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Sample records for 17th central hardwood

  1. EDITORIAL The 17th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2011-02-01

    . The uncertainty relations for photon quadratures were also checked for the thermal photon state using experimental values of optical tomograms and avoiding the reconstruction procedure of the Wigner function and its associated precision constrains. In the tomographic-probability representation of quantum mechanics and quantum optics, tomograms are used for the description of quantum states as an alternative to the wave function and density matrix. The purity, fidelity, entropy and photon temperature associated with quantum states are expressed in terms of tomograms. This provides the possibility of measuring these characteristics directly by taking optical tomograms and checking basic inequalities like entropic uncertainty relations, temperature-dependent quadrature uncertainty relations, etc. The better understanding that quantum states can be identified with measurable probability distributions like optical tomograms opens new prospects in quantum optics, for example, to check experimentally the uncertainty relations for higher quadrature momenta and to control the precision with which the fundamental inequalities of quantum mechanics are experimentally confirmed. This Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented at the 17th Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO10) held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK, 6-11 June 2010. The other collaborators from different scientific centers who could not, due to different reasons, come to St Andrews but participated in the previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs also contributed to this issue. The paper by Ulf Leonhardt and Natalia Korolkova, the CEWQO10 Organizers, opens this issue. The order of the following papers corresponds to the alphabetical order of the first author of the paper. The history of CEWQOs can be found in the Preface to the Proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (2009 Phys. Scr. T135 011005). The Proceedings of the 16th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO09

  2. Fire effects on wildlife in Central Hardwoods and Appalachian regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, Craig A.; Ford, William; Lashley, Marcus A.; Moorman, Christopher; Stambaugh, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Fire is being prescribed and used increasingly to promote ecosystem restoration (e.g., oak woodlands and savannas) and to manage wildlife habitat in the Central Hardwoods and Appalachian regions, USA. However, questions persist as to how fire affects hardwood forest communities and associated wildlife, and how fire should be used to achieve management goals. We provide an up-to-date review of fire effects on various wildlife species and their habitat in the Central Hardwoods and Appalachians. Documented direct effects (i.e., mortality) on wildlife are rare. Indirect effects (i.e., changes in habitat quality) are influenced greatly by light availability, fire frequency, and fire intensity. Unless fire intensity is great enough to kill a portion of the overstory, burning in closed-canopy forests has provided little benefit for most wildlife species in the region because it doesn’t result in enough sunlight penetration to elicit understory response. Canopy reduction through silvicultural treatment has enabled managers to use fire more effectively. Fire intensity must be kept low in hardwoods to limit damage to many species of overstory trees. However, wounding or killing trees with fire benefits many wildlife species by allowing increased sunlight to stimulate understory response, snag and subsequent cavity creation, and additions of large coarse woody debris. In general, a fire-return interval of 2 yr to 7 yr benefits a wide variety of wildlife species by providing a diverse structure in the understory; increasing browse, forage, and soft mast; and creating snags and cavities. Historically, dormant-season fire was most prevalent in these regions, and it still is when most prescribed fire is implemented in hardwood systems as burn-days are relatively few in the growing season of May through August because of shading from leaf cover and high fuel moisture. Late growing-season burning increases the window for burning, and better control on woody composition is

  3. The Central Hardwoods Virtual Forest Version 2.0. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ., Indianapolis.

    This CD-ROM is the second in a series of CDs allowing students to explore the trees and animals of the northern boreal forest. Using QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR), the Central Hardwood Virtual Forest is designed so that students are able to see views from inside the central hardwood forest and look up or down or spin around 360 degrees. The…

  4. Reliance on shallow soil water in a mixed-hardwood forest in central Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Katie P.; Stanley, Jane W.; Meinzer, Frederick C.; McCulloh, Katherine A.; Woodruff, David R.; Chen, Weile; Adams, Thomas S.; Lin, Henry; Eissenstat, David M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated depth of water uptake of trees on shale-derived soils in order to assess the importance of roots over a meter deep as a driver of water use in a central Pennsylvania catchment. This information is not only needed to improve basic understanding of water use in these forests but also to improve descriptions of root function at depth in hydrologic process models. The study took place at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory in central Pennsylvania. We asked two main questions: (i) Do trees in a mixed-hardwood, humid temperate forest in a central Pennsylvania catchment rely on deep roots for water during dry portions of the growing season? (ii) What is the role of tree genus, size, soil depth and hillslope position on the depth of water extraction by trees? Based on multiple lines of evidence, including stable isotope natural abundance, sap flux and soil moisture depletion patterns with depth, the majority of water uptake during the dry part of the growing season occurred, on average, at less than ∼60 cm soil depth throughout the catchment. While there were some trends in depth of water uptake related to genus, tree size and soil depth, water uptake was more uniformly shallow than we expected. Our results suggest that these types of forests may rely considerably on water sources that are quite shallow, even in the drier parts of the growing season. PMID:26546366

  5. Reliance on shallow soil water in a mixed-hardwood forest in central Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Katie P; Stanley, Jane W; Meinzer, Frederick C; McCulloh, Katherine A; Woodruff, David R; Chen, Weile; Adams, Thomas S; Lin, Henry; Eissenstat, David M

    2016-04-01

    We investigated depth of water uptake of trees on shale-derived soils in order to assess the importance of roots over a meter deep as a driver of water use in a central Pennsylvania catchment. This information is not only needed to improve basic understanding of water use in these forests but also to improve descriptions of root function at depth in hydrologic process models. The study took place at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory in central Pennsylvania. We asked two main questions: (i) Do trees in a mixed-hardwood, humid temperate forest in a central Pennsylvania catchment rely on deep roots for water during dry portions of the growing season? (ii) What is the role of tree genus, size, soil depth and hillslope position on the depth of water extraction by trees? Based on multiple lines of evidence, including stable isotope natural abundance, sap flux and soil moisture depletion patterns with depth, the majority of water uptake during the dry part of the growing season occurred, on average, at less than ∼60 cm soil depth throughout the catchment. While there were some trends in depth of water uptake related to genus, tree size and soil depth, water uptake was more uniformly shallow than we expected. Our results suggest that these types of forests may rely considerably on water sources that are quite shallow, even in the drier parts of the growing season.

  6. Modeling the Effects of Harvest Alternatives on Mitigating Oak Decline in a Central Hardwood Forest Landscape.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen J; He, Hong S; Spetich, Martin A; Shifley, Stephen R; Thompson Iii, Frank R; Fraser, Jacob S

    2013-01-01

    Oak decline is a process induced by complex interactions of predisposing factors, inciting factors, and contributing factors operating at tree, stand, and landscape scales. It has greatly altered species composition and stand structure in affected areas. Thinning, clearcutting, and group selection are widely adopted harvest alternatives for reducing forest vulnerability to oak decline by removing susceptible species and declining trees. However, the long-term, landscape-scale effects of these different harvest alternatives are not well studied because of the limited availability of experimental data. In this study, we applied a forest landscape model in combination with field studies to evaluate the effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline in a Central Hardwood Forest landscape. Results showed that the potential oak decline in high risk sites decreased strongly in the next five decades irrespective of harvest alternatives. This is because oak decline is a natural process and forest succession (e.g., high tree mortality resulting from intense competition) would eventually lead to the decrease in oak decline in this area. However, forest harvesting did play a role in mitigating oak decline and the effectiveness varied among the three harvest alternatives. The group selection and clearcutting alternatives were most effective in mitigating oak decline in the short and medium terms, respectively. The long-term effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline became less discernible as the role of succession increased. The thinning alternative had the highest biomass retention over time, followed by the group selection and clearcutting alternatives. The group selection alternative that balanced treatment effects and retaining biomass was the most viable alternative for managing oak decline. Insights from this study may be useful in developing effective and informed forest harvesting plans for managing oak decline.

  7. Quantifying the Role of Bottomland Hardwood Forest Flood Attenuation in the Central U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbart, J. A.; Bulliner, E. A.; Freeman, G. W.; Scollan, D. P.; Romine, J.; Chinnasamy, P.; Huang, D.; Schulz, J.

    2010-12-01

    Contemporary floodplain management is a growing concern, particularly in regions where climate change predictions include increased precipitation such as the central U.S. and Missouri. Historically, bottomland hardwood forests (BHF) played a significant role in runoff and flood attenuation. However, most of the floodplain BHF in Missouri was removed in the 19th and 20th centuries to cultivate the rich underlying soils. In many instances, BHF conversion required the installation of drainage and flood control structures, such as drainage tiles, ditches, levees, and dams. Many stream and river channels were straightened and enlarged to further reduce flooding. Structural changes, coupled with changes in vegetation and soils, drastically altered the hydrology of streams, floodplains, and the remnant BHF. Today, century-old management practices are coming under scrutiny in the Midwest in terms of management efficacy in contemporary urbanizing watersheds. Therefore, work is being conducted in central Missouri to quantify current floodplain flow attenuation of a 303(d) listed impaired urban stream. Instrumentation was installed in lower reaches of the Hinkson Creek Watershed (230km2) in the spring of 2010 in a case study comparing a remnant BHF and an abandoned agricultural floodplain site using replicated study designs. Instrumentation includes two 80 m2 grids of nine equally spaced four meter deep piezometers to monitor groundwater flow and volumetric water content (VWC) sensor profiles that monitor VWC at 15, 30, 50, 75 and 100 cm depth. Grids were enlarged to 120 m2 to measure leaf area index (LAI), surface infiltration capacity with double ring infiltrometers, and soil characteristics. Soil characteristics were quantified by extracting soil cores at soil depths of 0, 15, 30, 50, 75 and 100 cm (n = 302). LAI in the BHF was on average 3.06 (SD = 0.65, min = 1.31, max = 4.38, n = 42). Preliminary analysis indicates that average infiltration capacity is 44 cm/hr (SD = 38

  8. 17th Annual School Construction Report, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 "School Planning & Management"'s 17th Annual School Construction Report reports over the last two years although school construction had fallen from previous highs, the pipeline of projects funded before the recession was still full. And so, in 2009 total construction was a solid $16.4 billion. But the pipeline is not being…

  9. Climate change and the future of natural disturbances in the central hardwood region

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Hughes, M. Joseph; Hayes, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The spatial patterns and ecological processes of the southeastern upland hardwood forests have evolved to reflect past climatic conditions and natural disturbance regimes. Changes in climate can lead to disturbances that exceed their natural range of variation, and the impacts of these changes will depend on the vulnerability or resiliency of these ecosystems. Global Circulation Models generally project annual increases in temperature across the southeastern United States over the coming decades, but changes in precipitation are less consistent. Even more unclear is how climate change might affect future trends in the severity and frequency of natural disturbances, such as severe storms, fires, droughts, floods, and insect outbreaks. Here, we use a time-series satellite data record to map the spatial pattern and severity of broad classes of natural disturbances the southeast region. The data derived from this map allow analysis of regional-scale trends in natural and anthropogenic disturbances in the region over the last three decades. Throughout the region, between 5% and 25% of forest land is affected by some sort of disturbance each year since 1985. The time series reveals periodic droughts that themselves are widespread and of low severity but are associated with more localized, high-severity disturbances such as fire and insect outbreaks. The map also reveals extensive anthropogenic disturbance across the region in the form of forest conversion related to resource extraction and urban and residential development. We discuss how changes in climate and disturbance regimes might affect southeastern forests in the future via altering the exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of these ecosystems. Changes in climate are highly likely to expose southeastern forests to more frequent and severe disturbances, but ultimately how vulnerable or resilient southeastern forests are to these changes will depend on their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to these novel

  10. CARBON DIOXIDE FLUXES IN A CENTRAL HARDWOODS OAK-HICKORY FOREST ECOSYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Pallardy, Stephen G.; Gu, Lianhong; Hanson, Paul J; Meyers, T. P.; Wullschleger, Stan D; Yang, Bai; Hosman, K. P.

    2007-01-01

    A long-term experiment to measure carbon and water fluxes was initiated in 2004 as part of the Ameriflux network in a second-growth oak-hickory forest in central Missouri. Ecosystem-scale (~ 1 km2) canopy gas exchange (measured by eddy-covariance methods), vertical CO2 profile sampling and soil respiration along with meteorological parameters were monitored continuously. Early results from this forest located on the western margin of the Eastern Deciduous Forest indicated high peak rates of canopy CO2 uptake (35-40 ?mol m-2 s-1) during the growing season. Canopy CO2 profile measurements indicated substantial accumulation of CO2 (~500 ppm) near the surface in still air at night, venting of this buildup in the morning hours under radiation-induced turbulent air flow, and small vertical gradients of CO2 during most of the subsequent light period with minimum CO2 concentrations in the canopy. Flux of CO2 from the soil ranged from 2 to 8 ?mol m-2 s-1 and increased with temperature. Data from this site and others in the network will also allow characterization of regional spatial variation in carbon fluxes as well as inter-annual differences attributable to climatic events such as droughts.

  11. Herbaceous layer and soil response to experimental acidification in a central appalachian hardwood forest

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, F.S.; Turrill, N.L.; Aulick, S.D.; Evans, D.K.; Adams, M.B.

    1994-07-01

    The herbaceous layer is an important component of forest ecosystems and a potentially sensitive vegetation stratum in response to acid deposition. This study tested several hypotheses concerning soil and herbaceous layer response to experimental acidification at the Fernow Experimental Forest in north-central West Virginia. Fifteen circular sample plots (0.04 ha) were established in each of three watersheds: WS3 (an {approx} 20-yr-old watershed receiving acidification treatment with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}), WS4 (>80-yr-old control), and WS7 ({approx} 20-yr-old control). The herb layer was sampled intensively in 10 1-m{sup 2} subplots within each sample plot, including determination of species composition, cover, and random biomass harvests. Few differences among watersheds for virtually all measured soil variables indicated minimal response of soil fertility to the acidification treatment. The herbaceous layer was also quite similar among watersheds with respect to cover-biomass and species diversity; WS7, however, had {approx} 70% higher herb layer cover that both Ws3 and WS4, a result of the predominance of a few high-cover fern species and attributable to the north-facing aspect of WS7 vs. south-facing aspects of WS3/WS4. There was a high degree of species similarity among watersheds, suggesting no shift in species composition in response to acidification. There was also minimal response of element concentrations to acidification, although Fe and Al exhibited evidence of increased uptake in WS3. We conclude that, contrary to our expectations, there has been little substantive response of the soil and herb layer to acidification, but hypothesize that herbaceous layer species may experience toxicity problems with increased mobility of Al and micronutrients in the future. 47 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. DIMMING OF THE 17TH CENTURY SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Foukal, Peter; Ortiz, Ada; Schnerr, Roald

    2011-06-01

    Reconstructions of total solar irradiance (TSI) rely mainly on linear relations between TSI variation and indices of facular area. When these are extrapolated to the prolonged 15th-17th century Spoerer and Maunder solar activity minima, the estimated solar dimming is insufficient to explain the mid-millennial climate cooling of the Little Ice Age. We draw attention here to evidence that the relation departs from linearity at the lowest activity levels. Imaging photometry and radiometry indicate an increased TSI contribution per unit area from small network faculae by a factor of 2-4 compared with larger faculae in and around active regions. Even partial removal of this more TSI-effective network at prolonged minima could enable climatically significant solar dimming, yet be consistent with the weakened but persistent 11 yr cycle observed in Be 10 during the Maunder Minimum. The mechanism we suggest would not alter previous findings that increased solar radiative forcing is insufficient to account for 20th century global warming.

  13. [Surgeons among the pirates in the 17th century].

    PubMed

    Snelders, S

    2005-12-24

    The memoirs of ship's surgeons that sailed with the Caribbean buccaneers and pirates of the 17th century are an important source of information on how they lived and worked. The surgeons enjoyed a full-fledged position among the egalitarian buccaneers. Known buccaneer surgeons whose memoirs have been preserved were apparently not entirely qualified according to the traditional guild system. Besides the usual work of ship's surgeons in general, the buccaneer surgeons had to be able to cope with the specific demands of the tropical climate. Botanical knowledge obtained from the Indian tribes played an important role in surviving the jungles of Central America. In addition, they were required to assist with duels, which played an important role among pirates and buccaneers in the settling of conflicts aboard ship, this in contrast to the situation on merchant and navy ships.

  14. Chemical characteristics and acidity of soluble organic substances from a northern hardwood forest floor, central Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, George F.; David, Mark B.

    1991-12-01

    Our understanding of the chemistry, structure, and reactions of organic substances in forest floor leachates is limited and incomplete. Therefore, we examined the organic and inorganic chemistry of forest floor leachates collected from a hardwood forest in central Maine over a two-year period (1987-1989), including detailed study of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Seasonal variations in NH 4+, NO 3-, K +, and total Al were believed due to organic matter decomposition and release. Leaching of other base cations closely followed that of NO 3-. Snowmelt resulted in NO 3- levels that decreased in time due to flushing of mineralization/nitrification by-products that had accumulated during the winter months. Total DOC ranged from 2228 to 7193 μmol L -1 with an average of 4835 μmol L -1. Monosaccharides and polyphenols constituted 3.9% (range of 3.4 to 4.4%) and 3.0% (2.2 to 3.7%) of the DOC, respectively, which suggests DOC may contain partially oxidized products that are possibly of a lignocellulose nature. Fractionation of the forest floor DOC indicated high organic acid contents (hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids) that averaged 92% of the total DOC. Organic acids were isolated and analyzed for elemental content (C, H, N, and S), and determination of UV absorptivity ( E 4/E 6) ratios, CuO oxidation products, FT-IR and 13C-NMR spectra, and acidity by potentiometric titration. Results from these analyses indicate the organic acids in the forest floor leachates are similar to fulvic acids. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids had average exchange acidities of 0.126 and 0.148 μeq μmol -1 C, respectively, and pKa, of 4.23 and 4.33. Their FT-IR and 13C-NMR spectra suggest they are primarily carboxylic acids, with aliphatic and aromatic structure. An organic charge contribution model was developed using titration data, DOC fractionation percentages, and the total DOC in the forest floor leachates. Application of the model to all solutions accounted for 97% of the charge

  15. Characteristics of GLAS and Small Footprint Airborne Lidar Waveform Data from East- Central Mississippi Pine/Hardwood Forest and Central Texas Oak/Juniper Savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, R.; Neuenschwander, A. L.; Urban, T. J.; Schutz, B. E.; Evans, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    The accurate measurement of topography and vegetation structure is a vital component of any geomorphic and ecological characterization of the earth's surface. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on-board the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) is producing an unprecedented, near-global dataset of lidar waveforms resulting in range measurements with a precision of approximately 3 cm for non-vegetated surface. However, challenges remain regarding the accuracy of GLAS elevations over vegetated terrain. Data from three ICESat ascending passes were acquired over the Freeman Ranch, located near San Marcos, Texas on 14 March 2005, 26 October 2005 and again on 26 February 2006 to investigate the use of waveform lidar for determining vegetation structure. In addition, two ICESat ascending passes were acquired over forested portions of Oktibbeha County in east-central Mississippi on 3 March 2006 and 11 March 2006. The Freeman Ranch is characterized by a mixture of rangeland and Oak-Juniper woodlands, and is the focus of several studies on savanna ecosystem carbon storage. The Oktibbeha County survey area includes the John W. Starr Memorial Forest, a research forest composed of upland pine and pine/hardwood forest, bottomland hardwood forest and pine plantation. Topography at both Freeman Ranch and Oktibbeha County is flat to gently-rolling hills dissected by small streams. To validate the potential of GLAS waveforms for determining vegetation structure and assess the accuracy of GLAS topographic measurements, small-footprint airborne lidar data were collected over Freeman Ranch on 12 August 2005 using an Optech ALTM 1225 system. Airborne lidar data were also collected along the ICESAT ground tracks over Oktibbeha County on 26-27 July, 2006. The UT ALTM system is equipped with a waveform digitizer that allows the simultaneous recording of conventional first and last return lidar data and the corresponding reflection waveforms at the 25 kHz laser pulse

  16. 17th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Judith

    2006-07-02

    The 17th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research was held at the University of Madison, Wisconsin from June 27- July 2, 2006. ICAR-2006 included approximately 625 scientists from across the world. The scientific program was of excellent quality featuring 73 talks, including 30 from invited speakers. There were also 6 community-organized workshops (facilitated by conference staff) featuring additional talks on topics including ‘Submitting data to long-term repositories,’ ‘TAIR introductory workshop,’ ‘Web services and demonstration,’ ‘Public engagement: broadening the impact of your research,’ ‘Systems biology approaches to analysis of metabolic and regulatory networks of Arabidopsis,’ and ‘Mechanotransduction in Arabidopsis.’ Approximately 440 posters were presented in general topic areas including, among others, Development, Modeling/Other Systems, Energy, Environment, and Genetic/Epigenetic mechanisms. Graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, junior faculty, and underrepresented minorities made up a significant portion of the oral presentations thereby promoting the training of young scientists and facilitating important career development opportunities for speakers. Several poster sessions provided an opportunity for younger participants to freely meet with more established scientists. The North American Arabidopsis Steering Committee (NAASC) continued its outreach effort and again sponsored two special luncheons to encourage personal and professional development of young scientists and also underrepresented minorities. The ‘Emerging Scientists Luncheon’ featured 10 graduate students selected on the basis of scientific excellence of their submitted research abstracts. The ‘Minority Funding Luncheon,’ featured 8 awardees selected by the NAASC through a widely-publicized application process. This luncheon was established specifically to provide an opportunity for underrepresented minorities, and/or scientists from

  17. Scientific Misconduct and Theft: Case Report from 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella

    2008-01-01

    Gjuro Armen Baglivi was one of the most famous medical authorities of the 17th century. Apart from his numerous books and publications, several extensive collections of his correspondence have been preserved and are available in libraries around the world. They provide new information about the 17th century scientific culture and place of Baglivi’s work in the scientific European context. Also, they shed light on his personality more than other writings intended for the public eye. In this paper I will present the case of a theft of intellectual property, which Baglivi described in one of his letters to Jean Jacques Manget. PMID:18293461

  18. High Life: 17th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Residence hall construction continues to be a priority for colleges and universities. With enrollments on the upswing, higher-education institutions are spending more and building larger facilities to entice students to live on campus. This article presents the findings of "American School & University's" 17th annual Residence Hall Construction…

  19. Harvard Humanities Students Discover the 17th Century Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article profiles Harvard professor Stephen Greenblatt's new course, "Travel and Transformation in the Early 17th Century." The product of an intense, months-long collaboration between computing specialists, graduate students, librarians, and scholars, the course makes innovative use of all the tools and technical know-how a major university…

  20. Report from 17th Hydrology Days Conference available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 17th annual Hydrology Days Conference was held from April 14-18,1997, at Colorado State University in Fort Collins. Highlights of the meeting included awards for the best student papers, given to Lyn Benjamin and Kevin Williams, both of Utah State University, and to Tom Sale of Colorado State University and Frank Barranco of the Colorado School of Mines. Proceedings from the meeting are available for $30 from H. J. Morel-Seytoux (57 Selby Lane, Atherton, CA 94027-3926 USA; tel. +1-415-365-4080semi; e-mail morelsey@usgs.gov)

  1. Anatomy and anatomists in Tuscany in the 17th century.

    PubMed

    Orlandini, Giovanni E; Paternostro, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The 17th century was characterized by a real revolution in the field of scientific research due to the introduction of the experimental method, promoted by Galileo Galilei who was the most representative scientist of this period. Therefore, medical disciplines, particularly Anatomy, underwent innovative and deep changes shattering traditional culture and representing the background for the modern science. In this fermenting period, Tuscany played a significant role since numerous distinguished scientists were gathered by Medici Grand Dukes (especially Ferdinando the 2nd and Cosimo the 3rd) at Pisa University and at their court in Florence. Among them, it must be mentioned Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, creator of iathromechanics, Marcello Malpighi, founder of microscopic Anatomy, Francesco Redi, who denied the insect spontaneous generation, Nils Steensen who continued in Florence his anatomical studies on lymph nodes and salivary glands while setting also the bases of modern geology. Moreover, at the end of the 17th century, the anatomical wax modelling techniques arose and developed in Florence thanks to the work of Gaetano Zumbo (or Zummo), capable of creating some real masterpieces, still very well preserved and collected in the Museum of Natural Sciences "La Specola".

  2. 17th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The 17th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVII) Conference was held September 11-13, 2001, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Cleveland, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar technology. This year's conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVI; the use of new high-efficiency cells for commercial use and the development of novel array concepts such as Boeing's Solar Tile concept. In addition, new information was presented on space environmental interactions with solar arrays.

  3. JANNAF 17th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Volume 1, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 16 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 17th meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) held jointly with the 35th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS). The meeting was held on 7 - 11 December 1998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include projectile and shaped charge jet impact vulnerability of munitions; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; damage and hot spot initiation mechanisms with energetic materials; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  4. A Mediterranean derecho: Catalonia (Spain), 17th August 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. Manuel

    2007-02-01

    At approximately 6:10 UTC in the morning of 17th August 2003, a squall line developed over south Catalonia (the northeast region of Spain). During the next 9 h, the squall moved rapidly northeast and crossed Catalonia and the French regions of Languedoc-Roussillon and Province, damaging and uprooting hundreds of trees and blocking trains in the region. Wind gusts reached were recoded up to 52 m/s with evidence of F2 intensity damage. This case study shows the characteristics of a derecho (widespread convectively induced windstorm). Radar observations of the evolving squall line show signatures often correlated with damaging surface winds, including: Bow echoes, Rear inflow notches, Rear inflow jets, Medium altitude radial convergence, Narrow gradient of very marked reflectivity, Development of isolated cells ahead of the convective line, A band of convection off the northern end of the line known as a "warm advection wing". When examining the different surface observations, satellite, radar imagery and cloud-to-ground lightning data, this case shows many similarities to those investigated in the United States. The derecho is a hybrid case, but has many characteristics of warm season derechoes. This emanates from a mesoscale convective complex (MCC) moving along a quasi-stationary, low-level thermal boundary in an environment characterized by high potential instability and relatively strong mid-tropospheric winds.

  5. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America.

    PubMed

    Pittman, H Tyler; Krementz, David G

    2016-01-01

    Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha). This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS) Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated) and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated). Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%). We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (<5 cm ground diameter) and large trees (>20 cm DBH) but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5 cm ground diameter

  6. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha). This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS) Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated) and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated). Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%). We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (<5 cm ground diameter) and large trees (>20 cm DBH) but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5cm ground diameter) but

  7. [Chemistry of life: ferments and fermentation in 17th-century iatrochemistry].

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The concepts of ferment and fermentation played an important, though heretofore neglected, role in 17th-century physiology. Though these notions can be found in ancient philosophy and medicine, as well as in medieval medicine, they became integral part of the chemical medicine that was advocated by Paracelsus and his school. Paracelsians made fermentation a central concept in their successful effort to give chemical foundation to medicine. Jean Baptiste van Helmont and Sylvius used the concepts of ferment and fermentation to explain a variety of physiological processes in human body. Corpuscular philosophers like Robert Boyle and Thomas Willis reinterpreted these notions in corpuscular terms and separated the concept of ferment from that of fermentation. In the second half of the seventeenth century, physiologist tried to explain fermentation by means of chemical reactions, as for instance acid -alkali, and ruled out the notion of ferment as superfluous to their investigations. At the end of hte seventeenth century fermentation attracted the interest of physicists like Johannes Bernoulli and Isaac Newton, who tried to explain fermentative processes in terms of matter and motion (Bernoulli) and short-range forces (Newton). George Ernst Stahl devoted a work to fermentation: the Zymotechnia. He explained fermentation as the outcome of the reactions of molecules formed of saline, oily and earthy corpuscles with particles of water. He saw fermentation as a mechanical process, i.e. as collision of different kinds of corpuscles.

  8. Reconstructing early 17th century estuarine drought conditions from Jamestown oysters.

    PubMed

    Harding, Juliana M; Spero, Howard J; Mann, Roger; Herbert, Gregory S; Sliko, Jennifer L

    2010-06-08

    Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were a central component of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem in 1607 when European settlers established Jamestown, VA, the first permanent English settlement in North America. These estuarine bivalves were an important food resource during the early years of the James Fort (Jamestown) settlement while the colonists were struggling to survive in the face of inadequate supplies and a severe regional drought. Although oyster shells were discarded as trash after the oysters were eaten, the environmental and ecological data recorded in the bivalve geochemistry during shell deposition remain intact over centuries, thereby providing a unique window into conditions during the earliest Jamestown years. We compare oxygen isotope data from these 17th century oyster shells with modern shells to quantify and contrast estuarine salinity, season of oyster collection, and shell provenance during Jamestown colonization (1609-1616) and the 21st century. Data show that oysters were collected during an extended drought between fall 1611 and summer 1612. The drought shifted the 14 psu isohaline above Jamestown Island, facilitating individual oyster growth and extension of oyster habitat upriver toward the colony, thereby enhancing local oyster food resources. Data from distinct well layers suggest that the colonists also obtained oysters from reefs near Chesapeake Bay to augment oyster resources near Jamestown Island. The oyster shell season of harvest reconstructions suggest that these data come from either a 1611 well with a very short useful period or an undocumented older well abandoned by late 1611.

  9. Bottomland Hardwood Forest Influence on Floodplain Hydrology and Stream Bank Stability in an Urbanizing Watershed of the Central U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbart, J. A.; Zell, C.; Huang, D.

    2012-12-01

    Conversion of bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) to agricultural and urban land uses in the 19th and 20th centuries altered the hydrology of streams, floodplains, and remnant BHF. Broadened and steepened stream channels lead to increased channel instability, accelerated erosion, and reduced floodplain hydrologic connectivity. A case study was implemented to investigate floodplain and stream hydrogeomorphological processes comparing a remnant BHF and Ag site (sites = 0.90 km apart). 120 m2 grids were established to estimate canopy cover (LAI = 3.1), soil characteristics by the soil core method at depths of 0, 15, 30, 50, 75 and 100 cm (n = 302), and surface soil infiltration capacity (n = 42). 80 m2 grids (each site) were implemented with nine equally spaced piezometers to estimate shallow groundwater depth and flow. Stream bank erosion study sites were located adjacent to BHF and agricultural floodplain study sites using the erosion pin method (10 pin plots, n = 342 pins). Results indicate average porosity (n = 150) of 0.56 (SD = 0.04) and 0.59 (SD = 0.04) in agricultural and BHF sites, respectively. Average infiltration capacity was 44 cm/hr (SD = 38 cm/hr) and 59 cm/hr (SD = 54 cm/hr) in agricultural and BHF sites, respectively. Depth integrated calculations of equivalent depth of soil water (EDSW) were significantly different (CI = 99%) 33.3 cm/m (SD = 2.24 cm/m) and 36.9 cm/m (SD = 2.68 cm/m) between Ag and BHF sites, respectively. Shallow groundwater analyses (Water Year 2011) indicated that average head at the BHF and Ag sites increased by approximately 0.25 m, and 0.50 m, respectively 90 m inland from the streambank. Stream bank erosion results showed that during a drier (762 mm) than average (10yr avg = 1077 mm) rainfall year (Water Year 2011), 15.7 and 177.8 tonnes of soil erosion occurred on the right side (facing downstream) stream banks of the BHF and Ag sites, respectively. Average bank erosion depth measured at the BHF and Ag sites was 18 and 112 mm

  10. Report on the 17th Annual Land O'Lakes Bioanalytical Conference.

    PubMed

    Burns, Erik C; Moran, Jeff; Breidinger, Sheila; Ho, Stacy; Guthrie, Randy; Amaravardi, Lakshmi

    2016-11-01

    17th Annual Land O'Lakes Bioanalytical Conference, Madison, WI, USA, 11-14 July 2016 The 17th Annual Land O'Lakes Bioanalytical Conference, titled 'Biomarker Validation, Stability, and Regulatory Concerns', was held on 11-14 July 2016 (Monday through Thursday) in Madison, WI, USA. The Land O'Lakes Conference is presented each year by the Division of Pharmacy Professional Development within the School of Pharmacy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (USA). The purpose of this 3-day conference is to provide an educational forum to discuss issues and applications associated with the analysis of xenobiotics, metabolites, biologics and biomarkers in biological matrices. The conference is designed to include and encourage an open exchange of scientific and methodological applications for bioanalysis. To increase the interactive nature of the conference, the program is a mixture of lectures, interactive discussions and a poster session. This report summarizes the presentations at the 17th Annual Conference.

  11. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 1: Pigments and glazes characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira Ferreira, L. F.; Casimiro, T. M.; Colomban, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    Two sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the first and second halves of the 17th century were studied carefully with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Laser Induced Luminescence (LIL) and Proton Induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for a Chinese Ming porcelain, Wanli period (16th/beginning of the 17th centuries), which served as an influence for the initial Lisbon's faience production. By combining information of the different non-destructive spectroscopic techniques used in this work, it was possible to conclude that: Co3O4 (Co II and Co III) can be found in the silicate matrix and is the blue pigment in the "Especieiro" sample (1st half of the 17th C.). Cobalt olivine silicate (Co2SiO4, Co II only) was clearly identified as the blue pigment in "Aranhões" sample (2nd half of the17th C.) - 824 cm-1 band in the micro-Raman-spectrum. Cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4, Co II only) is the blue pigment in the Wanli plate - 203 and 512 cm-1 bands in the micro-Raman spectrum. The blue pigment in the 1st half 17th century of Lisbon's production was obtained by addition of a cobalt ore in low concentrations, which gives no specific Raman signature, because of complete dissolution in the glass. However, in most cases of the 2nd half 17th century, the Raman signature was quite evident, from a cobalt silicate. These findings point to the use of higher temperature kilns in the second case.

  12. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 1: pigments and glazes characterization.

    PubMed

    Vieira Ferreira, L F; Casimiro, T M; Colomban, Ph

    2013-03-01

    Two sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the first and second halves of the 17th century were studied carefully with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Laser Induced Luminescence (LIL) and Proton Induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for a Chinese Ming porcelain, Wanli period (16th/beginning of the 17th centuries), which served as an influence for the initial Lisbon's faience production. By combining information of the different non-destructive spectroscopic techniques used in this work, it was possible to conclude that: Co(3)O(4) (Co II and Co III) can be found in the silicate matrix and is the blue pigment in the "Especieiro" sample (1st half of the 17th C.). Cobalt olivine silicate (Co(2)SiO(4), Co II only) was clearly identified as the blue pigment in "Aranhões" sample (2nd half of the 17th C.) - 824 cm(-1) band in the micro-Raman-spectrum. Cobalt aluminate (CoAl(2)O(4), Co II only) is the blue pigment in the Wanli plate - 203 and 512 cm(-1) bands in the micro-Raman spectrum. The blue pigment in the 1st half 17th century of Lisbon's production was obtained by addition of a cobalt ore in low concentrations, which gives no specific Raman signature, because of complete dissolution in the glass. However, in most cases of the 2nd half 17th century, the Raman signature was quite evident, from a cobalt silicate. These findings point to the use of higher temperature kilns in the second case.

  13. Molecular Medicine - CHI's 17th International Tri-Conference: Mastering Medicinal Chemistry - CHI's Seventh Annual Conference.

    PubMed

    Semple, Graeme

    2010-04-01

    CHI's 17th International Tri-Conference on Molecular Medicine, held in San Francisco, included topics covering the drug discovery process, with an emphasis on lead optimization. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the development of several launched and investigational drugs, including Plerixafor, Trox-1 (CombinatoRX Inc), lorcaserin (Arena Pharmaceuticals Inc), vorapaxar (Merck & Co Inc) and ulimorelin (Tranzyme Pharma Inc).

  14. Nonmilitary applications of the rocket between the 17th and 20th centuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    Nonmilitary uses of the rocket through history were investigated. It was found that through the 17th century rockets were used in whaling as harpoon drives. In later years, rockets were used in lifesaving and in commercial signalling at sea. Rocket utilization was traced up to the present application of sending the first men to the moon.

  15. Mosquito Vector Control and Biology in Latin America - A 17th Symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 17th Annual Latin America American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 73rd Annual Meeting in Orlando, FL, in April 2007. The principal objective, as for the previous 16 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector cont...

  16. Why "Worser" Is Better: The Double Comparative in 16th- to 17th-Century English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schluter, Julia

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the redundantly marked comparative "worser" in relation to its irregular, but etymologically justified, counterpart, "worse." Examines the diachronic development of the form as well as its distribution in the written language of the 16th and 17th centuries. (Author/VWL)

  17. Native American Games & European Religious Attitudes in the 16th & 17th Centuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, George

    Some aspects of the white-Indian relationship are reflected in the writings of 16th and 17th century observers of Indian pastimes. The Noble Savage image was apparently accepted by French colonists as a consequence of an intellectual disappointment in the contemporary societies. In an age of absolutism and religious intolerance, the picture of the…

  18. Concurrent phenomena of science and history in the 17th century and their essential interdependence.

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, H.

    1992-01-01

    The explanation for the explosion of science in the 17th century lies in history and medical historiography. Without this approach, it becomes fantasy, accidents, or success stories. Sigerist grasped the essential interdependence of science and history, and had no need for devised reasons or speculation. He realized that once the dark night of the Middle Ages was over, the sciences arose with undreamt of force and accelerated development. The advances in astronomy, mathematics, mechanics, and experimental science benefitted a society developing in seafaring, manufacture, and trade in the 17th century. Sigerist's views make the scientific explosion understandable in human and social terms. He did not overlook the capabilities of some extraordinary individuals, such as Paracelsus (1493-1541), to shape the course of medicine, nor the importance of the mechanistic philosophy in the 17th century. Man makes history and science; hence, we find concurrent phenomena of history and science essentially interdependent. The spirit of experimental science of 17th century England was inspired by the new needs of commercial enterprise for more means of transportation and communication. Likewise, the interest in the mechanics of the pump for waterworks and for the drainage of swamps led Harvey to think of the heart as a pump, and to explain the circulation of the blood in terms of its functioning. PMID:1608066

  19. Japanese Concepts of Child Development from the Mid-17th to Mid-19th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kojima, Hideo

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes beliefs and values about child rearing from documents written by experts on the mid-17th to mid-19th centuries. The experts argued that children are innately good rather than evil; environmental factors accounted for differences among children rather than innate factors; and children were autonomous rather than passive learners. (HOD)

  20. 8. Photocopy of photograph (from 17th Annual Report, 1912, The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph (from 17th Annual Report, 1912, The American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society) Unknown, Photographer, c. 1912 PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF WEST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE AS LOCATED AND ALTERED AT PRESENT SITE - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York County, NY

  1. My Experience with Alcohol, a 17th-Century Mathematician, and a Personal Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Dennis R.; Rector, Sheila M.

    2009-01-01

    This writing shares the first author's personal experience with alcohol, the negative consequences of his choices, and the ultimate answering of the question, "Am I an alcoholic and should I drink again?" The decision-making process and the eventual answer come from Blaise Pascal, a 17th-century mathematician. This process is explained and…

  2. Computers in Libraries Annual Conference (17th, Washington, DC, March 13-15, 2002): Collected Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Carol, Comp.

    This book contains presentations from the 17th annual Computers in Libraries Conference. Topics covered include: chatting with a librarian; verbots for library Web sites; collaborative IT (Information Technology) planning at Montgomery County Public Library (Maryland); designing a local government taxonomy; Weblogs; new roles for librarians in…

  3. Quantifying early 17th century changes in Chesapeake Bay estuarine carbon dynamics from James River, VA oyster geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, B. L.; Spero, H. J.; Harding, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    same shells provide seasonal signals and also show an offset from modern that is consistent with drought conditions during the early 17th century. These high fidelity records allow for a direct, high-resolution comparison of the residence time of carbon in the environment immediately prior to European colonization and during the first century of land use change in mid-Atlantic North America.

  4. John Hall and his epileptic patients--epilepsy management in early 17th century England.

    PubMed

    Betts, T; Betts, H

    1998-10-01

    John Hall, a physician, practised in Stratford in the early 17th century and was the son-in-law of William Shakespeare. During his career he kept records of his patients (in Latin) which he may have been preparing for publication when he died. Despite his instruction for them to be destroyed some were later translated into English and published by another physician. The case records were popular and have recently been reprinted with a commentaryl. We have searched the case records for descriptions of epilepsy and examined the treatments offered (and the attitudes to) this condition in early 17th century England. Treatment consisted of standard remedies ('fumes' of hartshorn and extracts of peony) related to the Galenic system of medicine, plus individual remedies. Interestingly, there is no evidence that the condition was stigmatized.

  5. 17th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest SupercomputersReseased

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack J.; Simon,Horst D.

    2001-06-21

    17th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released MANNHEIM, GERMANY; KNOXVILLE, TENN.; BERKELEY, CALIF. In what has become a much-anticipated event in the world of high-performance computing, the 17th edition of the TOP500 list of the world's fastest supercomputers was released today (June 21). The latest edition of the twice-yearly ranking finds IBM as the leader in the field, with 40 percent in terms of installed systems and 43 percent in terms of total performance of all the installed systems. In second place in terms of installed systems is Sun Microsystems with 16 percent, while Cray Inc. retained second place in terms of performance (13 percent). SGI Inc. was third both with respect to systems with 63 (12.6 percent) and performance (10.2 percent).

  6. 17th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B. L.

    2007-08-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 17th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 5-8, 2007. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'Expanding Technology for a Future Powered by Si Photovoltaics.'

  7. Acupuncture points & use of moxibustion, found in the popular literature & paintings of 17th century Japan.

    PubMed

    Omura, Y

    1984-01-01

    Acupuncture and moxibustion have long been an integral part of Far Eastern oriental medicine. Moxibustion and acupuncture cannot be discussed without each other since both use the same acupuncture point locations and nomenclatures. In the late 17th century, the famous travel diary of Basho, a Japanese master of haiku poetry, made reference to personal use of moxibustion on one of the well-known acupuncture points, stomach 36. Recently, the author found 2 paintings of a 17th century Kyoto geisha house and its surroundings in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, painted in realistic color by Moronobu, the originator of the Ukiyoe style and a contemporary of Basho. Part of the scene depicts some professional porters at work; on their legs are white scars at some of the well-known acupuncture points, including stomach 36 and spleen 6. The scars appear to be the result of moxibustion. This may indicate the common use of moxibustion on well-known acupuncture points of the lower extremities in late 17th century Japan for professional porters and for people making extensive journeys. Further support of the relatively widespread use of acupuncture and moxibustion is even found in the popular, non-medical literature of late 17th century Japan. In one of the short stories about the life of average people, written by the novelist Saikaku, the details of a young woman giving moxibustion on the back of a young man is realistically described with illustrations. Reports written by some of the foreign physicians who visited Japan during this period were published, describing these methods with illustrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. 77 FR 71017 - Hardwood Plywood From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... COMMISSION Hardwood Plywood From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... plywood from China that are allegedly subsidized and sold in the United States at less than fair value... and subsidized imports of hardwood plywood from China. Accordingly, effective September 27, 2012,...

  9. Thermal Insulation from Hardwood Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sable, I.; Grinfelds, U.; Vikele, L.; Rozenberga, L.; Zeps, M.; Luguza, S.

    2015-11-01

    Adequate heat is one of the prerequisites for human wellbeing; therefore, building insulation is required in places where the outside temperature is not suitable for living. The climate change, with its rising temperatures and longer dry periods, promotes enlargement of the regions with conditions more convenient for hardwood species than for softwood species. Birch (Betula pendula) is the most common hardwood species in Latvia. The aim of this work was to obtain birch fibres from wood residues of plywood production and to form low-density thermal insulation boards. Board formation and production was done in the presence of water; natural binder, fire retardant and fungicide were added in different concentrations. Board properties such as density, transportability or resistance to particulate loss, thermal conductivity and reaction to fire were investigated. This study included thermal insulation boards with the density of 102-120 kg/m3; a strong correlation between density and the binder amount was found. Transportability also improved with the addition of a binder, and 0.1-0.5% of the binder was the most appropriate amount for this purpose. The measured thermal conductivity was in the range of 0.040-0.043 W/(m·K). Fire resistance increased with adding the fire retardant. We concluded that birch fibres are applicable for thermal insulation board production, and it is possible to diversify board properties, changing the amount of different additives.

  10. Molecular Medicine - CHI's 17th International Tri-Conference: Mastering Medicinal Chemistry - CHI's Seventh Annual Conference.

    PubMed

    Terrett, Nick

    2010-04-01

    CHI's 17th International Tri-Conference on Molecular Medicine, held in San Francisco, included topics covering new developments in the field of medicinal chemistry. This conference report highlights selected presentations on fragment-based drug discovery, quantum mechanical energy decomposition for the analysis of SARs, medicinal chemistry strategies and the role of imaging in drug discovery. Investigational drugs discussed include MLN-4924 (Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc), GDC-0449 (Chugai Pharmaceutical Co Ltd/Curis Inc/F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd/Genentech Inc/NCI), RDEA-119 (Ardea Biosciences Inc/Bayer HealthCare AG) and tafamidis (Fx-1006A; FoldRx Pharmaceuticals Inc).

  11. Transient uplift after a 17th-century earthquake along the kuril subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawai, Y.; Satake, K.; Kamataki, T.; Nasu, H.; Shishikura, M.; Atwater, B.F.; Horton, B.P.; Kelsey, H.M.; Nagumo, T.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2004-01-01

    In eastern Hokkaido, 60 to 80 kilometers above a subducting oceanic plate, tidal mudflats changed into freshwater forests during the first decades after a 17th-century tsunami. The mudflats gradually rose by a meter, as judged from fossil diatom assemblages. Both the tsunami and the ensuing uplift exceeded any in the region's 200 years of written history, and both resulted from a shallow plate-boundary earthquake of unusually large size along the Kuril subduction zone. This earthquake probably induced more creep farther down the plate boundary than did any of the region's historical events.

  12. [Rules of hygiene and moral guidance in medical practice, 16th-17th centuries Spain].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Somavilla, María José

    2002-01-01

    In recent decades, we have seen how members of the illiterate, popular classes gained access to specific contents of elite culture by means of oral expression collected through texts. This development may be related to the target readership of medical texts published in Spain during the 16th and 17th centuries. The study also analyses how information about preventive measures in health care was passed on through medical books from professionals to lay-people. This represents one of the key methods used by medical practice in the modern world.

  13. Pigment characterization of important golden age panel paintings of the 17th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pięta, Ewa; Proniewicz, Edyta; Szmelter-Fausek, Bożena; Olszewska-Świetlik, Justyna; Proniewicz, Leonard M.

    2015-02-01

    Samples were obtained from two world-famous 17th century panel paintings of the Gdańsk school of panting: 'Seven Acts of Charity' (1607, in St. Mary's Church in Gdańsk, Poland) by Anton Möller and 'Angelic Concert' (1611, in Diocesan Museum in Pelplin, Poland) by Hermann Han. Micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS), optical microscopy (OM), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy studies of the samples were performed to characterize the pigments present in the individual painting layers (a rich palette of white, black, blue, red, and yellow pigments) and the pictorial techniques used by the artists.

  14. Too Little too Soon: The Literature of Deaf Education in 17th-Century Britain (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoolihan, Christopher

    1985-01-01

    The article describes the growth in literature on deaf education in 17th century Britain. Noted is the work of John Wallis, William Holder, George Dalgarno, Anton Deusing, and Johann Conrad Amman. (CL)

  15. Food flora in 17th century northeast region of Brazil in Historia Naturalis Brasiliae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This article reports historical ethnobotany research conducted from a study of the work Historia Naturalis Brasiliae (Natural History of Brazil), authored by Piso and Marcgrave and published in 1648, with main focus on Caatinga of northeast region of Brazil. Methods Focusing the content analysis on the section dedicated to plant species with multiple uses, Marcgrave's contribution to the aforementioned work, this research had the following objectives: the retrieval of 17th century knowledge about the food uses of the flora in the northeast region of Brazil, including the taxonomic classifications; the identification of plant parts, their modes of consumption and the ethnic group of consumers; and the verification of the use of these species over time. Results The use of 80 food species at the time of the publication of the work is indicated, some of which are endemic to the Caatinga, such as “umbu” (Spondias tuberosa Arruda), “mandacaru” (Cereus jamacaru DC.) and “carnauba” (Copernicia cerifera Mart.). It is noticeable that among the species listed by Marcgrave, some species still lack current studies indicating their real nutritional value. The present study is an unprecedented work because it introduces, in a systematic way, the food plants described in a study of 17th century Brazil. Conclusions Finally, this study makes information about plants consumed in the past accessible, aiming to provide material for studies that could develop new food products today. PMID:24965737

  16. Care of the insane in Lübeck during the 17th and 18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Dilling, Horst; Thomsen, Hans Peter; Hohagen, Fritz

    2010-12-01

    Only selected aspects of the history of the House of the Poor Insane in the Hanseatic Free City of Lübeck have been studied to date.This article presents the results of an entire source study of this small institution in the 17th and 18th centuries, and briefly also during the next 40 years after the opening of a new building. In addition to the minute-book of the Governors, now kept in the Lübeck Municipal Archives, the results are based primarily on the account-books,which illustrate the institution's social history and activities. Examples are given. During most of the 17th century, the House was generally rather like a prison for the insane, but at the end of this century and in the early 18th there was a reform phase.This was followed by phases of repression and 'containment' at the end of the 18th century and in the early 19th century, before a renewed reform by the medical profession.The findings for Lübeck are compared with the development of inpatient care in institutions elsewhere, and the decisive factors in Lübeck are discussed.

  17. LATIN AS A LANGUAGE OF INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATIVE STATUS: MEDICINE OF THE 16TH-17TH CENTURIES.

    PubMed

    Bieliaieva, O; Lysanets, Yu; Melaschenko, M

    2017-01-01

    The research paper is of interdisciplinary nature, written at the crossroads of the history of medicine, functional stylistics and terminology science. The choice of the 16th century as a starting point of the study is due to the fact that quality changes in book and manuscript writing that took place during this period led to unprecedented development and dissemination of scientific knowledge, including biomedical. The 16th century embraces the life and work of such prominent figures in the history of medicine, as Andreas Vesalius, Gabriele Fallopian, Bartolomeo Eustachi, and Girolamo Fracastoro. The 17th century, which is called the century of "scientific revolution", left not less honourable names in the history of medicine - William Harvey, Marcello Malpighi, Thomas Willis, Jean Pecquet, Francis Glisson, Thomas Sydenham. In the context of this study, these prominent figures are interesting due to the fact that their works were written in Latin and constitute the prototypes of modern scientific style, in particular of such genres as thesis, monograph, scientific article, scientific report, polemic presentation, textbook. On the basis of extensive factual material, it has been demonstrated that during 16th-17th centuries, Latin acted as a fully developed language with a clearly oriented international status. As one of basic tools in scientific knowledge, Latin not only performed the epistemological function which was the priority for the development of medicine, but also served as a means of accumulation, reception, transmission and popularization of achievements in various areas of medical science.

  18. Aspects of informed consent in medical practice in the eastern Mediterranean region during the 17th and 18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Platon; Falagas, Matthew E; Gourzis, Philippos; Trompoukis, Constantinos

    2007-08-01

    Informed consent is a question of central importance in contemporary medical ethics, and clinical practice is inconceivable without considering the issues it raises. Although it is often vigorously argued that consent, informed or otherwise, is a recent phenomenon and that no sources testify to its existence before the 20th century, it is difficult to accept that a process for regulating the common and fundamental parameters in the relationship between doctor and patient and the planning of treatment had not concerned previous eras. A review of the Registers of the Islamic Court of Candia (Heraklion) in Crete, a series of records that touches on, among other things, matters of medical interest, reveals that the concept of informed consent was not only known during a period that stretched from the mid-17th to the early 19th century, but it was concerned with the same principles that prevail or have been a point of contention today. An extension of this study into other periods may thus provide contemporary researchers with material and information valuable in the discussion of today's bioethical issues.

  19. Role of Melatonin in the Regulation of Differentiation of T Cells Producing Interleukin-17 (Th17).

    PubMed

    Kuklina, E M; Glebezdina, N S; Nekrasova, I V

    2016-03-01

    We studied the ability of melatonin in physiological and pharmacological concentrations to induce and/or regulate differentiation of T cells producing IL-17 (Th17). This hormone produced the opposite effect on CD4+T cells, which depended on their activation status. Melatonin induced the synthesis of IL-17A by intact T cells, but had little effect on activated cells. Melatonin in high (pharmacological) concentration decreased the intracellular expression of this cytokine under conditions of polyclonal activation. Melatonin had a dose-depended effect. Taking into the fact that Th17 cells play an important role in the immune defense, it can be suggested that the regulation of their activity by melatonin contributes to this process.

  20. Biological Warfare Plan in the 17th Century—the Siege of Candia, 1648–1669.

    PubMed

    Thalassinou, Eleni; Tsiamis, Costas; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-12-01

    A little-known effort to conduct biological warfare occurred during the 17th century. The incident transpired during the Venetian–Ottoman War, when the city of Candia (now Heraklion, Greece) was under siege by the Ottomans (1648–1669). The data we describe, obtained from the Archives of the Venetian State, are related to an operation organized by the Venetian Intelligence Services, which aimed at lifting the siege by infecting the Ottoman soldiers with plague by attacking them with a liquid made from the spleens and buboes of plague victims. Although the plan was perfectly organized, and the deadly mixture was ready to use, the attack was ultimately never carried out. The conception and the detailed cynical planning of the attack on Candia illustrate a dangerous way of thinking about the use of biological weapons and the absence of reservations when potential users, within their religious framework, cast their enemies as undeserving of humanitarian consideration.

  1. Biological Warfare Plan in the 17th Century—the Siege of Candia, 1648–1669

    PubMed Central

    Thalassinou, Eleni; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    A little-known effort to conduct biological warfare occurred during the 17th century. The incident transpired during the Venetian–Ottoman War, when the city of Candia (now Heraklion, Greece) was under siege by the Ottomans (1648–1669). The data we describe, obtained from the Archives of the Venetian State, are related to an operation organized by the Venetian Intelligence Services, which aimed at lifting the siege by infecting the Ottoman soldiers with plague by attacking them with a liquid made from the spleens and buboes of plague victims. Although the plan was perfectly organized, and the deadly mixture was ready to use, the attack was ultimately never carried out. The conception and the detailed cynical planning of the attack on Candia illustrate a dangerous way of thinking about the use of biological weapons and the absence of reservations when potential users, within their religious framework, cast their enemies as undeserving of humanitarian consideration. PMID:26894254

  2. In the sign of Galileo: pictorial representation in the 17th-century Copernican debate.

    PubMed

    Remmert, Volker R

    2003-03-01

    After Galileo had discovered the four moons of Jupiter in 1609 he became increasingly convinced that the Copernican, heliocentric system of the world was correct. However, this ran against the opinions of the Church and a large number of contemporary astronomers and natural philosophers. The ensuing development culminated in the condemnation of the Copernican system by the Church in 1616 and of Galileo himself, who had propagated the Copernican system in his Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632), in 1633. Nevertheless, there was a constant debate about the right world system during the whole 17th century. Pictorial representation played an important role in it and the illustrations used as book frontispieces were a significant medium for the dispute.

  3. [Vitalism and mechanism: their meanings in the milieu of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Hwang, S I

    1993-01-01

    The views on the life in the early modern period (the 17th and 18th centuries) with their socio-cultural backgrounds and their meanings at that time were discussed in this paper. Those views discussed here were the dualistic, mechanistic one of Rene Descartes (1596-1650), the animistic, vitalistic one of Georg Ernst Stahl (1660-1734), and the monistic, mechanistic one of Julien Offray de la Mettrie (1709-1751). Author stressed that the processes of their view formation were influenced by the wide range of the various political and religious factors as well as the scientific, medical facts and opinions at that time, and that not only the contents of the views but also their historical contexts should be pursued in the study on the medical thoughts.

  4. [Richard Morton (1637-1698)--the distinguished physician of the 17th century].

    PubMed

    Kontić, Olga; Vasiljević, Nadja; Jorga, Jagoda; Lakić, Aneta; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava

    2009-01-01

    Richard Morton was a distinguished physician of the 17th century. He was born in Suffolk, England, on July 30th 1637. Morton published three works but his landmark paper was "Phthisiologia, seu exercitationes de phthisi, tribus libris comprehensae" published in 1689, dedicated to William III. The book established his reputation at home and abroad lasting for over a century. Pulmonary tuberculosis was very frequent in the 17th century in England. He was the first physician ever to state that tubercles were always present in its pulmonary form. When we add to these momentous observations and their rational explanation the facts that he was the first physician to state categorically that tubercles are always present in phthisis, we must agree that Morton richly deserves his honoured place in the long list of those who have contributed to the solution of the problem of tuberculosis. Morton first described and gave conclusions of numerous today well known and already examined illnesses. In 1694 he gave first notes about the psychiatric illness which we today call "anorexia nervosa", calling it "nervous consumption". His chapters on treatment are long and contain a sound basis of common sense as indicated by his instructions on general management. He stresses the need for an adequate diet, an environment free from fog and smoke, and the desirability of ensuring a moderate amount of exercise. All Morton's therapeutic dicta are in their humanity and thoughtful care in striking contrast to the regimen of copious bleeding and semi-starvation inflicted by the later generation of physicians. Confirmation of his achievements and his teaching can be found in today's medical practice.

  5. Hardwood Lumber Scaling [and] Hardwood Log Scaling and Grading. Slide Scripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, D. E.; Touse, Robert D.

    These two slide scripts, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deal with scaling and grading hardwood logs and lumber. The first script includes narrations for use with 39 slides, which explain the techniques of scaling and grading hardwood logs, and the second script contains the narrations to…

  6. Electrochemically assisted pyrolysis of hardwoods

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, V.R.

    1986-08-01

    This project explored the low-temperature, electrochemically assisted pyrolysis of lignocellulosic material to low-molecular-weight organic chemicals. Through the agency of low temperature AlCl{sub 3}-based molten salts, aspen hardwood flour was reacted in AlCl{sub 3}:NaCl, AlCl{sub 3}:NaCl:KCl, and AlCl{sub 3}:BPC (n-butylpyridinium chloride) media at temperatures from 30-220 C. A wide variety of water soluble products were formed comprising CO, CO{sub 2}, keto-alcohols and low molecular weight phenolic compounds as determined by GC and FTIR spectroscopy. The compounds represented about 32% by weight of the aspen wood flour. Owing to the narrow (2 volt) electrochemical window versus an Al reference electrode, neither the wood flour nor the reaction products manifested any electro-activity. Authentic samples of cellulose, hemicellulose, and Klason lignin were also subjected to low temperature pyrolysis. Only the hemicellulose reacted to give CO{sub 2} and keto-alcohols.

  7. Crystalliferous Bacillus cereus group bacteria from a Maryland hardwood forest are dominated by psychrotolerant strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crystal forming Bacillus spp. were isolated from soil samples collected at different elevations within a mixed hardwood forest in central Maryland, and their phylogenetic relationships determined by multilocus sequence analysis. The vast majority of isolates obtained were associated with two phylog...

  8. A Guide to Bottomland Hardwood Restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Keeland, B.D.; Stanturf, J.A.; Clewell, A.F.; Kennedy, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    During the last century, a large amount of the original bottomland hardwood forest area in the United States has been lost, with losses greatest in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and East Texas. With a holistic approach in mind, this manual describes methods to restore bottomland hardwoods in the lower Midwest, including the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and the southeastern United States. Bottomland hardwoods in this guide include not only the hardwood species that predominate in most forested floodplains of the area but also the softwood species such as baldcypress that often co-occur. General restoration planning considerations are discussed as well as more specific elements of bottomland hardwood restoration such as species selection, site preparation, direct seeding, planting of seedlings, and alternative options for revegetation. We recognize that most projects will probably fall more within the realm of reforestation or afforestation rather than a restoration, as some site preparation and the planting of seeds or trees may be the only actions taken. Practical information needed to restore an area is provided in the guide, and it is left up to the restorationist to decide how complete the restoration will be. Postplanting and monitoring considerations are also addressed. Restoration and management of existing forests are included because of the extensive areas of degraded natural forests in need of rehabilitation.

  9. Hydrometeorological extremes reconstructed from documentary evidence for the Jihlava region in the 17th-19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolak, Lukas; Brazdil, Rudolf; Chroma, Katerina; Valasek, Hubert; Belinova, Monika; Reznickova, Ladislava

    2016-04-01

    Different documentary evidence (taxation records, chronicles, insurance reports etc.) is used for reconstruction of hydrometeorological extremes (HMEs) in the Jihlava region (central part of the recent Czech Republic) in the 17th-19th centuries. The aim of the study is description of the system of tax alleviation in Moravia, presentation of utilization of early fire and hail damage insurance claims and application of the new methodological approaches for the analysis of HMEs impacts. During the period studied more than 400 HMEs were analysed for the 16 estates (past basic economic units). Late frost on 16 May 1662 on the Nove Mesto na Morave estate, which destroyed whole cereals and caused damage in the forests, is the first recorded extreme event. Downpours causing flash floods and hailstorms are the most frequently recorded natural disasters. Moreover, floods, droughts, windstorms, blizzards, late frosts and lightning strikes starting fires caused enormous damage as well. The impacts of HMEs are classified into three categories: impacts on agricultural production, material property and the socio-economic impacts. Natural disasters became the reasons of losses of human lives, property, supplies and farming equipment. HMEs caused damage to fields and meadows, depletion of livestock and triggered the secondary consequences as lack of seeds and finance, high prices, indebtedness, poverty and deterioration in field fertility. The results are discussed with respect to uncertainties associated with documentary evidences and their spatiotemporal distribution. Archival records, preserved in the Moravian Land Archives in Brno and other district archives, create a unique source of data contributing to the better understanding of extreme events and their impacts.

  10. REMOVAL OF SELECTED POLLUTANTS FROM AQUEOUS MEDIA BY HARDWOOD MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generic hardwood mulch, usually used for landscaping, was utilized to remove several selected pollutants (heavy metals and toxic organic compounds) typically found in urban stormwater (SW) runoff. The hardwood mulch sorbed all the selected pollutants from a spiked stormwater mix...

  11. Cultivation of fast-growing hardwoods

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P. . Coll. of Environmental Science and Forestry)

    1991-10-01

    The intensive culture of hybrid poplar has received in-depth study as part of the Fast-Growing Hardwood Program. Research has concentrated on short-rotation intensive culture systems. Specific studies and operations included establishing and maintaining a nursery/cutting orchard, installing clone-site trials in central and southern New York State and initiating studies of no-till site preparation, nutrient utilization efficiency, wood quality and soil solution chemistry. The nursery/cutting orchard was used to provide material for various research plantings and as a genotype repository. Clone- site trials results showed that hybrid poplar growth potential was affected by clone type and was related to inherent soil-site conditions. No-till techniques were shown to be successful in establishing hybrid poplar in terms of survival and growth when compared to conventional clean tillage and/or no competition control, and can be considered for use on sites that are particularly prone to erosion. Nutrient use efficiency was significantly affected by clone type, and should be a consideration when selecting clones for operational planting if fertilization is to be effectively and efficiently used. Wood quality differed among clones with site condition and tree age inferred as important factors. Soil solution chemistry was minimally affected by intensive cultural practices with no measured adverse effect on soil water quality. Generally, results of these studies showed that appropriate hybrid poplar clones grown in short-rotation intensively cultured systems can be used successfully in New York State if proper site conditions exist and appropriate establishment and maintenance techniques are used. 37 refs., 4 figs., 22 tabs.

  12. ICOS-based chimeric antigen receptors program bipolar TH17/TH1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Madar, Aviv; Carpenito, Carmine; McGettigan, Shannon E.; Frigault, Matthew J.; Lee, Jihyun; Posey, Avery D.; Scholler, John; Scholler, Nathalie; Bonneau, Richard

    2014-01-01

    With the notable exception of B-cell malignancies, the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells has been limited, and CAR T cells have not been shown to expand and persist in patients with nonlymphoid tumors. Here we demonstrate that redirection of primary human T cells with a CAR containing the inducible costimulator (ICOS) intracellular domain generates tumor-specific IL-17-producing effector cells that show enhanced persistence. Compared with CARs containing the CD3ζ chain alone, or in tandem with the CD28 or the 4-1BB intracellular domains, ICOS signaling increased IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 following antigen recognition. In addition, T cells redirected with an ICOS-based CAR maintained a core molecular signature characteristic of TH17 cells and expressed higher levels of RORC, CD161, IL1R-1, and NCS1. Of note, ICOS signaling also induced the expression of IFN-γ and T-bet, consistent with a TH17/TH1 bipolarization. When transferred into mice with established tumors, TH17 cells that were redirected with ICOS-based CARs mediated efficient antitumor responses and showed enhanced persistence compared with CD28- or 4-1BB-based CAR T cells. Thus, redirection of TH17 cells with a CAR encoding the ICOS intracellular domain is a promising approach to augment the function and persistence of CAR T cells in hematologic malignancies. PMID:24986688

  13. Radiological Diagnosis of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in 17th Century Korean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, In Sun; Jung, Go-Un; Kim, Myeung Ju; Oh, Chang Seok; Yoo, Dong Su; Lee, Won-Joon; Lee, Eunju; Cha, Soon Chul; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a birth defect of the diaphragm resulting in pulmonary sequelae that threaten the lives of infants. In computed tomography (CT) images of a 17th century middle-aged male mummy (the Andong mummy), we observed that the abdominal contents had protruded into the right thoracic cavity through the diaphragmatic defect, accompanied by a mediastinal shift to the left. On autopsy, the defect in the right posterolateral aspect of the diaphragm was reconfirmed, as was the herniation of the abdominal organs. The herniated contents included the right lobe of the liver, the pyloric part of the stomach, a part of the greater omentum, and the right colic flexure connecting the superior part of the ascending colon and the right part of the transverse colon. Taking our CT and autopsy results together, this case was diagnosed as the Bochdalek-type CDH. Herein we make the first ever report of a CT-assisted diagnosis of a pre-modern historical case of CDH. Our results show the promising utility of this modality in investigations of mummified human remains archaeologically obtained. PMID:24988465

  14. A Possible Case of Cherubism in a 17th-Century Korean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Spigelman, Mark; Sarig, Rachel; Lim, Do-Sun; Lee, In Sun; Oh, Chang Seok; May, Hila; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, Soong Deok; Peled, Nathan; Kim, Myeung Ju; Toledano, Talya; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2014-01-01

    Cherubism is a benign fibro-osseous disease of childhood limited specifically to the maxilla and mandible. The progressive replacement of the jaw bones with expansile multilocular cystic lesions causes eventual prominence of the lower face, and hence the classic “cherubic” phenotype reflecting variable extents of jaw hypertrophy. Histologically, this condition has been characterized as replacement of the normal bone matrix with multicystic pockets of fibrous stroma and osteoclastic giant cells. Because of radiographic features common to both, primarily the presence of multiloculated lucencies with heterogeneous “ground-glass” sclerosis on CT imaging, cherubism was long mistaken for a craniofacial subtype of fibrous dysplasia. In 1999, however, the distinct genetic basis for cherubism was mapped to chromosome 4p16.3 and the SH-3 binding protein SH3BP2. But while there are already three suspected cases of fibrous dysplasia amongst archaeological populations, no definitive cases of cherubism have yet been reported in historical populations. In the current study we describe micro- and macro-structural changes in the face of a 17th century Joseon Dynasty Korean mummy which may coincide with the clinic-pathologic and radiologic features of cherubism. PMID:25093864

  15. A shift in the spatial pattern of Iberian droughts during the 17th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Castro, F.; García-Herrera, R.; Ribera, P.; Barriendos, M.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, series of drought occurrence and drought extension in the Iberian Peninsula are constructed for the 1600-1750 period from seven rogation series. These rogation ceremony records come from Bilbao, Catalonia, Zamora, Zaragoza, Toledo, Murcia and Seville. They are distributed across the Peninsula and include the areas with the most characteristic Iberian climate types, influenced by the Atlantic and the Mediterranean conditions, described from modern data. A seasonal division of the series shows that spring is a critical season for rogation series in most of Iberia, being Bilbao the only site were the highest number of rogations is detected for a different season. The annual analysis of the series shows a dramatic difference between the first half of the 17th century when droughts are characterized by its local character; and the rest of the period, when they affect to broader regions or even to the whole Peninsula. The analysis of spring series confirms the existence of the two periods detected in the annual analysis. Finally, secondary documentary sources are used to further characterise the two most extended droughts in the period, 1664 and 1680, and to verify the extension of the areas affected by droughts recorded through rogation series.

  16. Gerrit Dou: 17th century Dutch artist portraying dentists at work.

    PubMed

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2002-07-01

    The Dutch painter, Gerrit Dou (1613-1675), was, during his lifetime, a prestigious and highly paid artist. Critics and collectors of that era marveled at his extraordinary technical skill, his masterful illusionism and his keen portrayal of everyday life. He was the first artist to perfect the technique of "fine painting"--the production of small, detailed pictures wherein subjects are painted in a photographically realistic style. Because of his exceptional skill in this technique, the brushwork in his painting was almost invisible. Additionally, he masterfully used light and shade to achieve the effect of a third dimension. In many of his portraits, subjects stare ahead from inside a window (or niche), whose sill is overflowing with small, familiar objects. Dou's focus was on 17th century Holland and his work included: portraits, genre (scenes of everyday life) and religious themes. Between 1628 and 1675, he painted about three hundred pictures: six of these portrayed dentists at work. Most artists of those days depicted dentists as plying their trade in theatrical, circus-like environments, as in crowded county fairs. However, Dou's dentists interact with their patients in a realistic, professional manner. In this article, his most famous dental painting, "The Dentist," created in 1672, is analyzed in detail. Over the centuries, Dou's public recognition has faded into obscurity. However, his exceptional talents are currently being rediscovered.

  17. ICOS-based chimeric antigen receptors program bipolar TH17/TH1 cells.

    PubMed

    Guedan, Sonia; Chen, Xi; Madar, Aviv; Carpenito, Carmine; McGettigan, Shannon E; Frigault, Matthew J; Lee, Jihyun; Posey, Avery D; Scholler, John; Scholler, Nathalie; Bonneau, Richard; June, Carl H

    2014-08-14

    With the notable exception of B-cell malignancies, the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells has been limited, and CAR T cells have not been shown to expand and persist in patients with nonlymphoid tumors. Here we demonstrate that redirection of primary human T cells with a CAR containing the inducible costimulator (ICOS) intracellular domain generates tumor-specific IL-17-producing effector cells that show enhanced persistence. Compared with CARs containing the CD3ζ chain alone, or in tandem with the CD28 or the 4-1BB intracellular domains, ICOS signaling increased IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 following antigen recognition. In addition, T cells redirected with an ICOS-based CAR maintained a core molecular signature characteristic of TH17 cells and expressed higher levels of RORC, CD161, IL1R-1, and NCS1. Of note, ICOS signaling also induced the expression of IFN-γ and T-bet, consistent with a TH17/TH1 bipolarization. When transferred into mice with established tumors, TH17 cells that were redirected with ICOS-based CARs mediated efficient antitumor responses and showed enhanced persistence compared with CD28- or 4-1BB-based CAR T cells. Thus, redirection of TH17 cells with a CAR encoding the ICOS intracellular domain is a promising approach to augment the function and persistence of CAR T cells in hematologic malignancies.

  18. Great Barrier Reef coral luminescence reveals rainfall variability over northeastern Australia since the 17th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lough, Janice M.

    2011-06-01

    Northeast tropical Queensland rainfall is concentrated in the summer half year and characterized by high interannual variability, partly related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. This results in highly variable river flows affecting nearshore coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Freshwater flood events are recorded in long-lived, annually banded massive coral skeletons as luminescent lines. Quantitative measurements of luminescence intensity were made for 20 Porites coral cores from nearshore reef sites between 11°S and 23°S. Seventeen of the coral luminescence series were significantly correlated with an instrumental record of northeast Queensland summer rainfall and were used to develop seven significantly calibrated and verified rainfall reconstructions based on between 17 (starting 1891) and 1 (starting 1639) coral series. The longest reconstruction, based on more than one coral, provides insights into northeast Queensland rainfall variability from the late 17th century. Comparisons with various independent climate proxies are equivocal: the magnitude and significance of relationships with, for example, a proxy ENSO index vary through time. An extended drier period reconstructed from approximately the 1760s to the 1850s is associated with lower interannual rainfall variability. Since the late 19th century average rainfall and its variability have significantly increased, with wet and dry extremes becoming more frequent than in earlier centuries. This suggests that a warming global climate maybe associated with more variable tropical Queensland rainfall.

  19. Equatorial All Sky Imager Images from the Seychelles during the March 17th, 2015 geomagnetic storm.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, B.

    2015-12-01

    An all sky imager was installed in the Seychelles earlier this year. The Seychelles islands are located northeast of Madagascar and east of Somalia in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The all sky imager is located on the island of Mahe (4.6667°S, 55.4667°E geographic), (10.55°S, 127.07°E geomagnetic), with filters of 557.7, 620.0, 630.0, 765.0 and 777.4 nm. Images with a 90 second exposure from Seychelles in 777.4nm and 630.0nm from the night before and night of the March 17th geomagnetic storm are discussed in comparison to solar wind measurements at ACE and the disturbance storm time (Dst) index. These images show line-of-sight intensities of photons received dependent on each filters wavelength. A time series of these images sometimes will show the movement of relatively dark areas, or depletions, in each emission. The depletion regions are known to cause scintillation in GPS signals. The direction and speed of movement of these depletions are related to changes observed in the solar wind.

  20. 76 FR 67005 - Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th Street, NW., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20036; Notice of Intention To Cancel Registration Pursuant...

  1. 76 FR 70178 - Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th Street NW., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20036; Notice of Intention to Cancel Registration Pursuant...

  2. The "System of Chymists" and the "Newtonian Dream" in Greek-Speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-01-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a "philosophy" of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This…

  3. Hardwood price reporting. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sohngen, B.L.; Haynes, R.W.

    1994-02-01

    The prices for red alder (Alnus rubra) hardwood logs are published and analyzed for reliability, consistency, and robustness. Timberland managers can use these prices to make decisions about land management. They show that values for red alder logs have been increasing steadily for the last 11 years.

  4. Assessment of soil-gas contamination at the 17th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir G.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of contaminants in soil gas were conducted in two study areas at Fort Gordon, Georgia, in July and August of 2011 to supplement environmental contaminant data for previous studies at the 17th Street landfill. The two study areas include northern and eastern parts of the 17th Street landfill and the adjacent wooded areas to the north and east of the landfill. These study areas were chosen because of their close proximity to the surface water in Wilkerson Lake and McCoys Creek. A total of 48 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the July 28 to August 3, 2011, assessment in the eastern study area. The assessment mostly identified detections of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and gasoline- and diesel-range compounds, but also identified the presence of chlorinated solvents in six samplers, chloroform in three samplers, 2-methyl naphthalene in one sampler, and trimethylbenzene in one sampler. The TPH masses exceeded 0.02 microgram (μg) in all 48 samplers and exceeded 0.9 μg in 24 samplers. Undecane, one of the three diesel-range compounds used to calculate the combined mass for diesel-range compounds, was detected in 17 samplers and is the second most commonly detected compound in the eastern study area, exceeded only by the number of TPH detections. Six samplers had detections of toluene, but other gasoline compounds were detected with toluene in three of the samplers, including detections of ethylbenzene, meta- and para-xylene, and octane. All detections of chlorinated organic compounds had soil-gas masses equal to or less than 0.08 μg, including three detections of trichloroethene, three detections of perchloroethene, three chloroform detections, one 1,4-dichlorobenzene detection, and one 1,1,2-trichloroethane detection. Three methylated compounds were detected in the eastern study area, but were detected at or below method detection levels. A total of 32 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the August 11–24, 2011, assessment in the northern study

  5. FOREWORD: 17th National Conference of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Barbara A.; Davis, Clem; Kiss, Andrew E.; Taylor, John R.

    2010-05-01

    The Australian Meteorology and Oceanography Society (AMOS) has held an annual conference each year since 1994. The venue for the 17th conference in this series was the Australian National University (ANU) in Canberra, Australia's capital city. The conference ran over three days from 27 to 29 January 2010. The conference title was Atmospheres, Oceans, Environment and Society with the conference themes: Weather, ocean and climate forecasting Observing and modelling the integrated earth system Climate trends, variability and extremes: past, present and future Climate impacts and adaptation Antarctic weather, ocean and climate systems Ocean systems and dynamics. Local co-hosts for the conference were the Fenner School of Environment and Society (ANU) and the Research School of Earth Sciences (ANU). The conference organising committee was drawn from the members of the Australian Capital Territory centre of AMOS. The conference was very successful, attracting 300 delegates presenting 160 oral and 68 poster presentations over the three days. In a first for an AMOS National Conference, the organisers decided to produce a refereed Conference Proceedings with all presenters being invited to contribute. Each submitted paper was refereed by two anonymous reviewers selected by the conference editorial committee. The refereeing process followed the guidelines for the IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. The result is the collection of 39 papers in this conference volume. The range of subjects covered in the papers reflects the diversity of the presentations prompted by the conference themes and the broad range of the research interests of the Australian climate, meteorology and oceanographic community. Within the proceedings the editors have presented the papers alphabetically within the theme area in which they were presented at the conference. The editorial committee wish to thank not only the authors for their contributions to this volume but also the

  6. [Semantics of learned quackery in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Füssel, Marian

    2004-06-01

    In the 17th and 18th century republic of letters the problem of scientific fraud was met with a discourse of charlatanism. Departing from Johann Burchhard Menckes famous treatise on the Charlatanry of the learned the following essay traces how the accusations of academic and scientific misconduct put in terms of 'charlatanry' primarily helped to produce the new species of the erudite 'charlatan'. Facing a growing complexity of scientific culture this new frame of meaning, structured by numerous examples of scientific misconduct offered a new way of orientation in the world of learning. But besides its cognitive impacts the discourse of charlatanry allowed to create symbolic boundaries, which determined decisions upon the affiliation or non affiliation to the new forming scientific community by separating honourable from dishonourable scientific personae. Speaking of charlatanry therefore always implied a social distinction as much as a scientific. The discourses on charlatanry also mirror differentiations within the scientific field. At first dominated by a critique built on courteous or bourgeois values, the scientific field later on developed its own criteria of appraisal like authorship, originality, transparency etc. Attracting the attention of a further growing public sphere, the explicit verbalisation of claims not relating to the value system of a republic of letters primarily concerned with the production and distribution of knowledge finally led up to a more implicit moral economy of science. A change that at a large scale level can be described both as an internalisation of the values of scientific conduct and differentiation between justiciable and unjusticiable transgressions of the norms set up by the scientific community.

  7. Plastic surgery in 17th century Europe. case study: Nicolae Milescu, the snub-nosed.

    PubMed

    Dumbravă, Daniela; Luchian, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The rising and the existence of plastic and aesthetic surgery in early modern Europe did not have a specific pattern, but was completely different from one nation to another. Colleges of Physicians could only be found in some places in Europe; different Parliaments of Europe's nations did not always elevate being a surgeon to the dignity of a profession, and being a surgeon did not always come with corporate and municipal privileges, or with attractive stipends. Conversely, corporal punishments for treacherous surgeons were ubiquitous. Rhinoplasty falls into the category of what Ambroise Paré named "facial plastic surgery". The technique is a medical source from which many histories derive, one more fascinating than the other: the history of those whose nose was cut off (because of state betrayal, adultery, abjuration, or duelling with swords), the history of those who invented the surgery of nose reconstruction (e.g. SuSruta-samhita or Tagliacozzi?), the history of surgeries kept secret in early modern Europe (e.g. Tropea, Calabria, Leiden, Padua, Paris, Berlin), and so on. Where does the history of Nicolae Milescu the Snub-nosed fall in all of this? How much of this history do the Moldavian Chronicles record? Is there any "scholarly gossip" in the aristocratic and diplomatic environments at Constantinople? What exactly do the British ambassadors learn concerning Rhinoplasty when they meet Milescu? How do we "walk" within these histories, and why should we be interested at all? What is their stike for modernity? Such are the interrogations that this article seeks to provoke; its purpose is to question (and eventually, synchronise) histories, and not exclusively history, both in academic terms but also by reassessing the practical knowledge of the 17th century.

  8. Tropical mathematics and the financial catastrophe of the 17th century. Thermoeconomics of Russia in the early 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, V. P.

    2010-03-01

    In the paper, an example is presented concerning relationships (which cannot be neglected) between mathematics and other sciences. In particular, the relationship between the tropical mathematics and the humanitarian-economic catastrophe of 17th century (related to slavery of Africans) is considered. The notion of critical state of economy of the 19th century is introduced by using the refined Fisher equation. A correspondence principle for thermodynamics of fluids and economics of the 19th century is presented.

  9. Invitation to the 17th international congress on photosynthesis research in 2016: photosynthesis in a changing world.

    PubMed

    van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

    2016-02-01

    The 17th International Congress on Photosynthesis will be held from August 7 to 12, 2016 in Maastricht, The Netherlands. The congress will include an opening reception, 15 plenary lectures, 28 scientific symposia, many poster sessions, displays by scientific companies, excursions, congress dinner, social activities, and the first photosynthesis soccer world championship. See http://www.ps2016.com/ . The congress is organized as an official event of the International Society of Photosynthesis Research (see http://www.photosynthesisresearch.org/).

  10. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, T.; Midgley, P. A.

    2011-11-01

    This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 17th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at Churchill College, University of Cambridge, on 4-7 April 2011. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Institute of Physics and supported by the Royal Microscopical Society as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and related techniques with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 131 delegates from 25 countries world-wide, a record in terms of internationality. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes of device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, the electronic structure, the chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two examples of topics at this meeting that have attracted a number of interesting studies were: the correlation of microstructural, optical and chemical information at atomic resolution with nanometre-scale resolved maps of the local electrical fields in (In,Al)GaN based semiconductors and tomographic approaches to characterise ensembles of nanowires and stacks of processed layers in devices Figure 1 Figure 1. Opening lecture by Professor Sir Colin J Humphreys. Each manuscript submitted for publication in this proceedings volume has been independently reviewed and revised

  11. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories (MBT17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholz, Heidi; Boronat, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    These are the proceedings of the XVII International Conference on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories, which was held from 8-13 September 2013 in Rostock, Germany. The conference continued the triennial series initiated in Trieste in 1978 and was devoted to new developments in the field of many-body theories. The conference series encourages the exchange of ideas between physicists working in such diverse areas as nuclear physics, quantum chemistry, lattice Hamiltonians or quantum uids. Many-body theories are an integral part in different fields of theoretical physics such as condensed matter, nuclear matter and field theory. Phase transitions and macroscopic quantum effects such as magnetism, Bose-Einstein condensation, super uidity or superconductivity have been investigated within ultra-cold gases, finite systems or various nanomaterials. The conference series on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories is devoted to foster the interaction and to cross-fertilize between different fields and to discuss future lines of research. The topics of the 17th meeting were Cluster Physics Cold Gases High Energy Density Matter and Intense Lasers Magnetism New Developments in Many-Body Techniques Nuclear Many-Body and Relativistic Theories Quantum Fluids and Solids Quantum Phase Transitions Topological Insulators and Low Dimensional Systems. 109 participants from 20 countries participated. 44 talks and 61 posters werde presented. As a particular highlight of the conference, The Eugene Feenberg Memorial Medal for outstanding results in the field of many-body theory and The Hermann Kümmel Early Achievement Award in Many-Body Physics for young scientists in that field were awarded. The Feenberg Medal went jointly to Patrick Lee (MIT, USA) for his fundamental contributions to condensed-matter theory, especially in regard to the quantum Hall effect, to universal conductance uctuations, and to the Kondo effect in quantum dots, and Douglas Scalapino (UC Santa Barbara, USA) for his

  12. [Effects of the periodical spread of rinderpest on famine, epidemic, and tiger disasters in the late 17th Century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Jin; Yoo, Han Sang; Lee, Hang

    2014-04-01

    This study clarifies the causes of the repetitive occurrences of such phenomena as rinderpest, epidemic, famine, and tiger disasters recorded in the Joseon Dynasty Chronicle and the Seungjeongwon Journals in the period of great catastrophe, the late 17th century in which the great Gyeongsin famine (1670~1671) and the great Eulbyeong famine (1695~1696) occurred, from the perspective that they were biological exchanges caused by the new arrival of rinderpest in the early 17th century. It is an objection to the achievements by existing studies which suggest that the great catastrophes occurring in the late 17th century are evidence of phenomena in a little ice age. First of all, rinderpest has had influence on East Asia as it had been spread from certain areas in Machuria in May 1636 through Joseon, where it raged throughout the nation, and then to the west part of Japan. The new arrival of rinderpest was indigenized in Joseon, where it was localized and spread periodically while it was adjusted to changes in the population of cattle with immunity in accordance with their life spans and reproduction rates. As the new rinderpest, which showed high pathogenicity in the early 17th century, was indigenized with its high mortality and continued until the late 17th century, it broke out periodically in general. Contrastively, epidemics like smallpox and measles that were indigenized as routine ones had occurred constantly from far past times. As a result, the rinderpest, which tried a new indigenization, and the human epidemics, which had been already indigenized long ago, were unexpectedly overlapped in their breakout, and hence great changes were noticed in the aspects of the human casualty due to epidemics. The outbreak of rinderpest resulted in famine due to lack of farming cattle, and the famine caused epidemics among people. The casualty of the human population due to the epidemics in turn led to negligence of farming cattle, which constituted factors that triggered

  13. Properties of recycled polypropylene based composites incorporating treated hardwood sawdust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulga, Galia; Jaunslavietis, Jevgenijs; Ozolins, Jurijs; Neiberte, Brigita; Verovkins, Anrijs; Vitolina, Sanita; Shakels, Vadims

    2016-05-01

    The effect of different treatment of hardwood sawdust under mild conditions on contact angles, adhesion energy and water sorption was studied. A comparison of these indices for the hardwood treated sawdust and the composites filled with them was performed. The treatment promoted the compatibility between the recycled polypropylene and the hardwood filler. The inclusion of the lignin-based compatibiliser in the composite, containing the ammoxidised wood filler, essentially improved its mechanical properties.

  14. Development of red oak seedlings using plastic shelters on hardwood sites in West Virginia. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.C.

    1993-04-01

    Plastic shelters were used to grow red oak seedlings on good-to-excellent Appalachian hardwood growing sites in north central West Virginia. Preliminary results indicate that shelters have the potential to stimulate development of red oak seedlingheight growth, especially if height growth continues once the seedling tops are above the 5-foot-tall shelters.

  15. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-01-01

    The 17th edition of the International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2014) was held in San Carlos de Bariloche, in the southern region of Argentina known as Patagonia, from August 31 to September 5, 2014. This meeting corresponds to a series of HCI conferences, which has been held every other year since 1982 in cities in Europe, USA, Japan and China. This was the first time that the conference took place in Latin America. This edition was organized by a Local Committee made up of physicists mainly from the cities of Bariloche and Rosario and also from Buenos Aires and Bahía Blanca, all sites where research on Atomic Collisions is developed. The conference was attended by delegates coming from 18 countries, more that 23% of whom were women. The field of highly charged ions has seen in recent years a promising evolution originating from bold progress in theory and significant advances in experimental techniques. The HCI conferences aim at bringing together experimentalists and theoreticians from as wide a range of fields as, for instance, Fundamental Aspects, Structure and Spectroscopy, Collisions with Electrons, Ions, Atoms and Molecules, Interaction with Clusters, Surfaces and Solids, Interactions with Photons and Plasmas, Strong Field Processes, and Production, Experimental Developments and Applications. The Scientific Programme, selected by an International Advisory Board, included 5 Review Lectures, 11 Progress Reports, 1 Local Report and 24 Special Reports. In addition, the results of 132 contributed works were presented as poster communications and a Public Lecture on 'The wonders of the Southern Skies' was delivered by an Argentinean expert. Thus, a wide range of subjects comprising a balanced mix of topics was covered throughout the course of the conference. The HCI 2014 was a resounding success for the international and local communities, from both the scientific and social aspects, considering that the attendees and accompanying

  16. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrotzki, Werner; Oertel, Carl-Georg

    2015-04-01

    The 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17) took place in Dresden, Germany, August 24-29, 2014. It belongs to the "triennial" series of ICOTOM meetings with a long tradition, starting in 1969 - Clausthal, 1971 - Cracow, 1973 - Pont-à-Mousson, 1975 - Cambridge, 1978 - Aachen, 1981 - Tokyo, 1984 - Noordwijkerhout, 1987 - Santa Fe, 1990 - Avignon, 1993 - Clausthal, 1996 - Xian, 1999 - Montreal, 2002 - Seoul, 2005 - Leuven, 2008 - Pittsburgh, 2011 - Mumbai, 2014 - Dresden. ICOTOM 17 was hosted by the Dresden University of Technology, Institute of Structural Physics. Following the tradition of the ICOTOM conferences, the main focus of ICOTOM-17 was to promote and strengthen the fundamental understanding of the basic processes that govern the formation of texture and its relation to the properties of polycrystalline materials. Nonetheless, it was the aim to forge links between basic research on model materials and applied research on engineering materials of technical importance. Thus, ICOTOM 17 provided a forum for the presentation and discussion of recent progress in research of texture and related anisotropy of mechanical and functional properties of all kinds of polycrystalline materials including natural materials like rocks. Particular attention was paid to recent advances in texture measurement and analysis as well as modeling of texture development for all kinds of processes like solidification, plastic deformation, recrystallization and grain growth, phase transformations, thin film deposition, etc. Hence, ICOTOM 17 was of great interest to materials scientists, engineers from many different areas and geoscientists. The topics covered by ICOTOM 17 were: 1. Mathematical, numerical and statistical methods of texture analysis 2. Deformation textures 3. Crystallization, recrystallization and growth textures 4. Transformation textures 5. Textures in functional materials 6. Textures in advanced materials 7. Textures in rocks 8. Texture

  17. 78 FR 68297 - Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...; business practices; and other factors. Hardwood lumber can be sold green, air dried, or kiln dried. Green... office during regular business hours or it can be viewed at http://www.regulations.gov . Pursuant to the... United States for any district in which the petitioner resides or conducts business shall have...

  18. Anatomical confirmation of computed tomography-based diagnosis of the atherosclerosis discovered in 17th century Korean mummy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeung Ju; Kim, Yi-Suk; Oh, Chang Seok; Go, Jai-Hyang; Lee, In Sun; Park, Won-Kyu; Cho, Seok-Min; Kim, Soon-Kwan; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In the present study on a newly discovered 17th century Korean mummy, computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple aortic calcifications within the aortic wall that were indicative of ancient atherosclerosis. The CT-based findings were confirmed by our subsequent post-factum dissection, which exhibited possible signs of the disease including ulcerated plaques, ruptured hemorrhages, and intimal thickening where the necrotic core was covered by the fibrous cap. These findings are strong indicators that the mummy suffered from aortic atherosclerosis during her lifetime. The present study is a good example of how CT images of vascular calcifications can be a useful diagnostic tool in forming at least preliminary diagnoses of ancient atherosclerosis.

  19. Union catalogue of printed books of 15th, 16th and 17th centuries in European astronomical observatories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, G.

    This catalogue deals with the scientific subjects of that historical period such as astronomy, astrology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, historia naturalis and so forth, and contains extremely rare volumes such as the first printed editions of the eminent Arab, Latin, Greek and Persian scientists Albumasar, Albohazen Aly, Aristoteles, Ptolemaeus, Pliny the Elder and Ulugh Beig. In addition the catalogue contains the first works of such great astronomers of the 16th and 17th centuries as Copernicus, Kepler, Clavius, Regiomontanus, Sacrobosco, Mercator, Newton, Gassendi, Galilei and Hevelius, just to quote the most representative ones. The catalogue is followed by a chronological index and an index of printers and publishers.

  20. Report from the 17th Annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference; Edmonton, Alberta; 11–12 September 2015

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, K.E.; Ahmed, S.; Davies, J.D.; Doll, C.M.; Dowden, S.; Gill, S.; Gordon, V.; Hebbard, P.; Lim, H.; McFadden, A.; McGhie, J.P.; Park, J.; Wong, R.

    2016-01-01

    The 17th annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference (wcgccc) was held in Edmonton, Alberta, 11–12 September 2015. The wcgccc is an interactive multidisciplinary conference attended by health care professionals from across Western Canada (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) who are involved in the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Surgical, medical, and radiation oncologists; pathologists; radiologists; and allied health care professionals participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management of gastric cancer. PMID:28050139

  1. JANNAF 28th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and 17th Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Mulder, Edwin J. (Editor); Gomez-Knight, Sylvia J. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains 37 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers that were presented at the JANNAF 28th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) and 17th Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) Joint Meeting, held 26-30 April 1999 at the Town & Country Hotel and the Naval Submarine Base, San Diego, California. Volume II contains 29 unclassified/limited-distribution papers that were presented at the 28th PDCS and 17th S&EPS Joint Meeting. Volume III contains a classified paper that was presented at the 28th PDCS Meeting on 27 April 1999. Topics covered in PDCS sessions include: solid propellant rheology; solid propellant surveillance and aging; propellant process engineering; new solid propellant ingredients and formulation development; reduced toxicity liquid propellants; characterization of hypergolic propellants; and solid propellant chemical analysis methods. Topics covered in S&EPS sessions include: space launch range safety; liquid propellant hazards; vapor detection methods for toxic propellant vapors and other hazardous gases; toxicity of propellants, ingredients, and propellant combustion products; personal protective equipment for toxic liquid propellants; and demilitarization/treatment of energetic material wastes.

  2. A Statistical Investigation on a Seismic Transient Occurred in Italy Between the 17th and 20th Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragato, P. L.

    2016-11-01

    According to the historical earthquake catalog of Italy, the country experienced a pulse of seismicity between the 17th century, when the rate of destructive events increased by more than 100%, and the 20th century, characterized by a symmetric decrease. In the present work, I performed a statistical analysis to verify the reliability of such transient, considering different sources of bias and uncertainty, such as completeness and declustering of the catalog, as well as errors on magnitude estimation. I also searched for a confirmation externally to the catalog, analyzing the correlation with the volcanic activity. The similarity is high for the eruptive history of Vesuvius, which agrees on both the main rate changes of the 17th and 20th centuries and on minor variations in the intermediate period. Of general interest, beyond the specific case of Italy, the observed rate changes suggest the existence of large-scale crustal processes taking place within decades and lasting for centuries, responsible for the synchronous activation/deactivation of remote, loosely connected faults in different tectonic domains. Although their origin is still unexplained (I discuss a possible link with the climate changes and the consequent variations of the sea level), their existence and long lasting is critical for seismic hazard computation. In fact, they introduce a hardly predictable time variability that undermines any hypothesis of regularity of the earthquake cycle on individual faults and systems of interconnected faults.

  3. Chitinase Expression Due to Reduction in Fusaric Acid Level in an Antagonistic Trichoderma harzianum S17TH.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vivek; Bhandari, Pamita; Singh, Bikram; Bhatacharya, Amita; Shanmugam, Veerubommu

    2013-06-01

    To study the effect of reduction in phytotoxin level on fungal chitinases, antagonistic Trichoderma spp. were screened for their ability to reduce the level of fusaric acid (FA), the phytotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. A T. harzianum isolate S17TH was able to tolerate high levels of FA (up to 500 ppm) but was unable to reduce the toxin to a significant level (non-toxic) added to minimal synthetic broth (MSB). However, the isolate was able to reduce 400 ppm FA in the liquid medium after 7 days to a non-toxic level and displayed similar level of antagonism over the control (without FA). In studies of the effect of the reduction in FA (400 ppm) level on chitinase gene expression in PCR assays, nag1 was significantly repressed but ech42 expression was only slightly repressed. Chitinase activity was either reduced or absent in the extracellular proteins of MSB supplemented with 400 ppm FA, which could be attributed to the effect of residual FA or its breakdown products through unknown mechanisms. Selection of S17TH as a toxin insensitive isolate that could commensurate the negative effect on chitinase activity makes it a potential antagonist against Fusarium spp.

  4. A Statistical Investigation on a Seismic Transient Occurred in Italy Between the 17th and 20th Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragato, P. L.

    2017-03-01

    According to the historical earthquake catalog of Italy, the country experienced a pulse of seismicity between the 17th century, when the rate of destructive events increased by more than 100%, and the 20th century, characterized by a symmetric decrease. In the present work, I performed a statistical analysis to verify the reliability of such transient, considering different sources of bias and uncertainty, such as completeness and declustering of the catalog, as well as errors on magnitude estimation. I also searched for a confirmation externally to the catalog, analyzing the correlation with the volcanic activity. The similarity is high for the eruptive history of Vesuvius, which agrees on both the main rate changes of the 17th and 20th centuries and on minor variations in the intermediate period. Of general interest, beyond the specific case of Italy, the observed rate changes suggest the existence of large-scale crustal processes taking place within decades and lasting for centuries, responsible for the synchronous activation/deactivation of remote, loosely connected faults in different tectonic domains. Although their origin is still unexplained (I discuss a possible link with the climate changes and the consequent variations of the sea level), their existence and long lasting is critical for seismic hazard computation. In fact, they introduce a hardly predictable time variability that undermines any hypothesis of regularity of the earthquake cycle on individual faults and systems of interconnected faults.

  5. Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.; Clason, Terry R.

    2003-01-01

    Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

  6. Genotyping Yersinia pestis in Historical Plague: Evidence for Long-Term Persistence of Y. pestis in Europe from the 14th to the 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Lisa; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Harbeck, Michaela; Thomas, Astrid; Grupe, Gisela; Projahn, Michaela; Scholz, Holger C; Riehm, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from plague victims of the second plague pandemic (14th to 17th century), excavated from two different burial sites in Germany, and spanning a time period of more than 300 years, was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Of 30 tested skeletons 8 were positive for Yersinia pestis-specific nucleic acid, as determined by qPCR targeting the pla gene. In one individual (MP-19-II), the pla copy number in DNA extracted from tooth pulp was as high as 700 gene copies/μl, indicating severe generalized infection. All positive individuals were identical in all 16 SNP positions, separating phylogenetic branches within nodes N07_N10 (14 SNPs), N07_N08 (SNP s19) and N06_N07 (s545), and were highly similar to previously investigated plague victims from other European countries. Thus, beside the assumed continuous reintroduction of Y. pestis from central Asia in multiple waves during the second pandemic, long-term persistence of Y. pestis in Europe in a yet unknown reservoir host has also to be considered.

  7. Genome-wide ancestry of 17th-century enslaved Africans from the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Hannes; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Poznik, G David; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Carpenter, Meredith L; Moreno-Mayar, José Víctor; Sikora, Martin; Johnson, Philip L F; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Samaniego, José Alfredo; Haviser, Jay B; Dee, Michael W; Stafford, Thomas W; Salas, Antonio; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske; Bustamante, Carlos D; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2015-03-24

    Between 1500 and 1850, more than 12 million enslaved Africans were transported to the New World. The vast majority were shipped from West and West-Central Africa, but their precise origins are largely unknown. We used genome-wide ancient DNA analyses to investigate the genetic origins of three enslaved Africans whose remains were recovered on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin. We trace their origins to distinct subcontinental source populations within Africa, including Bantu-speaking groups from northern Cameroon and non-Bantu speakers living in present-day Nigeria and Ghana. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first direct evidence for the ethnic origins of enslaved Africans, at a time for which historical records are scarce, and demonstrate that genomic data provide another type of record that can shed new light on long-standing historical questions.

  8. Genome-wide ancestry of 17th-century enslaved Africans from the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Hannes; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Carpenter, Meredith L.; Moreno-Mayar, José Víctor; Sikora, Martin; Johnson, Philip L. F.; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Samaniego, José Alfredo; Haviser, Jay B.; Dee, Michael W.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Salas, Antonio; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Between 1500 and 1850, more than 12 million enslaved Africans were transported to the New World. The vast majority were shipped from West and West-Central Africa, but their precise origins are largely unknown. We used genome-wide ancient DNA analyses to investigate the genetic origins of three enslaved Africans whose remains were recovered on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin. We trace their origins to distinct subcontinental source populations within Africa, including Bantu-speaking groups from northern Cameroon and non-Bantu speakers living in present-day Nigeria and Ghana. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first direct evidence for the ethnic origins of enslaved Africans, at a time for which historical records are scarce, and demonstrate that genomic data provide another type of record that can shed new light on long-standing historical questions. PMID:25755263

  9. Anatomical Confirmation of Computed Tomography-Based Diagnosis of the Atherosclerosis Discovered in 17th Century Korean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeung Ju; Kim, Yi-Suk; Oh, Chang Seok; Go, Jai-Hyang; Lee, In Sun; Park, Won-Kyu; Cho, Seok-Min; Kim, Soon-Kwan; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In the present study on a newly discovered 17th century Korean mummy, computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple aortic calcifications within the aortic wall that were indicative of ancient atherosclerosis. The CT-based findings were confirmed by our subsequent post-factum dissection, which exhibited possible signs of the disease including ulcerated plaques, ruptured hemorrhages, and intimal thickening where the necrotic core was covered by the fibrous cap. These findings are strong indicators that the mummy suffered from aortic atherosclerosis during her lifetime. The present study is a good example of how CT images of vascular calcifications can be a useful diagnostic tool in forming at least preliminary diagnoses of ancient atherosclerosis. PMID:25816014

  10. Late Holocene history of Chaitén Volcano: new evidence for a 17th century eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lara, Luis E.; Moreno, Rodrigo; Amigo, Álvaro; Hoblitt, Richard P.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Prior to May 2008, it was thought that the last eruption of Chaitén Volcano occurred more than 5,000 years ago, a rather long quiescent period for a volcano in such an active arc segment. However, increasingly more Holocene eruptions are being identified. This article presents both geological and historical evidence for late Holocene eruptive activity in the 17th century (AD 1625-1658), which included an explosive rhyolitic eruption that produced pumice ash fallout east of the volcano and caused channel aggradation in the Chaitén River. The extents of tephra fall and channel aggradation were similar to those of May 2008. Fine ash, pumice and obsidian fragments in the pre-2008 deposits are unequivocally derived from Chaitén Volcano. This finding has important implications for hazards assessment in the area and suggests the eruptive frequency and magnitude should be more thoroughly studied.

  11. Photodegradation of heat treated hardwood veneers.

    PubMed

    Denes, Levente; Lang, Elemer M

    2013-01-05

    This paper outlines an investigation pertaining to color changes of hardwood veneers exposed to elevated temperature. The effects of convection and contact type heat applications on the different species were separately evaluated. The experimental analyses included two-factor, three-level randomized block designs, where the factors were the temperature and the duration of the exposure. Examined species included: Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) and red oak (Quercus rubra L.). Two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated major overall effects with significant interactions between the factors for all species/heat-treatment combinations. However, pair wise comparisons (Tukey tests) revealed lack of significant differences within factors for certain levels. The gained information might be useful for adjusting drying or pressing time/temperature relations. Setting the desired colors by necessary processing operations has certain technological, economical and environmental advantages. The use of additional chemicals to create dark surfaces may be reduced or eliminated.

  12. Aberrant expression of circulating Th17, Th1 and Tc1 cells in patients with active and inactive ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaogang; Du, Lutao; Xu, Xiaofei; Yang, Yongmei; Wang, Haiyan; Qu, Ailin; Qu, Xun; Wang, Chuanxin

    2013-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory bowel disease, yet its etiology and pathogenesis remain poorly understood. The aberrant expression of T lymphocytes plays an essential role in the progression of UC. This study aimed to evaluate the expression profile of circulating Th17, Th1 and Tc1 cells in patients with active and inactive UC. Our results revealed that the percentage of circulating Th17 cells (CD3+CD8-IL-17+) was significantly increased in patients with active UC when compared with the percentage in patients with inactive UC, Crohn's disease (CD) and healthy controls. The percentages of circulating Th1 (CD3+CD8-IFN-γ+) and Tc1 (CD3+CD8+IFN-γ+) cells were also higher in patients with active UC when compared with the percentages in patients with inactive UC and normal controls, although levels were lower than that in CD. Further analysis showed that Th17 cells were positively correlated with Th1 cells, but not with Tc1 cells. Notably, the three cells had a positive correlation with disease activity, extent of disease, detection of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and c-reactive protein in active UC. Moreover, plasma IL-17 was higher in patients with active UC, and a similar trend applied to the mRNA levels of RORγt and T-bet in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The levels of p-STAT3 and p-STAT5 in PBMCs, as well as the ratio of p-STAT3/p-STAT5, were also elevated in active UC patients. Taken together, our findings revealed that elevated circulating Th17, Th1 and Tc1 cells and the aberrant activation of the STAT pathway may be implicated in the progression of UC. These findings may provide preliminary experimental clues for the development of new therapies for UC.

  13. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.J.

    1999-12-17

    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been previously impacted by the discharge of heated nuclear reactor effluent. The depredated restoration areas had been pretreated with both herbicide and control burning prior to planting the hardwood seedlings. After discovery of the wild pig damage, these areas were surveyed on foot to assess the magnitude of the depredation on the planted seedling crop. Foraging by the local wild pigs in the pretreatment areas selectively impacted only four of the nine hardwood species used in this restoration effort. Based on the surveys, the remaining five species did not appear to have been impacted at all. A variety of reasons could be used to explain this phenomenon. The pretreatment methodology is thought to have been the primary aspect of the restoration program that initially led the wild pigs to discover the planted seedlings. In addition, it is possible that a combination of other factors associated with odor and taste may have resulted in the selective depredation. Future wetland restoration efforts in areas with wild pigs should consider pretreatment methods and species to be planted. If pretreatment methods and species such as discussed in the present study must be used, then the prior removal of wild pigs from surrounding lands will help prevent depredations by this non-native species.

  14. Hardwood supply in the Pacific northwest: A policy perspective. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Raettig, T.L.; Connaughton, K.P.; Ahrens, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    The policy framework for the hardwood resource and hardwood industry in western Oregon and Washington is examined. Harvesting trends, harvesting behavior of public and private landowners, and harvesting regulation are presented to complete the analysis of factors affecting short-run hardwood supply. In the short term, the supply of hardwoods is generally favorable, but in the long term, the supply is uncertain and cause for concern. Hardwoods need to be recognized in forest management in the Pacific Northwest.

  15. Room 204, a classroom with hardwood floors, slate blackboard, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Room 204, a classroom with hardwood floors, slate blackboard, and original clock. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. AmeriFlux US-Wi1 Intermediate hardwood (IHW)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi1 Intermediate hardwood (IHW). Site Description - The Wisconsin Intermediate Hardwoods site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. The intermediate hardwoods site is one of ten sites that collectively represent the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. In 2001, northern hardwood stands of all ages occupied 45% of the region.

  17. EDITORIAL: 17th International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron, and Ion Technologies (VEIT 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Dimitrova, Miglena; Ghelev, Chavdar

    2012-03-01

    The International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT) has been organized biennially since 1977, when the VEIT Summer School series was launched by the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The aim was to act as a forum for the exchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas on the latest developments in electron-, ion- and plasma-assisted technologies. The organizers of the 2011 edition of the event were the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria and the Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Whilst the school initially provided a meeting place for researchers mainly from Eastern and Central European countries, its importance has grown issue by issue. The school is now a major scientific event and a meeting place for young scientists from Eastern and Western Europe involved in research and development associated with high-tech industries. Many former school participants have gone on to become leading scientists in research establishments and companies throughout the world. Leading international companies, such as High Voltage Engineering, Balzers, Varian, and Hauzer have used the VEIT forum to present their products through oral presentations, poster contributions and exhibits. The School Proceedings have been published in special issues of the international journals Vacuum, Plasma Processes and Polymers and Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Seventeenth edition of VEIT was held in the Black Sea resort of Sunny Beach, Bulgaria on 19-23 September 2011. It was attended by 96 participants from 18 countries: Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, The Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK and USA. Following the tradition of publishing the VEIT Proceedings, a selection of papers presented at the event is published in this special issue of Journal of

  18. Acute Abdomen in the 17th Week of Twin Pregnancy due to Ovarian Torsion – A Late Complication of IVF

    PubMed Central

    Habek, D.; Bauman, R.; Rukavina Kralj, L.; Hafner, T.; Turudic, T.; Vujisic, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A 32-year-old woman with tubal factor infertility due to bilateral laparoscopic salpingectomy conceived twins with in vitro fertilization (IVF). She developed moderate ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome which was treated with anticoagulant therapy. The subsequent course of the twin pregnancy was normal until the 17th week of gestation when she presented to hospital because of a sharp pain in the right lower abdomen which ceased after admission. Case: Except for a single incident of vomiting, patient had no other subjective symptoms. The clinical examination showed tenderness of the lower right abdominal segment on palpation. The surgeon and the urologist found no signs of an acute surgical or urologic condition, and laboratory findings were within normal reference ranges for pregnant women. Two days after admission the pain reappeared; it was now much stronger and colic-like. The pain was initially located supraumbilically but subsequently spread diffusely across the lower abdomen. Abdominal guarding was present and laboratory findings showed an increase in inflammatory parameters. An enlarged and edematous right ovary was found on transvaginal ultrasound. Conclusion: Exploratory laparotomy via a vertical midline abdominal transection revealed a torqued necrotic right ovary with elements of inflammation and inflammatory adhesions involving the entire pelvis. The patient underwent right-sided ovariectomy and adhesiolysis. Recovered was normal and the patient was delivered of healthy twins in the 37th week of gestation. PMID:28017976

  19. [Principles of order in the color systems of the 17th century. (Franciscus Aguilonius--Athanasius Kircher--Isaac Newton)].

    PubMed

    Jaeger, W

    1984-04-01

    Since Aristotle there have been two colour order systems: The first is according to the subjective luminosity of colours, and the second is that which is found in the rainbow. Almost all the medieval concepts of colour order were based on the subjective luminosity of colours. At the beginning of the 17th century Franciscus Aguilonius still described the traditional sequence according to subjective luminosity: white, yellow, red, blue and black in his colour order system. - Athanasius Kircher demonstrated two sequences: The first was the same as Aguilonius 's, completed by lists of symbolic qualities attributed to the respective colours; The second was the sequence of the prismatic spectrum; red, orange, yellow, green and blue. Violet was still missing from his spectrum. For that reason the idea of arranging the colours in a closed circle did not occur to him. - Isaac Newton added violet to the prismatic spectrum. Hence he was able to bring the ends of the spectrum together, forming a colour circle. He completed the colours of his spectrum "with those purple hues which, although not present in the spectrum, were familiar to painters and dyers , and in this way closed up the colour-circle into a band returning on itself" (W. Ostwald). Thus he combined the perceptual concept of the colour wheel, containing pairs of complementary colours, with the physical concept of the prismatic spectrum.

  20. Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister Categories of Transuranic Waste Stored Below Ground within Area G

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Kenneth Marshall

    2015-03-01

    A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned large areas near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2011 and heightened public concern and news media attention over transuranic (TRU) waste stored at LANL’s Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G waste management facility. The removal of TRU waste from Area G had been placed at a lower priority in budget decisions for environmental cleanup at LANL because TRU waste removal is not included in the March 2005 Compliance Order on Consent (Reference 1) that is the primary regulatory driver for environmental cleanup at LANL. The Consent Order is a settlement agreement between LANL and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) that contains specific requirements and schedules for cleaning up historical contamination at the LANL site. After the Las Conchas Fire, discussions were held by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the NMED on accelerating TRU waste removal from LANL and disposing it at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report summarizes available information on the origin, configuration, and composition of the waste containers within the Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister categories; their physical and radiological characteristics; the results of the radioassays; and potential issues in retrieval and processing of the waste containers.

  1. Providing Quality Education and Training for Rural Australians. SPERA National Conference Proceedings (17th, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia, July 8-11, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian, Ed.; Boylan, Colin, Ed.

    This proceedings of the 17th annual conference of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) contains 28 keynote addresses and conference papers. Major conference themes were vocational education and training (VET) in rural schools, small schools, flexible rural delivery systems, and the community as a resource and…

  2. Reports: Programme Commissions, Administrative Commission, Legal Committee. Records of the General Conference (17th, Paris, 17 October to 21 November 1972), Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Conference.

    The reports of the Programme Commissions, the Administrative Commission, and Legal Committee are presented as the records of the 17th session of the General Conference of UNESCO in 1972. Part 1 contains Programme Commissions reports on education; natural sciences and their application to development; social sciences, humanities, and culture;…

  3. Teaching Science in Art: Technical Examination of 17th-Century Dutch Painting as Interdisciplinary Coursework for Science Majors and Nonmajors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uffelman, Erich S.

    2007-01-01

    Two linked courses examining conservation science and art history of 17th-century Dutch painting are described. The two courses have been taught on campus and, most recently, as study-abroad courses in collaboration with the Center for European Studies, Universiteit Maastricht, The Netherlands. The highly interdisciplinary courses are intense, yet…

  4. Primary detection of hardwood log defects using laser surface scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edward; Thomas, Liya; Mili, Lamine; Ehrich, Roger W.; Abbott, A. Lynn; Shaffer, Clifford

    2003-05-01

    The use of laser technology to scan hardwood log surfaces for defects holds great promise for improving processing efficiency and the value and volume of lumber produced. External and internal defect detection to optimize hardwood log and lumber processing is one of the top four technological needs in the nation"s hardwood industry. The location, type, and severity of defects on hardwood logs are the key indicators of log quality and value. These visual cues provide information about internal log characteristics and products for which the log is suitable. We scanned 162 logs with a high-resolution industrial four-head laser surface scanner. The resulting data sets contain hundreds of thousands of three-dimensional coordinate points. The size of the data and noise presented special problems during processing. Robust regression models were used to fit geometric shapes to the data. The estimated orthogonal distances between the fitted model and the log surface are converted to a two-dimensional image to facilitate defect detection. Using robust regression methods and standard image processing tools we have demonstrated that severe surface defects on hardwood logs can be detected using height and contour analyses of three-dimensional laser scan data.

  5. Floods of the Lower Tisza from the late 17th century onwards: frequency, magnitude, seasonality and great flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The present paper is based on a recently developed database including contemporary original, administrative, legal and private source materials (published and archival) as well as media reports related to the floods occurred on the lower sections of the Tisza river in Hungary, with special emphasis on the area of Szeged town. The study area is well-represented by contemporary source evidence from the late 17th century onwards, when the town and its broader area was reoccupied from the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Concerning the applied source materials, the main bases of investigation are the administrative (archival) sources such as town council protocols of Szeged and county meeting protocols of Csanád and Csongrád Counties. In these (legal-)administrative documents damaging events (natural/environmental hazards) were systematically recorded. Moreover, other source types such as taxation-related damage accounts as well as private and official reports, letters and correspondence (published, unpublished) were also included. Concerning published evidence, a most important source is flood reports in contemporary newspapers as well as town chronicles and other contemporary narratives. In the presentation the main focus is on the analysis of flood-rich flood-poor periods of the last ca. 330 years; moreover, the seasonality distribution as well as the magnitude of Tisza flood events are also discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to provide a short overview, in the form of case studies, on the greatest flood events (e.g. duration, magnitude, damages, multi-annual consequences), and their further impacts on the urban and countryside development as well as on (changes in) flood defence strategies. In this respect, especially two flood events, the great (1815-)1816 and the catastrophic 1879 flood (shortly with causes and consequences) - that practically erased Szeged town from the ground - are presented in more detail.

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex detection in human remains: tuberculosis spread since the 17th century in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Leles, Daniela; Lima, Valdirene dos Santos; da Silva, Laura da Piedade; Dias, Ondemar; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2012-06-01

    Paleogenetic analysis for tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on bone and sediment samples dating from the 17th to 19th centuries from the archeological site of Nossa Senhora do Carmo Church in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Forty samples were analyzed, corresponding to 32 individuals from 28 burials, 22 of primary type and 6 of secondary type. The samples were collected following strict paleogenetic investigation guidelines and submitted to ancient DNA (aDNA) extraction. In order to detect TB infection, aDNA hybridizations with the molecular targets of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) IS6110 and IS1081 were applied. Additionally, the ancestry of individuals was assessed by human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis of hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) sequence polymorphisms. The results of aDNA hybridizations demonstrated varying levels of MTC intensity in 17/32 individuals (53.1%), using the IS6110 target. The IS1081 MTC target showed lower sensitivity, confirming TB positivity in 10/32 (31.2%) individuals. The mtDNA analysis allowed the recovery of HVS-I sequences in 23/32 individuals (71.8%). The majority of these individuals (21/23, 91.3%) were of European ancestry, especially in primary burials. Haplogroups U, J, V, T, K, N, H and R, were identified with haplogroup U being the most frequent at 6/23 (26.1%). African and Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups were observed in two individuals in secondary burials. In spite of the ecclesiastic and aristocratic bias of the population of the study, human ancestry analysis revealed the prominent contribution of Europeans in the introduction or spread of TB in the New World.

  7. The ``System of Chymists'' and the ``Newtonian dream'' in Greek-speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-06-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a “philosophy” of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This “philosophical” chemistry was not based on the existence of any academic institutions, it was focused on the ontology of principles and forces governing the analysis/synthesis of matter and formulated two didactic traditions. The one, named “the system of chymists”, close to the Boylean/Cartesian tradition, accepted, contrary to Aristotelianism, the five “chymical” principles and also the analytical ideal, but the “chymical” principles were not under a conceptual and experimental investigation, as they were in Europe. Also, a crucial issue for this tradition remained the “mechanical” principles which were under the influence of the metaphysical nature of the Aristotelian principles. The other, close to the Boylean/Newtonian tradition, was the integrated presentation of the Newtonian “dream”, which maintained a discursive attitude with reference to the “chemical attractions”-“chemical affinities” and actualised the mathematical atomism of Boscovich, according to which the elementary texture of matter could be causally explained within this complex architecture of mathematical “ punkta”. In this tradition also coexisted, in a discursive synthesis, the “chemical element” of Lavoisier and the arguments of the new theory and its opposition to the phlogiston theory, but the “chemical affinities” were under the realm of the “physical element” as “metaphysical point”.

  8. AmeriFlux US-Wi3 Mature hardwood (MHW)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Chen, Jiquan [Michigan State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi3 Mature hardwood (MHW). Site Description - The Wisconsin Mature Hardwood site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the northeastern section of Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. As an assemblage, the ten Wisconsin sites are indicative of the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. The mature hardwood stand represents a typical naturally regenerated second-growth forest, free of anthropogenic disturbances for at least 70 years.

  9. Bottomland Hardwood Forests along the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yin, Y.; Nelson, J.C.; Lubinski, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests along the United States' Upper Mississippi River have been drastically reduced in acreage and repeatedly logged during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Conversion to agricultural land, timber harvesting, and river modifications for flood prevention and for navigation were the primary factors that caused the changes. Navigation structures and flood-prevention levees have altered the fluvial geomorphic dynamics of the river and floodplain system. Restoration and maintenance of the diversity, productivity, and natural regeneration dynamics of the bottomland hardwood forests under the modified river environment represent a major management challenge.

  10. Hardwood seedling growth on different mine spoil types with and without topsoil amendment.

    PubMed

    Showalter, Julia M; Burger, James A; Zipper, Carl E

    2010-01-01

    The goal of many owners of reclaimed mined land in the Appalachian region is to restore the diverse native hardwood forest for environmental, economic, and cultural reasons. However, native hardwoods often grow poorly on mined sites because they are planted in unsuitable spoils devoid of native topsoil. In a greenhouse experiment, we examined the suitability of four growth media available for use on many mined sites in the central Appalachians-forest topsoil (FT), weathered sandstone (WS), unweathered sandstone (US), and unweathered shale (UH)-as well as the effects of topsoil amendment (none vs. amended) on the growth of three native hardwood species: Fraxinus americana, Quercus rubra, and Liriodendron tulipifera. A 4 x 2 x 3 factorial greenhouse experiment was conducted with planted 1-yr-old seedlings. Tree growth, foliar nutrients, and soil properties were measured and characterized. The WS was the spoil most conducive to growth for F. americana and Q. rubra. Liriodendron tulipifera did not respond to any treatments. Tree growth was highly correlated with mineralizable soil nitrogen and extractable soil phosphorus. Topsoil amendment significantly increased growth on the UH but not on the US or WS. Topsoil amendment increased the number of native herbaceous plants growing in the pots and improved foliar nutrient content in F. americana and L. tulipifera. Many properties of the WS, such as pH, microbial activity, and water availability, more closely approximated the control soil than the US or UH. This study showed that trees are sensitive to spoil type and that certain spoil types that are conducive to good growth of native trees should be used during the reclamation process, particularly if forest topsoil is not applied. Forest topsoil amendment improved tree growth on some spoil materials, improved tree nutrition, and helped restore the native soil organisms and plants that were present before mining.

  11. The historical archaeology of the 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community of Nevis, British West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Michelle M.

    2000-11-01

    This is an historical archaeological examination of a 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies. Unlike earlier archaeological studies of the Jewish Caribbean Diaspora that focused on single sites, this investigation used a community-wide approach to elucidate the daily experience of Sephardic Jews within the colonial Caribbean. This project included an archaeological excavation at the purported location of the community's synagogue, an electrical resistivity survey of the surviving cemetery, the construction of a map of property ownership in 18th-century Charlestown, and archival research. This study was carded out within a multiscalar and contextual framework that emphasized the importance of understanding the diaspora that brought the Jews to the West Indies, the development of the colonial Caribbean, and the surrounding environs of the port city of Charlestown, Nevis. The archaeological analysis of the supposed site of the synagogue proved that it was in fact that of a late 18th-century townhouse, but the associated land record research revealed the actual location of the community's former synagogue. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the physical layout of colonial-period Charlestown from the land records indicated the presence of a distinct Jewish quarter in the undesirable southern portion of the town. Evidence from the public records of Nevis and the social history of the members of the Jewish population unveiled external social and political pressures placed upon the Sephardim as well as internal religious and ethnic ties dig bound the community together. It is argued in closing that the archival evidence, in conjunction with the continued presence of a clustered settlement pattern like that of European Jewish communities during the medieval period, indicates that the Jews of the Caribbean were not fully integrated socially or politically into British colonial society. This examination of the Nevis community

  12. Cosmic ray composition between 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 17th power eV obtained by air shower experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the air shower data, the chemical composition of the primary cosmic rays in the energy range 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 17th power eV was obtained. The method is based on a well known N sub e-N sub mu and N sub e-N sub gamma. The simulation is calibrated by the CERN SPS pp collider results.

  13. Proceedings of the Symposium on Electromagnetic Windows (17th) Held at Georgia Institute of Technology, Engineering Experiment Station, Atlanta, Georgia on 25-27 July 1984. Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    00 George H. Adams Department of Continuing Education September 1984 0-I U. S. Army Research Office P. 0. No. 84-M-0346 GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY...ATLANTA, GEORGIA 30332 r ) (ELEctEK D JN22 1985 APPROvED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE 91STRIBUTION UNLIMITED 7 .7 .7 7rr - COMPONENT PART NOTICE THIS PAPER IS...A COMPONENT PART OF THE FOLLOWING COMPILATION REPORT: (TITLE): Proceedingzs of the Symposium on Electromagnetic Windows (17th) Held at Georgia

  14. 78 FR 76857 - Hardwood Plywood From China; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Hardwood Plywood From China; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject investigations, the United States International Trade Commission (Commission) determines, pursuant to sections 705(b) and 735(b) of the Tariff...

  15. South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, interior west room showing hardwood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, interior west room showing hardwood floor; view south - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  16. Prioritizing bottomland hardwood forest sites for protection and augmentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.; Biagas, J.

    2007-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forest has been greatly diminished by conversion to agriculture. Less than 25% of the pre-Columbian bottomland hardwood forests remain in the southeastern United States. Because of the valuable ecological and hydrological functions performed by these forests, their conservation and restoration has been a high priority. Part of these restoration efforts has focused on developing tools that can be used for both assessments at the landscape level and policy implementation at the local level. The distribution of bottomland hardwood forests in the Cache and White River watersheds in eastern Arkansas were examined using existing GIS databases. Criteria were developed to select areas that should be conserved or augmented for wildlife habitat. Over 67% of the study area was classified as agriculture, with bottomland hardwood forest the next largest habitat class. The thickness of a forest fragment was defined as the radius of the largest circle that can be inscribed in a fragment. Thickness was used in three ways. First, individual forest fragments were identified and selected based on ecological function using criteria we established. Second, individual fragments that were too small to support interior species, but large enough that if moderately augmented they could recover that function, were identified and selected. These augmentable fragments were further prioritized by adjacency to habitat that might be suitable for reforestation, namely agriculture. Third, watersheds were prioritized for conservation and augmentation based on the size and distributions of forest fragment thickness and area within each watershed.

  17. Hardwood biochar influences calcareous soil physicochemical and microbiological status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of biochar application to calcareous soils are not well documented. In a laboratory incubation study, a hardwood-based, fast pyrolysis biochar was applied (0, 1, 2, and 10% by weight) to a calcareous soil. Changes in soil chemistry, water content, microbial respiration, and microbial com...

  18. Effects of canopy gaps and flooding on homopterans in a bottomland hardwood forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorham, L.E.; King, S.L.; Keeland, B.D.; Mopper, S.

    2002-01-01

    Canopy disturbance is a major factor affecting forest structure and composition and, as a result of habitat alterations, can influence insect communities. We initiated a field study to quantify the effects of canopy disturbance on aerial insect abundance and distribution within a bottomland hardwood forest along the Cache River, Arkansas, USA. We used passive flight-intercept traps to sample insects in canopy gap and forest interior habitats from May to July in 1996, 1997, and 1998. The hydrologic conditions of our study site varied among years: 1996 was relatively dry, 1997 incurred a long-duration flood, and 1998 was moderately wet. Of the 34,000+ Homopterans collected, many groups were distributed in a non-uniform manner among years and between habitats. Total Homopterans, two families of Homopterans, and six morphospecies were more abundant in canopy gaps than interior forest. Many Homopteran taxa were least abundant in 1997 following almost six months of flooding. Alternatively, relatively large Homopteran abundances were associated with the dry conditions of 1996 and the moderately wet conditions of 1998. Differences in Homopteran abundance among years and habitats may be related to differences in vegetation density. Canopy gaps supported more vegetation cover than the interior forest in all but the first sampling interval. In addition, similar to Homopteran abundance, vegetation density was lower in 1997 than in 1998. These results demonstrate that natural disturbance and flooding contribute to Homopteran abundance and distribution patterns in bottomland hardwood forests of the south central United States. ?? 2002, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  19. Windows of opportunity: white-tailed deer and the dynamics of northern hardwood forests of the northeastern US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sage, R.W.; Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.

    2003-01-01

    Herbivory, lighting regimes, and site conditions are among the most important determinants of forest regeneration success, but these are affected by a host of other factors such as weather, predation, human exploitation, pathogens, wind and fire. We draw together > 50 years of research on the Huntington Wildlife Forest in the central Adirondack Mountains of New York to explore regeneration of northern hardwoods. A series of studies each of which focused on a single factor failed to identify the cause of regeneration failure. However, integration of these studies led to broader understanding of the process of forest stand development and identified at least three interacting factors: lighting regime, competing vegetation and selective browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The diverse 100-200 year-old hardwood stands present today probably reflect regeneration during periods of low deer density (< 2.0 deer/km super(2)) and significant forest disturbance. If this hypothesis is correct, forest managers can mimic these 'natural windows of opportunity' through manipulation of a few sensitive variables in the system. Further, these manipulations can be conducted on a relatively small geographic scale. Control of deer densities on a scale of 500 ha and understory American beech (Fagus grandifolia) on a scale of < 100 ha in conjunction with an even-aged regeneration system consistently resulted in successful establishment of desirable hardwood regeneration.

  20. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    DOEpatents

    Waite, Darrell; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P.; Ceckler, William H.

    2015-06-30

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hydrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  1. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    DOEpatents

    Waite, Darrell M; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P; Ceckler, William H

    2013-12-17

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hyrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  2. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 2: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes of the three main production centers.

    PubMed

    Vieira Ferreira, L F; Ferreira, D P; Conceição, D S; Santos, L F; Pereira, M F C; Casimiro, T M; Ferreira Machado, I

    2015-01-01

    Sherds representative of the three Portuguese faience production centers of the 17th century - Lisbon, Coimbra and Vila Nova were studied with the use of mostly non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence emission (XRF). X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments were also performed. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the pastes of the pottery produced Vila Nova and some of the ceramic pastes from Lisbon, in accordance with documental sources that described the use of Lisbon clays by Vila Nova potters, at least since mid 17th century. Quartz and Gehlenite are the main components of the Lisbon's pastes, but differences between the ceramic pastes were detected pointing out to the use of several clay sources. The spectroscopic trend exhibited Coimbra's pottery is remarkably different, Quartz and Diopside being the major components of these pastes, enabling one to well define a pattern for these ceramic bodies. The blue pigment from the Lisbon samples is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix, which enables the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals in most productions of the second half of the 17th century. No micro-Raman cobalt blue signature could be detected in the Vila Nova and Coimbra blue glazes. This is in accordance with the lower kiln temperatures in these two production centers and with Co(2+) ions dispersed in the silicate matrix. In all cases the white glaze is obtained with the use of tin oxide. Hausmannite was detected as the manganese oxide mineral used to produce the purple glaze (wine color "vinoso") in Lisbon.

  3. Elevated Frequencies of Circulating Th22 Cell in Addition to Th17 Cell and Th17/Th1 Cell in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Ting; Wang, Xiao-qi; Du, Rui-zhi; Zhang, Kai-ning; Liu, Xin-guang; Ma, Dao-xin; Yu, Shuang; Su, Guo-hai; Li, Zhen-hua; Guan, Yu-qing; Du, Nai-li

    2013-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by immune cells. Th22 cells are CD4+ T cells that secret IL-22 but not IL-17 or IFN-γ and are implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease. The roles of Th22 cells in the pathophysiologic procedures of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the profile of Th22, Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells in ACS patients, including unstable angina (UA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Design and Methods In this study, 26 AMI patients, 16 UA patients, 16 stable angina (SA) patients and 16 healthy controls were included. The frequencies of Th22, Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells in AMI, UA, SA patients and healthy controls were examined by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of IL-22, IL-17 and IFN-γ were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Th22, Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells were significantly increased in AMI and UA patients compared with SA patients and healthy controls. Moreover, plasma IL-22 level was significantly elevated in AMI and UA patients. In addition, Th22 cells correlated positively with IL-22 as well as Th17 cells in AMI and UA patients. Conclusion Our findings showed increased frequencies of both Th22 and Th17 cells in ACS patients, which suggest that Th22 and Th17 cells may play a potential role in plaque destabilization and the development of ACS. PMID:24312440

  4. [The beginnings of the nursing profession : the complementary relationship between secular caregivers and hospital nuns in France in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Diebolt, Evelyne

    2013-06-01

    The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salpêtrière hospital, Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charité" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied.

  5. Directional scattering properties of a winter deciduous hardwood canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, Daniel S.; Newcomb, W. Wayne

    1987-01-01

    The unique directional scattering properties of a deciduous hardwood forest without leaves during the winter period was measured in a visible and near-infrared band. A radiative transfer model was used to explore the scattering properties of such a forest. The reflectance distributions look similar to sparse homogeneous vegetation canopies. The overall reflectance distribution is a combination of the extreme azimuthal scattering behavior of tree limbs and the more typical scattering behavior of understory litter.

  6. Crystalliferous Bacillus cereus group bacteria from a Maryland hardwood forest are dominated by psychrotolerant strains.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Michael B; Martin, Phyllis A W; Kuhar, Daniel; Farrar, Robert R; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E

    2014-08-01

    Crystal-forming bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group were isolated from soil samples collected at different elevations within a mixed hardwood forest in central Maryland, and their phylogenetic relationships determined by multilocus sequence analysis. The vast majority of isolates obtained were associated with two phylogenetic groups known to be psychrotolerant, with very few isolates representing phylogenetic groups more typically associated with Bacillus thuringiensis. Isolates from the psychrotolerant groups were found to grow on solid media at 7 °C. Isolates of 11 highly related, novel sequence types (STs) from the psychrotolerant group that includes Bacillus weihenstephanensis were generally found at higher elevations, and were not associated with soils near streams. Isolates of two related STs from the second psychrotolerant group were nearly always found at the bottoms of ravines near streams, in areas abundant in earthworm castings.

  7. [The magic universe of cures: the role of magic practices and witchcraft in the universe of 17th century Mato Grosso].

    PubMed

    Sá, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the role of healing agents played by practitioners of magic and witchcraft in Mato Grosso society during the 17th century. It observes that magic and witchcraft were developed as competitors, alternatives or associated with other forms of healing (official and lay). It points out how such roles contributed to the process of subjugating its practitioners, especially Africans, Indians and their descendents, and were appropriated as an opportunity for survival in the colonial slave society. The pastoral visit made by Bruno Pinna in 1785 to Cuiabá and nearby areas served as the principal source of knowledge regarding the practices and practitioners of magic and witchcraft.

  8. Traces and echoes of De Architectura by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio in the work of Xu Guangqi in 17th century China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigola, Michela; Fang, Yibing

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the role played by Xu Guangqi (1562-1633), minister of the Ming Dynasty, in the development of European scientific and technical knowledge in China between the 16th and 17th centuries by analyzing a book of Western technology that he wrote, namely, Taixi Shuifa ( On Western Hydraulics). Several Western books related to machine knowledge are searched to trace the source of the illustrations in Taixi Shuifa. We found that Archimedes' screw and Ctesibius' machine, which are included in Vitruvius' De Architectura volumes, also appear in the work of Xu Guangqi.

  9. Control of hardwood regeneration in restored carolina bay depression wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Lee, J.; Barton, Christopher, D.; Blake, John, I.

    2012-06-01

    Carolina bays are depression wetlands located in the coastal plain region of the eastern United States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna. Previous bay restoration projects have identified flood-tolerant woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of desired herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. We restored 3 bays on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, by plugging drainage ditches, harvesting residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays, and monitoring the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change. We applied a foliar herbicide on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acerrubrum), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and water oak (Quercus nigra) sprouting, and we tested its effectiveness across a hydrologic gradient in each bay. Hardwood regeneration was partially controlled by flooding in bays that exhibited long growing season hydroperiods. The findings also indicated that herbicide application was an effective means for managing hardwood regeneration and re-sprouting in areas where hydrologic control was ineffective. Herbicide use had no effect on species richness in the emerging vegetation community. In late-season drawdown periods, or in bays where hydroperiods are short, more than one herbicide application may be necessary.

  10. Elastic constant determination of hardwoods using ultrasonic insertion technique.

    PubMed

    Mat Daud, Anis Nazihah; Jaafar, Rosly; Ayop, Shahrul Kadri; Yaacob, Mohd Ikhwan Hadi; Rohani, Md Supar

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasonic insertion technique (IT) is an ultrasonic technique which involves sample immersion in a solution to determine its acoustic properties. IT is normally used to determine the acoustic properties of a medical phantom. We proposed the use of IT as an alternative technique to the common contact ultrasonic technique: through-transmission technique (TT) for determining the elastic constant of hardwoods in longitudinal, tangential and radial directions. The elastic constant of twelve rectangular-shaped Malaysian hardwoods from three different categories; heavy, medium and light with the density ranging from 602 to 992kgm(-3) were determined using IT and TT. Both techniques were carried out at 24.0°C surrounding temperature and utilized 2.25MHz ultrasonic transducers. Data from both techniques were compared to validate the use of the proposed technique. Findings indicated that IT offers consistent and accurate results for, tangential and radial elastic constants (TEC and REC) within 8.89% and 5.86% differences, respectively compared to TT for all tested hardwoods. IT offers an alternative technique for TEC and REC determinations of precious wood samples.

  11. Comparison between soil and biomass carbon in adjacent hardwood and red pine forests

    SciTech Connect

    Perala, D.A.; Rollinger, J.L.; Wilson, D.M.

    1995-06-01

    The distribution of carbon in soil and biomass was studied across Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan, USA, in 40 pole-sized red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantations paired with adjacent hardwood stands. Pine and hardwood stands shared a common boundary and soil. Hardwood stands were mixed species, naturally regenerated second growth following logging. Carbon in total, standing crop averaged the same in both hardwood and red pine forest types, although the hardwoods averaged 14 years older than red pine. Coarse woody debris, shrubs, and herbs contained little carbon. Only the forest floor carbon pool was significantly different between forest types. Forest floor had a greater mass beneath red pine than hardwoods. There was no difference in total ecosystem carbon between red pine and hardwood stands. Total mineral soil aggregated across the depth profile contained the same total amount of carbon in both pine and hardwood stands; however, the carbon was found in different vertical patterns. Amounts of carbon in the upper levels of soil (0--4 cm) were higher under hardwoods, and amounts were higher under red pine at the 8--16 cm and 16--32 cm soil depths. Where July air temperatures were relatively cool, red pine stored carbon more efficiently both in the forest floor and deep in the soil. Red pine also sequestered more carbon in mineral soil with increasing April--September precipitation.

  12. Rapid coastal subsidence in the central Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh) since the 17th century deduced from submerged salt-producing kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanebuth, T. J.; Kudrass, H.; Linstädter, J.; Islam, B.; Zander, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The densely populated low lying Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta is highly vulnerable to the global sea-level rise. In order to estimate the subsidence of the delta over historical time scales, we examined submerged salt-producing kiln sites in the coastal Sundarbans. These kilns were built just above the previous winterly spring high-tide level, but are currently located ~155 × 15 cm below the corresponding modern level. According to optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, the kilns were ultimately fired ~300 years ago (1705 × 35 AD) and salt production was terminated abruptly by a catastrophic event (major cyclone), which affected the kiln sites at different levels and locations. Two particular buried mangrove root horizons 80 cm below this kiln level also indicate catastrophic scenarios (probably subsidence events related to a regional earthquake). AMS-14C ages measured on the charcoal layers at the kiln's bases and on these associated mangrove stump horizons support the OSL dates. Based on the respective elevations of these kiln and mangrove palaeo-horizons and on the ages, the 300-year-average rate of sinking of the outer delta is 5.2 × 1.2 mm/a, which includes 0.8 mm/a of eustatic sea-level rise over this historical period. Expecting further acceleration of the eustatic sea-level rise of up to 7 mm/a, we calculate a rise in relative sea level of up to 8.9 × 3.3 mm/a for the next few decased, which will dramatically aggravate the already present problematic situation. Only a prudently-managed control of sediment accretion will keep southern Bangladesh above the sea level. (Hanebuth et al., Geology, Sept 2013, doi: 10.1130/G34646.1.)

  13. Historical and Metallurgical Characterization of a "Falchion" Sword Manufactured in Caino (Brescia, Italy) in the Early 17th Century A.D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonelli, G.; Faccoli, M.; Gotti, R.; Roberti, R.; Cornacchia, G.

    2016-08-01

    A historical and metallurgical characterization of a "falchion" sword manufactured in Caino (Brescia, northern Italy) and dating from the early 17th century was performed to understand the manufacture methods of a Renaissance sword. At first, a set of size measurements was carried out to look for the existence of constant and/or recurring macroscopic sizes, which would indicate a standardized production, or of any type of proportionality between different parts of a sword, which would prove an intentional design activity. Light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, quantometer analyses, and Vickers microhardness tests were then employed to analyze the microstructure and obtain the mechanical properties. All the metallurgical work is supported by an accurate study on the chemical composition of both metal-matrix and nonmetallic inclusions, which allowed for rebuilding and evaluating the efficiency of the whole production process.

  14. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-05

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  15. Spatial-temporal analysis on climate variation in early Qing dynasty (17th -18th century) using China's chronological records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kuan-Hui Elaine; Wang, Pao-Kuan; Fan, I.-Chun; Liao, Yi-Chun; Liao, Hsiung-Ming; Pai, Pi-Ling

    2016-04-01

    -warm temperature, flood and drought with an index of social unrest are counted in an interval of a year, five years, ten years, and twenty years to gain their running mean(s) for every cites/counties to depict their temporal variations. Third, the cities and counties are divided into seven zones based on their meteorological and geographical characteristics, in order to interpret the regional expressions of the climate variations. Finally, the Ordinary Least Square regression model is used to estimate the coefficients among precipitation, temperature, flood and drought. Significantly, it is found that in general all these indices fluctuated in past 100+ years. However, the occurrence of drought and flood all have significant correlation with lower (colder) temperature (P=0.00) and also with precipitation (P<0.05). This implies that cold temperature tends to have higher meteorological extremes, and both flood and drought can occur approximately in the same year with abundant precipitation at different time. Among seven geographical zones, North China is found more vulnerable to the temperature changes considering these extreme weathers. Temperature change in Central and South China however are less significant. Central China on the other hand is more sensitive to the precipitation that are both correlated with drought and flood.

  16. 75 FR 7044 - T&S Hardwoods, Inc., Sylva, NC; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration T&S Hardwoods, Inc., Sylva, NC; Notice of Negative Determination... facility to a foreign country. T&S Hardwoods, Inc. did not import hardwood lumber and did not...

  17. Removal of selected pollutants from aqueous media by hardwood mulch.

    PubMed

    Ray, Asim B; Selvakumar, Ariamalar; Tafuri, Anthony N

    2006-08-21

    Generic hardwood mulch, usually used for landscaping, was utilized to remove several selected pollutants (heavy metals and toxic organic compounds) typically found in urban stormwater (SW) runoff. The hardwood mulch sorbed all the selected pollutants from a spiked stormwater mixture, including copper (Cu(2+)), cadmium (Cd(2+)), chromium (Cr(6+)), lead (Pb(2+)), zinc (Zn(2+)), 1,3 dichlorobenzene (DCB), naphthalene (NP), fluoranthene (FA), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP), and benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P). Masses of the pollutants sorbed depended upon the pollutant species, contact time, and initial concentration which varied from 20 to 100%. Sorption rates of the metals, in general, were more rapid than those of the organics; however, mass removals (percent) of the organics, in contrast to those of the metals, were independent of their initial concentrations. With the exception of Cd, percentages (weight) of the metals removed declined as their initial concentrations decreased. None of the sorbed pollutants desorbed to any significant extent upon extended washing with water. It is quite feasible that in the presence of mulch the uptake of these pollutants by the aquatic species will be reduced significantly.

  18. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  19. Results of a workshop concerning ecological zonation in bottomland hardwoods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roelle, James E.; Auble, Gregor T.; Hamilton, David B.; Johnson, Richard L.; Segelquist, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    Under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has regulatory responsibilities concerning the discharge of dredged or fill material into the Nation's waters. In addition to its advisory role in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' permit program, EPA has a number of specific authorities, including formulation of the Section 404(b)(1) Guidelines, use of Section 404(c) to prohibit disposal at particular sites, and enforcement actions for unauthorized discharges. A number of recent court cases focus on the geographic scope of Section 404 jurisdiction in potential bottomland hardwood (BLH) wetlands and the nature of landclearing activities in these areas that require a permit under Section 404. Accordingly, EPA needs to establish the scientific basis for implementing its responsibilities under Section 404 in bottomland hardwoods. EPA is approaching this task through a series of workshops designed to provide current scientific information on bottomland hardwoods and to organize that information in a manner pertinent to key questions, including the following. What are the characteristics of bottomland hardwoods (in terms of hydrology, soils, vegetation, fish, wildlife, agricultural potential, and the like) and how can the functions (e.g., flood storage, water quality maintenance, detrital export) that they perform best be quantified? How do perturbations like landclearing, levee construction, and drainage impact the functions that bottomland hardwoods perform and how can these effects best be quantified? And finally, how significant are the impacts and how is their significance likely to change under various management scenarios? The first workshop in this series was held December 3-7, 1984, in St. Francisville, Louisiana. The workshop was attended by over 40 scientists and regulators (see ACKNOWLEDGMENTS section) and facilitated by the editors of this report under an Interagency Agreement between EPA and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife

  20. Differential response by hardwood and deciduous stands in New England forests to climate change and insect-induced mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munger, J. William; Wofsy, Steven C.; Orwig, David A.; Williams, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Forests in the northeastern United States include large areas dominated by mosaics of oak/maple and hemlock stands. Often the hardwood dominated stands include a significant cohort of hemlock saplings. However, long-term survival of hemlock in this region is threatened by Hemlock Wooly Adelgid (HWA), an invasive insect that is fatal to eastern hemlock. The northern limit of HWA is affected in part by winter minimum temperature and warmer winters are enabling northward expansion of HWA infestation. At the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts, two long-term eddy flux towers are measuring carbon exchange in a >100 year old hardwood stand since 1992 (EMS- Ha1) and in a 100-200 year old hemlock stand (Ha2) since 2004. The flux measurements are complemented by vegetation dynamics plots. Carbon exchange at the two sites has distinctly different seasonality. The hardwood site has a shorter carbon uptake period, but higher peak fluxes, while the hemlock stand has a long carbon uptake period extending from spring thaw until early winter freeze. Some contribution from the evergreen hemlock in the understory is evident before canopy greenup at the EMS tower and spring and fall carbon uptake rates have been increasing and contribute in part to a trend towards larger annual carbon uptake at this site. Carbon uptake by hemlock increases with warmer temperatures in the spring and fall transition. Adelgids have reached the hemlock stand near Ha2 and have been widely distributed in the canopy since spring of 2012. The hemlock canopy in that stand is thinning and net carbon uptake and evapotranspiration have been decreasing since 2012. Adelgids have also been observed in scattered stands near the Ha1 tower, but as of 2015 the trees are still healthy. Because hemlocks stands have different seasonality and provide a distinct soil and sub-canopy light environment, their mortality and replacement by hardwood species will have significant impacts on forest dynamics, carbon balance, and

  1. Microwave Moisture Measurement System for Hardwood Lumber Drying

    SciTech Connect

    Moschler, William W; Hanson, Gregory R

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a prototype microwave-based moisture sensor system suitable for the kiln drying of hardwood lumber. The moisture sensors developed are battery powered and are capable of communicating with a host kiln control system via spread spectrum wireless communications. We have developed two designs of the sensors working at 4.5 to 6 GHz with linear response to moisture content (MC) over a range of 6-100%. These sensors allow us to make a swept frequency microwave transmission measurement through a small area of a board. Using the prototype electronics and sensors, we have obtained measurements of MC over the above MC range for red oak and yellow poplar with standard deviations of less than 1.5% MC. We have developed data for board thickness corrections and for temperature corrections for the MC measurement system.

  2. Degradation of softwood, hardwood, and grass lignocelluloses by two Steptomyces strains

    SciTech Connect

    Antai, S.P.; Crawford, D.L.

    1981-08-01

    Two Streptomyces strains, S. viridosporus T7A and S. setonii 75Vi2, were grown on softwood, hardwood, and grass lignocelluloses, and lignocellulose decomposition was followed by monitoring substrate weight loss, lignin loss, and carbohydrate loss over time. Results showed that both Streptomyces strains substantially degraded both the lignin and the carbohydrate components of each lignocellulose; however, these actinomycetes were more efficient decomposers of grass lignocelluloses than of hardwood or softwood lignocelluloses. In particular, these Streptomyces strains were more efficient decomposers of grass lignins than of hardwood or softwood lignins.

  3. Excerpts from the 1st international NTNU symposium on current and future clinical biomarkers of cancer: innovation and implementation, June 16th and 17th 2016, Trondheim, Norway.

    PubMed

    Robles, Ana I; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Tsui, Dana W T; Georgoulias, Vassilis; Creaney, Jenette; Dobra, Katalin; Vyberg, Mogens; Minato, Nagahiro; Anders, Robert A; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zhou, Jianwei; Sætrom, Pål; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Kirschner, Michaela B; Krokan, Hans E; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Tsamardinos, Ioannis; Røe, Oluf D

    2016-10-19

    The goal of biomarker research is to identify clinically valid markers. Despite decades of research there has been disappointingly few molecules or techniques that are in use today. The "1st International NTNU Symposium on Current and Future Clinical Biomarkers of Cancer: Innovation and Implementation", was held June 16th and 17th 2016, at the Knowledge Center of the St. Olavs Hospital in Trondheim, Norway, under the auspices of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the HUNT biobank and research center. The Symposium attracted approximately 100 attendees and invited speakers from 12 countries and 4 continents. In this Symposium original research and overviews on diagnostic, predictive and prognostic cancer biomarkers in serum, plasma, urine, pleural fluid and tumor, circulating tumor cells and bioinformatics as well as how to implement biomarkers in clinical trials were presented. Senior researchers and young investigators presented, reviewed and vividly discussed important new developments in the field of clinical biomarkers of cancer, with the goal of accelerating biomarker research and implementation. The excerpts of this symposium aim to give a cutting-edge overview and insight on some highly important aspects of clinical cancer biomarkers to-date to connect molecular innovation with clinical implementation to eventually improve patient care.

  4. Identification of resinous materials on 16th and 17th century reverse-glass objects by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumer, Ursula; Dietemann, Patrick; Koller, Johann

    2009-07-01

    Objects of hinterglasmalerei, reverse-glass paintings, are painted on the back side of glass panels. Obviously, the paint layers are applied in reverse order, starting with the uppermost layer. The finished hinterglas painting is viewed through the glass, thus revealing an impressive gloss and depth of colour. The binding media of two precious objects of hinterglasmalerei from the 16th and 17th century have been identified as almost exclusively resinous. Identification was performed by a special optimised analysis procedure, which is discussed in this paper: solvent extracts are analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, both with and without derivatisation or hydrolysis. In an additional step, oxalic acid is added to the methanol extracts prior to injection. This attenuates the peaks of the non-acidic compounds, whereas the acids elute with good resolution. The non-acidic compounds are emphasised after injection of the underivatised extracts. This approach minimises compositional changes caused by the sample preparation and derivatisation steps. Chromatograms of aged samples with a very complex composition are simplified, which allows a more reliable and straightforward identification of significant markers for various materials. The binding media of the hinterglas objects were thus shown to consist of mixtures of different natural resins, larch turpentine, heat-treated Pinaceae resin or mastic. Typical compounds of dragon's blood, a natural red resin, were also detectable in red glazes by the applied analysis routine. Identification of the binding media provides valuable information that can be used in the development of an adequate conservation treatment.

  5. Composition of Façon de Venise glass from early 17th century London in comparison with luxury glass of the same age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagno, S.; De Raedt, I.; Jeffries, T.; Janssens, K.

    SEM-EDX and LA-ICP-MS analyses were performed on a set of early 17th century London glass fragments. The samples originate from two archaeological sites (Aldgate and Old Broad Street) where glass workshops were active in this period. The great majority of the samples are made of soda glass. Two distinct compositional groups are observed, each typical of one site of provenance. The samples originating from the Old Broad Street excavation feature a silica-soda-lime composition, with a moderate amount of potash. The samples from Aldgate are richer in potassium and feature higher amounts of trace elements such as Rb, Zr and Cu. The distinction between the two groups stems from different flux and silica sources used for glassmaking. A comparison with different European glass compositions of that time reveals no resemblance with genuine Venetian production, yet the composition of the Old Broad Street glass shows a close similarity to that of fragments produced `à la façon de Venise' in Antwerp at the end of the 16th century. This coincides with historical sources attesting the arrival of glassworkers from the Low Countries in England and suggests that a transfer of technology took place near the turn of the century.

  6. Quantification of the early small-scale fishery in the north-eastern Baltic Sea in the late 17th century.

    PubMed

    Verliin, Aare; Ojaveer, Henn; Kaju, Katre; Tammiksaar, Erki

    2013-01-01

    Historical perspectives on fisheries and related human behaviour provide valuable information on fishery resources and their exploitation, helping to more appropriately set management targets and determine relevant reference levels. In this study we analyse historical fisheries and fish trade at the north-eastern Baltic Sea coast in the late 17th century. Local consumption and export together amounted to the annual removal of about 200 tonnes of fish from the nearby sea and freshwater bodies. The fishery was very diverse and exploited altogether one cyclostome and 17 fish species with over 90% of the catch being consumed locally. The exported fish consisted almost entirely of high-valued species with Stockholm (Sweden) being the most important export destination. Due to rich political history and natural features of the region, we suggest that the documented evidence of this small-scale fishery should be considered as the first quantitative summary of exploitation of aquatic living resources in the region and can provide a background for future analyses.

  7. The Teaching of Russian Language and Literature in Europe = L'enseignement de la langue et de la litterature russes en Europe = Prepodavanie russkogo yaeyka i literatury v Europe. Proceedings of the AIMAV Seminar (17th, Brussels, Belgium, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankoff, Jean, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from the Proceedings of the 17th meeting of the AIMAV (Association internationale pour le developpement de la communication interculturelle) are collected in this volume. Conference papers appear either in English, in French, or in Russian. For purposes of this abstract, all titles below have been translated into English. The…

  8. The Shaping of the Lutheran Teaching Profession and Lutheran Families of Teachers in the 16th and 17th Centuries (Illustrated by the Example of the Trencín, Liptov and Orava Superintendency)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernát, Libor

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with changes in the status of teachers and the shaping of Lutheran families of teachers in the 16th and 17th centuries in the Trencín, Liptov and Orava districts of the superintendency. It describes the formation of the families and their background.

  9. AmeriFlux US-Wi8 Young hardwood clearcut (YHW)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Chen, Jiquan [Michigan State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi8 Young hardwood clearcut (YHW). Site Description - The Wisconsin Clearcut Young Hardwood site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the northeastern section of Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. The young hardwood clearcut site is one of ten sites that collectively represent the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. In 2001, northern hardwood stands of all ages occupied 45% of the region.

  10. In situ measurements of root exudation in three hardwood species in southern Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, D. A.; Brzostek, E. R.; Fisher, J. B.; Phillips, R.

    2012-12-01

    Root exudation - the release of soluble organic compounds to soil - has long been considered a black box in ecology owing to methodological difficulties associated with measuring this flux in situ. This knowledge gap is significant given recent findings that suggest exudate inputs are appreciable in magnitude (2-5% of net primary production) and are coupled to microbial activities, nutrient release and soil organic matter decomposition. We developed a novel experimental system for collecting exudates from intact roots of field-grown trees using cuvettes filled with sterile glass beads. We measured root exudation for three tree species in ~80 year old mixed hardwood forest in south central Indiana, USA in the summer of 2012. Exudation rates varied from 0 to 1413 ug C/g root/day, and differed by sampling date and among trees species. Overall, rates were greater in early relative to late July, and greater in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and white oak (Quercus alba) relative to tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). Across all species, exudation rates were correlated with root mass, indicating that greater allocation to roots likely increases the amount of C available to fuel soil microbial activity. Collectively, the results of this study should enable us to develop improved model parameterizations of the C costs associated with nutrient acquisition, an important feedback for predicting the role of vegetation in mediating climate change.

  11. Changes in hardwood forest understory plant communities in response to European earthworm invasions.

    PubMed

    Hale, Cindy M; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

    2006-07-01

    European earthworms are colonizing earthworm-free northern hardwood forests across North America. Leading edges of earthworm invasion provide an opportunity to investigate the response of understory plant communities to earthworm invasion and whether the species composition of the earthworm community influences that response. Four sugar maple-dominated forest sites with active earthworm invasions were identified in the Chippewa National Forest in north central Minnesota, USA. In each site, we established a 30 x 150 m sample grid that spanned a visible leading edge of earthworm invasion and sampled earthworm populations and understory vegetation over four years. Across leading edges of earthworm invasion, increasing total earthworm biomass was associated with decreasing diversity and abundance of herbaceous plants in two of four study sites, and the abundance and density of tree seedlings decreased in three of four study sites. Sample points with the most diverse earthworm species assemblage, independent of biomass, had the lowest plant diversity. Changes in understory plant community composition were most affected by increasing biomass of the earthworm species Lumbricus rubellus. Where L. rubellus was absent there was a diverse community of native herbaceous plants, but where L. rubellus biomass reached its maximum, the herbaceous-plant community was dominated by Carex pensylvanica and Arisaema triphyllum and, in some cases, was completely absent. Evidence from these forest sites suggests that earthworm invasion can lead to dramatic changes in the understory community and that the nature of these changes is influenced by the species composition of the invading earthworm community.

  12. Vegetation classification in southern pine mixed hardwood forests using airborne scanning laser point data.

    SciTech Connect

    McGaughey, Robert J.; Reutebuch, Stephen E.

    2012-10-15

    Forests of the southeastern United States are dominated by a relatively small number of conifer species. However, many of these forests also have a hardwood component composed of a wide variety of species that are found in all canopy positions. The presence or absence of hardwood species and their position in the canopy often dictates management activities such as thinning or prescribed burning. In addition, the characteristics of the under- and mid-story layers, often dominated by hardwood species, are key factors when assessing suitable habitat for threatened and endangered species such as the Red Cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW), making information describing the hardwood component important to forest managers. General classification of cover types using LIDAR data has been reported (Song et al. 2002, Brennan and Webster 2006) but most efforts focusing on the identification of individual species or species groups rely on some type of imagery to provide more complete spectral information for the study area. Brandtberg (2007) found that use of intensity data significantly improved LIDAR detection and classification of three leaf-off deciduous eastern species: oaks (Quercus spp.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of hardwood species present in the canopy using only the LIDAR point data and derived products. However, the presence of several hardwood species that retain their foliage through the winter months complicated our analyses. We present two classification approaches. The first identifies areas containing hardwood and softwood (conifer) species (H/S) and the second identifies vegetation with foliage absent or present (FA/FP) at the time of the LIDAR data acquisition. The classification results were used to develop predictor variables for forest inventory models. The ability to incorporate the proportion of hardwood and softwood was important to the

  13. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  14. PREFACE: 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP): Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Nesheva, Diana; Pecheva, Emilia; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2012-12-01

    We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The Chairman of the School was Professor Alexander G Petrov. Like prior events, the School took place in the beautiful Black Sea resort of Saints Constantine and Helena near Varna, going back to the refurbished facilities of the Panorama hotel. Participants from 17 different countries delivered 31 invited lecturers and 78 posters, contributing through three sessions of poster presentations. Papers submitted to the Proceedings were refereed according to the high standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series and the accepted papers illustrate the diversity and the high level of the contributions. Not least significant factor for the success of the 17 ISCMP was the social program, both the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and the variety of pleasant local restaurants and beaches. Visits to the Archaeological Museum (rich in valuable gold treasures of the ancient Thracian culture) and to the famous rock monastery Aladja were organized for the participants from the Varna Municipality. These Proceedings are published for the second time by the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are grateful to the Journal's staff for supporting this idea. The Committee decided that the next event will take place again in Saints Constantine and Helena, 1-5 September 2014. It will be entitled: Challenges of the Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials and Applications. Doriana Dimova-Malinovska, Diana Nesheva, Emilia Pecheva, Alexander G Petrov and Marina T Primatarowa Editors

  15. Social differences in oral health: Dental status of individuals buried in and around Trakai Church in Lithuania (16th-17th c.c.).

    PubMed

    Miliauskienė, Žydrūnė; Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of social differences in dental health is based on the assumption that individuals belonging to a higher social class consumed a different diet than a common people. The aim of our study was to analyse and compare dental health of 16(th) - 17(th) c. individuals, buried inside and around the Roman Catholic Church in Trakai (Lithuania). All material (189 adult individuals) was divided in two samples of a presumably different social status: the Churchyard (ordinary townsmen) and the Presbytery (elite). Dental status analysis included that of tooth loss, tooth wear, caries, abscesses and calculus. Results revealed higher prevalence of dental disease in the Churchyard sample compared to the Presbytery. Individuals buried around the church had statistically higher prevalence of caries, antemortem tooth loss and abscesses compared to those who were buried inside the church. The Churchyard sample was also characterised by a higher increase in severity of caries with age, and a more rapid tooth wear. Differences in dental health between the samples the most probably reflect different dietary habits of people from different social groups: poor quality carbohydrate based diet of laymen buried in the churchyard and more varied diet with proteins and of a better quality of local elite, buried inside the church. Substantial sex differences in dental health were found only in the Churchyard sample: males had statistically higher prevalence of abscesses and calculus, while females had higher prevalence of caries and AMTL (antemortem tooth loss). Females were also characterised by a higher increase in the number of dental decay and tooth loss with age and had higher prevalence of gross caries, which indicates a more rapid progression of the disease. Worse dental health of females could be a result of culturally based dietary differences between females (more carbohydrates) and males (more proteins) and different physiological demands (hormonal fluctuations and

  16. PREFACE: Papers from the 17th European Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (Constanta, Romania, 1 5 September 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciupina, V.; Musa, G.; Vladoiu, R.

    2005-05-01

    The 17th European Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG-17) was held in Constanta, Romania, on 1-5 September 2004. ESCAMPIG is an important biennial European conference at which useful exchanges of ideas and discussion of new achievements in low temperature plasma physics take place. The meeting was held in the ambient location of Constanta, Romania, which provided the perfect location to encourage interaction between the related research communities attending the conference. The local organizers, as well as the plasma scientists of Romania, were all very much honoured that Constanta was selected by the International Scientific Committee as the location for ESCAMPIG-17. The conference was the second largest plasma physics conference ever to take place in Romania, second only to the ICPIG conference of 1969 in Bucharest—a huge conference with four parallel sections and simultaneous translation in four languages (English, German, French and Russian) in all four parallel sections. In contrast, ESCAMPIG-17 maintained the founding ideals and held single sessions only to encourage and strengthen the relationships between research communities. During ESCAMPIG-17 we had the opportunity to attend and hear excellent invited lectures presenting outstanding new results in plasma physics. A selection of those invited lectures from ESCAMPIG-17 is published in this issue of Plasma Sources Science and Technology. We would like to take this opportunity to express our thanks to all the invited lecturers and also to all the participants who attended ESCAMPIG-17. The Local Organizing Committee would particularly like to thank all the International Scientific Committee members. Special thanks are due to Professor Gerrit Kroesen and Professor Nader Sadeghi for their valuable and continuous support in solving our problems, no matter how complicated they were.

  17. Stellar Occultations by Large TNOs on 2012: The February 3rd by (208996) 2003 AZ84, and the February 17th by (50000) Quaoar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga Ribas, Felipe; Sicardy, B.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Lecacheux, J.; Colas, F.; Vachier, F.; Tanga, P.; Sposetti, S.; Brosch, N.; Kaspi, S.; Manulis, I.; Baug, T.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Ganesh, S.; Jain, J.; Mohan, V.; Sharma, A.; Garcia-Lozano, R.; Klotz, A.; Frappa, E.; Jehin, E.; Assafin, M.; Vieira Martins, R.; Behrend, R.; Roques, F.; Widemann, T.; Morales, N.; Thirouin, A.; Mahasena, P.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Daassou, A.; Rinner, C.; Ofek, E. O.

    2012-10-01

    On February 2012, two stellar occultation's by large Trans-neptunian Objects (TNO's) were observed by our group. On the 3rd, an event by (208996) 2003 AZ84 was recorded from Mont Abu Observatory and IUCAA Girawali Observatory in India and from Weizmann Observatory in Israel. On the 17th, a stellar occultation by (50000) Quaoar was observed from south France and Switzerland. Both occultations are the second observed by our group for each object, and will be used to improve the results obtained on the previous events. The occultation by 2003 AZ84 is the first multi-chord event recorded for this object. From the single chord event on January 8th 2011, Braga-Ribas et al. 2011 obtained a lower limit of 573 +/- 21 km. From the 2012 occultation the longest chord has a size of 662 +/- 50 km. The other chords will permit to determine the size and shape of the TNO, and derive other physical parameters, such as the geometric albedo. The Quaoar occultation was observed from south of France (Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, TAROT telescope and Valensole) and from Gnosca, Switzerland. Unfortunately, all three sites in France are almost at the same Quaoar's latitude, so in practice, we have two chords that can be used to fit Quaoar's limb. The resulting fit will be compared with the results obtained by Braga-Ribas et al. 2011. Braga-Ribas F., Sicardy B., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS2011, 1060.Ribas F., Sicardy B., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS2011, 1060.

  18. Isolation of wood-inhabiting fungi from Canadian hardwood logs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dian-Qing

    2005-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting fungi include many molds, wood-staining fungi, and decay fungi. Most of these fungal species can result in economic losses to wood users. Studies on molds, staining fungi, and decay fungi are necessary to be able to control their growth on wood and wood products. In this study, wood-inhabiting fungi were isolated from logs of 3 major Canadian hardwood species: sugar maple, white birch, and yellow birch. Two media were used for isolation. From these 3 wood species, a total of 1198 fungal cultures were obtained from summer- and winter-harvested logs in dry storage and under water sprinkling. The results showed that most fungal species were not host specific and affected all of the wood species tested. Frequently isolated molds were Alternaria alternata, Trichoderma species, and Mucor/Rhizopus (Zygomycota) species, frequently isolated staining fungi were Ophiostoma piceae and Ophiostoma piliferum, a frequently isolated bark saprophyte was Nectria cinnabarina, and frequently isolated decay fungi were taxa of the phylum Basidiomycota. More fungal species were isolated from summer-harvested logs than from winter-harvested logs. Fewer fungal cultures, especially decay fungi, were isolated from logs in early storage than from logs in late storage.

  19. Biotechnology and genetic selection of fast-growing hardwoods

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Maynard, C.A. . Research Foundation)

    1989-07-01

    Hybrid poplar have been shown to be useful for a wide variety of products. Their fast growth and ease in maintaining desirable genetic character make hybrid poplar highly suited to intensive culture systems. This study was initiated to evaluate a genetic selection trail consisting of 54 hybrid poplar clones and to locate and sample eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) trees for obtainment of scion material to be included in a poplar germplasm archive for future breeding purposes. Because the basis of an effective and cost efficient fast-growing hardwood plantation program is a gene pool with a broad genetic base, the quality and diversity of the genetic resource are of prime concern to the long-term success of biotechnology, agroforestry programs. Additionally, tests of the captured gene pool in site-specific genetic selection and clone-site trials are the necessary successive steps to establish a viable woody crop biomass program. The current project sought to address both of these basic issues so as to improve management opportunities for short-rotation hybrid poplar energy plantations in New York State. Results of the studies showed that short rotation intensive culture hybrid poplar systems are feasible in New York State, and can be successfully used if proper site conditions exist and appropriate establishment and maintenance techniques are used.

  20. Reconstructing hydroclimatic variability of the Bermejo River (Subtropical Andes of Argentina-Bolivia) through Archival Documents - 17th to 20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rosario Prieto, M.; Cueto, C.

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use climatic history for contributing to the general objectives of the IAI -CRN II-047 Project. It will reconstruct, from archival documents, the hydroclimatic variability occurring in the high basin of the Bermejo River during the last centuries and its effects on the floods and swellings in the middle basin. The Río Bermejo in the Southern Andes, is a binational (Argentina-Bolivia) river that contributes the largest proportion of the sediment load to the La Plata basin. Its headwaters are in the Subtropical Andes, near Tarija, Bolivia (22?00'14"S, 64?57'38"W). The main headwater tributaries are the Río Grande de Tarija, in Bolivia and the Iruya and San Francisco Rivers in Argentina. When the river abandons the mountain and turns eastwards (Gran Chaco), it acquires the characteristics of typical lowland rivers, widens its course, and occupies a large, low sedimentary plain with vast floodland areas. Quite often during very high sediment discharge the main river avulses and changes its course, creating big alluvial plains that are occupied for many years. Administrative documents from the colonial and republican periods have provided useful information to reconstruct climate and hydrology of the region. Documents from the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Archivo Nacional de Bolivia and Archivo General de la Nación (Argentina) have been used to identify extreme floods and swellings in the high and middle-basin of the Rio Bermejo from the 17th century to the first decades of the 20th century. Old maps of the region, reports from annals, chronicles, priests' and travelers' descriptions were also used. Diaries written by the military, explorers and government officials in charge of discovering and taking possession of the territory also provide important sources of information. The archival documents show abrupt hydrological changes in response to the climatic fluctuations in the headwaters region. These records document

  1. MicroRNA-155 may be involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis by modulating the differentiation and function of T helper type 17 (Th17) cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, L; Xue, H-B; Wang, F; Shu, C-M; Zhang, J-H

    2015-07-01

    Our aims were to identify the differential expression of microRNA (miR)-155, as well as to explore the possible regulatory effects of miR-155 on the differentiation and function of T helper type 17 (Th17) cells in atopic dermatitis (AD). The Th17 cell percentage and expression levels of miR-155, retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR)γt, interleukin (IL)-17 and suppressor of cytokine signalling-1 (SOCS1) in peripheral CD4(+) T cells, plasma and skin specimens were detected and compared in AD patients and healthy subjects. A miR-155 mimic and an inhibitor were transfected separately into AD CD4(+) T cells to confirm the in-vivo data. The Th17 cell percentage, miR-155 expression, RORγt mRNA expression, IL-17 mRNA expression and plasma concentration were increased significantly in AD patients compared with healthy subjects. Conversely, SOCS1 mRNA expression and plasma concentration were decreased significantly. Similar results were detected in cultured CD4(+) T cells transfected with the miR-155 mimic compared with a miR-155 inhibitor or a negative control. Additionally, there was a sequential decrease in miR-155 expression, as well as RORγt and IL-17 mRNA expression, but an increase in SOCS1 mRNA expression, from AD lesional skin and perilesional skin to normal skin. Positive correlations were found between miR-155 expression and AD severity, Th17 cell percentage, RORγt mRNA expression and IL-17 mRNA expression and plasma concentration, while negative correlations were observed between miR-155 expression and SOCS1 mRNA expression and plasma concentration in AD peripheral circulation and skin lesions. In conclusion, miR-155 is over-expressed and may be involved in AD pathogenesis by modulating the differentiation and function of Th17 cells.

  2. Paleoclimate Reconstruction during the 17th to 18th Century Using Fossil Coral Tsunami Boulders from Ishigaki Island, the Ryukyus, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Seki, A.; Kawakubo, Y.; Araoka, D.; Suzuki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) to reconstruct paleo SST during LIA (Kawakubo et al., 2014). LA-HR-ICPMS enables us to measure the long coral core rapidly. Our result shows SST variation in 17th-18th century in this area and SST declined in around 1700. This result reveals the response of Little Ice Age in the northwestern Pacific.

  3. Synopsis of wetland functions and values: bottomland hardwoods with special emphasis on eastern Texas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkinson, D.L.; Schneller-McDonald, K.; Olson, R.W.; Auble, G.T.

    1987-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood wetlands are the natural cover type of many floodplain ecosystems in the southeastern United States. They are dynamic, productive systems that depend on intermittent flooding and moving water for maintenance of structure and function. Many of the diverse functions performed by bottomland hardwoods (e.g., flood control, sediment trapping, fish and wildlife habitat) are directly or indirectly valued by humans. Balanced decisions regarding bottomland hardwoods are often hindered by a limited ability to accurately specify the functions being performed by these systems and, furthermore, by an inability to evaluate these functions in economic terms. This report addresses these informational needs. It focuses on the bottomland hardwoods of eastern Texas and Oklahoma, serving as an introduction and entry to the literature. It is not intended to serve as a substitute for reference to the original literature. The first section of the report is a review of the major functions of bottomland hardwoods, grouped under the headings of hydrology, water quality, productivity, detritus, nutrients, and habitat. Although the hydrology of these areas is diverse and complex, especially with respect to groundwater, water storage at high flows can clearly function to attenuate peak flows, with possible reductions in downstream flooding damage. Water moving through a bottomland hardwood system carries with it various organic and inorganic constituents, including sediment, organic matter, nutrients, and pollutants. When waterborne materials are introduced to bottomland hardwoods (from river flooding or upland runoff), they may be retained, transformed, or transported. As a result, water quality may be significantly altered and improved. The fluctuating and flowing water regime of bottomland hardwoods is associated with generally high net primary productivity and rapid fluxes of organic matter and nutrients. These, in turn, support secondary productivity in the bottomland

  4. Hardwoods for Woody Energy Crops in the Southeast United States:Two Centuries of Practitioner Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Keith L; Coleman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes opinions from forest industry experts on the potential for hardwood tree species to serve as feedstock for bioenergy in the Southeast United States. Hardwoods are of interest for bioenergy because of desirable physical qualities, genetic research advances, and growth potential. Experts observe that high productivity rates in southeastern plantations are confined to limited site conditions or require costly inputs. Eastern cottonwood and American sycamore grow quickly on rich bottomlands where they compete with higher-value crops. These species are also prone to pests and disease. Sweetgum is frost hardy, has few pest or disease problems, and grows across a broad range of sites, yet growth rates are relatively low. Eucalypts require few inputs and offer high potential productivity, but are limited by frost to the lower coastal plain and Florida. More time and investment in silviculture, selection, and breeding will be needed to develop hardwoods as competitive biofuel feedstock species. Loblolly pine has robust site requirements, growth rates rivaling hardwoods and lower costs of production. Because of existing stands and know-how, the forestry community considers loblolly pine to be a prime candidate for plantation bioenergy in the Southeast. Further research is required to study naturally regenerated hardwood biomass resources.

  5. Environmental controls on sap flow in a northern hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Bovard, B D; Curtis, P S; Vogel, C S; Su, H-B; Schmid, H P

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to gain a detailed understanding of how photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), vapor pressure deficit (D) and soil water interact to control transpiration in the dominant canopy species of a mixed hardwood forest in northern Lower Michigan. An improved understanding of how these environmental factors affect whole-tree water use in unmanaged ecosystems is necessary in assessing the consequences of climate change on the terrestrial water cycle. We used continuously heated sap flow sensors to measure transpiration in mature trees of four species during two successive drought events. The measurements were scaled to the stand level for comparison with eddy covariance estimates of ecosystem water flux (Fw). Photosynthetically active radiation and D together explained 82% of the daytime hourly variation in plot-level transpiration, and low soil water content generally resulted in increased stomatal sensitivity to increasing D. There were also species-specific responses to drought. Quercus rubra L. showed low water use during both dry and wet conditions, and during periods of high D. Among the study species, Acer rubrum L. showed the greatest degree of stomatal closure in response to low soil water availability. Moderate increases in stomatal sensitivity to D during dry periods were observed in Populus grandidentata Michx. and Betula papyrifera Marsh. Sap flow scaled to the plot level and Fw demonstrated similar temporal patterns of water loss suggesting that the mechanisms controlling sap flow of an individual tree also control ecosystem evapotranspiration. However, the absolute magnitude of scaled sap flow estimates was consistently lower than Fw. We conclude that species-specific responses to PAR, D and soil water content are key elements to understanding current and future water fluxes in this ecosystem.

  6. Long Term Isoprene Flux Measurements Above a Northern Hardwood Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressley, S. N.; Lamb, B.; Westberg, H.; Hatten, G.; Flaherty, J.

    2002-12-01

    Canopy scale emissions of isoprene from a northern hardwood forest in Michigan were measured using the eddy covariance technique during the summer growing periods from 1999 through 2001. The goal of this work was to improve our understanding of isoprene emissions from forest ecosystems to better describe the role of isoprene in local and regional atmospheric chemical cycles. A second objective of this work was to contribute to the Program for Research on Oxidants: PHotochemistry, Emissions, and Transport (PROPHET) goal of characterizing the role of biogenic emissions in processing atmospheric nitrogen. Isoprene is one of the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere, and it is very reactive in the atmosphere. Long-term flux measurements are important for investigating the interannual variability in emissions due to interannual variability in climate. In addition, continuous flux data are useful for verifying canopy scale models that are used to generate emission inventories for regional photochemical models. Measurements were made in collaboration with the AmeriFlux site located at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) and the (PROPHET) site located within 100 m of the AmeriFlux Tower. The site is a 90-year old stand classified as mid-aged conifer and deciduous, with aspen and oak two of the dominant species. Fluxes of isoprene, CO2, H2O, and sensible heat were measured using a fast response isoprene sensor (FIS), an open-path infrared gas analyzer, and a 3-D sonic anemometer. Concurrent measurements of these canopy scale fluxes are useful for understanding the physiological controls on isoprene emissions and potential links between isoprene emissions and other forest ecosystem dynamics. The multi-year data set will be presented and year-to-year variations in isoprene emissions will be explored in the context of interannual variations among the other canopy scale parameters.

  7. [Spanish authors in the ideal library of G. Naudé (1627): a European view of the Spanish culture and science at the beginning of the 17th century].

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Evaristo álvarez

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyze a European view of the 17th century Spanish culture. Naudé's "Advis pour dresser une bibliothèque" (1627) - translated twice into English: "Instructions concerning erecting of a library" (1661) and "Advice on establishing a library" (1950) - represents a wide set of bibliographic recommendations that constitute, among many other things, an excellent observatory of the Spanish culture in such a delicate time.

  8. Electronic Transfer of Information and Its Impact on Aerospace and Defence Research and Development. Proceedings of the Technical Information Panel Specialists’ Meeting Held in Brussels, Belgium on 17th-19th October 1989 Abstracts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    INTRODUCTION 1 SUMMARIES OF PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS COMMENTS ON TECHNOLOGIES 13 RECOMMENDATIONS 15 p fl ton for DTIK TAs Ummnonn e a hJatirtca~io S...was heid from 17th- 19th October 1989 in Brussels, Belgium; and comments on the state of the art of the technologies presented, discusses their possible...introduction into scientific and technical organisations, and provides recommendations on the use of technologies with emphasis on the aerospace and

  9. Canopy gap dynamics of second-growth red spruce-northern hardwood stands in West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rentch, J.S.; Schuler, T.M.; Nowacki, G.J.; Beane, N.R.; Ford, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Forest restoration requires an understanding of the natural disturbance regime of the target community and estimates of the historic range of variability of ecosystem components (composition, structure, and disturbance processes). Management prescriptions that support specific restoration activities should be consistent with these parameters. In this study, we describe gap-phase dynamics of even-aged, second-growth red spruce-northern hardwood stands in West Virginia that have been significantly degraded following early Twentieth Century harvesting and wildfire. In the current stage of stand development, gaps tended to be small, with mean canopy gap and extended canopy gap sizes of 53.4m2 and 199.3m2, respectively, and a canopy turnover rate of 1.4%year-1. The majority of gaps resulted from the death of one or two trees. American beech snags were the most frequent gap maker, partially due to the elevated presence of beech-bark disease in the study area. Gaps ranged in age from 1 to 28 years, had a mean of 13 years, and were unimodal in distribution. We projected red spruce to be the eventual gap filler in approximately 40% of the gaps. However, we estimated that most average-sized gaps will close within 15-20 years before red spruce canopy ascension is projected (30-60 years). Accordingly, many understory red spruce will require more than one overhead release - an observation verified by the tree-ring record and consistent with red spruce life history characteristics. Based on our observations, silvicultural prescriptions that include overhead release treatments such as thinning from above or small gap creation through selection harvesting could be an appropriate activity to foster red spruce restoration in the central Appalachians. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Uneven-aged management of pine and pine-hardwood mixtures in the Ouachita mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, M.G.; Baker, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Ouachita National Forest and the Southern Forest Experiment Station launched a long-term research project in 1988 to study uneven-aged management of shortleaf pine and pine-hardwood mixtures in the Ouachita Mountains. The successful use of uneven-aged management in the southern pines has to date been limited to pure stands. However, the maintenance of a hardwood component is desirable to enhance biological diversity, wildlife habitat, and aesthetics. The study's goals are: (1) to determine the levels at which pine and hardwoods are biologically compatible in uneven-aged stands, and (2) to evaluate the timber, wildlife, water quality, aesthetics and biodiversity associated with each management alternative so that sound decisions concerning the tradeoffs among these resources can be determined.

  11. Use of the bottomland hardwoods subset of the wetland values data base

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auble, Gregor T.

    1987-01-01

    This report documents a bibliographic data base concerning functions and values of bottomland hardwoods and similarly vegetated areas. This data base is being provided for a limited time (until September 30, 1988) as a supplement to the publication entitled "Synopsis of Wetland Functions and Values: Bottomland Hardwoods with Special Emphasis on Eastern Texas and Oklahoma" (Wilkinson et al. 1987). The bottomland hardwoods data base is a subset of a larger bibliographic data base, Wetland Values, developed by the National Wetlands Inventory of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Stuber 1986). The focus of these bibliographic data bases is on functions and values of wetlands; few articles on structure (e.g., phytosociology) are included.

  12. R. R. Reynolds Research Natural Area in southeastern Arkansas: A 56-year case study in pine-hardwood overstory sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, M.D.; Shelton, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    The R. R. Reynolds Research Natural Area is a 32-ha pine-hardwood forest in southeastern Arkansas, U.S.A., that originated from diameter-limit cutting of the virgin forest before 1915. In 1935, these 32 ha were reserved from timber management. Between 1937 and 1993, eight inventories were taken of all living trees greater than 9-cm DBH, using 2.5-cm DBH classes within three species groups: Pinus spp., Quercus spp., and other hardwoods. In 1994, all standing dead snags of pines and hardwoods greater than 9-cm DBH were inventoried by 2.5-cm DBH classes. During 56 years, the overstory pine-hardwood ratio remained stable in terms of relative basal area, but pine density decreased with a commensurate increase in hardwood density. In 1993, pines represented 63% of basal area but only 23% of stem density.

  13. Revealing the molecular structural transformation of hardwood and softwood in dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Libing; Pu, Yunqiao; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; ...

    2016-10-03

    To understand better the intrinsic recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass, the main hurdle to its efficient deconstruction, the effects of dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment on the dissolution chemistry of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin for both hardwood (e.g., poplar wood) and softwood (e.g., lodgepole pine wood) were investigated at temperatures of 200 to 270 °C and a flow rate of 25 mL/min with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4. Results suggested that the softwood cellulose was more readily degraded into monomeric sugars than that of hardwood under same pretreatment conditions. However, while the hardwood lignin was completely removed into hydrolysate, ~30% of the softwood ligninmore » remained as solid residues under identical conditions, which was plausibly caused by vigorous C5-active recondensation reactions (C–C5). As a result, effects of molecular structural features (i.e., lignin molecular weight, cellulose crystallinity, and condensed lignin structures) on the recalcitrance of hardwood and softwood to dilute acid pretreatment were identified for the first time in this study, providing important insights to establish the effective biomass pretreatment.« less

  14. EVALUATION OF COMPONENTS FOR HARDWOOD SILVOPASTORES FOR COW-CALF OPERATORS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silvopasture systems consisting of bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) and pines (Pinus spp.) are common in the southeastern United States. However, some producers prefer other forages to bahiagrass and there are increasing opportunities for marketing hardwoods in the region. Warm season forages and hardw...

  15. Revealing the molecular structural transformation of hardwood and softwood in dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Libing; Pu, Yunqiao; Cort, John R.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yang, Bin

    2016-10-03

    To understand better the intrinsic recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass, the main hurdle to its efficient deconstruction, the effects of dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment on the dissolution chemistry of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin for both hardwood (e.g., poplar wood) and softwood (e.g., lodgepole pine wood) were investigated at temperatures of 200 to 270 °C and a flow rate of 25 mL/min with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4. Results suggested that the softwood cellulose was more readily degraded into monomeric sugars than that of hardwood under same pretreatment conditions. However, while the hardwood lignin was completely removed into hydrolysate, ~30% of the softwood lignin remained as solid residues under identical conditions, which was plausibly caused by vigorous C5-active recondensation reactions (C–C5). As a result, effects of molecular structural features (i.e., lignin molecular weight, cellulose crystallinity, and condensed lignin structures) on the recalcitrance of hardwood and softwood to dilute acid pretreatment were identified for the first time in this study, providing important insights to establish the effective biomass pretreatment.

  16. 77 FR 65172 - Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... two invoices for hardwood and decorative plywood sold by Chinese exporters, as identified in... NME countries, and from India, Indonesia, and the Republic of Korea, as the Department has previously... Chinese exporters/ producers will be used as the basis for selecting the mandatory respondents....

  17. 40 CFR 63.2264 - Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer. 63.2264 Section 63.2264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite...

  18. 40 CFR 63.2264 - Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer. 63.2264 Section 63.2264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite...

  19. 40 CFR 63.2264 - Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer. 63.2264 Section 63.2264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite Wood...

  20. Hardwood snag fragmentation in a pine-oak forest of southeastern Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    Because snags are importnat for forest wildlife as breeding, roosting and foraging sites, resource managers who wish to maintain this component in forest stands need to be aware of snag fragmentation rates. Measurements were taken in uneven-aged pine-hardwood standards in southeastern Arkansas to determine fragmentation rates for hardwood snags 2 to 6 yr after stem injection with herbicides. Crown and bole condition of snags were also assessed. Pinus eschinata Mill. and P. taeda L. were the dominant overstory components and were udisturbed. Quercus spp. accounted for 91% of hardwoods greater than 25 cm dbh. Since small diameter snags deteriorated first, snag diameter distributions changed from uneven-sized to even-sized structure as time since mortality increased. Within 3 yr of injection, 57% of snag boles had broken below crown height. Number of wildlife cavities per snag increased with time since mortality. At 6 yr after injection, 44% of residual snags had evidence of wildlife cavities. Less than 50% of hardwoods less then 25 cm dbh were still standing 5 yr after herbicide injection.

  1. Revealing the Molecular Structural Transformation of Hardwood and Softwood in Dilute Acid Flowthrough Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Libing; Pu, Yunqiao; Cort, John R.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yang, Bin

    2016-12-05

    To better understand the intrinsic recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass, the main hurdle to its efficient deconstruction, the effects of dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment on the dissolution chemistry of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin for both hardwood (e.g. poplar wood) and softwood (e.g. lodgepole pine wood) were investigated at temperatures of 200 °C to 270 °C and a flow rate of 25 mL/minute with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4. Results suggested that the softwood cellulose was more readily to be degraded into monomeric sugars than that of hardwood under same pretreatment conditions. However, while the hardwood lignin was completely removed into hydrolysate, ~30% of the softwood lignin remained as solid residues under identical conditions, which was plausibly caused by vigorous C5-active recondensation reactions (C-C5). Unique molecular structural features that pronounced the specific recalcitrance of hardwood and softwood to dilute acid pretreatment were identified for the first time in this study, providing important insights to establish the effective biomass pretreatment.

  2. 77 FR 66436 - Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ...- scraping or wire brushing. The face veneer may also be stained (i.e., to achieve a particular color... sanded, smoothed, scraped or stained. Hardwood and decorative plywood is generally manufactured to...., ``prefinishing''), scraping or staining (e.g., bent or molded plywood; bent or molded plywood is defined as...

  3. Archaeological Remains Accounting for the Presence and Exploitation of the North Atlantic Right Whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001–2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  4. Urban land for a growing city at the banks of a moving river: Vienna's spread into the Danube island Unterer Werd from the late 17th to the beginning of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Haidvogl, Gertrud; Guthyne-Horvath, Marianna; Gierlinger, Sylvia; Hohensinner, Severin; Sonnlechner, Christoph

    In the relation between urban development and the Viennese Danube different periods can be identified from the late 17th to the early 20th century. These periods were strongly intertwined with both the history of the river and the history of the city. Urban expansion into the floodplains is demonstrated in this paper by investigating the island Unterer Werd, next to the city centre. In the late 17th century the fluvial dynamic still hampered urban development on the island. First measures to stabilise the river banks and to protect buildings from floods were taken soon thereafter, but the majority of practices aimed at mitigating the risks and impacts of the frequent floods: inundation was a part of the arrangement and the main target was to minimise the potential impacts. This practice also prevailed after the 1830s, when urban expansion began to move into the north and northwest of the island and the Danube floodplains were considered an important land resource for the growing city. In connection with new technologies and available means to channelise the river, the relationship between Vienna and the Danube changed fundamentally. Urban development in the riverine landscape gained new momentum. This process was initiated before the Great Danube Regulation from 1870 to 1875 was completed, the rate of growth accelerated after 1875. The last decades of the 19th century mark a turning point in the urban development of Vienna, with expanding urban areas becoming dependent upon a well functioning and maintained flood protection system.

  5. Archaeological remains accounting for the presence and exploitation of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001-2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century.

  6. ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS DISTRIBUTION OF US EASTERN HARDWOOD FORESTS AND THE USE OF LARGE TREES AS AN INDICATOR OF FOREST DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past clearing and harvesting of the deciduous hardwood forests of eastern USA released large amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, but through recovery and regrowth these forests are now accumulating atmospheric carbon (C). This study examined quantities and distribution ...

  7. Observations of reactive nitrogen oxide fluxes by eddy covariance above two midlatitude North American mixed hardwood forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, J. A.; Murphy, J. G.

    2014-03-01

    Significant knowledge gaps persist in the understanding of forest-atmosphere exchange of reactive nitrogen oxides, partly due to a lack of direct observations. Chemical transport models require representations of dry deposition over a variety of land surface types, and the role of canopy exchange of NOx (= NO + NO2) is highly uncertain. Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of NOx and NOy (= NOx + HNO3 + PANs + RONO2 + pNO3- + ...) was measured by eddy covariance above a mixed hardwood forest in central Ontario (Haliburton Forest and Wildlife Reserve, or HFWR), and a mixed hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan (Program for Research on Oxidants: Photochemistry, Emissions and Transport, or PROPHET) during the summers of 2011 and 2012 respectively. NOx and NOy mixing ratios were measured by a custom-built two-channel analyser based on chemiluminescence, with selective NO2 conversion via LED photolysis and NOy conversion via a hot molybdenum converter. Consideration of interferences from water vapour and O3, and random uncertainty of the calculated fluxes are discussed. NOy flux observations were predominantly of deposition at both locations. In general, the magnitude of deposition scaled with NOy mixing ratios. Average midday (12:00-16:00) deposition velocities at HFWR and PROPHET were 0.20 ± 0.25 and 0.67 ± 1.24 cm s-1 respectively. Average nighttime (00:00-04:00) deposition velocities were 0.09 ± 0.25 cm s-1 and 0.08 ± 0.16 cm s-1 respectively. At HFWR, a period of highly polluted conditions (NOy concentrations up to 18 ppb) showed distinctly different flux characteristics than the rest of the campaign. Integrated daily average NOy flux was -0.14 mg (N) m-2 day-1 and -0.34 mg (N) m-2 day-1 (net deposition) at HFWR and PROPHET respectively. Concurrent wet deposition measurements were used to estimate the contributions of dry deposition to total reactive nitrogen oxide inputs, found to be 22 and 40% at HFWR and PROPHET respectively.

  8. Fine roots are the dominant source of recalcitrant plant litter in sugar maple-dominated northern hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mengxue; Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S

    2015-11-01

    Most studies of forest litter dynamics examine the biochemical characteristics and decomposition of leaf litter, but fine roots are also a large source of litter in forests. We quantified the concentrations of eight biochemical fractions and nitrogen (N) in leaf litter and fine roots at four sugar maple (Acer saccharum)-dominated hardwood forests in the north-central United States. We combined these results with litter production data to estimate ecosystem biochemical fluxes to soil. We also compared how leaf litter and fine root biochemistry responded to long-term simulated N deposition. Compared with leaf litter, fine roots contained 2.9-fold higher acid-insoluble fraction (AIF) and 2.3-fold more condensed tannins; both are relatively difficult to decompose. Comparatively, leaf litter had greater quantities of more labile components: nonstructural carbohydrates, cellulose and soluble phenolics. At an ecosystem scale, fine roots contributed over two-thirds of the fluxes of AIF and condensed tannins to soil. Fine root biochemistry was also less responsive than leaf litter to long-term simulated N deposition. Fine roots were the dominant source of difficult-to-decompose plant carbon fractions entering the soil at our four study sites. Based on our synthesis of the literature, this pattern appears to be widespread in boreal and temperate forests.

  9. Proceedings of the workshop on Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia and Cortical Connections Unmasked in Health and Disorder held in Brno, Czech Republic, October 17th, 2013.

    PubMed

    Bareš, Martin; Apps, Richard; Kikinis, Zora; Timmann, Dagmar; Oz, Gulin; Ashe, James J; Loft, Michaela; Koutsikou, Stella; Cerminara, Nadia; Bushara, Khalaf O; Kašpárek, Tomáš

    2015-04-01

    The proceedings of the workshop synthesize the experimental, preclinical, and clinical data suggesting that the cerebellum, basal ganglia (BG), and their connections play an important role in pathophysiology of various movement disorders (like Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonian syndromes) or neurodevelopmental disorders (like autism). The contributions from individual distinguished speakers cover the neuroanatomical research of complex networks, neuroimaging data showing that the cerebellum and BG are connected to a wide range of other central nervous system structures involved in movement control. Especially, the cerebellum plays a more complex role in how the brain functions than previously thought.

  10. Ecology of bottomland hardwood swamps of the southeast: a community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, C.H.; Kitchens, W.M.; Pendleton, E.C.; Sipe, T.W.

    1982-03-01

    This report synthesizes extant literature detailing the ecology of bottomland hardwood swamps in the Southeast. The geographic scope focuses the report to the hardwoods occupying the floodplains of the rivers whose drainages originate in the Appalachian Mountains/Piedmont and Coastal Plain (NC, SC, GA, and FL). The origin and dynamics of the floodplains are described and related to hydrology and physiographic provinces. Further, the biogeochemistry and interactions between the riverine and floodplain environments are discussed in conjunction with floodplain biology. Plant and animal community structure and ecological processes (productivity) are detailed and organized by ecological zones. The final chapter discusses the ecological value of the floodplain ecosystems and the nature of their relationships to adjacent uplands, downstream coastal estuaries and the atmosphere.

  11. Bottomland hardwood restoration in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: Looking past the trees to see the forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, R.R.; Oliver, J.M.; Twedt, D.J.; Uihlein, W.B.; Fredrickson, L.H.; King, S.L.; Kaminski, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Planned restoration of bottomland hardwoods is important to adequately address negative consequences resulting from the severe loss and fragmentation of forested wetlands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Reforestation efforts have been promoted through government initiatives of state and federal agencies (e.g. Wetland Reserve Program) and private conservation groups. To clarify discussions of forested wetland restoration, we offer definitions of reforestation and restoration, review historic reforestation practices, identify additional needs, and propose a conceptual framework to assist in future reforestation efforts. Future reforestation efforts should include: (1) comprehensive planning among participating agencies, (2) standardized documentation of methods, and (3) short-term and long-term monitoring protocols that permit refinement of methodologies. Implementation of these concepts will promote cooperative planning among participants and facilitate research to evaluate bottomland hardwood restoration efforts.

  12. Sorption of lead by Salisbury biochar produced from British broadleaf hardwood.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhengtao; Jin, Fei; Wang, Fei; McMillan, Oliver; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the physicochemical properties of Salisbury biochar produced from British broadleaf hardwood and its adsorption characteristics towards lead were investigated. The biochar particle size has a significant effect on its BET surface area, cation exchange capacity and sorption of lead. The kinetics data were well fitted by the Pseudo second order model. The increase of biochar dosage increased the percentage of lead removal in solutions. The increase of initial solution pH increased the percentage of lead removal across the pH range of 2-10. The calculated maximum adsorption capacities of lead by Langmuir model were 47.66 and 30.04 mg/g for 0.15 mm and 2 mm samples. The adsorption capacities of different metals decreased in the order of lead > nickel > copper > zinc calculated in mmol/g. This study suggests a great potential of biochars derived from British broadleaf hardwood to be applied in soil remediation.

  13. Altered hydrologic and geomorphic processes and bottomland hardwood plant communities of the lower White River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Edwards, Brandon L.; Kroschel, Whitney A.; Johnson, Erin L.; Cochran, J. Wesley

    2016-09-12

    Determine stand establishment patterns of bottomland hardwoods within selected plant communities along three sections of the floodplain. This study provides baseline information on the current geomorphic and hydrologic conditions of the river and can assist in the interpretation of forest responses to past hydrologic and geomorphic processes. Understanding the implications for floodplain forests of geomorphic adjustment in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley is key to managing the region’s valuable resources for a sustainable future.

  14. Fine root dynamics and forest production across a calcium gradient in northern hardwood and conifer ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, B.B.; Yanai, R.D.; Fahey, T.J.; Bailey, S.W.; Siccama, T.G.; Shanley, J.B.; Cleavitt, N.L.

    2008-01-01

    Losses of soil base cations due to acid rain have been implicated in declines of red spruce and sugar maple in the northeastern USA. We studied fine root and aboveground biomass and production in five northern hardwood and three conifer stands differing in soil Ca status at Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; and Cone Pond, NH. Neither aboveground biomass and production nor belowground biomass were related to soil Ca or Ca:Al ratios across this gradient. Hardwood stands had 37% higher aboveground biomass (P = 0.03) and 44% higher leaf litter production (P < 0.01) than the conifer stands, on average. Fine root biomass (<2 mm in diameter) in the upper 35 cm of the soil, including the forest floor, was very similar in hardwoods and conifers (5.92 and 5.93 Mg ha-1). The turnover coefficient (TC) of fine roots smaller than 1 mm ranged from 0.62 to 1.86 y-1 and increased significantly with soil exchangeable Ca (P = 0.03). As a result, calculated fine root production was clearly higher in sites with higher soil Ca (P = 0.02). Fine root production (biomass times turnover) ranged from 1.2 to 3.7 Mg ha-1 y-1 for hardwood stands and from 0.9 to 2.3 Mg ha-1 y -1 for conifer stands. The relationship we observed between soil Ca availability and root production suggests that cation depletion might lead to reduced carbon allocation to roots in these ecosystems. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  15. Biodegradation of hardwood lignocellulosics by the western poplar clearwing borer, Paranthrene robiniae (Hy. Edwards).

    PubMed

    Ke, Jing; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti Dey; Chen, Shulin

    2011-05-09

    Lignin in plant cell wall is a source of useful chemicals and also the major barrier for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass for producing biofuel and bioproducts. Enzymatic lignin degradation/modification process could bypass the need for chemical pretreatment and thereby facilitate bioprocess consolidation. Herein, we reveal our new discovery in elucidating the process of hardwood lignin modification/degradation by clearwing borer, Paranthrene robiniae . The wood-boring clearwing borer, P. robiniae , effectively tunnels hardwood structures during the larval stage; its digestion products from wood components, however, has not yet been investigated. A series of analysis conducted in this study on tunnel walls and frass produced provided evidence of structural alterations and lignin degradation during such hardwood digestion process. The analysis included solid state (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis; the results strongly suggest that the structural alteration of lignin primarily involved a preferential degradation of syringyl units accompanied by oxidation on the side chains of lignin guaiacyl moieties. This study also further indicated that unlike the wood-feeding termite the clearwing borer does not target cellulose as an energy source, and thus its lignin degradation ability should provide potential information on how to disassemble and utilize hardwood lignin. Overall, this biological model with an efficient lignin disruption system will provide the new insight into novel enzyme system required for effective plant cell wall disintegration for enhanced cellulose accessibility by enzymes and production of value-added lignin derived products.

  16. Western hardwoods: Value-added research and demonstration program. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.; von Segen, W.; Willits, S.

    1995-09-01

    Research results from the value-added research and demonstration program for western hardwoods are summarized in this report. The intent of the program was to enhance the economy of the Pacific Northwest by helping local communities and forest industries produce wood products more efficiently. Emphasis was given to value-added products and barriers to increased utilization. The program was coordinated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station, the Pacific Northwest region of State and Private Forestry, and the Forest Products Laboratory.

  17. Predicting crown weight and bole volume of five western hardwoods. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, J.A.K.; Little, S.N.

    1983-03-01

    Regression equations are presented for estimating biomass of five western hardwoods: red alder (Alnus rubra), giant chinkapin (Castanopsis chrysophylla), big leaf maple (Acer macrophyllum), Pacific madrone (Arbutus memziesii), and tan oak (Lithocarpus densiflorus). Estimators are given for total crown biomass, cumulative proportions for separating crown weight into foliage and four timelag fuel diameter classes, bark weight, and bole volume (inside bark) to any specified top diameter. With one exception, the equation uses diameter at breast height as the only independent variable.

  18. Computer Vision System For Locating And Identifying Defects In Hardwood Lumber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conners, Richard W.; Ng, Chong T.; Cho, Tai-Hoon; McMillin, Charles W.

    1989-03-01

    This paper describes research aimed at developing an automatic cutup system for use in the rough mills of the hardwood furniture and fixture industry. In particular, this paper describes attempts to create the vision system that will power this automatic cutup system. There are a number of factors that make the development of such a vision system a challenge. First there is the innate variability of the wood material itself. No two species look exactly the same, in fact, they can have a significant visual difference in appearance among species. Yet a truly robust vision system must be able to handle a variety of such species, preferably with no operator intervention required when changing from one species to another. Secondly, there is a good deal of variability in the definition of what constitutes a removable defect. The hardwood furniture and fixture industry is diverse in the nature of the products that it makes. The products range from hardwood flooring to fancy hardwood furniture, from simple mill work to kitchen cabinets. Thus depending on the manufacturer, the product, and the quality of the product the nature of what constitutes a removable defect can and does vary. The vision system must be such that it can be tailored to meet each of these unique needs, preferably without any additional program modifications. This paper will describe the vision system that has been developed. It will assess the current system capabilities, and it will discuss the directions for future research. It will be argued that artificial intelligence methods provide a natural mechanism for attacking this computer vision application.

  19. Hardwood re-sprout control in hydrologically restored Carolina Bay depression wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Lee, Justin

    2009-06-01

    Carolina bays are isolated depression wetlands located in the upper coastal plain region of the eastern Unites States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches as a result of agricultural conversion. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna species. Previous bay restoration projects have identified woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. Three bays were hydrologically restored on the Savannah River Site, SC, by plugging drainage ditches. Residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays were harvested and the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change was monitored. A foliar herbicide approved for use in wetlands (Habitat® (Isopropylamine salt of Imazapyr)) was applied on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acer rubrum L.), sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), and water oak (Quercus nigra L.) sprouting. The effectiveness of the foliar herbicide was tested across a hydrologic gradient in an effort to better understand the relationship between depth and duration of flooding, the intensity of hardwood re-sprout pressure, and the need for hardwood management practices such as herbicide application.

  20. Nocturnal insect availability in bottomland hardwood forests managed for wildlife in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loraine Ketzler,; Christopher Comer,; Twedt, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Silviculture used to alter forest structure and thereby enhance wildlife habitat has been advocated for bottomland hardwood forest management on public conservation lands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Although some songbirds respond positively to these management actions to attain desired forest conditions for wildlife, the response of other species, is largely unknown. Nocturnal insects are a primary prey base for bats, thereby influencing trophic interactions within hardwood forests. To better understand how silviculture influences insect availability for bats, we conducted vegetation surveys and sampled insect biomass within silviculturally treated bottomland hardwood forest stands. We used passive blacklight traps to capture nocturnal flying insects in 64 treated and 64 untreated reference stands, located on 15 public conservation areas in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Dead wood and silvicultural treatments were positively associated with greater biomass of macro-Lepidoptera, macro-Coleoptera, and all insect taxa combined. Biomass of micro-Lepidoptera was negatively associated with silvicultural treatment but comprised only a small proportion of total biomass. Understanding the response of nocturnal insects to wildlife-forestry silviculture provides insight for prescribed silvicultural management affecting bat species.

  1. Herpetofaunal Response to Gap and Skidder-Rut Wetland Creation in a Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Cromer R.B.; Lanham J.D.; Hanlin H.H.

    2002-05-01

    Herpetofaunal Response to Gap and Skidder-Rut Wetland Creation in a Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forest. Cromer R.B., J.D.Lanham, and H.H. Hanlin.Forest Science, 1 May 2002, vol. 48, iss. 2, pp. 407-413(7) We compared herpetofaunal communities in recently harvested gaps, skidder trails, and unharvested depressional wetlands to assess the effects of group-selection harvesting and skidder traffic on reptiles and amphibians in a southern bottomland hardwood forest. From January 1, 1997 to December 31, 1998 we captured 24,292 individuals representing 55 species of reptiles and amphibians at the Savannah River Site in Barnwell County, South Carolina. Forty-two species (n = 6,702 individuals) were captured in gaps, 43 species (n = 8,863 individuals) were captured along skid trails between gaps and 43 species (n = 8,727 individuals) were captured in bottomland depressions over the 2 yr period. Three vegetation variables and six environmental variables were correlated with herpetofaunal abundance. Salamander abundance, especially for species in the genus Ambystoma, was negatively associated with areas with less canopy cover and pronounced rutting (i.e., gaps and skidder trails). Alternatively, treefrog (Hylidae) abundance was positively associated with gap creation. Results from this study suggest that group selection harvests and skidder rutting may alter the herpetofaunal species composition in southern bottomland hardwoods by increasing habitat suitability for some species while diminishing it for others.

  2. Novel process for the coproduction of xylo-oligosaccharides, fermentable sugars, and lignosulfonates from hardwood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Caoxing; Jeuck, Ben; Du, Jing; Yong, Qiang; Chang, Hou-Min; Jameel, Hasan; Phillips, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Many biorefineries have not been commercialized due to poor economic returns from final products. In this work, a novel process has been developed to coproduce valuable sugars, xylo-oligosaccharides, and lignosulfonates from hardwood. The modified process includes a mild autohydrolysis pretreatment, which enables for the recovery of the xylo-oligosaccharides in auto-hydrolysate. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, the residue is sulfomethylated to produce lignosulfonates. Recycling the sulfomethylation residues increased both the glucan recovery and lignosulfonate production. The glucose recovery was increased from 81.7% to 87.9%. Steady state simulation using 100g of hardwood produced 46.7g sugars, 5.9g xylo-oligosaccharides, and 25.7g lignosulfonates, which were significantly higher than that produced from the no-recycling process with 39.1g sugars, 5.9g xylo-oligosaccharides, and 15.0g lignosulfonates. The results indicate that this novel biorefinery process can improve the production of fermentable sugars and lignosulfonate from hardwood as compared to a conventional biorefinery process.

  3. Hardwood energy crops and wildlife diversity: Investigating potential benefits for breeding birds and small mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, A.; Tolbert, V.R.

    1996-08-01

    Hardwood energy crops have the potential to provide a profit to growers as well as environmental benefits (for water quality, soil stabilization, chemical runoff, and wildlife habitat). Environmental considerations are important for both sustainable development of bioenergy technologies on agricultural lands, and for public support. The Environmental Task of the US DOE`s Biofuels feedstock Development Program (BFDP) is working with industry, universities and others to determine how to plant, manage and harvest these crops to maximize environmental advantages and minimize impacts while economically meeting production needs. One research objective is to define and improve wildlife habitat value of these energy crops by exploring how breeding birds and small mammals use them. The authors have found increased diversity of birds in tree plantings compared to row crops. However, fewer bird and small mammal species use the tree plantings than use natural forest. Bird species composition on hardwood crops studied to date is a mixture of openland and forest bird species. Restricted research site availability to date has limited research to small acreage sites of several years of age, or to a few larger acreage but young (1--2 year) plantings. Through industry collaboration, research began this season on bird use of diverse hardwood plantings (different ages, acreages, tree species) in the southeast. Together with results of previous studies, this research will help define practical energy crop guidelines to integrate native wildlife benefits with productive energy crops.

  4. Changes in faunal and vegetation communities along a soil calcium gradient in northern hardwood forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beier, Colin M.; Woods, Anne M.; Hotopp, Kenneth P.; Gibbs, James P.; Mitchell, Myron J.; Dovciak, Martin; Leopold, Donald J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Page, Blair D.

    2012-01-01

    Depletion of Ca from forest soils due to acidic deposition has had potentially pervasive effects on forest communities, but these impacts remain largely unknown. Because snails, salamanders, and plants play essential roles in the Ca cycle of northern hardwood forests, we hypothesized that their community diversity, abundance, and structure would vary with differences in biotic Ca availability. To test this hypothesis, we sampled 12 upland hardwood forests representing a soil Ca gradient in the Adirondack Mountains, New York (USA), where chronic deposition has resulted in acidified soils but where areas of well-buffered soils remain Ca rich due to parent materials. Along the gradient of increasing soil [Ca2+], we observed increasing trends in snail community richness and abundance, live biomass of redback salamanders (Plethodon cinereus (Green, 1818)), and canopy tree basal area. Salamander communities were dominated by mountain dusky salamanders (Desmognathus ochrophaeus Cope, 1859) at Ca-poor sites and changed continuously along the Ca gradient to become dominated by redback salamanders at the Ca-rich sites. Several known calciphilic species of snails and plants were found only at the highest-Ca sites. Our results indicated that Ca availability, which is shaped by geology and acidic deposition inputs, influences northern hardwood forest ecosystems at multiple trophic levels, although the underlying mechanisms require further study.

  5. Tick-borne encephalitis as a notifiable disease--Status quo and the way forward. Report of the 17th annual meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE).

    PubMed

    Kunze, Ursula

    2015-07-01

    The 17th meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE), a group of neurologists, general practicioners, clinicians, travel physicians, virologists, pediatricians, and epidemiologists, was held under the title "Tick-borne encephalitis as a notifiable disease--status quo and the way forward". The conference agenda was divided into three parts on the first day: "Epidemiology & Risk areas", "Poster Walk: Epidemiological Update in Europe", and "News in TBE Research". On the second day, a World Café Working Session took place where the participants could choose three tables out of six to join for discussion. Key topics on current epidemiological developments and investigations, risk areas, cases, travel and mobility, TBE in children, vaccination rates, and latest news on vaccination were presented and extensively discussed.

  6. Breakthrough cancer medicine and its impact on novel drug development in China: report of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) and Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) Joint Session at the 17th CSCO Annual Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Feng Roger; Ding, Jian; Chen, Helen X.; Liu, Hao; Fung, Man-Cheong; Koehler, Maria; Armand, Jean Pierre; Jiang, Lei; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Ge; Xu, Li; Qian, Pascal; Yan, Li

    2014-01-01

    The US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) teamed up with Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) to host a joint session at the17th CSCO Annual Meeting on September 20th, 2014 in Xiamen, China. With a focus on breakthrough cancer medicines, the session featured innovative approaches to evaluate breakthrough agents and established a platform to interactively share successful experiences from case studies of 6 novel agents from both the United States and China. The goal of the session is to inspire scientific and practical considerations for clinical trial design and strategy to expedite cancer drug development in China. A panel discussion further provided in-depth advice on advancing both early and full development of novel cancer medicines in China. PMID:25418191

  7. [Oral health on the public agenda: an analysis of Municipal Health Council records in cities from the 17th Regional Health Division in the State of Paraná, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Alves-Souza, Rosani Aparecida; Saliba, Orlando

    2003-01-01

    The present study analyzes interventions pertaining to oral health recorded in the minutes of meetings held by 15 Municipal Health Councils in cities from the 17th Regional Health Division of the State of Paraná, Brazil. Document analysis was performed by identifying health themes, emphasizing categorization of issues related to interventions in oral health. The most frequently analyzed themes were records concerning the programming and organization of oral health services, followed by health budget issues. In 90 of the 591 minutes studied, 134 records pertaining to oral health interventions were identified. An analysis of the latter showed that oral health interventions involve reports of actions already implemented and lack the characteristics of proposals when analyzed from the health planning perspective. This study highlights the need for dentists to expand their representation in such forums in order to play a broader role in the planning process and support oral health as a basic citizen's right.

  8. Las Alpujarras region (South East Spain) HLA genes study: evidence of a probable success of 17th century repopulation from North Spain.

    PubMed

    Longás, Javier; Martínez-Laso, Jorge; Rey, Diego; Areces, Cristina; Casado, Eduardo Gómez; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Luna, Francisco; de Salamanca, Mercedes Enriquez; Moral, Pedro; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Conquest of Granada Muslim Kingdom (1492 AD) finished with Muslim occupation; they were mostly North African Berbers who had reached Iberia by 711 AD. A politics of Iberian Christianization followed after this date: Jewish were expelled in 1492 and Moriscos (Spaniards practicing Muslim religion or speaking Arab) were expelled from all Spanish territory on 1609 AD. Las Alpujarras is a southern Spain mountainous secluded region, which underwent a repopulation from North Spain and a specific Muslim (Moriscos)-Christian war took place according to historical records. Both Las Alpujarras repopulation by northern Iberians and Moriscos expulsion success have been debated and are regarded as non-clarified episodes. In this study, we have addressed the question whether the repopulation succeeded by determining HLA genes of present day Las Alpujarras inhabitants and compared with those of other Mediterranean populations HLA frequencies and genealogies. HLA frequencies show ambiguous results because of extant HLA similar gene frequencies there exist in North Africa and Spain. This is reflected by the finding of North and South western Mediterraneans close relatedness of HLA dendrograms and correspondence analyses. However, the genealogical study of extended HLA haplotypes particularly Alpujarran high frequency of HLA-A29-B44-DRB1*0701-DQA1*02-DQB1*02 (not found in Algerians but frequent in North and Central Spain) and Alpujarran low frequency extended haplotype HLA-A3-B7-DRB1*1501-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602 (frequent in North Europe) reveals that a significant HLA gene flow from North Spain is observed in present day Alpujarrans: both haplotypes are characteristic of North Spain and North Europe, respectively. This may indicate that enforced Alpujarran repopulation from North Spain may have been a success, which was started by Spanish King Philip II in 1571 AD.

  9. Effects of wildlife forestry on abundance of breeding birds in bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norris, Jennifer L.; Chamberlain, Michael J.; Twedt, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of silvicultural activities on birds are of increasing interest because of documented national declines in breeding bird populations for some species and the potential that these declines are in part due to changes in forest habitat. Silviculturally induced disturbances have been advocated as a means to achieve suitable forest conditions for priority wildlife species in bottomland hardwood forests. We evaluated how silvicultural activities on conservation lands in bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana, USA, influenced species-specific densities of breeding birds. Our data were from independent studies, which used standardized point-count surveys for breeding birds in 124 bottomland hardwood forest stands on 12 management areas. We used Program DISTANCE 5.0, Release 2.0 (Thomas et al. 2006) to estimate density for 43 species with > 50 detections. For 36 of those species we compared density estimates among harvest regimes (individual selection, group selection, extensive harvest, and no harvest). We observed 10 species with similar densities in those harvest regimes compared with densities in stands not harvested. However, we observed 10 species that were negatively impacted by harvest with greater densities in stands not harvested, 9 species with greater densities in individual selection stands, 4 species with greater densities in group selection stands, and 4 species with greater densities in stands receiving an extensive harvest (e.g., > 40% canopy removal). Differences in intensity of harvest influenced densities of breeding birds. Moreover, community-wide avian conservation values of stands subjected to individual and group selection, and stands not harvested, were similar to each other and greater than that of stands subjected to extensive harvest that removed > 40% canopy cover. These results have implications for managers estimating breeding bird populations, in addition to predicting changes in bird communities as a result of prescribed and future

  10. Foraging behavior of three passerines in mature bottomland hardwood forests during summer.

    SciTech Connect

    Buffington, J., Matthew; Kilgo, John, C.; Sargent, Robert, A.; Miller, Karl, V.; Chapman, Brian, R.

    2001-08-01

    Attention has focused on forest management practices and the interactions between birds and their habitat, as a result of apparent declines in populations of many forest birds. Although avian diversity and abundance have been studied in various forest habitats, avian foraging behavior is less well known. Although there are published descriptions of avian foraging behaviors in the western United States descriptions from the southeastern United States are less common. This article reports on the foraging behavior of the White-eyed Vireo, Northern Parula, and Hooded Warbler in mature bottomland hardwood forests in South Carolina.

  11. Influences of Herbivory and Canopy Opening Size on Forest Regeneration in a Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Castleberry, S.B.; Ford, W.M.; Miller, K.V.; Smith, W.P.

    1999-07-06

    Examination of the effects on white-tail deer browsing and canopy opening size on relative abundance and diversity of woody and herbaceous regeneration in various sized forest openings in a Southern bottomland hardwood forest over three growing seasons (1995-1997). Herbaceous richness, diversity or evenness did not differ among exclosure types in any year of the study. Overall browsing rates on both woody and herbaceous vegetation were low throughout all the three years of the study. Low browsing rates reflect seasonal changes in habitat use by deer. Other factors may have influenced the initial vegetative response more than herbivory or gap size.

  12. The 17th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings of the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft tether, magnetic bearing suspension, explosive welding, and a deployable/retractable mast are also described.

  13. Electronics Manufacturing Seminar Proceedings. 17th Annual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    California Solderability Study of Sn/Pb Alloy After Artificial Aging by Electrochemical Reduction Analysis and Wetting Balance Tests...that Sn/Pb Nplating will be suitable, since not all solder alloys can be electroplated in this fashion. OPTIPAD*: A temporary polymer mold is used to...deposited metal alloy depends on the type of solder which is used in the OPTIPAD solder coating machine, and can be changed according to the requirements of

  14. Section 619 Profile. 17th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazara, Alex; Danaher, Joan; Kraus, Robert; Goode, Sue; Hipps, Cherie; Festa, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    With the passage of P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, now the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), and subsequent amendments, states and jurisdictions have made great strides in the provision of services to young children, ages 3 through 5 years, with disabilities. As of Fall 2007, America's…

  15. 17th International Microgravity Measurements Group Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Seventeenth International Microgravity Measurements Group (MGMG) meeting was held 24-26 March 1998 at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. This meeting focused on the transition of microgravity science research from the Shuttle, Mir, and free flyers to the International Space Station. The MGMG series of meetings are conducted by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project of the Microgravity Science Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The MGMG meetings provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas about the microgravity environment and microgravity acceleration research in the Microgravity Research Program. The meeting had participation from investigators in all areas of microgravity research. The attendees included representatives from: NASA centers; National Space Development Agency of Japan; European Space Agency; Daimler Benz Aerospace AG; Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt; Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales; Canadian Space Agency, national research institutions; Universities in U.S., Italy, Germany, and Russia; and commercial companies in the U.S. and Russia. Several agencies presented summaries of the measurement, analysis, and characterization of the microgravity environment of the Shuttle, Mir, and sounding rockets over the past fifteen years. This extensive effort has laid a foundation for pursuing a similar course during future microgravity science experiment operations on the ISS. Future activities of microgravity environment characterization were discussed by several agencies who plan to operate on the ISS.

  16. The 17th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period September 1980 to February 1981 is described. Included are reports on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area silicon sheet and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering, and operations. A report on and copies of visual presentations made at the Project Integration Meeting held at Pasadena, California on February 4 and 5, 1981 are also included.

  17. 17th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori

    2004-11-29

    It's not exactly Russian roulette, but scheduling October events outdoors is not risk-free, even in usually sunny California. An overflow crowd of more than 400 registered users, ALS staff, and vendors enjoyed a full indoor program featuring science highlights and workshops spread over two and a half days from October 18 to October 20. However, a major storm, heralding the onset of the San Francisco Bay Area rainy season, posed a few weather challenges for the events on the ALS patio.

  18. Winter climate change affects growing-season soil microbial biomass and activity in northern hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    Durán, Jorge; Morse, Jennifer L; Groffman, Peter M; Campbell, John L; Christenson, Lynn M; Driscoll, Charles T; Fahey, Timothy J; Fisk, Melany C; Mitchell, Myron J; Templer, Pamela H

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change remains a major challenge of ecological research. We exploited a natural elevation gradient in a northern hardwood forest to determine how reductions in snow accumulation, expected with climate change, directly affect dynamics of soil winter frost, and indirectly soil microbial biomass and activity during the growing season. Soils from lower elevation plots, which accumulated less snow and experienced more soil temperature variability during the winter (and likely more freeze/thaw events), had less extractable inorganic nitrogen (N), lower rates of microbial N production via potential net N mineralization and nitrification, and higher potential microbial respiration during the growing season. Potential nitrate production rates during the growing season were particularly sensitive to changes in winter snow pack accumulation and winter soil temperature variability, especially in spring. Effects of elevation and winter conditions on N transformation rates differed from those on potential microbial respiration, suggesting that N-related processes might respond differently to winter climate change in northern hardwood forests than C-related processes.

  19. Relative abundance and species richness of cerambycid beetles in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, P.; King, S.

    2009-01-01

    Partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife. However, partial cutting may or may not benefit species dependent on deadwood; harvesting can supplement coarse woody debris in the form of logging slash, but standing dead trees may be targeted for removal. We sampled cerambycid beetles during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 with canopy malaise traps in 1- and 2-year-old partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana. We captured a total of 4195 cerambycid beetles representing 65 species. Relative abundance was higher in recent partial cuts than in uncut controls and with more dead trees in a plot. Total species richness and species composition were not different between treatments. The results suggest partial cuts with logging slash left on site increase the abundance of cerambycid beetles in the first few years after partial cutting and that both partial cuts and uncut forest should be included in the bottomland hardwood forest landscape.

  20. Soil nutrient changes following whole tree harvesting on three northern hardwood sites

    SciTech Connect

    Mroz, G.D.; Jurgensen, M.F.; Frederick, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Three northern hardwood stands were clearcut to evaluate the effect of whole tree harvesting on sites of varying quality. Stands were growing on sandy, outwash soils and had red maple (Acer rubrum) site indices of 15, 19, and 20 and biomass values of 114, 165, and 181 Mg/ha. Harvesting did not alter extractable soil P levels significantly on any site. Forest floor weights decreased to similar values on all sites 1.5 years after harvest. Nitrogen losses of over 1.3 Mg/ha occurred in the top meter of soil on all sites. This was attributed to the mixing of the forest floor with the surface mineral soil by the full tree skidding and the subsequent leaching of mineralized N. Soil exchangeable K decreased more than 1 Mg/ha on all sites. Changes in Ca and Mg were much smaller on the low and medium than on the high site. These losses from surface soil horizons are higher than reported previously for clearcutting northern hardwoods on till soils. The greatest impact of whole tree harvest on soil nutrients occurred on the better sites in this study rather than on the poor quality site. (Refs. 33.).

  1. Inhibition effects on fermentation of hardwood extracted hemicelluloses by acetic acid and sodium.

    PubMed

    Walton, Sara; van Heiningen, Adriaan; van Walsum, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Extraction of hemicellulose from hardwood chips prior to pulping is a possible method for producing ethanol and acetic acid in an integrated forest bio-refinery, adding value to wood components normally relegated to boiler fuel. Hemicellulose was extracted from hardwood chips using green liquor, a pulping liquor intermediate consisting of aqueous NaOH, Na(2)CO(3), and Na(2)S, at 160 degrees C, held for 110 min in a 20 L rocking digester. The extracted liquor contained 3.7% solids and had a pH of 5.6. The organic content of the extracts was mainly xylo-oligosaccharides and acetic acid. Because it was dilute, the hemicellulose extract was concentrated by evaporation in a thin film evaporator. Concentrates from the evaporator reached levels of up to 10% solids. Inhibitors such as acetic acid and sodium were also concentrated by this method, presenting a challenge for the fermentation organisms. Fermentation experiments were conducted with Escherichia coli K011. The un-concentrated extract supported approximately 70% conversion of the initial sugars in 14 h. An extract evaporated down to 6% solids was also fermentable while a 10% solids extract was not initially fermentable. Strain conditioning was later found to enable fermentation at this level of concentration. Alternative processing schemes or inhibitor removal prior to fermentation are necessary to produce ethanol economically.

  2. Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

    2005-01-01

    Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

  3. Reforestation of bottomland hardwoods and the issue of woody species diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests in the southcentral United States have been cleared extensively for agriculture, and many of the remaining forests are fragmented and degraded. During the last decade, however, approximately 75,000 ha of land-mainly agricultural fields-have been replanted or contracted for replanting, with many more acres likely to be reforested in the near future. The approach used in most reforestation projects to date has been to plant one to three overstory tree species, usually Quercus spp. (oaks), and to rely on natural dispersal for the establishment of other woody species. I critique this practice by two means. First, a brief literature review demonstrates that moderately high woody species diversity occurs in natural bottomland hardwood forests in the region. This review, which relates diversity to site characteristics, serves as a basis for comparison with stands established by means of current reforestation practices. Second, I reevaluate data on the invasion of woody species from an earlier study of 10 reforestation projects in Mississippi,with the goal of assessing the likelihood that stands with high woody species diversity will develop. I show that natural invasion cannot always be counted on to produce a diverse stand, particularly on sites more than about 60 m from an existing forest edge. I then make several recommendations for altering current reforestation pactices in order to establish stands with greater woody species diversity, a more natural appearance,and a more positive environmental impact at scales larger than individual sites.

  4. Measuring and modeling the variation in species-specific transpiration in temperate deciduous hardwoods.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Joseph D; Bauerle, William L

    2008-11-01

    We investigated which parameters required by the MAESTRA model were most important in predicting leaf-area-based transpiration in 5-year-old trees of five deciduous hardwood species-yoshino cherry (Prunus x yedoensis Matsum.), red maple (Acer rubrum L. 'Autumn Flame'), trident maple (Acer buergeranum Miq.), Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. 'Kwanzan') and London plane-tree (Platanus x acerifolia (Ait.) Willd.). Transpiration estimated from sap flow measured by the heat balance method in branches and trunks was compared with estimates predicted by the three-dimensional transpiration, photosynthesis and absorbed radiation model, MAESTRA. MAESTRA predicted species-specific transpiration from the interactions of leaf-level physiology and spatially explicit micro-scale weather patterns in a mixed deciduous hardwood plantation on a 15-min time step. The monthly differences between modeled mean daily transpiration estimates and measured mean daily sap flow ranged from a 35% underestimation for Acer buergeranum in June to a 25% overestimation for A. rubrum in July. The sensitivity of the modeled transpiration estimates was examined across a 30% error range for seven physiological input parameters. The minimum value of stomatal conductance as incident solar radiation tends to zero was determined to be eight times more influential than all other physiological model input parameters. This work quantified the major factors that influence modeled species-specific transpiration and confirmed the ability to scale leaf-level physiological attributes to whole-crown transpiration on a species-specific basis.

  5. Classification of hardwood and swamp forests on the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, S.A.; Wellman, L.H.; Good, B.J.

    1981-04-01

    Fifty-eignt hardwood and swamp forest stands were sampled on the Savannah River Plant (SRP), South Carolina, to describe the relationship between the vegetational composition and the soil, topographic, and flooding characteristics of each stand. The stands were samples over the range from dry upland to deeply flooded (2.4m) sites. Seven forest communities were recognized. The boundaries between these communities are not usually distinct, but the classification serves as a basis for a discussion of the patterns of hardwood and swamp forests on the SRP and a comparison of this forest variation to variation of other forests in the Southeast. The forest communities found on the most deeply flooded sites are dominated almost exclusively by Taxodium distichum and Nyssa aquatica. With shallower flooding or only winter flooding, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Acer rubrum, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Quercus laurifolia become important dominants. Mesic sites that are seldom, if ever, flooded are dominated by N. sylvatica, L. styraciflua, and A. rubrum. The driest upland or upper slope positions are dominated by Q. alba, Carya tomentosa, and L. styraciflua.

  6. The potential for non-invasive study of mummies: validation of the use of computerized tomography by post factum dissection and histological examination of a 17th century female Korean mummy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Do-Seon; Lee, In Sun; Choi, Ki-Ju; Lee, Soong Deok; Oh, Chang Seok; Kim, Yi-Suk; Bok, Gi Dae; Kim, Myeung Ju; Yi, Yang Su; Lee, Eun-Joo; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2008-10-01

    The socio-cultural antipathies of some descendants with regard to invasive examinations of age-old human remains make permission for dissection of Korean mummies of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) difficult to obtain. Overcoming this obstacle necessitated the use of non-invasive techniques, such as multi-detector computerized tomography (MDCT) and endoscopic examination, enabling determination of the preservation status of internal organs of mummies without significantly damaging the mummies themselves. However, MDCT alone cannot clearly differentiate specific mummified organs. Therefore, in much the same way as diagnostic radiologists make their MDCT readings on living patients more reliable by means of comparison with accumulated post-factum data from autopsies or histological studies, examinations of mummies by invasive techniques should not be decried as mere destruction of age-old human remains. Rather, providing that due permission from descendants and/or other relevant authorities can be obtained, dissection and histological examination should be performed whenever opportunities arise. Therefore, in this study, we compared the radiological data acquired from a 17th century mummy with our dissection results for the same subject. As accumulation of this kind of data could be very crucial for correct interpretation of MDCT findings on Korean mummies, we will perform similar trials on other Korean mummies found in forthcoming days if conditions permit.

  7. The potential for non-invasive study of mummies: validation of the use of computerized tomography by post factum dissection and histological examination of a 17th century female Korean mummy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Do-Seon; Lee, In Sun; Choi, Ki-Ju; Lee, Soong Deok; Oh, Chang Seok; Kim, Yi-Suk; Bok, Gi Dae; Kim, Myeung Ju; Yi, Yang Su; Lee, Eun-Joo; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The socio-cultural antipathies of some descendants with regard to invasive examinations of age-old human remains make permission for dissection of Korean mummies of the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1910) difficult to obtain. Overcoming this obstacle necessitated the use of non-invasive techniques, such as multi-detector computerized tomography (MDCT) and endoscopic examination, enabling determination of the preservation status of internal organs of mummies without significantly damaging the mummies themselves. However, MDCT alone cannot clearly differentiate specific mummified organs. Therefore, in much the same way as diagnostic radiologists make their MDCT readings on living patients more reliable by means of comparison with accumulated post-factum data from autopsies or histological studies, examinations of mummies by invasive techniques should not be decried as mere destruction of age-old human remains. Rather, providing that due permission from descendants and/or other relevant authorities can be obtained, dissection and histological examination should be performed whenever opportunities arise. Therefore, in this study, we compared the radiological data acquired from a 17th century mummy with our dissection results for the same subject. As accumulation of this kind of data could be very crucial for correct interpretation of MDCT findings on Korean mummies, we will perform similar trials on other Korean mummies found in forthcoming days if conditions permit. PMID:19014355

  8. The proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Chelation: application of effective chelation therapies in iron loading and non iron loading conditions, and the gap in the prevention and treatment policies on thalassemia between developed and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2009-01-01

    Substantial progress in the use of chelating drugs for the treatment of iron overload and of non iron loading conditions has been presented during the 17th International Conference on Chelation (ICOC) held in November 2007 at Shenzhen, China. Major challenges lie ahead for the prevention and treatment of thalassemia in China, India, Thailand, Indonesia and many other developing countries where millions of heterozygote thalassemia carriers live and thousands of homozygote thalassemia patients are born annually. The progressive improvement of the economic climate in developing countries will increase the demand and resources for more prenatal and antenatal diagnoses, transfusions and chelation therapy in forthcoming years. Despite the major advances in diagnosis and treatment in developed countries, the vast majority of thalassemia patients in developing countries die untreated because they cannot afford the cost of transfusions and chelation therapy. New approaches and infrastructures and more efforts are needed to overcome the difficulties of supplying new techniques and treatments to patients in developing countries. International and local organizations need to be persuaded to act collectively and effectively to improve chelation and related treatments for thalassemia and other conditions, especially at this time that universally effective and inexpensive chelation therapies can be applied.

  9. A combined Raman microscopy, XRF and SEM-EDX study of three valuable objects - A large painted leather screen and two illuminated title pages in 17th century books of ordinances of the Worshipful Company of Barbers, London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, Tracey D.; Clark, Robin J. H.; Martinón-Torres, Marcos

    2010-07-01

    Raman microscopy has been used to identify the pigments decorating three valuable items owned by the Worshipful Company of Barbers (established in 1308 in London), one being a large leather screen dating to before 1712, the other two being illuminated title pages of books of ordinances of the Company dating to 1605 and 1658. Pigments which could not be fully characterised by this technique (particularly the green paints) have also been subject to XRF or SEM-EDX analysis. The combined analytical approach has shown that the pigments identified on all three items are typical of those in use as artists' pigments in the 17th C and include azurite, indigo, vermilion, red lead, pink and yellow lakes, verdigris, lead white, calcite (and chalk), gypsum, carbon-based black, and gold and silver leaf. However in the case of the screen alone, restoration in the 1980s has been carried out with different pigments - haematite, phthalocyanine green, rutile, and a mixture of azurite, malachite and barium sulfate. This work constitutes the first in-depth study of painted leatherwork and demonstrates that the palette used for this purpose is similar to that used on other works of art of the same date. It has also allowed the original colour schemes of the decorations to be determined where pigment degradation has occurred. The combined analysis has also provided a more complete understanding of the materials used for, or on, objects to which access is limited.

  10. Assessment of the role of bottomland hardwoods in sediment and erosion control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molinas, A.; Auble, Gregor T.; Segelquist, C.A.; Ischinger, Lee S.

    1988-01-01

    Drainage and clearing of bottomland hardwoods have long been recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) as important impacts of Federal water projects in the lower Mississippi River Valley. More recently, the water quality impacts of such projects (e.g., increases in sediments, nutrients, and pesticides) have also become of concern. In 1984, in an effort to better define problems concerning wetland losses and water degradation, EPA initiated a cooperative project with the Western Energy and Land Use Team (now the National Ecology Research Center) of the Service. Three phases of the project were identified: 1. To collect existing literature and data; 2. To select, develop, and test the utility of methods to quantify the relationships between land use, cover types, soils, hydrology, and water quality (as represented by sediment); and 3. To apply selected methodologies to several sites within the Yazoo Basin of Mississippi to determine the, potential effectiveness of various management alternatives to reduce sediment yield, increase sediment deposition, and improve water quality. Methods development focused on linking a simulation of water and sediment movement to a computerized geographic information system. We had several objectives for the resulting model. We desired that it should: 1. Estimate the importance of bottomland and hardwoods as a cover type that performs the functions of erosion and sediment control, 2. Simulate effects of proportions of ' various cover types and their specific spatial configurations, 3. Be applicable to moderately large spatial areas with minimal site-specific calibration, 4. Simulate spatial patterns of sediment loss-gain over time, and 5. Represent both sediment detachment and transport. While it was recognized that impacts and management alternatives could be sorted roughly into landscape measures and channel measures, the decision was made to focus study efforts

  11. Ion cycling in hemlock-northern hardwood forests of the southern Lake Superior region: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bockheim, J G; Crowley, S E

    2002-01-01

    Upland forests of the southern Lake Superior region are diverse and contain a shifting mosaic of eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.] and northern hardwood forests dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.). In this study, we survey the relative effects of management practice (old growth vs. managed), forest cover type (hemlock vs. northern hardwood), and soil great group (Entic Haplorthod vs. Alfic Oxyaquic Fragiorthod) on ion cycling as a precursor to a longer-term, more detailed study. Bulk precipitation, throughfall, and soil leachates at three depths were collected for two growing seasons in eight stands on the Ottawa National Forest in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. A total of 1210 solutions were analyzed for pH, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cl, NO3, and SO4. Losses of base cations (Ca, Mg, K) and SO4 from the bottom of the rooting zone generally were greater in old-growth than in managed northern hardwoods on both fragic and nonfragic soils. Leaching losses of base cations and NO3 usually were greater beneath old-growth northern hardwoods than beneath old-growth hemlock on both soil types and for both forest cover types and management practices on fragic than nonfragic soils. Management practice, forest cover type, and soil type all appear to affect ion cycling within these forests. All of the stands featured striking losses of base cations that probably are influenced strongly by NO3 and SO4 in atmospheric deposition.

  12. 78 FR 58273 - Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... (May 10, 2005). \\3\\ The Coalition for Fair Trade of Hardwood Plywood. \\4\\ Linyi Sanfortune Wood Co., Ltd. \\5\\ Xuzhou Jiangyang Wood Industries Co., Ltd. and Xuzhou Jiangheng Wood Products Co., Ltd. \\6... Factors Responses of Xuzhou Jiangyang Wood Industries Co. Ltd and Xuzhou Jiangheng Wood Products Co....

  13. Effect of liquid hot water pretreatment severity on properties of hardwood lignin and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ja Kyong; Kim, Youngmi; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ladisch, Michael R

    2015-02-01

    Lignin, one of the major components of lignocellulosic biomass, plays an inhibitory role on the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. This work examines the role of lignin in pretreated hardwood, where extents of cellulose hydrolysis decrease, rather than increase with increasing severity of liquid hot water pretreatment. Hardwood pretreated with liquid hot water at severities ranging from log Ro  = 8.25 to 12.51 resulted in 80-90% recovery of the initial lignin in the residual solids. The ratio of acid insoluble lignin (AIL) to acid soluble lignin (ASL) increased and the formation of spherical lignin droplets on the cell wall surface was observed as previously reported in the literature. When lignins were isolated from hardwoods pretreated at increasing severities and characterized based on glass transition temperature (Tg ), the Tg of isolated lignins was found to increase from 171 to 180°C as the severity increased from log Ro  = 10.44 to 12.51. The increase in Tg suggested that the condensation reactions of lignin molecules occurred during pretreatment and altered the lignin structure. The contribution of the changes in lignin properties to enzymatic hydrolysis were examined by carrying out Avicel hydrolysis in the presence of isolated lignins. Lignins derived from more severely pretreated hardwoods had higher Tg values and showed more pronounced inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis.

  14. 75 FR 1587 - Medford-Park Falls Ranger District, Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Park Falls Hardwoods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ...The USDA Forest Service, Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Medford-Park Falls Ranger District intends to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to document the analysis and disclose the environmental effects of proposed land management activities, and corresponding alternatives within the Park Falls Hardwoods project area. The primary purpose of this proposal is to implement......

  15. Hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated mixed hardwood and purified microcrystalline cellulose by cell-free broth from Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Lynd, L.R.; Grethlein, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    The cellulase activity in cell-free broths from Clostridium thermocellum is examined on both dilute-acid-pretreated mixed hardwood (90% maple, 10% birch) and Avicel. Experiments were conducted in vitro in order to distinguish properties of the cellulase from properties of the organism and to evaluate the effectiveness of C. thermocellum cellulase in the hydrolysis of a naturally occurring, lignin-containing substrate. The results obtained establish that essentially quantitative hydrolysis of cellulose from pretreated mixed hardwood is possible using this enzyme system. Pretreatment with 1% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and a 9-s residence time at 220, 210, 200, and 180/sup 0/C allowed yields after enzymatic hydrolysis (percentage of glucan solubilized/glucan potentially solubilized) of 97.8, 86.1, 82.0, and 34.6%, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of mixed hardwood with no pretreatment resulted in a yield of 10.1%. Hydrolysis yields of greater than 95% were obtained from 0.6 g/l mixed hardwood pretreated at 220/sup 0/C in 7 hours at broth strengths of 60 and 80% (v/v) and in approximately 48 hours with 33% broth. Hydrolysis of pretreated mixed hardwood is compared to hydrolysis of Avicel. The initial rate of Avicel hydrolysis saturates with respect to enzyme, whereas the initial rate of hydrolysis of pretreated wood is proportional to the amount of enzyme present. Initial hydrolysis rates for pretreated wood and Avicel at 0.6 g/l are greater for wood at low broth dilutions (1.25:1 to 5:1) by up to 2.7-fold and greater for Avicel at high broth dilutions (5:1 to 50:1) by up to 4.3-fold. Maximum rates of hydrolysis are achieved at less than 2 g substrate/liter for both pretreated wood and Avicel).

  16. Cribra orbitalia as a potential indicator of childhood stress: Evidence from paleopathology, stable C, N, and O isotopes, and trace element concentrations in children from a 17(th)-18(th) century cemetery in Jēkabpils, Latvia.

    PubMed

    Zariņa, Gunita; Sholts, Sabrina B; Tichinin, Alina; Rudovica, Vita; Vīksna, Arturs; Engīzere, Austra; Muižnieks, Vitolds; Bartelink, Eric J; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2016-12-01

    Cribra orbitalia (CO), or porotic hyperostosis (PH) of the orbital roof, is one of the most common pathological conditions found in archaeological subadult skeletal remains. Reaching frequencies higher than 50% in many prehistoric samples, CO has been generally attributed to a variety of factors including malnutrition (e.g., megaloblastic anemia) and parasitism. In this study, we tested the relationship between CO, trace element concentrations, and stable isotope values (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O) in subadult skeletons from a 17(th) to 18(th) century cemetery in the historic town of Jēkabpils, Latvia. A total of 28 subadults were examined, seven of which (25%) showed evidence of CO. Bioarchaeological evidence indicated high mortality for children in this cemetery: half of the burials were subadults under the age of 14, while a third were under the age of four. Life expectancy at birth was estimated to have been only 21.6 years. Trace element concentrations measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) showed no relationship between presence or absence of CO and levels of manganese, zinc, strontium, barium, copper, cadmium, or lead in the bones (p>0.05). However, a significant correlation (p<0.05) was found between the presence of CO and decreased levels of iron. The correlations between CO and decreased levels of copper and lead approached significance (p=0.056 for both elements). Individuals with CO furthermore displayed significantly lower δ(15)N isotope values, suggesting greater consumption of lower trophic level food resources than those unaffected by CO; δ(13)C and δ(18)O values, in contrast, showed no significant differences. These results suggest that the prevalence of CO may be related to dietary deficiencies. In this case, low iron levels may also signify a diet low in other key vitamins (e.g., B9 and B12), which are known to cause megaloblastic anemia.

  17. Magnolol Attenuates Concanavalin A-induced Hepatic Fibrosis, Inhibits CD4(+) T Helper 17 (Th17) Cell Differentiation and Suppresses Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation: Blockade of Smad3/Smad4 Signalling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongjun; Ju, Baoling; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhu, Yanfei; Nie, Ying; Xu, Yuanhong; Lei, Qiuxia

    2016-12-29

    Magnolol is a pharmacological biphenolic compound extracted from Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis, which displays anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study was aimed at exploring the potential effect of magnolol on immune-related liver fibrosis. Herein, BALB/c mice were injected with concanavalin A (ConA, 8 mg/kg/week) up to 6 weeks to establish hepatic fibrosis, and magnolol (10, 20, 30 mg/kg/day) was given to these mice orally throughout the whole experiment. We found that magnolol preserved liver function and attenuated liver fibrotic injury in vivo. In response to ConA stimulation, the CD4(+) T cells preferred to polarizing towards CD4(+) T helper 17 (Th17) cells in liver. Magnolol was observed to inhibit Th17 cell differentiation in ConA-treated liver in addition to suppressing interleukin (IL)-17A generation. Hepatic stellate cells were activated in fibrotic liver as demonstrated by increased alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin. More transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and activin A were secreted into the serum. Magnolol suppressed this abnormal HSC activation. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of Smad3 in its linker area (Thr179, Ser 204/208/213) was inhibited by magnolol. In vitro, the recombinant IL-17A plus TGF-β1 or activin A induced activation of human LX2 HSCs and promoted their collagen production. Smad3/Smad4 signalling pathway was activated in LX2 cells exposed to the fibrotic stimuli, as illustrated by the up-regulated phospho-Smad3 and the enhanced interaction between Smad3 and Smad4. These alterations were suppressed by magnolol. Collectively, our study reveals a novel antifibrotic effect of magnolol on Th17 cell-mediated fibrosis.

  18. Effects of pretreatment factors on fermentable sugar production and enzymatic hydrolysis of mixed hardwood.

    PubMed

    Lim, Woo-Seok; Lee, Jae-Won

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different acid catalysts and pretreatment factors on the hydrolysis of biomass compounds over a range of thermochemical pretreatments; maleic, oxalic, and sulfuric acids were each used under different pretreatment conditions. The most influential factor for fermentable sugar production in the dicarboxylic acid-pretreated mixed hardwood was pH. Reaction time was the next significant factor followed by reaction temperature. However, fermentable sugar production was more dependent on reaction temperature than time during sulfuric acid pretreatment, whereas the effect of acid concentration was considerably lower. Maleic acid pretreatment was very effective for attaining high glucose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest enzymatic hydrolysis yield was found following maleic acid pretreatment, which reached 95.56%. The trend in enzymatic hydrolysis yields that were detected concomitantly with pretreatment condition or type of acid catalyst was closely related to xylose production in the hydrolysate.

  19. Deconstruction of Nordic hardwood in switchable ionic liquids and acylation of the dissolved cellulose.

    PubMed

    Eta, Valerie; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2016-01-20

    Nordic hardwood (Betula pendula) was fractionated in a batch autoclave equipped with a custom-made SpinChem(®) rotating bed reactor, at 120 °C using CO2 and CS2-based switchable ionic liquids systems. Analyses of the non-dissolved wood after treatment showed that 64 wt% of hemicelluloses and 70 wt% of lignin were removed from the native wood. Long processing periods or successive short-time treatments using fresh SILs further decreased the amount of hemicelluloses and lignin in the non-dissolved fraction to 12 and 15 wt%, respectively. The cellulose-rich fraction was partially dissolved in an organic superbase and an ionic liquid system for further derivatization. Homogeneous acylation of the dissolved cellulose in the presence or absence of catalyst resulted in cellulose acetates with variable degree of substitution (DS), depending on the treatment conditions. By varying the reaction conditions, the cellulose acetate with the desired DS could be obtained under mild conditions.

  20. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Horn, Scott, James L. Hanula, Michael D. Ulyshen, and John C. Kilgo. 2005. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 153:321-326. Abstract: We found more green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) in canopy gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopy gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat. Flies were the most commonly collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  1. The response of beetles to group selection harvesting in a southeastern bottomland hardwood forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael, D.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT The environmental protection and sustainable management of our remaining forests are increasingly important concerns. Group selection harvesting is an uneven-aged forest management practice that removes patches of desirable trees to create small openings mimicking natural disturbances. To determine the effects of this technique on beetles, malaise and pitfall traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the forest surrounding artificially created gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Beetles were generally more abundant and species rich in the centers of younger gaps than in the centers of older gaps or in the forest surrounding them. There were relatively few differences in the abundance and richness of beetles between old gaps and the surrounding forest but species composition differed considerably. These differences may be explained by the uneven distribution of various resources.

  2. Open-grown crown radius of eleven bottomland hardwood species: Prediction and use in assessing stocking

    SciTech Connect

    Goelz, J.C.G.

    1996-08-01

    Equations were prepared to predict crown radius for eleven species of open-grown bottomland hardwood trees. Crown radius was predicted as a function of diameter at breast height (dbh) and as a function of dbh, total height, and crown ratio. Equations were prepared for individual species and species groups. Pecan has the largest crowns over a broad range of dbh. Eastern cottonwood has the smallest crowns for most levels of dbh. Sweetgum has relatively small crowns for trees of small dbh, but crown radius is comparable to most species at the largest dbh. The crown radius predictions may be used to calculate crown competition factor. B-lines of stocking may be calculated that represent a stand of one species as well as a mixed-species stand of any particular species proportion.

  3. Dead wood relative to slope severity in mesic loess bluff hardwood forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    To aid in identification of land within Vicksburg National Military Park that was subjected to forest restoration during the 1930s, I evaluated the hypothesized relationships between maximum live tree diameter or dead wood (standing and down) and severity of slope. Disproportionate mortality among early-successional, pioneer tree species suggested maturation of pioneer upland hardwood forests. As such, input and decomposition of dead wood have likely approached equilibrium. Thus, I did not detect a useful predictive relationship between dead wood (standing or down) or maximum diameter of live trees and severity of slope. Lack of relationships between slope and large diameter trees or volume of dead wood resulted in an inability to evaluate former land use based on these parameters.

  4. Structure-function relationships in hardwood--insight from micromechanical modelling.

    PubMed

    de Borst, K; Bader, T K

    2014-03-21

    A micromechanical model is presented that predicts the stiffness of wood tissues in their three principal anatomical directions, across various hardwood species. The wood polymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, common to all wood tissues, serve as the starting point. In seven homogenisation steps, the stiffnesses of these polymers are linked to the macroscopic stiffness. The good agreement of model predictions and corresponding experimental data for ten different European and tropical species confirms the functionality and accuracy of the model. The model enables investigating the influence of individual microstructural features on the overall stiffness. This is exploited to elucidate the mechanical effects of vessels and ray cells. Vessels are shown to reduce the stiffness of wood at constant overall density. This supports that a trade-off exists between the hydraulic efficiency and the mechanical support in relation to the anatomical design of wood. Ray cells are shown to act as reinforcing elements in the radial direction.

  5. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 82-234-1602, Black River Hardwood Company, Kingstree, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, S.; Lybarger, J.

    1985-06-01

    A health-hazard evaluation was conducted at Black River Hardwood Company, Kingstree, South Carolina in July, 1982. The evaluation was requested by the owner to investigate a possible excess of cancer among employees. There was concern that the company's water supply had been contaminated by agricultural chemicals buried in an adjacent lot in 1974. Environmental sampling data at the disposal site obtained by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) were reviewed. The cancer cases involved the stomach, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and head and neck. The authors conclude that a cancer hazard among the employees does not exist. They recommend continued monitoring of the company and community water supply and using bottled drinking water until a municipal water system is available.

  6. Sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) for robust enzymatic saccharification of hardwoods.

    PubMed

    Wang, G S; Pan, X J; Zhu, J Y; Gleisner, R; Rockwood, D

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrates sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) for robust bioconversion of hardwoods. With only about 4% sodium bisulfite charge on aspen and 30-min pretreatment at temperature 180 degrees C, SPORL can achieve near-complete cellulose conversion to glucose in a wide range of pretreatment liquor of pH 2.0-4.5 in only about 10 h enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzyme loading was about 20 FPU cellulase plus 30 CBU beta-glucosidase per gram of cellulose. The production of fermentation inhibitor furfural was less than 20 mg/g of aspen wood at pH 4.5. With pH 4.5, SPORL avoided reactor corrosion problem and eliminated the need for substrate neutralization prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Similar results were obtained from maple and eucalyptus.

  7. Ecotone resilience in a coastal system of mangroves and hardwood hammocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtora, M.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Teh, S. Y.; Jiang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Initial sea-level rise effects on low-lying coastline vegetation will likely result from an increase in the frequency and magnitude of storm surges. Feedbacks between vegetation and vadose zone pore-water salinity likely result in complex interactions between halophytic and glycophytic vegetation due to differential adaptive responses. In coastal Everglades National Park, relatively impermeable marl soils distributed in a ridge and swale topography overlie highly permeable karst limestone saturated with high salinity water. Soil salinity dynamics reflect pronounced rainfall seasonality. A model of MANgrove and hardwood HAMmock competition (MANHAM) has been integrated with a variable density Saturated/Unsaturated groundwater TRAnsport model (SUTRA). The combined model (MANTRA) is being used to estimate likely vegetative responses to various scenarios of changing sea-level and precipitation patterns. The mangrove/hammock regime is characterized by the occurrence of sharp ecotones over relatively shallow elevation gradients that may be maintained by a vegetation switch. A disturbance such as an input of salinity from a storm surge could upset this meta-stable boundary, leading to a regime shift of halophytic vegetation inland. MANTRA allows simulation of the interaction of vegetation with subsurface salinity dynamics while examining the sensitivity of the vegetation switch to relevant variables. The response of the halophyte/glycophyte system to storm surge overwash is predicted to depend on factors such as amount and duration of the salinity increase in the soil, the water-table elevation and salinity of the groundwater, the amount and timing of precipitation, runoff and infiltration, the extent of wind induced storm damage, and the amount of mangrove propagules that are washed into the hardwood hammock. In addition, direct mortality of hammock vegetation and increasing floating dispersal of mangrove propagules due to storm surge increase the likelihood of a regime

  8. A Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreak Increased Resource Levels and Seedling Growth in a Northern Hardwood Forest.

    PubMed

    Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Kobe, Richard K

    2016-01-01

    In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008-2012). Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in temperate closed

  9. Anatomy and lignin distribution in reaction phloem fibres of several Japanese hardwoods

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Kaori; Yoshinaga, Arata; Takabe, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Although tension wood formation and the structure of gelatinous fibres (G-fibres) have been widely investigated, studies of the influence of the reaction phenomenon on phloem fibres have been few and incomplete in comparison with those of xylem wood fibres. This study was undertaken to clarify the influence of stem inclination on phloem fibres using several Japanese hardwood species that produce different G-fibre types in tension wood. Methods Eight hardwood species were inclined at 30–45° at the beginning of April. Specimens were collected in July and December. The cell-wall structure and lignin distribution of phloem fibres on both the tension and opposite sides were compared by light microscopy, ultraviolet microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy after staining with acriflavine, and transmission electron microscopy after staining with potassium permanganate. Key Results Three types of changes were found in tension-side phloem fibres: (1) increases in the proportion of the syringyl unit in lignin in the S1 and S2 layers and compound middle lamella (Cercidiphyllum japonicum), (2) formation of unlignified gelatinous layers (Melia azedarach and Acer rufinerve) and (3) increases in the number of layers (n) in the multi-layered structure of S1 + S2 + n (G + L) (Mallotus japonicus). Other species showed no obvious change in cell-wall structure or lignin distribution. Conclusions Phloem fibres of the tree species examined in our study showed three types of changes in lignin distribution and cell-wall structure. The reaction phenomenon may vary with tree species and may not be closely related to G-fibre type in tension wood. PMID:22778147

  10. Research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Kovac, R.J.; Gorton, C.W.; Knight, J.A.; Newman, C.J.; O'Neil, D.J. . Research Inst.)

    1991-08-01

    An atmospheric flash pyrolysis process, the Georgia Tech Entrained Flow Pyrolysis Process, for the production of liquid biofuels from oak hardwood is described. The development of the process began with bench-scale studies and a conceptual design in the 1978--1981 timeframe. Its development and successful demonstration through research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit (PDU), in the period of 1982--1989, is presented. Oil yields (dry basis) up to 60% were achieved in the 1.5 ton-per-day PDU, far exceeding the initial target/forecast of 40% oil yields. Experimental data, based on over forty runs under steady-state conditions, supported by material and energy balances of near-100% closures, have been used to establish a process model which indicates that oil yields well in excess of 60% (dry basis) can be achieved in a commercial reactor. Experimental results demonstrate a gross product thermal efficiency of 94% and a net product thermal efficiency of 72% or more; the highest values yet achieved with a large-scale biomass liquefaction process. A conceptual manufacturing process and an economic analysis for liquid biofuel production at 60% oil yield from a 200-TPD commercial plant is reported. The plant appears to be profitable at contemporary fuel costs of $21/barrel oil-equivalent. Total capital investment is estimated at under $2.5 million. A rate-of-return on investment of 39.4% and a pay-out period of 2.1 years has been estimated. The manufacturing cost of the combustible pyrolysis oil is $2.70 per gigajoule. 20 figs., 87 tabs.

  11. Kinetic modeling of hardwood prehydrolysis. Part II. Xylan removal by dilute hydrochloric acid prehydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, A.H.; Libkie, K.; Springer, E.L.

    1986-06-01

    A study was made of the kinetics of xylan hemicellulose removal with 0.10 M HCl at 120 degrees C from quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), American elm (Ulmus americana), red maple (Acer rubrum), and southern red oak (Quercus falcata). The mathematical model developed in Part I to describe the kinetics of xylan removal by water prehydrolysis of these species could be used to model xylan removal with dilute hydrochloric acid. Xylan removal could thus be modelled as the sum of two parallel first-order reactions - one fast and one slow. However, unlike the case with water prehydrolysis where the rate constants for the fast and slow reaction processes could be correlated with each other, they could not be correlated for HCl prehydrolysis. Instead, these constant values determined for each species clustered about average values for all the species as a whole. A single set of parameters determined from a nonlinear least squares fit of the experimental prehydrolysis data for all the species as a whole to the model could be used to describe the course of xylan removal from all the species. The fact that one set of parameters could be used suggests that the same reactions are taking place on prehydrolysis and the chemical structure and physical morphology of the xylan hemicellulose were essentially the same in the species studied and probably in all temperate hardwood species. The model thus provides a good approximation of xylan removal from any temperate hardwood with dilute hydrochloric acid at the reaction conditions studied. 20 references.

  12. The importance of hydrology in restoration of bottomland hardwood wetland functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, R.G.; Faulkner, S.P.; Gibson, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood (BLH) forests have important biogeochemical functions and it is well known that certain structural components, including pulsed hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation, enhance these functions. It is unclear, however, how functions of restored BLH wetlands compare to mature, undisturbed wetlands. We measured a suite of structural and functional attributes in replicated natural BLH wetlands (NAT), restored BLH wetlands with hydrology re-established (RWH), and restored BLH wetlands without hydrology re-established (RWOH) in this study. Trees were replanted in all restored wetlands at least four years prior to the study and those wetlands with hydrology re-established had flashboard risers placed in drainage ditches to allow seasonal surface flooding. Vegetation, soils, and selected biogeochemical functions were characterized at each site. There was a marked difference in woody vegetation among the wetlands that was due primarily to site age. There was also a difference in herbaceous vegetation among the restored sites that may have been related to differences in age or hydrology. Water table fluctuations of the RWH wetlands were comparable to those of the NAT wetlands. Thus, placing flashboard risers in existing drainage ditches, along with proper management, can produce a hydroperiod that is similar to that of a relatively undisturbed BLH. Average length of saturation within the upper 15 cm of soils was 37, 104, and 97 days for RWOH, RWH, and NAT, respectively. Soil moisture, denitrification potential, and soluble organic carbon concentrations differed among wetland sites, but soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations, heterotrophic microbial activity, and readily mineralizable carbon concentrations did not. Significant linear relationships were also found between soil moisture and heterotrophic microbial activity, readily mineralizable carbon, and soluble organic carbon. In addition, sedimentation rates were higher in NAT and RWH

  13. A Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreak Increased Resource Levels and Seedling Growth in a Northern Hardwood Forest

    PubMed Central

    Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.; Kobe, Richard K.

    2016-01-01

    In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008–2012). Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in temperate closed

  14. Species characterization and responses of subcortical insects to trap-logs and ethanol in a hardwood biomass plantation: Subcortical insects in hardwood plantations

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, David R.; Brissey, Courtney L.; Gandhi, Kamal J. K.

    2015-01-02

    1. We characterized subcortical insect assemblages in economically important eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.), sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations in the southeastern U.S.A. Furthermore, we compared insect responses between freshly-cut plant material by placing traps directly over cut hardwood logs (trap-logs), traps baited with ethanol lures and unbaited (control) traps. 2. We captured a total of 15 506 insects representing 127 species in four families in 2011 and 2013. Approximately 9% and 62% of total species and individuals, respectively, and 23% and 79% of total Scolytinae species and individuals, respectively, were non-native to North America. 3. We captured more Scolytinae using cottonwood trap-logs compared with control traps in both years, although this was the case with sycamore and sweetgum only in 2013. More woodborers were captured using cottonwood and sweetgum trap-logs compared with control traps in both years, although only with sycamore in 2013. 4. Ethanol was an effective lure for capturing non-native Scolytinae; however, not all non-native species were captured using ethanol lures. Ambrosiophilus atratus (Eichhoff) and Hypothenemus crudiae (Panzer) were captured with both trap-logs and control traps, whereas Coccotrypes distinctus (Motschulsky) and Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff were only captured on trap-logs. 5. Indicator species analysis revealed that certain scolytines [e.g. Cnestus mutilates (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)] showed significant associations with trap-logs or ethanol baits in poplar or sweetgum trap-logs. In general, the species composition of subcortical insects, especially woodboring insects, was distinct among the three tree species and between those associated with trap-logs and control traps.

  15. Simultaneous analysis of T helper subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Tfh, Tr1 and Tregs) markers expression in periapical lesions reveals multiple cytokine clusters accountable for lesions activity and inactivity status

    PubMed Central

    ARAUJO-PIRES, Ana Claudia; FRANCISCONI, Carolina Favaro; BIGUETTI, Claudia Cristina; CAVALLA, Franco; ARANHA, Andreza Maria Fabio; LETRA, Ariadne; TROMBONE, Ana Paula Favaro; FAVERI, Marcelo; SILVA, Renato Menezes; GARLET, Gustavo Pompermaier

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators determines the stable or progressive nature of periapical granulomas by modulating the balance of the osteoclastogenic factor RANKL and its antagonist OPG. However, the cytokine networks operating in the development of periapical lesions are quite more complex than what the simple pro- versus anti-inflammatory mediators' paradigm suggests. Here we simultaneously investigated the patterns of Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Thf, Tr1 and Tregs cytokines/markers expression in human periapical granulomas. Methods The expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL23, IL21, IL-33, IL-10, IL-4, IL-9, IL-22, FOXp3 markers (via RealTimePCR array) was accessed in active/progressive (N=40) versus inactive/stable (N=70) periapical granulomas (as determined by RANKL/OPG expression ratio), and also to compare these samples with a panel of control specimens (N=26). A cluster analysis of 13 cytokine levels was performed to examine possible clustering between the cytokines in a total of 110 granulomas. Results The expression of all target cytokines was higher in the granulomas than in control samples. TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-21 mRNA levels were significantly higher in active granulomas, while in inactive lesions the expression levels of IL-4, IL-9, IL-10, IL-22 and FOXp3 were higher than in active granulomas. Five clusters were identified in inactive lesion groups, being the variance in the expression levels of IL-17, IL-10, FOXp3, IFN-γ, IL-9, IL-33 and IL-4 statistically significant (KW p<0.05). Three clusters were identified in active lesions, being the variance in the expression levels of IL-22, IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-33, FOXp3, IL-21 and RANKL statistically significant (KW p<0.05). Conclusion There is a clear dichotomy in the profile of cytokine expression in inactive and active periapical lesions. While the widespread cytokine expression seems to be a feature of chronic lesions

  16. The emergence densities of annual cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) increase with sapling density and are greater near edges in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Chiavacci, Scott J; Bednarz, James C; McKay, Tanja

    2014-08-01

    The emergence densities of cicadas tend to be patchy at multiple spatial scales. While studies have identified habitat conditions related to these patchy distributions, their interpretation has been based primarily on periodical cicada species; habitat factors associated with densities of nonperiodical (i.e., annual) cicadas have remained under studied. This is despite their widespread distribution, diversity, and role as an important trophic resource for many other organisms, particularly within riparian areas. We studied habitat factors associated with the emergence densities of Tibicen spp. in a bottomland hardwood forest in east-central Arkansas. We found emergence densities were greatest in areas of high sapling densities and increased toward forest edges, although sapling density was a much stronger predictor of emergence density. Emergence densities also differed among sample areas within our study system. The habitat features predicting nymph densities were likely driven by a combination of factors affecting female selection of oviposition sites and the effects of habitat conditions on nymph survival. The differences in nymph densities between areas of our system were likely a result of the differential effects of flooding in these areas. Interestingly, our findings were similar to observations of periodical species, suggesting that both types of cicadas select similar habitat characteristics for ovipositing or are under comparable selective pressures during development. Our findings also imply that changes in habitat characteristics because of anthropogenically altered disturbance regimes (e.g., flooding) have the potential to negatively impact both periodical and annual species, which could have dramatic consequences for organisms at numerous trophic levels.

  17. Results of a workshop concerning impacts of various activities on the functions of bottomland hardwoods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roelle, James E.; Auble, Gregor T.; Hamilton, David B.; Horak, Gerald C.; Johnson, Richard L.; Segelquist, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    Under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has regulatory responsibilities related to the discharge of dredged or fill material into the Nation’s waters. In addition to its advisory role in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' permit program, EPA has a number of specific authorities, including formulation of the Section 404(b)(1) guidelines, use of Section 404(c) to prohibit disposal at particular sites, and enforcement actions for unauthorized discharges. A number of recent court cases focus on the geographic scope of Section 404 jurisdiction in potential bottomland hardwood (BLH) wetlands and the nature of landclearing activities in these areas that require a permit under Section 404. Accordingly, EPA needs to establish the scientific basis for implementing its responsibilities under Section 404 in bottomland hardwoods. EPA is approaching this task through a series of workshops designed to provide current scientific information on bottomland hardwoods and to organize that information in a manner pertinent to key policy questions. The first two workshops in the series were originally conceived as technically oriented meetings that would provide the information necessary to develop policy options at the third workshop. More specifically, the first workshop was designed to examine a zonation concept as a means of characterizing different BLH communities and describing variations in their functions along a soil moisture gradient. The second workshop was perceived as an attempt to evaluate the impacts of various activities on those functions. However, one conclusion of the first workshop, which was held in December 1984 in St. Francisville, Louisiana, was that the zonation approach does not describe the variability in the functions performed by BLH ecosystems sufficiently well to allow its use as the sole basis for developing a regulatory framework. That is, factors other than zone were considered critical for an effective

  18. Restoration of Upland Hardwood Tree Species on the Formerly Cultivated Soils in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Waldrop, T.A.

    2001-08-03

    The authors studied various approaches to restore upland hardwood species to formerly cultivated soils at the SRS. Studies with direct seedling were largely a failure and resulted in very low rates of establishment. Failure was a result of predation and drought. Growth and survival of planted oaks, dogwood and pine did not vary between hardwood overstory and pine overstory conditions. Soil trenching in a forty year old loblolly stand demonstrated dramatic increases in growth of planted oaks and dogwood. When compared, survival is similar if not slightly better when seedlings are planted in the understory of canopies vs. clearcuts. However, growth is better in recent clearcuts for dogwood and white oaks. Hickory does better underplanted.

  19. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.

    2000-01-05

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early succession has begun in some affected areas. Most of this has been herbs, grasses, and shrubs. Areas that have seedlings are generally willow

  20. Segregating the Effects of Seed Traits and Common Ancestry of Hardwood Trees on Eastern Gray Squirrel Foraging Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Mekala; Willoughby, Janna R.; Lichti, Nathanael I.; Steele, Michael A.; Swihart, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae) to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or cached each seed. We estimated 11 physical and chemical seed traits for each species, and the phylogenetic relationships between the 23 hardwood trees. Variance partitioning revealed that considerable variation in foraging investment was attributable to seed traits alone (27–73%), and combined effects of seed traits and phylogeny of hardwood trees (5–55%). A phylogenetic PCA (pPCA) on seed traits and tree phylogeny resulted in 2 “global” axes of traits that were phylogenetically autocorrelated at the family and genus level and a third “local” axis in which traits were not phylogenetically autocorrelated. Collectively, these axes explained 30–76% of the variation in squirrel foraging investments. The first global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seed species with thin shells, low lipid and high carbohydrate content, was negatively related to time to consume and cache seeds and travel distance to cache. The second global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seeds with high protein, low tannin and low dormancy levels, was an important predictor of consumption time only. The local pPCA axis primarily reflected kernel mass. Although it explained only 12% of the variation in trait space and was not autocorrelated among phylogenetic clades, the local axis was related to all four squirrel foraging investments. Squirrel foraging behaviors are influenced by a combination of phylogenetically conserved and more evolutionarily labile seed traits that is

  1. Segregating the Effects of Seed Traits and Common Ancestry of Hardwood Trees on Eastern Gray Squirrel Foraging Decisions.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Mekala; Willoughby, Janna R; Lichti, Nathanael I; Steele, Michael A; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae) to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or cached each seed. We estimated 11 physical and chemical seed traits for each species, and the phylogenetic relationships between the 23 hardwood trees. Variance partitioning revealed that considerable variation in foraging investment was attributable to seed traits alone (27-73%), and combined effects of seed traits and phylogeny of hardwood trees (5-55%). A phylogenetic PCA (pPCA) on seed traits and tree phylogeny resulted in 2 "global" axes of traits that were phylogenetically autocorrelated at the family and genus level and a third "local" axis in which traits were not phylogenetically autocorrelated. Collectively, these axes explained 30-76% of the variation in squirrel foraging investments. The first global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seed species with thin shells, low lipid and high carbohydrate content, was negatively related to time to consume and cache seeds and travel distance to cache. The second global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seeds with high protein, low tannin and low dormancy levels, was an important predictor of consumption time only. The local pPCA axis primarily reflected kernel mass. Although it explained only 12% of the variation in trait space and was not autocorrelated among phylogenetic clades, the local axis was related to all four squirrel foraging investments. Squirrel foraging behaviors are influenced by a combination of phylogenetically conserved and more evolutionarily labile seed traits that is consistent with a weak

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring of the diffusion process of deuterium-labeled molecules in wood. Part II: hardwood.

    PubMed

    Tsuchikawa, Satoru; Siesler, H W

    2003-06-01

    Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) transmission spectroscopy was applied to monitor the diffusion process of deuterium-labeled molecules in hardwood (Beech). The results are compared with previous data obtained on softwood (Sitka spruce) in order to consistently understand the state of order in cellulose of wood. The saturation accessibility and diffusion rate varied characteristically with the OH groups in different states of order in the wood substance, the diffusants, and the wood species, respectively. The variation of saturation accessibility should be associated with the fundamental difference of the fine structure such as the microfibrils in the wood substance. The effect of the anatomical cellular structure on the accessibility was reflected in the variation of the diffusion rate with the wood species. The size effect of the diffusants also played an important role for the diffusion process in wood. Since the volumetric percentage of wood fibers and wood rays is relatively similar, the dichroic effects due to the anisotropy of the cellulose chains were apparently diminished. Finally, we proposed a new interpretation of the fine structure of the microfibrils in the cell wall by comparing a series of results from hardwood and softwood. Each elementary fibril in the hardwood has a more homogeneous arrangement in the microfibrils compared to that in the softwood.

  3. PROLONGED FLOODING DECREASED STEM DENSITY, TREE SIZE AND SHIFTED COMPOSITION TOWARDS CLONAL SPECIES IN A CENTRAL FLORIDA HARDWOOD SWAMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human modifications of the landscape often cause changes in regional hydrology that, in turn, can result in the alteration of wetland hydrology. Altering hydrology can lead to hydroperiods that have prolonged or insufficient hydration, which can often cause changes in plant comm...

  4. Seasonal Variation in the Inputs and Fate of Mercury in a Northern Hardwood Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, C. T.; Wang, X.; Holsen, T.; Mao, H.

    2014-12-01

    Northern forest ecosystems are sensitive to atmospheric mercury deposition. In this study, we examined the fate of mercury inputs to the Huntington Wildlife Forest (HWF) of the Adirondack region of New York State, USA, by conducting a mercury mass budget over the annual cycle. Mercury exchange processes analyzed included wet deposition, dry deposition, foliar accumulation, throughfall, litterfall, soil evasion, and vertical and horizontal soil drainage loss. The mercury transport processes were quantified by integrating data collected from different sources over recent years (2004-2011). Dry mercury deposition (16.3 μg m-2 yr-1) was more important than wet mercury deposition (6.3 μg m-2 yr-1) at the HWF; most of the atmospheric mercury deposition (> 60%) was retained in the forest soils where litterfall (17.2 μg m-2 yr-1) was the major input pathway. Soil evasion (6.5 μg m-2 yr-1) was the most important mercury export mechanism, exceeding mercury fluxes in lateral and vertical drainage from soil (2.8 μg m-2 yr-1). Our analysis showed marked seasonal variation in the transfers of mercury largely mediated by annual canopy development of the forest ecosystem. The upland hardwood forest ecosystem was a net sink for atmospheric mercury deposition.

  5. Development of hardwood seed zones for Tennessee using a geographic information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Post, L.S.; Schlarbaum, S.E.; Van Manen, F.; Cecich, R.A.; Saxton, A.M.; Schneider, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    For species that have no or limited information on genetic variation and adaptability to nonnative sites, there is a need for seed collection guidelines based on biological, climatological, and/or geographical criteria. Twenty-eight hardwood species are currently grown for reforestation purposes at the East Tennessee State Nursery. The majority of these species have had no genetic testing to define guidelines for seed collection location and can be distributed to sites that have a very different environment than that of seed origin(s). Poor survival and/or growth may result if seedlings are not adapted to environmental conditions at the planting location. To address this problem, 30 yr of Tennessee county precipitation and minimum temperature data were analyzed and grouped using a centroid hierarchical cluster analysis. The weather data and elevational data were entered into a Geographic Information System (GIS) and separately layered over Bailey's Ecoregions to develop a seed zone system for Tennessee. The seed zones can be used as a practical guideline for collecting seeds to ensure that the resulting seedlings will be adapted to planting environments.

  6. Cellulose Nanofibers from Softwood, Hardwood, and Tunicate: Preparation-Structure-Film Performance Interrelation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yadong; Moser, Carl; Lindström, Mikael E; Henriksson, Gunnar; Li, Jiebing

    2017-04-10

    This work reveals the structural variations of cellulose nanofibers (CNF) prepared from different cellulose sources, including softwood (Picea abies), hardwood (Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla), and tunicate (Ciona intestinalis), using different preparation processes and their correlations to the formation and performance of the films prepared from the CNF. Here, the CNF are prepared from wood chemical pulps and tunicate isolated cellulose by an identical homogenization treatment subsequent to either an enzymatic hydrolysis or a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation. They show a large structural diversity in terms of chemical, morphological, and crystalline structure. Among others, the tunicate CNF consist of purer cellulose and have a degree of polymerization higher than that of wood CNF. Introduction of surface charges via the TEMPO-mediated oxidation is found to have significant impacts on the structure, morphology, optical, mechanical, thermal, and hydrophobic properties of the prepared films. For example, the film density is closely related to the charge density of the used CNF, and the tensile stress of the films is correlated to the crystallinity index of the CNF. In turn, the CNF structure is determined by the cellulose sources and the preparation processes. This study provides useful information and knowledge for understanding the importance of the raw material for the quality of CNF for various types of applications.

  7. Seasonal variation of biogenic VOC emissions above a mixed hardwood forest in northern Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T.; Guenther, A.; Spirig, C.; Hansel, A.; Fall, R.

    2003-12-01

    Fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at a hardwood forest in northern Michigan (UMBS, Prophet research site) over the course of the growing and senescing season. Methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone and isoprene were found to be the most abundant biogenic VOCs with maximum fluxes (mixing ratios in ppbv) of 2.0 mg m-2 h-1 (21.0), 1.0 mg m-2 h-1 (2.7), 1.6 mg m-2 h-1 (5.6) and 7.6 mg m-2 h-1 (6), respectively. The emission patterns show distinct seasonal changes and indicate a spring peak for methanol due to rapid leaf expansion and a fall peak for acetone and acetaldehyde most likely attributed to senescing and decaying biomass; isoprene emissions peaked as expected in the summer. We estimate potential source strengths of 8.9 Tg (C) y-1 methanol, 2.7 Tg (C) y-1 acetaldehyde and 7.0 Tg (C) y-1 acetone for deciduous temperate forests, which is a substantial contribution to the global atmospheric VOC budget.

  8. Bottomland hardwood reforestation for neotropical migratory birds: are we missing the forest for the trees?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.

    1997-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwoods on lands managed for wildlife or timber production has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.). Although techniques have been developed for successful oak establishment, these plantings often require 5 or more years before establishing a 3-dimensional forest structure. We suggest that lands planted to fast-growing early-successional species, in combination with oaks, provide: (1) more expedient benefits to Neotropical migratory birds; (2) greater forest diversity; (3) more rapid economic return to landowners; and (4) enhanced public relations. Under good growing conditions, and with effective weed control, some fast-growing species can develop a substantial 3-dimensional forest structure in as few as 2 or 3 years. Forest-breeding Neotropical migratory birds use stands planted with early successional species several years before sites planted solely with oaks. Where desirable, succession to forests with a high proportion of oak species can be achieved on sites initially planted with fast-growing species through silvicultural management.

  9. Improvement of butanol production from a hardwood hemicelluloses hydrolysate by combined sugar concentration and phenols removal.

    PubMed

    Mechmech, Fatma; Chadjaa, Hassan; Rahni, Mohamed; Marinova, Mariya; Ben Akacha, Najla; Gargouri, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    The feasibility of using hardwood hemicellulosic pre-hydrolysate recovered from a dissolving pulping process for Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation has been investigated. Dilutions and detoxification methods based on flocculation and nanofiltration were tested to determine the inhibitory concentration of phenolic compounds and to evaluate the efficiency of inhibitors removal on fermentation. Flocculation carried out with ferric sulfate was the most effective method for removal of phenolics (56%) and acetic acid (80%). The impact on fermentation was significant, with an ABE production of 6.40 g/L and 4.25 g/L when using flocculation or combined nanofiltration/flocculation respectively, as compared to a non-significant production for the untreated hydrolysate. By decreasing the toxicity effect of inhibitors, this study reports for the first time that the use of these techniques is efficient to increase the inhibitory concentration threshold of phenols, from 0.3g/L in untreated hydrolysate, to 1.1g/L in flocculated and in nanofiltrated and flocculated hydrolysates.

  10. Prioritizing bird conservation actions in the Prairie Hardwood transition of the Midwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Crimmins, Shawn M.; Pearce, Jennie

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale planning for the conservation of species is often hindered by a poor understanding of factors limiting populations. In regions with declining wildlife populations, it is critical that objective metrics of conservation success are developed to ensure that conservation actions achieve desired results. Using spatially explicit estimates of bird abundance, we evaluated several management alternatives for conserving bird populations in the Prairie Hardwood Transition of the United States. We designed landscapes conserving species at 50% of their current predicted abundance as well as landscapes attempting to achieve species population targets (which often required the doubling of current abundance). Conserving species at reduced (half of current) abundance led to few conservation conflicts. However, because of extensive modification of the landscape to suit human use, strategies for achieving regional population targets for forest bird species would be difficult under even ideal circumstances, and even more so if maintenance of grassland bird populations is also desired. Our results indicated that large-scale restoration of agricultural lands to native grassland and forest habitats may be the most productive conservation action for increasing bird population sizes but the level of landscape transition required to approach target bird population sizes may be societally unacceptable.

  11. Syringyl Methacrylate, a Hardwood Lignin-Based Monomer for High-Tg Polymeric Materials

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    As viable precursors to a diverse array of macromolecules, biomass-derived compounds must impart wide-ranging and precisely controllable properties to polymers. Herein, we report the synthesis and subsequent reversible addition–fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization of a new monomer, syringyl methacrylate (SM, 2,6-dimethoxyphenyl methacrylate), that can facilitate widespread property manipulations in macromolecules. Homopolymers and heteropolymers synthesized from SM and related monomers have broadly tunable and highly controllable glass transition temperatures ranging from 114 to 205 °C and zero-shear viscosities ranging from ∼0.2 kPa·s to ∼17,000 kPa·s at 220 °C, with consistent thermal stabilities. The tailorability of these properties is facilitated by the controlled polymerization kinetics of SM and the fact that one vs two o-methoxy groups negligibly affect monomer reactivity. Moreover, syringol, the precursor to SM, is an abundant component of depolymerized hardwood (e.g., oak) and graminaceous (e.g., switchgrass) lignins, making SM a potentially sustainable and low-cost candidate for tailoring macromolecular properties. PMID:27213117

  12. Changes in forest floor composition and chemistry along an invasive earthworm gradient in a hardwood forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdain, J. N.; Filley, T. R.; Top, S. M.; Thayer, C.; Johnson, A.; Jenkins, M.; Welle, P.; Zurn-Birkhimer, S.; Kroeger, T.; Gemscholars

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated how invasive European earthworm species have caused large and long lasting perturbations to forest floor dynamics and soil composition in many northern hardwood forests. The type of perturbation is driven primarily by the composition and activity of the invasive species and the original state of the forest system. Over the past 4 years we have investigated an invasive earthworm front moving through the Ojibwa Red Lake Reservation (Minnesota). Significant shifts in litter and organic horizon mass were observed, similar to other gradients identified in the region, but the species of earthworms exhibited differences compared to other reservation lands in the region--possibly driven by the availability of recreation fishing near to the sites. Sharp gradients in earthworm abundance were observed exhibiting shifts from 600- 900 individuals per meter square to no observed worms within only 500 meters. The gradients in earthworm activity also influenced decay rates of litter, as was observed by placement of litter decay bags across the gradient. Our findings demonstrate the tenuous nature of many tribal reservation forests and point to the need for policies to address spread on such species to minimize impacts to soil carbon stocks as well as culturally important plant species.

  13. Contrasting effects of hardwood and softwood organosolv lignins on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chenhuan; Tu, Maobing; Shi, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Ke; Olmos, Luis G; Yu, Shiyuan

    2014-07-01

    Identifying an appropriate parameter to elucidate effects of lignin on enzymatic hydrolysis is essential to understand the interactions between enzymes and lignin. Contrasting effects of hardwood organosolv lignin (EOL-SG) and softwood organosolv lignin (EOL-LP) on enzymatic hydrolysis were observed. The addition of EOL-SG (8 g/L) significantly improved the 72 h hydrolysis yields of organosolv pretreated sweetgum (OPSG) and loblolly pine (OPLP) from 49.3% to 68.6% and from 41.2% to 60.8%, respectively. In contrast, the addition of EOL-LP decreased the 72 h hydrolysis yields of OPSG and OPLP to 42.0% and 38.1%, respectively. A strong correlation between the distribution coefficients of cellulase enzymes on lignins and the changes of hydrolysis yields indicated that the inhibitory or stimulatory effects of organosolv lignins on enzymatic hydrolysis were governed by the distribution coefficients (R). The different R values probably were related to the electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bondings between enzymes and lignin.

  14. Kinetic modeling of hardwood prehydrolysis. Part 1. Xylan removal by water prehydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.H.

    1984-04-01

    The kinetics of xylan removal from quaking aspen, paper birch, American elm, and red maple by water prehydrolysis (autohydrolysis) was reevaluated, and additional data for the water prehydrolysis of southern red oak were obtained. Xylan removal from these hardwood species can be modeled kinetically as the sum of two parallel first-order reactions - one fast and one slow. The rate constant for the fast reaction is highly correlated with the rate constant for the slow reaction for all species studied. The rate constant for initial xylan removal usually reported in the literature is actually a complex function of the rate constants for both the fast and slow reactions and is based solely on the initial data points. This paper presents an improved method for modeling xylan removal that allows modeling throughout the course of its reactions. The reason there are two different rates of xylan removal can be more easily explained on the basis of accessibility rather than any variability in the polymeric structure of the xylan being removed. Thus, the slow rate may be due to a portion of the xylan being embedded within or attached to the lignin via lignin-carbohydrate bonds.

  15. Herbivorous insect response to group selection cutting in a southeastern bottomland hardwood forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Christopher E. Moorman.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT Malaise and pitfall traps were used to sample herbivorous insects in canopy gaps created by group-selection cutting in a bottomland hardwood forest in South Carolina. The traps were placed at the centers, edges, and in the forest adjacent to gaps of different sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and ages (1 and 7 yr old) during four sampling periods in 2001. Overall, the abundance and species richness of insect herbivores were greater at the centers of young gaps than at the edge of young gaps or in the forest surrounding young gaps. There were no differences in abundance or species richness among old gap locations (i.e., centers, edges, and forest), and we collected significantly more insects in young gaps than old gaps. The insect communities in old gaps were more similar to the forests surrounding them than young gap communities were to their respective forest locations, but the insect communities in the two forests locations (surrounding young and old gaps) had the highest percent similarity of all. Although both abundance and richness increased in the centers of young gaps with increasing gap size, these differences were not significant.Weattribute the increased numbers of herbivorous insects to the greater abundance of herbaceous plants available in young gaps.

  16. Prediction of mixed hardwood lignin and carbohydrate content using ATR-FTIR and FT-NIR.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chengfeng; Jiang, Wei; Via, Brian K; Fasina, Oladiran; Han, Guangting

    2015-05-05

    This study used Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy with principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS) to build hardwood prediction models. Wet chemistry analysis coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to obtain the chemical composition of these samples. Spectra loadings were studied to identify key wavenumber in the prediction of chemical composition. NIR-PLS and FTIR-PLS performed the best for extractives, lignin and xylose, whose residual predictive deviation (RPD) values were all over 3 and indicates the potential for either instrument to provide superior prediction models with NIR performing slightly better. During testing, it was found that more accurate determination of holocellulose content was possible when HPLC was used. Independent chemometric models, for FT-NIR and ATR-FTIR, identified similar functional groups responsible for the prediction of chemical composition and suggested that coupling the two techniques could strengthen interpretation and prediction.

  17. Growth of Chaetomium cellulolyticum on Alkali-Pretreated Hardwood Sawdust Solids and Pretreatment Liquor

    PubMed Central

    Pamment, N.; Moo-Young, M.; Hsieh, F.-H.; Robinson, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    The treatment of a hardwood sawdust with 1% NaOH solution at 121°C dissolved 19.7% of the dry matter, mainly hemicellulose and lignin. Fermentation of the treated solids by Chaetomium cellulolyticum for 48 h gave a product containing 12.5% crude protein (total N × 6.25) on a dry weight basis. The in vitro rumen digestibility of the 48-h fermentation product was 30%, compared to 24% for the alkali-treated but unfermented sawdust. Growth was independent of sawdust particle size in the range 40 to 100 mesh. Fermentation of the pretreatment liquor gave a product containing up to 50% crude protein (dry weight basis) with an in vitro rumen digestibility of 65 to 76%. Approximately 6.7 g of crude protein was obtained from the treated solids and 2.2 g from the pretreatment liquor per 100 g of sawdust treated. The product from the pretreatment liquor fermentation has potential as a high-protein animal feed supplement but could not be produced economically without an outlet for the relatively indigestible product from the solids fermentation. Growth on the pretreatment liquor was strongly pH dependent; there was a considerable increase in the lag phase when the pH was lowered from 7.5 to 5.2. This effect appears to be due to an inhibitor whose toxicity is reduced at high pH. PMID:16345308

  18. Decomposition and carbon storage of hardwood and softwood branches in laboratory-scale landfills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-07-01

    Tree branches are an important component of yard waste disposed in U.S. municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The objective of this study was to characterize the anaerobic biodegradability of hardwood (HW) and softwood (SW) branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions by measuring methane (CH4) yields, decay rates, the decomposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and organic carbon, as well as carbon storage factors (CSFs). Carbon conversions to CH4 and CO2 ranged from zero to 9.5% for SWs and 17.1 to 28.5% for HWs. When lipophilic or hydrophilic compounds present in some of the HW and SW samples were extracted, some samples showed increased biochemical methane potentials (BMPs). The average CH4 yield, carbon conversion, and CSF measured here, 59.4mLCH4g(-1) dry material, 13.9%, and 0.39gcarbonstoredg(-1) dry material, respectively, represent reasonable values for use in greenhouse gas inventories in the absence of detailed wood type/species data for landfilled yard waste.

  19. A multisensor system for texture-based high-speed hardwood lumber inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinnhofer, Alfred; Jakob, Gerhard; Deutschl, Edwin; Benesova, Wanda; Andreu, Jean-Philippe; Parziale, Giuseppe; Niel, Albert

    2005-03-01

    A novel solution for automatic hardwood inspection is presented. A sophisticated multi sensor system is required for reliable results. Our system works on a data stream of more than 50 MByte/Sec in input and up to 100 MByte/Sec inside the processing queue. The algorithm is divided into multiple steps. Along a fixed grid the images are decomposed into small squares. 55 texture- and color features are computed for each square. A Maximum Likelihood classifier assigns each square to one out of 12 defect classes with a recognition rate better than 97%. Depending on the defect type a dedicated threshold operation is performed for segmentation. Threshold levels and the selection of the input channel (RGB + filtered images) is the result of the former classification step. A fast algorithm computes bounding rectangles from blobs. Defect type dependent rules are used to combine rectangles. Two additional fast high resolution 3D measurement systems add board shape and 3D defect information. All defect rectangles are passing an additional plausibility check in the last data fusion process before they are delivered to the optimization computer. To guarantee a short response time, image acquisition and image processing are performed in parallel on parallel computing hardware.

  20. Study of the Neutralization and Stabilization of a Mixed Hardwood Bio-Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Moens, L.; Black, S. K.; Myers, M. D.; Czernik, S.

    2009-01-01

    Fast-pyrolysis bio-oil that is currently produced from lignocellulosic biomass in demonstration and semicommercial plants requires significant modification to become an acceptable transportation fuel. The high acidity and chemical instability of bio-oils render them incompatible with existing petroleum refinery processes that produce gasoline and diesel fuels. To facilitate the use of bio-oil as a feedstock in a traditional refinery infrastructure, there is considerable interest in upgrading bio-oils through chemical pathways that include converting the carboxylic acids and reactive carbonyl compounds into esters and acetals using low-cost alcohols. In this article, we discuss our observations with different approaches to esterification and etherification chemistry using a crude bio-oil derived from mixed hardwoods. The high water content in crude bio-oils (ca. 20?30%) creates equilibrium limitations in the condensation reactions that hamper the upgrading process in that the neutralization and stabilization steps cannot easily be driven to completion. The lowest acid number that we were able to obtain without causing serious degradation of the flow properties of the bio-oil had a total acid number of about 20, a value that is still too high for use in a traditional petroleum refinery.

  1. Enzymatic digestibility and pretreatment degradation products of AFEX-treated hardwoods (Populus nigra).

    PubMed

    Balan, Venkatesh; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Marshall, Derek; Sharma, Lekh N; Chambliss, C Kevin; Dale, Bruce E

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing need to find alternatives to crude oil as the primary feed stock for the chemicals and fuel industry and ethanol has been demonstrated to be a viable alternative. Among the various feed stocks for producing ethanol, poplar (Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii) is considered to have great potential as a biorefinery feedstock in the United States, due to their widespread availability and good productivity in several parts of the country. We have optimized AFEX pretreatment conditions (180 degrees C, 2:1 ammonia to biomass loading, 233% moisture, 30 minutes residence time) and by using various combinations of enzymes (commercical celluloses and xylanases) to achieve high glucan and xylan conversion (93 and 65%, respectively). We have also identified and quantified several important degradation products formed during AFEX using liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). As a part of degradation product analysis, we have also quantified oligosaccharides in the AFEX water wash extracts by acid hydrolysis. It is interesting to note that corn stover (C4 grass) can be pretreated effectively using mild AFEX pretreatment conditions, while on the other hand hardwood poplar requires much harsher AFEX conditions to obtain equivalent sugar yields upon enzymatic hydrolysis. Comparing corn stover and poplar, we conclude that pretreatment severity and enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency are dictated to a large extent by lignin carbohydrate complexes and arabinoxylan cross-linkages for AFEX.

  2. Sorption of chlorophenols from aqueous solution by granular activated carbon, filter coal, pine and hardwood.

    PubMed

    Hossain, G S M; McLaughlan, R G

    2012-09-01

    Wood and coal, as low-cost sorbents, have been evaluated as an alternative to commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) for chlorophenol removal. Kinetic experiments indicated that filter coal had a significantly lower rate of uptake (approximately 10% of final uptake was achieved after three hours) than the other sorbents, owing to intra-particle diffusion limitations. The data fitted a pseudo-second-order model. Sorption capacity data showed that GAC had a high sorption capacity (294-467 mg g(-1)) compared with other sorbents (3.2-7.5 mg(g-1)). However, wood and coal had a greater sorption capacity per unit surface area than GAC. Sorption equilibrium data was best predicted using a Freundlich adsorption model. The sorption capacity for all sorbents was 2-chlorophenol < 4-chlorophenol < 2, 4-dichlorophenol, which correlates well with solute hydrophobicity, although the relative differences were much less for coal than the other sorbents. The results showed that pine, hardwood and filter coal can be used as sorbent materials for the removal of chlorophenol from water; however, kinetic considerations may limit the application of filter coal.

  3. Preliminary Genomic Characterization of Ten Hardwood Tree Species from Multiplexed Low Coverage Whole Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Staton, Margaret; Best, Teodora; Khodwekar, Sudhir; Owusu, Sandra; Xu, Tao; Xu, Yi; Jennings, Tara; Cronn, Richard; Arumuganathan, A. Kathiravetpilla; Coggeshall, Mark; Gailing, Oliver; Liang, Haiying; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; Schlarbaum, Scott; Carlson, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Forest health issues are on the rise in the United States, resulting from introduction of alien pests and diseases, coupled with abiotic stresses related to climate change. Increasingly, forest scientists are finding genetic/genomic resources valuable in addressing forest health issues. For a set of ten ecologically and economically important native hardwood tree species representing a broad phylogenetic spectrum, we used low coverage whole genome sequencing from multiplex Illumina paired ends to economically profile their genomic content. For six species, the genome content was further analyzed by flow cytometry in order to determine the nuclear genome size. Sequencing yielded a depth of 0.8X to 7.5X, from which in silico analysis yielded preliminary estimates of gene and repetitive sequence content in the genome for each species. Thousands of genomic SSRs were identified, with a clear predisposition toward dinucleotide repeats and AT-rich repeat motifs. Flanking primers were designed for SSR loci for all ten species, ranging from 891 loci in sugar maple to 18,167 in redbay. In summary, we have demonstrated that useful preliminary genome information including repeat content, gene content and useful SSR markers can be obtained at low cost and time input from a single lane of Illumina multiplex sequence. PMID:26698853

  4. Forest pricing and concession policies: Managing the high forest of west and central Africa. World Bank technical paper; Politique de redevances et de concessions forestieres: gestion des futaies en afrique occidentale et centrale

    SciTech Connect

    Grut, M.; Gray, J.A.; Egli, N.

    1993-12-01

    This French edition describes forest revenue systems and concession policies in the tropical moist hardwood forests of West and Central Africa. The paper reviews current issues in silviculture, tenure, concession management, and biological and financial sustainable development. Until the fledgling forestry departments of governments in West and Central Africa are strengthened, the report concludes that a simple system of forest fees should be implemented. The report recommends that such a system emphasize bidding and concession fees.

  5. [Clinico-biochemical aspects of human adaptation in central Antarctica as applied to the problems of space biology and medicine].

    PubMed

    Kurbanov, V V; Khmel'kov, V P; Krupina, T N; Kuznetscv, A G; Kuz'min, M P

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the results of clinical, physiological and biochemical examination of 27 polar explorer--members of the 17th Soviet Antartic Expedition at the Vostok station. It gives data on the morbidity rate and describes the development of the asthenic-neurotic syndrome. On the basis of studies of catecholamines and serotonin, the role of the sympatho-adrenal system in the human adaptation to the harsh environments of the Central Antarctica has been shown.

  6. Developing a topographic model to predict the northern hardwood forest type within Carolina northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) recovery areas of the southern Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Andrew; Odom, Richard H.; Resler, Lynn M.; Ford, W. Mark; Prisley, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species composition and terrain variables at 338 points, to construct a robust, spatially predictive model. Terrain variables analyzed included elevation, aspect, slope gradient, site curvature, and topographic exposure. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess seven models based on associations noted in existing literature as well as an inclusive global model. Our results indicate that, on a regional scale, elevation, aspect, and topographic exposure index (TEI) are significant predictors of the presence of the northern hardwood forest type in the southern Appalachians. Our elevation + TEI model was the best approximating model (the lowest AICc score) for predicting northern hardwood forest type correctly classifying approximately 78% of our sample points. We then used these data to create region-wide predictive maps of the distribution of the northern hardwood forest type within CNFS recovery areas.

  7. Hardwood biochar and manure co-application to a calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, J A; Stromberger, M E; Lentz, R D; Dungan, R S

    2016-01-01

    Biochar may affect the mineralization rate of labile organic C sources such as manures via microbial community shifts, and subsequently affect nutrient release. In order to ascertain the positive or negative priming effect of biochar on manure, dairy manure (2% by wt.) and a hardwood-based, fast pyrolysis biochar were applied (0%, 1%, 2%, and 10% by wt.) to a calcareous soil. Destructive sampling occurred at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months to monitor for changes in soil chemistry, water content, microbial respiration, bacterial populations, and microbial community structure. Overall results showed that increasing biochar application rate improved the soil water content, which may be beneficial in limited irrigation or rainfall areas. Biochar application increased soil organic C content and plant-available Fe and Mn, while a synergistic biochar-manure effect increased plant-available Zn. Compared to the other rates, the 10% biochar application lowered concentrations of NO3-N; effects appeared masked at lower biochar rates due to manure application. Over time, soil NO3-N increased likely due to manure N mineralization, yet soil NO3-N in the 10% biochar rate remained lower as compared to other treatments. In the presence of manure, only the 10% biochar application caused subtle microbial community structure shifts by increasing the relative amounts of two fatty acids associated with Gram-negative bacteria and decreasing Gram-positive bacterial fatty acids, each by ∼1%. Our previous findings with biochar alone suggested an overall negative priming effect with increasing biochar application rates, yet when co-applied with manure the negative priming effect was eliminated.

  8. Comparison of photosynthetic damage from arthropod herbivory and pathogen infection in understory hardwood saplings.

    PubMed

    Aldea, Mihai; Hamilton, Jason G; Resti, Joseph P; Zangerl, Arthur R; Berenbaum, May R; Frank, Thomas D; Delucia, Evan H

    2006-08-01

    Arthropods and pathogens damage leaves in natural ecosystems and may reduce photosynthesis at some distance away from directly injured tissue. We quantified the indirect effects of naturally occurring biotic damage on leaf-level photosystem II operating efficiency (Phi(PSII)) of 11 understory hardwood tree species using chlorophyll fluorescence and thermal imaging. Maps of fluorescence parameters and leaf temperature were stacked for each leaf and analyzed using a multivariate method adapted from the field of quantitative remote sensing. Two tree species, Quercus velutina and Cercis canadensis, grew in plots exposed to ambient and elevated atmospheric CO(2) and were infected with Phyllosticta fungus, providing a limited opportunity to examine the potential interaction of this element of global change and biotic damage on photosynthesis. Areas surrounding damage had depressed Phi(PSII )and increased down-regulation of PSII, and there was no evidence of compensation in the remaining tissue. The depression of Phi(PSII) caused by fungal infections and galls extended >2.5 times further from the visible damage and was approximately 40% more depressed than chewing damage. Areas of depressed Phi(PSII) around fungal infections on oaks growing in elevated CO(2) were more than 5 times larger than those grown in ambient conditions, suggesting that this element of global change may influence the indirect effects of biotic damage on photosynthesis. For a single Q. velutina sapling, the area of reduced Phi(PSII) was equal to the total area directly damaged by insects and fungi. Thus, estimates based only on the direct effect of biotic agents may greatly underestimate their actual impact on photosynthesis.

  9. Windthrow and salvage logging in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, K.D.; Schulte, L.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Although the initial response to salvage (also known as, post-disturbance or sanitary) logging is known to vary among system components, little is known about longer term forest recovery. We examine forest overstory, understory, soil, and microtopographic response 25 years after a 1977 severe wind disturbance on the Flambeau River State Forest in Wisconsin, USA, a portion of which was salvage logged. Within this former old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest, tree dominance has shifted from Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) to broad-leaf deciduous species (Ulmus americana, Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Populus tremuloides, and Betula alleghaniensis) in both the salvaged and unsalvaged areas. While the biological legacies of pre-disturbance seedlings, saplings, and mature trees were initially more abundant in the unsalvaged area, regeneration through root suckers and stump sprouts was common in both areas. After 25 years, tree basal area, sapling density, shrub layer density, and seedling cover had converged between unsalvaged and salvaged areas. In contrast, understory herb communities differed between salvaged and unsalvaged forest, with salvaged forest containing significantly higher understory herb richness and cover, and greater dominance of species benefiting from disturbance, especially Solidago species. Soil bulk density, pH, organic carbon content, and organic nitrogen content were also significantly higher in the salvaged area. The structural legacy of tip-up microtopography remains more pronounced in the unsalvaged area, with significantly taller tip-up mounds and deeper pits. Mosses and some forest herbs, including Athyrium filix-femina and Hydrophyllum virginianum, showed strong positive responses to this tip-up microrelief, highlighting the importance of these structural legacies for understory biodiversity. In sum, although the pathways of recovery differed, this forest appeared to be as resilient to the compound disturbances of windthrow

  10. Crossing the pedogenetic threshold: Apparent phosphorus limitation by soil microorganisms in unglaciated acidic eastern hardwood forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deforest, J. L.; Smemo, K. A.; Burke, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The availability of soil phosphorus (P) can significantly influence microbial community composition and the ecosystem-level processes they mediate. However, the threshold at which soil microorganisms become functionally P-limited is unclear because of soil acidity effect on P availability. We reason that acidic temperate hardwood forest ecosystems are, in fact, functionally P-limited, but compensation occur via soil microbial production of phosphatase enzymes. We tested this hypothesis in glaciated and unglaciated mature mixed-mesophytic forests in eastern Ohio where both soil pH and P availability had been experientially manipulated. We measured the activity of two P acquiring soil enzymes, phosphomonoesterase (PMono) and phosphodiesterase (PDi), to understand how soil acidity and available P influence microbial function. Our experimental treatments elevated ambient soil pH from below 4.5 to around 5.5 and increased readily available phosphate from 3 to ~25 mg P/kg on glaciated soils and from 0.5 to ~5 mg P/kg on unglaciated soils. The P treatment decreased the activity of PDi by 82% relative to the control on unglaciated soils, but we observed no P treatment effect on glaciated soils. A similar result was observed for PMono. Soil pH, alone, did not significantly influence enzyme activities. Results suggest that soil microorganisms are more likely to be P-limited in older unglaciated soils. However, dramatically higher phosphatase activity in response to very low P availability suggests that an underlying ecosystem P limitation can be ameliorated by soil microbial community dynamics. This mechanism may be more important for older, unglaciated soils that have already crossed a pedogenic threshold where P availability influences ecosystem and microbial function.

  11. Mycorrhizal response to experimental pH and P manipulation in acidic hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    Kluber, Laurel A; Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R; Coyle, Kaitlin P; DeForest, Jared L; Hewins, Charlotte R; Shaw, Alanna N; Smemo, Kurt A; Burke, David J

    2012-01-01

    Many temperate forests of the Northeastern United States and Europe have received significant anthropogenic acid and nitrogen (N) deposition over the last century. Although temperate hardwood forests are generally thought to be N-limited, anthropogenic deposition increases the possibility of phosphorus (P) limiting productivity in these forest ecosystems. Moreover, inorganic P availability is largely controlled by soil pH and biogeochemical theory suggests that forests with acidic soils (i.e.,

  12. Biocrude oils from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter and hardwood

    SciTech Connect

    Agblevor, F.A.; Beis, S.; Kim, S.S.; Tarrant, R.; Mante, N.O.

    2010-02-15

    The safe and economical disposal of poultry litter is becoming a major problem for the USA poultry industry. Current disposal methods such as land application and feeding to cattle are now under pressure because of pollution of water resources due to leaching, runoffs and concern for mad cow disease contamination of the food chain. Incineration or combustion is potentially applicable to large scale operations, but for small scale growers and EPA non-attainment areas, this is not a suitable option because of the high cost of operation. Thus, there is a need for developing appropriate technologies to dispose poultry litter. Poultry litters from broiler chicken and turkey houses, as well as bedding material were converted into biocrude oil in a fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor. The biocrude oil yields were relatively low ranging from 36 wt% to 50 wt% depending on the age and bedding material content of the litter. The bedding material (which was mostly hardwood shavings) biocrude oil yield was 63 wt%. The higher heating value (HHV) of the poultry litter biocrude oils ranged from 26 MJ/kg to 29 MJ/kg while that of the bedding material was 24 MJ/kg. The oils had relatively high nitrogen content ranging from 4 wt% to 8 wt%, very low sulfur (<1 wt%) content and high viscosity. The viscosities of the oils appeared to be a function of both the source of litter and the pyrolysis temperature. The biochar yield ranged from 27 wt% to 40 wt% depending on the source, age and composition of the poultry litter. The biochar ash content ranged from 24 wt% to 54 wt% and was very rich in inorganic components such as potassium and phosphorous.

  13. Forest liming increases forest floor carbon and nitrogen stocks in a mixed hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Melvin, April M; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Goodale, Christine L

    2013-12-01

    In acid-impacted forests, decreased soil pH and calcium (Ca) availability have the potential to influence biotic and abiotic controls on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. We investigated the effects of liming on above- and belowground C and N pools and fluxes 19 years after lime addition to the Woods Lake Watershed, Adirondack Park, New York, USA. Soil pH and exchangeable Ca remained elevated in the forest floor and upper mineral soil of limed areas. Forest floor C and N stocks were significantly larger in limed plots (68 vs. 31 Mg C/ha, and 3.0 vs. 1.5 Mg N/ha), resulting from a larger mass of Oa material. Liming reduced soil basal respiration rates by 17% and 43% in the Oe and Oa horizons, respectively. Net N mineralization was significantly lower in the limed soils for both forest floor horizons. Additional measurements of forest floor depth outside of our study plots, but within the treatment and control subcatchments also showed a deeper forest floor in limed areas; however, the mean depth of limed forest floor was 5 cm shallower than that observed in our study plots. Using a differential equation model of forest floor C dynamics, we found that liming effects on C fluxes measured within our study plots could explain the small observed increase in the Oe C stock but were not large enough to explain the increase in the Oa. Our catchment-wide assessment of forest floor depth, however, indicates that our plot analysis may be an overestimate of ecosystem-scale C and N stocks. Our results suggest that the mechanisms identified in our study, primarily liming-induced reduction in decomposition rates, may account for much of the observed increase in forest floor C. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding of the effects of liming in hardwood forests, and the long-term impacts of acid deposition on forest C and N uptake and retention.

  14. Social Insects Dominate Eastern US Temperate Hardwood Forest Macroinvertebrate Communities in Warmer Regions

    PubMed Central

    King, Joshua R.; Warren, Robert J.; Bradford, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms, termites, and ants are common macroinvertebrates in terrestrial environments, although for most ecosystems data on their abundance and biomass is sparse. Quantifying their areal abundance is a critical first step in understanding their functional importance. We intensively sampled dead wood, litter, and soil in eastern US temperate hardwood forests at four sites, which span much of the latitudinal range of this ecosystem, to estimate the abundance and biomass m−2 of individuals in macroinvertebrate communities. Macroinvertebrates, other than ants and termites, differed only slightly among sites in total abundance and biomass and they were similar in ordinal composition. Termites and ants were the most abundant macroinvertebrates in dead wood, and ants were the most abundant in litter and soil. Ant abundance and biomass m−2 in the southernmost site (Florida) were among the highest values recorded for ants in any ecosystem. Ant and termite biomass and abundance varied greatly across the range, from <1% of the total macroinvertebrate abundance (in the northern sites) to >95% in the southern sites. Our data reveal a pronounced shift to eusocial insect dominance with decreasing latitude in a temperate ecosystem. The extraordinarily high social insect relative abundance outside of the tropics lends support to existing data suggesting that ants, along with termites, are globally the most abundant soil macroinvertebrates, and surpass the majority of other terrestrial animal (vertebrate and invertebrate) groups in biomass m−2. Our results provide a foundation for improving our understanding of the functional role of social insects in regulating ecosystem processes in temperate forest. PMID:24116079

  15. Supplemental planting of early successional tree species during bottomland hardwood afforestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Outcalt, Kenneth W.

    2002-01-01

    Reforestation of former bottom land hardwood forests that have been cleared for agriculture (i.e., afforestation) has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya spp.). These species are slow to develop vertical forest structure. However, vertical forest structure is key to colonization of afforested sites by forest birds. Although early-successional tree species often enhance vertical structure, few of these species invade afforested sites that are distant from seed sources. Furthermore, many land mangers are reluctant to establish and maintain stands of fast-growing plantation trees. Therefore, on 40 afforested bottomland sites, we supplemented heavy-seeded seedlings with 8 patches of fast-growing trees: 4 patches of 12 eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) stem cuttings and 4 patches of 12 American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) seedlings. To enhance survival and growth, tree patches were subjected to 4 weed control treatments: (1) physical weed barriers, (2) chemical herbicide, (3) both physical and chemical weed control, or (4) no weed control. Overall, first-year survival of cottonwood and sycamore was 25 percent and 47 percent, respectively. Second-year survival of extant trees was 52 percent for cottonwood and 77 percent for sycamore. Physical weed barriers increased survival of cottonwoods to 30 percent versus 18 percent survival with no weed control. Similarly, sycamore survival was increased from 49 percent without weed control to 64 percent with physical weed barriers. Chemical weed control adversely impacted sycamore and reduced survival to 35 percent. Tree heights did not differ between species or among weed control treatments. Girdling of trees by deer often destroyed saplings. Thus, little increase in vertical structure was detected between growing seasons. Application of fertilizer and protection via tree shelters did not improve survival or vertical development of sycamore or cottonwood.

  16. Long-term isoprene flux measurements above a northern hardwood forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressley, Shelley; Lamb, Brian; Westberg, Hal; Flaherty, Julia; Chen, Jack; Vogel, Christoph

    2005-04-01

    We report continuous whole canopy isoprene emission fluxes from a northern hardwood forest in Michigan for the 1999-2002 growing seasons. The eddy covariance fluxes of isoprene, CO2, latent heat, and sensible heat are presented along with an analysis of the seasonal and year-to-year variations. Measurements were made in collaboration with the AmeriFlux site located at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) and the Program for Research on Oxidants: PHotochemistry, Emissions, and Transport (PROPHET). In general, isoprene emissions increased throughout the day with increasing temperature and light levels, peaked at midafternoon, and declined to zero by night. There were significant variations from one 30-min period to the next, and from one day to the next. Average midday isoprene fluxes were 2.8, 3.2, and 2.9 mg C m-2 h-1 for 2000 through 2002, respectively. Insufficient data were available to include 1999. Last frost and full leaf out were significantly later in 2002 compared to the other years; however, total accumulated isoprene emissions for each year varied by less than 10%. Fully developed isoprene emissions occurred between 400 and 500 heating degree days, roughly half those required at other sites. Using long-term net ecosystem exchange measurements from the UMBS˜Flux group, isoprene emissions represent between 1.7 to 3.1% of the net carbon uptake at this site. Observations for 2000-2002 were compared with the BEIS3 emission model. Estimates agree well with observations during the midsummer period, but BEIS3 overestimates observations during the spring onset of emissions and the fall decline in emissions. This work provides a unique long-term data set useful for verifying canopy scale models and to help us better understand the dynamics of biosphere-atmosphere exchange of isoprene.

  17. Biocrude oils from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter and hardwood.

    PubMed

    Agblevor, F A; Beis, S; Kim, S S; Tarrant, R; Mante, N O

    2010-02-01

    The safe and economical disposal of poultry litter is becoming a major problem for the USA poultry industry. Current disposal methods such as land application and feeding to cattle are now under pressure because of pollution of water resources due to leaching, runoffs and concern for mad cow disease contamination of the food chain. Incineration or combustion is potentially applicable to large scale operations, but for small scale growers and EPA non-attainment areas, this is not a suitable option because of the high cost of operation. Thus, there is a need for developing appropriate technologies to dispose poultry litter. Poultry litters from broiler chicken and turkey houses, as well as bedding material were converted into biocrude oil in a fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor. The biocrude oil yields were relatively low ranging from 36 wt% to 50 wt% depending on the age and bedding material content of the litter. The bedding material (which was mostly hardwood shavings) biocrude oil yield was 63 wt%. The higher heating value (HHV) of the poultry litter biocrude oils ranged from 26 MJ/kg to 29 MJ/kg while that of the bedding material was 24 MJ/kg. The oils had relatively high nitrogen content ranging from 4 wt% to 8 wt%, very low sulfur (<1 wt%) content and high viscosity. The viscosities of the oils appeared to be a function of both the source of litter and the pyrolysis temperature. The biochar yield ranged from 27 wt% to 40 wt% depending on the source, age and composition of the poultry litter. The biochar ash content ranged from 24 wt% to 54 wt% and was very rich in inorganic components such as potassium and phosphorous.

  18. Avian response to microclimate in canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Champlin, Tracey B.; Kilgo, John C.; Gumpertz, Marcia L.; Moorman, Christopher E.

    2009-04-01

    Abstract - Microclimate may infl uence use of early successional habitat by birds. We assessed the relationships between avian habitat use and microclimate (temperature, light intensity, and relative humidity) in experimentally created canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest on the Savannah River Site, SC. Gaps were 2- to 3-year-old group-selection timber harvest openings of three sizes (0.13, 0.26, 0.50 ha). Our study was conducted from spring through fall, encompassing four bird-use periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration), in 2002 and 2003. We used mist netting and simultaneously recorded microclimate variables to determine the influence of microclimate on bird habitat use. Microclimate was strongly affected by net location within canopy gaps in both years. Temperature generally was higher on the west side of gaps, light intensity was greater in gap centers, and relative humidity was higher on the east side of gaps. However, we found few relationships between bird captures and the microclimate variables. Bird captures were inversely correlated with temperature during the breeding and postbreeding periods in 2002 and positively correlated with temperature during spring 2003. Captures were high where humidity was high during post-breeding 2002, and captures were low where humidity was high during spring 2003. We conclude that variations in the local microclimate had minor infl uence on avian habitat use within gaps. Instead, habitat selection in relatively mild regions like the southeastern US is based primarily on vegetation structure, while other factors, including microclimate, are less important.

  19. Adsorption of Clostridium thermocellum cellulases onto pretreated mixed hardwood, avicel, and lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardez, T.D.; Lyford, K.; Hogsett, D.A.; Lynd, L.R. . Thayer School of Engineering)

    1993-09-20

    Adsorption of Avicel-hydrolyzing activity was examined with respect to: mixed hardwood flour pretreated with 1% sulfuric acid for 9 s at 220C (PTW220), lignin prepared from PTW220 by either acid or enzymatic hydrolysis, and Avicel. Experiments were conducted at 60C for all materials, and also at 25C for PTW220. Based on transient adsorption results and reaction rates, times were selected at which to characterize adsorption at 60C as follows: PTW220, 1 min; lignin, 30 min; and Avicel, 45 min. Similar results were obtained for adsorption of cellulase activity to PTW220 at 25 and 60C, and for lignin prepared by enzymatic and acid hydrolysis. For all materials, adsorption was described well by a Langmuir equation, although the reversibility of adsorption was not investigated. Langmuir affinity constants (L/g) were: PTW220, 109; lignin, 17.9; Avicel, 4.3; cellulose from PTW220, [ge]187. Langmuir capacity constants were 760 for PTW220 and 42 for Avicel; the cellulase binding capacity of lignin appeared to be very high under the conditions examined, and could not be determined. At low and moderate cellulase loadings at least, the majority of cellulase activity adsorbed to PTVV220 is bound to the cellulosic component. The results indicate that PTW220, and its cellulose component in particular, differ radically from Avicel with respect to adsorption. Avicel-hydrolyzing activity and CMC-hydrolyzing activities were found to bind to Avicel with a constant ratio of essentially one, consistent with adsorption of a multi-activity complex.

  20. Mycorrhizal Response to Experimental pH and P Manipulation in Acidic Hardwood Forests

    PubMed Central

    Kluber, Laurel A.; Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R.; Coyle, Kaitlin P.; DeForest, Jared L.; Hewins, Charlotte R.; Shaw, Alanna N.; Smemo, Kurt A.; Burke, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Many temperate forests of the Northeastern United States and Europe have received significant anthropogenic acid and nitrogen (N) deposition over the last century. Although temperate hardwood forests are generally thought to be N-limited, anthropogenic deposition increases the possibility of phosphorus (P) limiting productivity in these forest ecosystems. Moreover, inorganic P availability is largely controlled by soil pH and biogeochemical theory suggests that forests with acidic soils (i.e.,

  1. Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests.

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, M., D.; Hanula, J., L.; Horn, S.; Kilgo, J., C.; Moorman, C., E.

    2004-05-13

    For. Ecol. and Mgt. 199:259-272. Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (ý 1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps (ý 6 years) had virtually none. The total abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Brentidae, Bostrichidae, and Curculionidae (Scolytinae and Platypodinae)) was higher in the center of young gaps than in the center of old gaps. The abundance was higher in the center of young gaps than in the surrounding forest, while the forest surrounding old gaps and the edge of old gaps had a higher abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles than did the center of old gaps. There was no difference in wood-dwelling beetle abundance between gaps of different size, but diversity was lower in 0.13 ha old gaps than in 0.26 ha or 0.50 ha old gaps. We suspect that gap size has more of an effect on woodborer abundance than indicated here because malaise traps sample a limited area. The predaceous beetle family Cleridae showed a very similar trend to that of the woodborers. Coarse woody debris is an important resource for many organisms, and our results lend further support to forest management practices that preserve coarse woody debris created during timber removal.

  2. Production physiology of three fast-growing hardwood species along a soil resource gradient.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Dawn E; Jose, Shibu

    2005-12-01

    We determined how specific leaf area (SLA), specific leaf nitrogen (SLN), leaf area index (LAI), light-saturated photosynthesis (Amax) and aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) of three commercially important hardwood species, eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.), American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) and cherrybark oak (Quercus falcata var.pagodafolia Ell.), vary across a soil resource gradient. Five treatments were applied in a randomized block design (control, irrigation only (IRR), and irrigation plus fertilization with 56, 112 or 224 kg N ha-1 year-1 (N56, N112 and N224)) with four replications per species. When trees were 6 years old, Amax, SLA, SLN, LAI and ANPP were quantified during peak leaf production within a single growing season. In all species, Amax for sun leaves was significantly higher than for shade leaves (34, 32 and 29 micromol m2 s-1 versus 27, 23 and 23 micromol m2 s-1 for cottonwood, cherrybark oak and sycamore sun and shade leaves, respectively) and tended to plateau in the N112 treatment. The SLA was significantly lower in sun than in shade leaves and reached a plateau in IRR-treated cottonwood and sycamore, and in N56-treated oak. Values of SLN peaked in the N122 treatment for cottonwood sun leaves (1.73 g N m2) and in the N56 treatment for sycamore and oak (1.54 and 1.90 g N m2, respectively). In sun and shade leaves of all species, Amax increased with increasing SLN. Cherrybark oak LAI reached a plateau across the resource gradient in the N56 treatment, whereas cottonwood and sycamore LAI reached a plateau in the IRR treatment. All species exhibited significant curvilinear relationships between canopy Amax and ANPP. These findings indicate that nutrients and water regulate leaf-level traits such as SLA and SLN, which in turn influence LAI and canopy photosynthesis, thereby affecting ANPP at the tree and stand levels.

  3. Bottomland hardwood establishment and avian colonization of reforested sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.; King, S.L.; Kaminski, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwood sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has markedly increased in recent years, primarily due to financial incentive programs such as the Wetland Reserve Program, Partners for Wildlife Program, and state and private conservation programs. An avian conservation plan for the Mississippi Alluvial Valley proposes returning a substantial area of cropland to forested wetlands. Understanding how birds colonize reforested sites is important to assess the effectiveness of avian conservation. We evaluated establishment of woody species and assessed bird colonization on 89 reforested sites. These reforested sites were primarily planted with heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya illinoensis). Natural invasion of light-seeded species was expected to diversify these forests for wildlife and sustainable timber harvest. Planted tree species averaged 397 + 36 stems/ha-1, whereas naturally invading trees averaged 1675 + 241 stems/ha. However, naturally invading trees were shorter than planted trees and most natural invasion occurred <100 m from an existing forested edge. Even so, planted trees were relatively slow to develop vertical structure, especially when compared with tree species planted and managed for pulpwood production. Slow development of vertical structure resulted in grassland bird species, particularly dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), being the dominant avian colonizers for the first 7 years post-planting. High priority bird species (as defined by Partners in Flight), such as prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), were not frequently detected until stands were 15 years old. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed tree height had the greatest influence on the bird communities colonizing reforested sites. Because colonization by forest birds is dependent on tree height, we recommend inclusion of at least one fast-growing tree

  4. Regional extent of an ecosystem engineer: earthworm invasion in northern hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, Andrew R; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

    2007-09-01

    The invasion of exotic earthworms into northern temperate and boreal forests previously devoid of earthworms is an important driver of ecosystem change. Earthworm invasion can cause significant changes in soil structure and communities, nutrient cycles, and the diversity and abundance of herbaceous plants. However, the regional extent and patterns of this invasion are poorly known. We conducted a regional survey in the Chippewa and Chequamegon National Forests, in Minnesota and Wisconsin, U.S.A., respectively, to measure the extent and patterns of earthworm invasion and their relationship to potential earthworm introduction sites. We sampled earthworms, soils, and vegetation in 20 mature, sugar maple-dominated forest stands in each national forest and analyzed the relationship between the presence of five earthworm taxonomic groups, habitat variables, and distance to the nearest potential introduction site. Earthworm invasion was extensive but incomplete in the two national forests. Four of the six earthworm taxonomic groups occurred in 55-95% of transects; however 20% of all transects were invaded by only one taxonomic group that has relatively minor ecological effects. Earthworm taxonomic groups exhibited a similar sequence of invasion found in other studies: Dendrobaena > Aporrectodea = Lumbricus juveniles > L. rubellus > L. terrestris. Distance to the nearest road was the best predictor of earthworm invasion in Wisconsin while distance to the nearest cabin was the best predictor in Minnesota. These data allow us to make preliminary assessments of landscape patterns of earthworm invasion. As an example, we estimate that 82% of upland mesic hardwood stands in the Wisconsin region are likely invaded by most taxonomic groups while only 3% are unlikely to be invaded at present. Distance to roads and cabins provides a coarse-scale predictor of earthworm invasion to focus stand-level assessments that will help forest managers better understand current and potential

  5. Modeling the influence of dynamic zoning of forest harvesting on ecological succession in a northern hardwoods landscape.

    PubMed

    Zollner, Patrick A; Gustafson, Eric J; He, Hong S; Radeloff, Volker C; Mladenoff, David J

    2005-04-01

    Dynamic zoning (systematic alteration in the spatial and temporal allocation of even-aged forest management practices) has been proposed as a means to change the spatial pattern of timber harvest across a landscape to maximize forest interior habitat while holding timber harvest levels constant. Simulation studies have established that dynamic zoning strategies produce larger tracts of interior, closed canopy forest, thus increasing the value of these landscapes for interior-dependent wildlife. We used the simulation model LANDIS to examine how the implementation of a dynamic zoning strategy would change trajectories of ecological succession in the Great Divide Ranger District of the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest in northern Wisconsin over 500 years. The components of dynamic zoning strategies (number of zones in a scenario and the length of the hiatus between successive entries into zones) and their interaction had highly significant impacts on patterns of forest succession. Dynamic zoning scenarios with more zones and shorter hiatus lengths increased the average amount of the forest dominated by early successional aspen (Populus sp.). Dynamic zoning scenarios with two zones produced more late successional mature northern hardwoods than scenarios with four zones. Dynamic zoning scenarios with very short (30 years) or very long (120 years) hiatus lengths resulted in more late successional mature northern hardwoods than scenarios with intermediate hiatus lengths (60 and 90 years). However, none of the dynamic scenarios produced as much late successional mature northern hardwoods as the static alternative. Furthermore, the amounts of all habitat types in all dynamic zoning scenarios fluctuated greatly in time and space relative to static alternatives, which could negatively impact wildlife species that require a stable amount of habitat above some minimum critical threshold. Indeed, implementing dynamic zoning scenarios of different designs would have both

  6. Dispersal limitation drives successional pathways in Central Siberian forests under current and intensified fire regimes.

    PubMed

    Tautenhahn, Susanne; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Jung, Martin; Kattge, Jens; Bohlman, Stephanie A; Heilmeier, Hermann; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Kahl, Anja; Wirth, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Fire is a primary driver of boreal forest dynamics. Intensifying fire regimes due to climate change may cause a shift in boreal forest composition toward reduced dominance of conifers and greater abundance of deciduous hardwoods, with potential biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks to regional and global climate. This shift has already been observed in some North American boreal forests and has been attributed to changes in site conditions. However, it is unknown if the mechanisms controlling fire-induced changes in deciduous hardwood cover are similar among different boreal forests, which differ in the ecological traits of the dominant tree species. To better understand the consequences of intensifying fire regimes in boreal forests, we studied postfire regeneration in five burns in the Central Siberian dark taiga, a vast but poorly studied boreal region. We combined field measurements, dendrochronological analysis, and seed-source maps derived from high-resolution satellite images to quantify the importance of site conditions (e.g., organic layer depth) vs. seed availability in shaping postfire regeneration. We show that dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers was the main factor determining postfire regeneration composition and density. Site conditions had significant but weaker effects. We used information on postfire regeneration to develop a classification scheme for successional pathways, representing the dominance of deciduous hardwoods vs. evergreen conifers at different successional stages. We estimated the spatial distribution of different successional pathways under alternative fire regime scenarios. Under intensified fire regimes, dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers is predicted to become more severe, primarily due to reduced abundance of surviving seed sources within burned areas. Increased dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers, in turn, is predicted to increase the prevalence of successional pathways dominated by deciduous hardwoods

  7. Long-term effects of a lock and dam and greentree reservoir management on a bottomland hardwood forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, S.L.; Allen, J.A.; McCoy, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of a lock and dam and greentree reservoir management on a riparian bottomland hardwood forest in southern Arkansas, USA, by monitoring stress, mortality, and regeneration of bottomland hardwood trees in 53 permanent sampling plots from 1987-1995. The lock and dam and greentree reservoir management have altered the timing, depth, and duration of flooding within the wetland forest. Evaluation of daily river stage data indicates that November overbank flooding (i.e. 0.3 m above normal pool) of 1 week duration occurred only 10 times from 1950 to 1995 and four of these occurrences were the result of artificial flooding of the greentree reservoir. Results of the vegetation study indicate that the five most common dominant and co-dominant species were overcup oak, water hickory, Nuttall oak, willow oak, and sweetgum. Mortality of willow oak exceeded that of all other species except Nuttall oak. Nuttall oak, willow oak, and water hickory had much higher percentages of dead trees concentrated within the dominant and co-dominant crown classes. Probit analysis indicated that differences in stress and mortality were due to a combination of flooding and stand competition. Overcup oak appears to exhibit very little stress regardless of crown class and elevation and, with few exceptions, had a significantly greater probability of occurring within lower stress classes than any other species. Only 22 new stems were recruited into the 5 cm diameter-at-breast height size class between 1990-1995 and of these, three were Nuttall oak, three were water hickory, and one was sweetgum. No recruitment into the 5 cm diameter-at-breast height size class occurred for overcup oak or willow oak. The results of the study suggest that the forest is progressing to a more water-tolerant community dominated by overcup oak. A conservative flooding strategy would minimize tree stress and maintain quality wildlife habitat within the forested wetland.The long

  8. Environmental impact assessment of a mixed tropical hardwood integrated pulp and paper mill--A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, M. ); Landner, L. )

    1993-11-01

    An overview of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) for a mixed tropical hardwood integrated pulp and paper mill in Sabah, Malaysia, is presented. The EIA before the mill construction included, among other things, a detailed baseline study and also environmental impact predictions based on certain mill design and pollution abatement measures. Subsequent to mill construction (during the operational stage), data were gathered to determine the quality of the ambient air as well as the effluent and the receiving bay water quality. These post-construction monitoring results were then compared with the earlier impact predictions, and showed, in general, a good correspondence.

  9. Establishing even-aged pine and pine-hardwood mixtures in the Ouachita mountains using the shelterwood method

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, M.G.; Baker, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The study was established in 1989 as a joint effort among the Ouachita National Forest, the Southern Forest Experiment Station, and the University of Arkansas at Monticello. The goals of the study are: (1) to determine the levels at which pine and hardwoods are compatible in the shelterwood regeneration method by evaluating the amount, spatial distribution and development of regeneration and measuring the growth and yield of the retained seedtrees, (2) determine the damage to regeneration caused by the eventual seedtree harvest, and (3) to evaluate the wildlife habitat, water quality, and aesthetics of shelterwood stands so that comparisons can be made with uneven-aged stands.

  10. Functional diversity response to hardwood forest management varies across taxa and spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Murray, Bryan D; Holland, Jeffrey D; Summerville, Keith S; Dunning, John B; Saunders, Michael R; Jenkins, Michael A

    2017-03-15

    Contemporary forest management offers a trade-off between the potential positive effects of habitat heterogeneity on biodiversity, and the potential harm to mature-forest communities caused by habitat loss and perforation of the forest canopy. While the response of taxonomic diversity to forest management has received a great deal of scrutiny, the response of functional diversity is largely unexplored. However, functional diversity may represent a more direct link between biodiversity and ecosystem function. To examine how forest management affects diversity at multiple spatial scales, we analyzed a long-term dataset that captured changes in taxonomic and functional diversity of moths (Lepidoptera), longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and breeding birds in response to contemporary silvicultural systems in oak-hickory hardwood forests. We used these datasets to address the following questions: how do even- and uneven-aged silvicultural systems affect taxonomic and functional diversity at the scale of managed landscapes compared to the individual harvested and unharvested forest patches that comprise the landscapes, and how do these silvicultural systems affect the functional similarity of assemblages at the scale of managed landscapes and patches? Due to increased heterogeneity within landscapes, we expected even-aged silviculture to increase and uneven-aged silviculture to decrease functional diversity at the landscape level regardless of impacts at the patch level. Functional diversity responses were taxon-specific with respect to the direction of change and time since harvest. Responses were also consistent across patch and landscape levels within each taxon. Moth assemblage species richness, functional richness, and functional divergence were negatively affected by harvesting, with stronger effects resulting from uneven-aged than even-aged management. Longhorned beetle assemblages exhibited a peak in species richness two years after harvesting, while

  11. Mass balance on green liquor pre-pulping extraction of northeast mixed hardwood.

    PubMed

    Um, Byung-Hwan; van Walsum, G Peter

    2010-08-01

    A forest biorefinery configuration employing a hemicellulose pre-pulping extraction is being investigated that will retain pulp yields, reduce the organic and inorganic load for liquor recovery, and create a hemicellulose feed stream for the generation of biofuels and biomaterials. Current efforts are focused on developing extract production and conditioning processes that will result in fermentable sugars suitable for conversion to fuel alcohols or organic acid chemical products. As efforts move the process closer to commercial demonstration, it is apparent that a high level of confidence is needed in the analysis of the partitioning of fresh wood into its extracted wood and liquid extract fractions. Of particular interest is the partitioning of the carbohydrates, as these constitute the feedstock for bioconversion to fuels and chemicals. The extraction method employed utilizes green liquor derived from the kraft pulping process for pretreatment of the woodchips. To enable analysis, green liquor extraction was followed by 4% sulfuric acid hydrolysis to complete hydrolysis of the oligomers that were still present. High performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC-PAD) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were used to analyze the carbohydrates in northern hardwood and its extract fractions. The Bio-Rad Aminex HPX-87H column did not separate mannose, xylose, and galactose, but the area of the collective peak corresponds well to the sum of these components as measured by HPAEC. In addition to sugars, standard methods were employed for quantification of the individual components (e.g., lignin, ash, nitrogen, carbon, extractives, uronic and acetic acid). The analytical mass balance closure was 102.2% and 103.6% for raw wood, 99.3% and 102.3% for extracted wood, and 94.7% and 95.6% for hemicellulose extract from the HPAEC and HPLC, respectively. The extraction mass balance was 96.9% and 98.2% for HPAEC and HPLC, respectively. The data generated

  12. Sample size and allocation of effort in point count sampling of birds in bottomland hardwood forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W.P.; Twedt, D.J.; Cooper, R.J.; Wiedenfeld, D.A.; Hamel, P.B.; Ford, R.P.; Ralph, C. John; Sauer, John R.; Droege, Sam

    1995-01-01

    To examine sample size requirements and optimum allocation of effort in point count sampling of bottomland hardwood forests, we computed minimum sample sizes from variation recorded during 82 point counts (May 7-May 16, 1992) from three localities containing three habitat types across three regions of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). Also, we estimated the effect of increasing the number of points or visits by comparing results of 150 four-minute point counts obtained from each of four stands on Delta Experimental Forest (DEF) during May 8-May 21, 1991 and May 30-June 12, 1992. For each stand, we obtained bootstrap estimates of mean cumulative number of species each year from all possible combinations of six points and six visits. ANOVA was used to model cumulative species as a function of number of points visited, number of visits to each point, and interaction of points and visits. There was significant variation in numbers of birds and species between regions and localities (nested within region); neither habitat, nor the interaction between region and habitat, was significant. For a = 0.05 and a = 0.10, minimum sample size estimates (per factor level) varied by orders of magnitude depending upon the observed or specified range of desired detectable difference. For observed regional variation, 20 and 40 point counts were required to accommodate variability in total individuals (MSE = 9.28) and species (MSE = 3.79), respectively, whereas ? 25 percent of the mean could be achieved with five counts per factor level. Sample size sufficient to detect actual differences of Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) was >200, whereas the Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea) required <10 counts. Differences in mean cumulative species were detected among number of points visited and among number of visits to a point. In the lower MAV, mean cumulative species increased with each added point through five points and with each additional visit through four visits

  13. Foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, P.; King, Sammy L.; Kaller, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    In bottomland hardwood forests, partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife like Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Neotropical migrants. Although partial cutting may be beneficial to some species, those that use dead wood may be negatively affected since large diameter and poor quality trees (deformed, moribund, or dead) are rare, but normally targeted for removal. On the other hand, partial cutting can create dead wood if logging slash is left on-site. We studied foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in one- and two-year-old partial cuts designed to benefit priority species and in uncut forest during winter, spring, and summer of 2006 and 2007 in Louisiana. Males and females did not differ in their use of tree species, dbh class, decay class, foraging height, use of foraging tactics or substrate types; however, males foraged on larger substrates than females. In both partial cut and uncut forest, standing live trees were most frequently used (83% compared to 14% for standing dead trees and 3% for coarse woody debris); however, dead trees were selected (i.e. used out of proportion to availability). Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) and bitter pecan (Carya aquatica) were also selected and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) avoided. Pileated woodpeckers selected trees >= 50 cm dbh and avoided trees in smaller dbh classes (10-20 cm). Density of selected foraging substrates was the same in partial cut and uncut forest. Of the foraging substrates, woodpeckers spent 54% of foraging time on live branches and boles, 37% on dead branches and boles, and 9% on vines. Of the foraging tactics, the highest proportion of foraging time was spent excavating (58%), followed by pecking (14%), gleaning (14%), scaling (7%), berry-eating (4%), and probing (3%). Woodpecker use of foraging tactics and substrates, and foraging height and substrate

  14. Foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, P.; King, S.; Kaller, M.

    2009-01-01

    In bottomland hardwood forests, partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife like Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Neotropical migrants. Although partial cutting may be beneficial to some species, those that use dead wood may be negatively affected since large diameter and poor quality trees (deformed, moribund, or dead) are rare, but normally targeted for removal. On the other hand, partial cutting can create dead wood if logging slash is left on-site. We studied foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in one- and two-year-old partial cuts designed to benefit priority species and in uncut forest during winter, spring, and summer of 2006 and 2007 in Louisiana. Males and females did not differ in their use of tree species, dbh class, decay class, foraging height, use of foraging tactics or substrate types; however, males foraged on larger substrates than females. In both partial cut and uncut forest, standing live trees were most frequently used (83% compared to 14% for standing dead trees and 3% for coarse woody debris); however, dead trees were selected (i.e. used out of proportion to availability). Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) and bitter pecan (Carya aquatica) were also selected and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) avoided. Pileated woodpeckers selected trees ???50 cm dbh and avoided trees in smaller dbh classes (10-20 cm). Density of selected foraging substrates was the same in partial cut and uncut forest. Of the foraging substrates, woodpeckers spent 54% of foraging time on live branches and boles, 37% on dead branches and boles, and 9% on vines. Of the foraging tactics, the highest proportion of foraging time was spent excavating (58%), followed by pecking (14%), gleaning (14%), scaling (7%), berry-eating (4%), and probing (3%). Woodpecker use of foraging tactics and substrates, and foraging height and substrate

  15. Nitrogen immobilization by wood-chip application: Protecting water quality in a northern hardwood forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homyak, P.M.; Yanai, R.D.; Burns, Douglas A.; Briggs, R.D.; Germain, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Forest harvesting disrupts the nitrogen cycle, which may affect stream water quality by increasing nitrate concentrations, reducing pH and acid neutralizing capacity, and mobilizing aluminum and base cations. We tested the application of wood chips derived from logging slash to increase immobilization of N after harvesting, which should reduce nitrate flux to streams. In August 2004, a stand of northern hardwoods was patch-clearcut in the Catskill Mountains, NY, and four replicates of three treatments were implemented in five 0.2-ha cut patches. Wood chips were applied to the soil surface at a rate equivalent to the amount of slash smaller than eight inches in diameter (1?? treatment). A second treatment doubled that rate (2??), and a third treatment received no chips (0??). Additionally, three uncut reference plots were established in nearby forested areas. Ion exchange resin bags and soil KCl-extractions were used to monitor nitrate availability in the upper 5-10 cm of soil approximately every seven weeks, except in winter. Resin bags indicated that the wood chips retained 30% or 42% of the nitrate pulse, while for KCl extracts, the retention rate was 78% or 100% of the difference between 0?? and uncut plots. During the fall following harvest, wood-chip treated plots had resin bag soil nitrate concentrations about 25% of those in 0?? plots (p = 0.0001). In the first growing season after the cut, nitrate concentrations in wood-chip treated plots for KCl extracts were 13% of those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.03) in May and about half those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.01) in July for resin bags. During spring snowmelt, however, nitrate concentrations were high and indistinguishable among treatments, including the uncut reference plots for resin bags and below detection limit for KCl extracts. Wood chips incubated in litterbags had an initial C:N of 125:1, which then decreased to 70:1 after one year of field incubation. These changes in C:N values indicate that the wood

  16. Fluxes of Oxidized and Reduced Iron Through a Northern Hardwood Forest Spodosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuss, C. B.; Driscoll, C. T.

    2008-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is abundant among trace elements in forest ecosystems and is important in the development and function of soils. In this study we use measurements from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, USA. To better understand the biogeochemical behavior of Fe and its role in the development of Spodosol soils (podsolization), we have constructed a series of mass balance equations to determine fluxes of reduced (ferrous, Fe(II)) and oxidized (ferric, Fe(III)) iron draining through the soil profile. Additionally, we measured Fe in throughfall and leaf litterfall as well as stream water to better assess inputs to and output from the soil. Soil solution fluxes of Fe were highest from the organic (Oa) horizon and decreased with depth in the mineral (Bh and Bs) horizons, consistent with podsolization theories predicting immobilization of Fe in mineral soil. The fluxes of Fe(II), Fe(III), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) show similar patterns to each other, also consistent with hypotheses of organically-complexed Fe translocated to the spodic horizon, where co-precipitation of Fe and C occur. The portion of total Fe as Fe(II) ranges approximately 10-60% in soil solutions, seemingly high for soils that are typically considered well- drained, oxidizing environments. Analysis of total Fe and Fe(II) in leaf litter extracts from the three most abundant hardwood species show leachate to be a major source of reduced Fe to solutions draining the forest floor as approximately 50% of this Fe is Fe(II). The dissolved Fe draining the forest floor is either complexed by organic compounds during litter decomposition or is in leached directly from leaves in a complexed form. Our results indicate these organic complexes stabilize Fe(II) in solution when oxidizing conditions should promote considerably higher Fe(III)-to-Fe(II) ratios. Qualitative measurements of dissolved oxygen concentration in the soil solution range from nearly depleted to

  17. Can we Constrain Carbon Assimilation and Allocation in a Multi-Species Hardwood Forest Using Water Flux Measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, K. V.; Oren, R.; Poulter, B.; Oishi, A. C.; Ellsworth, D. S.; Katul, G. G.

    2002-12-01

    Annual carbon budgets of terrestrial ecosystems and how climate perturbations alter them remain an active research area. A combination of measurements collected at multiple spatial and temporal scales is used in conjunction with models to quantify the relationship between water fluxes and C budgets. A multi-layer model for canopy CO2 uptake is employed in which the primary input is mean canopy stomatal conductance scaled via sap-flux of water vapor (gw) in a multi-species hardwood forest stand at the Duke Forest, NC, USA. The ecophysiological model relates stomatal conductance of CO2 (gCO2) to the ratio of internal (Ci) to external CO2 concentration (Ca) that is then used to calculate net assimilation (Anet) after correction for differences in diffusivities. Modeled assimilation rates agreed well with instantaneous leaf level measurements in the upper canopy, collected via porometry and monthly daytime carbon fluxes measured via eddy-flux augmented with daytime soil and wood respiration. Additionally annual biomass production augmented with construction and maintenance respiration agreed well with annual carbon uptake. The combination of sapflux measurements and the model provide reliable constrains on CO2 budgets in terrestrial ecosystems and showed lower carbon uptake in hardwood forest of the southeast than previously published.

  18. Xylooligosaccharides from hardwood and cereal xylans produced by a thermostable xylanase as carbon sources for Lactobacillus brevis and Bifidobacterium adolescentis.

    PubMed

    Falck, Peter; Precha-Atsawanan, Suthsiri; Grey, Carl; Immerzeel, Peter; Stålbrand, Henrik; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Karlsson, Eva Nordberg

    2013-07-31

    To compare xylans from forestry with agricultural origins, hardwood xylan (birch) and cereal arabinoxylan (rye) were hydrolyzed using two variants of the xylanase RmXyn10A, full-length enzyme and catalytic module only, from Rhodothermus marinus . Cultivations of four selected bacterial species, using the xylooligosaccharide (XOS) containing hydrolysates as carbon source, showed selective growth of Lactobacillus brevis DSMZ 1264 and Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 15703. Both strains were confirmed to utilize the XOS fraction (DP 2-5), whereas putative arabinoxylooligosaccharides from the rye arabinoxylan hydrolysate were utilized by only B. adolescentis. Escherichia coli did not grow, despite its capability to grow on the monosaccharides arabinose and xylose. It was also shown that Pediococcus parvulus strain 2.6 utilized neither xylose nor XOS for growth. In summary, RmXyn10A or its catalytic module proved suitable for high-temperature hydrolysis of hardwood xylan and cereal arabinoxylan, producing XOS that could qualify as prebiotics for use in functional food products.

  19. Bio-oil production of softwood and hardwood forest industry residues through fast and intermediate pyrolysis and its chromatographic characterization.

    PubMed

    Torri, Isadora Dalla Vecchia; Paasikallio, Ville; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Huff, Rafael; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Sacon, Vera; Oasmaa, Anja; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz

    2016-01-01

    Bio-oils were produced through intermediate (IP) and fast pyrolysis (FP), using Eucalyptus sp. (hardwood) and Picea abies (softwood), wood wastes produced in large scale in Pulp and Paper industries. Characterization of these bio-oils was made using GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOFMS. The use of GC×GC provided a broader characterization of bio-oils and it allowed tracing potential markers of hardwood bio-oil, such as dimethoxy-phenols, which might co-elute in 1D-GC. Catalytic FP increased the percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in P. abies bio-oil, indicating its potential for fuel production. However, the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) draws attention to the need of a proper management of pyrolysis process in order to avoid the production of toxic compounds and also to the importance of GC×GC/TOFMS use to avoid co-elutions and consequent inaccuracies related to identification and quantification associated with GC/qMS. Ketones and phenols were the major bio-oil compounds and they might be applied to polymer production.

  20. Consequences of landscape patterns on the genetic composition of remnant hardwood stands in the Southeast: A pilot study.

    SciTech Connect

    Godt, Mary Jo, W.; Hamrick, J., L.

    2003-01-01

    Report of a pilot study intended to generate genetic data for a tree species in fragmented hardwood stands. It was anticipated that this data would permit assessment of the feasibility of long-term genetic research for which external funding support could be generated. A second objective was to initiate studies that addressed fundamental questions of how landscape structure, in conjunction with the population dynamics and reproductive characteristics of the tree species, influences genetic structure and long-term viability of hardwood forest stands on the Savannah River Site and in similar southeastern landscapes. Fragmentation of plant habitats can result in small, genetically isolated populations. Spatial isolation and small population size may have several consequences, including reduced reproduction, increased inbreeding and the stochastic loss of genetic variability. Such losses of genetic and genotypic diversity can reduce plant fitness and may diminish population viability. Deleterious genetic effects resulting from small population sizes can be ameliorated by gene flow via pollen and seed into fragmented populations.

  1. Comparative study for hardwood and softwood forest biomass: chemical characterization, combustion phases and gas and particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Simone Simões; de Carvalho, João Andrade; Costa, Maria Angélica Martins; Soares Neto, Turíbio Gomes; Dellani, Rafael; Leite, Luiz Henrique Scavacini

    2014-07-01

    Two different types of typical Brazilian forest biomass were burned in the laboratory in order to compare their combustion characteristics and pollutant emissions. Approximately 2 kg of Amazon biomass (hardwood) and 2 kg of Araucaria biomass (softwood) were burned. Gaseous emissions of CO2, CO, and NOx and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) were evaluated in the flaming and smoldering combustion phases. Temperature, burn rate, modified combustion efficiency, emissions factor, and particle diameter and concentration were studied. A continuous analyzer was used to quantify gas concentrations. A DataRam4 and a Cascade Impactor were used to sample PM2.5. Araucaria biomass (softwood) had a lignin content of 34.9%, higher than the 23.3% of the Amazon biomass (hardwood). CO2 and CO emissions factors seem to be influenced by lignin content. Maximum concentrations of CO2, NOx and PM2.5 were observed in the flaming phase.

  2. Propagation of Some Local Fig (Ficus carica L.) Cultivars by Hardwood Cuttings under the Field Conditions in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Aljane, Fateh; Nahdi, Sabrine

    2014-01-01

    This research was carried out in Southeast of Tunisia in 2009 and 2010, in order to study the propagation of six (Ficus carica L.) cultivars by using hardwood cuttings under the field conditions. The effect of the cultivars and the type of buds, shoots age, shoots length, and shoots diameter were recorded. Ten cuttings per cultivar and/or cutting types with three replications were planted in rooting unit. Percentage of root emergence and six morphological parameters of young fig plants were measured. Results showed that the responses of cuttings as fig nursery plants presented a high variability among the five cultivars. The most widely varied characters were % root emergence (RE) and cumulative growth of young plant (CG). The first one ranged from 10% to 90%, the second varied within 32 and 112 cm. Concerning the ''BITHER" cultivar, 6 cutting types with different age, length, and diameter were evaluated. Results showed a great variation in % of root emergence (0-90%), length of nursery plant (3-77 cm), and number of roots/nursery plant (0-29 roots). The present research showed that the hardwood cutting of local fig cultivars can be propagated under field conditions in Southeast of Tunisia.

  3. Xylem ray parenchyma cells in boreal hardwood species respond to subfreezing temperatures by deep supercooling that is accompanied by incomplete desiccation.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Kasuga, Jun; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2003-02-01

    It has been accepted that xylem ray parenchyma cells (XRPCs) in hardwood species respond to subfreezing temperatures either by deep supercooling or by extracellular freezing. Present study by cryo-scanning electron microscopy examined the freezing responses of XRPCs in five boreal hardwoods: Salix sachalinensis Fr. Schmit, Populus sieboldii Miq., Betula platyphylla Sukat. var japonica Hara, Betula pubescens Ehrh., and red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), in which XRPCs have been reported to respond by extracellular freezing. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that slow cooling of xylem to -80 degrees C resulted in intracellular freezing in the majority of XRPCs in S. sachalinensis, an indication that these XRPCs had been deep supercooled. In contrast, in the majority of XRPCs in P. sieboldii, B. platyphylla, B. pubescens, and red osier dogwood, slow cooling to -80 degrees C produced slight cytorrhysis without clear evidence of intracellular freezing, suggesting that these XRPCs might respond by extracellular freezing. In these XRPCs exhibited putative extracellular freezing; however, deep etching revealed the apparent formation of intracellular ice crystals in restricted local areas. To confirm the occurrence of intracellular freezing, we rewarmed these XRPCs after cooling and observed very large intracellular ice crystals as a result of the recrystallization. Thus, the XRPCs in all the boreal hardwoods that we examined responded by deep supercooling that was accompanied with incomplete desiccation. From these results, it seems possible that limitations to the deep-supercooling ability of XRPCs might be a limiting factor for adaptation of hardwoods to cold climates.

  4. Comparing regeneration techniques for afforesting previously farmed bottomland hardwood sites in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockhart, B.R.; Keeland, B.; McCoy, J.; Dean, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    A study was implemented to test site preparation methods and artificial regeneration of three oak (Quercus spp.) species on four agricultural fields in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley in Louisiana, USA. Six years after establishment, few consistent differences were found in oak density between sowing acorn methods (seed drill versus broadcast seeding), autumn sowing versus spring sowing, and sowing acorns versus planting oak seedlings. Results indicated that some degree of site preparation is needed to establish oak seedlings but few differences were found between site preparation treatments. These results indicate that no one prescription for oak regeneration fits all potential afforestation projects in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Successful bottomland hardwood afforestation projects will require plans that include specific objectives, site evaluation, and a regeneration prescription prior to sowing the first seed or planting the first seedling.

  5. Effects of aerially applied glyphosate and hexazinone on hardwoods and pines in a loblolly pine plantation. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, J.D.

    1993-09-01

    Areas in a 4-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation were treated with aerially applied Roundup (glyphosate), Pronone 10G (hexazinone), and Velpar L (hexazinone) plus Lo Drift (a spray additive). All herbicides were applied with appropriate helicopter-mounted equipment. The proportion of free-to-grow pine trees increased over a 2-year period in both the treated and untreated areas, but the increase was slightly greater in the treated areas. Final loblolly pine height, d.b.h., and volume per tree did not differ significantly among the four treatments. About 1,200 hardwood trees and 4,700 shrubs over 3 ft tall per acre were present at the beginning of the study.

  6. Comparison of lab, pilot, and industrial scale low consistency mechanical refining for improvements in enzymatic digestibility of pretreated hardwood.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brandon W; Venditti, Richard; Park, Sunkyu; Jameel, Hasan

    2014-09-01

    Mechanical refining has been shown to improve biomass enzymatic digestibility. In this study industrial high-yield sodium carbonate hardwood pulp was subjected to lab, pilot and industrial refining to determine if the mechanical refining improves the enzymatic hydrolysis sugar conversion efficiency differently at different refining scales. Lab, pilot and industrial refining increased the biomass digestibility for lignocellulosic biomass relative to the unrefined material. The sugar conversion was increased from 36% to 65% at 5 FPU/g of biomass with industrial refining at 67.0 kWh/t, which was more energy efficient than lab and pilot scale refining. There is a maximum in the sugar conversion with respect to the amount of refining energy. Water retention value is a good predictor of improvements in sugar conversion for a given fiber source and composition. Improvements in biomass digestibility with refining due to lab, pilot plant and industrial refining were similar with respect to water retention value.

  7. Chemical characteristics and enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass treated using high-temperature saturated steam: comparison of softwood and hardwood.

    PubMed

    Asada, Chikako; Sasaki, Chizuru; Hirano, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of high-temperature saturated steam treatments on the chemical characteristics and enzymatic saccharification of softwood and hardwood. The weight loss and chemical modification of cedar and beech wood pieces treated at 25, 35, and 45 atm for 5 min were determined. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that solubilization and removal of hemicellulose and lignin occurred by the steam treatment. The milling treatment of steam-treated wood enhanced its enzymatic saccharification. Maximum enzymatic saccharification (i.e., 94% saccharification rate of cellulose) was obtained using steam-treated beech at 35 atm for 5 min followed by milling treatment for 1 min. However, the necessity of the milling treatment for efficient enzymatic saccharification is dependent on the wood species.

  8. Subfossil Leaves Reveal a New Upland Hardwood Component of the Pre-European Piedmont Landscape, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sara J.; Wilf, Peter; Walter, Robert C.; Merritts, Dorothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread deforestation, agriculture, and construction of milldams by European settlers greatly influenced valley-bottom stream morphology and riparian vegetation in the northeastern USA. The former broad, tussock-sedge wetlands with small, anastomosing channels were converted into today’s incised, meandering streams with unstable banks that support mostly weedy, invasive vegetation. Vast accumulations of fine-grained “legacy” sediments that blanket the regional valley-bottom Piedmont landscape now are being reworked from stream banks, significantly impairing the ecological health of downstream water bodies, most notably the Chesapeake Bay. However, potential restoration is impaired by lack of direct knowledge of the pre-settlement riparian and upslope floral ecosystems. We studied the subfossil leaf flora of Denlingers Mill, an obsolete (breached) milldam site in southeastern Pennsylvania that exhibits a modern secondary forest growing atop thin soils, above bedrock outcrops immediately adjacent to a modified, incised stream channel. Presumably, an overhanging old-growth forest also existed on this substrate until the early 1700s and was responsible for depositing exceptionally preserved, minimally transported subfossil leaves into hydric soil strata, which immediately underlie post-European settlement legacy sediments. We interpret the eleven identified species of the subfossil assemblage to primarily represent a previously unknown, upland Red Oak-American Beech mixed hardwood forest. Some elements also appear to belong to a valley-margin Red Maple-Black Ash swamp forest, consistent with preliminary data from a nearby site. Thus, our results add significantly to a more complete understanding of the pre-European settlement landscape, especially of the hardwood tree flora. Compared with the modern forest, it is apparent that both lowland and upslope forests in the region have been modified significantly by historical activities. Our study underscores that

  9. Subfossil leaves reveal a new upland hardwood component of the pre-European Piedmont landscape,Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Sara J; Wilf, Peter; Walter, Robert C; Merritts, Dorothy J

    2013-01-01

    Widespread deforestation, agriculture, and construction of milldams by European settlers greatly influenced valley-bottom stream morphology and riparian vegetation in the northeastern USA. The former broad, tussock-sedge wetlands with small, anastomosing channels were converted into today's incised, meandering streams with unstable banks that support mostly weedy, invasive vegetation. Vast accumulations of fine-grained "legacy" sediments that blanket the regional valley-bottom Piedmont landscape now are being reworked from stream banks, significantly impairing the ecological health of downstream water bodies, most notably the Chesapeake Bay. However, potential restoration is impaired by lack of direct knowledge of the pre-settlement riparian and upslope floral ecosystems. We studied the subfossil leaf flora of Denlingers Mill, an obsolete (breached) milldam site in southeastern Pennsylvania that exhibits a modern secondary forest growing atop thin soils, above bedrock outcrops immediately adjacent to a modified, incised stream channel. Presumably, an overhanging old-growth forest also existed on this substrate until the early 1700s and was responsible for depositing exceptionally preserved, minimally transported subfossil leaves into hydric soil strata, which immediately underlie post-European settlement legacy sediments. We interpret the eleven identified species of the subfossil assemblage to primarily represent a previously unknown, upland Red Oak-American Beech mixed hardwood forest. Some elements also appear to belong to a valley-margin Red Maple-Black Ash swamp forest, consistent with preliminary data from a nearby site. Thus, our results add significantly to a more complete understanding of the pre-European settlement landscape, especially of the hardwood tree flora. Compared with the modern forest, it is apparent that both lowland and upslope forests in the region have been modified significantly by historical activities. Our study underscores that

  10. Extraction and estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate crystals in the foliage of conifer and hardwood trees.

    PubMed

    Minocha, Rakesh; Chamberlain, Bradley; Long, Stephanie; Turlapati, Swathi A; Quigley, Gloria

    2015-05-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop a method for the extraction and indirect estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in the foliage of trees. Foliar tissue was collected from a single tree of each species (five conifers and five hardwoods) for comparison of extractions in different solvents using 10 replicates per species from the same pool of tissue. For each species, calcium (Ca) and oxalate were extracted sequentially in double deionized water and 2N acetic acid, and finally, five replicate samples were extracted in 5% (0.83N) perchloric acid (PCA) and the other five in 2N hydrochloric acid (HCl); three cycles of freezing and thawing were used for each solvent. Total ions were extracted by microwave digestion. Calcium was quantified with an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer method and oxalate was eluted and quantified using a high performance liquid chromatography method. This experiment was repeated again with two conifer and two hardwood species using four trees per species, and two analytical replicates for each tree. We report here that, regardless of age of individual trees within a species, time of collection or species type, the third extraction in PCA or HCl resulted in near equimolar quantities of Ca and oxalate (r(2) ≥ 0.99). This method provides an easy estimate of the quantity of CaOx crystals using a small sample of foliar tissue. An additional benefit of PCA is that it precipitates the nucleic acids and proteins, allowing the quantification of several free/soluble metabolites such as amino acids, polyamines, organic acids and inorganic elements all from a single sample extract.

  11. A Comparison of the Effects of Clearcutting Hardwood Forests on Nitrate Movement in 3 Watersheds in Northeastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, P. S.; Beall, F. D.; Burns, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    Experimental harvests of forested watersheds have occurred in several locations throughout the United States and Canada to assess the effects of clearcutting on forest regeneration and runoff water quality. A comparison of the effects of harvesting on stream water quality at three of these watersheds --Watershed 5 at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire (22 hectares logged during the fall 1983-winter 1984), Dry Creek in the Catskill Mountains of New York (22 hectares logged during winter, 1997), and Watershed 31 at the Turkey Lakes Watershed in western Ontario (4.62 hectares logged during late summer, 1997) indicates similarities in stream chemical response despite large differences in year of harvest, pre-harvest water quality, and geographic location. All three watersheds in the comparison contain Northern Hardwood forests. The magnitude, duration, and seasonal variability in stream nitrate concentrations following harvest were similar among the 3 watersheds studied. Harvesting during August at Turkey Lakes caused a 100 uEq/L increase in nitrate concentrations during the immediate fall, but peak nitrate concentrations in streamwater were delayed to the late summer of the following year. Watershed 5 and Dry Creek had peak nitrate concentrations in the late summer and fall of the first year following harvest. The period of recovery from peak nitrate concentration to pre-cut concentrations was similar among the sites. The summer logging at Turkey Lakes thus had the effect of lengthening the period of elevated stream nitrate concentrations relative to the winter logging operations of the other two harvests. Trends in dissolved organic carbon and ammonium were not significantly affected by the logging in comparison with the effect on nitrate concentrations, and ammonium was a minor contributor to the nitrogen yield from the watersheds. The comparison indicates a general pattern of nitrogen release following clearcutting of hardwood forests in

  12. Results of a workshop concerning assessment of the functions of bottomland hardwoods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roelle, James E.; Auble, Gregor T.; Hamilton, David B.; Johnson, Richard L.; Segelquist, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of implementing an effective, nationally consistent, and scientifically defensible regulatory program, EPA, in October 1984, issued Interim Operating Guidance to its field personnel for implementing the Section 404 regulatory program in bottomland hardwood wetlands. With the goal of improving and finalizing that guidance, EPA is sponsoring a series of workshops designed to answer key questions concerning BLH wetlands, based on the best scientific and technical information currently available. The first two workshops were directed toward summarizing existing scientific and technical knowledge concerning the functions of BLH ecosystems, the characteristics that are important to each function, and the impact of various development activities on those characteristics. The first workshop, which was held in St. Francisville, Louisiana, in December, 1984, examined a wetland zonation concept as a framework for gaining a greater understanding of BLH structure and function. The workshop set out to determine whether characterization of BLH resources as a series of relatively distinct zones, defined by concomitant variation in hydrologic regime, soils, and vegetation, might provide the basis for a useful and scientifically sound regulatory framework. For examp1e, if certain zones are of particular importance to one or more wetland functions that the Clean Water Act was intended to protect, then the zonation concept might be useful from the perspective of how various activities should be regulated. Discussions during the first workshop, however, indicated that the zonation concept provides, at best, only an incomplete picture of the structure and function of BLH ecosystems. In many cases, BLH functions are not limited to or closely correlated with particular zones and, furthermore, many factors other than zone are important determinants of BLH functions. With these responses in mind, the second workshop, held at Lake Lanier, Georgia, in July, 1985

  13. A diverse assemblage of fossil hardwood from the Upper Tertiary (Miocene?) of the Arauco Peninsula, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöning, Meike; Bandel, Klaus

    2004-09-01

    Silicified woods of 10 dicotyledonous tree families of probably Miocene age from the Arauco Peninsula, central Chile are described and classified according to their anatomy. The diversity is surprisingly high, in that of the 19 samples analyzed, virtually every one could belong to a different species of tree or shrub. Almost all species document a damp climate, and most have related species living in the central zone of modern Chile. The samples were collected in a narrow zone on Punta El Fraile, west of the town of Arauco. The following families are based on woods from the Arauco Peninsula: Anacardiaceae, Boraginaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Leguminosae, Monimiaceae, the first report of fossil Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, and Proteaceae. Their diagenetic history is connected to tuffaceous material and calcareous concretions.

  14. Improved Wood Properties Through Genetic Manipulation: Engineering of Syringyl Lignin in Softwood Species Through Xylem-Specific Expression of Hardwood Syringyl Monolignol Pathway Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrashekhar P. Joshi; Vincent L. Chiang

    2009-01-29

    Project Objective: Our long-term goal is to genetically engineer higher value raw materials with desirable wood properties to promote energy efficiency, international competitiveness, and environmental responsiveness of the U.S. forest products industry. The immediate goal of this project was to produce the first higher value softwood raw materials engineered with a wide range of syringyl lignin quantities. Summary: The most important wood property affecting directly the levels of energy, chemical and bleaching requirements for kraft pulp production is lignin. Softwoods contain almost exclusively chemically resistant guaiacyl (G) lignin, whereas hardwoods have more reactive or easily degradable lignins of the guaiacyl (G)-syringyl (S) type. It is also well established that the reactive S lignin component is the key factor that permits much lower effective alkali and temperature, shorter pulping time and less bleaching stages for processing hardwoods than for softwoods. Furthermore, our pulping kinetic study explicitly demonstrated that every increase in one unit of the lignin S/G ratio would roughly double the rate of lignin removal. These are clear evidence that softwoods genetically engineered with S lignin are keys to revolutionizing the energy efficiency and enhancing the environmental performance of this industry. Softwoods and hardwoods share the same genetic mechanisms for the biosynthesis of G lignin. However, in hardwoods, three additional genes branch out from the G-lignin pathway and become specifically engaged in regulating S lignin biosynthesis. In this research, we simultaneously transferred aspen S-specific genes into a model softwood, black spruce, to engineer S lignin.

  15. Grubbing by wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) and its impact on hardwood forest soil carbon dioxide emissions in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Risch, Anita C; Wirthner, Sven; Busse, Matt D; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S; Schütz, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Interest in soil C storage and release has increased in recent years. In addition to factors such as climate/land-use change, vertebrate animals can have a considerable impact on soil CO(2) emissions. To date, most research has considered herbivores, while the impact of omnivorous animals has rarely been investigated. Our goal was to determine how European wild boars (Sus scrofa L.), large omnivores that consume soil-inhabiting animals and belowground plant parts by grubbing in the soil, affect soil C dynamics. We measured soil respiration (CO(2)), temperature, and moisture on paired grubbed and non-grubbed plots in six hardwood forest stands for a 3-year period and sampled fine root and microbial biomass at the beginning and after 2 years of the study. We also measured the percentage of freshly disturbed forest soil within the larger surroundings of each stand and used this information together with hunting statistics and forest cover data to model the total amount of CO(2) released from Swiss forest soils due to grubbing during 1 year. Soil CO(2) emissions were significantly higher on grubbed compared to non-grubbed plots during the study. On average 23.1% more CO(2) was released from these plots, which we associated with potential alterations in CO(2) diffusion rates, incorporation of litter into the mineral soil and higher fine root/microbial biomass. Thus, wild boars considerably increased the small-scale heterogeneity of soil properties. Roughly 1% of Switzerland's surface area is similar to our sites (boar density/forest cover). Given the range of forest soil disturbance of 27-54% at our sites, the geographic information system model predicted that boar grubbing would lead to the release of an additional 49,731.10-98,454.74 t CO(2) year(-1). These values are relatively small compared to total soil emissions estimated for Swiss hardwood forests and suggest that boars will have little effect on large-scale emissions unless their numbers increase and their

  16. Identifying Sources and Controls of Dissolved Organic Carbon Losses in Northern Hardwood Forest Ecosystems Under Elevated Nitrogen Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smemo, K. A.; Zak, D. R.

    2004-05-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition in northern hardwood forest ecosystems has modified soil carbon cycling, resulting in the substantial leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Despite the significance of this finding, the exact source of this DOC has not been found and a mechanistic explanation has been lacking. In order to identify sources of and mechanisms for this apparent N stimulation of DOC leaching, we conducted a controlled laboratory leaching experiment using soil and fresh litterfall from a previously-studied northern hardwood forest stand in northern Lower Michigan. This stand has received 10 years of both ambient and experimental (3 times ambient) atmospheric NO3- deposition. Three replicate soil and litter samples were collected from 3 plots receiving ambient and 3 plots receiving experimental NO3- deposition. Our laboratory experiment used soil and litter collected from each plot to understand if fresh leaf litter was the source of increased DOC leaching in plots receiving experimental NO3- deposition. In laboratory incubations, we investigated microbial respiration and DOC production from: 1) soil from each plot, 2) litter and soil from each plot, and 3) litter from each plot placed over sterile sand. This combination of treatments enabled us to determine the contribution of soil organic matter, fresh leaf litter, and both to DOC production. Results showed that N deposition had no significant effect on microbial respiration, but that treatment differences were significant. Most of the DOC production (75%) was associated with leaching from fresh litter. Soil was a significant sink for litter-derived DOC across the treatments, but less so in the fertilized plots where 30% more DOC was leached on average compared to un-fertilized plots. These results suggest that N deposition might not influence the production of DOC in soil and litter, but the ability of the soil to physically adsorb or the microbial population to sequester DOC inputs

  17. Effects of pine-hardwood management practices on forest regeneration and woody species diversity at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA.

    SciTech Connect

    K, Crider Kimberly

    2003-08-01

    Crider. Kimberly K. 2003 Effects of pine-hardwood management practices on forest regeneration and woody species diversity at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA. MS Thesis. The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee. 107 pp. Abstract: In 1989, mixed hardwood-pine forest sites at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina were chosen by USDA Forest Service employees for use in a study of the effects of a combination of forest management practices on woody species composition and diversity. The sites were surveyed for species composition, harvested commercially, burned using several severities, and planted with pine seedlings during 1990. In 1991 and 1993 the sites were surveyed again by Forest Service employees for post-disturbance species composition. I recovered and compiled the earlier pre- and post-disturbance data, and resurveyed the sites in 2002 to compare the immediate effects and the possible persistence of effects of the management treatments on woody species composition and diversity over an 11 year period. Overall, the results suggest that mixed hardwood-pine forests in the Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) consist of species able to vigorously recolonize following disturbances as severe as clearcutting. Although these types of management disturbances might have immediate effects on woody species composition and diversity, the results suggest that these effects are minimal over time in the absence of additional disturbance.

  18. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    SciTech Connect

    John Kilgo

    2005-04-20

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging near gaps would find more prey per unit time than those foraging in the surrounding forest. In fact, arthropod abundance was greater >100 m from a gap edge than at 0-30 m or 30-100 m from an edge, due to their abundance on switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea); arthropods did not differ in abundance among distances from gaps on oaks (Quercus spp.) or red maple (Acer rubrum). Similarly, Hooded Warbler foraging attack rates were not higher near gap edges: when foraging for fledglings, attack rate did not differ among distances from gaps, but when foraging for themselves, attack rates actually were lower 0-30 m from gap edges than 30-100 m or >100 m from a gap edge. Foraging attack rate was positively associated with arthropod abundance. Hooded Warblers apparently encountered fewer prey and presumably foraged less efficiently where arthropods were least abundant, i.e., near gaps. That attack rates among birds foraging for fledglings were not affected by distance from gap (and hence arthropod abundance) suggests that prey availability may not be limiting at any location across the forest, despite the depressing effects of gaps on arthropod abundance.

  19. Characterization of cytokinin signaling and homeostasis gene families in two hardwood tree species: Populus trichocarpa and Prunus persica

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Through the diversity of cytokinin regulated processes, this phytohormone has a profound impact on plant growth and development. Cytokinin signaling is involved in the control of apical and lateral meristem activity, branching pattern of the shoot, and leaf senescence. These processes influence several traits, including the stem diameter, shoot architecture, and perennial life cycle, which define the development of woody plants. To facilitate research about the role of cytokinin in regulation of woody plant development, we have identified genes associated with cytokinin signaling and homeostasis pathways from two hardwood tree species. Results Taking advantage of the sequenced black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and peach (Prunus persica) genomes, we have compiled a comprehensive list of genes involved in these pathways. We identified genes belonging to the six families of cytokinin oxidases (CKXs), isopentenyl transferases (IPTs), LONELY GUY genes (LOGs), two-component receptors, histidine containing phosphotransmitters (HPts), and response regulators (RRs). All together 85 Populus and 45 Prunus genes were identified, and compared to their Arabidopsis orthologs through phylogenetic analyses. Conclusions In general, when compared to Arabidopsis, differences in gene family structure were often seen in only one of the two tree species. However, one class of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, the CKI1-like family of two-component histidine kinases, was larger in both Populus and Prunus than in Arabidopsis. PMID:24341635

  20. Effects of annual and interannual environmental variability on soil fungi associated with an old-growth, temperate hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Burke, David J

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal and interannual variability in temperature, precipitation and chemical resources may regulate fungal community structure in forests but the effect of such variability is still poorly understood. In this study, I examined changes in fungal communities over two years and how these changes were correlated to natural variation in soil conditions. Soil cores were collected every month for three years from permanent plots established in an old-growth hardwood forest, and molecular methods were used to detect fungal species. Species richness and diversity were not consistent between years with richness and diversity significantly affected by season in one year but significantly affected by depth in the other year. These differences were associated with variation in late winter snow cover. Fungal communities significantly varied by plot location, season and depth and differences were consistent between years but fungal species within the community were not consistent in their seasonality or in their preference for certain soil depths. Some fungal species, however, were found to be consistently correlated with soil chemistry across sampled years. These results suggest that fungal community changes reflect the behavior of the individual species within the community pool and how those species respond to local resource availability.

  1. Optimization study of ethanolic fermentation from oil palm trunk, rubberwood and mixed hardwood hydrolysates using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chin, K L; H'ng, P S; Wong, L J; Tey, B T; Paridah, M T

    2010-05-01

    Ethanolic fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was carried out on three types of hydrolysates produced from lignocelulosic biomass which are commonly found in Malaysia such as oil palm trunk, rubberwood and mixed hardwood. The effect of fermentation temperature and pH of hydrolysate was evaluated to optimize the fermentation efficiency which defined as maximum ethanol yield in minimum fermentation time. The fermentation process using different temperature of 25 degrees Celsius, 30 degrees Celsius and 40 degrees Celsius were performed on the prepared fermentation medium adjusted to pH 4, pH 6 and pH 7, respectively. Results showed that the fermentation time was significantly reduced with the increase of temperature but an adverse reduction in ethanol yield was observed using temperature of 40 degrees Celsius. As the pH of hydrolysate became more acidic, the ethanol yield increased. Optimum fermentation efficiency for ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates using S. cerevisiae can be obtained using 33.2 degrees Celsius and pH 5.3.

  2. Decomposition of hardwood leaves grown under elevated O[sub 3] and/or CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Boerner, R.E.J.; Rebbeck, J. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Delaware, OH )

    1993-06-01

    We measured mass loss and N release from leaves of three hardwoods which varied in O[sub 3] sensitivity: O[sub 3]-tolerant sugar maple (Acer saccharum/SM), black cherry (Prunus serotina/BC), and putatively O[sub 3]-sensitive yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera/YP), grown in pots in charcoal-filtered air (CF), ambient O[sub 3], or twice ambient O[sub 3] (2X) in open top chambers. Mass loss was not affected by the O[sub 3] regime in which the leaves were grown. k values averaged SM:-0.707, BC:-0.613, and YP:-0.859. N loss from ambient O[sub 3]-grown SM was significantly greater than from CF; N loss from BC did not differ among treatments. Significantly less N was released from CF-grown YP leaves than from O[sup 3]-treated leaves. YP leaves from plants grown in pots at 2X O[sub 3] and 350 ppm supplemental CO[sub 2] in CSTRs loss 40% as much mass and 27% as much N over one year as did leaves from YP grown in CF or 2X O[sub 3]. Thus, for leaves from plants grown in pots in fumigation chambers, the concentrations of both O[sub 3] and CO[sub 2] can affect N release from litter incubated in the field whereas mass loss rate was affected only by CO[sub 2].

  3. Sequential Fenton oxidation and hydrothermal treatment to improve the effect of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis on mixed hardwood.

    PubMed

    Jeong, So-Yeon; Lee, Jae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Sequential Fenton oxidation (FO) and hydrothermal treatment were performed to improve the effect of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of mixed hardwood. The molar ratio of the Fenton reagent (FeSO4·7H2O and H2O2) was 1:25, and the reaction time was 96h. During the reaction, little or no weight loss of biomass was observed. The concentration of Fe(2+) was determined and was found to increase continuously during FO. Hydrothermal treatment at 190-210°C for 10-80min was performed following FO. Sequential FO and hydrothermal treatment showed positive effects on pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Xylose concentration in the hydrolysate was as high as 14.16g/L when FO-treated biomass was treated at 190°C, while its concentration in the raw material was 3.72g/L. After 96h of enzymatic hydrolysis, cellulose conversion in the biomass obtained following sequential treatment was 69.58-79.54%. In contrast, the conversion in the raw material (without FO) was 64.41-67.92%.

  4. Changes in Carbon Flux at the Duke Forest Hardwood Ameriflux Site Due to Land Cover/Land Use Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCombs, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina metropolitan area has been ranked by Forbes as the fastest growing cities in the United States. As a result of the rapid growth, there has been a significant amount of urban sprawl. The objective of this study was to determine if the changes in land use and land cover have caused a change in the carbon flux near the Duke Forest AmeriFlux station that was active from 2001 to 2008. The land cover and land use were assessed every two years to determine how land cover has changed at the Duke Forest Hardwoods (US-Dk2) AmeriFlux site from 2001 to 2008 using Landsat scenes. The change in land cover and land use was then compared to changes in the carbon footprint that is computed annually from 2001 to 2008. The footprint model for each wind direction determined that there are changes annually and that the research will determine if these changes are due to annual weather patterns or land use and land cover changes.

  5. Mutants of the pentose-fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus tolerant to hardwood spent sulfite liquor and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Harner, Nicole K; Bajwa, Paramjit K; Habash, Marc B; Trevors, Jack T; Austin, Glen D; Lee, Hung

    2014-01-01

    A strain development program was initiated to improve the tolerance of the pentose-fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus to inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Several rounds of UV mutagenesis followed by screening were used to select for mutants of P. tannophilus NRRL Y2460 with improved tolerance to hardwood spent sulfite liquor (HW SSL) and acetic acid in separate selection lines. The wild type (WT) strain grew in 50 % (v/v) HW SSL while third round HW SSL mutants (designated UHW301, UHW302 and UHW303) grew in 60 % (v/v) HW SSL, with two of these isolates (UHW302 and UHW303) being viable and growing, respectively, in 70 % (v/v) HW SSL. In defined liquid media containing acetic acid, the WT strain grew in 0.70 % (w/v) acetic acid, while third round acetic acid mutants (designated UAA301, UAA302 and UAA303) grew in 0.80 % (w/v) acetic acid, with one isolate (UAA302) growing in 0.90 % (w/v) acetic acid. Cross-tolerance of HW SSL-tolerant mutants to acetic acid and vice versa was observed with UHW303 able to grow in 0.90 % (w/v) acetic acid and UAA302 growing in 60 % (v/v) HW SSL. The UV-induced mutants retained the ability to ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol in defined media. These mutants of P. tannophilus are of considerable interest for bioconversion of the sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates to ethanol.

  6. A heat wave during leaf expansion severely reduces productivity and modifies seasonal growth patterns in a northern hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Stangler, Dominik Florian; Hamann, Andreas; Kahle, Hans-Peter; Spiecker, Heinrich

    2016-10-13

    A useful approach to monitor tree response to climate change and environmental extremes is the recording of long-term time series of stem radial variations obtained with precision dendrometers. Here, we study the impact of environmental stress on seasonal growth dynamics and productivity of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the Great Lakes, St Lawrence forest region of Ontario. Specifically, we research the effects of a spring heat wave in 2010, and a summer drought in 2012 that occurred during the 2005-14 study period. We evaluated both growth phenology (onset, cessation, duration of radial growth, time of maximum daily growth rate) and productivity (monthly and seasonal average growth rates, maximum daily growth rate, tree-ring width) and tested for differences and interactions among species and years. Productivity of sugar maple was drastically compromised by a 3-day spring heat wave in 2010 as indicated by low growth rates, very early growth cessation and a lagged growth onset in the following year. Sugar maple also responded more sensitively than yellow birch to a prolonged drought period in July 2012, but final tree-ring width was not significantly reduced due to positive responses to above-average temperatures in the preceding spring. We conclude that sugar maple, a species that currently dominates northern hardwood forests, is vulnerable to heat wave disturbances during leaf expansion, which might occur more frequently under anticipated climate change.

  7. Genome scans for divergent selection in natural populations of the widespread hardwood species Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtaceae) using microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhijiao; Zhang, Miaomiao; Li, Fagen; Weng, Qijie; Zhou, Chanpin; Li, Mei; Li, Jie; Huang, Huanhua; Mo, Xiaoyong; Gan, Siming

    2016-01-01

    Identification of loci or genes under natural selection is important for both understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation and practical applications, and genome scans provide a powerful means for such identification purposes. In this study, genome-wide simple sequence repeats markers (SSRs) were used to scan for molecular footprints of divergent selection in Eucalyptus grandis, a hardwood species occurring widely in costal areas from 32° S to 16° S in Australia. High population diversity levels and weak population structure were detected with putatively neutral genomic SSRs. Using three FST outlier detection methods, a total of 58 outlying SSRs were collectively identified as loci under divergent selection against three non-correlated climatic variables, namely, mean annual temperature, isothermality and annual precipitation. Using a spatial analysis method, nine significant associations were revealed between FST outlier allele frequencies and climatic variables, involving seven alleles from five SSR loci. Of the five significant SSRs, two (EUCeSSR1044 and Embra394) contained alleles of putative genes with known functional importance for response to climatic factors. Our study presents critical information on the population diversity and structure of the important woody species E. grandis and provides insight into the adaptive responses of perennial trees to climatic variations. PMID:27748400

  8. Host plant phenology affects performance of an invasive weevil, Phyllobius oblongus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in a northern hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Coyle, David R; Jordan, Michelle S; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2010-10-01

    We investigated how host plant phenology and plant species affected longevity, reproduction, and feeding behavior of an invasive weevil. Phyllobius oblongus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is common in northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes Region. Adults emerge in spring, feed on foliage of woody understory plants, and oviposit in the soil. Preliminary data indicate that adults often feed on sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marshall, foliage early in the season, then feed on other species such as raspberry, Rubus spp. Whether this behavior reflects temporal changes in the quality of A. saccharum tissue or merely subsequent availability of later-season plants is unknown. We tested adult P. oblongus in laboratory assays using young (newly flushed) sugar maple foliage, old (2-3 wk postflush) sugar maple foliage, and raspberry foliage. Raspberry has indeterminate growth, thus always has young foliage available for herbivores. Survival, oviposition, and leaf consumption were recorded. In performance assays under no-choice conditions, mated pairs were provided one type of host foliage for the duration of their lives. In behavioral choice tests, all three host plants were provided simultaneously and leaf area consumption was compared. Adults survived longer on and consumed greater amounts of young maple and raspberry foliage than old maple foliage. P. oblongus preferred young maple foliage to old maple foliage early in the season, however, later in the growing season weevils showed less pronounced feeding preferences. These results suggest how leaf phenology, plant species composition, and feeding plasticity in host utilization may interact to affect P. oblongus population dynamics.

  9. Hardwood smoke alters murine splenic T cell responses to mitogens following a 6-month whole body inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Burchiel, Scott W. . E-mail: Sburchiel@salud.unm.edu; Lauer, Fredine T.; Dunaway, Sandy L.; Zawadzki, Jerome; McDonald, Jacob D.; Reed, Matthew D.

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of these studies was to assess the effects of hardwood smoke (HWS) inhalation (30-1000 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) on the systemic immune responses of A/J mice evaluated after 6 months of daily exposures. Spleen cells obtained from mice were assessed for changes in cell number, cell surface marker expression [B, T, macrophage, and natural killer (NK) cells], and responses to B cell (LPS, endotoxin) and T cell (Con A) mitogens. Results showed that HWS smoke increased T cell proliferation in the 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} exposure group and produced a concentration-dependent suppression of T cell proliferation at concentrations >300 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. There were no effects on B cell proliferation or in spleen cell surface marker expression. Analyses of the exposure atmospheres revealed the presence of significant levels of naphthalene and methylated napthalenes, fluorene, phenanthrene, and anthracene in the exposure chambers, as well as low concentrations of several metals (K, Ca, and Fe). Our results demonstrate that environmentally relevant concentrations of HWS may be immunosuppressive to the immune system of mice exposed during a 6-month period.

  10. Otto von Guericke and 17th century cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, Eberhard

    Otto von Guericke's scientific method was based on reason and experimental science. His cosmology was embedded in theology and can be interpreted as a refutation of Descartes' worldview. He used Nicolaus Cusanus' theory of quantities in order to characterize space. The notion of space has to be distinguished from that of world or heaven. Forces play a crucial role in this respect described by Athanasius Kircher in his "Celestial Journey". Guericke read this work very diligently. In spite of some obvious similarities between Guericke's and Newton's scientific aims and methods there are crucial differences between the scientific convictions and results of these scholars.

  11. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  12. Final Report: 17th international Symposium on Plant Lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Christoph Benning

    2007-03-07

    This meeting covered several emerging areas in the plant lipid field such as the biosynthesis of cuticle components, interorganelle lipid trafficking, the regulation of lipid homeostasis, and the utilization of algal models. Stimulating new insights were provided not only based on research reports based on plant models, but also due to several excellent talks by experts from the yeast field.

  13. IL-17/Th17 Pathway Is Activated in Acne Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kelhälä, Hanna-Leena; Palatsi, Riitta; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Lehtimäki, Sari; Väyrynen, Juha P.; Kallioinen, Matti; Kubin, Minna E.; Greco, Dario; Tasanen, Kaisa; Alenius, Harri; Bertino, Beatrice; Carlavan, Isabelle; Mehul, Bruno; Déret, Sophie; Reiniche, Pascale; Martel, Philippe; Marty, Carine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Voegel, Johannes J.; Lauerma, Antti

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of inflammation in acne are currently subject of intense investigation. This study focused on the activation of adaptive and innate immunity in clinically early visible inflamed acne lesions and was performed in two independent patient populations. Biopsies were collected from lesional and non-lesional skin of acne patients. Using Affymetrix Genechips, we observed significant elevation of the signature cytokines of the Th17 lineage in acne lesions compared to non-lesional skin. The increased expression of IL-17 was confirmed at the RNA and also protein level with real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Luminex technology. Cytokines involved in Th17 lineage differentiation (IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL23p19) were remarkably induced at the RNA level. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-8, CSF2 and CCL20), Th1 markers (IL12p40, CXCR3, T-bet, IFN-γ), T regulatory cell markers (Foxp3, IL-10, TGF-β) and IL-17 related antimicrobial peptides (S100A7, S100A9, lipocalin, hBD2, hBD3, hCAP18) were induced. Importantly, immunohistochemistry revealed significantly increased numbers of IL-17A positive T cells and CD83 dendritic cells in the acne lesions. In summary our results demonstrate the presence of IL-17A positive T cells and the activation of Th17-related cytokines in acne lesions, indicating that the Th17 pathway is activated and may play a pivotal role in the disease process, possibly offering new targets of therapy. PMID:25153527

  14. The 17th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the Seventeenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. Session titles include Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing; Applied Biological Research; Bioprocessing Research; Special Topics Discussion Groups; Process Economics and Commercialization; and Environmental Biotechnology.

  15. 17th Environmental Quality Index: Troubling Times with Toxics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents a subjective analysis of the status of United States' natural resources, reviewing 1985's key environmental events, problems, and successes. Reports current conditions and/or dilemmas concerning wildlife, air, water, energy, forests, and soils. Provides both a public rating of the quality of life and a priority ranking of environmental…

  16. Forest Succession and Maternity Day roost selection by Myotis septentrionalis in a mesophytic hardwood forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander Silvis,; Ford, W. Mark; Eric R. Britzke,; Nathan R. Beane,; Joshua B. Johnson,

    2012-01-01

    Conservation of summer maternity roosts is considered critical for bat management in North America, yet many aspects of the physical and environmental factors that drive roost selection are poorly understood. We tracked 58 female northern bats (Myotis septentrionalis) to 105 roost trees of 21 species on the Fort Knox military reservation in north-central Kentucky during the summer of 2011. Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) was used as a day roost more than expected based on forest stand-level availability and accounted for 48.6% of all observed day roosts. Using logistic regression and an information theoretic approach, we were unable to reliably differentiate between sassafras and other roost species or between day roosts used during different maternity periods using models representative of individual tree metrics, site metrics, topographic location, or combinations of these factors. For northern bats, we suggest that day-roost selection is not a function of differences between individual tree species per se, but rather of forest successional patterns, stand and tree structure. Present successional trajectories may not provide this particular selected structure again without management intervention, thereby suggesting that resource managers take a relatively long retrospective view to manage current and future forest conditions for bats.

  17. Seasonal Belowground Ecosystem and Eco-enzymatic Responses to Soil pH and Phosphorus Availability in Temperate Hardwood Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smemo, K. A.; Deforest, J. L.; Petersen, S. L.; Burke, D.; Hewins, C.; Kluber, L. A.; Kyker, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric acid deposition can increase phosphorus (P) limitation in temperate hardwood forests by increasing N availability, and therefore P demand, and/or by decreasing pH and occluding inorganic P. However, only recently have studies demonstrated that P limitation can occur in temperate forests and very little is known about the temporal aspects of P dynamics in acidic forest soils and how seasonal shifts in nutrient availability and demand influence microbial investment in extracellular enzymes. The objectives of this study were to investigate how P availability and soil pH influence seasonal patterns of nutrient cycling and soil microbial activity in hardwood forests that experience chronic acid deposition. We experimentally manipulated soil pH, P, or both for three years and examined soil treatment responses in fall, winter, spring, early summer, and late summer. We found that site (glaciated versus unglaciated) and treatment had the most significant influence on nutrient pools and cycling. In general, nutrient pools were higher in glaciated soils than unglaciated for measured nutrients, including total C and N (2-3 times higher), extractable inorganic nitrogen, and readily available P. Treatment had no impact on total C and N pools in either region, but did affect other measured nutrients such as ammonium, which was greatest in the elevated pH treatment for both sites. As expected, readily available P pools were highest in the elevated P treatments (3 fold increase in both sites), but raising pH decreased available P pools in the glaciated site. Raising soil pH increased both net N mineralization rates and net P mineralization rates, regardless of site. Nitrification responses were complex, but we observed an overall significant nitrification increase under elevated pH, particularly in the growing season. Extracellular enzyme activity showed more seasonal patterns than site and treatment effects, exhibiting significant growing season activity reductions for

  18. Spatial distribution of Triatoma guasayana (Hemiptera:Reduviidae) in hardwood forest biotopes in Santiago del Estero, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Wisnivesky-Colli, C; Schweigmann, N J; Pietrokovsky, S; Bottazzi, V; Rabinovich, J E

    1997-03-01

    In the study area Triatoma guasayana Wygodzinsky & Abalos is the only wild triatomine found sympatric with Triatoma infestans (Klug) in peridomestic premises. The Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas wild cycle is centered around the same biotopes occupied by T. guasayana, which are also visited mainly by opossums with annual prevalences of 29-50%. Twelve hectares were sampled for 4 consecutive years during all seasons. During that time, 420 T. Guasayana individuals were collected in 11.3% of 1,188 biotopes of 4 types, which included quimiles (the cactus Opuntia quimilo), chaguares (several species of bromeliads), trees, and logs. Quimiles had the highest percentage of positive biotopes (31.5%) followed by chaguares (22.3%), whereas 5% of the logs were found infested. During all seasons, 9.6-15.2% of biotopes were found infested. Distance to artificial biotopes was not statistically significant when comparing the frequency of triatomine numbers per biotope in all biotope-season combinations. With the exception of quimiles in the fall, the mean number of triatomines was higher in chaguares during all seasons. Triatomine abundance by biotope and season strata showed a clumped distribution, except for the quimiles biotope during the summer. When pooling by seasons, the mean number of triatomines in chaguares and quimiles biotope was higher than in logs and trees, with all biotopes showing a strong clumped distribution. When pooling by biotopes, the mean number of T. guasayana was relatively similar for all seasons, with a strong clumped distribution. The strong contagious distribution of T. guasayana in the hardwood forest biotopes may explain the maintenance of the wild cycle of T. cruzi, despite the low number and the low prevalences of the insect vector.

  19. Changes in HPBMC markers of immmune function following controlled short-term inhalation exposures of humans to hardwood smoke.

    PubMed

    Burchiel, Scott W; Lauer, Fredine T; MacKenzie, Debra; McClain, Shea; Kuehl, Philip J; McDonald, Jacob D; Harrod, Kevin S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that complex mixtures containing particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produce systemic immunotoxicity in animal models following inhalation exposures. While we and others have shown that emissions associated with hardwood smoke (HWS), cigarette smoke and diesel exhaust can suppress the immune systems of animals in vitro and in vivo, there have been few immune function studies on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (HPBMC) following exposure of humans to HWS. Our work shows that T cells are an important targets of PM and PAH immunotoxicity. These studies were conducted on HPBMC from 14 human volunteers receiving four 2 h nightly exposures to clean air or HWS at a concentration of 500 ug/m(3). We measured anti-CD3/anti-CD28 stimulated T-cell proliferation and HPBMC cytokine production in cell supernatants, including interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), TH1 cytokines γIFN and IL-2, TH2 cytokine IL-4, Th17 cytokine interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). We analyzed results using analysis of variance (ANOVA), t-tests and Pearson correlation. Results showed that there was significant variation in the amount of T-cell proliferation observed following polyclonal activation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies in both the air and HWS-exposed groups. There was not a significant effect of HWS on T-cell proliferation. However, we did find a strong relationship between the presence of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, but not IL-8) and the amount of T-cell proliferation seen in individual donors, demonstrating that brief exposures of humans to HWS can produce changes in systemic immunity that is associated with proinflammatory cytokines.

  20. Root tip morphology, anatomy, chemistry and potential hydraulic conductivity vary with soil depth in three temperate hardwood species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Dong, Xueyun; Wang, Hongfeng; Wang, Zhengquan; Gu, Jiacun

    2016-01-01

    Root traits in morphology, chemistry and anatomy are important to root physiological functions, but the differences between shallow and deep roots have rarely been studied in woody plants. Here, we selected three temperate hardwood species, Juglans mandshurica Maxim., Fraxinus mandschurica Rupr. and Phellodendron amurense Rupr., in plantations in northeastern China and measured morphological, anatomical and chemical traits of root tips (i.e., the first-order roots) at surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (20-30 cm) soil layers. The objectives of this study were to identify how those traits changed with soil depth and to reveal potential functional differences. The results showed that root diameters in deep root tips were greater in J. mandshurica and F. mandschurica, but smaller in P. amurense. However, root stele diameter and the ratio of stele to root diameter in the subsurface layer were consistently greater in all three species, which may enhance their abilities to penetrate into soil. All deep roots exhibited lower tissue nitrogen concentration and respiration rate, which were possibly caused by lower nutrient availability in the subsurface soil layer. Significant differences between shallow and deep roots were observed in xylem structure, with deep roots having thicker stele, wider maximum conduit and greater number of conduits per stele. Compared with shallow roots, the theoretical hydraulic conductivities in deep roots were enhanced by 133% (J. mandshurica), 78% (F. mandschurica) and 217% (P. amurense), respectively, indicating higher efficiency of transportation. Our results suggest that trees' root tip anatomical structure and physiological activity vary substantially with soil environment.

  1. Long-term changes in forest carbon under temperature and nitrogen amendments in a temperate northern hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Savage, Kathleen E; Parton, William J; Davidson, Eric A; Trumbore, Susan E; Frey, Serita D

    2013-08-01

    Currently, forests in the northeastern United States are net sinks of atmospheric carbon. Under future climate change scenarios, the combined effects of climate change and nitrogen deposition on soil decomposition, aboveground processes, and the forest carbon balance remain unclear. We applied carbon stock, flux, and isotope data from field studies at the Harvard forest, Massachusetts, to the ForCent model, which integrates above- and belowground processes. The model was able to represent decadal-scale measurements in soil C stocks, mean residence times, fluxes, and responses to a warming and N addition experiment. The calibrated model then simulated the longer term impacts of warming and N deposition on the distribution of forest carbon stocks. For simulation to 2030, soil warming resulted in a loss of soil organic matter (SOM), decreased allocation to belowground biomass, and gain of aboveground carbon, primarily in large wood, with an overall small gain in total system carbon. Simulated nitrogen addition resulted in a small increase in belowground carbon pools, but a large increase in aboveground large wood pools, resulting in a substantial increase in total system carbon. Combined warming and nitrogen addition simulations showed a net gain in total system carbon, predominately in the aboveground carbon pools, but offset somewhat by losses in SOM. Hence, the impact of continuation of anthropogenic N deposition on the hardwood forests of the northeastern United States may exceed the impact of warming in terms of total ecosystem carbon stocks. However, it should be cautioned that these simulations do not include some climate-related processes, different responses from changing tree species composition. Despite uncertainties, this effort is among the first to use decadal-scale observations of soil carbon dynamics and results of multifactor manipulations to calibrate a model that can project integrated aboveground and belowground responses to nitrogen and climate

  2. Utilizing NASA EOS to Assist in Determining Suitable Planting Locations for Bottomland Hardwood Trees in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reahard, R. R.; Arguelles, M.; Ewing, M.; Kelly, C.; Strong, E.

    2012-12-01

    St. Bernard Parish, located in southeast Louisiana, is rapidly losing coastal forests and wetlands due to a variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. subsidence, saltwater intrusion, low sedimentation, nutrient deficiency, herbivory, canal dredging, levee construction, spread of invasive species, etc.). After Hurricane Katrina severely impacted the area in 2005, multiple Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have focused not only on rebuilding destroyed dwellings, but on rebuilding the ecosystems that once protected the citizens of St. Bernard Parish. Volunteer groups, NGOs, and government entities often work separately and independently of each other and use different sets of information to choose the best planting sites for restoring coastal forests. Using NASA Earth Observing Systems (EOS), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) soil surveys, and ancillary road and canal data in conjunction with ground truthing, the team created maps of optimal planting sites for several species of bottomland hardwood trees to aid in unifying these organizations, who share a common goal, under one plan. The methodology for this project created a comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS) to help identify suitable planting sites in St. Bernard Parish. This included supplementing existing elevation data using Digital Elevation Models derived from LIDAR data, and determining existing land cover in the study area from classified Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data from a single low-altitude swath was used to assess the health of vegetation over an area near the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet Canal (MRGO) and Bayou La Loutre. Historic extent of coastal forests was also mapped using aerial photos collected between 1952 and 1956. The final products demonstrated yet another application of NASA EOS in the rebuilding and monitoring of coastal ecosystems in

  3. The response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to selection cutting in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael, D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Kilgo, John, C.; Moorman, Christopher, E.

    2005-04-01

    We compared the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to the creation of canopy gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a bottomland hardwood forest (South Carolina, USA). Samples were collected four times in 2001 by malaise and pitfall traps placed at the center and edge of each gap, and 50 m into the surrounding forest. Species richness was higher at the center of young gaps than in old gaps or in the forest, but there was no statistical difference in species richness between old gaps and the forests surrounding them. Carabid abundance followed the same trend, but only with the exclusion of Semiardistomis viridis (Say), a very abundant species that differed in its response to gap age compared to most other species. The carabid assemblage at the gap edge was very similar to that of the forest, and there appeared to be no distinct edge community. Species known to occur in open or disturbed habitats were more abundant at the center of young gaps than at any other location. Generalist species were relatively unaffected by the disturbance, but one species (Dicaelus dilatatus Say) was significantly less abundant at the centers of young gaps. Forest inhabiting species were less abundant at the centers of old gaps than in the forest, but not in the centers of young gaps. Comparison of community similarity at various trapping locations showed that communities at the centers of old and young gaps had the lowest similarity (46.5%). The community similarity between young gap centers and nearby forest (49.1%) and old gap centers and nearby forest (50.0%) was similarly low. These results show that while the abundance and richness of carabids in old gaps was similar to that of the surrounding forest, the species composition between the two sites differed greatly.

  4. Effect of hydrological conditions on nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide dynamics in a bottomland hardwood forest and its implication for soil carbon sequestration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yu, K.; Faulkner, S.P.; Baldwin, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted at three locations in a bottomland hardwood forest with a distinct elevation and hydrological gradient: ridge (high, dry), transition, and swamp (low, wet). At each location, concentrations of soil greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4 , and CO2), their fluxes to the atmosphere, and soil redox potential (Eh) were measured bimonthly, while the water table was monitored every day. Results show that soil Eh was significantly (P transition > ridge location. The ratio CO2/CH4 production in soil is a critical factor for evaluating the overall benefit of soil C sequestration, which can be greatly offset by CH4 production and emission. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing.

  5. Application of matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight mass spectrometry to the study of the proteinaceous binders in paint: blue paint composition in the series "The Life of Virgin" by Alonso Cano (17th century) as a case study.

    PubMed

    Romero-Pastor, Julia; Natalia Navas, Natalia Navas; Rodríguez-Simón, Luís; Lario-Simón, Antonio; Kuckova, Stepanka; Manzano, Eloísa

    2015-01-01

    The identification of proteinaceous materials in paint constituents provides very valuable information regarding the techniques used by the painter and the most suitable procedures for conserving and restoring their works. Although the analysis of proteinaceous materials is nowadays a common task when dealing with works of art, the reliable detection and identification of protein traces is still complicated, particularly when very small samples can be taken that may contain a mixture of different organic materials (oils, waxes, resins, gums etc.). We therefore proposed a proteomic approach to investigate protein materials in paintings at trace levels in order to obtain a better understanding of the painter's technique. After trypsin digestion of the paint samples, mass spectra were obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and they were compared with the Mascot database and with theoretical digested proteins. This study contributes to the knowledge about the technique used by Alonso Cano (Granada, Spain, 1601-1667), one of the most original and brilliant artists from the Spanish Golden Age (17th century), in the series called the Life of the Virgin (six paintings), part of the iconographic program about the life of the Virgin Mary, nowadays seen in the main chapel of Granada Cathedral. The objective of the present study was to test the use of proteinaceous material, mainly egg yolk, in the paint used by Cano, as suggested in previous research, although this would have been unusual at that time when most artists used oil paints. Based on the results of the analysis here presented, the use of protein in the binding media can most likely be excluded.

  6. Effects of structural complexity enhancement on eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) populations in northern hardwood forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenny, H.C.; Keeton, W.S.; Donovan, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    Managing for stand structural complexity in northern hardwood forests has been proposed as a method for promoting microhabitat characteristics important to eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus). We evaluated the effects of alternate, structure-based silvicultural systems on red-backed salamander populations at two research sites in northwestern Vermont. Treatments included two uneven-aged approaches (single-tree selection and group-selection) and one unconventional approach, termed "structural complexity enhancement" (SCE), that promotes development of late-successional structure, including elevated levels of coarse woody debris (CWD). Treatments were applied to 2 ha units and were replicated two to four times depending on treatment. We surveyed red-backed salamanders with a natural cover search method of transects nested within vegetation plots 1 year after logging. Abundance estimates corrected for detection probability were calculated from survey data with a binomial mixture model. Abundance estimates differed between study areas and were influenced by forest structural characteristics. Model selection was conducted using Akaike Information Criteria, corrected for over-dispersed data and small sample size (QAICc). We found no difference in abundance as a response to treatment as a whole, suggesting that all of the uneven-aged silvicultural systems evaluated can maintain salamander populations after harvest. However, abundance was tied to specific structural habitat attributes associated with study plots within treatments. The most parsimonious model of habitat covariates included site, relative density of overstory trees, and density of more-decayed and less-decayed downed CWD. Abundance responded positively to the density of downed, well-decayed CWD and negatively to the density of poorly decayed CWD and to overstory relative density. CWD volume was not a strong predictor of salamander abundance. We conclude that structural complexity enhancement

  7. Horizontal and vertical movements of host-seeking Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs in a hardwood forest

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Robert S.; Mun, Jeomhee; Stubbs, Harrison A.

    2009-01-01

    The nymph of the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) is an important bridging vector of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) to humans in the far-western United States. The previously unknown dispersal capabilities of this life stage were studied in relation to logs, tree trunks, and adjacent leaf-litter areas in a mixed hardwood forest using mark-release-recapture methods. In two spatially and temporally well-spaced trials involving logs, the estimated mean distances that nymphs dispersed ranged from ≈0.04 to 0.20 m/day on logs vs 0.11 to 0.72 m/day in litter. Prior to recapture in either trial and within the confines of the sampling grids, the greatest estimated dispersal distances by individual nymphs released on logs, and in litter 0.5 m or 1.5 m from logs, were 2.4, 3.0, and 3.0 m, respectively. Nymphs released on logs or litter tended to remain within the same biotopes in which they were freed while host-seeking. In two simultaneous trials involving trunks spaced close-at-hand, nymphs released at the trunk/litter interface on all four aspects collectively dispersed a mean of 0.353 m/day on trunks vs 0.175 m/day in litter. In either trial, the greatest distances that recaptured nymphs climbed trunks, or dispersed in litter in an encircling 3-m grid, were 1.55 m and 2.97 m, respectively. Nymphs ascending trunks did not exhibit a preference for any one aspect, and the B. burgdorferi-infection prevalences in nymphs that climbed trunks (3.2–4.0%) did not differ significantly from those that moved horizontally into litter (10.5–17.6%). We conclude that I. pacificus nymphs use an ambush host-seeking strategy; that they disperse slowly in all biotopes studied; that they usually continue to host-seek in or on whatever substratum they access initially; and that B. burgdorferi-infected nymphs are as likely to move horizontally as vertically when offered a choice. PMID:20352083

  8. Reduced snow cover alters root-microbe interactions and decreases nitrification rates in a northern hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Patrick O; Templer, Pamela H; Christenson, Lynn; Duran, Jorge; Fahey, Timothy; Fisk, Melany C; Groffman, Peter M; Morse, Jennifer L; Finzi, Adrien C

    2016-12-01

    competition and indirectly through a negative feedback on soil moisture, resulting in lower N availability to trees in northern hardwood forests.

  9. Relating the temporal change observed by AIRSAR to surface and canopy properties of mixed conifer and hardwood forests of northern Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, M. Craig; Mcdonald, Kyle; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Sharik, Terry

    1991-01-01

    The mixed hardwood and conifer forests of northern Michigan were overflown by a 3-frequency airborne imaging radar in Apr. and Jul. 1990. A set of 10 x 10 km test sites near the University of Michigan Biological Station at Douglas Lake and within the Hiawatha National Forest in the upper peninsula of Michigan contained training stands representing the various forest species typical of forest communities across the ecotone between the coniferous boreal forest and mid-latitude hardwood and coniferous forests. The polarimetric radar data were externally calibrated to allow interdate comparisons. The Apr. flight was prior to bud-break of deciduous species and patchy snowcover was present. The Jul. flights occurred during and 2 days after heavy rain showers, and provide a unique opportunity to examine the differences in radar backscatter attributable to intercepted precipitation. Analyses show that there are significant changes in backscattering between biophysically dissimilar forest stands on any given date and also between dates for a given forest stand. These differences in backscattering can be related to moisture properties of the forest floor and the overlying canopy and also to the quantity and organizational structure of the above-ground biomass.

  10. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  11. Multi-decade biomass dynamics in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Woods, Kerry D

    2014-01-01

    Trends in living aboveground biomass and inputs to the pool of coarse woody debris (CWD) in an undisturbed, old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest in northern MI were estimated from multi-decade observations of permanent plots. Growth and demographic data from seven plot censuses over 47 years (1962-2009), combined with one-time measurement of CWD pools, help assess biomass/carbon status of this landscape. Are trends consistent with traditional notions of late-successional forests as equilibrial ecosystems? Specifically, do biomass pools and CWD inputs show consistent long-term trends and relationships, and can living and dead biomass pools and trends be related to forest composition and history? Aboveground living biomass densities, estimated using standard allometric relationships, range from 360-450 Mg/ha among sampled stands and types; these values are among the highest recorded for northeastern North American forests. Biomass densities showed significant decade-scale variation, but no consistent trends over the full study period (one stand, originating following an 1830 fire, showed an aggrading trend during the first 25 years of the study). Even though total above-ground biomass pools are neither increasing nor decreasing, they have been increasingly dominated, over the full study period, by very large (>70 cm dbh) stems and by the most shade-tolerant species (Acer saccharum and Tsuga canadensis). CWD pools measured in 2007 averaged 151 m(3)/ha, with highest values in Acer-dominated stands. Snag densities averaged 27/ha, but varied nearly ten-fold with canopy composition (highest in Tsuga-dominated stands, lowest in Acer-dominated); snags constituted 10-50% of CWD biomass. Annualized CWD inputs from tree mortality over the full study period averaged 1.9-3.2 Mg/ha/yr, depending on stand and species composition. CWD input rates tended to increase over the course of the study. Input rates may be expected to increase over longer-term observations because, (a

  12. Climate change in winter versus the growing-season leads to different effects on soil microbial activity in northern hardwood forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, P. O.; Templer, P. H.; Finzi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Mean winter air temperatures have risen by approximately 2.5˚ C per decade over the last fifty years in the northeastern U.S., reducing the maximum depth of winter snowpack by approximately 26 cm over this period and the duration of winter snow cover by 3.6 to 4.2 days per decade. Forest soils in this region are projected to experience a greater number of freeze-thaw cycles and lower minimum winter soil temperatures as the depth and duration of winter snow cover declines in the next century. Climate change is likely to result not only in lower soil temperatures during winter, but also higher soil temperatures during the growing-season. We conducted two complementary experiments to determine how colder soils in winter and warmer soils in the growing-season affect microbial activity in hardwood forests at Harvard Forest, MA and Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH. A combination of removing snow via shoveling and buried heating cables were used to induce freeze-thaw events during winter and to warm soils 5˚C above ambient temperatures during the growing-season. Increasing the depth and duration of soil frost via snow-removal resulted in short-term reductions in soil nitrogen (N) production via microbial proteolytic enzyme activity and net N mineralization following snowmelt, prior to tree leaf-out. Declining mass specific rates of carbon (C) and N mineralization associated with five years of snow removal at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest may be an indication of microbial physiological adaptation to winter climate change. Freeze-thaw cycles during winter reduced microbial extracellular enzyme activity and the temperature sensitivity of microbial C and N mineralization during the growing-season, potentially offsetting nutrient and soil C losses due to soil warming in the growing-season. Our multiple experimental approaches show that winter climate change is likely to contribute to reduced microbial activity in northern hardwood forests.

  13. Inter-annual variability in the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor in adjacent pine and hardwood forests: links to drought, disturbance, and seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novick, K. A.; Ward, E. J.; Oishi, A. C.; Stoy, P. C.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the variation in long-term biosphere-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide and water vapor is necessary to characterize the benefits and services of terrestrial ecosystems, including the highly productive forests of the Southeastern United States. This study quantifies flux variability at inter-annual times scales using eight-year eddy covariance records from two co-located ecosystems in the Duke Forest (North Carolina, USA): a hardwood deciduous forest (HW) and a pine plantation (PP), which together represent the dominant forest types in the region. When averaged across the study period, annual net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) was similar in PP and HW (NEE = -560 and -520 g C m-2 y-1 in PP and HW, respectively). Variation in annual NEE was high in both ecosystems, but higher in the pine site (CV = 0.38) as compared to the hardwood site (CV = 0.23). Gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (RE), which together represent the primary components of NEE, were not necessarily more variable in the pine site; however, the coupling between annual GEP and RE was weaker in PP as compared to HW, contributing to higher overall variability in PP NEE. Our results identify at least two factors contributing to this decoupling: 1) an ice storm event, which reduced PP GEP while increasing or having no effect on PP RE, and 2) two severe drought events, which cause large reductions in PP GEP but not RE. Additionally, in both ecosystems, variability in GEP and NEE is strongly related to the length of the active season (r2 = 0.60 - 0.93), a variable reflecting the seasonality of carbon assimilation that is largely independent from patterns of leaf area development.

  14. An assessment of the relationship between potential chemical indices of nitrogen saturation and nitrogen deposition in hardwood forests in southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Watmough, Shaun A

    2010-05-01

    Southern Ontario receives the highest levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition in Canada and there are concerns that forests in the region may be approaching a state of 'N saturation'. In order to evaluate whether potential chemical indices provide evidence of N saturation, 23 hardwood plots were sampled along a modeled N-deposition gradient ranging from 9.3 to 12.8 kg/ha/year. All plots were dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and foliar N and foliar delta(15)N were positively correlated with modeled N deposition. However, forest floor N content and the C:N ratio were unrelated to N deposition, but were instead related to soil pH and annual temperature; lower C:N ratios and higher N content in the forest floor were found at the most acidic sites in the cooler, northern part of the study region despite lower N deposition. Likewise, delta(15)N values in surface mineral soil and the (15)N enrichment factor of foliage (delta(15)N foliage - delta(15)N soil) are correlated to soil pH and temperature and not N deposition. Further, potential N mineralization, ammonification, and nitrification in Ontario maple stands were highest in the northern part of the region with the lowest modeled N deposition. Nitrogen cycling in soil appears to be primarily influenced by the N status of the forest floor and other soil properties rather than N deposition, indicating that chemical indices in soil in these hardwood plots may not provide an early indicator of N saturation.

  15. Controls of Net Ecosystem Exchange at an Old Field, a Pine Plantation, and a Hardwood Forest under Identical Climatic and Edaphic Conditions-Isotopic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chanton, J. P.; Mortazavi, B.

    2004-11-04

    During the past year we have submitted two manuscripts. 1. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions (in Press). Oecologia 2. Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Use of Keeling plots for determining sources of dissolved organic carbon in nearshore and open ocean systems (Published in Limnology and Oceanography (2004) Vol 49 pages 102-108). 3. Mortazavi, B., J. L. Prater, and J. P. Chanton (2004). A field-based method for simultaneous measurements of the 18O and 13C of soil CO2 efflux. Biogeosciences Vol 1:1-16 Most recent products delivered: Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Abiotic and biotic controls on the 13C of respired CO2 in the southeastern US forest mosaics and a new technique for measuring the of soil CO2 efflux. Joint Biosphere Stable Isotope Network (US) and Stable Isotopes in Biosphere Atmosphere Exchange (EU) 2004 Meeting, Interlaken, Switzerland, March 31-April 4, 2004. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003. Prater, J., Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Measurement of discrimination against 13C during photosynthesis and quantification of the short-term variability of 13C over a diurnal cycle. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003.

  16. Summer behavior of immature radio-equipped woodcock in central Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunford, R.D.; Owen, R.B.

    1973-01-01

    The behavior of 15 immature American woodcock (Philohela minor) was studied in central Maine during the summers of 1969 and 1970 using radiotelemetry. The monitored birds used a variety of nocturnal sites including old fields, bogs, powerlines, highway medians, woods roads, and fore clearings. Old fields were occupied more often than any other type of opening. Second growth-hardwoods, alders, hardwood-conifers, and conifers were utilized as diurnal cover. Diurnal locations of radio-equipped woodcock averaged 15 m from major breaks in the forest canopy. Four birds were monitored continuously during the day and night to detennine periods of activity. Although the birds were active throughout the day, very little activity was recorded after they moved to nocturnal sites. No apparent difference was found in the daily patterns of movement between immature male and female woodcock. Crepuscular movements between diurnal covers and nocturnal areas averaged 332 m. A composite summer range for the 15 woodcock during 183 woodcock-days was 1060 hectares. The data suggest that immature woodcock are quite mobile during the summer and utilize most of the forest openings occurring within 1-3 km of good nesting habitat. Most of these openings are also used for singing grounds by males in the spring.

  17. Central Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Clouds and haze cover most of the Italian peninsula in this view of central Italy (41.5N, 14.0E) but the Bay of Naples region with Mt. Vesuvius and the island of Capri are clear. The Adriatic Sea in the background separates Italy from the cloud covered Balkans of eastern Europe and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the foreground lies between the Italian mainland and the off scene islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Several aircraft contrails can also be seen.

  18. Central pain.

    PubMed

    Singh, Supreet

    2014-12-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is central pain, a neuropathic pain syndrome caused by a lesion in the brain or spinal cord that sensitizes one's perception of pain. It is a debilitating condition caused by various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, strokes, spinal cord injuries, or brain tumors. Varied symptoms and the use of pharmacological medicines and nonpharmacological therapies will be addressed.

  19. Integrating spatial modeling, climate change scenarios, invasive species risk, and public perceptions to inform sustainable management in mixed hemlock-hardwood forests in Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunckel, Kathleen Lois

    Introduced invasive pests and climate change are perhaps the most important and persistent catalyst for changes in forest composition. Infestation and outbreak of the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae) along the eastern coast of the USA, has led to widespread loss of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.), and a shift in tree species composition towards hardwood stands. Maine's forest dominated landscape and position at the leading edge of the HWA invasion provides an excellent opportunity to inform sustainable forest management (SFM) practices by using spatially explicit models to predict current tree species distribution, future range shifts, and solicit broad based feedback from Maine residents about forest management goals and preferences. This paper describes an interdisciplinary study of the ecological and social implications of changes in mixed northern hardwood forests due to disturbance. A two stage mapping approach was used where presence/absence of eastern hemlock is predicted with an overall accuracy of 85% and the continuous distribution (% basal area) was predicted with an accuracy of 83%. Given the importance of climate variables in predicting eastern hemlock, forecasts of future range shifts are possible using data generated through climate scenarios. The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) Downscaled Climate Projections (NEX-DCP30) dataset was used to model future shifts in the geographic range of eastern hemlock throughout the state of Maine. The results clearly describe a significant shift in eastern hemlock range with gains in total geographic area that is suitable habitat. Sustaining forest systems across the landscape requires not only ecological knowledge, but also the integration of multiple socio-economic criteria as well, including data obtained through broad-based public participation approaches. Here, 3000 Maine residents were surveyed and asked how they: (1) value local forests; (2) view forest management goals and threats to forest

  20. The relation of harvesting intensity to changes in soil, soil water, and stream chemistry in a northern hardwood forest, Catskill Mountains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siemion, Jason; Burns, Douglas A.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Germain, Rene H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that clearcutting of northern hardwood forests mobilizes base cations, inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim), and nitrate (NO3--N) from soils to surface waters, but the effects of partial harvests on NO3--N have been less frequently studied. In this study we describe the effects of a series of partial harvests of varying proportions of basal area removal (22%, 28% and 68%) on Alim, calcium (Ca2+), and NO3--N concentrations in soil extracts, soil water, and surface water in the Catskill Mountains of New York, USA. Increases in NO3--N concentrations relative to pre-harvest values were observed within a few months after harvest in soils, soil water, and stream water for all three harvests. Increases in Alim and Ca2+ concentrations were also evident in soil water and stream water over the same time period for all three harvests. The increases in Alim, Ca2+, and NO3--N concentrations in the 68% harvest were statistically significant as measured by comparing the 18-month pre-harvest period with the 18-month post-harvest period, with fewer significant responses in the two harvests of lowest intensity. All three solutes returned to pre-harvest concentrations in soil water and stream water in the two lowest intensity harvests in 2–3 years compared to a full 3 years in the 68% harvest. When the results of this study were combined with those of a previous nearby clearcut and 40% harvest, the post-harvest increases in NO3--N concentrations in stream water and soil water suggest a harvesting level above which the relation between concentration and harvest intensity changes; there was a greater change in concentration per unit change in harvest intensity when basal area removal was greater than 40%. These results indicate that the deleterious effects on aquatic ecosystems previously demonstrated for intensive harvests in northern hardwood forests of northeastern North America that receive high levels of atmospheric N deposition can be greatly

  1. A process for enhancing the accessibility and reactivity of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp for viscose rayon production by cellulase treatment.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qingxian; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Tian, Chao; Zheng, Linqiang; Ni, Yonghao

    2014-02-01

    The commercial pre-hydrolysis kraft-based dissolving pulp production process can be a typical example for the demonstration/implementation of the integrated forest biorefinery concept. In this study, the concept of cellulase treatment of this dissolving pulp for enhancement of accessibility/reactivity in terms of viscose rayon production was demonstrated. The cellulase treatment resulted in the formation of additional openings/surface areas in the fiber structure via the possible action of "etching". As a result, the pore volume of pulp fibers increased, which led to the increase in the accessibility to xanthation, and thus Fock reactivity. Results showed that the cellulase treatment was effective in increasing the Fock reactivity, at a cellulase dosage of 2u/g (based on the dry weight of pulp), the Fock reactivity increased from 47.67% to 79.9%. The adoption of cellulase treatment to hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp can provide an efficient approach for enhancing its performance in the commercial viscose-rayon process.

  2. Effects of outside storage on the energy potential of hardwood particulate fuels. Part III. Specific gravity, ash content, and pH of water solubles

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.S.; Argent, R.M.; Sarles, R.L.

    1986-04-01

    Approximately 150 tons of green, hardwood whole-tree fuel chips were stored outdoors in a 20-foot-high, conical pile at Blacksburg, Va. The pile was monitored for one year to determine the effect of outside storage on the rate of fiber loss, the level of noncombustibles in the fuel, and the pH of water-soluble matter. Chip samples were extracted from within the pile on a regular schedule. Tests for specific gravity, ash content, and pH of water solubles were conducted. At ambient temperatures above 20 degrees C, wood substance loss occurred at a uniform rate 1.5 percent per month. Ash content increased by 0.23 percentage points per month after the first 4 months of storage. This increased ash content may burden fly ash and grate ash disposal systems unless they are properly designed. The adverse effects of fiber loss and ash content can be virtually eliminated by storage of frozen whole-tree chips during winter months in temperate climates. Water-soluble fractions of wood and bark were highly acidic (4.1 and 3.7 pH, respectively) and changed little over the year long study period. Uncontrolled, the leachate from storage piles may be harmful to the environment. Use of corrosion resistant materials is recommended to counter the effects of acids on conversion, storage, and handling equipment. 18 references.

  3. Production of d-lactic acid from hardwood pulp by mechanical milling followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using metabolically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Hama, Shinji; Mizuno, Shino; Kihara, Maki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Noda, Hideo; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the process development for the d-lactic acid production from cellulosic feedstocks using the Lactobacillus plantarum mutant, genetically modified to produce optically pure d-lactic acid from both glucose and xylose. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using delignified hardwood pulp (5-15% loads) resulted in the lactic acid titers of 55.2-84.6g/L after 72h and increased productivities of 1.77-2.61g/L/h. To facilitate the enzymatic saccharification of high-load pulp at a fermentation temperature, short-term (⩽10min) pulverization of pulp was conducted, leading to a significantly improved saccharification with the suppressed formation of formic acid by-product. The short-term milling followed by SSF resulted in a lactic acid titer of 102.3g/L, an optical purity of 99.2%, and a yield of 0.879g/g-sugars without fed-batch process control. Therefore, the process presented here shows promise for the production of high-titer d-lactic acid using the L. plantarum mutant.

  4. Carbon Uptake and Storage in Old-Growth and Second-Growth Forests in Central Vermont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, A. H.; Weisser, O.

    2013-12-01

    Managing forests towards the goal of maximizing carbon uptake and storage provides an important tool for climate change mitigation. There is significant spatial and temporal variation among forests, even within an ecosystem type, in annual uptake and storage of carbon. Understanding the causes for that variation is important in refining management practices and restoration goals that promote carbon storage. We explore the variation in carbon storage and uptake among forests differing in age in central Vermont, comparing young, intermediate-aged, and old-growth forests. We generally expected that younger forests would have a higher annual uptake of carbon than older forests. Significant uncertainty exists, however, about the temporal trajectory from a young, rapidly growing forest to an old-growth forest that may be in a steady-state, with no net uptake of carbon. Within each forest, we compare differences among functional groups of species (e.g., hardwoods versus softwoods) in contribution to overall forest carbon uptake and storage. Our study sites include an old-growth hemlock/mixed hardwood forest that has not been directly affected by human activities, and which contains trees upwards of 350 years old; a 130-year-old mixed hardwood forest that has recolonized former pasture land; and a 90-year-old mixed hardwood forest on formerly agricultural floodplain land. Carbon storage in live and dead biomass pools was estimated from allometric equations, based on repeated measurements of tree diameters in permanently marked study plots. Historical patterns of carbon storage in living biomass were estimated by reconstructing tree diameter from measured increment cores, and then estimating the living biomass in each year. As expected, the old-growth forest stored almost twice the C in live biomass as the two second-growth forests, which stored equivalent amounts of carbon, despite the difference in age. Dead biomass was a larger pool of C in the old-growth forest than in

  5. Copper and zinc adsorption by softwood and hardwood biochars under elevated sulphate-induced salinity and acidic pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shasha; Huang, Longbin; Nguyen, Tuan A H; Ok, Yong Sik; Rudolph, Victor; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-01-01

    Biochar adsorption may lower concentrations of soluble metals in pore water of sulphidic Cu/Pb-Zn mine tailings. Unlike soil, high levels of salinity and soluble cations are present in tailing pore water, which may affect biochar adsorption of metals from solution. In the present study, removal of soluble copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) ions by soft- (pine) and hard-wood (jarrah) biochars pyrolysed at high temperature (about 700 °C) was evaluated under typical ranges of pH and salinity conditions resembling those in pore water of sulphidic tailings, prior to their direct application into the tailings. Surface alkalinity, cation exchange capacity, and negative surface charge of biochars affected Cu and Zn adsorption capacities. Quantitative comparisons were provided by fitting the adsorption equilibrium data with either the homogeneous or heterogeneous surface adsorption models (i.e. Langmuir and Freundlich, respectively). Accordingly, the jarrah biochar showed higher Cu and Zn adsorption capacity (Qmax=4.39 and 2.31 mg/g, respectively) than the softwood pine biochar (Qmax=1.47 and 1.00 mg/g). Copper and Zn adsorption by the biochars was favoured by high pH conditions under which they carried more negative charges and Cu and Zn ions were predicted undergoing hydrolysis and polymerization. Within the tested range, salinity had relatively weak effects on the adsorption, which perhaps influenced the surface charge and induced competition for negative charged sites between Na(+) and exchangeable Ca(2+) and/or heavy metal ions. Large amounts of waste wood/timber at many mine sites present a cost-effective opportunity to produce biochars for remediation of sulphidic tailings and seepage water.

  6. Effects of Harvesting Intensity and Herbivory by White-tailed Deer on Vegetation and Nutrient Uptake in a Northern Hardwood Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorks, T. E.; Leopold, D. J.; Raynal, D. J.; Murdoch, P. S.; Burns, D. A.

    2003-12-01

    We quantified the response of vegetation and nutrient uptake in a northern hardwood forest in southeastern New York for three to four years after three intensities of harvesting: clearcutting, heavy timber stand improvement (TSI), light TSI (97, 29, and 10% basal area reductions, respectively). We also quantified effects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory on nutrient retention by vegetation. Total biomass and nutrient accumulation in vegetation was higher after TSI than clearcutting in the first two years but was highest in the fenced clearcut in subsequent years, indicating that TSI or partial harvesting is a viable management tool for harvesting timber while consistently maintaining high rates of nutrient retention. After clearcutting, biomass and nutrient retention were initially dominated by woody stems <1.4 m tall and herbaceous vegetation, but saplings 0.1-5.0 cm DBH became the most important contributors to biomass and nutrient accumulation within four years. However, after both intensities of TSI, trees >5.0 cm DBH continued to account for most biomass and nutrient accumulation whereas understory vegetation accumulated little biomass or nutrients. Heavy TSI resulted in increased regeneration of only two tree species (Acer pensylvanicum, Fagus grandifolia), but clearcutting allowed these two species, mature forest species (A. saccharum, Betula alleghaniensis), and the early successional Prunus pensylvanica to regenerate. Several early successional shrub and herbaceous species were also important to nutrient retention after clearcutting, including Polygonum cilinode, Rubus spp., and Sambucus racemosa. Herbivory by white-tailed deer dramatically reduced biomass and nutrient accumulation by woody stems <5 cm DBH after clearcutting (5.5 vs. 0.7 Mg biomass/ha and 30.4 vs. 6.3 kg N/ha on fenced and unfenced clearcut sites, respectively, after four years), indicating the important influence this herbivore can have on nutrient retention in

  7. Osmotic potential of several hardwood species as affected by manipulation of throughfall precipitation in an upland oak forest during a dry year.

    PubMed

    Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Gebre, G. Michael; Shirshac, Terri L.

    1998-05-01

    Components of dehydration tolerance, including osmotic potential at full turgor (Psi(pio)) and osmotic adjustment (lowering of Psi(pio)), of several deciduous species were investigated in a mature, upland oak forest in eastern Tennessee. Beginning July 1993, the trees were subjected to one of three throughfall precipitation treatments: ambient, ambient minus 33% (dry treatment), and ambient plus 33% (wet treatment). During the dry 1995 growing season, leaf water potentials of all species declined to between -2.5 and -3.1 MPa in the dry treatment. There was considerable variation in Psi(pio) among species (-1.0 to -2.0 MPa). Based on Psi(pio) values, American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), dogwood (Cornus florida L.), and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were least dehydration tolerant, red maple (A. rubrum L.) was intermediate in tolerance, and white oak (Quercus alba L.) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.) were most tolerant. During severe drought, overstory chestnut oak and understory dogwood, red maple and chestnut oak displayed osmotic adjustment (-0.12 to -0.20 MPa) in the dry treatment relative to the wet treatment. (No osmotic adjustment was evident in understory red maple and chestnut oak during the previous wet year.) Osmotic potential at full turgor was generally correlated with leaf water potential, with both declining over the growing season, especially in species that displayed osmotic adjustment. However, osmotic adjustment was not restricted to species considered dehydration tolerant; for example, dogwood typically maintained high Psi(pio) and displayed osmotic adjustment to drought, but had the highest mortality rates of the species studied. Understory saplings tended to have higher Psi(pio) than overstory trees when water availability was high, but Psi(pio) of understory trees declined to values observed for overstory trees during severe drought. We conclude that Psi(pio) varies among deciduous hardwood species and is dependent on canopy

  8. Model-based analysis on the relationship between production and tree-ring growth in Japanese conifer-hardwood mixed forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, D.; Ito, A.

    2015-12-01

    Forest productivity is a basic and important component of terrestrial material flow and its importance increases according to recent climate warming and the increase in atmospheric-CO2 concentrations. Forest productivity study progresses through measurement by eddy-covariance data from flux tower and prediction by terrestrial ecosystem models. However, flux tower observation has spatiotemporal bias and limitation. On the other hand, tree-ring data have a close connection with forest ecosystem productivity. Compared to flux tower observation, we can collect tree-ring data from a larger number of sites and longer time scales. Comparisons between tree-ring observation and model-estimated productivity is important to reveal underlying mechanisms of forest ecosystem productivity and growth in wide spatiotemporal scale. This study aimed at revealing the relationship between temporal changes in tree-ring data and estimated forest ecosystem productivity in Japanese conifer-hardwood mixed forest. We also addressed climatic bias in the relationship by comparing between sites at different climatic conditions. Tree-ring data of Sakhalin spruce (Picea glehnii) were obtained from the International Tree Ring Data Bank. Six sites on the Hokkaido island (northern island of Japan) were selected for the present analysis. The Vegetation Integrated SImulator for Trace gasses (VISIT) model was validated by comparing with carbon flux data from Asia flux network sites. Past climatic parameters were obtained from ERA-20C reanalysis data from the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts. Correlation between basal area increment and net ecosystem productivity was highest in the coldest site but this correlation weakened in warmer sites. This result implies that long-term growth trend was mainly restricted by cold stress associated with productivity reduction in colder sites but this factor is less important and other factors exert influence in warmer sites.

  9. Source characterization of biomass burning particles: The combustion of selected European conifers, African hardwood, savanna grass, and German and Indonesian peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iinuma, Y.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Müller, K.; Andreae, M. O.; Helas, G.; Parmar, R.; Herrmann, H.

    2007-04-01

    We carried out a detailed size-resolved chemical characterization of particle emissions from the combustion of European conifer species, savanna grass, African hardwood, and German and Indonesian peat. Combustion particles were sampled using two sets of five-stage Berner-type cascade impactors after a buffer volume and a dilution tunnel. We determined the emission factors of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, 46-6700 mg kg-1, sum of five stages), water-insoluble organic carbon (WISOC, 1300-6100 mg kg-1), (apparent) elemental carbon (ECa, 490-1800 mg kg-1), inorganic ions (68-400 mg kg-1), n-alkanes (0.38-910 mg kg-1), n-alkenes (0.45-180 mg kg-1), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (1.4-28 mg kg-1), oxy-PAHs (0.08-1.0 mg kg-1), lignin decomposition products (59-620 mg kg-1), nitrophenols (1.4-31 mg kg-1), resin acids (0-110 mg kg-1), and cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition products (540-5900 mg kg-1). The combustion and particle emission characteristics of both of peat were significantly different from those of the other biofuels. Peat burning yielded significantly higher emission factors of total fine particles in comparison to the other biofuels. Very high emission factors of n-alkanes and n-alkenes were observed from peat combustion, which may be connected to the concurrently observed "missing" CCN in peat smoke. A high level of monosaccharide anhydrides, especially levoglucosan, was detected from all types of biofuel combustion. The fractions of monosaccharide anhydrides in the emitted total carbon were higher in smaller particles (aerodynamic diameter, Dpa < 0.42 μm).

  10. Post-breeding bird responses to canopy tree retention, stand size, and edge in regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDermott, M.E.; Wood, P.B.

    2011-01-01

    Avian use of even-aged timber harvests is likely affected by stand attributes such as size, amount of edge, and retained basal area, all characteristics that can easily be manipulated in timber harvesting plans. However, few studies have examined their effects during the post-breeding period. We studied the impacts of clearcut, low-leave two-age, and high-leave two-age harvesting on post-breeding birds using transect sampling and mist-netting in north-central West Virginia. In our approach, we studied the effects of these harvest types as well as stand size and edge on species characteristic of both early-successional and mature forest habitats. In 2005-2006, 13 stands ranging from 4 to 10. years post-harvest and 4-21. ha in size were sampled from late June through mid-August. Capture rates and relative abundance were similar among treatments for generalist birds. Early-successional birds had the lowest capture rates and fewer species (~30% lower), and late-successional birds reached their highest abundance and species totals (double the other treatments) in high-leave two-age stands. Area sensitivity was evident for all breeding habitat groups. Both generalist and late-successional bird captures were negatively related to stand size, but these groups showed no clear edge effects. Mean relative abundance decreased to nearly zero for the latter group in the largest stands. In contrast, early-successional species tended to use stand interiors more often and responded positively to stand size. Capture rates for this group tripled as stand size increased from 4 to 21. ha. Few birds in the forest periphery responded to harvest edge types despite within-stand edge effects evident for several species. To create suitable habitat for early-successional birds, large, non-linear openings with a low retained basal area are ideal, while smaller harvests and increased residual tree retention would provide habitat for more late-successional birds post-breeding. Although our study

  11. Measuring hourly 18O and 2H fluxes in a mixed hardwood forest using an integrated cavity output spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Caylor, K.; Dragoni, D.

    2008-12-01

    The 18O and 2H of water vapor can be used to investigate couplings between biological processes (e.g., photosynthesis or transpiration) and hydrologic processes (e.g., evaporation) and therefore serve as powerful tracers in hydrological cycles. A typical method for determining δ18O and δ2H fluxes in landscapes is a 'Keeling Plot' approach, which uses field-collected vapor samples coupled with a traditional isotope ratio mass spectrometer to infer the isotopic composition of evapotranspiration. However, fractionation accompanying inefficient vapor trapping can lead to large measurement uncertainty and the intensive laboring involved in cold-trap make it almost impossible for continuous measurements. Over the last 3-4 years a few groups have developed continuous approaches for measuring δ18O and δ2H that use laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) to achieve accuracy levels similar to lab-based mass spectrometry methods. Unfortunately, most LAS systems need cryogenic cooling, constant calibration to a reference gas, and substantial power requirements, which make them unsuitable for long-term field deployment at remote field sites. In this research, we tested out a new LAS--based water vapor isotope analyzer (WVIA, Los Gatos Research, Inc, Mountain View, CA) based on Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (ICOS) and coupled this instrument with a flux gradient system. The WVIA was calibrated bi- weekly using a dew point generator and water with known δ18O and δ2H signatures. The field work was performed at Morgan-Monroe State Forest Ameriflux tower site (central Indiana) between August 8 and August 27, 2008. The combination method was able to produce hourly δ18O and δ2H fluxes data with reproducibility similar to lab-based mass spectrometry methods. Such high temporal resolution data were also able to capture signatures of canopy and bare soil evaporation to individual rainfall events. The use of the ICOS water vapor analyzer within a gradient system has the

  12. EDITORIAL: The 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita; Arsenovic, Dusan

    2009-07-01

    The development of quantum optics was part and parcel of the formation of modern physics following the fundamental work of Max Planck and Albert Einstein, which gave rise to quantum mechanics. The possibility of working with pure quantum objects, like single atoms and single photons, has turned quantum optics into the main tool for testing the fundamentals of quantum physics. Thus, despite a long history, quantum optics nowadays remains an extremely important branch of physics. It represents a natural base for the development of advanced technologies, like quantum information processing and quantum computing. Previous Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) took place in Palermo (2007), Vienna (2006), Ankara (2005), Trieste (2004), Rostock (2003), Szeged (2002), Prague (2001), Balatonfüred (2000), Olomouc (1999), Prague (1997), Budmerice (1995, 1996), Budapest (1994) and Bratislava (1993). Those meetings offered excellent opportunities for the exchange of knowledge and ideas between leading scientists and young researchers in quantum optics, foundations of quantum mechanics, cavity quantum electrodynamics, photonics, atom optics, condensed matter optics, and quantum informatics, etc. The collaborative spirit and tradition of CEWQO were a great inspiration and help to the Institute of Physics, Belgrade, and the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, as the organizers of CEWQO 2008. The 16th CEWQO will take place in 2009 in Turku, Finland, and the 17th CEWQO will be organized in 2010 in St Andrews, United Kingdom. The 15th CEWQO was organized under the auspices and support of the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia, the Serbian Physical Society, the European Physical Society with sponsorship from the University of Belgrade, the Central European Initiative, the FP6 Program of the European Commission under INCO project QUPOM No 026322, the FP7 Program of the European Commission under project NANOCHARM, Europhysics Letters (EPL), The European

  13. Extreme pointer years in tree-ring records of Central Spain as evidence of volcanic eruptions (Huaynaputina, Peru, 1600 AC) and other climatic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génova, M.

    2011-12-01

    The study of pointer years based on the numerous tree-ring chronologies of the central Iberian Peninsula (Sierra de Guadarrama) could provide complementary information about climate variability over the last 405 years. In total, 64 pointer years have been identified: 30 negative (representing minimum growths) and 34 positive (representing maximum growths), the most significant of these being 1601, 1963 and 1996 for the negative ones, and 1734 and 1737 for the positive ones. Given that summer precipitation has been the most incident factor in the general variability of growth of Pinus in the Sierra de Guadarrama in the second half of the 20th century, it is also an explanatory factor in almost 50% of the extreme growths. Furthermore, the data show that there has been variability over the centuries in the distribution of the frequencies of pointer years and intervals. The first half of the 17th century, together with the second half of the 20th century, constitute the two most notable periods for the frequency of negative pointer years in Central Spain. This variability was sufficiently notable to affirm that, both in the 17th and 20th centuries, the macroclimatic anomalies that affected growth were more frequent and more extreme than in the other two centuries analysed. The period 1600-1602 is of special significance, being one of the most unfavourable for tree growth in the centre of Spain, with 1601 representing the minimum index in the regional chronology. It is possible to infer that these phenomena are the effect of the eruption of Huaynaputina, which occurred in Peru at the beginning of 1600 AD. This is the first time that the effects of this eruption in the tree-ring records of central and southern Europe have been demonstrated.

  14. Sampling bird communities in bottomland hardwood forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: Number of points visited versus number of visits to a point

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Smith, W.P.; Cooper, R.J.; Ford, R.P.; Hamel, P.B.; Wiedenfeld, D.A.; Smith, Winston Paul

    1993-01-01

    Within each of 4 forest stands on Delta Experimental Forest (DEF), 25 points were visited 5 to 7 times from 8 May to 21 May 1991, and 6 times from 30 May to 12 June 1992. During each visit to a point, all birds detected, visuallyor aurally, at any distance were recorded during a 4-minute interval. Using these data, our objectives were to recommend the number of point counts and the number of visits to a point which provide the greatest efficiency for estimating the cumulative number of species in bottomland hardwood forest stands within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, and to ascertain if increasing the number of visits to points is equivalent to adding more points. Because the total number of species detected in DEF were different between years, 39 species in 1991 and 55 species in 1992, we considered each year independently. Within each stand, we obtained bootstrap estimates of the mean cumulative number of species obtained from all possible combinations of six points and six visits (i.e., 36 means/stand). These bootstrap estimates were subjected to ANOVA; we modelled cumulative number of species as a function of the number of points visited, the number of visits to each point, and their interaction. As part of the same ANOVA we made an a priori, simultaneous comparison of the 15 possible reciprocal treatments (i.e., 1 point-2 visits vs. 2 points-1 visit, etc.). Results of analyses for each year were similar. Although no interaction was detected between the number of points and the number of visits, when reciprocals were compared, more points visited yielded significantly greater cumulative number of species than more visits to each point. Significant differences were detected among both the number of points visited and among the number of visits to a point. Scheffe's test of differences among means indicated that the cumulative number of species increased significantly with each added point, through five points, but six points did not differ from five points in

  15. Effects of a clearcut on the net rates of nitrification and N mineralization in a northern hardwood forest, Catskill Mountains, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Douglas A.; Murdoch, Peter S.

    2005-01-01

    The Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York receive among the highest rates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition in eastern North America, and ecosystems in the region may be sensitive to human disturbances that affect the N cycle. We studied the effects of a clearcut in a northern hardwood forest within a 24-ha Catskill watershed on the net rates of N mineralization and nitrification in soil plots during 6 years (1994-1999) that encompassed 3-year pre- and post-harvesting periods. Despite stream NO3- concentrations that increased by more than 1400 ??mol l-1 within 5 months after the clearcut, and three measures of NO3- availability in soil that increased 6- to 8-fold during the 1st year after harvest, the net rates of N mineralization and nitrification as measured by in situ incubation in the soil remained unchanged. The net N-mineralization rate in O-horizon soil was 1- 2 mg N kg-1 day-1 and the net nitrification rate was about 1 mg N kg-1 day-1, and rates in B-horizon soil were only one-fifth to one-tenth those of the O-horizon. These rates were obtained in single 625 m2 plots in the clearcut watershed and reference area, and were confirmed by rate measurements at 6 plots in 1999 that showed little difference in N-mineralization and nitrification rates between the treatment and reference areas. Soil temperature increased 1 ?? 0.8??C in a clearcut study plot relative to a reference plot during the post-harvest period, and soil moisture in the clearcut plot was indistinguishable from that in the reference plot. These results are contrary to the initial hypothesis that the clearcut would cause net rates of these N-cycling processes to increase sharply. The in situ incubation method used in this study isolated the samples from ambient roots and thereby prevented plant N uptake; therefore, the increases in stream NO3- concentrations and export following harvest largely reflect diminished uptake. Changes in temperature and moisture after the clearcut were

  16. Tree-ring records of near-Younger Dryas time in central North America - Preliminary results from the Lincoln quarry site, central Illinois, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panyushkina, Irina P.; Leavitt, Steven W.; Wiedenhoeft, A.; Noggle, S.; Curry, B.; Grimm, E.

    2004-01-01

    The abrupt millennial-scale changes associated with the Younger Dryas (YD) event ("chronozone") near the dawn of the Holocene are at least hemispheric, if not global, in extent. Evidence for the YD cold excursion is abundant in Europe but fairly meager in central North America. We are engaged in an investigation of high-resolution environmental changes in mid-North America over several millennia (about 10,000 to 14,000 BP) during the Late Glacial-Early Holocene transition, including the YD interval. Several sites containing logs or stumps have been identified and we are in the process of initial sampling or re-sampling them for this project. Here, we report on a site in central Illinois containing a deposit of logs initially thought to be of YD age preserved in alluvial sands. The assemblage of wood represents hardwood (angiosperm) trees, and the ring-width characteristics are favorable to developing formal tree-ring chronologies. However, 4 new radiocarbon dates indicate deposition of wood may have taken place over at least 8000 14C yr (6000-14,000 BP). This complicates the effort to develop a single floating chronology of several hundred years at this site, but it may provide wood from a restricted region over a long period of time from which to develop a sequence of floating chronologies, the timing of deposition and preservation of which could be related to paleoclimatic events and conditions.

  17. Centralize Printing, and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1984-01-01

    Describes the operations of a centralized printing office in a California school district. Centralization greatly increased the efficiency and lowered the cost of generating publications, information services, newsletters, and press releases throughout the school year. (TE)

  18. Central Neuropathic Pain Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Watson, James C; Sandroni, Paola

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pain is common in patients with neurologic complications of a central nervous system insult such as stroke. The pain is most commonly musculoskeletal or related to obligatory overuse of neurologically unaffected limbs. However, neuropathic pain can result directly from the central nervous system injury. Impaired sensory discrimination can make it challenging to differentiate central neuropathic pain from other pain types or spasticity. Central neuropathic pain may also begin months to years after the injury, further obscuring recognition of its association with a past neurologic injury. This review focuses on unique clinical features that help distinguish central neuropathic pain. The most common clinical central pain syndromes-central poststroke pain, multiple sclerosis-related pain, and spinal cord injury-related pain-are reviewed in detail. Recent progress in understanding of the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain is reviewed, and pharmacological, surgical, and neuromodulatory treatments of this notoriously difficult to treat pain syndrome are discussed.

  19. Central and peripheral demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Gulati, Natasha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Several conditions cause damage to the inherently normal myelin of central nervous system, perepheral nervous system or both central and perepheral nervous system and hence termed as central demyelinating diseases, perepheral demyelinating diseases and combined central and perepheral demyelinating diseases respectively. Here we analysed and foccused on the etiology, prevalance, incidence and age of these demyelinating disorders. Clinical attention and various diagnostic tests are needed to adequately assess all these possibilities. PMID:24741263

  20. Forest pricing and concession policies: Managing the high forest of west and Central Africa. World Bank Technical Paper 143; Politique de redevances et de concessions forestires: gestion des futaies en afrique occidentale et centrale

    SciTech Connect

    Grut, M.; Gray, J.A.; Egli, N.

    1993-12-01

    This French edition of Forest Pricing and Concession Policies: Managing the High Forest of West and Central Africa describes forest revenue systems and concession policies in the tropical moist hardwood forests of West and Central Africa. Virtually all the forests of Africa are publicly owned by central governments or local communities. Revenues from these forests are generally very low due to low forest fees and low collection rates. The lack of concession fees encourages acquisition and waste rather than management and conservation, leading to the allocation of large areas as logging concessions. This paper reviews current issues in silviculture, tenure, concession management, and biological and financial sustainable development. Until the fledgling forestry departments of governments in West and Central Africa are strengthened, the report concludes that a simple system of forest fees should be implemented. The report recommends that such a system emphasize bidding and concession fees. Three specific options in forest pricing are examined for a proposed system; annual concession rent; annual concession rent set by competitive bidding; logging concessions replaced by forest management concessions.

  1. Raccoon spatial requirements and multi-scale habitat selection within an intensively managed central Appalachian forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, Sheldon F.; Berl, Jacob L.; Edwards, John W.; Ford, W. Mark; Wood, Petra Bohall

    2015-01-01

    We studied a raccoon (Procyon lotor) population within a managed central Appalachian hardwood forest in West Virginia to investigate the effects of intensive forest management on raccoon spatial requirements and habitat selection. Raccoon home-range (95% utilization distribution) and core-area (50% utilization distribution) size differed between sexes with males maintaining larger (2×) home ranges and core areas than females. Home-range and core-area size did not differ between seasons for either sex. We used compositional analysis to quantify raccoon selection of six different habitat types at multiple spatial scales. Raccoons selected riparian corridors (riparian management zones [RMZ]) and intact forests (> 70 y old) at the core-area spatial scale. RMZs likely were used by raccoons because they provided abundant denning resources (i.e., large-diameter trees) as well as access to water. Habitat composition associated with raccoon foraging locations indicated selection for intact forests, riparian areas, and regenerating harvest (stands <10 y old). Although raccoons were able to utilize multiple habitat types for foraging resources, a selection of intact forest and RMZs at multiple spatial scales indicates the need of mature forest (with large-diameter trees) for this species in managed forests in the central Appalachians.

  2. Proceedings: 17th Asilomar conference on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, R.G.; Meier, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the 1983 conference was to provide for the technical exchange of ideas relating to the science and technology of the immediate effects of nuclear weapon explosions. Separate abstracts were prepared for 39 of the papers.

  3. PREFACE: 17th Pan-American Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Conference SRI2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gwyn P.; Revesz, Peter; Arp, Uwe

    2014-03-01

    These proceedings are a collection of the articles presented at the seventeenth Pan-American Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Conference SRI2013, held on the campus of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), located in Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States of America, 19-21 June, 2013. SRI2013 was jointly hosted by the Cornell University Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), and the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) at NIST. This meeting's focus was clearly on instrumentation, thus fulfilling the intent of this SRI meeting series, which was initiated at NIST, then the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), in 1979. SRI2013 hosted more than 150 delegates, despite the new US governmental travel restrictions. This proceedings series aims to be an essential reference work for practitioners in the field. It primarily documents the evolution and development of techniques, but also recent scientific advances, that were presented during the two and a half days of the conference. We are extremely thankful to all the authors who contributed to making these proceedings a volume of reference as well as to the reviewers for their careful reading and constructive recommendations for improving the articles. Great thanks go to Robert Dragoset at NIST, for creating and maintaining the conference website and generating the conference logo. We are also thankful for the excellent support we received from the Conference Program at NIST, especially Kathy Kilmer and Angela Ellis. And we would like to dedicate these proceedings to the memory of Kathy Kilmer, who passed away on 15 October, 2013. NIST will not be the same without her. The Co-Editors: Uwe Arp (SURF/NIST) Peter Reversz (CHESS) Gwyn P Williams (Jefferson Lab)

  4. [Theriacs in charity books, during the 17th and the 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Lafont, Olivier

    2010-10-01

    "Charity books" were books containing formulas of remedies, which were easy to prepare and not too expensive. Their purpose was to cure poor people who had not enough money to have access to official Medicine or who lived too far away from medicine doctors and apothecaries. They were then useful for charitable people such as country priests or charitable Ladies. Great Theriacs were very expensive and too difficult to prepare to be described in this kind of books for non-professional people. Simplified formulas were then proposed. They contained much less products and were quite cheaper. Some of these medicines are described in this article.

  5. Annual Progress Report (17th) and 1992-97 Renewal Proposal Interactive Graphics for Molecular Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-24

    10 Docking - GROPE 11 Physics-Constrained Folding - FORGE (SCULPT) 12 Small Systems - DOCKER 14 Visualizations - VIEW, etc. 14 New Engine Exploration...and DOCKER have been built on the SGL GROPE has ported its image-generation to the SGI. We will move ARM control in the coming year. IBM Risc System...time force-displaying molecular docker ?" and "Will it demonstrably help chemists?" Now we are consolidating on Ming’s experience, and re-engineering

  6. Symposium /International/ on Combustion, 17th, Leeds University, Leeds, England, August 20-25, 1978, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Symposium focused on deflagration to detonation transition, coal combustion, turbulent-combustion interactions, kinetics, furnace combustion, inhibition and ignition, flame structure and chemistry, combustion studies, measurement techniques, fire and explosion, engine combustion, soot, and propellants and explosives. Papers were presented on numerical modeling of the deflagration-to-detonation transition, the interaction between turbulence and combustion, turbulent flame propagation in premixed gases, spray evaporation in recirculating flow, dissociation of nitric oxide in shock waves, pollutant emissions from partially mixed turbulent flames, energy transfer and quenching rates of laser-pumped electronically excited alkalis in flames, a study of flammability limits using counterflow flames, the unified theory of explosions with fuel consumption, and the dynamics and radiant intensity of large hydrogen flames.

  7. Discovery of taeniid eggs from a 17th century tomb in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Seo, Min

    2011-09-01

    Even though Taenia spp. eggs are occasionally discovered from archeological remains around the world, these eggs have never been discovered in ancient samples from Korea. When we attempted to re-examine the archeological samples maintained in our collection, the eggs of Taenia spp., 5 in total number, were recovered from a tomb of Gongju-si. The eggs had radially striated embryophore, and 37.5-40.0 µm×37.5 µm in size. This is the first report on taeniid eggs from ancient samples of Korea, and it is suggested that intensive examination of voluminous archeological samples should be needed for identification of Taenia spp.

  8. The First Time "Everything Changed": The 17th Bracey Report on the Condition of Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2007-01-01

    On October 6, 1957, most Americans had concluded that Sputnik, a manmade satellite that the Russians had sent into orbit, was not a hoax nor an electronic Potemkin Village, a product of what is called today as "special effects." Initially, the idea that Russian technology could surpass the American's was unthinkable. And the brains'…

  9. Using a 17th-Century Experiment as a Gateway to Critical Assessment of Scientific Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shodell, Michael

    2010-01-01

    It is certainly widely appreciated that there is much to be gained in the fertile crosstalk between science and history--whether bringing a historical perspective into the science classroom (Wieder, 2006) or a scientific perspective to the study of history (McElvaine, 2002; Smail, 2008). Perhaps the major impetus for using history in teaching…

  10. Skin, muscle and joint disease from the 17th century: scurvy.

    PubMed

    Lau, Herman; Massasso, David; Joshua, Fredrick

    2009-12-01

    We report three cases of scurvy, with differing musculoskeletal presentations, from a tertiary teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. Case 1 was a man with cerebral palsy who presented with knee swelling following a minor injury. In Case 2, a patient with thalassaemia major presented with purpuric rash, difficulty walking and distal thigh swelling and ecchymosis. Case 3 was a man with Down's syndrome who presented with acute ankle arthritis. Scurvy in Cases 1 and 3 were related to abnormal dietary preferences, whereas in Case 2, scurvy was thought to be related to thalassaemia. All three cases responded rapidly to vitamin C replacement. The subjects did not appear malnourished as they had adequate carbohydrate and protein intake.

  11. Apothecary activity in Dubrovnik Dominican Monastery from 17th to the beginning 19th century.

    PubMed

    Krasic, Stjepan

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the Dominican monastery pharmacy is not clear, but sources suggest that it had operated from the eve of the great earthquake in Dubrovnik in 1667 to the beginning of the 19th century. Its last pharmacist, praised for his competence, passed away in 1803, leaving no one behind The prior travelled all the way to Naples to find a competent pharmacist in his stead, but never returned. Story has it that on the way back, the abbot and the pharmacist lost their lives in a shipwreck. The French army occupied the town in 1806, and the monastery was turned into a military camp. Following the retreat of the French army in 1814, the monastery was returned to the Dominicans, but the pharmacy was never restored.

  12. 17(th) Century Variola Virus Reveals the Recent History of Smallpox.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Ana T; Perdomo, Maria F; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Marciniak, Stephanie; Poinar, Debi; Emery, Matthew V; Buchmann, Jan P; Duchêne, Sebastian; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Humphreys, Margaret; Golding, G Brian; Southon, John; Devault, Alison; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Sahl, Jason W; Dutour, Olivier; Hedman, Klaus; Sajantila, Antti; Smith, Geoffrey L; Holmes, Edward C; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-12-19

    Smallpox holds a unique position in the history of medicine. It was the first disease for which a vaccine was developed and remains the only human disease eradicated by vaccination. Although there have been claims of smallpox in Egypt, India, and China dating back millennia [1-4], the timescale of emergence of the causative agent, variola virus (VARV), and how it evolved in the context of increasingly widespread immunization, have proven controversial [4-9]. In particular, some molecular-clock-based studies have suggested that key events in VARV evolution only occurred during the last two centuries [4-6] and hence in apparent conflict with anecdotal historical reports, although it is difficult to distinguish smallpox from other pustular rashes by description alone. To address these issues, we captured, sequenced, and reconstructed a draft genome of an ancient strain of VARV, sampled from a Lithuanian child mummy dating between 1643 and 1665 and close to the time of several documented European epidemics [1, 2, 10]. When compared to vaccinia virus, this archival strain contained the same pattern of gene degradation as 20(th) century VARVs, indicating that such loss of gene function had occurred before ca. 1650. Strikingly, the mummy sequence fell basal to all currently sequenced strains of VARV on phylogenetic trees. Molecular-clock analyses revealed a strong clock-like structure and that the timescale of smallpox evolution is more recent than often supposed, with the diversification of major viral lineages only occurring within the 18(th) and 19(th) centuries, concomitant with the development of modern vaccination.

  13. A shift in the spatial pattern of Iberian droughts during the 17th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Castro, F.; García-Herrera, R.; Ribera, P.; Barriendos, M.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, series of drought occurrence and drought extension in the Iberian Peninsula are constructed for the 1600-1750 period from seven rogation series. These rogation ceremony records come from Bilbao, Catalonia, Zamora, Zaragoza, Toledo, Murcia and Seville. They are distributed across the Peninsula and include the areas with the most characteristic Iberian climate types, influenced by the Atlantic and the Mediterranean conditions, described from modern data. A seasonal division of the series shows that spring is a critical season for rogation series in most of Iberia, being Bilbao the only site were the highest number of rogations is detected for a different season. The annual analysis of the series shows a dramatic difference between the period 1600-1652, when droughts are characterized by its local character; and the period 1653-1749, when they affect to broader regions or even to the whole Peninsula. The analysis of spring series confirms the existence of the two periods detected in the annual analysis. Finally, secondary documentary sources are used to further characterise the two most extended droughts in the period, 1664 and 1680, and to verify the extension of the areas affected by droughts recorded through rogation series.

  14. Chapter 8: the development of neurology and the neurological sciences in the 17th century.

    PubMed

    Isler, Hansruedi

    2010-01-01

    Circa 1660 several favorable factors, instrumental to the invention of neurology, converged at the University of Oxford. Animals and men were believed to have a material soul whose functions throughout the nervous system were accessible to research. In 1659 inductive methods were introduced in clinical medicine by Thomas Willis, the founder of English epidemiology and biochemistry. The Vertuosi,who later founded the Royal Society, performed chemical experiments in teams, and Willis, head of their laboratory, gained experience in teamwork. In 1658 J.J. Wepfer published his method of dye injection in cerebral vessels at autopsy, and Christopher Wren had already experimented with intravenous injections. William Petty had performed dissections at Leiden, training with Francis Sylvius's brain and comparative anatomy. Petty came to Oxford in 1650, began to study chemistry with Willis, and instructed him in Sylvius's methods of cerebral and comparative anatomy. Willis continued this work with a team of highly qualified colleagues, Wren included, and published the first monograph on brain anatomy, Cerebri anatome, in 1664. This Latin book, illustrated by Wren, came out in four editions in the first year, and was reprinted up to 1720. It contained a definition of reflex action, the recognition of the general functions of cortex, white matter, and brain tracts, a complete description of the autonomic nervous system, Willis's new term "Neurologia," and his promise to follow up with his "Psychologia." He presented the latter in 1672 as De anima brutorum, a book on the material soul of animals and man as the carrier of all functions of the nervous system. There was a physiological part, a textbook of neurophysiology, and a pathological part, a compendium of neurological and psychiatric syndromes, with early descriptions of myasthenia, restless legs, narcolepsy, dissociative and bipolar disease, and general paralysis of the insane. In 1667 he published a book on convulsive diseases, in which he described the blood-brain barrier, epileptic and hysterical brain disorders, and Parkinson's disease. Thus Willis recognized and presented the key themes of the future specialty.

  15. International Society of Heterocyclic Chemistry--17th international congress. 1-6 August 1999, Vienna, Austria.

    PubMed

    Daneshtalab, M

    1999-10-01

    Approximately 1200 scientists attended this congress of heterocyclic chemistry, which focused on: New synthetic methods in heterocyclic chemistry; synthesis of bioactive heterocycles including natural products; heterocycles and asymmetric synthesis; heterocycles in bioorganic chemistry; new heterocyclic materials; structure and properties of heterocyclic compounds; solid-phase synthesis, combinatorial chemistry and heterocyclic scaffolds. These topics were covered in 600 posters and 100 plenary, invited and oral presentations. This report summarizes the highlights of the presentations related to the category of the synthesis of bioactive heterocycles including natural products.

  16. Transducer Workshop (17th) Held in San Diego, California on June 22-24, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Accelerometers in Pyroshock Measurement. Proc. 56th Shock & Vibration Symposium, Oct. 22-24, 1985, Shock & Vibration Information Analysis Center...Oct 1991. 3. Walton, W. Scott, " Pyroshock Evaluation of Ballistic Shock Measurement Techniques". Proceedings for the 62nd Shock and Vibration Symposium...piezoresistive accelerometer have been developed for pyroshock and impact tests. The uniaxial shock isolation technique has demonstrated acceptable

  17. The Lecture as Experiential Education: The Cucumber in 17th-Century Flemish Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blenkinsop, Sean; Nolan, Carrie; Hunt, Jasper; Stonehouse, Paul; Telford, John

    2016-01-01

    This article uses an unconventional format to problematize a common dichotomy found in the theory and practice of experiential education. The article comprises the contributions of five authors and begins with one author's description of a potential real-life scenario that provokes the question of whether an art history lecture might be understood…

  18. National Conservation Education Association Conference Report (17th, Lafayette, Louisiana, August 16-20, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Gene, Jr., Ed.

    Proceedings of the 1970 Conservation Education Association Conference, held at the University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, Louisiana, are reported. The theme of the conference was conservation education for quality living. Summaries for each of the topics discussed form the main content of the report: Suggestions for Developing Curriculum…

  19. JANNAF 35th Combustion Subcommittee and 17th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting: Joint Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of 15 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 1998 meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) held jointly with the Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS). The meeting was held on 7 - 11 December 1 998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include advanced ingredients and reaction kinetics in solid propellants and experimental diagnostic techniques.

  20. [Emergence, migrations and reduction to routine in the political sciences (17th-19th centuries)].

    PubMed

    Beaud, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the paths through which percentage imposed itself in the political sciences. At first used in the financial domain, percentage is incorporated in 1662 by Graunt in the field of studies of mortality; in the beginning of the 19th century it migrates towards studies in population growth, then it migrates to other territories to become a tool of general application. Each migration enters the framework of a new problematic: "the birth of mortality" in one case; "the birth of population" in the other. The recourse to percentages thus appears as one of the elements in the foundation of statistical objectivism.

  1. European Climate and Pinot Noir Grape-Harvest Dates in Burgundy, since the 17th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourre, Y. M.

    2011-12-01

    Time-series of growing season air temperature anomalies in the Parisian region and of 'Pinot Noir' grape-harvest dates (GHD) in Burgundy (1676-2004) are analyzed in the frequency-domain. Variability of both time-series display three significant frequency-bands (peaks significant at the 5% level) i.e., a low-frequency band (multi-decadal) with a 25-year peak period; a 3-to-8 year band period (inter-annual) with a 3.1-year peak period; and a 2-to-3 year band period (quasi-biennial) with a 2.4-year peak period. Joint sea surface temperature/sea level pressure (SST/SLP) empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analyses during the 20th century, along with spatio-temporal patterns for the above frequency-bands are presented. It is found that SST anomalies display early significant spatial SST patterns in the North Atlantic Ocean (air temperature lagging by 6 months) similar to those obtained from EOF analyses. It is thus proposed that the robust power spectra for the above frequency-bands could be linked with Atlantic climate variability metrics modulating Western European climate i.e., 1) the global Multi-decadal Oscillation (MDO) with its Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) footprint; 2) the Atlantic Inter-Annual (IA) fluctuations; and 3) the Atlantic Quasi-Biennial (QB) fluctuations, respectively. Moreover these specific Western European climate signals have effects on ecosystem health and can be perceived as contributors to the length of the growing season and the timing of GHD in Burgundy. Thus advance knowledge on the evolution and phasing of the above climate fluctuations become important elements for viticulture and wine industry management. It is recognized that anthropogenic effects could have modified time-series patterns presented here, particularly since the mid 1980s.

  2. Superintendent's 17th Annual Report, State of Hawaii Department of Education, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State of Hawaii Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This annual report highlights information on school performance and improvement in Hawaii's public schools. The report profiles noteworthy academic events, trends, and outcomes at two organizational levels: state and complex. Featured are tables, figures, and narrative sections related to demographic, financial, and educational performance. Also,…

  3. [The debate on the generation of imperfect plants in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    18th-century discussions on the generation of imperfect plants were often linked with the question of their position in the natural world, namely as whether they were part of the vegetable or mineral realm. As attested by the work of Joseph Gaertner, Johann Jakob Dillen, Pier Antonio Micheli and René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, as well as of Antonio Vallisneri, and Lazzaro Spallanzani, the different images of nature - continuity and discontinuity - adopted by naturalists influenced their solution to this question.

  4. Niels Stensen: a 17th century scientist with a modern view of brain organization.

    PubMed

    Parent, André

    2013-07-01

    In 1665 the Danish scholar Niels Stensen (1638-1686) reached Paris, where he pronounced a discourse on brain anatomy that was to orient neuroscientists for years to come. In his lecture, Stensen rejected ancient speculations about animal spirits and criticized René Descartes and his followers who, despite a poor knowledge of brain anatomy, elaborated complex models to explain the multifaceted function of what he considered the principal organ of the human mind. He advocated the need for studying the brain through a comparative, developmental and pathological convergent approach and called for appropriate dissection methods and accurate illustrations. His own careful anatomical studies permitted him to precisely depict many brain structures. After pioneering works in paleontology and geology, he devoted himself to theology. In 1677 Stensen converted from Lutheranism to Catholicism and, while working relentlessly as a bishop and apostolic vicar in Northern Europe, he died in self-imposed poverty at age 48.

  5. Modern Ratio: The Ultimate Arbiter in 17th Century Native Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomedli, Michael

    Seventeenth century Jesuit analysis of Indian attitudes toward dreams was largely negative. While Indians looked on their dreams as ordinances and oracles, the Jesuits criticized reliance on such irrational messages. Jesuit critiques fell into three categories: the dream as a sign of diabolical possession, the dream as illusion purporting to be…

  6. 17th Workshop on MHD Stability Control: addressing the disruption challenge for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttery, Richard

    2013-08-01

    This annual workshop on magnetohydrodynamic stability control was held on 5-7 November 2012 at Columbia University in the city of New York, in the aftermath of a violent hydrodynamic instability event termed 'Hurricane Sandy'. Despite these challenging circumstances, Columbia University managed an excellent meeting, enabling the full participation of the community. This Workshop has been held since 1996 to help in the development of understanding and control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities for future fusion reactors. It covers a wide range of stability topics—from disruptions, to tearing modes, error fields, edge-localized modes (ELMs), resistive wall modes (RWMs) and ideal MHD—spanning many device types (tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches) to identify commonalities in the physics and a means of control. The theme for 2012 was 'addressing the disruption challenge for ITER', and thus the first day had a heavy focus on both the avoidance and mitigation of disruptions in ITER. Key elements included understanding how to apply 3D fields to maintain stability, as well as managing the disruption process itself through mitigating loads in the thermal quench and handling so called 'runaway electrons'. This culminated in a panel discussion on the disruption mitigation strategy for ITER, which noted that heat load asymmetries during the thermal quench appear to be an artifact of MHD processes, and that runaway electron generation may be inevitable, suggesting research should focus on control and dissipation of the runaway beam. The workshop was combined this year with the annual US-Japan MHD Workshop, with a special section looking more deeply at 'Fundamentals of 3D Perturbed Equilibrium Control', with interesting sessions on 3D equilibrium reconstruction, RWM physics, novel control concepts such as non-magnetic sensing, adaptive control, q < 2 tokamak operation, and the effects of flow. The final day turned to tearing mode interactions, exploring the state of the art in 3D modeling, and innovative means of control through application of electromagnetic torques, use of electron cyclotron current drive and even the idea of electrostatic current drive. This concluded with a second panel discussion on the disruption avoidance strategy in ITER, which commented on the important role played by energetic particles in stability, ideas of active stability sensing and ways to progress 3D reconstruction. In this special section of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion , we present several of the invited and contributed papers from the 2012 workshop, which have been subject to the normal refereeing procedures of the journal. These give a sense of the exceptional quality of the presentations at this workshop, which may be found at: http://fusion.gat.com/conferences/mhd12/. The Program Committee deeply appreciates the participation and support our community continues to show in this workshop, which provides an unparalleled opportunity for in-depth discussion of MHD issues. We would also like to thank our hosts Columbia University, and in particular Professor Gerald Navratil, for outstanding support and facilities in the face of Hurricane Sandy's adversity. The meeting thanked outgoing Program Chair, Dr Richard Buttery from General Atomics, and welcomed next year's Program Chair, Professor David Maurer from Auburn University. The next meeting will be held in Santa Fe 18-20 November 2013.

  7. Frequency ratios of optical lattice clocks at the 17th decimal place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, Hidetoshi

    2016-05-01

    Optical lattice clocks benefit from a low quantum-projection noise by simultaneously interrogating a large number of atoms, which are trapped in an optical lattice tuned to the ``magic wavelength'' to largely cancel out light shift perturbation in the clock transition. About a thousand atoms enable the clocks to achieve 10-18 instability in a few hours of operation, allowing intensive investigation and control of systematic uncertainties. As optical lattice clocks have reached inaccuracies approaching 10-18, it is now the uncertainty of the SI second (~ 10-16) itself that restricts the measurement of the absolute frequencies of such optical clocks. Direct comparisons of optical clocks are, therefore, the only way to investigate and utilize their superb performance beyond the SI second. In this presentation, we report on frequency comparisons of optical lattice clocks with neutral strontium (87 Sr), ytterbium (171 Yb) and mercury (199 Hg) atoms. By referencing cryogenic Sr clocks, we determine frequency ratios, νYb/νSr and νHg/νSr, of a cryogenic Yb clock and a Hg clock with uncertainty at the mid 10-17 level. Such ratios provide an access to search for temporal variation of the fundamental constants. We also present remote comparisons between cryogenic Sr clocks located at RIKEN and the University of Tokyo over a 30-km-long phase-stabilized fiber link. The gravitational red shift Δν /ν0 ~ 1.1× 10-18 Δh cm-1 reads out the height difference of Δh ~ 15 m between the two clocks with uncertainty of 5 cm, which demonstrates a step towards relativistic geodesy. ERATO, JST.

  8. The physicians and surgeons of Koper from the 14th to the 17th century.

    PubMed

    Uran, Lejla Peternelj

    2011-03-01

    Koper stands out among Istrian towns of the nordeastern Adriatic coast for its highly advanced medicine. Communal service developed between the 13th and 15th century. Beside the hospital, almshouse and a quarantine, the city also boasted highly trained physicians, surgeons and barbers. Trade, crafts and navigation prospered and numerous town intellectuals established an academy whose most active members were medical doctors. The aim of this article is to give a chronological presentation of physicians related to Koper by their birth or work and of other scientists who contributed to the development of local medicine. These includes (about forty names) S. Santorio, Ser Benvenuto, P P. Vergerio, G. Nuzio, E Nuzio, P de Castaldi, I. de Albertis, L. Zarotti, B. Petronio, I. Bratti, Z. Zarotti, A.Valdera, G. Vergerio and C. Zarotti of whom some are well known. The author wishes to systematisize the bibliography, fill the gaps and show ways for further research in the archives and museums of Istria, Triest, Venice and Vienna.

  9. [The professionalization of preaching in 17(th) and 18 (th) century France].

    PubMed

    Brian, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Starting in the 1630s, in French towns, the rise of sermons gave an increasing group of clerics the possibility to become preachers. This article analyses this process of professionalization. First, it takes a look at a number of long - and sometimes quite profitable - careers of men as preachers. Second, it analyzes the know-how that was then developed for to make and recite the sermon. Finally, the article focuses on the transformations brought about by the increasing importance of written communication during the 18(th) century.

  10. PREFACE: 17th Russian Youth Conference on Physics and Astronomy (PhysicA.SPb/2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averkiev, Nikita S.; Poniaev, Sergey A.; Sokolovskii, Grigorii S.

    2015-12-01

    The seventeenth Russian Youth Conference on Physics and Astronomy (PhysicA.SPb) was held from 28-30 October 2014 in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The Conference continues the tradition of Saint Petersburg Seminars on Physics and Astronomy originating from the mid-1990s. Since then PhysicA.SPb maintains both the scientific and educational quality of contributions delivered to the young audience. This is the main feature of the Conference that makes it possible to combine the whole spectrum of modern Physics and Astronomy within one event. PhysicA.SPb/2014 has brought together more than 200 students, young scientists and their professor colleagues from many universities and research institutes across the whole of Russia as well as from Belarus, Ukraine, Finland, the Netherlands, France and Germany. Oral and poster presentations were combined into the well-defined sections of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Optics and spectroscopy, Physics of ferroics, Nanostructured and thin-film materials, Mathematical physics and numerical methods, Biophysics, Plasma physics, hydro- and aero-dynamics, and Physics of quantum structures. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series presents the extended contributions from participants of PhysicA.SPb/2014 that were peer-reviewed by expert referees through processes administered by the Presiders of the Organising and Programme Committees to the best professional and scientific standards.

  11. Flash flood occurrences since the 17th century in steep drainage basins in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Olga; Pasqua, A Aurora; Polemio, Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    The historical floods that have occurred since the seventeenth century were collected for a study area in southern Italy. Damages caused by floods, rainfall and the main anthropogenic modifications are discussed all together. The aim was to assess whether the frequency of floods is changing and, if so, whether these changes can be attributed to either rainfall and/or anthropogenic modifications. In 4 % of cases, mainly occurred in past centuries, floods damaged people. Hydraulic works, roads and private buildings were the more frequently damaged elements (25, 18 and 14 % of the cases, respectively). The annual variability of rainfall was discussed using an annual index. Short duration-high intensity rainfalls were characterized considering time series of annual maxima of 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h and daily rainfall. The rainfall shows a decreasing trend, in terms of both the annual maximum of short duration and the annual amount. The population has been progressively increasing since the sixteenth century, except during the years following the catastrophic 1908 earthquake. The rate of population growth has been very high since the second half of the twentieth century; the urbanized areas greatly increased, especially following the second half of the twentieth century. At the same time, the trend of damaging floods has been increasing, especially since the seventies. The analysis indicates that, despite a rainfall trend favourable towards a reduction in flood occurrence, floods damage has not decreased. This seems to be mainly the effect of mismanagement of land use modifications.

  12. T regulatory (Treg) and T helper 17 (Th17) lymphocytes in thyroid autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    González-Amaro, Roberto; Marazuela, Mónica

    2016-04-01

    Different immune cell subsets have a relevant role in the pathogenesis of and tissue damage seen in autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), including T regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes and T helper (Th) 17 cells. There are several types of CD4+ Treg cells (Foxp3+, CD69+, Tr1), which are able to prevent the appearance of autoimmune diseases, down regulating the immune response and the inflammatory phenomenon. However, despite their presence in peripheral blood and thyroid tissue from patients with AITD, these cells are apparently unable to put down the autoimmune process. Moreover, many reports indicate the involvement of Th17 cells in chronic inflammatory diseases, including AITD. Nevertheless, it is now evident that these lymphocytes show a remarkable plasticity, giving rise to anti-inflammatory (including Treg lymphocytes) and pro-inflammatory cell subtypes. Nowadays, both Treg and Th17 cells must be considered as key elements in the pathogenesis of AITD as well as plausible potential targets for the next generation of therapeutic options of this condition.

  13. Defining "natural product" between public health and business, 17th to 21st centuries.

    PubMed

    Stanziani, Alessandro

    2008-07-01

    The historical definition of a natural product stands at the crossroads of business, health, and the symbolic order of things. Until the end of the 19th century, "natural product" was a synonym of perishable. The emergency of organic chemistry made perishability be replaced with "toxicity". Nowadays, genetics is provoking a radical change in the notion and practises of "natural product". However, these concerns are never entirely opposed to "naturality" as a synonym for sacred and symbolic order. Traceability is largely based upon kosher practices and the association between organic and good for health is hardly based upon sound scientific arguments.

  14. The 17th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: intelligent robots built by intelligent students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.

    2010-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of four unmanned systems student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI). The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned ground vehicle. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip their system of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 17 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 70 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  15. Blurring Boundaries: Drama as a Critical Multimodal Literacy for Examining 17th-Century Witch Hunts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeter, Sara; Wager, Amanda C.

    2017-01-01

    This article illustrates how critical multimodal literacy practices engage secondary students to further explore differences and similarities between past and present instances of discrimination within a process drama, where students and teachers explore a topic through unscripted role-play. Data from a classroom-based ethnography are drawn on to…

  16. Transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in central Alabama.

    PubMed

    Cupp, Eddie W; Klingler, Kimberly; Hassan, Hassan K; Viguers, Leslie M; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2003-04-01

    A site near Tuskegee, Alabama was examined for vector activity of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus in 2001. More than 23,000 mosquitoes representing 8 genera and 34 species were collected during a 21-week period, and five species, Culiseta melanura, Aedes vexans, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex erraticus, and Uranotaenia sapphirina, were examined for the presence of virus using a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for EEE virus. Each species was infected at various times of the mosquito season (May-September) with different minimum infection rates (MIRs). Culiseta melanura had the highest MIR (20.2) and positive pools were detected from late May to mid-September. Aedes vexans had an MIR of 2.2 and was infected early in the season (June), while Cq. perturbans exhibited a much higher field infection rate (9.9) with all positive pools collected in August. Culiseta melanura is a likely endemic vector in central Alabama, while Ae. vexans and Cq. perturbans probably function as bridge vectors. Culex erraticus, the most common mosquito in the habitat (54% of total collections), had an MIR of 3.2, and was persistently infected from mid-June to mid-September. This is the first report of high rates of EEE virus infection in this species, a member of the tropical subgenus Melanoconion. Uranotaenia sapphirina, considered to feed on amphibians and possibly reptiles, had an MIR of 5.6, with positive pools spanning a four-month period. This suggests that species other than birds may serve as a reservoir for EEE in hardwood swamps in the Southeastern United States and elsewhere. The lengthy period of mosquito infection with EEE virus, coupled with the diverse habits of the vectors and their proximity to a population center, indicate the importance of monitoring EEE virus activity in the Mid-South.

  17. Central line complications

    PubMed Central

    Kornbau, Craig; Lee, Kathryn C; Hughes, Gwendolyn D; Firstenberg, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Central venous access is a common procedure performed in many clinical settings for a variety of indications. Central lines are not without risk, and there are a multitude of complications that are associated with their placement. Complications can present in an immediate or delayed fashion and vary based on type of central venous access. Significant morbidity and mortality can result from complications related to central venous access. These complications can cause a significant healthcare burden in cost, hospital days, and patient quality of life. Advances in imaging, access technique, and medical devices have reduced and altered the types of complications encountered in clinical practice; but most complications still center around vascular injury, infection, and misplacement. Recognition and management of central line complications is important when caring for patients with vascular access, but prevention is the ultimate goal. This article discusses common and rare complications associated with central venous access, as well as techniques to recognize, manage, and prevent complications. PMID:26557487

  18. Idiopathic central diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Grace, Mary; Balachandran, Venu; Menon, Sooraj

    2011-10-01

    Idiopathic central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare disorder characterized clinically by polyuria and polydipsia, and an abnormal urinary concentration without any identified etiology. We report a case of central diabetes insipidus in a 60-year-old lady in the absence of secondary causes like trauma, infection, and infiltrative disorders of brain.

  19. Pigmented central neurocytoma.

    PubMed

    Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Kalkanis, Steven N; Louis, David N

    2004-06-01

    Central neurocytoma is a low-grade neuronal neoplasm that occurs most often within the lateral ventricles. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with gait problems, headache and memory loss. Preoperative evaluation demonstrated a heterogeneous, hypervascular and partially cystic mass in the left lateral ventricle. Histopathological examination revealed characteristic features of central neurocytoma, including immunoreactivity for synaptophysin, as well as the unusual feature of abundant pigment in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Special stains revealed iron, consistent with hemosiderin, but found no evidence of melanin or melanosomes. Previous reports of pigmented central neurocytoma have described the presence of lipofuscin or neuromelanin. To our knowledge, the present case represents the first example of pigmented central neurocytoma secondary to hemosiderin deposition.

  20. Central nervous system

    MedlinePlus

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  1. Central ballast tanker design

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER Design. This design is intended to reduce the volume of oil spilled from tankers by giving the crew a tanker properly designed and equipped to allow large quantities of oil from ruptured tank(s) to flow safely to a fully-inerted central ballast tank. In addition to reducing the volume of oil spilled, the design also addresses many of the shortcomings of the DOUBLE HULL DESIGN which are increasingly becoming a concern. The following is a brief review of the development of the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER. The simple operational features, stability, low cost and ease of maintenance of the single hull tanker were important and can be retained with the CENTRAL BALLAST DESIGN.

  2. TACS Central Control Facility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-12

    Central Control Facility 6 3. System Management Data Flow 7 B. Hardware Operating Environment 9 1. Computer 9 2. TACS Interfaces 9 3. Other Central...TERMINATION TIMING 131 Appendix C SYSTEM MANAGEMENT DATA FORMATS 135 Appendix D FIVE- AND NINE-SLOT SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION DIFFERENCES 147 Appendix E...control burst management ) 26 2-7 Call Progress Messages 29 2-8 Flowchart of Assignment/Blockage Decision Process for All-Member Net Requests 30 2-9

  3. Central Diffraction in ALICE

    SciTech Connect

    Schicker, R.

    2011-07-15

    The ALICE experiment consists of a central barrel in the pseudorapidity range -0.9<{eta}<0.9 and of additional detectors covering about 3 units of pseudorapidity on either side of the central barrel. Such a geometry allows the tagging of single and double gap events. The status of the analysis of such diffractive events in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s) = 7 TeV is presented.

  4. A comparative study of physiological and morphological seedling traits associated with shade tolerance in introduced red oak (Quercus rubra) and native hardwood tree species in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Kuehne, Christian; Nosko, Peter; Horwath, Tobias; Bauhus, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a moderately shade-tolerant tree species, is failing to regenerate throughout its native North American range, while successful recruitment in Central Europe has been observed since its introduction. To examine whether comparative photosynthetic performance could explain the regeneration success of this non-native species in Central Europe, we compared the physiological and morphological seedling traits of red oak with three co-occurring tree species under three canopy types in southwestern Germany. Native species included a moderately shade-tolerant native oak (Quercus robur L.) and two shade-tolerant species (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Carpinus betulus L.). The photosynthetic traits of non-native red oak seedlings were similar to those reported for this species in the native range, where shade-tolerant competitors readily outperform red oak under low light conditions. However, compared with native shade-tolerant species in Europe, red oak seedlings photosynthesized efficiently, especially under closed canopies and in small canopy gaps, exhibiting high photosynthetic capacity, low leaf dark respiration and leaf-level light compensation points that were similar to the more shade-tolerant species. The superior net carbon gain of red oak seedlings at low and moderate light levels was likely facilitated by high leaf areas and reflected by seedling dry masses that were greater than the observed native European species. A competitive advantage for red oak was not evident because relative height growth was inferior to seedlings of co-occurring species. In North America, the inability of seedlings to compete with shade-tolerant tree species in deeply shaded understories is central to the problem of poor oak recruitment. Our study suggests that the ability of non-native red oak to perform equally well to native shade-tolerant species under a variety of light conditions could contribute to the consistent success of red oak regeneration

  5. Balanced Centrality of Networks.

    PubMed

    Debono, Mark; Lauri, Josef; Sciriha, Irene

    2014-01-01

    There is an age-old question in all branches of network analysis. What makes an actor in a network important, courted, or sought? Both Crossley and Bonacich contend that rather than its intrinsic wealth or value, an actor's status lies in the structures of its interactions with other actors. Since pairwise relation data in a network can be stored in a two-dimensional array or matrix, graph theory and linear algebra lend themselves as great tools to gauge the centrality (interpreted as importance, power, or popularity, depending on the purpose of the network) of each actor. We express known and new centralities in terms of only two matrices associated with the network. We show that derivations of these expressions can be handled exclusively through the main eigenvectors (not orthogonal to the all-one vector) associated with the adjacency matrix. We also propose a centrality vector (SWIPD) which is a linear combination of the square, walk, power, and degree centrality vectors with weightings of the various centralities depending on the purpose of the network. By comparing actors' scores for various weightings, a clear understanding of which actors are most central is obtained. Moreover, for threshold networks, the (SWIPD) measure turns out to be independent of the weightings.

  6. Repeated manual release in a young plantation: Effect on douglas-fir seedlings, hardwoods, shrubs, forbs, and grasses. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, P.M.; Fiddler, G.O.; Harrison, H.R.

    1994-08-01

    Douglas-fir seedlings on the Arcata Resource Area, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of the Interior, in central coastal California, were released by chain sawing and grubbing competing vegetation around them at different frequencies (0, 2, and 3 grubbings) over a 5-year period. After 5 years, average Douglas-fir stem diameter (measured at 12 inches above mean groundline) of seedlings grubbed at ages 1, 2, and 5 was 0.91 inches, and of seedlings grubbed after the first and fifth growing season was 0.95 inches. Both were significantly larger than counterparts in the control (0.57 inches).

  7. Dendroclimatic trend and glacial fluctuations in the Central Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelfini, M.; Santilli, M.; D Agata, C.; Diolaiuti, G.; Smiraglia, C.

    2003-04-01

    In the Alpine environment, one of the main limiting factors for tree growth is the thermal conditions of the vegetative season. The conifers at high altitude, if not subject to others disturbs, such as geomorphological processes or biological interferences, undergo a development, from which the width of annual rings depends. Five chronologies few centuries long, obtained for the species Larix decidua Mill. and Pinus cembra L. from different valleys of the Central Italian Alps (Alpisella, Valfurva, Gavia and Solda) in proximity of timberline (2000-2550 m of altitude), were analysed and their climatic signal gained; this last one was then related to the recent glacial fluctuations. The chronologies are the averages of many dendrochronological indicized curves obtained from dominant trees with regular growth and extended from 13th-17th century up to the present. The time intervals of the chronologies are the following ones: Pinus cembra: 1752-1999 for Valfurva; 1607-1999 for Gavia; 1593-1999 for Val Solda. With regard to Larix decidua: 1252-1998 for Val Solda; 1784-2001 for Alpisella. The good correspondence between the various chronologies allows to consider them representative of the climatic regional signal. In order to evidence climatic evolution, linear trends based on running mean with period of 11 years have been constructed. Those curves have been compared between them and then overlapped and mediated in order to obtain a climatic signal of regional value that excludes eventual local anomalies. Finally, the growth variations in the chronologies have been compared to known alpine climatic variations and glacial fluctuations. In particular time-distance curves (curves of cumulated frontal variations) of some glaciers from the Ortles-Cevedale Group were utilized. The periods of tree rings growth rate reduction appear well correlated to glacial advancing phases of the Little Ice Age and of the following phases. In particular, growth rate reductions are observable

  8. Soil microarthropod communities from Mediterranean forest ecosystems in Central Italy under different disturbances.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Silvia; Menta, Cristina; Balducci, Lorena; Conti, Federica Delia; Petrini, Enrico; Piovesan, Gianluca

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess soil quality in Mediterranean forests of Central Italy, from evergreen to deciduous, with different types of management (coppice vs. high forest vs. secondary old growth) and compaction impacts (machinery vs. recreational). Soil quality was evaluated studying soil microarthropod communities and applying a biological index (QBS-ar) based on the concept that the higher is the soil quality, the higher will be the number of microarthropod groups well adapted to the soil habitat. Our results confirm that hardwood soils are characterised by the highest biodiversity level among terrestrial communities and by a well-structured and mature microarthropod community, which is typical of stable ecosystems (QBS value, >200). While silvicultural practices and forest composition do not seem to influence QBS-ar values or microarthropod community structure, the index is very efficient in detecting soil impacts (soil compaction due to logging activities). Several taxa (Protura, Diplura, Coleoptera adults, Pauropoda, Diplopoda, Symphyla, Chilopoda, Diptera larvae and Opiliones) react negatively to soil compaction and degradation (QBS value, <150). In particular, Protura, Diplura, Symphyla and Pauropoda, are taxonomic groups linked to undisturbed soil. This index could also be a useful tool in monitoring soil biodiversity in protected areas and in urban forestry to prevent the negative effects of trampling. QBS-ar is a candidate index for biomonitoring of soil microarthropod biodiversity across the landscape to provide guidance for the sustainable management of renewable resource and nature conservation.

  9. Environmental gradients and identification of wetlands in north-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, M.M.; Sprecher, S.W.; Wakeley, J.S.; Best, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    Vegetation composition, soil morphology, and hydrology were characterized along wetland-to-upland gradients at six forested sites in north-central Florida to compare results of Federal wetland delineation methods with 3–5 yr of hydrologic data. Wetland and non-wetland identifications were supported by hydrology data in eight of nine plant communities. Lack of hydric soil indicators and hydrophytic vegetation in two upland communities (scrub and mixed mesic hardwoods) agreed with a deep water table. Six wetland communities (cypress dome, cypress strand, bayhead, cypress/bayhead, red maple/oak swamp, and cedar swamp) with field indicators of wetland hydrology, hydrophytic vegetation, and hydric soils were inundated or had water tables at or near the ground surface at least 5% of the growing season in most years., Flatwoods communities, however, occurred at intermediate positions on the moisture gradient and could not be consistently identified as wetland or upland communities. Identification of flatwoods as wetlands depended on wetland delineation method and was not usually supported by hydrologic measurements. In the flatwoods community, soil properties and vegetation composition were correlated with the mean and standard deviation of water-table depths, as well as the depth continuously exceeded by the water table at least 5% of the growing season in most years. Various hydrologic parameters need to be considered in addition to the 5% exceedence level currently used in Federal wetland delineation guidance when characterizing wetland conditions in low-gradient areas such as flatwoods.

  10. Future forest aboveground carbon dynamics in the central United States: the importance of forest demographic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wenchi; He, Hong S.; Thompson, Frank R.; Wang, Wen J.; Fraser, Jacob S.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Hanberry, Brice B.; Dijak, William D.

    2017-02-01

    The Central Hardwood Forest (CHF) in the United States is currently a major carbon sink, there are uncertainties in how long the current carbon sink will persist and if the CHF will eventually become a carbon source. We used a multi-model ensemble to investigate aboveground carbon density of the CHF from 2010 to 2300 under current climate. Simulations were done using one representative model for each of the simple, intermediate, and complex demographic approaches (ED2, LANDIS PRO, and LINKAGES, respectively). All approaches agreed that the current carbon sink would persist at least to 2100. However, carbon dynamics after current carbon sink diminishes to zero differ for different demographic modelling approaches. Both the simple and the complex demographic approaches predicted prolonged periods of relatively stable carbon densities after 2100, with minor declines, until the end of simulations in 2300. In contrast, the intermediate demographic approach predicted the CHF would become a carbon source between 2110 and 2260, followed by another carbon sink period. The disagreement between these patterns can be partly explained by differences in the capacity of models to simulate gross growth (both birth and subsequent growth) and mortality of short-lived, relatively shade-intolerant tree species.

  11. Future forest aboveground carbon dynamics in the central United States: the importance of forest demographic processes

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Wenchi; He, Hong S.; Thompson, Frank R.; Wang, Wen J.; Fraser, Jacob S.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Hanberry, Brice B.; Dijak, William D.

    2017-01-01

    The Central Hardwood Forest (CHF) in the United States is currently a major carbon sink, there are uncertainties in how long the current carbon sink will persist and if the CHF will eventually become a carbon source. We used a multi-model ensemble to investigate aboveground carbon density of the CHF from 2010 to 2300 under current climate. Simulations were done using one representative model for each of the simple, intermediate, and complex demographic approaches (ED2, LANDIS PRO, and LINKAGES, respectively). All approaches agreed that the current carbon sink would persist at least to 2100. However, carbon dynamics after current carbon sink diminishes to zero differ for different demographic modelling approaches. Both the simple and the complex demographic approaches predicted prolonged periods of relatively stable carbon densities after 2100, with minor declines, until the end of simulations in 2300. In contrast, the intermediate demographic approach predicted the CHF would become a carbon source between 2110 and 2260, followed by another carbon sink period. The disagreement between these patterns can be partly explained by differences in the capacity of models to simulate gross growth (both birth and subsequent growth) and mortality of short-lived, relatively shade-intolerant tree species. PMID:28165483

  12. Earthworm populations as related to woodcock habitat usage in Central Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, J.W.; Krohn, W.B.; Hordan, G.A.; Keppie, Daniel M.; Owen, Ray B.

    1977-01-01

    Lumbricid earthworms were sampled 'on two central Maine study areas between late April and early September, 1974, to relate earthworm abundance to use of feeding covers by American woodcock(Philoheli minor). On sampling days, occurring at 2 to 3 week intervals, a formalin solution was applied to thirty O.25m areas in heavjly, commonly, and rarely used woodcock covers (5 samples/type of feedjngcover/study area). The extent of cover usage was based on use of vegetation by 51 radio-equipped woodcock, 1970-73 (605 woodcockdays). A total of 2,546 earthworms of nine species was collected; species and age compositions of collected lumbricids were similar on both study areas. Similarly. number and biomass (dry weight) of earthworms extracted did not differ significantly between study areas. However. the number and biomass of sampled earthworms were directly and significantly related to the intensity to which woodcock used covers. Those diurnal covers most heavily used by woodcock sustained the highest lumbricid populations, ostensibly because these covers provided earthworms with preferred foods (i.e., leaf litters) and optimum soil moisture-temperature conditions. In terms of earthworms and woodcock supported per unit area, management of second-growth hardwoods appears more efficient than attempting to alter coniferous or mixed forests.

  13. Effect of acid rain on the growth and nutrient content of two species of hardwood tree seedlings, and on the pH, microflora and nutrient content of the soil

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of two hardwood tree species and three soils to simulated acid rain. The value of infecting tree seedlings with mycorrhizal fungi before transplanting into acid-leached soils was also examined. Dundas silt loam, Hayden loam and Luther loam supporting coleus and sorghum were leached three times each week for 20 weeks with a mixture of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and HNO/sub 3/ adjusted by dilution to pH 5.5, 4.0 or 2.5 Ninety seedlings each of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) were transplanted into the soils and were misted twice weekly with the acid solutions. Ash seedlings misted with the pH 2.5 solution were shorter, had a smaller total leaf area and produced less leaf and stem material than ash seedlings misted wth pH 5.5 solution. In contrast, the growth and weight of the maple seedlings increased in response to the pH 2.5 treatments. Leaves of the ash exposed to the pH 2.5 treatment were covered with numerous small lesions, and the cuticular wax was partially worn away. Nitrogen concentrations in the leaves, stems and roots of both species increased with increasing acidity, while phosphorus concentration in the leaves decreased. Soils became increasingly acidic as the acid treatments continued.

  14. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  15. Central auditory imperception.

    PubMed

    Snow, J B; Rintelmann, W F; Miller, J M; Konkle, D F

    1977-09-01

    The development of clinically applicable techniques for the evaluation of hearing impairment caused by lesions of the central auditory pathways has increased clinical interest in the anatomy and physiology of these pathways. A conceptualization of present understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the central auditory pathways is presented. Clinical tests based on reduction of redundancy of the speech message, degradation of speech and binaural interations are presented. Specifically performance-intensity functions, filtered speech tests, competing message tests and time-compressed speech tests are presented with the emphasis on our experience with time-compressed speech tests. With proper use of these tests not only can central auditory impairments by detected, but brain stem lesions can be distinguished from cortical lesions.

  16. Central venous access.

    PubMed

    Ganeshan, Arul; Warakaulle, Dinuke R; Uberoi, Raman

    2007-01-01

    Central venous access plays an important role in the management of an ever-increasing population of patients ranging from those that are critically ill to patients with difficult clinical access. Interventional radiologists are key in delivering this service and should be familiar with the wide range of techniques and catheters now available to them. A comprehensive description of these catheters with regard to indications, technical aspects of catheterization, success rates, and associated early and late complications, as well as a review of various published guidelines on central venous catheter insertion are given in this article.

  17. Hale Central Peak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the mountains that make up the central peak region of Hale Crater, located near 35.8oS, 36.5oW. Dark, smooth-surfaced sand dunes are seen to be climbing up the mountainous slopes. The central peak of a crater consists of rock brought up during the impact from below the crater floor. This autumn image is illuminated from the upper left and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  18. Extreme pointer years in tree-ring records of Central Spain as evidence of climatic events and the eruption of the Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru, 1600 AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génova, M.

    2012-04-01

    The study of pointer years of numerous tree-ring chronologies of the central Iberian Peninsula (Sierra de Guadarrama) could provide complementary information about climate variability over the last 405 yr. In total, 64 pointer years have been identified: 30 negative (representing minimum growths) and 34 positive (representing maximum growths), the most significant of these being 1601, 1963 and 1996 for the negative ones, and 1734 and 1737 for the positive ones. Given that summer precipitation was found to be the most limiting factor for the growth of Pinus in the Sierra de Guadarrama in the second half of the 20th century, it is also an explanatory factor in almost 50% of the extreme growths. Furthermore, these pointer years and intervals are not evenly distributed throughout time. Both in the first half of the 17th and in the second half of 20th, they were more frequent and more extreme and these periods are the most notable for the frequency of negative pointer years in Central Spain. The interval 1600-1602 is of special significance, being one of the most unfavourable for tree growth in the centre of Spain, with 1601 representing the minimum index in the regional chronology. We infer that this special minimum annual increase was the effect of the eruption of Huaynaputina, which occurred in Peru at the beginning of 1600 AD. This is the first time that the effects of this eruption in the tree-ring records of Southern Europe have been demonstrated.

  19. Ghrelin in Central Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ferrini, F; Salio, C; Lossi, L; Merighi, A

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide synthesized by endocrine cells of the gastric mucosa, is released in the bloodstream in response to a negative energetic status. Since discovery, the hypothalamus was identified as the main source of ghrelin in the CNS, and effects of the peptide have been mainly observed in this area of the brain. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have reported ghrelin synthesis and effects in specific populations of neurons also outside the hypothalamus. Thus, ghrelin activity has been described in midbrain, hindbrain, hippocampus, and spinal cord. The spectrum of functions and biological effects produced by the peptide on central neurons is remarkably wide and complex. It ranges from modulation of membrane excitability, to control of neurotransmitter release, neuronal gene expression, and neuronal survival and proliferation. There is not at present a general consensus concerning the source of ghrelin acting on central neurons. Whereas it is widely accepted that the hypothalamus represents the most important endogenous source of the hormone in CNS, the existence of extra-hypothalamic ghrelin-synthesizing neurons is still controversial. In addition, circulating ghrelin can theoretically be another natural ligand for central ghrelin receptors. This paper gives an overview on the distribution of ghrelin and its receptor across the CNS and critically analyses the data available so far as regarding the effects of ghrelin on central neurotransmission. PMID:19721816

  20. Multicultural Central Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Eric D.

    This article addresses the multicultural aspect of Central Asia in response to the discussion on diversity in U.S. classrooms. Many areas of the world are more diverse than the U.S., and these areas experience successes and failures with many of the same issues the U.S. is currently struggling with. Comparing the U.S. diversity debate with similar…

  1. Central venous line - infants

    MedlinePlus

    A central venous line (CVL) is a long, soft, plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A CVL USED? A CVL is often put in when a baby cannot get a ... (MCC). A CVL can be used to give nutrients or medicines to a ...

  2. CENTRALIZATION OF CAMPUS CONTROLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    A COLLEGE CAMPUS HAVING A LARGE NUMBER OF SEPARATE BUILDINGS WITH ONE BASIC HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM IS AN IDEAL SITUATION FOR REALIZING GREAT BENEFITS FROM CENTRALIZED BUILDING CONTROL SYSTEMS. TYPICAL REQUIREMENTS AND ADVANTAGES OF SUCH SYSTEMS ARE DISCUSSED BRIEFLY AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE SYSTEM AT FOUR MAJOR UNIVERSITIES ARE GIVEN. THIS…

  3. Ghrelin in central neurons.

    PubMed

    Ferrini, F; Salio, C; Lossi, L; Merighi, A

    2009-03-01

    Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide synthesized by endocrine cells of the gastric mucosa, is released in the bloodstream in response to a negative energetic status. Since discovery, the hypothalamus was identified as the main source of ghrelin in the CNS, and effects of the peptide have been mainly observed in this area of the brain. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have reported ghrelin synthesis and effects in specific populations of neurons also outside the hypothalamus. Thus, ghrelin activity has been described in midbrain, hindbrain, hippocampus, and spinal cord. The spectrum of functions and biological effects produced by the peptide on central neurons is remarkably wide and complex. It ranges from modulation of membrane excitability, to control of neurotransmitter release, neuronal gene expression, and neuronal survival and proliferation. There is not at present a general consensus concerning the source of ghrelin acting on central neurons. Whereas it is widely accepted that the hypothalamus represents the most important endogenous source of the hormone in CNS, the existence of extra-hypothalamic ghrelin-synthesizing neurons is still controversial. In addition, circulating ghrelin can theoretically be another natural ligand for central ghrelin receptors. This paper gives an overview on the distribution of ghrelin and its receptor across the CNS and critically analyses the data available so far as regarding the effects of ghrelin on central neurotransmission.

  4. Education in Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, George R.; Waggoner, Barbara Ashton

    The first chapter of this book describes the physical and cultural environment of Central America and includes analytical comments showing the complexity of the problems confronting the region. Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama are then treated in separate chapters including: 1) political, economic, social and…

  5. Northern long-eared bat day-roosting and prescribed fire in the central Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, William; Alexander Silvis,; Johnson, Joshua B.; Edwards, John W.; Karp, Milu

    2016-01-01

    The northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis Trovessart) is a cavity-roosting species that forages in cluttered upland and riparian forests throughout the oak-dominated Appalachian and Central Hardwoods regions. Common prior to white-nose syndrome, the population of this bat species has declined to functional extirpation in some regions in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic, including portions of the central Appalachians. Our long-term research in the central Appalachians has shown that maternity colonies of this species form non-random assorting networks in patches of suitable trees that result from long- and short-term forest disturbance processes, and that roost loss can occur with these disturbances. Following two consecutive prescribed burns on the Fernow Experimental Forest in the central Appalachians, West Virginia, USA, in 2007 to 2008, post-fire counts of suitable black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.; the most selected species for roosting) slightly decreased by 2012. Conversely, post-fire numbers of suitable maple (Acer spp. L.), primarily red maple (Acer rubrum L.), increased by a factor of three, thereby ameliorating black locust reduction. Maternity colony network metrics such as roost degree (use) and network density for two networks in the burned compartment were similar to the single network observed in unburned forest. However, roost clustering and degree of roost centralization was greater for the networks in the burned forest area. Accordingly, the short-term effects of prescribed fire are slightly or moderately positive in impact to day-roost habitat for the northern long-eared bat in the central Appalachians from a social dynamic perspective. Listing of northern long-eared bats as federally threatened will bring increased scrutiny of immediate fire impacts from direct take as well as indirect impacts from long-term changes to roosting and foraging habitat in stands being returned to historic fire-return conditions. Unfortunately, definitive

  6. Human impact on late Quaternary landscapes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, F.; Raab, T. A.

    2011-12-01

    Like the Alps in Central Europe the Pyrenees in Southeast Europe are well known for their glacial history. Within the scope of the ongoing research project Post-LGM pedogenesis and geomorphodynamics in the Aragonese Pyrenees, Spain, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), we are studying the landscapes in the Gallego valley and the Aragon valley formed during the late Quaternary period. The aim of this research is to describe and characterize the soil development since the retreat of the valley glaciers from the LGM-moraines which are supposed to have an age of up to 60 ka yrs. To these purposes soil profiles are excavated in sediments and landforms of different ages (LGM to Holocene) and different genesis (glacigenic, glacifluvial, fluvial, gravitational). The soil profiles are arranged as catenas and provide insight into the pedo-stratigraphy of moraines, fluvial terraces, glacis and alluvial fans. Our preliminary results show that besides geogenic process past human land use must be considered as a main trigger of landscape development during the late Holocene. Truncated soil profiles in the backslopes and the correlate sediments of soil erosion burying soil horizons in the footslopes clearly indicate one or even more periods of re-shaping the landforms after deglaciation. Considerable amounts of small charcoal and tile fragments in the translocated sediments hint to an anthropogenic agent. The disturbance in the soil profiles and sediments is visible in the field and by micromorphology. Although 14C and OSL datings on the base of the correlate sediments of soil erosion indicate at least one phase of erosion and redeposition at the end of the 17th century, the onset of afresh pedogenic processes in the correlate sediments of soil erosion indicate young soil formation.

  7. [CENTRAL ANTICHOLINERGIC... SYNDROME?].

    PubMed

    Danilov, M S; Lebedinskii, K M

    2015-01-01

    While reading special literature in diferent languages the authors noted surprising fact: the term and concept of "central anticholinergic syndrome" is well-known as common anaesthesia complication in German (abbr: ZAS) and partially Spanish sources, but in Russian, English or French literature is used only in toxicological context. Describing etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of the complication manifesting with comatose, agitated or shivering forms, the authors analyzing the reasons for such a noticeably diferent approaches to the situation reaching 10% of all the general anaesthesia cases. Probably, ZAS isn't nosologically clearly defined syndrome, but just adverse appearance of one of the fundamental general anaesthesia mechanisms? Anyway, the problem of central cholinergic activity suppression, excessive by its amplitude and/or duration, exists all over the world. German concept of ZAS allows the anaesthesiologist to resolve it on pathogenically generalized basis, while in other professional communities various symptomatic approaches seem to be more common.

  8. Centrality based Document Ranking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    approach. We model the documents to be ranked as nodes in a graph and place edges between documents based on their similarity. Given a query, we compute...similarity of the query with respect to every document in the graph . Based on these similarity values, documents are ranked for a given query...clinical documents using centrality based approach. We model the documents to be ranked as nodes in a graph and place edges between documents based on their

  9. FNAL central email systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.

  10. Gangs in Central America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-02

    introduced – H.R. 1645 ( Gutierrez ), S. 330 (Isakson), and S. 1348 (Reid) – that includes provisions to increase cooperation among U.S., Mexican, and...America, Colombia, and Mexico, U.S. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales stated that “the United States stands with all of our neighbors in our joint fight...deportations on Central America. Legislation in the 110th Congress The 110th Congress has considered immigration legislation – H.R. 1645 ( Gutierrez ), S

  11. [The central pattern generators].

    PubMed

    Balaban, P M; Vorontsov, D D; Dyakonova, V E; Dyakonova, T L; Zakharov, I S; Korshunova, T A; Orlov, O Yu; Pavlova, G A; Panchin, Yi V; Sakharov, D A; Falikman, M V

    2013-01-01

    The central pattern generator (CPG) is defined as a set of neurons involved in joint production of patterned motor output. The roundtable discussion on the CPG was a part of the 5th All-Russian Conference on Animal Behavior (Moscow, Nov. 21, 2012). The discussion centred on three core themes: 1) the mechanisms of the organization and reconfiguration of pattern generating neuronal ensembles, 2) extrapolations that extend the CPG concept beyond the motor systems, and 3) evolutionary and developmental aspects of CPG.

  12. Central corneal abscess.

    PubMed

    van Bijsterveld, O P

    1976-05-01

    Central corneal abscess developed in the experimental animal after inoculation of biologically active staphylococcal strains in a paracentral epithelial lesion of the cornea. These abscesses did not ulcerate, developed only with high inocula, occurred more frequently in immunized rabbits. A serpiginous type of ulceration did not develop at the site of the initial epithelial lesion nor at any other place in the cornea. Histologically, the lesions consisted of densely packed polymorphonuclear leukocytes between the corneal lamellae.

  13. West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  14. [Central precocious puberty].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Marek, Bogdan; Okopień, Bogusław

    2008-01-01

    Central precocious puberty, defined as the onset of puberty before the age 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys, results from a premature activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the hypothalamus. This condition is characterised by early pubertal changes, acceleration of growth velocity, and rapid bone maturation that often result in reduced adult height. It may be either idiopathic or associated with hypothalamic hamartoma, brain neoplasms, numerous non-cancerous disorders of the central nervous system and treatment of peripheral precocious puberty. The goal of the initial assessment of children is to exclude the presence of all these organic disorders. The diagnosis should include detailed anamnesis and clinical examination, measurement of pituitary and sex hormones, assessment of bone age, and imaging of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, abdomen, pelvis and gonads. The treatment of choice are gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. In this paper, we review the current views on the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of central precocious puberty.

  15. Central effects of fingolimod.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Vítor T; Fonseca, Joaquim

    2014-08-01

    Introduccion. El fingolimod, un modulador del receptor de la esfingosina-1-fosfato (S1P) dotado de un mecanismo de accion novedoso, fue el primer tratamiento oral aprobado para la esclerosis multiple remitente recurrente. Su union a los receptores S1P1 de los linfocitos promueve la retencion selectiva de los linfocitos T virgenes y de memoria central en los tejidos linfoides secundarios, lo que impide su salida hacia el sistema nervioso central (SNC). Asimismo, el fingolimod atraviesa con facilidad la barrera hematoencefalica, y diversos estudios le atribuyen un efecto neuroprotector directo en el SNC. Objetivo. Revisar la informacion disponible acerca de los efectos centrales del fingolimod. Desarrollo. El desequilibrio entre los procesos lesivos y reparadores constituye un reflejo de la desmielinizacion cronica, la degeneracion axonal y la gliosis, y parece contribuir a la discapacidad que la esclerosis multiple acarrea. La facilidad con la que el fingolimod atraviesa la barrera hematoencefalica le permite actuar directamente sobre los receptores S1P localizados en las celulas del SNC. Una vez en el interior del SNC, ocupa los receptores S1P de los oligodendrocitos y de sus celulas precursoras, de los astrocitos, los microgliocitos y las neuronas, fomentando la remielinizacion, la neuroproteccion y los procesos endogenos de regeneracion. La eficacia evidenciada en los ensayos clinicos concuerda con un mecanismo de accion que incluiria efectos directos sobre las celulas del SNC. Conclusiones. Los datos disponibles indican que la eficacia del fingolimod en el tratamiento de la esclerosis multiple se debe a su ambivalencia como molecula inmunomoduladora y moduladora directa de los receptores S1P del SNC. Tanto es asi que estudios recientes le atribuyen efectos neuroprotectores en varios modelos que suscitan expectativas en torno a su posible aplicacion terapeutica en la enfermedad de Alzheimer, el paludismo cerebral y el neuroblastoma, asi como en la neuroproteccion

  16. Central Asia After 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Disputes With China,” Eurasia Daily Monitor, October 26, 2011. 9. Linda Jakobson et al., ”China’s Energy and Security relati- ons with Russia,” SIPRI...the_limits_of_regional_cooperati- on_in_south_asia. 65. Roman Muzalevski, ”India Seeks to Project Power In and Out of Central Asia,” Eurasia Daily...available from www.kom- mersant.ru/doc/1407757. 77. SIPRI Yearbook 2010, p. 291. 78. Kommersant, March 14, 2011. 79. Ibid. 80. Jakobson et al., ”China’s

  17. Flooding in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  18. Central American resource studies

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This paper presents an overview of this work -- within these proceedings are papers that deal with specific aspects of each topic, and these will be duly noted. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Floods in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows flooding in central China on July 4, 2002. In the false-color image vegetation appears orange and water appears dark blue to black. Because of the cloud cover and the fact that some of the water is filled with sediment, the false-color image provides a clearer picture of where rivers have exceeded their banks and lakes have risen. The river in this image is the Yangtze River, and the large lake is the Poyang Hu. Credits: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  20. Fires in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hundreds of fires are set every year during the dry season in Central Africa. This true color image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) shows dozens of smoke plumes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on June 29, 2000. Residents burn away scrub and brush annually in the woody savanna to clear land for farming and grazing. For more information, visit the SeaWiFS Home Page, Global Fire Monitoring Fact Sheet, and 4km2 Fire Data Image Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE