, IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-33, FOXp3, IL-21 and RANKL statistically significant (KW p<0.05). Conclusion There is a clear dichotomy in the profile of cytokine expression in inactive and active periapical lesions. While the widespread cytokine expression seems to be a feature of chronic lesions

  15. QUASI-BIENNIAL OSCILLATIONS IN THE SOLAR TACHOCLINE CAUSED BY MAGNETIC ROSSBY WAVE INSTABILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V.; Carbonell, Marc; Oliver, Ramon; Ballester, Jose Luis E-mail: marc.carbonell@uib.e E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.e

    2010-11-20

    Quasi-biennial oscillations (QBOs) are frequently observed in solar activity indices. However, no clear physical mechanism for the observed variations has been suggested so far. Here, we study the stability of magnetic Rossby waves in the solar tachocline using the shallow water magnetohydrodynamic approximation. Our analysis shows that the combination of typical differential rotation and a toroidal magnetic field with a strength of {>=}10{sup 5} G triggers the instability of the m = 1 magnetic Rossby wave harmonic with a period of {approx}2 years. This harmonic is antisymmetric with respect to the equator and its period (and growth rate) depends on the differential rotation parameters and magnetic field strength. The oscillations may cause a periodic magnetic flux emergence at the solar surface and consequently may lead to the observed QBO in solar activity features. The period of QBOs may change throughout a cycle, and from cycle to cycle, due to variations of the mean magnetic field and differential rotation in the tachocline.

  16. HF radar observations of a quasi-biennial oscillation in midlatitude mesospheric winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Garima; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B. H.; Hibbins, R. E.; McWilliams, K. A.

    2016-11-01

    The equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is known to be an important source of interannual variability in the middle- and high-latitude stratosphere. The influence of the QBO on the stratospheric polar vortex in particular has been extensively studied. However, the impact of the QBO on the winds of the midlatitude mesosphere is much less clear. We have applied 13 years (2002-2014) of data from the Saskatoon Super Dual Auroral Radar Network HF radar to show that there is a strong QBO signature in the midlatitude mesospheric zonal winds during the late winter months. We find that the Saskatoon mesospheric winds are related to the winds of the equatorial QBO at 50 hPa such that the westerly mesospheric winds strengthen when QBO is easterly, and vice versa. We also consider the situation in the late winter Saskatoon stratosphere using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim reanalysis data set. We find that the Saskatoon stratospheric winds between 7 hPa and 70 hPa weaken when the equatorial QBO at 50 hPa is easterly, and vice versa. We speculate that gravity wave filtering from the QBO-modulated stratospheric winds and subsequent opposite momentum deposition in the mesosphere plays a major role in the appearance of the QBO signature in the late winter Saskatoon mesospheric winds, thereby coupling the equatorial stratosphere and the midlatitude mesosphere.

  17. The Quasi-biennial Oscillation and Annual Variations in Tropical Ozone from SHADOZ and HALOE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Thompson, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the tropical ozone mixing ratio perturbation fields generated from a monthly ozone climatology using 1998 to 2006 ozonesonde data from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) network and the 13-year satellite record from 1993 to 2005 obtained from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE). The long time series and high vertical resolution of the ozone and temperature profiles from the SHADOZ sondes coupled with good tropical coverage north and south of the equator gives a detailed picture of the ozone structure in the lowermost stratosphere down through the tropopause where the picture obtained from HALOE measurements is blurred by coarse vertical resolution. Ozone perturbations respond to annual variations in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation (BDC) in the region just above the cold-point tropopause to around 20 km. Annual cycles in ozone and temperature are well correlated. Above 20 km, ozone and temperature perturbations are dominated by the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO). Both satellite and sonde records show good agreement between positive and negative ozone mixing ratio anomalies and alternating QBO westerly and easterly wind shears from the Singapore rawinsondes with a mean periodicity of 26 months for SHADOZ and 25 months for HALOE. There is a temporal offset of one to three months with the QBO wind shear ahead of the ozone anomaly field. The meridional length scales for the annual cycle and the QBO, obtained using the temperature anomalies and wind shears in the thermal wind equation, compare well with theoretical calculations.

  18. To breed or not to breed: physiological correlates of reproductive status in a facultatively biennial iguanid.

    PubMed

    Vitousek, Maren N; Mitchell, Mark A; Romero, L Michael; Awerman, Jessica; Wikelski, Martin

    2010-02-01

    It is unusual for seasonal breeders to frequently skip opportunities for reproduction. We investigated the relationship between physiological state and reproductive decision-making in Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), a species in which females typically reproduce biennially, although the proportion of breeding individuals varies significantly across years. Nearly all adult-sized females initiated follicular development prior to the lekking period, but 38% of females resorbed all developing follicles 5-15 days before the start of copulations. Receptive and non-receptive females differed in reproductive hormones during the mate choice period. Testosterone peaked in receptive females immediately prior to copulation, indicating that testosterone or its derivative estradiol likely mediates female receptivity in Galápagos marine iguanas. Non-receptive females showed significant peaks in both testosterone and progesterone during follicular atresia, suggesting that these hormones may be involved in inhibiting vitellogenesis. Two to three weeks prior to the period of reproductive decision-making (and the onset of follicular atresia in non-receptive females) receptive females were in higher body condition, were developing larger follicles, and had lower levels of both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone. Reproduction is extremely costly in this long-lived species, and increases the likelihood of mortality in the year following breeding; females could therefore gain significant benefits from being attuned to indicators of reproductive success. We suggest that corticosterone may modulate reproductive decisions by altering individual sensitivity to both internal and external cues of the likelihood of successful reproduction.

  19. Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Conference of research on the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralston, Barbara E.

    2016-05-20

    The 12th Biennial Conference held in Flagstaff, Arizona, from September 16 to 19, 2013, covered a range of topics in the physical, biological, and socio-cultural sciences. The conference was organized and hosted by Northern Arizona University’s (NAU) Merriam-Powell Center for Environmental Research, the Colorado Plateau Cooperative Ecosystem Studies Unit, and the U.S. Geological Survey Southwest Biological Science Center. Financial and in-kind support was provided by a wide range of organizations including the U.S. Forest Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Grand Canyon Trust, Colorado Plateau Research Station, and various NAU entities. NAU sponsors include the Landscape Conservation Initiative, School of Forestry, School of Earth Science and Environmental Sustainability, Office of the Provost, and Office of the Vice President of Research. Contributors to these proceedings include researchers and managers from Federal, State, and Tribal governments, universities, private entities, and non-profit organizations. In this regard, this conference has wide-ranging support and participation among private and public entities involved in the science and management of natural resources on the Colorado Plateau.

  20. Tropical Waves and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in a 7-km Global Climate Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Laura A.; Alexander, M. Joan; Coy, Lawrence; Molod, Andrea; Putman, William; Pawson, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates tropical waves and their role in driving a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO)-like signal in stratospheric winds in a global 7-km-horizontal-resolution atmospheric general circulation model. The Nature Run (NR) is a 2-year global mesoscale simulation of the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5). In the tropics, there is evidence that the NR supports a broad range of convectively generated waves. The NR precipitation spectrum resembles the observed spectrum in many aspects, including the preference for westward-propagating waves. However, even with very high horizontal resolution and a healthy population of resolved waves, the zonal force provided by the resolved waves is still too low in the QBO region and parameterized gravity wave drag is the main driver of the NR QBO-like oscillation (NRQBO). The authors suggest that causes include coarse vertical resolution and excessive dissipation. Nevertheless, the very-high-resolution NR provides an opportunity to analyze the resolved wave forcing of the NR-QBO. In agreement with previous studies, large-scale Kelvin and small-scale waves contribute to the NRQBO driving in eastward shear zones and small-scale waves dominate the NR-QBO driving in westward shear zones. Waves with zonal wavelength,1000 km account for up to half of the small-scale (,3300 km) resolved wave forcing in eastward shear zones and up to 70% of the small-scale resolved wave forcing in westward shear zones of the NR-QBO.

  1. 250 years of hybridization between two biennial herb species without speciation

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Andrew; Emelianova, Katie; Hatimy, Abubakar A.; Chester, Michael; Pellicer, Jaume; Ahmad, Khawaja Shafique; Guignard, Maité S.; Rouhan, Germinal; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Leitch, Ilia J.; Leitch, Andrew R.; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V.; Buggs, Richard J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between plant species can generate novel morphological diversity and lead to speciation at homoploid or polyploid levels. Hybrids between biennial herbs Tragopogon pratensis and T. porrifolius have been studied in experimental and natural populations for over 250 years. Here we examine their current status in natural populations in southeast England. All hybrids found were diploid; they tended to grow taller and with more buds than their parental species; many showed partial fertility; a few showed evidence of backcrossing. However, we found no evidence to suggest that the hybrids are establishing as a new species, nor can we find literature documenting speciation of these hybrids elsewhere. This lack of speciation despite at least 250 years of hybridization contrasts with the fact that both parental species have formed new allopolyploid species through hybridization with another diploid, T. dubius. Understanding why hybrids often do not speciate, despite repeated opportunities, would enhance our understanding of both the evolutionary process and risk assessments of invasive species. PMID:26187604

  2. Abstract volume for the 2016 biennial meeting of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2016-10-20

    IntroductionEvery two years, scientists, natural resource managers, outreach specialists, and a variety of other interested parties get together for the biennial meeting of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO). Each time, the theme varies. In past years, we have focused the meeting around topics including monitoring plans, emergency response, geodesy, and outreach. This year, we spent the first half-day devoted to recent research results, plans for upcoming studies, and geothermal monitoring. On the second day, our focus switched to eruption precursors, particularly as they apply to large caldera systems.Very few large explosive eruptions from caldera systems have taken place in recorded history. Therefore, there are few empirical data with which to characterize the nature of volcanic unrest that might precede eruptions with volcano explosivity index (VEI) of six or greater. For this reason, we set up a series of talks that explore what we know and don’t know about large eruptions. We performed an informal expert elicitation (a frequently used method to characterize expert opinion) with a small number of our colleagues, which served as the basis for a productive discussion session.This short volume of abstracts and extended abstracts provides a summary of the presentations made at the YVO meeting held in Mammoth Hot Springs, Wyoming, on May 10–11, 2016.

  3. THE QUASI-BIENNIAL PERIODICITY AS A WINDOW ON THE SOLAR MAGNETIC DYNAMO CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect

    Simoniello, R.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Baldner, C.; Finsterle, W.

    2013-03-10

    Manifestations of the solar magnetic activity through periodicities of about 11 and 2 years are now clearly seen in all solar activity indices. In this paper, we add information about the mechanism driving the 2-year period by studying the time and latitudinal properties of acoustic modes that are sensitive probes of the subsurface layers. We use almost 17 years of high-quality resolved data provided by the Global Oscillation Network Group to investigate the solar cycle changes in p-mode frequencies for spherical degrees l from 0 to 120 and 1600 {mu}Hz {<=}{nu} {<=} 3500 {mu}Hz. For both periodic components of solar activity, we locate the origin of the frequency shift in the subsurface layers and find evidence that a sudden enhancement in amplitude occurs in just the last few hundred kilometers. We also show that, in both cases, the size of the shift increases toward equatorial latitudes and from minimum to maximum solar activity, but, in agreement with previous findings, the quasi-biennial periodicity (QBP) causes a weaker shift in mode frequencies and a slower enhancement than that caused by the 11-year cycle. We compare our observational findings with the features predicted by different models, that try to explain the origin of this QBP and conclude that the observed properties could result from the beating between a dipole and quadrupole magnetic configuration of the dynamo.

  4. Investigating solid waste production and associated management practices in private dental units

    SciTech Connect

    Kontogianni, S. Xirogiannopoulou, A.; Karagiannidis, A.

    2008-07-01

    In the municipality of Thessaloniki in 2006 mercury-bearing dental wastes were not managed properly by 80% of dentists and metal-bearing waste was handled in accordance with internationally established best management practices by less than 50% of dentists. Those results were documented through a biennial field-based research study that took place in private dental units within the Thessaloniki Urban Area. For quantifying the waste produced, structured questionnaires were used and interviews with dentists were performed. In the present work, results of this survey are presented; critical parameters and factors affecting the quantity and quality of the dental waste stream are reported together with the analysis and classification of dominant conditions and needs of the dental sector in the waste management field.

  5. THE DYNAMICS OF THE SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD: POLARITY REVERSALS, BUTTERFLY DIAGRAM, AND QUASI-BIENNIAL OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Vecchio, A.; Meduri, D.; Carbone, V.; Laurenza, M.; Storini, M.

    2012-04-10

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of the solar magnetic field has been investigated by using NSO/Kitt Peak magnetic synoptic maps covering the period 1976 August-2003 September. The field radial component, for each heliographic latitude, has been decomposed in intrinsic mode functions through the Empirical Mode Decomposition in order to investigate the time evolution of the various characteristic oscillating modes at different latitudes. The same technique has also been applied on synoptic maps of the meridional and east-west components, which were derived from the observed line-of-sight projection of the field by using the differential rotation. Results obtained for the {approx}22 yr cycle, related to the polarity inversions of the large-scale dipolar field, show an antisymmetric behavior with respect to the equator in all the field components and a marked poleward flux migration in the radial and meridional components (from about -35 Degree-Sign and +35 Degree-Sign in the southern and northern hemispheres, respectively). The quasi-biennial oscillations (QBOs) are also identified as a fundamental timescale of variability of the magnetic field and associated with poleward magnetic flux migration from low latitudes around the maximum and descending phase of the solar cycle. Moreover, signs of an equatorward drift, at a {approx}2 yr rate, seem to appear in the radial and toroidal components. Hence, the QBO patterns suggest a link to a dynamo action. Finally, the high-frequency component of the magnetic field, at timescales less than 1 yr, provides the most energetic contribution and it is associated with the outbreaks of the bipolar regions on the solar surface.

  6. Suboptimal temperature favors reserve formation in biennial carrot (Daucus carota) plants.

    PubMed

    González, María V; Sadras, Victor O; Equiza, María A; Tognetti, Jorge A

    2009-09-01

    In response to suboptimal temperatures, temperate annual plants often increase root:shoot ratios, build-up carbohydrates and display typical morphological and anatomical changes. We know less about the responses of biennials such as carrot. As a model plant, carrot has the additional feature of two functionally and morphologically distinct root parts: the taproot, which stores carbohydrate and other compounds, and the fibrous root system involved in acquisition of water and nutrients. Here, we analyze the effects of temperature (12 vs 25°C) on growth, carbohydrate accumulation and whole-plant morphology in two carrot cultivars. Our working hypothesis is that suboptimal temperature favors active formation of reserve structures, rather than passive accumulation of storage carbohydrates. In comparison with plants grown at 25°C, plants grown at 12°C had: (1) higher fibrous root:shoot ratio (13%) , (2) thicker (10-15%) and smaller (up to two- to three-fold) leaves, (3) lower leaf cuticular permeance (two- to four-fold), (4) higher taproot:shoot ratio (two-fold), (5) higher phloem:xylem ratios in taproot (two- to six-fold), (6) unchanged percentage dry matter content (%DMC) in leaves, petioles or fibrous roots and (7) higher %DMC in taproot (20%). However, %DMC of individual taproot tissues (phloem and xylem) was unaffected by temperatures and was consistently higher in the phloem (up to 30%). Therefore, the higher %DMC of whole taproots at 12°C was attributed solely to the increased development of phloem tissue. Carrot, therefore, shares many of the most conspicuous elements of temperate plant responses to low temperatures. Consistently with our hypothesis, however, carrots grown at suboptimal temperature promoted reserve structures, rather than the increase in carbohydrate concentration typical of most temperate annual species and woody perennials.

  7. Can irregularities of solar proxies help understand quasi-biennial solar variations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, A.; Le Mouël, J. L.; Shnirman, M.; Courtillot, V.

    2014-08-01

    We define, calculate and analyze irregularity indices λISSN of daily series of the International Sunspot Number ISSN as a function of increasing smoothing from N = 162 to 648 days. The irregularity indices λ are computed within 4-year sliding windows, with embedding dimensions m = 1 and 2. λISSN displays Schwabe cycles with ~5.5-year variations ("half Schwabe variations" HSV). The mean of λISSN undergoes a downward step and the amplitude of its variations strongly decreases around 1930. We observe changes in the ratio R of the mean amplitude of λ peaks at solar cycle minima with respect to peaks at solar maxima as a function of date, embedding dimension and, importantly, smoothing parameter N. We identify two distinct regimes, called Q1 and Q2, defined mainly by the evolution of R as a function of N: Q1, with increasing HSV behavior and R value as N is increased, occurs before 1915-1930; and Q2, with decreasing HSV behavior and R value as N is increased, occurs after ~1975. We attempt to account for these observations with an autoregressive (order 1) model with Poissonian noise and a mean modulated by two sine waves of periods T1 and T2 (T1 = 11 years, and intermediate T2 is tuned to mimic quasi-biennial oscillations QBO). The model can generate both Q1 and Q2 regimes. When m = 1, HSV appears in the absence of T2 variations. When m = 2, Q1 occurs when T2 variations are present, whereas Q2 occurs when T2 variations are suppressed. We propose that the HSV behavior of the irregularity index of ISSN may be linked to the presence of strong QBO before 1915-1930, a transition and their disappearance around 1975, corresponding to a change in regime of solar activity.

  8. The influence of solar variability and the quasi-biennial oscillation on sea level pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, I.; Haigh, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate an apparent inconsistency between two published results concerning the temperature of the winter polar stratosphere and its dependence on the state of the Sun and the phase of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO). We find that the differences can be explained by the use of the authors of different pressure levels to define the phase of the QBO. We identify QBO and solar cycle signals in sea level pressure (SLP) data using a multiple linear regression approach. First we used a standard QBO time series dating back to 1953. In the SLP observations dating back to that time we find at high latitudes that individually the solar and QBO signals are weak but that a temporal index representing the combined effects of the Sun and the QBO shows a significant signal. This is such that combinations of low solar activity with westerly QBO and high solar activity with easterly QBO are both associated with a strengthening in the polar modes; while the opposite combinations coincide with a weakening. This result is true irrespective of the choice of QBO pressure level. By employing a QBO dataset reconstructed back to 1900, we extended the analysis and also find a robust signal in the surface SAM; though weaker for surface NAM. Our results suggest that solar variability, modulated by the phase of QBO, influences zonal mean temperatures at high latitudes in the lower stratosphere and subsequently affect sea level pressure near the poles. Thus a knowledge of the state of the Sun, and the phase of the QBO might be useful in surface climate prediction.

  9. Interpreting SBUV Smoothing Errors: an Example Using the Quasi-biennial Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramarova, N. A.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Frith, S. M.; McPeters, R. D.; Stolarski, R. S.

    2013-01-01

    The Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV) observing system consists of a series of instruments that have been measuring both total ozone and the ozone profile since 1970. SBUV measures the profile in the upper stratosphere with a resolution that is adequate to resolve most of the important features of that region. In the lower stratosphere the limited vertical resolution of the SBUV system means that there are components of the profile variability that SBUV cannot measure. The smoothing error, as defined in the optimal estimation retrieval method, describes the components of the profile variability that the SBUV observing system cannot measure. In this paper we provide a simple visual interpretation of the SBUV smoothing error by comparing SBUV ozone anomalies in the lower tropical stratosphere associated with the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) to anomalies obtained from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). We describe a methodology for estimating the SBUV smoothing error for monthly zonal mean (mzm) profiles. We construct covariance matrices that describe the statistics of the inter-annual ozone variability using a 6 yr record of Aura MLS and ozonesonde data. We find that the smoothing error is of the order of 1percent between 10 and 1 hPa, increasing up to 15-20 percent in the troposphere and up to 5 percent in the mesosphere. The smoothing error for total ozone columns is small, mostly less than 0.5 percent. We demonstrate that by merging the partial ozone columns from several layers in the lower stratosphere/troposphere into one thick layer, we can minimize the smoothing error. We recommend using the following layer combinations to reduce the smoothing error to about 1 percent: surface to 25 hPa (16 hPa) outside (inside) of the narrow equatorial zone 20 S-20 N.

  10. Multidecadal variations of the effects of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation on the climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brönnimann, Stefan; Malik, Abdul; Stickler, Alexander; Wegmann, Martin; Raible, Christoph C.; Muthers, Stefan; Anet, Julien; Rozanov, Eugene; Schmutz, Werner

    2016-12-01

    Effects of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) on tropospheric climate are not always strong or they appear only intermittently. Studying them requires long time series of both the QBO and climate variables, which has restricted previous studies to the past 30-50 years. Here we use the benefits of an existing QBO reconstruction back to 1908. We first investigate additional, newly digitized historical observations of stratospheric winds to test the reconstruction. Then we use the QBO time series to analyse atmospheric data sets (reconstructions and reanalyses) as well as the results of coupled ocean-atmosphere-chemistry climate model simulations that were forced with the reconstructed QBO. We investigate effects related to (1) tropical-extratropical interaction in the stratosphere, wave-mean flow interaction and subsequent downward propagation, and (2) interaction between deep tropical convection and stratospheric flow. We generally find weak connections, though some are statistically significant over the 100-year period and consistent with model results. Apparent multidecadal variations in the connection between the QBO and the investigated climate responses are consistent with a small effect in the presence of large variability, with one exception: the imprint on the northern polar vortex, which is seen in recent reanalysis data, is not found in the period 1908-1957. Conversely, an imprint in Berlin surface air temperature is only found in 1908-1957 but not in the recent period. Likewise, in the model simulations both links tend to appear alternatingly, suggesting a more systematic modulation due to a shift in the circulation, for example. Over the Pacific warm pool, we find increased convection during easterly QBO, mainly in boreal winter in observation-based data as well as in the model simulations, with large variability. No QBO effects were found in the Indian monsoon strength or Atlantic hurricane frequency.

  11. On the relation among the solar activity, the quasi-biennial oscillation in the equatorial stratosphere and El Nino.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gul, Zhennian

    The possibility of a relation among Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) of zonal winds in the equatorial stratosphere, sunspot Wolf number and SST's in the eastern Pacific during the same interval are analyzed. The band filter and the wavelet method which are capable of finding local periods and amplitudes are used in the data processing. It is shown that the coherence estimates between the series of QBO in Wolf and in lower tropical stratosphere are of order of -0.6. A possible dynamical explanation for skip a beat of QBO linked El Nino suggested by Angel and Gray is presented. Solar activity is a hypothetical mechanism of this skip.

  12. Update on the diabetic foot 2012: the 14th biennial Malvern Diabetic Foot Conference, May 9-11, 2012.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Peter; Franklyn, Kerryn; Rayman, Gerry; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2013-03-01

    The 14th biennial Malvern Diabetic Foot Conference was held in May 2012. Physicians, podiatrists, nurses, orthotists, surgeons, radiologists, and other professionals attended to reflect on the diabetic foot. The conference comprised interactive workshops, oral presentations of new research findings, and lectures from leading figures in the world of the diabetic foot. Over the 3 days, topics such as epidemiology, neuropathy, screening, vascular disease, prevention, and management among others were discussed. The conference has been an excellent platform from which to share new and ongoing research and it will without a doubt improve the treatment of the diabetic foot across the world.

  13. A survey of EMS-induced biennial Beta vulgaris mutants reveals a novel bolting locus which is unlinked to the bolting gene B.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Bianca; Abou-Elwafa, Salah F; Zhang, Wenying; Jung, Christian; Müller, Andreas E

    2010-10-01

    Beta vulgaris is a facultative perennial species which exhibits large intraspecific variation in vernalization requirement and includes cultivated biennial forms such as the sugar beet. Vernalization requirement is under the genetic control of the bolting locus B on chromosome II. Previously, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis of an annual accession had yielded several mutants which require vernalization to bolt and behave as biennials. Here, five F2 populations derived from crosses between biennial mutants and annual beets were tested for co-segregation of bolting phenotypes with genotypic markers located at the B locus. One mutant appears to be mutated at the B locus, suggesting that an EMS-induced mutation of B can be sufficient to abolish annual bolting. Co-segregation analysis in four populations indicates that the genetic control of bolting also involves previously unknown major loci not linked to B, one of which also affects bolting time and was genetically mapped to chromosome IX.

  14. Hazardous Waste

    MedlinePlus

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  15. Can irregularities of solar proxies help understand quasi-biennial solar variations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, A.; Le Mouël, J. L.; Shnirman, M.; Courtillot, V.

    2014-03-01

    We define, calculate and analyze irregularity indices λWN and λaa of daily series of sunspot number WN and geomagnetic index aa as a function of increasing smoothing from N = 162 to 648 days. The irregularity indices λ are computed within 4 year sliding windows, with embedding dimensions m = 1 and 2. λWN and λaa display Schwabe cycles with sharp peaks not only at cycle maxima but also at minima: we call the resulting ~5.5 year variations "half Schwabe variations" (HSV). The mean of λWN undergoes a downward step and the amplitude of its variations strongly decreases around 1930. We observe changes in the ratio R of the mean amplitude of λ peaks at solar cycle minima with respect to peaks at solar maxima as a function of date, embedding dimension and importantly smoothing parameter N. We identify two distinct regimes, called Q1 and Q2, defined mainly by the evolution of R as a function of N: Q1, with increasing HSV behavior and R value as N is increased, occurs before 1915-1930 and Q2, with decreasing HSV behavior and R value as N is increased, occurs after ~1975. We attempt to account for these observations with an autoregressive (order 1) model with Poissonian noise and a mean modulated by two sine waves of periods T1 and T2 (T1 = 11 years, and intermediate T2 is tuned to mimic quasi-biennial oscillations QBO). The model can generate both Q1 and Q2 regimes. When m = 1, HSV appears in the absence of T2 variations. When m = 2, Q1 occurs when T2 variations are present, whereas Q2 occurs when T2 variations are suppressed. We propose that the HSV behavior of the irregularity index of WN may be linked to the presence of strong QBO before 1915-1930, a transition and their disappearance around 1975, corresponding to a change in regime of solar activity.

  16. Variation in flowering size and age of a facultative biennial, Aster kantoensis (Compositae), in response to nutrient availability.

    PubMed

    Kagaya, Mitsuko; Tani, Takashi; Kachi, Naoki

    2009-10-01

    Although the flowering of facultative biennials is size-dependent, flowering size varies markedly within a single population as well as among populations. In this study, 15 half-sib families of the facultative biennial Aster kantoensis were grown from seeds at three nutrient levels (low, medium, and high). A significant nutrient × family interaction effect was found for bolting size, and among-family variation in bolting size increased with decreasing nutrient level. Growth from bolting to flowering tended to be greatest at the high nutrient level. Such responses of bolting size and growth from bolting to flowering resulted in an increase in flowering size at the high nutrient level and a significant variation in its reaction norm among families. For flowering age, there was a significant interaction of nutrient × family, and its among-family variation increased with decreasing nutrient levels, as was the case with bolting size. These results indicate that genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity of bolting size with nutrient availability was one cause of the variation in flowering size and age in the A. kantoensis population on the floodplain with the spatially heterogeneous nutrient availability. Moreover, responses of growth from bolting to flowering to nutrient availability could enhance the variation in flowering size.

  17. Role of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in the Transport of Aerosols from the Tropical Stratospheric Reservoir to Midlatitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Wookap; Grant, William B.; Park, Jae H.; Lee, Kwang-Mog; Lee, Hyunah; Russell, James M., III

    1998-01-01

    The temporal evolution of the stratospheric aerosol distribution in the tropical stratospheric reservoir after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo was observed from 1992 to 1995 by the HALOE instrument on the UARS satellite. Since the spatial gradient of aerosol loading is large at the boundaries of the tropical stratospheric reservoir due to the volcanic aerosols, the effect of the meridional circulation on the distribution is seen clearly. The mechanism for dispersal of aerosol in the lower stratosphere from the tropics into midlatitudes strongly depends on the phase of the equatorial zonal wind. The time-latitude cross sections of the normalized distribution of aerosol on isentropic surfaces are used to observe the equatorial variation as well as change in meridional dispersal during the quasi-biennial period. Observed tropical stratospheric winds are used with a simple analytical dynamical model to examine transport processes of tracers from the tropics during several phases of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) from 1992 to 1995. The Lagrangian meridional circulation in the tropics is consistent with the vertical and meridional velocities correlated with the QBO in the zonal wind. We find that vertical motion plays a crucial role in vertical and subsequent meridional transport. The pattern of meridional divergence derived from the vertical velocity is closely related to the observed HALOE aerosol distributions and their temporal development in the equatorial region. The westerly (easterly) shear phase of the QBO is associated with sinking (rising) motions at the equator and subsequent poleward (equatorward) transport in the lower stratosphere.

  18. Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1928-1930. Bulletin, 1931, No. 20. Volume I. Chapter X: Hygiene and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Marie M.; Rogers, James Frederick

    1931-01-01

    This chapter on the "Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1928-1930" covers the following topic areas as they relate to hygiene and physical education: (1) White House conference; (2) A septennium of school health work; (3) Buildings and sanitation; (4) Heath examination; (5) Dental disease and treatment; (6) Ultra-violet light; (7)…

  19. Illinois Junior College Board Biennial Report, 1971-1972, to the Governor and the Members of the Illinois General Assembly. Report No. D-750.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    This biennial report of the Illinois Junior College Board contains data on the community college program during 1971 and 1972. The report discusses the following topics: Selected Data of Illinois Public Junior Colleges; Organization of Higher Education in Illinois; Highlights of the Activities of the Illinois Junior College Board in 1971 and 1972;…

  20. Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1930-1932. Bulletin, 1933, No. 2. Chapter VII: A Review of Educational Legislation, 1931 and 1932

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keesecker, Ward W.

    1933-01-01

    This bulletin provides the seventh chapter of the Biennial Survey of Education, 1930-32, which has been published in separate chapters dealing with specific segments of the educational system. The purpose of this publication is to make available information on educational legislation enacted during 1931 and 1932. Probably in no previous biennium…

  1. The Biennial Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Title III State Formula Grant Program: School Years 2006-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This is the third biennial report to Congress on the implementation of the "Elementary and Secondary Education Act's" Title III State Formula Grant Program (also known as the English Language Acquisition State Grants Program). This report provides information regarding the U.S. Department of Education's efforts to hold states accountable…

  2. The Biennial Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Title III State Formula Grant Program: School Years 2008-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This is the fourth biennial report to Congress on the implementation of the "Elementary and Secondary Education Act's" Title III State Formula Grant Program (also known as the English Language Acquisition State Grants Program). This report provides information reported by states to the U.S. Department of Education regarding services…

  3. Textile Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from textile industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as removing heavy metals in textile wastes, and the biodegradability of six dyes. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste.

  5. PREFACE: XTOP 2004 -- 7th Biennial Conference on High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holý, Vaclav

    2005-05-01

    The 7th Biennial Conference on High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction and Imaging (XTOP 2004) was held in the Prague suburb of Pruhonice, Czech Republic, during 7-10 September 2004. It was organized by the Czech and Slovak Crystallographic Association in cooperation with the Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Masaryk University, Brno, and Charles University, Prague. XTOP 2004 took place just after EPDIC IX (European Powder Diffraction Conference) organised in Prague by the same Association during 2-5 September 2004. The Organizing Committee was supported by an International Programme Committee including about 20 prominent scientists from several European and overseas countries, whose helpful suggestions for speakers are acknowledged. The conference was sponsored by the International Union of Crystallography and by several industrial sponsors; this sponsorship allowed us to support about 20 students and young scientists. In total, 147 official delegates and 8 accompanying persons from 16 countries of three continents attended our conference. The scientific programme of the conference was divided into 11 half-day sessions and 2 poster sessions. The participants presented 147 accepted contributions; of these 9 were 45-minute long invited talks, 34 were 20-minute oral presentations and 104 were posters. All posters were displayed for the whole meeting to ensure maximum exposure and interaction between delegates. We followed the very good experience from the previous conference, XTOP 2002, and also organized pre-conference tutorial lectures presented by experts in the field: `Imaging with hard synchrotron radiation' (J Härtwig, Grenoble), `High-resolution x-ray diffractometry: determination of strain and composition' (J Stangl, Linz), `X-ray grazing-incidence scattering from surfaces and nanostructures' (U Pietsch, Potsdam) and `Hard x-ray optics' (J Hrdý, Prague). According to the recommendation of the International Program Committee

  6. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Automotive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Guigard, Selma E; Shariaty, Pooya; Niknaddaf, Saeid; Lashaki, Masoud Jahandar; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher

    2015-10-01

    A review of the literature from 2014 related to automotive wastes is presented. Topics include solid wastes from autobodies and tires as well as vehicle emissions to soil and air as a result of the use of conventional and alternative fuels. Potential toxicological and health risks related to automotive wastes are also discussed.

  9. Department of the Navy FY 1990/FY 1991 Biennial Budget Estimates. Military Construction and Family Housing Program FY 1991. Justification Data Submitted to Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    resources needed to provide military families with adequate housing either through the private cnmmunitv or in government quarters. Navy and Marine Corps...Department of the Navy DTIC .l.LECTE SFEB 2 3 9jJ FY 1990/FY 1991 BIENNIAL Lo BUDGET ESTIMATES 0 (N MILITARY CONSTRUCTION AND FAMILY HOUSING PROGRAM...SUPPORT ’.. . .. ..... 13 ........................ I-, LU STATE LIST Department of the Navy FY 1991 Military Construction and Family Housing Program Summary

  10. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  11. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  12. Toward the breast screening balance sheet: cumulative risk of false positives for annual versus biennial mammograms commencing at age 40 or 50.

    PubMed

    Winch, Caleb J; Sherman, Kerry A; Boyages, John

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to: (1) Estimate cumulative risk of recall from breast screening where no cancer is detected (a harm) in Australia; (2) Compare women screened annually versus biennially, commencing age 40 versus 50; and (3) Compare with international findings. At the no-cost metropolitan program studied, women attended biennial screening, but were offered annual screening if regarded at elevated risk for breast cancer. The cumulative risk of at least one recall was estimated using discrete-time survival analysis. Cancer detection statistics were computed. In total, 801,636 mammograms were undertaken in 231,824 women. Over 10 years, cumulative risk of recall was 13.3 % (95 % CI 12.7-13.8) for those screened biennially, and 19.9 % (CI 16.6-23.2) for those screened annually from age 50-51. Cumulative risk of complex false positive involving a biopsy was 3.1 % (CI 2.9-3.4) and 5.0 % (CI 3.4-6.6), respectively. From age 40-41, the risk of recall was 15.1 % (CI 14.3-16.0) and 22.5 % (CI 17.9-27.1) for biennial and annual screening, respectively. Corresponding rates of complex false positive were 3.3 % (CI 2.9-3.8) and 6.3 % (CI 3.4-9.1). Over 10 mammograms, invasive cancer was detected in 3.4 % (CI 3.3-3.5) and ductal carcinoma in situ in 0.7 % (CI 0.6-0.7) of women, with a non-significant trend toward a larger proportion of Tis and T1N0 cancers in women screened annually (74.5 %) versus biennially (70.1 %), χ (2) = 2.77, p = 0.10. Cancer detection was comparable to international findings. Recall risk was equal to European estimates for women screening from 50 and lower for screening from 40. Recall risk was half of United States' rates across start age and rescreening interval categories. Future benefit/harm balance sheets may be useful for communicating these findings to women.

  13. Fin Whales in the Mediterranean Sea: Habitat Identification and Oceanographic Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Whales (Balaenoptera musculus) off California. Oral presentation by L. Irvine at 17l SMM Biennial Meeting in Capetown , South Africa Irvine, L., B.R...today, here tomorrow?’ Case studies of the elusive blue whale. 17th SMM Biennial Meeting in Capetown , South Africa Irvine, L., B.R. Mate. Diving...Whales and Marine Ecosystems: Past, Present and Future. 17th SMM Biennial Meeting in Capetown , South Africa Mate, B. A GPS-tag to monitor whale

  14. A Combined Analysis of the Observational Aspects of the Quasi-biennial Oscillation in Solar Magnetic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazilevskaya, G.; Broomhall, A.-M.; Elsworth, Y.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2014-12-01

    Solar quasi-biennial oscillations (QBOs) with the time scale of 0.6-4 yrs appear to be a basic feature of the Sun's activity. Observational aspects of QBOs are reviewed on the basis of recent publications. Solar QBOs are shown to be ubiquitous and very variable. We demonstrate that many features of QBOs are common to different observations. These features include variable periodicity and intermittence with signs of stochastisity, a presence at all levels of the solar atmosphere and even in the convective zone, independent development in the northern and southern solar hemispheres, most pronounced amplitudes during the maximum phase of the 11-yr cycle and the transition of QBOs into interplanetary space. Temporal weakening of solar activity around the maximum of the 11-yr cycle (Gnevyshev Gap) can be considered an integral part of QBOs. The exact mechanism by which the solar QBO is produced is poorly understood. We describe some of the most plausible theoretical mechanisms and discuss observational features that support/contradict the theory. QBOs have an important meaning as a benchmark of solar activity, not only for investigation of the solar dynamo but also in terms of space weather.

  15. The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation Based on Double Gaussian Distributional Parameterization of Inertial Gravity Waves in WACCM Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C.; Xue, X.; Dou, X.; Wu, J.

    2015-12-01

    The adjustment of gravity wave parameterization associated with model convection has made possible the spontaneous generation of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM 4.0), although there are some mismatching when compared with the observation. The parameterization is based on Lindzen's linear saturation theory which can better describe inertia-gravity waves (IGW) by taking the Coriolis effects into consideration. In this work we improve the parameterization by importing a more realistic double Gaussian distribution IGW spectrum, which is calculated from tropical radiosonde observations. A series of WACCM simulations are performed to determine the relationship between the period and amplitude of equatorial zonal wind oscillations and the feature of parameterized IGW. All of these simulations are capable of generating equatorial wind oscillations in the stratosphere using the standard spatial resolution settings. The period of the oscillation is associate inversely with the strength of the IGW forcing, but the central values of double Gaussian distribution IGW have influence both on the magnitude and period of the oscillation. In fact, the eastward and westward IGWs affect the amplitude of the QBO wind, respectively, and the strength of IGWs forcing determines the accelerating rate of the QBO wind. Furthermore, stronger forcing of IGWs can lead to a deeper propagate of the QBO phase, which can extend the lowest altitude of the constant zonal wind amplitudes to about 100 hPa.

  16. Patterns of Apoptosis and Proliferation throughout the Biennial Reproductive Cycle of Viviparous Female Typhlonectes compressicauda (Amphibia, Gymnophiona)

    PubMed Central

    Raquet, Michel; Brun, Claire; Exbrayat, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Typhlonectes compressicauda is an aquatic gymnophionan amphibian living in South America. Its breeding cycle is linked to seasons, characterized by a regular alternation of rainy and dry seasons. During a complex biennial cycle, the female genital tract undergoes a series of alternations of increasing and decreasing, governed by equilibrium of proliferation and apoptotic phenomena. Immunohistochemical methods were used to visualize cell proliferation with the detection of Ki67 antibody, a protein present in proliferative cells; terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and Apostain were performed to detect apoptotic cells on sections of ovaries and oviducts. In ovaries, both phenomena affect the germinal nests and follicles according to the cycle period. In the oviduct, the balance was in favor of proliferation during preparation for reproduction, and in favor of apoptosis when genital ducts regress. Apoptosis and proliferation are narrowly implicated in the remodeling of the genital tract and they are accompanied by the differentiation of tissues according to the phase of the breeding cycle. These variations permit the capture of oocytes at ovulation, always at the same period, and the parturition after 6–7 months of gestation, at a period in which the newborns live with their mother, protected in burrows in the mud. During the intervening year of sexual inactivity, the female reconstitutes body reserves. PMID:28025499

  17. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Radioactive waste is mounting at U.S. nuclear power plants at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Pursuant to statute and anticipating that a geologic repository would be available in 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into disposal contracts with nuclear utilities. Now, however, DOE does not expect the repository to be ready before 2010. For this reason, DOE does not want to develop a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) by 1998. This book is concerned about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, congressional requesters asked GAO to review the alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to an MRS facility, GAO assessed the likelihood of an MRSA facility operating by 1998, legal implications if DOE is not able to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund-from which DOE's waste program costs are paid-to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives.

  18. Otto von Guericke and 17th century cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, Eberhard

    Otto von Guericke's scientific method was based on reason and experimental science. His cosmology was embedded in theology and can be interpreted as a refutation of Descartes' worldview. He used Nicolaus Cusanus' theory of quantities in order to characterize space. The notion of space has to be distinguished from that of world or heaven. Forces play a crucial role in this respect described by Athanasius Kircher in his "Celestial Journey". Guericke read this work very diligently. In spite of some obvious similarities between Guericke's and Newton's scientific aims and methods there are crucial differences between the scientific convictions and results of these scholars.

  19. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  20. Final Report: 17th international Symposium on Plant Lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Christoph Benning

    2007-03-07

    This meeting covered several emerging areas in the plant lipid field such as the biosynthesis of cuticle components, interorganelle lipid trafficking, the regulation of lipid homeostasis, and the utilization of algal models. Stimulating new insights were provided not only based on research reports based on plant models, but also due to several excellent talks by experts from the yeast field.

  1. IL-17/Th17 Pathway Is Activated in Acne Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kelhälä, Hanna-Leena; Palatsi, Riitta; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Lehtimäki, Sari; Väyrynen, Juha P.; Kallioinen, Matti; Kubin, Minna E.; Greco, Dario; Tasanen, Kaisa; Alenius, Harri; Bertino, Beatrice; Carlavan, Isabelle; Mehul, Bruno; Déret, Sophie; Reiniche, Pascale; Martel, Philippe; Marty, Carine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Voegel, Johannes J.; Lauerma, Antti

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of inflammation in acne are currently subject of intense investigation. This study focused on the activation of adaptive and innate immunity in clinically early visible inflamed acne lesions and was performed in two independent patient populations. Biopsies were collected from lesional and non-lesional skin of acne patients. Using Affymetrix Genechips, we observed significant elevation of the signature cytokines of the Th17 lineage in acne lesions compared to non-lesional skin. The increased expression of IL-17 was confirmed at the RNA and also protein level with real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Luminex technology. Cytokines involved in Th17 lineage differentiation (IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL23p19) were remarkably induced at the RNA level. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-8, CSF2 and CCL20), Th1 markers (IL12p40, CXCR3, T-bet, IFN-γ), T regulatory cell markers (Foxp3, IL-10, TGF-β) and IL-17 related antimicrobial peptides (S100A7, S100A9, lipocalin, hBD2, hBD3, hCAP18) were induced. Importantly, immunohistochemistry revealed significantly increased numbers of IL-17A positive T cells and CD83 dendritic cells in the acne lesions. In summary our results demonstrate the presence of IL-17A positive T cells and the activation of Th17-related cytokines in acne lesions, indicating that the Th17 pathway is activated and may play a pivotal role in the disease process, possibly offering new targets of therapy. PMID:25153527

  2. The 17th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the Seventeenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. Session titles include Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing; Applied Biological Research; Bioprocessing Research; Special Topics Discussion Groups; Process Economics and Commercialization; and Environmental Biotechnology.

  3. 17th Environmental Quality Index: Troubling Times with Toxics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents a subjective analysis of the status of United States' natural resources, reviewing 1985's key environmental events, problems, and successes. Reports current conditions and/or dilemmas concerning wildlife, air, water, energy, forests, and soils. Provides both a public rating of the quality of life and a priority ranking of environmental…

  4. Forcing mechanism of the seasonally asymmetric quasi-biennial oscillation secondary circulation in ERA-40 and MAECHAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Ortiz, C.; Ribera, P.; García-Herrera, R.; Giorgetta, M. A.; García, R. R.

    2008-08-01

    The seasonality of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and its secondary circulation is analyzed in the European Reanalysis (ERA-40) and Middle Atmosphere European Centre Hamburg Model (MAECHAM5) general circulation model data sets through the multitaper method-singular value decomposition (MTM-SVD). In agreement with previous studies, the results reveal a strong seasonal dependence of the QBO secondary circulation. This is characterized by a two-cell structure symmetric about the equator during autumn and spring. However, anomalies strongly weaken in the summer hemisphere and strengthen in the winter hemisphere, leading to an asymmetric QBO secondary circulation characterized by a single-cell structure displaced into the winter hemisphere during the solstices. In ERA-40, this asymmetry is more pronounced during the northern than during the southern winter. These results provide the first observation of the QBO secondary circulation asymmetries in the ERA-40 reanalysis data set across the full stratosphere and the lower mesosphere, up to 0.1 hPa. The MTM-SVD reconstruction of the seasonal QBO signals in the residual circulation and the QBO signals in Eliassen Palm (EP) flux divergences suggest a particular mechanism for the seasonal asymmetries of the QBO secondary circulation and its extension across the midlatitudes. The analysis shows that the QBO modulates the EP flux in the winter hemispheric surf zone poleward of the QBO jets. The zonal wind forcing by EP flux divergence is transformed by the Coriolis effect into a meridional wind signal. The seasonality in the stratospheric EP flux and the hemispheric differences in planetary wave forcing cause the observed seasonality in the QBO secondary circulation and its hemispheric differences.

  5. Influence of solar UV irradiance on the quasi-biennial oscillation of zonal winds in the equatorial stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabis, I.; Troshichev, O.

    2006-12-01

    The vertical wind profiles in the equatorial stratosphere for 1953 2005 have been examined in relation to variations of solar F10.7 index to reveal influence of solar UV irradiance on the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of zonal winds. Previously it was shown (Gabis, I.P., Troshichev, O.A., 2005. QBO cycle identified by changes in height profile of the zonal winds: new regularities. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 67, 33 44) that Stage 1, with the easterly winds above 20 30 hPa and westerly winds below this layer, always starts in solstice (winter or summer) and can be of different but quite quantized (about 3, 9, or 15 months) duration. The present investigation shows that course of the subsequent, after Stage 1 beginning, evolution of the zonal winds depends on intensity of solar UV flux. The easterly winds descend below ˜30 hPa (Stage 2) only under condition of high level of the UV irradiance or steady increase of the UV flux happening in time of the first equinox in course of QBO cycle. If level of UV irradiance is low or UV flux decreases during the equinox, the easterly winds typical of the upper layer, do not descend below 30 hPa, and Stage 1 persists till next equinox. In other words, the stopping of easterly shear zone at ˜30 hPa is defined by the level of UV irradiance in a proper time. Since the length of the QBO cycle is determined by duration of Stage 1, the cycle length (24, 30, or 36 months) can be predicted setting the time of transformation from Stage 1 to Stage 2.

  6. The quasi-biennial periodicity (QBP) in velocity and intensity helioseismic observations. The seismic QBP over solar cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, R.; Finsterle, W.; Salabert, D.; García, R. A.; Turck-Chièze, S.; Jiménez, A.; Roth, M.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: We looked for signatures of quasi-biennial periodicity (QBP) over different phases of solar cycle by means of acoustic modes of oscillation. Low-degree p-mode frequencies are shown to be sensitive to changes in magnetic activity due to the global dynamo. Recently there has been reported evidence of two-year variations in p-mode frequencies. Methods: Long high-quality helioseismic data are provided by BiSON (Birmingham Solar Oscillation Network), GONG (Global Oscillation Network Group), GOLF (Global Oscillation at Low Frequency) and VIRGO (Variability of Solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillation) instruments. We determined the solar cycle changes in p-mode frequencies for spherical degree ℓ = 0, 1, 2 with their azimuthal components in the frequency range 2.5 mHz ≤ ν ≤ 3.5 mHz. Results: We found signatures of QBP at all levels of solar activity in the modes more sensitive to higher latitudes. The signal strength increases with latitude and the equatorial component also seems to be modulated by the 11-year envelope. Conclusions: The persistent nature of the seismic QBP is not observed in the surface activity indices, where mid-term variations are found only from time to time and mainly in periods of high activity. This feature, together with the latitudinal dependence, provides more evidence of a mechanism that is almost independent and different from the one that brings the active regions up to the surface. Therefore, these findings can be used to provide more constraints on dynamo models that consider a further cyclic component on top of the 11-year cycle.

  7. Seasonal and Interannual Variability of Mesospheric Semidiurnal Tides at mid- and High-Latitudes: Influence of Quasi Biennial Oscillation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, F. I.; Stober, G.; Chau, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The semi-diurnal tides (SDT) are the dominant component of the dynamical variations in the mid-and high-latitude mesosphere. These tides are known to influence the energy and momentum budget of the ionosphere thermosphere system. The seasonal and climatological studies of these tides are being made since long using systematic radio sounding measurements. Here in this study, meteor radar based horizontal wind observations during 2003-2014 from a high-latitude station, Andenes (69oN, 16oE) and during 2008-2014 from a mid-latitude station, Juliusruh (54oN, 13oE) are used to study the behavior of mesospheric SDTs. It has been observed that the amplitudes of SDTs are enhanced in both the stations during September equinox in all the years and after the March equinox in some years. Some earlier studies from low-latitudes, where quasi biennial oscillation (QBO) has maximum influence, showed SDT amplitude enhancement in both March and September equinox in all the years. Previous studies attributed such enhancements to be due to changes in the refractive properties of the medium arising from wind and temperature variations. In this study it has been observed that these enhancements in September equinox are below/above mean level for those years in which the low-latitude QBO wind at 50 hPa is westward/eastward (QBOe/QBOw). It is conjectured that a Holton-Tan type mechanism, wherein the equatorial Kelvin waves influence the high- and mid-latitude tidal and planetary waves, is responsible for lower values of the SDT amplitudes during September equinox of the QBOe phase cases. These results will be discussed with supporting evidence from reanalysis data and WACCM model simulations.

  8. Quasi-biennial oscillation modulation of the middle- and high-latitude mesospheric semidiurnal tides during August-September

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, Fazlul I.; Chau, Jorge L.; Stober, Gunter; Hoffmann, Peter; Hall, Chris M.; Tsutsumi, M.

    2016-05-01

    The seasonal and interannual variabilities of mesospheric semidiurnal tides (SDT) are investigated using specular meteor radar-based winds. The horizontal wind observations during 2003 to 2014 from a high-latitude station, Andenes (69°N, 16°E), and during 2008 to 2014 from a midlatitude station, Juliusruh (54°N, 13°E), are used. It has been observed that the amplitudes of mesospheric SDTs are enhanced at both stations during August-September of all the years. These enhancements show a systematic behavior with that of the low-latitude stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), which is characterized based on winds from radiosonde data. The SDT amplitude values during enhancement are below/above mean level for those years in which the QBO wind at 50 hPa is westward/eastward (QBOw/QBOe). The average SDT amplitudes during the August-September enhancement duration are found to vary hand in hand with the low-latitude QBO wind, suggesting QBO modulation of SDT. Stratospheric and lower mesospheric zonal wind perturbations from MERRA reanalysis data show weak local forcing in the Northern Hemisphere and indication of enhanced quasi-stationary planetary waves (SPW) in the Southern Hemisphere. Based on these observations and some earlier results, we hypothesize that the QBOw/QBOe wind damp/enhance the southern hemispheric SPW of wave number 1 (SPW1). This modulated SPW1 then interacts with the northern midlatitude and high-latitude SDTs to imprint the signature of QBO on them.

  9. The SPARC water vapour assessment II: comparison of annual, semi-annual and quasi-biennial variations in stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour observed from satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lossow, Stefan; Khosrawi, Farahnaz; Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Azam, Faiza; Bramstedt, Klaus; Burrows, John. P.; Dinelli, Bianca M.; Eriksson, Patrick; Espy, Patrick J.; García-Comas, Maya; Gille, John C.; Kiefer, Michael; Noël, Stefan; Raspollini, Piera; Read, William G.; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Rozanov, Alexei; Sioris, Christopher E.; Stiller, Gabriele P.; Walker, Kaley A.; Weigel, Katja

    2017-03-01

    In the framework of the second SPARC (Stratosphere-troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate) water vapour assessment (WAVAS-II), the amplitudes and phases of the annual, semi-annual and quasi-biennial variation in stratospheric and lower mesospheric water were compared using 30 data sets from 13 different satellite instruments. These comparisons aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the typical uncertainties in the observational database which can be considered in subsequent observational and modelling studies. For the amplitudes, a good agreement of their latitude and altitude distribution was found. Quantitatively there were differences in particular at high latitudes, close to the tropopause and in the lower mesosphere. In these regions, the standard deviation over all data sets typically exceeded 0.2 ppmv for the annual variation and 0.1 ppmv for the semi-annual and quasi-biennial variation. For the phase, larger differences between the data sets were found in the lower mesosphere. Generally the smallest phase uncertainties can be observed in regions where the amplitude of the variability is large. The standard deviations of the phases for all data sets were typically smaller than a month for the annual and semi-annual variation and smaller than 5 months for the quasi-biennial variation. The amplitude and phase differences among the data sets are caused by a combination of factors. In general, differences in the temporal variation of systematic errors and in the observational sampling play a dominant role. In addition, differences in the vertical resolution of the data, the considered time periods and influences of clouds, aerosols as well as non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects cause differences between the individual data sets.

  10. Emergence of a New Norovirus GII.4 Variant and Changes in the Historical Biennial Pattern of Norovirus Outbreak Activity in Alberta, Canada, from 2008 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Hasing, Maria E.; Preiksaitis, Jutta K.; Tellier, Raymond; Honish, Lance; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Pang, Xiaoli L.

    2013-01-01

    The public health impact of the emergence of new norovirus (NoV) strains is uncertain. A biennial pattern of alternating quiescent and epidemic levels of NoV outbreak activity associated with the emergence of new GII.4 variants was observed in Alberta, Canada, between July 2000 and June 2008. In this study, NoV genogroup I (GI) and GII strains isolated from 710 outbreak specimens in Alberta between July 2008 and January 2013 were characterized to update historical data. The seasonality and annual variation in NoV outbreak burden were analyzed over a 10-year period (July 2002 to June 2012). We found that GII.4-2006b had persisted as the predominant variant over three observation periods (July 2006 to June 2009) during which the biennial NoV outbreak pattern continued. The emergence of GII.4-2010 (winter 2009) was not associated with increased outbreak activity, and outbreak activity between July 2009 and June 2012 when GII.4-2010 predominated (67.5 to 97.7%) did not follow a biennial pattern. GII.4-2012 first emerged in Alberta in September 2011 and became predominant in observation period July 2012 to June 2013. NoV GI, relatively rare in past years, had a higher activity level (37.3%) as represented by GI.6 and GI.7 in the winter of 2012 to 2013. A higher proportion of GI outbreaks occurred in non-health care facility settings compared to GII. Our study suggests that factors other than new variants emergence contribute to the levels of NoV outbreak activity in Alberta. PMID:23637302

  11. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: WASTE CO- FIRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an overview of waste co-firing and auxiliary fuel fired technology and identifies the extent to which co-firing and auxiliary fuel firing are practised. Waste co-firing is defined as the combustion of wastes (e. g., sewage sludge, medical waste, wood waste, and agri...

  12. EDITORIAL: Special issue containing contributions from the Sixth Biennial Research Congress of The Eye and the Chip Special issue containing contributions from the Sixth Biennial Research Congress of The Eye and the Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessburg, Philip C.

    2011-06-01

    Once again Journal of Neural Engineering is devoting an issue to the field of visual neuro-prosthetics. These papers were presented at the Sixth Biennial Research Congress of The Eye and the ChipA 13 DVD set of all presentations at The Eye and the Chip 2010 is available from Carolyn Barth PhD, Detroit Institute of Ophthalmology, 15415 E Jefferson, Grosse Pointe Park MI 48230, USA, 313.824.4710, clbarth@dioeyes.org, held in Detroit in September 2010. In the last decade this field has metamorphosed from 'in all probability a foolish and impractical dream' to a device approved for implantation in Europe and pending approval in the United States, and from a handful of serious efforts to several dozen on every continent save for Antartica. A recent comprehensive volume, Visual Prosthetics [1], edited by Gislin Dagnelie of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, focuses closely on this subject and is a tremendous addition to the literature. In his preface Dr Dagnelie notes as follows. 'In the year 2000, the Detroit Institute of Ophthalmology had the inspiration to foster a new collaboration among visual prosthesis researchers, clinicians, and workers in low vision rehabilitation by creating and sponsoring a series of biennial meetings called 'The Eye and the Chip'. Successful beyond expectations, these meetings have become the premier gathering place for researchers from all parts of the world and from very different backgrounds. Invited speakers are scientists who are advancing the field, yet the scale and atmosphere allow all researchers, patients, and the media to come and be updated about progress over the past two years. More perhaps than at other scientific meetings, where investigators tend to gather within disciplines, participants at The Eye and the Chip are challenged to be open-minded, learn about and critique each other's work, and return home with fresh ideas for interdisciplinary approaches. The interdisciplinary character of this book reflects that

  13. Modeling the Observed Solar Cycle Variations of the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO): Amplification by Wave Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, Hans G.; Mengel, John G.; Huang, Frank T.; Chan, Kwing L.

    2007-01-01

    In several papers, the solar cycle (SC) effect in the lower atmosphere has been linked observationally to the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO) of the zonal circulation, which is generated primarily by small-scale gravity waves (GW). Salby and Callaghan (2000) in particular analyzed the QBO, covering more than 40 years, and discovered that it contains a large SC signature at 20 km. With our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM), we conducted a 3D study to describe the QBO under the influence of the SC, and some results have been published (Mayr et al., GRL, 2005,2006). For a SC period of 10 years, the relative amplitude of radiative forcing is taken to vary exponentially with height, i.e., 0.2% at the surface, 2% at 50 km, 20% at 100 km and above. Applying spectral analysis to filter out and identify the SC signature, the model generates a relatively large modulation of the QBO, which reproduces the observations qualitatively. Our numerical results demonstrate that the modulation of the QBO, with constant phase relative to the SC, persist at least for 60 years. The same model run generates in the seasonal variations a hemispherically symmetric Equatorial Annual Oscillation (EAO, with 12-month period), which is confined to low latitudes like the QBO and is also modulated by the SC. Although the amplitude of the EAO is relatively small, its SC modulation is large, and it is in phase with that of the QBO. The SC modulated EAO is evidently the pathway and pacemaker for the solar influence on the QBO. To shed light on the dynamical processes involved, we present model results that show how the seasonal cycle induces the SC modulations of the EAO and QBO. Our analysis further demonstrates that the SC modulations of the QBO and EAO are amplified by the GW interaction with the flow. The GW momentum source clearly shows a SC modulation that is in phase with the corresponding modulations of the QBO and EAO. By tapping the momentum from the upward propagating GWs, the QBO and EAO

  14. How the Affordable Care Act Has Improved Americans’ Ability to Buy Health Insurance on Their Own: Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, 2016.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Gunja, Munira Z; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Issue: Since 2001, long before the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey has examined health coverage and consumers’ experiences buying insurance and using health care. Goals: To examine long-term trends and to make comparisons before and after passage of health reform. Methods: Analysis of the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, 2016. Findings and Conclusions: There have been dramatic improvements in people’s ability to buy health plans on their own following the passage of the ACA. For adults with family incomes less than $48,500, uninsured rates dropped about 17 percentage points below their 2010 peak. Lower-income whites, blacks, and Latinos have experienced drops this large, though Latinos are uninsured at higher rates. Among working-age adults who had shopped for plans in the individual market and ACA marketplaces over the prior three years, the percentage who reported it was very difficult to find affordable plans fell by nearly half from 2010, prior to the ACA reforms, to 2016. Coverage gains are helping working-age Americans get the care they need: the number of adults who reported problems getting needed health care and filling prescriptions because of costs fell from a high of 80 million in 2012 to an estimated 63 million in 2016.

  15. Delisting a Hazardous Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page discussed the hazardous waste delisting process. A hazardous waste delisting is a rulemaking procedure to amend the list of hazardous wastes to exclude a waste produced at a particular facility.

  16. Waste management program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Current information on operations and development programs for the management of radioactive wastes from operation of the Savannah River Plant are reported. Process and equipment development studies are considered as well as surveillance and maintenance, waste concentration, low level effluent waste, waste tank evaluation, and tank replacement/waste transfer (formerly waste tank retirement). Criteria for the selection of sites for storage of waste forms produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility are described.

  17. Application of matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight mass spectrometry to the study of the proteinaceous binders in paint: blue paint composition in the series "The Life of Virgin" by Alonso Cano (17th century) as a case study.

    PubMed

    Romero-Pastor, Julia; Natalia Navas, Natalia Navas; Rodríguez-Simón, Luís; Lario-Simón, Antonio; Kuckova, Stepanka; Manzano, Eloísa

    2015-01-01

    The identification of proteinaceous materials in paint constituents provides very valuable information regarding the techniques used by the painter and the most suitable procedures for conserving and restoring their works. Although the analysis of proteinaceous materials is nowadays a common task when dealing with works of art, the reliable detection and identification of protein traces is still complicated, particularly when very small samples can be taken that may contain a mixture of different organic materials (oils, waxes, resins, gums etc.). We therefore proposed a proteomic approach to investigate protein materials in paintings at trace levels in order to obtain a better understanding of the painter's technique. After trypsin digestion of the paint samples, mass spectra were obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and they were compared with the Mascot database and with theoretical digested proteins. This study contributes to the knowledge about the technique used by Alonso Cano (Granada, Spain, 1601-1667), one of the most original and brilliant artists from the Spanish Golden Age (17th century), in the series called the Life of the Virgin (six paintings), part of the iconographic program about the life of the Virgin Mary, nowadays seen in the main chapel of Granada Cathedral. The objective of the present study was to test the use of proteinaceous material, mainly egg yolk, in the paint used by Cano, as suggested in previous research, although this would have been unusual at that time when most artists used oil paints. Based on the results of the analysis here presented, the use of protein in the binding media can most likely be excluded.

  18. Dairy Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pico, Richard F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the dairy industry covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) government regulations; (2) ion-plant control of dairy effluents; (3) dairy effluent treatment methods; and (4) research on dairy effluents. A list of 26 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Waste Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Marilyn; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that focus on waste reduction in the school and community. The ideas are divided into grade level categories. Sample activities include Techno-Trash, where children use tools to take apart broken appliances or car parts, then reassemble them or build new creations. Activities are suggested for areas including language arts and…

  20. Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1934-1936. Bulletin, 1937, No. 2. Volume I. Chapter VI: Effects of the Depression upon Public Elementary and Secondary Schools and upon Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffenbaugh, W. S.

    1938-01-01

    During the period when the economic depression was most serious having the effect upon schools, the Office of Education presented relevant data in a number of different publications. This chapter of the Biennial Survey of Education reviews the most significant findings in those publications and draws them together as a permanent report of some of…

  1. AFMLTA 19th Biennial Conference Horwood Address: Accomplished Teaching of Languages and Cultures Doesn't Happen by Chance: Reflective Journal Entries of a "Returnee" to the Learner Seat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbon, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    The following is the text of the Horwood Address delivered by Associate Professor Lesley Harbon from the University of Sydney at the AFMLTA Biennial Conference in Canberra 2013. The focus of the Address is accomplished teaching of languages and cultures, known to us all through the AFMLTA's work on Professional Standards published in 2005.…

  2. Earthlinks '97: Proceedings of the Biennial National Conference of the Australian Association for Environmental Education and the Marine Education Society of Australasia (9th, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, January 13-17, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, John J., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 9th Biennial National Conference of the Australian Association for Environmental Education and the Marine Society of Australasia. The contents provide a valuable snapshot of the state of environmental education in Australia while moving towards the end of the 20th century. Papers include: (1)…

  3. Research in Outdoor Education, Volume 6. A Peer-Reviewed Publication of Scholarship First Presented at the Biennial Research Symposium of the Coalition for Education in the Outdoors (6th, Bradford Woods, Indiana, January 11-13, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialeschki, M. Deborah, Ed.; Henderson, Karla A., Ed.; Young, Anderson B., Ed.; Andrejewski, Robert G., Ed.

    This volume contains peer-reviewed research articles and abstracts based on papers presented at the sixth biennial research symposium of the Coalition for Education in the Outdoors. Introductory materials include the editors' introduction, "Milestones in Outdoor Education" (Anderson B. Young), and a tribute to the founder of the Indiana University…

  4. Threshold Concepts: From Personal Practice to Communities of Practice. Proceedings of the National Academy's Sixth Annual Conference and the Fourth Biennial Threshold Concepts Conference [E-publication] (Dublin, Ireland, June 27-29, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Catherine, Ed.; Buchanan, Avril, Ed.; O'Rourke, Mary, Ed.; Higgs, Bettie, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The 6th Annual Conference of the National Academy for the Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NAIRTL) and the 4th Biennial Threshold Concepts Conference was held at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, on June 27-29, 2012. The NAIRTL is a collaborative initiative between University College Cork, Cork Institute of Technology, National…

  5. Mixed waste minimization/mixed waste avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Todisco, L.R.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes methods for the minimization and volume reduction of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. Many methods are presented including: source reduction, better waste monitoring activities, waste segregation, recycling, administrative controls, and optimization of waste-generating processes.

  6. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses how, as part of the Department of Energy's implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, DOE is required to investigate a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and, if it determines that the site is suitable, recommend to the President its selection for a nuclear waste repository. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in considering development of the plan, issued five objections, one of which is DOE's failure to recognize the range of alternative conceptual models of the Yucca Mountain site that can be supported by the limited existing technical data. At the end of the quarter DOE directed its project offices in Washington and Texas to begin orderly phase-out of all site-specific repository activities. Costs for this phase-out are $53 million for the Deaf Smith site and $85 million for the Hanford site.

  7. Maintaining health insurance during a recession: likely COBRA eligibility: an updated analysis using the Commonwealth Fund 2007 Biennial Health Insurance Survey.

    PubMed

    Doty, Michelle; Rustgi, Sheila D; Schoen, Cathy; Collins, Sara R

    2009-01-01

    As the U.S. economic downturn continues and job losses mount, more working Americans are likely to lose access to affordable health benefits subsidized by their employers. Analysis of the 2007 Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey finds that two of three working adults would be eligible to extend job-based coverage, under the 1985 Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) if they became unemployed. Under COBRA, however, unemployed workers would have to pay four to six times their current contribution at a time of sharply reduced income. In fact, the latest national figures indicate that, because of high premiums, only 9 percent of unemployed workers have COBRA coverage. Substantial financial assistance of 75 percent to 85 percent of premiums could help laid-off workers maintain coverage. In addition, expansion of Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program would benefit low-income, laid-off workers and their families who are ineligible for COBRA.

  8. A quarter century of research on the Colorado Plateau: a compilation of the Colorado Plateau Biennial Conference Proceedings for 1993-2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Riper, Charles; Drost, Charles A.; Selleck, S. Shane

    2015-01-01

    This Open-File Report is a compilation of the work published in the Colorado Plateau Biennial Conference book series over the span of the past nearly quarter century (conferences held between 1991–2011). The primary focus of the conferences has been to work toward integrating new science findings into management of the region’s natural and cultural resources. This conference and book series has begun a tradition of cooperation and community, bridging cultural, social, and biophysical research interests and addressing the needs of scientists and land managers working in a complex geographic area. We include here the abstracts for each of the 11 books in the series, as well as links to files with comprehensive literature citations and author listings. The goal of this compilation is to encourage further cooperation and communication on research and management issues of the Colorado Plateau among researchers, land managers, Native American tribes, and the public.   

  9. Waste from food processors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, K.

    1993-12-01

    Food processing companies, by nature of the commodities they deal in and the products they provide, generate a much higher percentage of biodegradable, organic wastes than they do nonorganic wastes. The high percentage of food materials, and to a lesser extent, paper, found in a food processor's waste stream makes composting a highly cost-effective way to manage the wastes. This is the last in a series of articles that discussed solid waste management in various public arenas. Each segment highlighted particulars -- the waste stream; how the waste is handled; waste reduction and recovery programs; and the direction of future waste management -- that are specific to that area.

  10. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  11. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  12. Waste remediation

    DOEpatents

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-12-29

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  13. Waste remediation

    DOEpatents

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-01-17

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  14. Waste Reduction Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help solid waste planners and organizations track/report GHG emissions reductions from various waste management practices. To assist in calculating GHG emissions of baseline and alternative waste management practices and provide the history of WARM.

  15. Hazardous Waste Generators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many industries generate hazardous waste. EPA regulates hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to ensure these wastes are managed in ways that are protective of human health and the environment.

  16. WASTE RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Waste Research Strategy covers research necessary to support both the proper management of solid and hazardous wastes and the effective remediation of contaminated waste sites. This research includes improving the assessment of existing environmental risks, as well as develop...

  17. Waste Characterization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.; Naranjo, Felicia Danielle

    2016-02-02

    This report discusses ways to classify waste as outlined by LANL. Waste Generators must make a waste determination and characterize regulated waste by appropriate analytical testing or use of acceptable knowledge (AK). Use of AK for characterization requires several source documents. Waste characterization documentation must be accurate, sufficient, and current (i.e., updated); relevant and traceable to the waste stream’s generation, characterization, and management; and not merely a list of information sources.

  18. Chemical Waste and Allied Products.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yung-Tse; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Ramli, Siti Fatihah; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Lian-Huey; Huhnke, Christopher Robert

    2016-10-01

    This review of literature published in 2015 focuses on waste related to chemical and allied products. The topics cover the waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic granular, aerobic waste treatment, anaerobic granular, anaerobic waste treatment, chemical waste, chemical wastewater, fertilizer waste, fertilizer wastewater, pesticide wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, ozonation. cosmetics waste, groundwater remediation, nutrient removal, nitrification denitrification, membrane biological reactor, and pesticide waste.

  19. Evaluation of lignocellulosic wastes for production of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Rani, P; Kalyani, N; Prathiba, K

    2008-12-01

    The degradation of lignocellulosic wastes such as paddy straw, sorghum stalk, and banana pseudostem was investigated during solid-state fermentation by edible mushrooms Pleurotus eous and Lentinus connotus. Biological efficiency of 55-65% was observed in paddy straw followed by sorghum stalk (45%) and banana pseudostem (33%) for both fungal species. The activity of extracellular enzymes, namely cellulase, polyphenol oxidase, and laccase, together with the content of cellulose, lignin, and phenols, was studied in spent substrates on seventh, 17th, and 27th days of spawning, and these values were used as indicators of the extent of lignocellulosic degradation by mushroom. Both the mushroom species proved to be efficient degraders of lignocellulosic biomass of paddy straw and sorghum stalk, and the extent of cellulose degradation was 63-72% of dry weight (d.w.), and lignin degradation was 23-30% of the d.w. In banana pseudostem, the extent of the degradation was observed to be only 15-22% of the d.w. for both lignin and cellulose. Preferential removal of cellulose during initial growth period and delayed degradation of lignin were observed in all three substrates. This is associated with decrease in activity of cellulase and polyphenol oxidase and increase in laccase activity with spawn aging in spent substrates. Thus, bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass by P. eous and L. connotus offers a promising way to convert low-quality biomass into an improved human food.

  20. Frequent Questions About Universal Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Frequent questions such as Who is affected by the universal waste regulations? What is “mercury-containing equipment”? How are waste batteries managed under universal waste? How are waste pesticides managed under universal waste?

  1. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  2. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  3. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation.

  4. Hazardous Waste Manifest System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s hazardous waste manifest system is designed to track hazardous waste from the time it leaves the generator facility where it was produced, until it reaches the off-site waste management facility that will store, treat, or dispose of the waste.

  5. Waste management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Jorgensen, G. K.

    1975-01-01

    The function of the waste management system was to control the disposition of solid and liquid wastes and waste stowage gases. The waste management system consisting of a urine subsystem and a fecal subsystem is described in detail and its overall performance is evaluated. Recommendations for improvement are given.

  6. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-01-06

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source special nuclear and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this document. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. This document has been revised to meet the interim status waste analysis plan requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173 303-300(5). When the final status permit is issued, permit conditions will be incorporated and this document will be revised accordingly.

  7. 1993 International conference on nuclear waste management and environmental remediation, Prague, Czech Republic, September 5--11, 1993. Combined foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.; Allen, R.E.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the trip was to attend the 1993 International Conference on Nuclear Waste Management and Environmental Remediation. The principal objective of this conference was to facilitate a truly international exchange of information on the management of nuclear wastes as well as contaminated facilities and sites emanating from nuclear operations. The conference was sponsored by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Czech and Slovak Mechanical Engineering Societies, and the Czech and Slovak Nuclear Societies in cooperation with the Commission of the European Communities, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the OECD Nuclear Agency. The conference was cosponsored by the American Nuclear Society, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, the Canadian Nuclear Society, the (former USSR) Nuclear Society, and the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. This was the fourth in a series of biennial conferences, which started in Hong Kong, in 1987. This report summarizes shared aspects of the trip; however, each traveler`s observations and recommendations are reported separately.

  8. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  9. The solid waste dilemma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amey, E.B.; Russell, J.A.; Hurdelbrink, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    In 1976, the U.S. Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to further address the problem of increasing industrial and municipal waste. The main objectives of RCRA were to responsibly manage hazardous and solid waste and to procure materials made from recovered wastes. To fulfill these objectives, four main programs of waste management were developed. These programs were defined under Subtitle C, the Hazardous Waste Program; Subtitle D, the Solid Waste Program; Subtitle I, the Underground Storage Tank Program; and Subtitle J, the Medical Waste Program. Subtitle D illustrates the solid waste dilemma occurring in the United States. Under this program, states are encouraged to develop and implement their own waste management plans. These plans include the promotion of recycling solid wastes and the closing and upgrading of all environmentally unsound dumps. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  10. Understanding radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  11. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  12. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  13. Nuclear waste solidification

    DOEpatents

    Bjorklund, William J.

    1977-01-01

    High level liquid waste solidification is achieved on a continuous basis by atomizing the liquid waste and introducing the atomized liquid waste into a reaction chamber including a fluidized, heated inert bed to effect calcination of the atomized waste and removal of the calcined waste by overflow removal and by attrition and elutriation from the reaction chamber, and feeding additional inert bed particles to the fluidized bed to maintain the inert bed composition.

  14. Industrial waste pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics and effects of industrial waste pollution in the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of inorganic and organic pollution entering the bay are described. The four types of pollutants are defined as: (1) inorganic chemical wastes, (2) naturally occurring organic wastes, (3) synthetic organic wastes (exotics) and (4) thermal effluents. The ecological behavior of industrial wastes in the surface waters is analyzed with respect to surface film phenomena, interfacial phenomena, and benthis phenomena

  15. The Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhart, Benjamin J.

    1978-01-01

    The highlights of a symposium held in October, 1977 spotlight some problems and solutions. Topics include wastes from coal technologies, radioactive wastes, and industrial and agricultural wastes. (BB)

  16. Stream measurement work: Chapter 7 in Fifteenth biennial report of the State Engineer to the governor of Utah: 1925-1926

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purton, A.B.

    1926-01-01

    The general stream measurement work has been continued during the biennium by the United States Geological Survey under cooperative agreement with the State Engineer. This agreement is essentially the same as that outlined in previous reports and the details of the stream gauging operations carried on under these agreements can be found in the biennial reports of the State Engineer.The data collected are published in the annual water supply papers of the United States Geological Survey which contain stream flow records for the whole United States including Alaska and Hawaii. For convenience and uniformity in publications the United States has been divided into 12 primary drainage basins and the results of stream measurements are published annually in a series of progress reports that correspond to these twelve divisions. Data for Utah appear in two of these: the Great Basin and the Colorado River basin reports. A complete set of these publications is on fine at the district office of the Geological Survey, 313 Federal Building, Salt Lake City, where the data in advance of publication are also available.

  17. Simulation of the combined effects of solar cycle, quasi-biennial oscillation, and volcanic forcing on stratospheric ozone changes in recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Smith, A. K.

    2003-01-01

    Stratospheric ozone responses to the 11-year solar flux variation are calculated from two different decadal scale satellite ozone data sets by multiple regression analysis. The results show consistent dipole structures with solar regression coefficients that are positive in midlatitudes and negative in the equatorial lower stratospheric region. Because of the limited duration of the data record, the regression analysis may not completely separate variability from other processes. Other phenomena that could contribute to the observed pattern include the ozone variations associated with the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and with two major volcanic eruptions: El Chichón in 1982 and Mount Pinatubo in 1991. A fully interactive NCAR two-dimensional chemical-dynamical-radiative model (Simulation of Chemistry, Radiation, and Transport of Environmentally Important Species (SOCRATES)) is used to investigate the effects of the equatorial QBO and the major volcanic eruptions on the 11-year solar cycle analysis. When both effects are considered in the model simulation, the resulting ozone solar signal shows a dipole pattern similar to that observed. When the 11-year solar flux variation is considered as the only external forcing, the resulting ozone solar cycle shows a monopole structure whose maximum is located in the equatorial upper stratosphere and whose response is uniformly positive.

  18. Next generation metronomic chemotherapy—report from the Fifth Biennial International Metronomic and Anti-angiogenic Therapy Meeting, 6–8 May 2016, Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Pantziarka, Pan; Hutchinson, Lisa; André, Nicolas; Benzekry, Sébastien; Bertolini, Francesco; Bhattacharjee, Atanu; Chiplunkar, Shubhada; Duda, Dan G.; Gota, Vikram; Gupta, Sudeep; Joshi, Amit; Kannan, Sadhana; Kerbel, Robert; Kieran, Mark; Palazzo, Antonella; Parikh, Aparna; Pasquier, Eddy; Patil, Vijay; Prabhash, Kumar; Shaked, Yuval; Sholler, Giselle Saulnier; Sterba, Jaroslav; Waxman, David J.; Banavali, Shripad

    2016-01-01

    The 5th Biennial Metronomic and Anti-angiogenic Therapy Meeting was held on 6th – 8th May in the Indian city of Mumbai. The meeting brought together a wide range of clinicians and researchers interested in metronomic chemotherapy, anti-angiogenics, drug repurposing and combinations thereof. Clinical experiences, including many from India, were reported and discussed in three symposia covering breast cancer, head and neck cancers and paediatrics. On the pre-clinical side research into putative mechanisms of action, and the interactions between low dose metronomic chemotherapy and angiogenesis and immune responses, were discussed in a number of presentations. Drug repurposing was discussed both in terms of clinical results, particularly with respect to angiosarcoma and high-risk neuroblastoma, and in pre-clinical settings, particularly the potential for peri-operative interventions. However, it was clear that there remain a number of key areas of challenge, particularly in terms of definitions, perceptions in the wider oncological community, mechanisms of action and predictive biomarkers. While the potential for metronomics and drug repurposing in low and middle income countries remains a key theme, it is clear that there is also considerable potential for clinically relevant improvements in patient outcomes even in high income economies. PMID:27994645

  19. Next generation metronomic chemotherapy-report from the Fifth Biennial International Metronomic and Anti-angiogenic Therapy Meeting, 6-8 May 2016, Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Pantziarka, Pan; Hutchinson, Lisa; André, Nicolas; Benzekry, Sébastien; Bertolini, Francesco; Bhattacharjee, Atanu; Chiplunkar, Shubhada; Duda, Dan G; Gota, Vikram; Gupta, Sudeep; Joshi, Amit; Kannan, Sadhana; Kerbel, Robert; Kieran, Mark; Palazzo, Antonella; Parikh, Aparna; Pasquier, Eddy; Patil, Vijay; Prabhash, Kumar; Shaked, Yuval; Sholler, Giselle Saulnier; Sterba, Jaroslav; Waxman, David J; Banavali, Shripad

    2016-01-01

    The 5(th) Biennial Metronomic and Anti-angiogenic Therapy Meeting was held on 6(th) - 8(th) May in the Indian city of Mumbai. The meeting brought together a wide range of clinicians and researchers interested in metronomic chemotherapy, anti-angiogenics, drug repurposing and combinations thereof. Clinical experiences, including many from India, were reported and discussed in three symposia covering breast cancer, head and neck cancers and paediatrics. On the pre-clinical side research into putative mechanisms of action, and the interactions between low dose metronomic chemotherapy and angiogenesis and immune responses, were discussed in a number of presentations. Drug repurposing was discussed both in terms of clinical results, particularly with respect to angiosarcoma and high-risk neuroblastoma, and in pre-clinical settings, particularly the potential for peri-operative interventions. However, it was clear that there remain a number of key areas of challenge, particularly in terms of definitions, perceptions in the wider oncological community, mechanisms of action and predictive biomarkers. While the potential for metronomics and drug repurposing in low and middle income countries remains a key theme, it is clear that there is also considerable potential for clinically relevant improvements in patient outcomes even in high income economies.

  20. Central waste processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    A new concept for processing spacecraft type wastes has been evaluated. The feasibility of reacting various waste materials with steam at temperatures of 538 - 760 C in both a continuous and batch reactor with residence times from 3 to 60 seconds has been established. Essentially complete gasification is achieved. Product gases are primarily hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. Water soluble synthetic wastes are readily processed in a continuous tubular reactor at concentrations up to 20 weight percent. The batch reactor is able to process wet and dry wastes at steam to waste weight ratios from 2 to 20. Feces, urine, and synthetic wastes have been successfully processed in the batch reactor.

  1. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  2. Hazardous Waste Permitting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To provide RCRA hazardous waste permitting regulatory information and resources permitted facilities, hazardous waste generators, and permit writers. To provide the public with information on how they can be involved in the permitting process.

  3. Petroleum Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the petroleum processing wastes, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as the use of activated carbon in petroleum and petrochemical waste treatment. A list of 15 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Mixed Waste Focus Area -- Waste form initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaoka, R.; Waters, R.; Pohl, P.; Roach, J.

    1998-07-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems which are developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 and revised in 1997. The technical baseline forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The primary attribute of the technical baseline is a set of prioritized technical deficiencies or roadblocks related to implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. The Waste Form Initiative (WFI) was established to address an identified technical deficiency related to waste form performance. The primary goal of the WFI was to ensure that the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) treatment technologies being developed, currently used, or planned for use by DOE would produce final waste forms that meet the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the existing and/or planned MLLW disposal facilities. The WFI was limited to an evaluation of the disposal requirements for the radioactive component of MLLW. Disposal requirements for the hazardous component are dictated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and were not addressed. This paper summarizes the technical basis, strategy, and results of the activities performed as part of the WFI.

  5. Waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, James B.

    1977-01-01

    A waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes in the form of a solidified glass includes fins supported from the center with the tips of the fins spaced away from the wall to conduct heat away from the center without producing unacceptable hot spots in the canister wall.

  6. Solid waste handling

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  7. Biohazardous waste management plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Todd W.

    2004-01-01

    This plan describes the process for managing non-medical biohazardous waste at Sandia National Laboratories California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of biohazardous waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to non-medical biohazardous waste.

  8. Medical waste management plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.

    2004-12-01

    This plan describes the process for managing research generated medical waste at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of medical waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to medical waste.

  9. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials.

  10. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  11. Waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  12. Deep sea waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Kester, D.R.; Burt, W.V.; Capuzzo, J.M.; Park, P.K.; Ketchum, B.W.; Duedall, I.W.

    1985-01-01

    The book presents papers on the marine disposal of wastes. Topics considered include incineration at sea, the modelling and biological effects of industrial wastes, microbial studies of ocean dumping, deep-sea mining wastes, the chemical analysis of ferromanganese nodules, and economic aspects of deep-sea disposal.

  13. Hazardous Wastes from Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, John

    The management of waste materials has become more complex with the increase in human population and the development of new substances. This illustrated booklet traces the history of waste management and provides guidelines for individuals and communities in disposing of certain hazardous wastes safely. It addresses such topics as: (1) how people…

  14. Look into Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Undy, Harry, Ed.

    This booklet is designed to help British teachers introduce concepts of waste to secondary school students. The document focuses on various types of waste and pollution--air, land, water, and industrial--and suggests activities to help students understand and combat waste of natural and human resources. It is presented in 11 chapters. Six chapters…

  15. WASTE CONTAINMENT OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    BSE waste is derived from diseased animals such as BSE (bovine spongiform encepilopothy, also known as Mad Cow) in cattle and CWD (chronic wasting disease) in deer and elk. Landfilling is examined as a disposal option and this presentation introduces waste containment technology...

  16. Proceedings of the U.S. Geological Survey Fourth Biennial Geographic Information Science Workshop: Denver, Colorado, April 23-27, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sieverling, Jennifer B.; Char, Stephen J.; San Juan, Carma A.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fourth Biennial Geographic Information Science (GIS) Workshop (USGS-GIS 2001) was held April 23-27, 2001, at the Denver Federal Center in Denver, Colorado. The workshop provided an environment for participants to improve their knowledge about GIS and GIS-related applications that are used within the USGS. Two major topics of USGS-GIS 2001 were the application of GIS technology to interdisciplinary science and the distribution and sharing of USGS GIS products. Additionally, several presentations included GIS technology and tools, project applications of GIS, and GIS data management. USGS-GIS 2001 included user and vendor presentations, demonstrations, and hands-on technical workshops. Presentation abstracts that were submitted for publication are included in these proceedings. The keynote speaker was Karen Siderelis, the USGS Associate Director for Information (Geographic Information Officer). In addition to the USGS, other Federal agencies, GIS-related companies, and university researchers presented lectures or demonstrations or conducted hands-on sessions. USGS employees and contractors from every discipline and region attended the workshop. To facilitate the interaction between the Federal agencies, each of the presenting Federal agencies was invited to send a representative to the workshop. One of the most beneficial activities of USGS-GIS 2001, as identified by an informal poll of attendees, was the Monday evening poster session in which more than 75 poster presentations gave attendees a chance to learn of work being performed throughout the USGS. A feature new to USGS-GIS 2001 was internet participation of USGS personnel through cyber seminars of the morning plenary sessions.

  17. Proceedings of the U.S. Geological Survey Seventh Biennial Geographic Information Science Workshop, Denver, Colorado, May 12-16, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helterbrand, Wm. Steve; Sieverling, Jennifer B.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Seventh Biennial Geographic Information Science (GIS) Workshop (USGS-GIS 2008) on May 12 through 16, 2008, at the Denver Federal Center in Denver, Colorado, is unique in that it brings together GIS professionals from all of the USGS disciplines across all regions, and focuses primarily on the needs and accomplishments of the USGS. The theme for the 2008 workshop, ?GIS for Tomorrow?s Challenges,? provides an opportunity for USGS GIS professionals to demonstrate how they have responded to the challenges set forth in the USGS Science Strategy. During this workshop, attendees will have an opportunity to present or demonstrate their work; develop their knowledge by attending hands-on workshops and presentations given by professionals from the USGS and other Federal agencies, GIS-related companies, and academia; and to network with other professionals to develop collaborative opportunities. In addition to participation in numerous workshops and presentations, attendees will have opportunities to listen to top-level managers from the USGS present updates and goals concerning the future of several USGS programs. Monday evening?s Star Guest presentation by Thomas Wagner, NSF Office of Polar Programs, and Paul Morin, Antarctic Geospatial Information Center, entitled ?Mapping all that is White: Antarctic Science and Operations Viewed Though Geospatial Data,? will be one of many valuable presentations. This Proceedings volume will serve as an activity reference for workshop attendees, as well as an archive of technical abstracts presented at the workshop. Author, co-author, and presenter names, affiliations, and contact information are listed with presentation titles with the abstracts. Some hands-on sessions are offered twice; in these instances, abstracts submitted for publication are presented in the proceedings on both days on which they are offered. All acronyms used in these proceedings are explained in the text of each abstract.

  18. Kelvin waves and ozone Kelvin waves in the quasi-biennial oscillation and semiannual oscillation: A simulation by a high-resolution chemistry-coupled general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shingo; Takahashi, Masaaki

    2005-09-01

    Equatorial Kelvin waves and ozone Kelvin waves were simulated by a T63L250 chemistry-coupled general circulation model with a high vertical resolution (300 m). The model produces a realistic quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and a semiannual oscillation (SAO) in the equatorial stratosphere. The QBO has a period slightly longer than 2 years, and the SAO shows rapid reversals from westerly to easterly regimes and gradual descents of westerlies. Results for the zonal wave number 1 slow and fast Kelvin waves are discussed. Structure of the waves and phase relationships between temperature and ozone perturbations coincide well with satellite observations made by LIMS, CLAES, and MLS. They are generally in phase (antiphase) in the lower (upper) stratosphere as theoretically expected. The fast Kelvin waves in the temperature and ozone are dominant in the upper stratosphere because the slow Kelvin waves are effectively filtered by the QBO westerly. In this simulation, the fast Kelvin waves encounter their critical levels in the upper stratosphere when zonal asymmetry of the SAO westerly is enhanced by an intrusion of the extratropical planetary waves. In addition to the critical level filtering effect, modulations of wave properties by background winds are evident near easterly and westerly shears associated with the QBO and SAO. Enhancement of wave amplitude in the QBO westerly shear is well coincident with radiosonde observations. Increase/decrease of vertical wavelength in the QBO easterly/westerly is obvious in this simulation, which is consistent with the linear wave theory. Shortening of wave period due to the descending QBO westerly shear zone is demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, dominant periods during the QBO westerly phase are longer than those during the QBO easterly phase for both the slow and fast Kelvin waves.

  19. Management of solid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W. T.; Stinton, L. H.

    1980-04-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were of solid waste. The current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste are highlighted. Capital operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options.

  20. Management of solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-04-16

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options.

  1. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B K

    2009-06-03

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  2. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  3. Mixed waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  4. SOLID WASTE STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    PAUL G. ORTIZ - COLEMAN RESEARCH CORP /COMPA INDUSTRIES

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ``Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel.

  5. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  6. New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    K. E. Archibald

    1999-08-01

    This report addresses the issues of conducting debris treatment in the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF) decontamination area and the methods currently being used to decontaminate material at the NWCF.

  7. Cleaning Up Electronic Waste (E-Waste)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    While accurate data on the amount of e-waste being exported from the U.S. are not available, the United States government is concerned that these exports are being mismanaged abroad, causing serious public health and environmental hazards.

  8. Waste tank ventilation system waste material accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This paper calculates the amount of material that accumulates in the ventilation systems of various Tank Waste Remediation System facilities and estimates the amount of material that could be released due to a rapid pressurization.

  9. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-26

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  10. Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-12-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU. The mobile feature of WIT allows inspection technologies to be brought to the nuclear waste drum storage site without the need to relocate drums for safe, rapid, and cost-effective characterization of regulated nuclear waste. The combination of these WIT characterization modalities provides the inspector with an unprecedented ability to non-invasively characterize the regulated contents of waste drums as large as 110 gallons, weighing up to 1,600 pounds. Any objects that fit within these size and weight restrictions can also be inspected on WIT, such as smaller waste bags and drums that are five and thirty-five gallons.

  11. Stabilization of compactible waste

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of series of experiments performed to determine the feasibility of stabilizing compacted or compactible waste with polymers. The need for this work arose from problems encountered at disposal sites attributed to the instability of this waste in disposal. These studies are part of an experimental program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) investigating methods for the improved solidification/stabilization of DOE low-level wastes. The approach taken in this study was to perform a series of survey type experiments using various polymerization systems to find the most economical and practical method for further in-depth studies. Compactible dry bulk waste was stabilized with two different monomer systems: styrene-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and polyester-styrene, in laboratory-scale experiments. Stabilization was accomplished by wetting or soaking compactible waste (before or after compaction) with monomers, which were subsequently polymerized. Three stabilization methods are described. One involves the in-situ treatment of compacted waste with monomers in which a vacuum technique is used to introduce the binder into the waste. The second method involves the alternate placement and compaction of waste and binder into a disposal container. In the third method, the waste is treated before compaction by wetting the waste with the binder using a spraying technique. A series of samples stabilized at various binder-to-waste ratios were evaluated through water immersion and compression testing. Full-scale studies were conducted by stabilizing two 55-gallon drums of real compacted waste. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the integrity of compacted waste forms can be readily improved to ensure their long-term durability in disposal environments. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. TSA waste stream and final waste form composition

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, J.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    A final vitrified waste form composition, based upon the chemical compositions of the input waste streams, is recommended for the transuranic-contaminated waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The quantities of waste are large with a considerable uncertainty in the distribution of various waste materials. It is therefore impractical to mix the input waste streams into an ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste. As a result, waste stream input to a melter could vary widely in composition, with the potential of affecting the composition and properties of the final waste form. This work examines the extent of the variation in the input waste streams, as well as the final waste form under conditions of adding different amounts of soil. Five prominent Rocky Flats Plant 740 waste streams are considered, as well as nonspecial metals and the ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste streams. The metals waste stream is the most extreme variation and results indicate that if an average of approximately 60 wt% of the mixture is soil, the final waste form will be predominantly silica, alumina, alkaline earth oxides, and iron oxide. This composition will have consistent properties in the final waste form, including high leach resistance, irrespective of the variation in waste stream. For other waste streams, much less or no soil could be required to yield a leach resistant waste form but with varying properties.

  13. Underground waste barrier structure

    DOEpatents

    Saha, Anuj J.; Grant, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

  14. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  15. Operational waste volume projection

    SciTech Connect

    Koreski, G.M.; Strode, J.N.

    1995-06-01

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the tri-party agreement. Assumptions are current as of June 1995.

  16. Characteristics of healthcare wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, L.F. Eggerth, L.L.; Enkhtsetseg, Sh.; Savage, G.M.

    2008-07-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the quantities and characteristics of the material that needs to be managed is one of the most basic steps in the development of a plan for solid waste management. In this case, the material under consideration is the solid waste generated in healthcare facilities, also known as healthcare waste. Unfortunately, limited reliable information is available in the open literature on the quantities and characteristics of the various types of wastes that are generated in healthcare facilities. Thus, sound management of these wastes, particularly in developing countries, often is problematic. This article provides information on the quantities and properties of healthcare wastes in various types of facilities located in developing countries, as well as in some industrialized countries. Most of the information has been obtained from the open literature, although some information has been collected by the authors and from reports available to the authors. Only data collected within approximately the last 15 years and using prescribed methodologies are presented. The range of hospital waste generation (both infectious and mixed solid waste fractions) varies from 0.016 to 3.23 kg/bed-day. The relatively wide variation is due to the fact that some of the facilities surveyed in Ulaanbaatar include out-patient services and district health clinics; these facilities essentially provide very basic services and thus the quantities of waste generated are relatively small. On the other hand, the reported amount of infectious (clinical, yellow bag) waste varied from 0.01 to 0.65 kg/bed-day. The characteristics of the components of healthcare wastes, such as the bulk density and the calorific value, have substantial variability. This literature review and the associated attempt at a comparative analysis point to the need for worldwide consensus on the terms and characteristics that describe wastes from healthcare facilities. Such a consensus would greatly

  17. Reclamation of coking wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Mraovich, G.

    1981-04-28

    Waste products derived from coking coal, such as coal tar decanter wastes and wash oil muck, are processed to recover an oil fraction and a granular coke breeze residue. The wastes are mixed with a diluent oil, preferably having a saponification number of about 100 or more, are subjected to agitation and mixing and are thereafter filtered to produce a granular, coke breeze cake and a filtrate comprising water and oil which separate easily by decantation.

  18. Waste not, want not

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Sadly, modern society has developed very wasteful habits over the last few decades: consumer products, food and energy are perphaps waste items that are most obvious. Attempting to show how we can counteract wasteful habits, this article (a) makes reference to Helen Czerski in her efforts to stop her cycle from rusting away; and (b) shows how a relatively simple task can give new life to a domestic toaster.

  19. Vitrification of waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.

    1999-01-01

    A method for encapsulating and immobilizing waste for disposal. Waste, preferably, biologically, chemically and radioactively hazardous, and especially electronic wastes, such as circuit boards, are placed in a crucible and heated by microwaves to a temperature in the range of approximately 300.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. to incinerate organic materials, then heated further to a temperature in the range of approximately 1100.degree. C. to 1400.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to vitrify. Glass formers, such as borosilicate glass, quartz or fiberglass can be added at the start of the process to increase the silicate concentration sufficiently for vitrification.

  20. Politics of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments. (DP)

  1. Vitrification of waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, G.G.

    1999-04-06

    A method is described for encapsulating and immobilizing waste for disposal. Waste, preferably, biologically, chemically and radioactively hazardous, and especially electronic wastes, such as circuit boards, are placed in a crucible and heated by microwaves to a temperature in the range of approximately 300 C to 800 C to incinerate organic materials, then heated further to a temperature in the range of approximately 1100 C to 1400 C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to vitrify. Glass formers, such as borosilicate glass, quartz or fiberglass can be added at the start of the process to increase the silicate concentration sufficiently for vitrification.

  2. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  3. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  4. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  5. CLAB Transuranic Waste Spreadsheets

    SciTech Connect

    Leyba, J.D.

    2000-08-11

    The Building 772-F Far-Field Transuranic (TRU) Waste Counting System is used to measure the radionuclide content of waste packages produced at the Central Laboratory Facilities (CLAB). Data from the instrument are entered into one of two Excel spreadsheets. The waste stream associated with the waste package determines which spreadsheet is actually used. The spreadsheets calculate the necessary information required for completion of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Form (OSR 29-90) and the Radioactive Solid Waste Burial Ground Record (OSR 7-375 or OSR 7-375A). In addition, the spreadsheets calculate the associated Low Level Waste (LLW) stream information that potentially could be useful if the waste container is ever downgraded from TRU to LLW. The spreadsheets also have the capability to sum activities from source material added to a waste container after assay. A validation data set for each spreadsheet along with the appropriate results are also presented in this report for spreadsheet verification prior to each use.

  6. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  7. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Lewis Edward

    2016-11-28

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  8. Household Hazardous Waste and Demolition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Household wastes that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, or reactive are known as Household Hazardous Waste (HHW). Household Hazardous Waste may be found during residential demolitions, and thus require special handling for disposal.

  9. Waste management and chemical inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  10. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  11. Working on Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sue; Moen, Dave

    This guide provides background information and youth activities for youth leaders and classroom teachers interested in integrating waste management issues into current educational programming. Five parts suggest ideas for action that youth can take at home, in their group, or in the community to solve waste management problems. Part 1 introduces…

  12. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  13. Nuclear waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Darrel D.; Ebra, Martha A.

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

  14. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  15. Citrus waste stream utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waste streams, generated during fruit processing, consist of solid fruit residues in addition to liquid waste streams from washing operations which must be handled in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unsound fruit from packing houses are usually sent off to be processed for juice and the solid ...

  16. Food-Processing Wastes.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Val S; Cummings, Gregg A; Maillacheruvu, K Y; Tang, Walter Z

    2016-10-01

    Literature published in 2015 and early 2016 related to food processing wastes treatment for industrial applications are reviewed. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following food processing industries and applications: general, meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, dairy and beverage, and miscellaneous treatment of food wastes.

  17. Radioactive waste storage issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Daniel E.

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  18. Heterogeneous waste processing

    DOEpatents

    Vanderberg, Laura A.; Sauer, Nancy N.; Brainard, James R.; Foreman, Trudi M.; Hanners, John L.

    2000-01-01

    A combination of treatment methods are provided for treatment of heterogeneous waste including: (1) treatment for any organic compounds present; (2) removal of metals from the waste; and, (3) bulk volume reduction, with at least two of the three treatment methods employed and all three treatment methods emplyed where suitable.

  19. Waking Up to Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrdlovcova, Jill

    2005-01-01

    All homes and schools produce waste. Children may have been astonished at how much people throw away, and this could be the "wake-up call" that arouses their interest. At Carymoor Environmental Centre (an Eco-Centre in South Somerset) getting children involved in active waste reduction and recycling is a priority. Carymoor tries to model…

  20. Hazardous Waste Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Americans generate approximately 1.6 million tons of hazardous household waste every year. When most people think of hazardous waste, they generally think of materials used in construction, the defense industry, mining, manufacturing, and agriculture. Few people think of hazardous substances…

  1. Solid Waste: Health Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duel, Ward

    1975-01-01

    In this article the means of disposing solid wastes are discussed with reference to their health hazards and environmental desirability. Included in the discussion are solid waste dumps, landfills, incinerators, and grinders. Some attention is given to the reclamation of mineral resources from trash. (MA)

  2. Solid-Waste Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  3. Waste classification sampling plan

    SciTech Connect

    Landsman, S.D.

    1998-05-27

    The purpose of this sampling is to explain the method used to collect and analyze data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream so that the correct waste classification for the waste stream can be made, and to collect samples for studies of decontamination methods that could be used to remove fixed contamination present on the waste. The scope of this plan is to establish the technical basis for collecting samples and compiling quantitative data on the radioactive constituents present in waste generated during deactivation activities in B-Cell. Sampling and radioisotopic analysis will be performed on the fixed layers of contamination present on structural material and internal surfaces of process piping and tanks. In addition, dose rate measurements on existing waste material will be performed to determine the fraction of dose rate attributable to both removable and fixed contamination. Samples will also be collected to support studies of decontamination methods that are effective in removing the fixed contamination present on the waste. Sampling performed under this plan will meet criteria established in BNF-2596, Data Quality Objectives for the B-Cell Waste Stream Classification Sampling, J. M. Barnett, May 1998.

  4. Environmental Hazards of Nuclear Wastes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micklin, Philip P.

    1974-01-01

    Present methods for storage of radioactive wastes produced at nuclear power facilities are described. Problems arising from present waste management are discussed and potential solutions explored. (JP)

  5. Hazardous Waste Data (RCRAInfo)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hazardous waste information is contained in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo), a national program management and inventory system about hazardous waste handlers. In general, all generators, transporters, treaters, storers, and disposers of hazardous waste are required to provide information about their activities to state environmental agencies. These agencies, in turn pass on the information to regional and national EPA offices. This regulation is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984. You may use the RCRAInfo Search to determine identification and location data for specific hazardous waste handlers, and to find a wide range of information on treatment, storage, and disposal facilities regarding permit/closure status, compliance with Federal and State regulations, and cleanup activities.

  6. Biennial Report, 1997-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Technical Coll. System Board, Madison.

    This report describes the 1997-99 biennium activities of the Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) Board. Part 1 provides an Agency Overview. Details are given on mission and purpose, cooperative relationships, the State Board, the State Board Staff, and WTCS Districts. Part 2 explores the 1997-99 Budget and Policy Actions. It discusses the…

  7. A wasted world

    SciTech Connect

    Delbello, A. )

    1991-03-01

    It is still legal under American law to dump waste products in any country whose government consents to accept them. Many developing countries accept waste exports for a per ton charge. It does not matter to them whether the waste is hazardous, toxic, nonhazardous, or nontoxic. Nor does it matter to them whether or not they have the technology for the safe disposal of wastes. In some nations there is little or no thought about the long-term consequences of unsafe disposal of hazardous wastes to their land, air, water, quality of life, crops, animals and children. Some of the main culprits in the U.S. have been surprising: the Pentagon, other federal agencies, state and local governments, the American business community in general, and, of course, various brokers and entrepreneurs have all been documented, time and again, as exporters of hazardous waste to the Third World. And then there are the illegal waste shipments, perpetrated by hustlers and nice people alike in many industrialized nations. Here is a sample: In September 1987, Italian ships unloaded 10,000 steel drums of hazardous waste in the Nigerian port of Koko and stored them in a vacant residential lot. The press learned of it in June 1988. The Nigerian government ultimately imprisoned 54 people, including Italian nationals, and formally expressed outrage to the Italian government. The Italian government responded by sending a team of experts to arrange removal. A West German ship was loaded with the waste and went back to Ravenna, Italy, but Italian protestors prevented the ship form docking. It attempted to dock in Spain, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, without success. Finally, a home for the waste was found in an unidentified Italian port in mid-September.

  8. AVLIS production plant waste management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    Following the executive summary, this document contains the following: (1) waste management facilities design objectives; (2) AVLIS production plant wastes; (3) waste management design criteria; (4) waste management plan description; and (5) waste management plan implementation. 17 figures, 18 tables.

  9. Radioactive Waste Streams: Waste Classification for Disposal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-13

    created in a reactor by irradiating uranium. These elements include neptunium , plutonium, americium, and curium. Many emit alpha particles and have... neptunium , plutonium, americium, and curium. CRS-35 Appendix Table A-1. Uranium Mill Tailing Site Volume and Activity Site Disposal Cell Waste

  10. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume I. Waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume I of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report presents the waste characterization information obtained from sampling and characterizing various aged transuranic waste retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data contained in this report include the results of gas sampling and gas generation, radiographic examinations, waste visual examination results, and waste compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). A separate report, Volume II, contains data from the gas generation studies.

  11. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.; Han, K.S.

    1994-12-31

    The WIT program will provide an inspection system that offers the nuclear waste evaluator a unique combination of tools for regulatory-driven characterization of low-level waste (LLW), transuranic waste (TRU), and mixed waste drums. WIT provides nondestructive, noninvasive, and environmentally safe inspections using X-ray and gamma ray technologies, with reasonable cost and throughput. Two emission imaging techniques will be employed for characterizing materials in waste containers. The first of these is gamma emission tomography, commonly called single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Rather than using an external radiation source, SPECT uses the emission of radioactive materials within the object of interest for imaging. In this case, emission from actual nuclear waste within a container will provide a three-dimensional image of the radioactive substances in the container. The second emission technique will use high-purity germanium detectors for gamma ray spectroscopy. This technique, called nondestructive assay (NDA), can identify the emitting isotopic species and strength. Work in emission tomography and assay of nuclear waste has been undertaken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using a technique called Passive Tomography. Results from a process development unit are presented.

  12. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The report defines and characterizes types of medical waste, discusses the impacts of burning medical waste on combustor emissions, and outlines important handling and operating considerations. Facility-specific design, handling, and operating practiced are also discussed for municipal waste combustors (MWCs) that reportedly accept medical waste in the U.S., Europe, and Canada. nly very limited data are available on the emission impacts associated with the combustion of medical waste in MWGs. Especially lacking is information needed to fully evaluate the impacts on acid gas, dioxin, and metals emissions, as well as the design and operating requirements for complete destruction of solvents, cytotoxic chemicals, and pathogens. The EPA's Office of Air Quatity Planning and Standards is developing emission standards and guidelines for new and existing MWCs under Sections 111(b) and 111(d) of the Clean Air Act. In support of these regulatory development efforts, the Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory in EPA's Office of Research and Development has conducted an assessment to examine the incineration of medical waste in MWGs from an emission standpoint. Potential worker safety and health problems associated with handling of medical wastes and residues were also identified. information

  13. Proceedings of the U.S. Geological Survey Sixth Biennial Geographic Information Science Workshop, Denver, Colorado, April 24-28, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brakebill, John W.; Sieverling, Jennifer B.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Sixth Biennial Geographic Information Science Workshop April 24 - 28, 2006, at the Denver Federal Center in Denver, Colorado, provides a unique opportunity for multi-disciplinary Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and associated scientific professionals to share, learn, present, and discuss a wide variety of geospatial-related topics. Information is exchanged through a series of plenary sessions, hands-on technical workshops, user and commercial vendor demonstrations, lecture and poster sessions, and specialty meetings. Workshop attendance is limited to Department of Interior (DOI) and USGS employees and contractors; however, plenary, hands-on, and lecture sessions have presenters from other Federal agencies, numerous commercial vendors, universities, and several consortia. Over 175 participants are expected to attend the Workshop. Several prominent speakers are featured at this Workshop. Monday evening Star Guest Speaker and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Astronaut Captain Dominic Gorie will talk about his experiences as a veteran of three space flights and over 32 days in space, including the NASA Space Shuttle Radar Topography Mission that mapped more than 47 million miles of the Earth's land surface. Selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in December 1994, Captain Gorie is currently Chief of the Astronaut Shuttle Branch. Monday evening also features a town hall meeting with Geographic Information Office (GIO) leaders Karen Siderelis, Kevin Gallagher, Bob Pierce, Steve Guptill, Mark DeMulder, John Mahoney, and Mark Negri, who will discuss changes and activities within the GIO in an open discussion format. Tuesday plenary sessions feature keynote speaker Dr. P. Patrick Leahy, Acting USGS Director. Dr. Leahy holds undergraduate and graduate degrees in geology (1968) and geophysics (1970) from Boston College. In 1979, he received his doctorate in geology from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, where he

  14. Decadal- to biennial scale variability of planktic foraminifera in the northeastern Arabian Sea during the last two millennia: evidence for winter monsoon forcing mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munz, Philipp; Lückge, Andreas; Siccha, Michael; Kucera, Michal; Schulz, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    The Asian monsoon system is controlling the hydrologic cycle, and thus the agricultural and economic prosperity of the worlds most densely populated region. Strong and moisture-laden winds from the southwest induce upwelling and significant productivity in the western Arabian Sea during boreal summer. During boreal winter, weaker dry and cold surface winds from the northeast nourish ocean productivity mainly in the northeastern Arabian Sea. Instrumental records spanning the last century are too short to understand how the monsoon system reacts to external forcing mechanisms and to accurately determine its natural variability. Compared to the summer monsoon component, the dynamics of the winter monsoon are virtually unknown, due to the lack of adequate archives that are affected only by winter conditions. Here we present a decadal- to biennial-scale resolution record of past winter monsoon variability over the last two millennia, based on census counts of planktic foraminifera from two laminated sediment cores collected offshore Pakistan. One shorter box core (SO90-39KG) spans the last 250 years with an average ~2-year resolution, whereas the longer piston core (SO130-275KL) spans the last 2,100 years with a 10-year resolution. We use Globigerina falconensis as a faunal indicator for winter conditions, a species that is most abundant during winter in the NE Arabian Sea (Peeters and Brummer, 2002; Schulz et al., 2002). Our results show that during the past 2,100 years G. falconensis varied with significant periodicities centered on ˜ 60, ˜ 53, ˜ 40, ˜ 34 and ˜ 29 years per cycle. Some of these periods closely match cycles that are known from proxy records of solar irradiance, suggesting a solar forcing on winter monsoon variability. During the past 250 years G. falconensis varied in correlation with the (11-year) Schwabe and the (22-year) Hale solar cycles. Furthermore, a significant ˜ 7 year cyclicity could indicate a teleconnection to the El Niño Southern

  15. Analyses of vitrified waste

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, D.L.; Carpenter, S.H.

    1994-10-19

    Surrogate wastes were melted in bench-scale microwave melter to evaluate glass frits. The ceramic crucibles were placed in 304 stainless steel cans and heated to 1300 C; during cooling, some of the crucibles broke, leaking the melt into the SS can. This report presents the findings of XRD, SEM, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. It was found that: amorphous materials have the greatest homogeneity; measuring XRD is a good test of amorphous state; molten vitrified waste can absorb Cr from SS; and the vitrified waste is more durable than SiO{sub 2}.

  16. Mine waste technology program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmoth, R.C.; Powers, T.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) was initiated to address mining waste generated by active and inactive mining production facilities. In June 1991, an Interagency Agreement was signed between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy which outlined the following activities: To identify and prioritize treatment technologies as candidates for demonstration projects; To propose and conduct large pilot-/field-scale demonstration projects of several innovative technologies that show promise for cost effectively remediating local, regional, and national mine waste problems.

  17. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  18. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  19. DWPF Safely Dispositioning Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-05

    The only operating radioactive waste glassification plant in the nation, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) converts the liquid radioactive waste currently stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) into a solid glass form suitable for long-term storage and disposal. Scientists have long considered this glassification process, called “vitrification,” as the preferred option for treating liquid radioactive waste.

  20. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  1. Hazardous Waste: Cleanup and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve; Cronin, Nancy L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses hazardous waste, waste disposal, unsafe exposure, movement of hazardous waste, and the Superfund clean-up process that consists of site discovery, site assessment, clean-up method selection, site clean up, and site maintenance. Argues that proper disposal of hazardous waste is everybody's responsibility. (JRH)

  2. Methane generation from waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Samani, Zohrab A.; Hanson, Adrian T.; Macias-Corral, Maritza

    2010-03-23

    An organic solid waste digester for producing methane from solid waste, the digester comprising a reactor vessel for holding solid waste, a sprinkler system for distributing water, bacteria, and nutrients over and through the solid waste, and a drainage system for capturing leachate that is then recirculated through the sprinkler system.

  3. Innovative hazardous waste treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.M.; Sferra, P.R. . Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    This book contains information about the latest developments in destroying hazardous wastes by incineration or pyrolysis. Topics include: hydrogenation and reuse of hazardous organic wastes; catalytic incineration of gaseous wastes; oxygen enhancement of hazardous waste incineration; and thermal fixation of hazardous metal sludges in an alumina-silicate matrix.

  4. Method for calcining radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bjorklund, William J.; McElroy, Jack L.; Mendel, John E.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for the preparation of radioactive wastes in a low leachability form by calcining the radioactive waste on a fluidized bed of glass frit, removing the calcined waste to melter to form a homogeneous melt of the glass and the calcined waste, and then solidifying the melt to encapsulate the radioactive calcine in a glass matrix.

  5. Contained recovery of oily waste

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Jr., Lyle A.; Sudduth, Bruce C.

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for recovering oily waste from oily waste accumulations underground comprising sweeping the oily waste accumulation with hot water to recover said oily waste, wherein said area treated is isolated from surrounding groundwater hydraulically. The hot water may be reinjected after the hot-water displacement or may be treated to conform to any discharge requirements.

  6. Electrochemical processing of solid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bockris, John OM.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation of electrochemical waste treatment methods suitable for closed, or partially closed, life support systems for manned space exploration is discussed. The technique being investigated involves the electrolysis of solid waste where the aim is to upgrade waste material (mainly fecal waste) to generate gases that can be recycled in a space station or planetary space environment.

  7. Chemical Waste and Allied Products.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yung-Tse; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Lian-Huey; Huhnke, Christopher Robert; Fu, Yen-Pei

    2015-10-01

    This review of literature published in 2014 focuses on waste related to chemical and allied products. The topics cover the waste management practices, hospital waste, pesticide waste, chemical wastewater, pesticide wastewater and pharmaceutical wastewater. The other topics include aerobic treatment, anaerobic treatment, sorption and ozonation.

  8. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29

    Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making plans to dispose of 54 million gallons of radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The high-level wastes and low-activity wastes will be vitrified and placed in permanent disposal sites. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents, and these need to be processed and disposed of also. The Department of Energy Office of Waste Processing sponsored a meeting to develop a roadmap to outline the steps necessary to design the secondary waste forms. Representatives from DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Oregon Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, technical experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, and private consultants convened in Richland, Washington, during the week of July 21-23, 2008, to participate in a workshop to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with the treatment and disposal of the secondary wastes and to develop a roadmap for addressing those risks and uncertainties. This report describes the results of the roadmap meeting in Richland. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. The secondary waste roadmap workshop focused on the waste streams that contained the largest fractions of the 129I and 99Tc that the Integrated Disposal Facility risk assessment analyses were showing to have the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater. Thus, the roadmapping effort was to focus on the scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids with 99Tc to be sent to the Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and solidification and the silver mordenite and carbon beds with the captured 129I to be packaged and sent to the IDF. At the highest level, the secondary waste roadmap includes elements addressing regulatory and

  9. Developing hazardous waste programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Developing a fully operational hazardous waste regulatory system requires at least 10 to 15 years—even in countries with strong legal and bureaucratic institutions, according to a report on "The Evolution of Hazardous Waste Programs," which was funded by Resources for the Future (RFF) and the World Bank's South Asia Environment Group, and issued on June 4.The report, which compares the experiences of how four developed and four developing countries have created hazardous waste programs, indicates that hazardous waste issues usually do not become a pressing environmental issue until after countries have dealt with more direct threats to public health, such as contaminated drinking water and air pollution. The countries examined include Indonesia, Thailand, Germany, and the United States.

  10. Vitrification of asbestos wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Blary, F.; Rollin, M.

    1995-12-31

    In 1990, EDF decided to test the use of the plasma torch in waste destruction processes. These tests facilitated the creation of a mobile industrial plant for the vitrification of asbestos waste. Asbestos is valued for its insulating properties and its resistance to fire, but has the formidable drawback that its inhalation causes serious respiratory diseases (cancer) in man. Nowadays therefore this waste, most often originating from the renovation or demolition of contaminated buildings, has to be disposed of. The process developed by INERTAM is vitrification by plasma torch: i.e. high temperature thermal treatment (T > 1,600 C) which fuses and homogenizes materials. INERTAM thus carries out the total destruction of the asbestos fibers by fusion and achieves a significant reduction in specific volume (80%) of the waste and an inert, stable material (the ``vitrificate`` or fusion residue) able to be re-used in road techniques.

  11. Advanced Electrochemical Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; McCloy, John S.; Matyas, Josef

    2011-12-01

    This is a brief description of PNNL's efforts in FY2011 towards developing advanced electrochemical waste forms. This is a short section that will become part of a larger document being put together by INL.

  12. Waste and Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear engineer Dr. Kathy McCarthy talks about nuclear energy, the challenge of nuclear waste and the research aimed at solutions. For more information about nuclear energy research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  13. Waste glass melting stages

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1993-04-01

    Three different simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600[degrees]C--1000[degrees]C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin-sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. Behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied.

  14. Waste glass melting stages

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1993-04-01

    Three different simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600{degrees}C--1000{degrees}C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin-sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. Behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied.

  15. Waste-form development

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Contemporary solidification agents are being investigated relative to their applications to major fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle low-level waste (LLW) streams. Work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be applied to specific LLW streams. These studies are directed primarily towards defining operating parameters for both improved solidification of problem wastes and solidification of new LLW streams generated from advanced volume reduction technologies. Work is being conducted to measure relevant waste form properties. These data will be compiled and evaluated to demonstrate compliance with waste form performance and shallow land burial acceptance criteria and transportation requirements (both as they exist and as they are modified with time).

  16. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sease, J.D.; King, E.M.; Coobs, J.H.; Row, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards.

  17. Climate Change and Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the life cycle of goods, including ways to reduce our carbon footprint. This page also includes statistics on greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy used to produce, process, transport, and dispose of waste.

  18. Packaged Waste Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This Jacksonville, Florida, apartment complex has a wastewater treatment system which clears the water, removes harmful microorganisms and reduces solid residue to ash. It is a spinoff from spacecraft waste management and environmental control technology.

  19. Treatment of organic waste

    DOEpatents

    Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1979-01-01

    An organic waste containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of strontium, cesium, iodine and ruthenium is treated to achieve a substantial reduction in the volume of the waste and provide for fixation of the selected element in an inert salt. The method of treatment comprises introducing the organic waste and a source of oxygen into a molten salt bath maintained at an elevated temperature to produce solid and gaseous reaction products. The gaseous reaction products comprise carbon dioxide and water vapor, and the solid reaction products comprise the inorganic ash constituents of the organic waste and the selected element which is retained in the molten salt. The molten salt bath comprises one or more alkali metal carbonates, and may optionally include from 1 to about 25 wt.% of an alkali metal sulfate.

  20. Waste and Recycling

    ScienceCinema

    McCarthy, Kathy

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear engineer Dr. Kathy McCarthy talks about nuclear energy, the challenge of nuclear waste and the research aimed at solutions. For more information about nuclear energy research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  1. Solid Waste Treatment Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershaft, Alex

    1972-01-01

    Advances in research and commercial solid waste handling are offering many more processing choices. This survey discusses techniques of storage and removal, fragmentation and sorting, bulk reduction, conversion, reclamation, mining and mineral processing, and disposal. (BL)

  2. Deployed Force Waste Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    Biological Technologies o Land Application o Open Windrow Composting o Vermicomposting o Enclosed Composting o Anaerobic Digestion o...fermentation, vermicomposting ). 2 Considerable residues � large amount of residues of marginal value (waste separation). 1 Major residues � very

  3. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groover, Richard S.

    1981-01-01

    Operation Waste Watch is a seven-unit program for grades K-6 which addresses such topics as litter control, recycling, and resources recovery. It is designed to instill in students positive feelings about the environment. (DS)

  4. Household Hazardous Waste (HHW)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page gives an overview of how to safely manage household hazardous wastes like cleaners, paints and oils. Information is also provided on how to find recycling and disposal options for these products, as well as natural alternatives.

  5. Reducing medical waste.

    PubMed

    Conrardy, Julie; Hillanbrand, Mary; Myers, Sandra; Nussbaum, George F

    2010-06-01

    Medical waste is a necessary by-product of any hospital environment; however, the majority of regulated medical waste is produced in the OR from the use of disposable surgical supplies (eg, drapes, gowns, basins, gloves, sponges). We conducted a concept comparison project in the ORs of two large medical centers in Bethesda, Maryland, and Washington, DC, to evaluate the effects of using reusable surgical basins, gowns, and table and Mayo stand covers in place of disposable products. Survey results indicated that surgeons and surgical technologists found the reusable products to be preferable to the disposable products currently in use. In addition, using reusable products provided a means to decrease regulated medical waste generated in the OR by an average of 65% as well as reduce the cost of waste disposal. AORN recommends evaluating the environmental effects of using reusable, reposable, and disposable products; our findings provide evidence that may be useful to surgical facilities that seek to adopt a "green" approach.

  6. Agricultural waste utilization and management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    These papers were presented at a symposium on the management and use of agricultural waste products, including food industry wastes. Topics covered include fat and protein recovery from fish wastes, treatments for straw to improve its digestibility, using food industry wastes as animal feeds, various manure treatments and studies of its combustion properties, fermentation, methane and ethanol production, hemp waste water treatment, and heat recovery from manure combustion.

  7. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  8. Supercritical waste oxidation of aqueous wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modell, M.

    1986-01-01

    For aqueous wastes containing 1 to 20 wt% organics, supercritical water oxidation is less costly than controlled incineration or activated carbon treatment and far more efficient than wet oxidation. Above the critical temperature (374 C) and pressure (218 atm) of water, organic materials and gases are completely miscible with water. In supercritical water oxidation, organics, air and water are brought together in a mixture at 250 atm and temperatures above 400 C. Organic oxidation is initiated spontaneously at these conditions. The heat of combustion is released within the fluid and results in a rise in temperature 600 to 650 C. Under these conditions, organics are destroyed rapidly with efficiencies in excess of 99.999%. Heteroatoms are oxidized to acids, which can be precipitated out as salts by adding a base to the feed. Examples are given for process configurations to treat aqueous wastes with 10 and 2 wt% organics.

  9. Processing of food wastes.

    PubMed

    Kosseva, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    Every year almost 45 billion kg of fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, and grain products is lost to waste in the United States. According to the EPA, the disposal of this costs approximately $1 billion. In the United Kingdom, 20 million ton of food waste is produced annually. Every tonne of food waste means 4.5 ton of CO(2) emissions. The food wastes are generated largely by the fruit-and-vegetable/olive oil, fermentation, dairy, meat, and seafood industries. The aim of this chapter is to emphasize existing trends in the food waste processing technologies during the last 15 years. The chapter consists of three major parts, which distinguish recovery of added-value products (the upgrading concept), the food waste treatment technologies as well as the food chain management for sustainable food system development. The aim of the final part is to summarize recent research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector, emphasizing on circular structure of a sustainable economy.

  10. Electrochemical incineration of wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaba, L.; Hitchens, G. D.; Bockris, J. OM.

    1989-01-01

    The disposal of domestic organic waste in its raw state is a matter of increasing public concern. Earlier, it was regarded as permissible to reject wastes into the apparently infinite sink of the sea but, during the last 20 years, it has become clear that this is environmentally unacceptable. On the other hand, sewage farms and drainage systems for cities and for new housing developments are cumbersome and expensive to build and operate. New technology whereby waste is converted to acceptable chemicals and pollution-free gases at site is desirable. The problems posed by wastes are particularly demanding in space vehicles where it is desirable to utilize treatments that will convert wastes into chemicals that can be recycled. In this situation, the combustion of waste is undesirable due to the inevitable presence of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide in the effluent gases. Here, in particular, electrochemical techniques offer several advantages including the low temperatures which may be used and the absence of any NO and CO in the evolved gases. Work done in this area was restricted to technological papers, and the present report is an attempt to give a more fundamental basis to the early stages of a potentially valuable technology.

  11. Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities Project Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, Bruce Edward

    2001-09-01

    This feasibility study report presents a draft design of the Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility (VWISF), which is one of three subprojects of the Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities (IWVF) project. The primary goal of the IWVF project is to design and construct a treatment process system that will vitrify the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) to a final waste form. The project will consist of three subprojects that include the Waste Collection Tanks Facility, the Waste Vitrification Facility (WVF), and the VWISF. The Waste Collection Tanks Facility will provide for waste collection, feed mixing, and surge storage for SBW and newly generated liquid waste from ongoing operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The WVF will contain the vitrification process that will mix the waste with glass-forming chemicals or frit and turn the waste into glass. The VWISF will provide a shielded storage facility for the glass until the waste can be disposed at either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as mixed transuranic waste or at the future national geological repository as high-level waste glass, pending the outcome of a Waste Incidental to Reprocessing determination, which is currently in progress. A secondary goal is to provide a facility that can be easily modified later to accommodate storage of the vitrified high-level waste calcine. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the VWISF, which would be constructed in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws. This project supports the Department of Energy’s Environmental Management missions of safely storing and treating radioactive wastes as well as meeting Federal Facility Compliance commitments made to the State of Idaho.

  12. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  13. Densified waste form and method for forming

    DOEpatents

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2016-05-17

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  14. Densified waste form and method for forming

    SciTech Connect

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  15. Waste Treatment Plant - 12508

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, Benton; Olds, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will immobilize millions of gallons of Hanford's tank waste into solid glass using a proven technology called vitrification. The vitrification process will turn the waste into a stable glass form that is safe for long-term storage. Our discussion of the WTP will include a description of the ongoing design and construction of this large, complex, first-of-a-kind project. The concept for the operation of the WTP is to separate high-level and low-activity waste fractions, and immobilize those fractions in glass using vitrification. The WTP includes four major nuclear facilities and various support facilities. Waste from the Tank Farms is first pumped to the Pretreatment Facility at the WTP through an underground pipe-in-pipe system. When construction is complete, the Pretreatment Facility will be 12 stories high, 540 feet long and 215 feet wide, making it the largest of the four major nuclear facilities that compose the WTP. The total size of this facility will be more than 490,000 square feet. More than 8.2 million craft hours are required to construct this facility. Currently, the Pretreatment Facility is 51 percent complete. At the Pretreatment Facility the waste is pumped to the interior waste feed receipt vessels. Each of these four vessels is 55-feet tall and has a 375,000 gallon capacity, which makes them the largest vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. These vessels contain a series of internal pulse-jet mixers to keep incoming waste properly mixed. The vessels are inside the black-cell areas, completely enclosed behind thick steel-laced, high strength concrete walls. The black cells are designed to be maintenance free with no moving parts. Once hot operations commence the black-cell area will be inaccessible. Surrounded by black cells, is the 'hot cell canyon'. The hot cell contains all the moving and replaceable components to remove solids and extract liquids. In this area, there is ultrafiltration equipment, cesium

  16. Illinois solid waste management legislation

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    Contents include: Degradable Plastic Act; Energy Assistance Act of 1989; Hazardous and Solid Waste Recycling and Treatment Act; Household Hazardous Waste Collection Program Act; Illinois Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act; Illinois Environmental Facilities Financing Act; Illinois Procurement Code; Illinois Solid Waste Management Act; Intergovernmental Cooperation Act; Junkyard Act; Litter Control Act; Local Solid Waste Disposal Act; Metro East Solid Waste Disposal and Energy Producing Service Act; Recycled Newsprint Use Act; Responsible Property Transfer Act of 1988; Solid Waste Disposal District Act; Solid Waste Planning and Recycling Act; Solid Waste Site Operator Certification Law; Township Refuse Collection and Disposal Act; Toxic Pollution Prevention Act; Used Motor Oil Recycling Act; Waste Oil Recovery Act; and Water Supply, Drainage and Flood Control Act.

  17. Perspectives on sustainable waste management.

    PubMed

    Castaldi, Marco J

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable waste management is a goal that all societies must strive to maintain. Currently nearly 80% of global wastes are sent to landfill, with a significant amount lacking proper design or containment. The increased attention to environmental impacts of human activities and the increasing demand for energy and materials have resulted in a new perspective on waste streams. Use of waste streams for energy and materials recovery is becoming more prevalent, especially in developed regions of the world, such as Europe, the United States, and Japan. Although currently these efforts have a small impact on waste disposal, use of waste streams to extract value very likely will increase as society becomes more aware of the options available. This review presents an overview of waste management with a focus on following an expanded waste hierarchy to extract value specifically from municipal solid waste streams.

  18. Mixed waste characterization reference document

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization.

  19. Waste form product characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.L.; Shikashio, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy has operated nuclear facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to support national interests for several decades. Since 1953, it has supported the development of technologies for the storage and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) and the resultant wastes. However, the 1992 decision to discontinue reprocessing of SNF has left nearly 768 MT of SNF in storage at the INEL with unspecified plans for future dispositioning. Past reprocessing of these fuels for uranium and other resource recovery has resulted in the production of 3800 M{sup 3} calcine and a total inventory of 7600 M{sup 3} of radioactive liquids (1900 M{sup 3} destined for immediate calcination and the remaining sodium-bearing waste requiring further treatment before calcination). These issues, along with increased environmental compliance within DOE and its contractors, mandate operation of current and future facilities in an environmentally responsible manner. This will require satisfactory resolution of spent fuel and waste disposal issues resulting from the past activities. A national policy which identifies requirements for the disposal of SNF and high level wastes (HLW) has been established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) Sec.8,(b) para(3)) [1982]. The materials have to be conditioned or treated, then packaged for disposal while meeting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The spent fuel and HLW located at the INEL will have to be put into a form and package that meets these regulatory criteria. The emphasis of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) future operations has shifted toward investigating, testing, and selecting technologies to prepare current and future spent fuels and waste for final disposal. This preparation for disposal may include mechanical, physical and/or chemical processes, and may differ for each of the various fuels and wastes.

  20. Proceedings of the U.S. Geological Survey Eighth Biennial Geographic Information Science Workshop and first The National Map Users Conference, Denver, Colorado, May 10-13, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sieverling, Jennifer B.; Dietterle, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is sponsoring the first The National Map Users Conference in conjunction with the eighth biennial Geographic Information Science (GIS) Workshop on May 10-13, 2011, in Lakewood, Colorado. The GIS Workshop will be held at the USGS National Training Center, located on the Denver Federal Center, Lakewood, Colorado, May 10-11. The National Map Users Conference will be held directly after the GIS Workshop at the Denver Marriott West, a convention hotel in the Lakewood, Colorado area, May 12-13. The National Map is designed to serve the Nation by providing geographic data and knowledge for government, industry, and public uses. The goal of The National Map Users Conference is to enhance communications and collaboration among the communities of users of and contributors to The National Map, including USGS, Department of the Interior, and other government GIS specialists and scientists, as well as the broader geospatial community. The USGS National Geospatial Program intends the conference to serve as a forum to engage users and more fully discover and meet their needs for the products and services of The National Map. The goal of the GIS Workshop is to promote advancement of GIS and related technologies and concepts as well as the sharing of GIS knowledge within the USGS GIS community. This collaborative opportunity for multi-disciplinary GIS and associated professionals will allow attendees to present and discuss a wide variety of geospatial-related topics. The Users Conference and Workshop collaboration will bring together scientists, managers, and data users who, through presentations, posters, seminars, workshops, and informal gatherings, will share accomplishments and progress on a variety of geospatial topics. During this joint event, attendees will have the opportunity to present or demonstrate their work; to develop their knowledge by attending hands-on workshops, seminars, and presentations given by professionals from USGS and

  1. Waste Management Process Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, J.; Borden, G.; Rangel, G. R.

    2002-02-25

    The Bechtel Hanford-led Environmental Restoration Contractor team's Waste Management Process Improvement Project is working diligently with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Richland Operations Office to improve the waste management process to meet DOE's need for an efficient, cost-effective program for the management of dangerous, low-level and mixed-low-level waste. Additionally the program must meet all applicable regulatory requirements. The need for improvement was highlighted when a change in the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project's waste management practices resulted in a larger amount of waste being generated than the waste management organization had been set up to handle.

  2. Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-13

    On November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed that a Department of Energy (DOE) crosscut plan for waste minimization (WMin) be prepared and submitted by March 1, 1992. This Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan responds to the Secretary's direction and supports the National Energy Strategy (NES) goals of achieving greater energy security, increasing energy and economic efficiency, and enhancing environmental quality. It provides a DOE-wide planning framework for effective coordination of all DOE WMin activities. This Plan was jointly prepared by the following Program Secretarial Officer (PSO) organizations: Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW); Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE); Defense Programs (DP); Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), lead; Energy Research (ER); Fossil Energy (FE); Nuclear Energy (NE); and New Production Reactors (NP). Assistance and guidance was provided by the offices of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PE) and Environment, Safety and Health (EH). Comprehensive application of waste minimization within the Department and in both the public and private sectors will provide significant benefits and support National Energy Strategy goals. These benefits include conservation of a substantial proportion of the energy now used by industry and Government, improved environmental quality, reduced health risks, improved production efficiencies, and longer useful life of disposal capacity. Taken together, these benefits will mean improved US global competitiveness, expanded job opportunities, and a better quality of life for all citizens.

  3. Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-13

    On November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed that a Department of Energy (DOE) crosscut plan for waste minimization (WMin) be prepared and submitted by March 1, 1992. This Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan responds to the Secretary`s direction and supports the National Energy Strategy (NES) goals of achieving greater energy security, increasing energy and economic efficiency, and enhancing environmental quality. It provides a DOE-wide planning framework for effective coordination of all DOE WMin activities. This Plan was jointly prepared by the following Program Secretarial Officer (PSO) organizations: Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW); Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE); Defense Programs (DP); Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), lead; Energy Research (ER); Fossil Energy (FE); Nuclear Energy (NE); and New Production Reactors (NP). Assistance and guidance was provided by the offices of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PE) and Environment, Safety and Health (EH). Comprehensive application of waste minimization within the Department and in both the public and private sectors will provide significant benefits and support National Energy Strategy goals. These benefits include conservation of a substantial proportion of the energy now used by industry and Government, improved environmental quality, reduced health risks, improved production efficiencies, and longer useful life of disposal capacity. Taken together, these benefits will mean improved US global competitiveness, expanded job opportunities, and a better quality of life for all citizens.

  4. WasteWise Resource Management: Innovative Solid Waste Contracting Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resource management is an innovative contractual partnership between a waste-generating organization and a qualified contractor that changes the nature of current disposal services to support waste minimization and recycling.

  5. Artificial aggregate made from waste stone sludge and waste silt.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Lee, Ming-Yu; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Jyh-Dong

    2010-11-01

    In this research, waste stone sludge obtained from slab stone processing and waste silt from aggregate washing plants were recycled to manufacture artificial aggregate. Fine-powdered stone sludge was mixed with waste silt of larger particle size; vibratory compaction was applied for good water permeability, resulting in a smaller amount of solidifying agent being used. For the densified packing used in this study, the mix proportion of waste stone sludge to waste silt was 35:50, which produced artificial aggregate of more compact structure with water absorption rate below 0.1%. In addition, applying vibratory compaction of 33.3 Hz to the artificial aggregate and curing for 28 days doubled the compressive strength to above 29.4 MPa. Hence, recycling of waste stone sludge and waste silt for the production of artificial aggregate not only offers a feasible substitute for sand and stone, but also an ecological alternative to waste management of sludge and silt.

  6. Meat-, fish-, and poultry-processing wastes. [Industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.

    1982-06-01

    A review of the literature dealing with the effectiveness of various waste processing methods for meat-, fish,-, and poultry-processing wastes is presented. Activated sludge processes, anaerobic digestion, filtration, screening, oxidation ponds, and aerobic digestion are discussed.

  7. Liquid secondary waste. Waste form formulation and qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A. D.; Dixon, K. L.; Hill, K. A.; King, W. D.; Nichols, R. L.

    2016-03-01

    The Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) currently treats aqueous waste streams generated during Site cleanup activities. When the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) begins operations, a liquid secondary waste (LSW) stream from the WTP will need to be treated. The volume of effluent for treatment at the ETF will increase significantly. Washington River Protection Solutions is implementing a Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan to address the technology needs for a waste form and solidification process to treat the increased volume of waste planned for disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility IDF). Waste form testing to support this plan is composed of work in the near term to demonstrate the waste form will provide data as input to a performance assessment (PA) for Hanford’s IDF.

  8. Waste generator services implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999.

  9. Inconsistent pathways of household waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, Lisa Aberg, Helena; Lagerkvist, Anders; Berg, Per E.O.

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this study was to provide policy-makers and waste management planners with information about how recycling programs affect the quantities of specific materials recycled and disposed of. Two questions were addressed: which factors influence household waste generation and pathways? and how reliable are official waste data? Household waste flows were studied in 35 Swedish municipalities, and a wide variation in the amount of waste per capita was observed. When evaluating the effect of different waste collection policies, it was found to be important to identify site-specific factors influencing waste generation. Eleven municipal variables were investigated in an attempt to explain the variation. The amount of household waste per resident was higher in populous municipalities and when net commuting was positive. Property-close collection of dry recyclables led to increased delivery of sorted metal, plastic and paper packaging. No difference was seen in the amount of separated recyclables per capita when weight-based billing for the collection of residual waste was applied, but the amount of residual waste was lower. Sixteen sources of error in official waste statistics were identified and the results of the study emphasize the importance of reliable waste generation and composition data to underpin waste management policies.

  10. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  11. Biotreat oily refinery wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, M.L.; Oolman, T.; Castaldi, F.J.; Behrens, G.P. )

    1992-08-01

    Technical and economic potential exists for meeting regulatory standards with tank-based biological treatment. Oily waste treatment at a 100,000-bpd Gulf Coast refinery is used as the basis for this evaluation. Results from bench-scale treatability studies of the refiner's API separator sludge and dissolved air flotation float verify that biological treatment can meet EPA's Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) standards, thereby allowing disposal of the treated residue in a RCRA-permitted landfill. This paper reports that on the basis of these results, an economic feasibility study was conducted to estimate the costs for treating all oily wastes from the refinery. The simplified process flow diagram shows biotreatment as an integral part of a waste treatment process. Key components are: Initial recovery of recyclable oil, biological degradation of hazardous organic components, chemical stabilization of metals and dewatering of the residual sludge.

  12. New hazardous waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Krukowski, J.

    1993-05-15

    From data supplied by industrial laboratories, from academia, and from the EPA's Superfund Innovative Site Evaluation (SITE) program, this paper presents an informal look at some new and innovative hazardous waste treatment processes. These processes show promise for sparing users off-site disposal costs as well as for remediation of contamination at Superfund or RCRA sites. Included are the following: equipment that will biodegrade water-based paint wastes and pesticide wastes; recycling of potliner and furnace dusts for metal recovery; a process that reduces PCBs and PAHs to lighter hydrocarbons such as methane. Finally, two radiofrequency (RF) processes are described that can be used to remove soil contaminants such as pentachlorophenols, Aroclor 1242, solvents, oils, jet fuel, and pesticides.

  13. Low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and biomedical mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This document describes the proceedings of a workshop entitled: Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Biomedical Mixed Waste presented by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the University of Florida, October 17-19, 1994. The topics covered during the workshop include technical data and practical information regarding the generation, handling, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. A description of low-level radioactive waste activities in the United States and the regional compacts is presented.

  14. Electrochemical incineration of wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bockris, J. O. M.; Bhardwaj, R. C.; Tennakoon, C. L. K.

    1993-01-01

    There is an increasing concern regarding the disposal of human wastes in space vehicles. It is of utmost importance to convert such wastes into harmless products which can be recycled into an Environmental Life Support System (CELSS), which incorporates the growth of plants (e.g. wheat) and algae to supplement the diet of the astronauts. Chemical treatments have proven relatively unsatisfactory and tend to be increasingly so with increase of the mission duration. Similarly, the use of heat to destroy wastes and convert them to CO2 by the use of air or oxygen has the disadvantage and difficulty of dissipating heat in a space environment and to the inevitable presence of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide in the effluent gases. In particular, electrochemical techniques offer several advantages including low temperatures which may be used and the absence of any NO and CO in the evolved gases. Successful research has been carried out in the electrochemical oxidation of wastes over the last several years. The major task for 1992 was to conduct parametric studies in preparation for the building of a breadboard system, i.e., an actual practical device to consume the daily waste output of one astronaut in 24 hours, electrochemical incineration of human wastes in space vehicles. One of the main objectives was to decide on the type of three dimensional or other electrode system that would suit this purpose. The various types of electrode systems which were considered for this purpose included: rotating disc electrode, micro-electrode (an array), vibrating electrode, jet electrode, and packed bed electrode.

  15. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  16. Hazardous Waste: Cleanup and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve; Cronin, Nancy L.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Superfund, a federal cleanup program created in response to growing public concern over the health and environmental risks posed by hazardous waste sites. Discusses sources, disposal, and movement and risk of hazardous waste. (JRH)

  17. Land, Waste, and Cleanup Topics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    After reducing waste as much as possible through recycling and sustainability, managing waste protects land quality. EPA is also involved in cleaning up and restoring contaminated land, through brownfield and superfund programs.

  18. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  19. Biotoxin Safety and Waste Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The General Safety and Waste Management page offers section-specific safety and waste management details for the biotoxins included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  20. 77 FR 13155 - Waste Regulation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Waste Regulation AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of permit modification request... Martin personnel will be assuming responsibility for waste management activities. Those activities...