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Sample records for 17th european bioenergetics

  1. EDITORIAL The 17th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2011-02-01

    . The uncertainty relations for photon quadratures were also checked for the thermal photon state using experimental values of optical tomograms and avoiding the reconstruction procedure of the Wigner function and its associated precision constrains. In the tomographic-probability representation of quantum mechanics and quantum optics, tomograms are used for the description of quantum states as an alternative to the wave function and density matrix. The purity, fidelity, entropy and photon temperature associated with quantum states are expressed in terms of tomograms. This provides the possibility of measuring these characteristics directly by taking optical tomograms and checking basic inequalities like entropic uncertainty relations, temperature-dependent quadrature uncertainty relations, etc. The better understanding that quantum states can be identified with measurable probability distributions like optical tomograms opens new prospects in quantum optics, for example, to check experimentally the uncertainty relations for higher quadrature momenta and to control the precision with which the fundamental inequalities of quantum mechanics are experimentally confirmed. This Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented at the 17th Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO10) held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK, 6-11 June 2010. The other collaborators from different scientific centers who could not, due to different reasons, come to St Andrews but participated in the previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs also contributed to this issue. The paper by Ulf Leonhardt and Natalia Korolkova, the CEWQO10 Organizers, opens this issue. The order of the following papers corresponds to the alphabetical order of the first author of the paper. The history of CEWQOs can be found in the Preface to the Proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (2009 Phys. Scr. T135 011005). The Proceedings of the 16th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO09

  2. Native American Games & European Religious Attitudes in the 16th & 17th Centuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, George

    Some aspects of the white-Indian relationship are reflected in the writings of 16th and 17th century observers of Indian pastimes. The Noble Savage image was apparently accepted by French colonists as a consequence of an intellectual disappointment in the contemporary societies. In an age of absolutism and religious intolerance, the picture of the…

  3. The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) - 17th Annual European Congress of Rheumatology (June 8-11, 2016 - London, UK).

    PubMed

    Walker, G; Croasdell, G

    2016-06-01

    The 2016 Annual European Congress of Rheumatology, an annual conference organized by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), took place in London, U.K. Over 4,000 abstracts were submitted this year with over 199 sessions and poster tours on offer. The congress has become a major event in the field of rheumatology with participants attending from around the world. The oral sessions, poster displays and lectures cover a broad spectrum of topics, including the latest understanding of disease processes, as well as recent advances in diagnosis and patient care. PMID:27458612

  4. Union catalogue of printed books of 15th, 16th and 17th centuries in European astronomical observatories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, G.

    This catalogue deals with the scientific subjects of that historical period such as astronomy, astrology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, historia naturalis and so forth, and contains extremely rare volumes such as the first printed editions of the eminent Arab, Latin, Greek and Persian scientists Albumasar, Albohazen Aly, Aristoteles, Ptolemaeus, Pliny the Elder and Ulugh Beig. In addition the catalogue contains the first works of such great astronomers of the 16th and 17th centuries as Copernicus, Kepler, Clavius, Regiomontanus, Sacrobosco, Mercator, Newton, Gassendi, Galilei and Hevelius, just to quote the most representative ones. The catalogue is followed by a chronological index and an index of printers and publishers.

  5. Post 17th-century changes of European PAH emissions recorded in high-altitude Alpine snow and ice.

    PubMed

    Gabrieli, Jacopo; Vallelonga, Paul; Cozzi, Giulio; Gabrielli, Paolo; Gambaro, Andrea; Sigl, Michael; Decet, Fabio; Schwikowski, Margit; Gäggeler, Heinz; Boutron, Claude; Cescon, Paolo; Barbante, Carlo

    2010-05-01

    The occurrence of organic pollutants in European Alpine snow/ice has been reconstructed over the past three centuries using a new online extraction method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) followed by liquid chromatographic determination. The meltwater flow from a continuous ice core melting system was split into two aliquots, with one aliquot directed to an inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometer for continuous trace elements determinations and the second introduced into a solid phase C18 (SPE) cartridge for semicontinuous PAH extraction. The depth resolution for PAH extractions ranged from 40 to 70 cm, and corresponds to 0.7-5 years per sample. The concentrations of 11 PAH were determined in dated snow/ice samples to reconstruct the atmospheric concentration of these compounds in Europe for the last 300 years. The PAH pattern is dominated by phenanthrene (Phe), fluoranthene (Fla), and pyrene (Pyr), which represent 60-80% of the total PAH mass. Before 1875 the sum of PAH concentration (SigmaPAH) was very low with total mean concentrations less than 2 ng/kg and 0.08 ng/kg for the heavier compounds (SigmaPAH*, more than four aromatic rings). During the first phase of the industrial revolution (1770-1830) the PAH deposition showed a weak increase which became much greater from the start of the second phase of the industrial revolution at the end of 19th Century. In the 1920s, economic recession in Europe decreased PAH emissions until the 1930s when they increased again and reached a maximum concentration of 32 ng/kg from 1945 to 1955. From 1955 to 1975 the PAH concentrations decreased significantly, reflecting improvements in emission controls especially from major point sources, while from 1975 to 2003 they rose to levels equivalent to those in 1910. The Fla/(Fla+Pyr) ratio is often used for source assignment and here indicates an increase in the relative contribution of gasoline and diesel combustion with respect to coal and wood burning

  6. [Spanish authors in the ideal library of G. Naudé (1627): a European view of the Spanish culture and science at the beginning of the 17th century].

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Evaristo álvarez

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyze a European view of the 17th century Spanish culture. Naudé's "Advis pour dresser une bibliothèque" (1627) - translated twice into English: "Instructions concerning erecting of a library" (1661) and "Advice on establishing a library" (1950) - represents a wide set of bibliographic recommendations that constitute, among many other things, an excellent observatory of the Spanish culture in such a delicate time.

  7. Scientific Misconduct and Theft: Case Report from 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella

    2008-01-01

    Gjuro Armen Baglivi was one of the most famous medical authorities of the 17th century. Apart from his numerous books and publications, several extensive collections of his correspondence have been preserved and are available in libraries around the world. They provide new information about the 17th century scientific culture and place of Baglivi’s work in the scientific European context. Also, they shed light on his personality more than other writings intended for the public eye. In this paper I will present the case of a theft of intellectual property, which Baglivi described in one of his letters to Jean Jacques Manget. PMID:18293461

  8. 17th Annual School Construction Report, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 "School Planning & Management"'s 17th Annual School Construction Report reports over the last two years although school construction had fallen from previous highs, the pipeline of projects funded before the recession was still full. And so, in 2009 total construction was a solid $16.4 billion. But the pipeline is not being…

  9. Energy metabolism disorders in rare and common diseases. Toward bioenergetic modulation therapy and the training of a new generation of European scientists.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, Rodrigue

    2015-06-01

    Energy metabolism alterations are found in a large number of rare and common diseases of genetic or environmental origin. The number of patients that could benefit from bioenergetic modulation therapy (BIOMET) is therefore very important and includes individuals with pathologies as diverse as mitochondrial diseases, acute coronary syndrome, chronic kidney disease, asthma or even cancer. Although, the alteration of energy metabolism is disease specific and sometimes patient specific, the strategies for BIOMET could be common and target a series of bioenergetic regulatory mechanisms discussed in this article. An excellent training of scientists in the field of energy metabolism, related human diseases and drug discovery is also crucial to form a young generation of MDs, PHDs and Pharma or CRO-group leaders who will discover novel personalized bioenergetic medicines, through pharmacology, genetics, nutrition or adapted exercise training. The Mitochondrial European Educational Training (MEET) consortium was created to pursue this goal, and we dedicated here a special issue of Organelle in Focus (OiF) to highlight their objectives. A total of 10 OiFs articles constitute this Directed Issue on Mitochondrial Medicine. As part of this editorial article, we asked timely questions to the PR. Jan W. Smeitink, professor of Mitochondrial Medicine and CEO of Khondrion, a mitochondrial medicine company. He shared with us his objectives and strategies for the study of mitochondrial diseases and the identification of future treatments. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Energy Metabolism Disorders and Therapies. PMID:25595463

  10. DIMMING OF THE 17TH CENTURY SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Foukal, Peter; Ortiz, Ada; Schnerr, Roald

    2011-06-01

    Reconstructions of total solar irradiance (TSI) rely mainly on linear relations between TSI variation and indices of facular area. When these are extrapolated to the prolonged 15th-17th century Spoerer and Maunder solar activity minima, the estimated solar dimming is insufficient to explain the mid-millennial climate cooling of the Little Ice Age. We draw attention here to evidence that the relation departs from linearity at the lowest activity levels. Imaging photometry and radiometry indicate an increased TSI contribution per unit area from small network faculae by a factor of 2-4 compared with larger faculae in and around active regions. Even partial removal of this more TSI-effective network at prolonged minima could enable climatically significant solar dimming, yet be consistent with the weakened but persistent 11 yr cycle observed in Be 10 during the Maunder Minimum. The mechanism we suggest would not alter previous findings that increased solar radiative forcing is insufficient to account for 20th century global warming.

  11. Effect of mtDNA point mutations on cellular bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Szczepanowska, Joanna; Malinska, Dominika; Wieckowski, Mariusz R; Duszynski, Jerzy

    2012-10-01

    This overview discusses the results of research on the effects of most frequent mtDNA point mutations on cellular bioenergetics. Thirteen proteins coded by mtDNA are crucial for oxidative phosphorylation, 11 of them constitute key components of the respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV and 2 of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Moreover, pathogenic point mutations in mitochondrial tRNAs and rRNAs generate abnormal synthesis of the mtDNA coded proteins. Thus, pathogenic point mutations in mtDNA usually disturb the level of key parameter of the oxidative phosphorylation, i.e. the electric potential on the inner mitochondrial membrane (Δψ), and in a consequence calcium signalling and mitochondrial dynamics in the cell. Mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species is also modified in the mutated cells. The results obtained with cultured cells and describing biochemical consequences of mtDNA point mutations are full of contradictions. Still they help elucidate the biochemical basis of pathologies and provide a valuable tool for finding remedies in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012). PMID:22406627

  12. 17th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research

    SciTech Connect

    Judith Bender

    2006-07-01

    The 17th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research was held at the University of Madison, Wisconsin from June 27- July 2, 2006. ICAR-2006 included approximately 625 scientists from across the world. The scientific program was of excellent quality featuring 73 talks, including 30 from invited speakers. There were also 6 community-organized workshops (facilitated by conference staff) featuring additional talks on topics including ‘Submitting data to long-term repositories,’ ‘TAIR introductory workshop,’ ‘Web services and demonstration,’ ‘Public engagement: broadening the impact of your research,’ ‘Systems biology approaches to analysis of metabolic and regulatory networks of Arabidopsis,’ and ‘Mechanotransduction in Arabidopsis.’ Approximately 440 posters were presented in general topic areas including, among others, Development, Modeling/Other Systems, Energy, Environment, and Genetic/Epigenetic mechanisms. Graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, junior faculty, and underrepresented minorities made up a significant portion of the oral presentations thereby promoting the training of young scientists and facilitating important career development opportunities for speakers. Several poster sessions provided an opportunity for younger participants to freely meet with more established scientists. The North American Arabidopsis Steering Committee (NAASC) continued its outreach effort and again sponsored two special luncheons to encourage personal and professional development of young scientists and also underrepresented minorities. The ‘Emerging Scientists Luncheon’ featured 10 graduate students selected on the basis of scientific excellence of their submitted research abstracts. The ‘Minority Funding Luncheon,’ featured 8 awardees selected by the NAASC through a widely-publicized application process. This luncheon was established specifically to provide an opportunity for underrepresented minorities, and/or scientists from

  13. 17th International Microgravity Measurements Group Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Seventeenth International Microgravity Measurements Group (MGMG) meeting was held 24-26 March 1998 at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. This meeting focused on the transition of microgravity science research from the Shuttle, Mir, and free flyers to the International Space Station. The MGMG series of meetings are conducted by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project of the Microgravity Science Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The MGMG meetings provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas about the microgravity environment and microgravity acceleration research in the Microgravity Research Program. The meeting had participation from investigators in all areas of microgravity research. The attendees included representatives from: NASA centers; National Space Development Agency of Japan; European Space Agency; Daimler Benz Aerospace AG; Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt; Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales; Canadian Space Agency, national research institutions; Universities in U.S., Italy, Germany, and Russia; and commercial companies in the U.S. and Russia. Several agencies presented summaries of the measurement, analysis, and characterization of the microgravity environment of the Shuttle, Mir, and sounding rockets over the past fifteen years. This extensive effort has laid a foundation for pursuing a similar course during future microgravity science experiment operations on the ISS. Future activities of microgravity environment characterization were discussed by several agencies who plan to operate on the ISS.

  14. Bioenergetic roles of mitochondrial fusion.

    PubMed

    Silva Ramos, Eduardo; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Mourier, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are bioenergetic hotspots, producing the bulk of ATP by the oxidative phosphorylation process. Mitochondria are also structurally dynamic and undergo coordinated fusion and fission to maintain their function. Recent studies of the mitochondrial fusion machinery have provided new evidence in detailing their role in mitochondrial metabolism. Remarkably, mitofusin 2, in addition to its role in fusion, is important for maintaining coenzyme Q levels and may be an integral player in the mevalonate synthesis pathway. Here, we review the bioenergetic roles of mitochondrial dynamics and emphasize the importance of the in vitro growth conditions when evaluating mitochondrial respiration. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016,' edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:27060252

  15. [Discovery of blood cells in the 17th century].

    PubMed

    Doubek, M

    2001-07-01

    Landmark works of the 17th century concerning observations of blood cells are quoted in the article. "Simple" and successively "compound" microscopes made their appearance in the late 16th century and early 17th century. In 1656, Frenchman Pierre Borel, physician-in-ordinary to the King Louis XIV, who first applied the microscope to medicine described a type of "worn" found in human blood. In 1657, Athanasius Kircher, a Jesuit priest and scientist from Germany, examined blood from plague victims, and described "worms" of plague. In 1661, 1664 and 1665, the blood cells were discerned by Marcello Malpighi. In 1678, the red blood corpuscles was described by Jan Swammerdam of Amsterdam, a Dutch naturalist and physician. The first complete account of the red cells was made by Anthony van Leeuwenhoek of Delft in the last quarter of the 17th century.

  16. High Life: 17th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Residence hall construction continues to be a priority for colleges and universities. With enrollments on the upswing, higher-education institutions are spending more and building larger facilities to entice students to live on campus. This article presents the findings of "American School & University's" 17th annual Residence Hall Construction…

  17. Harvard Humanities Students Discover the 17th Century Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article profiles Harvard professor Stephen Greenblatt's new course, "Travel and Transformation in the Early 17th Century." The product of an intense, months-long collaboration between computing specialists, graduate students, librarians, and scholars, the course makes innovative use of all the tools and technical know-how a major university…

  18. The concept of pain in the 17th century.

    PubMed

    Procacci, P; Maresca, M

    1992-01-01

    The 17th century is very important in the history of sensation and pain. Philosophers, as Descartes, Hobbes, Spinoza, defined a new philosophy of science. Physicians of the iatro-chemical school introduced the first principles of biochemistry, tied to the sensations. Physicians of the iatro-mechanical school postulated a really modern concept: the importance of nerve juices in sensibility and pain.

  19. Molecular and bioenergetic differences between cells with African versus European inherited mitochondrial DNA haplogroups: implications for population susceptibility to diseases.

    PubMed

    Kenney, M Cristina; Chwa, Marilyn; Atilano, Shari R; Falatoonzadeh, Payam; Ramirez, Claudio; Malik, Deepika; Tarek, Mohamed; Del Carpio, Javier Cáceres; Nesburn, Anthony B; Boyer, David S; Kuppermann, Baruch D; Vawter, Marquis P; Jazwinski, S Michal; Miceli, Michael V; Wallace, Douglas C; Udar, Nitin

    2014-02-01

    The geographic origins of populations can be identified by their maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups. This study compared human cybrids (cytoplasmic hybrids), which are cell lines with identical nuclei but mitochondria from different individuals with mtDNA from either the H haplogroup or L haplogroup backgrounds. The most common European haplogroup is H while individuals of maternal African origin are of the L haplogroup. Despite lower mtDNA copy numbers, L cybrids had higher expression levels for nine mtDNA-encoded respiratory complex genes, decreased ATP (adenosine triphosphate) turnover rates and lower levels of reactive oxygen species production, parameters which are consistent with more efficient oxidative phosphorylation. Surprisingly, GeneChip arrays showed that the L and H cybrids had major differences in expression of genes of the canonical complement system (5 genes), dermatan/chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis (5 genes) and CCR3 (chemokine, CC motif, receptor 3) signaling (9 genes). Quantitative nuclear gene expression studies confirmed that L cybrids had (a) lower expression levels of complement pathway and innate immunity genes and (b) increased levels of inflammation-related signaling genes, which are critical in human diseases. Our data support the hypothesis that mtDNA haplogroups representing populations from different geographic origins may play a role in differential susceptibilities to diseases. PMID:24200652

  20. Anatomy and anatomists in Tuscany in the 17th century.

    PubMed

    Orlandini, Giovanni E; Paternostro, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The 17th century was characterized by a real revolution in the field of scientific research due to the introduction of the experimental method, promoted by Galileo Galilei who was the most representative scientist of this period. Therefore, medical disciplines, particularly Anatomy, underwent innovative and deep changes shattering traditional culture and representing the background for the modern science. In this fermenting period, Tuscany played a significant role since numerous distinguished scientists were gathered by Medici Grand Dukes (especially Ferdinando the 2nd and Cosimo the 3rd) at Pisa University and at their court in Florence. Among them, it must be mentioned Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, creator of iathromechanics, Marcello Malpighi, founder of microscopic Anatomy, Francesco Redi, who denied the insect spontaneous generation, Nils Steensen who continued in Florence his anatomical studies on lymph nodes and salivary glands while setting also the bases of modern geology. Moreover, at the end of the 17th century, the anatomical wax modelling techniques arose and developed in Florence thanks to the work of Gaetano Zumbo (or Zummo), capable of creating some real masterpieces, still very well preserved and collected in the Museum of Natural Sciences "La Specola". PMID:21287970

  1. Anatomy and anatomists in Tuscany in the 17th century.

    PubMed

    Orlandini, Giovanni E; Paternostro, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The 17th century was characterized by a real revolution in the field of scientific research due to the introduction of the experimental method, promoted by Galileo Galilei who was the most representative scientist of this period. Therefore, medical disciplines, particularly Anatomy, underwent innovative and deep changes shattering traditional culture and representing the background for the modern science. In this fermenting period, Tuscany played a significant role since numerous distinguished scientists were gathered by Medici Grand Dukes (especially Ferdinando the 2nd and Cosimo the 3rd) at Pisa University and at their court in Florence. Among them, it must be mentioned Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, creator of iathromechanics, Marcello Malpighi, founder of microscopic Anatomy, Francesco Redi, who denied the insect spontaneous generation, Nils Steensen who continued in Florence his anatomical studies on lymph nodes and salivary glands while setting also the bases of modern geology. Moreover, at the end of the 17th century, the anatomical wax modelling techniques arose and developed in Florence thanks to the work of Gaetano Zumbo (or Zummo), capable of creating some real masterpieces, still very well preserved and collected in the Museum of Natural Sciences "La Specola".

  2. JANNAF 17th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Volume 1, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 16 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 17th meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) held jointly with the 35th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS). The meeting was held on 7 - 11 December 1998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include projectile and shaped charge jet impact vulnerability of munitions; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; damage and hot spot initiation mechanisms with energetic materials; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  3. The low countries - 16th/17th century.

    PubMed

    De Broe, M E; De Weerdt, D L; Ysebaert, D K; Vercauteren, S R; De Greef, K E; De Broe, L C

    1999-01-01

    Andreas Vesalius and Jan Baptist Van Helmont are the two major personalities who contributed substantially and in a different way to the early development of renal anatomy/physiology of the 16th/17th century in the Southern Low Countries. The importance of A. Vesalius' publication 'de humani corporis fabrica libri septem' cannot be overestimated. The kidney was an intriguing organ to Vesalius, the function of which he could not fully grasp. J.B. Van Helmont was the first to demonstrate the importance of the measurement of the specific gravity of the urine and relating it to physiological and pathophysiological conditions. He made accurate clinical observations supported by autopsy examinations concerning the role of the kidney in the generation of dropsy. PMID:10213829

  4. 17th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The 17th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVII) Conference was held September 11-13, 2001, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Cleveland, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar technology. This year's conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVI; the use of new high-efficiency cells for commercial use and the development of novel array concepts such as Boeing's Solar Tile concept. In addition, new information was presented on space environmental interactions with solar arrays.

  5. 17th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Phillip

    2002-10-01

    The 17th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVII) Conference was held September 11-13, 2001, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Cleveland, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar technology. This year's conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVI; the use of new high-efficiency cells for commercial use and the development of novel array concepts such as Boeing's Solar Tile concept. In addition, new information was presented on space environmental interactions with solar arrays.

  6. Teaching Science in Art: Technical Examination of 17th-Century Dutch Painting as Interdisciplinary Coursework for Science Majors and Nonmajors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uffelman, Erich S.

    2007-01-01

    Two linked courses examining conservation science and art history of 17th-century Dutch painting are described. The two courses have been taught on campus and, most recently, as study-abroad courses in collaboration with the Center for European Studies, Universiteit Maastricht, The Netherlands. The highly interdisciplinary courses are intense, yet…

  7. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    PubMed

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder.

  8. A Mediterranean derecho: Catalonia (Spain), 17th August 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. Manuel

    2007-02-01

    At approximately 6:10 UTC in the morning of 17th August 2003, a squall line developed over south Catalonia (the northeast region of Spain). During the next 9 h, the squall moved rapidly northeast and crossed Catalonia and the French regions of Languedoc-Roussillon and Province, damaging and uprooting hundreds of trees and blocking trains in the region. Wind gusts reached were recoded up to 52 m/s with evidence of F2 intensity damage. This case study shows the characteristics of a derecho (widespread convectively induced windstorm). Radar observations of the evolving squall line show signatures often correlated with damaging surface winds, including: Bow echoes, Rear inflow notches, Rear inflow jets, Medium altitude radial convergence, Narrow gradient of very marked reflectivity, Development of isolated cells ahead of the convective line, A band of convection off the northern end of the line known as a "warm advection wing". When examining the different surface observations, satellite, radar imagery and cloud-to-ground lightning data, this case shows many similarities to those investigated in the United States. The derecho is a hybrid case, but has many characteristics of warm season derechoes. This emanates from a mesoscale convective complex (MCC) moving along a quasi-stationary, low-level thermal boundary in an environment characterized by high potential instability and relatively strong mid-tropospheric winds.

  9. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    PubMed

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:27035922

  10. Aspects of negative numbers in the early 17th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomaidis, Yannis

    1993-03-01

    This paper argues that the questions, posed by researchers in the field of didactics of mathematics, require new historical research which mainly concerns the problems related to the emergence and evolution of concepts. Motivated by recent historico-didactical studies on negative numbers, the author explores two different types of problems through which these numbers started being used systematically in mathematics. The first problem deals with the correspondence between the terms of an arithmetical and a geometrical progression, which constitutes the theoretical basis of logarithms; the second deals with the application of algebraic syntactical ruies in the theory of equations. In the specific context of these problems, concepts, such as ‘negative logarithm’ or ‘negative root’, were established in the early 17th century, long before the appearance of a general concept of ‘negative quantity’ in mathematical textbooks. The analysis of these problems reveals the conventional character of negative numbers and poses certain questions about the meaning of the various concrete models, traditionally employed in their teaching (via temperature, debits and credits, etc.). Recent, large-scale empirical research has shown a major percentage of failure in understanding negative numbers and their operations; this fact is related to the meanings attributed to negative numbers during their introduction at school. The matter of revising traditional teaching models is considered in connection with a constructive learning hypothesis; there is a need for new problem-situations, which entirely justify the meaning of the concept that must be used and constructed by the pupil and allow a fruitful interaction with it. The case of negative numbers provides an illuminating example of the role historical problems can play in the creation of situations like these.

  11. Overview of mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Vitor M C

    2012-01-01

    Bioenergetic Science started in seventh century with the pioneer works by Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier on photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. New developments were implemented by Pasteur in 1860s with the description of fermentations associated to microorganisms, further documented by Buchner brothers who discovered that fermentations also occurred in cell extracts in the absence of living cells. In the beginning of twentieth century, Harden and Young demonstrated that orthophosphate and other heat-resistant compounds (cozymase), later identified as NAD, ADP, and metal ions, were mandatory in the fermentation of glucose. The full glycolysis pathway has been detailed in 1940s with the contributions of Embden, Meyeroff, Parnas, Warburg, among others. Studies on the citric acid cycle started in 1910 (Thunberg) and were elucidated by Krebs et al. in the 1940s. Mitochondrial bioenergetics gained emphasis in the late 1940s and 1950s with the works of Lenhinger, Racker, Chance, Boyer, Ernster, and Slater, among others. The prevalent "chemical coupling hypothesis" of energy conservation in oxidative phosphorylation was challenged and replaced by the "chemiosmotic hypothesis" originally formulated in 1960s by Mitchell and later substantiated and extended to energy conservation in bacteria and chloroplasts, besides mitochondria, with clear-cut identification of molecular proton pumps. After identification of most reactive mechanisms, emphasis has been directed to structure resolution of molecular complex clusters, e.g., cytochrome c oxidase, complex III, complex II, ATP synthase, photosystem I, photosynthetic water splitting center, and energy collecting antennæ of several photosynthetic systems. Modern trends concern to the reactivity of radical and other active species in association with bioenergetic activities. A promising trend concentrates on the cell redox status quantified in terms of redox potentials. In spite of significant development and

  12. Overview of mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Vitor M C

    2012-01-01

    Bioenergetic Science started in seventh century with the pioneer works by Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier on photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. New developments were implemented by Pasteur in 1860s with the description of fermentations associated to microorganisms, further documented by Buchner brothers who discovered that fermentations also occurred in cell extracts in the absence of living cells. In the beginning of twentieth century, Harden and Young demonstrated that orthophosphate and other heat-resistant compounds (cozymase), later identified as NAD, ADP, and metal ions, were mandatory in the fermentation of glucose. The full glycolysis pathway has been detailed in 1940s with the contributions of Embden, Meyeroff, Parnas, Warburg, among others. Studies on the citric acid cycle started in 1910 (Thunberg) and were elucidated by Krebs et al. in the 1940s. Mitochondrial bioenergetics gained emphasis in the late 1940s and 1950s with the works of Lenhinger, Racker, Chance, Boyer, Ernster, and Slater, among others. The prevalent "chemical coupling hypothesis" of energy conservation in oxidative phosphorylation was challenged and replaced by the "chemiosmotic hypothesis" originally formulated in 1960s by Mitchell and later substantiated and extended to energy conservation in bacteria and chloroplasts, besides mitochondria, with clear-cut identification of molecular proton pumps. After identification of most reactive mechanisms, emphasis has been directed to structure resolution of molecular complex clusters, e.g., cytochrome c oxidase, complex III, complex II, ATP synthase, photosystem I, photosynthetic water splitting center, and energy collecting antennæ of several photosynthetic systems. Modern trends concern to the reactivity of radical and other active species in association with bioenergetic activities. A promising trend concentrates on the cell redox status quantified in terms of redox potentials. In spite of significant development and

  13. Early bioenergetic evolution

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Filipa L.; Thiergart, Thorsten; Landan, Giddy; Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Pereira, Inês A. C.; Allen, John F.; Lane, Nick; Martin, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Life is the harnessing of chemical energy in such a way that the energy-harnessing device makes a copy of itself. This paper outlines an energetically feasible path from a particular inorganic setting for the origin of life to the first free-living cells. The sources of energy available to early organic synthesis, early evolving systems and early cells stand in the foreground, as do the possible mechanisms of their conversion into harnessable chemical energy for synthetic reactions. With regard to the possible temporal sequence of events, we focus on: (i) alkaline hydrothermal vents as the far-from-equilibrium setting, (ii) the Wood–Ljungdahl (acetyl-CoA) pathway as the route that could have underpinned carbon assimilation for these processes, (iii) biochemical divergence, within the naturally formed inorganic compartments at a hydrothermal mound, of geochemically confined replicating entities with a complexity below that of free-living prokaryotes, and (iv) acetogenesis and methanogenesis as the ancestral forms of carbon and energy metabolism in the first free-living ancestors of the eubacteria and archaebacteria, respectively. In terms of the main evolutionary transitions in early bioenergetic evolution, we focus on: (i) thioester-dependent substrate-level phosphorylations, (ii) harnessing of naturally existing proton gradients at the vent–ocean interface via the ATP synthase, (iii) harnessing of Na+ gradients generated by H+/Na+ antiporters, (iv) flavin-based bifurcation-dependent gradient generation, and finally (v) quinone-based (and Q-cycle-dependent) proton gradient generation. Of those five transitions, the first four are posited to have taken place at the vent. Ultimately, all of these bioenergetic processes depend, even today, upon CO2 reduction with low-potential ferredoxin (Fd), generated either chemosynthetically or photosynthetically, suggesting a reaction of the type ‘reduced iron → reduced carbon’ at the beginning of bioenergetic evolution

  14. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 1: Pigments and glazes characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira Ferreira, L. F.; Casimiro, T. M.; Colomban, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    Two sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the first and second halves of the 17th century were studied carefully with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Laser Induced Luminescence (LIL) and Proton Induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for a Chinese Ming porcelain, Wanli period (16th/beginning of the 17th centuries), which served as an influence for the initial Lisbon's faience production. By combining information of the different non-destructive spectroscopic techniques used in this work, it was possible to conclude that: Co3O4 (Co II and Co III) can be found in the silicate matrix and is the blue pigment in the "Especieiro" sample (1st half of the 17th C.). Cobalt olivine silicate (Co2SiO4, Co II only) was clearly identified as the blue pigment in "Aranhões" sample (2nd half of the17th C.) - 824 cm-1 band in the micro-Raman-spectrum. Cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4, Co II only) is the blue pigment in the Wanli plate - 203 and 512 cm-1 bands in the micro-Raman spectrum. The blue pigment in the 1st half 17th century of Lisbon's production was obtained by addition of a cobalt ore in low concentrations, which gives no specific Raman signature, because of complete dissolution in the glass. However, in most cases of the 2nd half 17th century, the Raman signature was quite evident, from a cobalt silicate. These findings point to the use of higher temperature kilns in the second case.

  15. My Experience with Alcohol, a 17th-Century Mathematician, and a Personal Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Dennis R.; Rector, Sheila M.

    2009-01-01

    This writing shares the first author's personal experience with alcohol, the negative consequences of his choices, and the ultimate answering of the question, "Am I an alcoholic and should I drink again?" The decision-making process and the eventual answer come from Blaise Pascal, a 17th-century mathematician. This process is explained and…

  16. Concurrent phenomena of science and history in the 17th century and their essential interdependence.

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, H.

    1992-01-01

    The explanation for the explosion of science in the 17th century lies in history and medical historiography. Without this approach, it becomes fantasy, accidents, or success stories. Sigerist grasped the essential interdependence of science and history, and had no need for devised reasons or speculation. He realized that once the dark night of the Middle Ages was over, the sciences arose with undreamt of force and accelerated development. The advances in astronomy, mathematics, mechanics, and experimental science benefitted a society developing in seafaring, manufacture, and trade in the 17th century. Sigerist's views make the scientific explosion understandable in human and social terms. He did not overlook the capabilities of some extraordinary individuals, such as Paracelsus (1493-1541), to shape the course of medicine, nor the importance of the mechanistic philosophy in the 17th century. Man makes history and science; hence, we find concurrent phenomena of history and science essentially interdependent. The spirit of experimental science of 17th century England was inspired by the new needs of commercial enterprise for more means of transportation and communication. Likewise, the interest in the mechanics of the pump for waterworks and for the drainage of swamps led Harvey to think of the heart as a pump, and to explain the circulation of the blood in terms of its functioning. PMID:1608066

  17. Construction of a 17th Century Telescope: An Experiment in the History of Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainer, Michael K.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the construction of a 17th-century telescope using old lenses and compares observations using this instrument with Galileo's observations. Describes experiments with modern eyepieces, the educational value of the activity, and given recommendations for construction of similar telescopes. (JN)

  18. Nonmilitary applications of the rocket between the 17th and 20th centuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    Nonmilitary uses of the rocket through history were investigated. It was found that through the 17th century rockets were used in whaling as harpoon drives. In later years, rockets were used in lifesaving and in commercial signalling at sea. Rocket utilization was traced up to the present application of sending the first men to the moon.

  19. Mosquito Vector Control and Biology in Latin America - A 17th Symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 17th Annual Latin America American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 73rd Annual Meeting in Orlando, FL, in April 2007. The principal objective, as for the previous 16 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector cont...

  20. Computers in Libraries Annual Conference (17th, Washington, DC, March 13-15, 2002): Collected Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Carol, Comp.

    This book contains presentations from the 17th annual Computers in Libraries Conference. Topics covered include: chatting with a librarian; verbots for library Web sites; collaborative IT (Information Technology) planning at Montgomery County Public Library (Maryland); designing a local government taxonomy; Weblogs; new roles for librarians in…

  1. Bioenergetics and Life's Origins

    PubMed Central

    Deamer, David; Weber, Arthur L.

    2010-01-01

    Bioenergetics is central to our understanding of living systems, yet has attracted relatively little attention in origins of life research. This article focuses on energy resources available to drive primitive metabolism and the synthesis of polymers that could be incorporated into molecular systems having properties associated with the living state. The compartmented systems are referred to as protocells, each different from all the rest and representing a kind of natural experiment. The origin of life was marked when a rare few protocells happened to have the ability to capture energy from the environment to initiate catalyzed heterotrophic growth directed by heritable genetic information in the polymers. This article examines potential sources of energy available to protocells, and mechanisms by which the energy could be used to drive polymer synthesis. PMID:20182625

  2. Bioenergetics of the Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Günter; Engelhard, Martin; Müller, Volker

    1999-01-01

    In the late 1970s, on the basis of rRNA phylogeny, Archaea (archaebacteria) was identified as a distinct domain of life besides Bacteria (eubacteria) and Eucarya. Though forming a separate domain, archaea display an enormous diversity of lifestyles and metabolic capabilities. Many archaeal species are adapted to extreme environments with respect to salinity, temperatures around the boiling point of water, and/or extremely alkaline or acidic pH. This has posed the challenge of studying the molecular and mechanistic bases on which these organisms can cope with such adverse conditions. This review considers our cumulative knowledge on archaeal mechanisms of primary energy conservation, in relationship to those of bacteria and eucarya. Although the universal principle of chemiosmotic energy conservation also holds for Archaea, distinct features have been discovered with respect to novel ion-transducing, membrane-residing protein complexes and the use of novel cofactors in bioenergetics of methanogenesis. From aerobically respiring archaea, unusual electron-transporting supercomplexes could be isolated and functionally resolved, and a proposal on the organization of archaeal electron transport chains has been presented. The unique functions of archaeal rhodopsins as sensory systems and as proton or chloride pumps have been elucidated on the basis of recent structural information on the atomic scale. Whereas components of methanogenesis and of phototrophic energy transduction in halobacteria appear to be unique to archaea, respiratory complexes and the ATP synthase exhibit some chimeric features with respect to their evolutionary origin. Nevertheless, archaeal ATP synthases are to be considered distinct members of this family of secondary energy transducers. A major challenge to future investigations is the development of archaeal genetic transformation systems, in order to gain access to the regulation of bioenergetic systems and to overproducers of archaeal membrane

  3. Traces and echoes of De Architectura by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio in the work of Xu Guangqi in 17th century China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigola, Michela; Fang, Yibing

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the role played by Xu Guangqi (1562-1633), minister of the Ming Dynasty, in the development of European scientific and technical knowledge in China between the 16th and 17th centuries by analyzing a book of Western technology that he wrote, namely, Taixi Shuifa ( On Western Hydraulics). Several Western books related to machine knowledge are searched to trace the source of the illustrations in Taixi Shuifa. We found that Archimedes' screw and Ctesibius' machine, which are included in Vitruvius' De Architectura volumes, also appear in the work of Xu Guangqi.

  4. Solutions To the Problem of Impact in the 17th and 18th Centuries and Teaching Newton's Third Law Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauld, Colin

    1998-01-01

    Compares the ideas of young people about Newton's third law, focusing on youth of today and youth of the 17th and 18th centuries. Examines the use of Newton's third law in understanding impact phenomena in the 17th and 18th centuries. Contains 46 references. (DDR)

  5. 17th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest SupercomputersReseased

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack J.; Simon,Horst D.

    2001-06-21

    17th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released MANNHEIM, GERMANY; KNOXVILLE, TENN.; BERKELEY, CALIF. In what has become a much-anticipated event in the world of high-performance computing, the 17th edition of the TOP500 list of the world's fastest supercomputers was released today (June 21). The latest edition of the twice-yearly ranking finds IBM as the leader in the field, with 40 percent in terms of installed systems and 43 percent in terms of total performance of all the installed systems. In second place in terms of installed systems is Sun Microsystems with 16 percent, while Cray Inc. retained second place in terms of performance (13 percent). SGI Inc. was third both with respect to systems with 63 (12.6 percent) and performance (10.2 percent).

  6. John Hall and his epileptic patients--epilepsy management in early 17th century England.

    PubMed

    Betts, T; Betts, H

    1998-10-01

    John Hall, a physician, practised in Stratford in the early 17th century and was the son-in-law of William Shakespeare. During his career he kept records of his patients (in Latin) which he may have been preparing for publication when he died. Despite his instruction for them to be destroyed some were later translated into English and published by another physician. The case records were popular and have recently been reprinted with a commentaryl. We have searched the case records for descriptions of epilepsy and examined the treatments offered (and the attitudes to) this condition in early 17th century England. Treatment consisted of standard remedies ('fumes' of hartshorn and extracts of peony) related to the Galenic system of medicine, plus individual remedies. Interestingly, there is no evidence that the condition was stigmatized. PMID:9808119

  7. 17th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B. L.

    2007-08-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 17th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 5-8, 2007. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'Expanding Technology for a Future Powered by Si Photovoltaics.'

  8. Acupuncture points & use of moxibustion, found in the popular literature & paintings of 17th century Japan.

    PubMed

    Omura, Y

    1984-01-01

    Acupuncture and moxibustion have long been an integral part of Far Eastern oriental medicine. Moxibustion and acupuncture cannot be discussed without each other since both use the same acupuncture point locations and nomenclatures. In the late 17th century, the famous travel diary of Basho, a Japanese master of haiku poetry, made reference to personal use of moxibustion on one of the well-known acupuncture points, stomach 36. Recently, the author found 2 paintings of a 17th century Kyoto geisha house and its surroundings in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, painted in realistic color by Moronobu, the originator of the Ukiyoe style and a contemporary of Basho. Part of the scene depicts some professional porters at work; on their legs are white scars at some of the well-known acupuncture points, including stomach 36 and spleen 6. The scars appear to be the result of moxibustion. This may indicate the common use of moxibustion on well-known acupuncture points of the lower extremities in late 17th century Japan for professional porters and for people making extensive journeys. Further support of the relatively widespread use of acupuncture and moxibustion is even found in the popular, non-medical literature of late 17th century Japan. In one of the short stories about the life of average people, written by the novelist Saikaku, the details of a young woman giving moxibustion on the back of a young man is realistically described with illustrations. Reports written by some of the foreign physicians who visited Japan during this period were published, describing these methods with illustrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6152509

  9. Transient uplift after a 17th-century earthquake along the kuril subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawai, Y.; Satake, K.; Kamataki, T.; Nasu, H.; Shishikura, M.; Atwater, B.F.; Horton, B.P.; Kelsey, H.M.; Nagumo, T.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2004-01-01

    In eastern Hokkaido, 60 to 80 kilometers above a subducting oceanic plate, tidal mudflats changed into freshwater forests during the first decades after a 17th-century tsunami. The mudflats gradually rose by a meter, as judged from fossil diatom assemblages. Both the tsunami and the ensuing uplift exceeded any in the region's 200 years of written history, and both resulted from a shallow plate-boundary earthquake of unusually large size along the Kuril subduction zone. This earthquake probably induced more creep farther down the plate boundary than did any of the region's historical events.

  10. Pigment characterization of important golden age panel paintings of the 17th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pięta, Ewa; Proniewicz, Edyta; Szmelter-Fausek, Bożena; Olszewska-Świetlik, Justyna; Proniewicz, Leonard M.

    2015-02-01

    Samples were obtained from two world-famous 17th century panel paintings of the Gdańsk school of panting: 'Seven Acts of Charity' (1607, in St. Mary's Church in Gdańsk, Poland) by Anton Möller and 'Angelic Concert' (1611, in Diocesan Museum in Pelplin, Poland) by Hermann Han. Micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS), optical microscopy (OM), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy studies of the samples were performed to characterize the pigments present in the individual painting layers (a rich palette of white, black, blue, red, and yellow pigments) and the pictorial techniques used by the artists.

  11. Pigment characterization of important golden age panel paintings of the 17th century.

    PubMed

    Pięta, Ewa; Proniewicz, Edyta; Szmelter-Fausek, Bożena; Olszewska-Świetlik, Justyna; Proniewicz, Leonard M

    2015-02-01

    Samples were obtained from two world-famous 17th century panel paintings of the Gdańsk school of panting: 'Seven Acts of Charity' (1607, in St. Mary's Church in Gdańsk, Poland) by Anton Möller and 'Angelic Concert' (1611, in Diocesan Museum in Pelplin, Poland) by Hermann Han. Micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS), optical microscopy (OM), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy studies of the samples were performed to characterize the pigments present in the individual painting layers (a rich palette of white, black, blue, red, and yellow pigments) and the pictorial techniques used by the artists.

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex detection in human remains: tuberculosis spread since the 17th century in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Leles, Daniela; Lima, Valdirene dos Santos; da Silva, Laura da Piedade; Dias, Ondemar; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2012-06-01

    Paleogenetic analysis for tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on bone and sediment samples dating from the 17th to 19th centuries from the archeological site of Nossa Senhora do Carmo Church in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Forty samples were analyzed, corresponding to 32 individuals from 28 burials, 22 of primary type and 6 of secondary type. The samples were collected following strict paleogenetic investigation guidelines and submitted to ancient DNA (aDNA) extraction. In order to detect TB infection, aDNA hybridizations with the molecular targets of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) IS6110 and IS1081 were applied. Additionally, the ancestry of individuals was assessed by human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis of hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) sequence polymorphisms. The results of aDNA hybridizations demonstrated varying levels of MTC intensity in 17/32 individuals (53.1%), using the IS6110 target. The IS1081 MTC target showed lower sensitivity, confirming TB positivity in 10/32 (31.2%) individuals. The mtDNA analysis allowed the recovery of HVS-I sequences in 23/32 individuals (71.8%). The majority of these individuals (21/23, 91.3%) were of European ancestry, especially in primary burials. Haplogroups U, J, V, T, K, N, H and R, were identified with haplogroup U being the most frequent at 6/23 (26.1%). African and Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups were observed in two individuals in secondary burials. In spite of the ecclesiastic and aristocratic bias of the population of the study, human ancestry analysis revealed the prominent contribution of Europeans in the introduction or spread of TB in the New World.

  13. Building a Foundation for Bioenergetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamori, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    To give students a lasting comprehension of bioenergetics, first such basics as heat, work, equilibrium, entropy, free energy, closed "versus" open systems, steady state, and reversibility should be explained to them in a meticulous manner, albeit with a minimal use of mathematical formulae. The unique feature of thermodynamics, that it does not…

  14. Too Little too Soon: The Literature of Deaf Education in 17th-Century Britain (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoolihan, Christopher

    1985-01-01

    The article describes the growth in literature on deaf education in 17th century Britain. Noted is the work of John Wallis, William Holder, George Dalgarno, Anton Deusing, and Johann Conrad Amman. (CL)

  15. The place of the 17th century in Jung's encounter with China.

    PubMed

    Cambray, Joe

    2005-04-01

    After recounting several dreams and related alchemical interests of Jung's tied to the 17(th) century, a contextualizing look at select scientific and philosophical developments of that century is presented. Several precursors of the contemporary debates on the mind/body relation are noted, with special reference to the work of Antonio Damasio. This in turn leads to a reconsideration of the work of the 17(th) century polymath Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, which Jung read as a major precursor to his formulation of synchronicity (via Leibniz's concept of 'pre-established harmony'). Leibniz was the first philosopher to articulate the mind/body relationship in terms of supervenience, sharing an accord with those contemporary philosophers and scientists who see the mind as being an emergent property of the body-brain. Similarly, these ideas are also consistent with a reformulation of synchronicity in terms of emergence. Tracing Leibniz's interest in China reveals another set of links to Jung and to emergentism. Jung's use of Taoist concepts in developing the synchronicity principle is well known. According to scholars, Leibniz was the first major Western intellect to study the I-Ching, through the assistance of a Jesuit missionary in Beijing, Fr. Joachim Bouvet. Some details of the Leibniz-Bouvet correspondence are discussed here. Despite Helmut Wilhelm's presenting aspects of this correspondence at an Eranos conference, Jung does not appear to have integrated it into his writing on synchronicity--a possible reason for this omission is suggested.

  16. Food flora in 17th century northeast region of Brazil in Historia Naturalis Brasiliae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This article reports historical ethnobotany research conducted from a study of the work Historia Naturalis Brasiliae (Natural History of Brazil), authored by Piso and Marcgrave and published in 1648, with main focus on Caatinga of northeast region of Brazil. Methods Focusing the content analysis on the section dedicated to plant species with multiple uses, Marcgrave's contribution to the aforementioned work, this research had the following objectives: the retrieval of 17th century knowledge about the food uses of the flora in the northeast region of Brazil, including the taxonomic classifications; the identification of plant parts, their modes of consumption and the ethnic group of consumers; and the verification of the use of these species over time. Results The use of 80 food species at the time of the publication of the work is indicated, some of which are endemic to the Caatinga, such as “umbu” (Spondias tuberosa Arruda), “mandacaru” (Cereus jamacaru DC.) and “carnauba” (Copernicia cerifera Mart.). It is noticeable that among the species listed by Marcgrave, some species still lack current studies indicating their real nutritional value. The present study is an unprecedented work because it introduces, in a systematic way, the food plants described in a study of 17th century Brazil. Conclusions Finally, this study makes information about plants consumed in the past accessible, aiming to provide material for studies that could develop new food products today. PMID:24965737

  17. Biological Warfare Plan in the 17th Century—the Siege of Candia, 1648–1669

    PubMed Central

    Thalassinou, Eleni; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    A little-known effort to conduct biological warfare occurred during the 17th century. The incident transpired during the Venetian–Ottoman War, when the city of Candia (now Heraklion, Greece) was under siege by the Ottomans (1648–1669). The data we describe, obtained from the Archives of the Venetian State, are related to an operation organized by the Venetian Intelligence Services, which aimed at lifting the siege by infecting the Ottoman soldiers with plague by attacking them with a liquid made from the spleens and buboes of plague victims. Although the plan was perfectly organized, and the deadly mixture was ready to use, the attack was ultimately never carried out. The conception and the detailed cynical planning of the attack on Candia illustrate a dangerous way of thinking about the use of biological weapons and the absence of reservations when potential users, within their religious framework, cast their enemies as undeserving of humanitarian consideration. PMID:26894254

  18. Biological Warfare Plan in the 17th Century—the Siege of Candia, 1648–1669.

    PubMed

    Thalassinou, Eleni; Tsiamis, Costas; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-12-01

    A little-known effort to conduct biological warfare occurred during the 17th century. The incident transpired during the Venetian–Ottoman War, when the city of Candia (now Heraklion, Greece) was under siege by the Ottomans (1648–1669). The data we describe, obtained from the Archives of the Venetian State, are related to an operation organized by the Venetian Intelligence Services, which aimed at lifting the siege by infecting the Ottoman soldiers with plague by attacking them with a liquid made from the spleens and buboes of plague victims. Although the plan was perfectly organized, and the deadly mixture was ready to use, the attack was ultimately never carried out. The conception and the detailed cynical planning of the attack on Candia illustrate a dangerous way of thinking about the use of biological weapons and the absence of reservations when potential users, within their religious framework, cast their enemies as undeserving of humanitarian consideration. PMID:26894254

  19. Chilean Analog for 17th-Century Uplift Along the Southern Kuril Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, B. F.; Ikeda, Y.; Satake, K.

    2002-12-01

    What caused a meter or so of widespread uplift in eastern Hokkaido in the last decades of the 17th century A.D.? Coasts along the Kamchatka, Kuril, and Japan Trenches lack documented modern analogs for uplift this large and geologically fast. But a meter of uplift, in 1960-1990, raised shorelines inland from the seismic rupture plane of the 1960 Chile earthquake. By this Chilean analogy, Hokkaido's 17th-century uplift may have occurred aseismically-during minutes of precursory slip and also during decades of postseismic creep, all downdip from the seismic rupture surface. Hokkaido's area of 17th-century uplift extends at least 50 km along the southern Kuril Trench. It includes the estuaries Akkeshi-ko and Hichirippu, on the Pacific coast, and Furen-ko and Onneto, on the Okhotsk Sea. At each estuary, intertidal and subtidal flats rose with respect to tide level; wetland plants colonized the emerging land; and peaty wetland deposits thereby covered mud and sand of the former flats. Such evidence for uplift was first reported by Sawai and coworkers, who identified at least three uplift events from the past 2500 years at Akkeshi-ko [Quat. Res. 56, 231-241, 2001]. The youngest of the uplift events probably began in the 1660s or 1670s, as dated by tephra layers. The uplift probably exceeded 1/2 m (inferred from paleoecology) without far exceeding 1 m (estimated by comparing early descriptions of Akkeshi-ko). Though this evidence permits the Hokkaido uplift to have been coseismic or aseismic or both, depths to the subducting Pacific plate probably preclude seismic rupture of the plate boundary directly beneath the uplifted area. These depths exceed 50 km and also exceed depths of seismic coupling inferred from continuous GPS [Mazzotti et al., JGR 105, 13159-13177, 2000; Ito et al., EPSL 176, 117-130, 2000]. When Hokkaido's plate boundary ruptured in earthquakes of Mw 8.1 (in 1952) and 7.8 (1973), the ruptures occurred offshore at depths less than 50 km, and the adjoining

  20. Biological Warfare Plan in the 17th Century—the Siege of Candia, 1648–1669.

    PubMed

    Thalassinou, Eleni; Tsiamis, Costas; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-12-01

    A little-known effort to conduct biological warfare occurred during the 17th century. The incident transpired during the Venetian–Ottoman War, when the city of Candia (now Heraklion, Greece) was under siege by the Ottomans (1648–1669). The data we describe, obtained from the Archives of the Venetian State, are related to an operation organized by the Venetian Intelligence Services, which aimed at lifting the siege by infecting the Ottoman soldiers with plague by attacking them with a liquid made from the spleens and buboes of plague victims. Although the plan was perfectly organized, and the deadly mixture was ready to use, the attack was ultimately never carried out. The conception and the detailed cynical planning of the attack on Candia illustrate a dangerous way of thinking about the use of biological weapons and the absence of reservations when potential users, within their religious framework, cast their enemies as undeserving of humanitarian consideration.

  1. [Vitalism and mechanism: their meanings in the milieu of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Hwang, S I

    1993-01-01

    The views on the life in the early modern period (the 17th and 18th centuries) with their socio-cultural backgrounds and their meanings at that time were discussed in this paper. Those views discussed here were the dualistic, mechanistic one of Rene Descartes (1596-1650), the animistic, vitalistic one of Georg Ernst Stahl (1660-1734), and the monistic, mechanistic one of Julien Offray de la Mettrie (1709-1751). Author stressed that the processes of their view formation were influenced by the wide range of the various political and religious factors as well as the scientific, medical facts and opinions at that time, and that not only the contents of the views but also their historical contexts should be pursued in the study on the medical thoughts.

  2. In the sign of Galileo: pictorial representation in the 17th-century Copernican debate.

    PubMed

    Remmert, Volker R

    2003-03-01

    After Galileo had discovered the four moons of Jupiter in 1609 he became increasingly convinced that the Copernican, heliocentric system of the world was correct. However, this ran against the opinions of the Church and a large number of contemporary astronomers and natural philosophers. The ensuing development culminated in the condemnation of the Copernican system by the Church in 1616 and of Galileo himself, who had propagated the Copernican system in his Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632), in 1633. Nevertheless, there was a constant debate about the right world system during the whole 17th century. Pictorial representation played an important role in it and the illustrations used as book frontispieces were a significant medium for the dispute.

  3. TH17, TH22 and TReg Cells Are Enriched in the Healthy Human Cecum

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Martin J.; Leung, Jacqueline M.; Davenport, Michael; Poles, Michael A.; Cho, Ilseung; Loke, P'ng

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of CD4+ T cell populations leads to intestinal inflammation, but the regional distribution of these populations throughout the intestinal tract in healthy individuals remains unclear. Here, we show that TH17, TH22 and TReg cells are enriched in the healthy human cecum compared to the terminal ileum and sigmoid colon, whereas TH1 and TH2 cells do not significantly vary by location. Transcriptional profiling analysis of paired pinch biopsies from different regions of the intestine identified significant differences in the metabolic state of the terminal ileum, cecum, and sigmoid colon. An increased proportion of TH17 cells was positively associated with expression of resistin (RETN) and negatively associated with expression of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1). These results suggest that CD4+ T helper cells that are important in maintaining mucosal barrier function may be enriched in the cecum as a result of metabolic differences of the surrounding microenvironment. PMID:22829946

  4. Quantifying early 17th century changes in Chesapeake Bay estuarine carbon dynamics from James River, VA oyster geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, B. L.; Spero, H. J.; Harding, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    same shells provide seasonal signals and also show an offset from modern that is consistent with drought conditions during the early 17th century. These high fidelity records allow for a direct, high-resolution comparison of the residence time of carbon in the environment immediately prior to European colonization and during the first century of land use change in mid-Atlantic North America.

  5. The origin of membrane bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Lane, Nick; Martin, William F

    2012-12-21

    Harnessing energy as ion gradients across membranes is as universal as the genetic code. We leverage new insights into anaerobe metabolism to propose geochemical origins that account for the ubiquity of chemiosmotic coupling, and Na(+)/H(+) transporters in particular. Natural proton gradients acting across thin FeS walls within alkaline hydrothermal vents could drive carbon assimilation, leading to the emergence of protocells within vent pores. Protocell membranes that were initially leaky would eventually become less permeable, forcing cells dependent on natural H(+) gradients to pump Na(+) ions. Our hypothesis accounts for the Na(+)/H(+) promiscuity of bioenergetic proteins, as well as the deep divergence between bacteria and archaea. PMID:23260134

  6. Radiological Diagnosis of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in 17th Century Korean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, In Sun; Jung, Go-Un; Kim, Myeung Ju; Oh, Chang Seok; Yoo, Dong Su; Lee, Won-Joon; Lee, Eunju; Cha, Soon Chul; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a birth defect of the diaphragm resulting in pulmonary sequelae that threaten the lives of infants. In computed tomography (CT) images of a 17th century middle-aged male mummy (the Andong mummy), we observed that the abdominal contents had protruded into the right thoracic cavity through the diaphragmatic defect, accompanied by a mediastinal shift to the left. On autopsy, the defect in the right posterolateral aspect of the diaphragm was reconfirmed, as was the herniation of the abdominal organs. The herniated contents included the right lobe of the liver, the pyloric part of the stomach, a part of the greater omentum, and the right colic flexure connecting the superior part of the ascending colon and the right part of the transverse colon. Taking our CT and autopsy results together, this case was diagnosed as the Bochdalek-type CDH. Herein we make the first ever report of a CT-assisted diagnosis of a pre-modern historical case of CDH. Our results show the promising utility of this modality in investigations of mummified human remains archaeologically obtained. PMID:24988465

  7. A possible case of cherubism in a 17th-century Korean mummy.

    PubMed

    Hershkovitz, Israel; Spigelman, Mark; Sarig, Rachel; Lim, Do-Sun; Lee, In Sun; Oh, Chang Seok; May, Hila; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, Soong Deok; Peled, Nathan; Kim, Myeung Ju; Toledano, Talya; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Cherubism is a benign fibro-osseous disease of childhood limited specifically to the maxilla and mandible. The progressive replacement of the jaw bones with expansile multilocular cystic lesions causes eventual prominence of the lower face, and hence the classic "cherubic" phenotype reflecting variable extents of jaw hypertrophy. Histologically, this condition has been characterized as replacement of the normal bone matrix with multicystic pockets of fibrous stroma and osteoclastic giant cells. Because of radiographic features common to both, primarily the presence of multiloculated lucencies with heterogeneous "ground-glass" sclerosis on CT imaging, cherubism was long mistaken for a craniofacial subtype of fibrous dysplasia. In 1999, however, the distinct genetic basis for cherubism was mapped to chromosome 4p16.3 and the SH-3 binding protein SH3BP2. But while there are already three suspected cases of fibrous dysplasia amongst archaeological populations, no definitive cases of cherubism have yet been reported in historical populations. In the current study we describe micro- and macro-structural changes in the face of a 17th century Joseon Dynasty Korean mummy which may coincide with the clinic-pathologic and radiologic features of cherubism.

  8. A Possible Case of Cherubism in a 17th-Century Korean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Spigelman, Mark; Sarig, Rachel; Lim, Do-Sun; Lee, In Sun; Oh, Chang Seok; May, Hila; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, Soong Deok; Peled, Nathan; Kim, Myeung Ju; Toledano, Talya; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2014-01-01

    Cherubism is a benign fibro-osseous disease of childhood limited specifically to the maxilla and mandible. The progressive replacement of the jaw bones with expansile multilocular cystic lesions causes eventual prominence of the lower face, and hence the classic “cherubic” phenotype reflecting variable extents of jaw hypertrophy. Histologically, this condition has been characterized as replacement of the normal bone matrix with multicystic pockets of fibrous stroma and osteoclastic giant cells. Because of radiographic features common to both, primarily the presence of multiloculated lucencies with heterogeneous “ground-glass” sclerosis on CT imaging, cherubism was long mistaken for a craniofacial subtype of fibrous dysplasia. In 1999, however, the distinct genetic basis for cherubism was mapped to chromosome 4p16.3 and the SH-3 binding protein SH3BP2. But while there are already three suspected cases of fibrous dysplasia amongst archaeological populations, no definitive cases of cherubism have yet been reported in historical populations. In the current study we describe micro- and macro-structural changes in the face of a 17th century Joseon Dynasty Korean mummy which may coincide with the clinic-pathologic and radiologic features of cherubism. PMID:25093864

  9. [Chemistry of life: ferments and fermentation in 17th-century iatrochemistry].

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The concepts of ferment and fermentation played an important, though heretofore neglected, role in 17th-century physiology. Though these notions can be found in ancient philosophy and medicine, as well as in medieval medicine, they became integral part of the chemical medicine that was advocated by Paracelsus and his school. Paracelsians made fermentation a central concept in their successful effort to give chemical foundation to medicine. Jean Baptiste van Helmont and Sylvius used the concepts of ferment and fermentation to explain a variety of physiological processes in human body. Corpuscular philosophers like Robert Boyle and Thomas Willis reinterpreted these notions in corpuscular terms and separated the concept of ferment from that of fermentation. In the second half of the seventeenth century, physiologist tried to explain fermentation by means of chemical reactions, as for instance acid -alkali, and ruled out the notion of ferment as superfluous to their investigations. At the end of hte seventeenth century fermentation attracted the interest of physicists like Johannes Bernoulli and Isaac Newton, who tried to explain fermentative processes in terms of matter and motion (Bernoulli) and short-range forces (Newton). George Ernst Stahl devoted a work to fermentation: the Zymotechnia. He explained fermentation as the outcome of the reactions of molecules formed of saline, oily and earthy corpuscles with particles of water. He saw fermentation as a mechanical process, i.e. as collision of different kinds of corpuscles.

  10. Equatorial All Sky Imager Images from the Seychelles during the March 17th, 2015 geomagnetic storm.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, B.

    2015-12-01

    An all sky imager was installed in the Seychelles earlier this year. The Seychelles islands are located northeast of Madagascar and east of Somalia in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The all sky imager is located on the island of Mahe (4.6667°S, 55.4667°E geographic), (10.55°S, 127.07°E geomagnetic), with filters of 557.7, 620.0, 630.0, 765.0 and 777.4 nm. Images with a 90 second exposure from Seychelles in 777.4nm and 630.0nm from the night before and night of the March 17th geomagnetic storm are discussed in comparison to solar wind measurements at ACE and the disturbance storm time (Dst) index. These images show line-of-sight intensities of photons received dependent on each filters wavelength. A time series of these images sometimes will show the movement of relatively dark areas, or depletions, in each emission. The depletion regions are known to cause scintillation in GPS signals. The direction and speed of movement of these depletions are related to changes observed in the solar wind.

  11. [Chemistry of life: ferments and fermentation in 17th-century iatrochemistry].

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The concepts of ferment and fermentation played an important, though heretofore neglected, role in 17th-century physiology. Though these notions can be found in ancient philosophy and medicine, as well as in medieval medicine, they became integral part of the chemical medicine that was advocated by Paracelsus and his school. Paracelsians made fermentation a central concept in their successful effort to give chemical foundation to medicine. Jean Baptiste van Helmont and Sylvius used the concepts of ferment and fermentation to explain a variety of physiological processes in human body. Corpuscular philosophers like Robert Boyle and Thomas Willis reinterpreted these notions in corpuscular terms and separated the concept of ferment from that of fermentation. In the second half of the seventeenth century, physiologist tried to explain fermentation by means of chemical reactions, as for instance acid -alkali, and ruled out the notion of ferment as superfluous to their investigations. At the end of hte seventeenth century fermentation attracted the interest of physicists like Johannes Bernoulli and Isaac Newton, who tried to explain fermentative processes in terms of matter and motion (Bernoulli) and short-range forces (Newton). George Ernst Stahl devoted a work to fermentation: the Zymotechnia. He explained fermentation as the outcome of the reactions of molecules formed of saline, oily and earthy corpuscles with particles of water. He saw fermentation as a mechanical process, i.e. as collision of different kinds of corpuscles. PMID:15311436

  12. 76 FR 70178 - Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th Street NW., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20036; Notice of Intention to Cancel Registration Pursuant...

  13. 76 FR 67005 - Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th Street, NW., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20036; Notice of Intention To Cancel Registration Pursuant...

  14. A summary of ground motion effects at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) resulting from the Oct 17th 1989 earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1990-08-01

    Ground motions resulting from the October 17th 1989 (Loma Prieta) earthquake are described and can be correlated with some geologic features of the SLAC site. Recent deformations of the linac are also related to slow motions observed over the past 20 years. Measured characteristics of the earthquake are listed. Some effects on machine components and detectors are noted. 18 refs., 16 figs.

  15. The "System of Chymists" and the "Newtonian Dream" in Greek-Speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-01-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a "philosophy" of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This…

  16. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  17. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  18. Analysis the flash floods occurred in the South Tyne river watershed (United Kingdom) on the 17th of July 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, V.; Milan, D.; Preciso, E.; Gaume, E.

    2009-04-01

    On the 17th, 19th and 23rd of July 2007, a series of local thunderstorms induced flash floods in the upper part of the South Tyne river in Northumberland, a rural area located near the border between England and Scotland. These events led to moderate damages in the villages and losses of livestock in local farms. They were shadowed in comparison to the widespread lowland floods that occurred throughout the UK during the same period but were nevertheless extreme events for the region. One of the affected streams, the Thinhope Burn, has been surveyed by the University of Gloucestershire during recent years. It is an active river from a geomorphological point of view. A survey conducted after the 2007 flood revealed that many of the boulders along the banks of the river, which had been deposited 50 to 100 years before, had been displaced, indicating a high return period for the flood (see EGU abstract EGU2008-A-04713). A complementary survey was conducted in July 2008 with the objective of gathering information on the discharges, the rainfall amounts and the active runoff processes. 14 cross-sections were surveyed, pictures were collected enabling a validation of peak discharge estimates, 5 witnesses were interviewed and additional rainfall data and geomorphological evidence were collected. This survey revealed that the peak discharges exceeded 5 m3/s/km2 in the most affected areas. Unfortunately, no rainfall measurements are available that would enable further analysis, including the computation of runoff rates. Nevertheless, witness accounts and field observations give a good insight into the hydrological processes indicating a significant initial storage capacity of the peat layer covering the affected watersheds. Concerning the boulders, the field observations suggest surprising and unexplained transport processes. Blocks of up to one meter diameter were displaced over short distances and deposited on the river banks without any sign of established debris flow, as

  19. Re-estimated fault model of the 17th century great earthquake off Hokkaido using tsunami deposit data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioki, Kei; Tanioka, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Paleotsunami researches revealed that a great earthquake occurred off eastern Hokkaido, Japan and generated a large tsunami in the 17th century. Tsunami deposits from this event have been found at far inland from the Pacific coast in eastern Hokkaido. Previous study estimated the fault model of the 17th century great earthquake by comparing locations of lowland tsunami deposits and computed tsunami inundation areas. Tsunami deposits were also traced at high cliff near the coast as high as 18 m above the sea level. Recent paleotsunami study also traced tsunami deposits at other high cliffs along the Pacific coast. The fault model estimated from previous study cannot explain the tsunami deposit data at high cliffs near the coast. In this study, we estimated the fault model of the 17th century great earthquake to explain both lowland widespread tsunami deposit areas and tsunami deposit data at high cliffs near the coast. We found that distributions of lowland tsunami deposits were mainly explained by wide rupture area at the plate interface in Tokachi-Oki segment and Nemuro-Oki segment. Tsunami deposits at high cliff near the coast were mainly explained by very large slip of 25 m at the shallow part of the plate interface near the trench in those segments. The total seismic moment of the 17th century great earthquake was calculated to be 1.7 ×1022 Nm (Mw 8.8). The 2011 great Tohoku earthquake ruptured large area off Tohoku and very large slip amount was found at the shallow part of the plate interface near the trench. The 17th century great earthquake had the same characteristics as the 2011 great Tohoku earthquake.

  20. Assessment of soil-gas contamination at the 17th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir G.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of contaminants in soil gas were conducted in two study areas at Fort Gordon, Georgia, in July and August of 2011 to supplement environmental contaminant data for previous studies at the 17th Street landfill. The two study areas include northern and eastern parts of the 17th Street landfill and the adjacent wooded areas to the north and east of the landfill. These study areas were chosen because of their close proximity to the surface water in Wilkerson Lake and McCoys Creek. A total of 48 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the July 28 to August 3, 2011, assessment in the eastern study area. The assessment mostly identified detections of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and gasoline- and diesel-range compounds, but also identified the presence of chlorinated solvents in six samplers, chloroform in three samplers, 2-methyl naphthalene in one sampler, and trimethylbenzene in one sampler. The TPH masses exceeded 0.02 microgram (μg) in all 48 samplers and exceeded 0.9 μg in 24 samplers. Undecane, one of the three diesel-range compounds used to calculate the combined mass for diesel-range compounds, was detected in 17 samplers and is the second most commonly detected compound in the eastern study area, exceeded only by the number of TPH detections. Six samplers had detections of toluene, but other gasoline compounds were detected with toluene in three of the samplers, including detections of ethylbenzene, meta- and para-xylene, and octane. All detections of chlorinated organic compounds had soil-gas masses equal to or less than 0.08 μg, including three detections of trichloroethene, three detections of perchloroethene, three chloroform detections, one 1,4-dichlorobenzene detection, and one 1,1,2-trichloroethane detection. Three methylated compounds were detected in the eastern study area, but were detected at or below method detection levels. A total of 32 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the August 11–24, 2011, assessment in the northern study

  1. Plastic surgery in 17th century Europe. case study: Nicolae Milescu, the snub-nosed.

    PubMed

    Dumbravă, Daniela; Luchian, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The rising and the existence of plastic and aesthetic surgery in early modern Europe did not have a specific pattern, but was completely different from one nation to another. Colleges of Physicians could only be found in some places in Europe; different Parliaments of Europe's nations did not always elevate being a surgeon to the dignity of a profession, and being a surgeon did not always come with corporate and municipal privileges, or with attractive stipends. Conversely, corporal punishments for treacherous surgeons were ubiquitous. Rhinoplasty falls into the category of what Ambroise Paré named "facial plastic surgery". The technique is a medical source from which many histories derive, one more fascinating than the other: the history of those whose nose was cut off (because of state betrayal, adultery, abjuration, or duelling with swords), the history of those who invented the surgery of nose reconstruction (e.g. SuSruta-samhita or Tagliacozzi?), the history of surgeries kept secret in early modern Europe (e.g. Tropea, Calabria, Leiden, Padua, Paris, Berlin), and so on. Where does the history of Nicolae Milescu the Snub-nosed fall in all of this? How much of this history do the Moldavian Chronicles record? Is there any "scholarly gossip" in the aristocratic and diplomatic environments at Constantinople? What exactly do the British ambassadors learn concerning Rhinoplasty when they meet Milescu? How do we "walk" within these histories, and why should we be interested at all? What is their stike for modernity? Such are the interrogations that this article seeks to provoke; its purpose is to question (and eventually, synchronise) histories, and not exclusively history, both in academic terms but also by reassessing the practical knowledge of the 17th century. PMID:24502038

  2. Bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Natural life is chemical. Chemistry, not abstract logic, determines and constrains its potentialities. One of the potentialities is cognition. Humans have two equivalent cognitive systems: the immune and the nervous ones. The principle of functioning is the same for both: rooted in the previously acquired and embodied knowledge, the system is intrinsically generating many new chemical states and the environment selects and stabilizes appropriate of them. From the fundamental level of complicated brain chemistry (“biochemese”) higher levels emerge: the physiological (“physiologese”) and the mental (“mentalese”). Processes are causal at the basic chemical level; they are mere isomorphic, tautological translations at the other levels. The thermodynamic necessity to maintain correlations in the complicated chemical system and to generate variants makes the nervous system energetically expensive: it runs continuously at full speed and external inputs only trigger and modulate the ongoing dynamics. Models of the brain as a universal computer are utterly inadequate. PMID:19513208

  3. First European Congress on Documentation Systems and Networks. Luxembourg, 16th, 17th and 18th May 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    The conference proceedings contained in this document include invited papers, transcripts of discussions following those papers, and the reports of topical committees that met during the three day conference held in Luxembourg, May 1973. The focus of the conference was on the design and use of information retrieval and data base systems in various…

  4. Sedimentary deposits from the July 17th 2006 Java tsunami on the West Australian coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast, A. L.

    2007-05-01

    On July 17th 2006, an Mw = 7.7 earthquake south of Java generated a tsunami that devastated parts of the Javanese coast, killing more than 500 people. The tsunami also affected parts of the Western Australian coast. Within a week of the event, a post tsunami survey was carried out near Steep Point, Western Australia. Tsunami inundation and run-up were mapped on the basis of eyewitness accounts, debris lines, vegetation damage and the occurrence of recently deposited fish, starfish, corals and sea urchins well above high-tide mark. Eyewitnesses reported three waves in the tsunami wave train, the second being the largest. A topographic survey using kinematic GPS with accuracies of 0.02 metres in the horizontal and 0.04 metres in the vertical recorded inundation depths of between 1-2 m, inundation of up to 200 m inland, and a maximum recorded run-up of 7.9 m AHD (Australian Height Datum). The tsunami caused widespread erosion in the littoral zone, extensive vegetation damage, destroyed several campsites (including transporting a large vehicle ten metres inland) and deposited extensive sediment sheets over coastal dunes. At their seaward edge, these sediments are up to 14 cm thick, tapering landwards over approximately 200 m. The deposits are composed of moderately well sorted, medium grained silicic sand with some gravel and organic debris. A basal unconformity defines the boundary between tsunami sediments and underlying aeolian dune sand. Buried green vegetation stems with roots traceable to the lower dune unit occur within the tsunami deposit. No roots are present within the tsunami-deposited sediments. This is taken as evidence for the recent mobilisation of the sediments within the tsunami sediment sheet. Evidence for up to three individual waves is preserved as normally graded sequences mantled by layers of dark grey, organic-rich fine silty sand. Grainsize and microfossil analyses are in progress. Given the strong wind regimes in the area, and the similarity of

  5. Bioenergetics modeling of percid fishes: Chapter 14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Kestemont, Patrick; Dabrowski, Konrad; Summerfelt, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    A bioenergetics model for a percid fish represents a quantitative description of the fish’s energy budget. Bioenergetics modeling can be used to identify the important factors determining growth of percids in lakes, rivers, or seas. For example, bioenergetics modeling applied to yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in the western and central basins of Lake Erie revealed that the slower growth in the western basin was attributable to limitations in suitably sized prey in western Lake Erie, rather than differences in water temperature between the two basins. Bioenergetics modeling can also be applied to a percid population to estimate the amount of food being annually consumed by the percid population. For example, bioenergetics modeling applied to the walleye (Sander vitreus) population in Lake Erie has provided fishery managers valuable insights into changes in the population’s predatory demand over time. In addition, bioenergetics modeling has been used to quantify the effect of the difference in growth between the sexes on contaminant accumulation in walleye. Field and laboratory evaluations of percid bioenergetics model performance have documented a systematic bias, such that the models overestimate consumption at low feeding rates but underestimate consumption at high feeding rates. However, more recent studies have shown that this systematic bias was due, at least in part, to an error in the energy budget balancing algorithm used in the computer software. Future research work is needed to more thoroughly assess the field and laboratory performance of percid bioenergetics models and to quantify differences in activity and standard metabolic rate between the sexes of mature percids.

  6. [The apothecaries of the quartier de la Harpe in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Large families of apothecaries, some of them very famous, lived in the Quartier de la Harpe in Paris, on the left bank of Seine, from the 16th to the 17th century. The study confirms a well-established fact that apothecaries practised endogamy, in others words marriage within the same social class. The biographical research includes ten apothecaries, most of whom lived in the rue Saint-André-des-Arts.

  7. Tropical mathematics and the financial catastrophe of the 17th century. Thermoeconomics of Russia in the early 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, V. P.

    2010-03-01

    In the paper, an example is presented concerning relationships (which cannot be neglected) between mathematics and other sciences. In particular, the relationship between the tropical mathematics and the humanitarian-economic catastrophe of 17th century (related to slavery of Africans) is considered. The notion of critical state of economy of the 19th century is introduced by using the refined Fisher equation. A correspondence principle for thermodynamics of fluids and economics of the 19th century is presented.

  8. Invitation to the 17th international congress on photosynthesis research in 2016: photosynthesis in a changing world.

    PubMed

    van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

    2016-02-01

    The 17th International Congress on Photosynthesis will be held from August 7 to 12, 2016 in Maastricht, The Netherlands. The congress will include an opening reception, 15 plenary lectures, 28 scientific symposia, many poster sessions, displays by scientific companies, excursions, congress dinner, social activities, and the first photosynthesis soccer world championship. See http://www.ps2016.com/ . The congress is organized as an official event of the International Society of Photosynthesis Research (see http://www.photosynthesisresearch.org/).

  9. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrotzki, Werner; Oertel, Carl-Georg

    2015-04-01

    The 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17) took place in Dresden, Germany, August 24-29, 2014. It belongs to the "triennial" series of ICOTOM meetings with a long tradition, starting in 1969 - Clausthal, 1971 - Cracow, 1973 - Pont-à-Mousson, 1975 - Cambridge, 1978 - Aachen, 1981 - Tokyo, 1984 - Noordwijkerhout, 1987 - Santa Fe, 1990 - Avignon, 1993 - Clausthal, 1996 - Xian, 1999 - Montreal, 2002 - Seoul, 2005 - Leuven, 2008 - Pittsburgh, 2011 - Mumbai, 2014 - Dresden. ICOTOM 17 was hosted by the Dresden University of Technology, Institute of Structural Physics. Following the tradition of the ICOTOM conferences, the main focus of ICOTOM-17 was to promote and strengthen the fundamental understanding of the basic processes that govern the formation of texture and its relation to the properties of polycrystalline materials. Nonetheless, it was the aim to forge links between basic research on model materials and applied research on engineering materials of technical importance. Thus, ICOTOM 17 provided a forum for the presentation and discussion of recent progress in research of texture and related anisotropy of mechanical and functional properties of all kinds of polycrystalline materials including natural materials like rocks. Particular attention was paid to recent advances in texture measurement and analysis as well as modeling of texture development for all kinds of processes like solidification, plastic deformation, recrystallization and grain growth, phase transformations, thin film deposition, etc. Hence, ICOTOM 17 was of great interest to materials scientists, engineers from many different areas and geoscientists. The topics covered by ICOTOM 17 were: 1. Mathematical, numerical and statistical methods of texture analysis 2. Deformation textures 3. Crystallization, recrystallization and growth textures 4. Transformation textures 5. Textures in functional materials 6. Textures in advanced materials 7. Textures in rocks 8. Texture

  10. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories (MBT17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholz, Heidi; Boronat, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    These are the proceedings of the XVII International Conference on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories, which was held from 8-13 September 2013 in Rostock, Germany. The conference continued the triennial series initiated in Trieste in 1978 and was devoted to new developments in the field of many-body theories. The conference series encourages the exchange of ideas between physicists working in such diverse areas as nuclear physics, quantum chemistry, lattice Hamiltonians or quantum uids. Many-body theories are an integral part in different fields of theoretical physics such as condensed matter, nuclear matter and field theory. Phase transitions and macroscopic quantum effects such as magnetism, Bose-Einstein condensation, super uidity or superconductivity have been investigated within ultra-cold gases, finite systems or various nanomaterials. The conference series on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories is devoted to foster the interaction and to cross-fertilize between different fields and to discuss future lines of research. The topics of the 17th meeting were Cluster Physics Cold Gases High Energy Density Matter and Intense Lasers Magnetism New Developments in Many-Body Techniques Nuclear Many-Body and Relativistic Theories Quantum Fluids and Solids Quantum Phase Transitions Topological Insulators and Low Dimensional Systems. 109 participants from 20 countries participated. 44 talks and 61 posters werde presented. As a particular highlight of the conference, The Eugene Feenberg Memorial Medal for outstanding results in the field of many-body theory and The Hermann Kümmel Early Achievement Award in Many-Body Physics for young scientists in that field were awarded. The Feenberg Medal went jointly to Patrick Lee (MIT, USA) for his fundamental contributions to condensed-matter theory, especially in regard to the quantum Hall effect, to universal conductance uctuations, and to the Kondo effect in quantum dots, and Douglas Scalapino (UC Santa Barbara, USA) for his

  11. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, T.; Midgley, P. A.

    2011-11-01

    This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 17th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at Churchill College, University of Cambridge, on 4-7 April 2011. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Institute of Physics and supported by the Royal Microscopical Society as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and related techniques with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 131 delegates from 25 countries world-wide, a record in terms of internationality. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes of device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, the electronic structure, the chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two examples of topics at this meeting that have attracted a number of interesting studies were: the correlation of microstructural, optical and chemical information at atomic resolution with nanometre-scale resolved maps of the local electrical fields in (In,Al)GaN based semiconductors and tomographic approaches to characterise ensembles of nanowires and stacks of processed layers in devices Figure 1 Figure 1. Opening lecture by Professor Sir Colin J Humphreys. Each manuscript submitted for publication in this proceedings volume has been independently reviewed and revised

  12. The bioenergetics of salt tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, L.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this project was to try to understand the adaptive mechanisms that organisms develop in order to respond to a sudden transformation in their environment to a salt shock.'' To study this problem we used a fresh water oxygenic photosynthetic cyanobacterium known as Synecoccus 6311. This organism suffers injury after this sudden exposure to high concentrations of sodium chloride equivalent to or even higher than that in sea water. Yet they are able to re-establish their photosynthetic activity which is partially injured and return to virtually normal growth rates. Identification of the temporal sequence of changes involved in adaptation to this stress was the rationale. Indeed this project employed a wide variety of biochemical and biophysical methods, including electron spin resonance techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance to study the bioenergetics and transport mechanisms, growth and energy changes in these organisms and how the structural components of the cells changed in response to adaptation to growth at high salinity. The problem has relevance for higher plants because most of the arable farmland in the work is already under use and that which is not used is usually in salite environments. Hence, understanding basic mechanisms of salt tolerance is a fundamental biological problem with great applications for bioproductivity and agriculture. 18 refs.

  13. Bioenergetic theory of prostate malignancy.

    PubMed

    Costello, L C; Franklin, R B

    1994-09-01

    Normal and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) prostate is characterized by the presence of extraordinarily high levels of citrate. Presumably, this results from the inability of the prostate epithelial cells to oxidize citrate due to a limiting mitochondrial (m-) aconitase. In contrast, prostate carcinoma (CA) is not characterized by high citrate levels. Malignant prostate epithelial cells apparently undergo a metabolic transformation from citrate-producing to citrate-oxidizing cells. A consequence of citrate production in normal and BPH cells is an inefficient and low level of ATP production. It is proposed that the process of malignancy necessitates an energy production that cannot be provided by citrate-producing cells. Consequently, the transformation of prostate epithelial cells to citrate-oxidizing cells which increases the energy production capability is essential to the process of malignancy and metastasis. The metabolic transformation likely occurs as a premalignant or early malignant stage. This bioenergetic theory of prostate malignancy, if correct, will provide new approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of CA. PMID:7520580

  14. Composition of Façon de Venise glass from early 17th century London in comparison with luxury glass of the same age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagno, S.; De Raedt, I.; Jeffries, T.; Janssens, K.

    SEM-EDX and LA-ICP-MS analyses were performed on a set of early 17th century London glass fragments. The samples originate from two archaeological sites (Aldgate and Old Broad Street) where glass workshops were active in this period. The great majority of the samples are made of soda glass. Two distinct compositional groups are observed, each typical of one site of provenance. The samples originating from the Old Broad Street excavation feature a silica-soda-lime composition, with a moderate amount of potash. The samples from Aldgate are richer in potassium and feature higher amounts of trace elements such as Rb, Zr and Cu. The distinction between the two groups stems from different flux and silica sources used for glassmaking. A comparison with different European glass compositions of that time reveals no resemblance with genuine Venetian production, yet the composition of the Old Broad Street glass shows a close similarity to that of fragments produced `à la façon de Venise' in Antwerp at the end of the 16th century. This coincides with historical sources attesting the arrival of glassworkers from the Low Countries in England and suggests that a transfer of technology took place near the turn of the century.

  15. Genotyping Yersinia pestis in Historical Plague: Evidence for Long-Term Persistence of Y. pestis in Europe from the 14th to the 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Lisa; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Harbeck, Michaela; Thomas, Astrid; Grupe, Gisela; Projahn, Michaela; Scholz, Holger C; Riehm, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from plague victims of the second plague pandemic (14th to 17th century), excavated from two different burial sites in Germany, and spanning a time period of more than 300 years, was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Of 30 tested skeletons 8 were positive for Yersinia pestis-specific nucleic acid, as determined by qPCR targeting the pla gene. In one individual (MP-19-II), the pla copy number in DNA extracted from tooth pulp was as high as 700 gene copies/μl, indicating severe generalized infection. All positive individuals were identical in all 16 SNP positions, separating phylogenetic branches within nodes N07_N10 (14 SNPs), N07_N08 (SNP s19) and N06_N07 (s545), and were highly similar to previously investigated plague victims from other European countries. Thus, beside the assumed continuous reintroduction of Y. pestis from central Asia in multiple waves during the second pandemic, long-term persistence of Y. pestis in Europe in a yet unknown reservoir host has also to be considered. PMID:26760973

  16. Genotyping Yersinia pestis in Historical Plague: Evidence for Long-Term Persistence of Y. pestis in Europe from the 14th to the 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Lisa; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Harbeck, Michaela; Thomas, Astrid; Grupe, Gisela; Projahn, Michaela; Scholz, Holger C; Riehm, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from plague victims of the second plague pandemic (14th to 17th century), excavated from two different burial sites in Germany, and spanning a time period of more than 300 years, was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Of 30 tested skeletons 8 were positive for Yersinia pestis-specific nucleic acid, as determined by qPCR targeting the pla gene. In one individual (MP-19-II), the pla copy number in DNA extracted from tooth pulp was as high as 700 gene copies/μl, indicating severe generalized infection. All positive individuals were identical in all 16 SNP positions, separating phylogenetic branches within nodes N07_N10 (14 SNPs), N07_N08 (SNP s19) and N06_N07 (s545), and were highly similar to previously investigated plague victims from other European countries. Thus, beside the assumed continuous reintroduction of Y. pestis from central Asia in multiple waves during the second pandemic, long-term persistence of Y. pestis in Europe in a yet unknown reservoir host has also to be considered.

  17. Genotyping Yersinia pestis in Historical Plague: Evidence for Long-Term Persistence of Y. pestis in Europe from the 14th to the 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Lisa; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Harbeck, Michaela; Thomas, Astrid; Grupe, Gisela; Projahn, Michaela; Scholz, Holger C.; Riehm, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from plague victims of the second plague pandemic (14th to 17th century), excavated from two different burial sites in Germany, and spanning a time period of more than 300 years, was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Of 30 tested skeletons 8 were positive for Yersinia pestis-specific nucleic acid, as determined by qPCR targeting the pla gene. In one individual (MP-19-II), the pla copy number in DNA extracted from tooth pulp was as high as 700 gene copies/μl, indicating severe generalized infection. All positive individuals were identical in all 16 SNP positions, separating phylogenetic branches within nodes N07_N10 (14 SNPs), N07_N08 (SNP s19) and N06_N07 (s545), and were highly similar to previously investigated plague victims from other European countries. Thus, beside the assumed continuous reintroduction of Y. pestis from central Asia in multiple waves during the second pandemic, long-term persistence of Y. pestis in Europe in a yet unknown reservoir host has also to be considered. PMID:26760973

  18. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrotzki, Werner; Oertel, Carl-Georg

    2015-04-01

    The 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17) took place in Dresden, Germany, August 24-29, 2014. It belongs to the "triennial" series of ICOTOM meetings with a long tradition, starting in 1969 - Clausthal, 1971 - Cracow, 1973 - Pont-à-Mousson, 1975 - Cambridge, 1978 - Aachen, 1981 - Tokyo, 1984 - Noordwijkerhout, 1987 - Santa Fe, 1990 - Avignon, 1993 - Clausthal, 1996 - Xian, 1999 - Montreal, 2002 - Seoul, 2005 - Leuven, 2008 - Pittsburgh, 2011 - Mumbai, 2014 - Dresden. ICOTOM 17 was hosted by the Dresden University of Technology, Institute of Structural Physics. Following the tradition of the ICOTOM conferences, the main focus of ICOTOM-17 was to promote and strengthen the fundamental understanding of the basic processes that govern the formation of texture and its relation to the properties of polycrystalline materials. Nonetheless, it was the aim to forge links between basic research on model materials and applied research on engineering materials of technical importance. Thus, ICOTOM 17 provided a forum for the presentation and discussion of recent progress in research of texture and related anisotropy of mechanical and functional properties of all kinds of polycrystalline materials including natural materials like rocks. Particular attention was paid to recent advances in texture measurement and analysis as well as modeling of texture development for all kinds of processes like solidification, plastic deformation, recrystallization and grain growth, phase transformations, thin film deposition, etc. Hence, ICOTOM 17 was of great interest to materials scientists, engineers from many different areas and geoscientists. The topics covered by ICOTOM 17 were: 1. Mathematical, numerical and statistical methods of texture analysis 2. Deformation textures 3. Crystallization, recrystallization and growth textures 4. Transformation textures 5. Textures in functional materials 6. Textures in advanced materials 7. Textures in rocks 8. Texture

  19. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-01-01

    The 17th edition of the International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2014) was held in San Carlos de Bariloche, in the southern region of Argentina known as Patagonia, from August 31 to September 5, 2014. This meeting corresponds to a series of HCI conferences, which has been held every other year since 1982 in cities in Europe, USA, Japan and China. This was the first time that the conference took place in Latin America. This edition was organized by a Local Committee made up of physicists mainly from the cities of Bariloche and Rosario and also from Buenos Aires and Bahía Blanca, all sites where research on Atomic Collisions is developed. The conference was attended by delegates coming from 18 countries, more that 23% of whom were women. The field of highly charged ions has seen in recent years a promising evolution originating from bold progress in theory and significant advances in experimental techniques. The HCI conferences aim at bringing together experimentalists and theoreticians from as wide a range of fields as, for instance, Fundamental Aspects, Structure and Spectroscopy, Collisions with Electrons, Ions, Atoms and Molecules, Interaction with Clusters, Surfaces and Solids, Interactions with Photons and Plasmas, Strong Field Processes, and Production, Experimental Developments and Applications. The Scientific Programme, selected by an International Advisory Board, included 5 Review Lectures, 11 Progress Reports, 1 Local Report and 24 Special Reports. In addition, the results of 132 contributed works were presented as poster communications and a Public Lecture on 'The wonders of the Southern Skies' was delivered by an Argentinean expert. Thus, a wide range of subjects comprising a balanced mix of topics was covered throughout the course of the conference. The HCI 2014 was a resounding success for the international and local communities, from both the scientific and social aspects, considering that the attendees and accompanying

  20. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-01-01

    The 17th edition of the International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2014) was held in San Carlos de Bariloche, in the southern region of Argentina known as Patagonia, from August 31 to September 5, 2014. This meeting corresponds to a series of HCI conferences, which has been held every other year since 1982 in cities in Europe, USA, Japan and China. This was the first time that the conference took place in Latin America. This edition was organized by a Local Committee made up of physicists mainly from the cities of Bariloche and Rosario and also from Buenos Aires and Bahía Blanca, all sites where research on Atomic Collisions is developed. The conference was attended by delegates coming from 18 countries, more that 23% of whom were women. The field of highly charged ions has seen in recent years a promising evolution originating from bold progress in theory and significant advances in experimental techniques. The HCI conferences aim at bringing together experimentalists and theoreticians from as wide a range of fields as, for instance, Fundamental Aspects, Structure and Spectroscopy, Collisions with Electrons, Ions, Atoms and Molecules, Interaction with Clusters, Surfaces and Solids, Interactions with Photons and Plasmas, Strong Field Processes, and Production, Experimental Developments and Applications. The Scientific Programme, selected by an International Advisory Board, included 5 Review Lectures, 11 Progress Reports, 1 Local Report and 24 Special Reports. In addition, the results of 132 contributed works were presented as poster communications and a Public Lecture on 'The wonders of the Southern Skies' was delivered by an Argentinean expert. Thus, a wide range of subjects comprising a balanced mix of topics was covered throughout the course of the conference. The HCI 2014 was a resounding success for the international and local communities, from both the scientific and social aspects, considering that the attendees and accompanying

  1. Bioenergetics modeling to investigate habitat use by the non-indigenous crab, Carcinus maenas, in Willapa Bay, Washington, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bioenergetics model was developed and applied to questions of habitat use and migration behavior of non-indigenous European green crab (Carcinus maenas) in Willapa Bay, Washington, USA. The model was parameterized using existing data from published studies on the ecology and physiology of C. maena...

  2. IL-17/Th17 promotes type 1 T cell immunity against pulmonary intracellular bacterial infection through modulating dendritic cell function.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hong; Cheng, Jianjun; Gao, Xiaoling; Joyee, Antony George; Fan, Yijun; Wang, Shuhe; Jiao, Lei; Yao, Zhi; Yang, Xi

    2009-11-01

    Although their contribution to host defense against extracellular infections has been well defined, IL-17 and Th17 are generally thought to have limited impact on intracellular infections. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanisms of IL-17/Th17 in host defense against Chlamydia muridarum, an obligate intracellular bacterium, lung infection. Our data showed rapid increase in IL-17 production and expansion of Th17 cells following C. muridarum infection and significant detrimental impact of in vivo IL-17 neutralization by anti-IL-17 mAb on disease course, immune response, and dendritic cell (DC) function. Specifically, IL-17-neutralized mice exhibited significantly greater body weight loss, higher organism growth, and much more severe pathological changes in the lung compared with sham-treated control mice. Immunological analysis showed that IL-17 neutralization significantly reduced Chlamydia-specific Th1 responses, but increased Th2 responses. Interestingly, the DC isolated from IL-17-neutralized mice showed lower CD40 and MHC II expression and IL-12 production, but higher IL-10 production compared with those from sham-treated mice. In two DC-T cell coculture systems, DC isolated from IL-17-neutralized mice induced higher IL-4, but lower IFN-gamma production by Ag-specific T cells than those from sham-treated mice in cell priming and reaction settings. Adoptive transfer of DC isolated from IL-17-neutralized mice, unlike those from sham-treated mice, failed to protect the recipients against challenge infection. These findings provide in vivo evidence that IL-17/Th17 plays an important role in host defense against intracellular bacterial infection, and suggest that IL-17/Th17 can promote type 1 T cell immunity through modulating DC function.

  3. Evaluation of a lake whitefish bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Argyle, Ray L.; Brandt, Stephen B.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis in the laboratory and in the field. For the laboratory evaluation, lake whitefish were fed rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax in four laboratory tanks during a 133-d experiment. Based on a comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of lake whitefish food consumption and growth with observed consumption and growth, we concluded that the bioenergetics model furnished significantly biased estimates of both food consumption and growth. On average, the model overestimated consumption by 61% and underestimated growth by 16%. The source of the bias was probably an overestimation of the respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit of the model to the observed consumption and growth in our laboratory tanks. Based on the adjusted model, predictions of food consumption over the 133-d period fell within 5% of observed consumption in three of the four tanks and within 9% of observed consumption in the remaining tank. We used polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as a tracer to evaluate model performance in the field. Based on our laboratory experiment, the efficiency with which lake whitefish retained PCBs from their food (I?) was estimated at 0.45. We applied the bioenergetics model to Lake Michigan lake whitefish and then used PCB determinations of both lake whitefish and their prey from Lake Michigan to estimate p in the field. Application of the original model to Lake Michigan lake whitefish yielded a field estimate of 0.28, implying that the original formulation of the model overestimated consumption in Lake Michigan by 61%. Application of the bioenergetics model with the adjusted respiration component resulted in a field I? estimate of 0.56, implying that this revised model underestimated consumption by 20%.

  4. Non Destructive Investigation on the 17th/18th Century Sicilian Jewellery Collection at the Messina Regional Museum Using Mobile Raman Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, G.; Bersani, D.; Jehlicka, J.; Lottici, P. P.; Mazzoleni, P.; Raneri, S.; Vandenabeele, P.; Di Giacomo, C.; Larinà, G.

    2014-06-01

    A handheld Raman spectrometer operating at 785 nm was used for the in situ analysis of the gems present in the 17th/18th century Sicilian jewelry collection preserved in the Messina Regional Museum (Italy).

  5. JANNAF 28th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and 17th Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Mulder, Edwin J. (Editor); Gomez-Knight, Sylvia J. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains 37 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers that were presented at the JANNAF 28th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) and 17th Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) Joint Meeting, held 26-30 April 1999 at the Town & Country Hotel and the Naval Submarine Base, San Diego, California. Volume II contains 29 unclassified/limited-distribution papers that were presented at the 28th PDCS and 17th S&EPS Joint Meeting. Volume III contains a classified paper that was presented at the 28th PDCS Meeting on 27 April 1999. Topics covered in PDCS sessions include: solid propellant rheology; solid propellant surveillance and aging; propellant process engineering; new solid propellant ingredients and formulation development; reduced toxicity liquid propellants; characterization of hypergolic propellants; and solid propellant chemical analysis methods. Topics covered in S&EPS sessions include: space launch range safety; liquid propellant hazards; vapor detection methods for toxic propellant vapors and other hazardous gases; toxicity of propellants, ingredients, and propellant combustion products; personal protective equipment for toxic liquid propellants; and demilitarization/treatment of energetic material wastes.

  6. Acute traumatic death of a 17th century general based on examination of mummified remains found in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Sun; Lee, Eun-Joo; Park, Jun Bum; Baek, Seung Hee; Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Soong Deok; Kim, Yi-Suk; Bok, Gi Dae; Hong, Jung Won; Lim, Do-Sun; Shin, Myung Ho; Seo, Min; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2009-06-01

    Recently, we examined one of the most perfectly preserved mummies of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) ever found in Korea. The individual was an elderly man and a high-ranking general who had lived sometime during the 16th or 17th century in Korea. When computerized tomography (CT) radiographs were taken, a fracture line was observed on the left side of the mandible. A post-factum dissection also provided crucial clues to the cause of death. First of all, blood clots were still evident at the fracture site, indicating that the mandibular fracture had occurred just before death. Second, we also found feces exclusively in the sigmoid colon or rectum, but not in the stomach, small intestine or colon. This told us that our subject had not eaten anything during his final 2 days (even though there was no indication that he would have had any difficulty eating during that time). Therefore, we presume that this case might not be one of chronic or wasting disease, but rather a case of sudden death. By virtue of the varied specialties of the researchers involved in this study, we were able to piece together a partly very clear and partly very plausible story for our 17th century mummy subject. Considering the high level of preservation of remains and artifacts found in lime soil mixture barrier (LSMB) tombs, not to mention the rich supplementary information available from historical documents, similarly successful studies are promised in forthcoming days and years. PMID:19345566

  7. Myocardial bioenergetic abnormalities in experimental uremia

    PubMed Central

    Chesser, Alistair MS; Harwood, Steven M; Raftery, Martin J; Yaqoob, Muhammad M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cardiac bioenergetics are known to be abnormal in experimental uremia as exemplified by a reduced phosphocreatine (PCr)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio. However, the progression of these bioenergetic changes during the development of uremia still requires further study and was therefore investigated at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after partial nephrectomy (PNx). Methods A two-stage PNx uremia model in male Wistar rats was used to explore in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscles’ bioenergetic changes over time. High-energy phosphate nucleotides were determined by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) and capillary zone electrophoresis. Results 31P-NMR spectroscopy revealed lower PCr/ATP ratios in PNx hearts compared to sham (SH)-operated animals 4 weeks after PNx (median values given ± SD, 0.64±0.16 PNx, 1.13±0.31 SH, P<0.02). However, 8 weeks after PNx, the same ratio was more comparable between the two groups (0.84±0.15 PNx, 1.04±0.44 SH, P= not significant), suggestive of an adaptive mechanism. When 8-week hearts were prestressed with dobutamine, the PCr/ATP ratio was again lower in the PNx group (1.08±0.36 PNx, 1.55±0.38 SH, P<0.02), indicating a reduced energy reserve during the progression of uremic heart disease. 31P-NMR data were confirmed by capillary zone electrophoresis, and the changes in myocardial bioenergetics were replicated in the skeletal muscle. Conclusion This study provides evidence of the changes that occur in myocardial energetics in experimental uremia and highlights how skeletal muscle bioenergetics mirror those found in the cardiac tissue and so might potentially serve as a practical surrogate tissue during clinical cardiac NMR investigations. PMID:27307758

  8. Anatomical Confirmation of Computed Tomography-Based Diagnosis of the Atherosclerosis Discovered in 17th Century Korean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeung Ju; Kim, Yi-Suk; Oh, Chang Seok; Go, Jai-Hyang; Lee, In Sun; Park, Won-Kyu; Cho, Seok-Min; Kim, Soon-Kwan; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In the present study on a newly discovered 17th century Korean mummy, computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple aortic calcifications within the aortic wall that were indicative of ancient atherosclerosis. The CT-based findings were confirmed by our subsequent post-factum dissection, which exhibited possible signs of the disease including ulcerated plaques, ruptured hemorrhages, and intimal thickening where the necrotic core was covered by the fibrous cap. These findings are strong indicators that the mummy suffered from aortic atherosclerosis during her lifetime. The present study is a good example of how CT images of vascular calcifications can be a useful diagnostic tool in forming at least preliminary diagnoses of ancient atherosclerosis. PMID:25816014

  9. Late Holocene history of Chaitén Volcano: new evidence for a 17th century eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lara, Luis E.; Moreno, Rodrigo; Amigo, Álvaro; Hoblitt, Richard P.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Prior to May 2008, it was thought that the last eruption of Chaitén Volcano occurred more than 5,000 years ago, a rather long quiescent period for a volcano in such an active arc segment. However, increasingly more Holocene eruptions are being identified. This article presents both geological and historical evidence for late Holocene eruptive activity in the 17th century (AD 1625-1658), which included an explosive rhyolitic eruption that produced pumice ash fallout east of the volcano and caused channel aggradation in the Chaitén River. The extents of tephra fall and channel aggradation were similar to those of May 2008. Fine ash, pumice and obsidian fragments in the pre-2008 deposits are unequivocally derived from Chaitén Volcano. This finding has important implications for hazards assessment in the area and suggests the eruptive frequency and magnitude should be more thoroughly studied.

  10. Finding ancient parasite larvae in a sample from a male living in late 17th century Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, D H; Chai, J Y; Park, E A; Lee, W; Lee, H; Lee, J S; Choi, Y M; Koh, B J; Park, J B; Oh, C S; Bok, G D; Kim, W L; Lee, E; Lee, E J; Seo, M

    2009-06-01

    Parasitological examination of samples from tombs of the Korean Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) could be helpful to researchers in understanding parasitic infection prevalence in pre-industrial Korean society. Whereas most of our previous parasitological studies revealed the presence of ancient parasite eggs in coprolites of Korean mummies, a sample from a man living in late 17th century Korea proved to be relatively unique in possessing what appeared to be several species of parasite larvae. The larvae identified included Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichostrongylus spp., along with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Paragonimus westermani. Since ancient parasite larvae retain enough morphology to make proper species identification possible, even after long burial times, the examination of parasite larvae within ancient samples will be conducted more carefully in our future work. PMID:19071966

  11. Venetian Rule and Control of Plague Epidemics on the Ionian Islands during 17th and 18th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidou, Katerina; Mantadakis, Elpis; Sardi, Thalia; Samonis, George

    2009-01-01

    During the 17th and 18th centuries, measures were taken by the Venetian administration to combat plague on the Ionian Islands. At that time, although the scientific basis of plague was unknown, the Venetians recognized its infectious nature and successfully decreased its spread by implementing an information network. Additionally, by activating a system of inspection that involved establishing garrisons along the coasts, the Venetians were able to control all local movements in plague-infested areas, which were immediately isolated. In contrast, the neighboring coast of mainland Greece, which was under Ottoman rule, was a plague-endemic area during the same period. We conclude that even in the absence of scientific knowledge, close observation and social and political measures can effectively restrain infectious outbreaks to the point of disappearance. PMID:19116047

  12. EDITORIAL: 17th International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron, and Ion Technologies (VEIT 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Dimitrova, Miglena; Ghelev, Chavdar

    2012-03-01

    The International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT) has been organized biennially since 1977, when the VEIT Summer School series was launched by the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The aim was to act as a forum for the exchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas on the latest developments in electron-, ion- and plasma-assisted technologies. The organizers of the 2011 edition of the event were the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria and the Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Whilst the school initially provided a meeting place for researchers mainly from Eastern and Central European countries, its importance has grown issue by issue. The school is now a major scientific event and a meeting place for young scientists from Eastern and Western Europe involved in research and development associated with high-tech industries. Many former school participants have gone on to become leading scientists in research establishments and companies throughout the world. Leading international companies, such as High Voltage Engineering, Balzers, Varian, and Hauzer have used the VEIT forum to present their products through oral presentations, poster contributions and exhibits. The School Proceedings have been published in special issues of the international journals Vacuum, Plasma Processes and Polymers and Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Seventeenth edition of VEIT was held in the Black Sea resort of Sunny Beach, Bulgaria on 19-23 September 2011. It was attended by 96 participants from 18 countries: Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, The Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK and USA. Following the tradition of publishing the VEIT Proceedings, a selection of papers presented at the event is published in this special issue of Journal of

  13. EDITORIAL: 17th International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron, and Ion Technologies (VEIT 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Dimitrova, Miglena; Ghelev, Chavdar

    2012-03-01

    The International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT) has been organized biennially since 1977, when the VEIT Summer School series was launched by the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The aim was to act as a forum for the exchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas on the latest developments in electron-, ion- and plasma-assisted technologies. The organizers of the 2011 edition of the event were the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria and the Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Whilst the school initially provided a meeting place for researchers mainly from Eastern and Central European countries, its importance has grown issue by issue. The school is now a major scientific event and a meeting place for young scientists from Eastern and Western Europe involved in research and development associated with high-tech industries. Many former school participants have gone on to become leading scientists in research establishments and companies throughout the world. Leading international companies, such as High Voltage Engineering, Balzers, Varian, and Hauzer have used the VEIT forum to present their products through oral presentations, poster contributions and exhibits. The School Proceedings have been published in special issues of the international journals Vacuum, Plasma Processes and Polymers and Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Seventeenth edition of VEIT was held in the Black Sea resort of Sunny Beach, Bulgaria on 19-23 September 2011. It was attended by 96 participants from 18 countries: Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, The Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK and USA. Following the tradition of publishing the VEIT Proceedings, a selection of papers presented at the event is published in this special issue of Journal of

  14. The Second Law of Thermodynamics in Bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Kemeny, Gabor

    1974-01-01

    Bioenergetic processes are viewed as processes of free energy transduction. The free energies of both local equilibrium and fluctuation states are being considered. It is shown that the exchange of thermal energy with the surrounding medium, acting as a reservoir, does not violate the second law of thermodynamics within broad limits. There is sufficient latitude for proteins to carry out their function of transduction utilizing thermal energy in the process. PMID:16592167

  15. Evaluation of a Mysis bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chipps, S.R.; Bennett, D.H.

    2002-01-01

    Direct approaches for estimating the feeding rate of the opossum shrimp Mysis relicta can be hampered by variable gut residence time (evacuation rate models) and non-linear functional responses (clearance rate models). Bioenergetics modeling provides an alternative method, but the reliability of this approach needs to be evaluated using independent measures of growth and food consumption. In this study, we measured growth and food consumption for M. relicta and compared experimental results with those predicted from a Mysis bioenergetics model. For Mysis reared at 10??C, model predictions were not significantly different from observed values. Moreover, decomposition of mean square error indicated that 70% of the variation between model predictions and observed values was attributable to random error. On average, model predictions were within 12% of observed values. A sensitivity analysis revealed that Mysis respiration and prey energy density were the most sensitive parameters affecting model output. By accounting for uncertainty (95% CLs) in Mysis respiration, we observed a significant improvement in the accuracy of model output (within 5% of observed values), illustrating the importance of sensitive input parameters for model performance. These findings help corroborate the Mysis bioenergetics model and demonstrate the usefulness of this approach for estimating Mysis feeding rate.

  16. Diet impact on mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Putti, Rosalba; Sica, Raffaella; Migliaccio, Vincenzo; Lionetti, Lillà

    2015-01-01

    Diet induced obesity is associated with impaired mitochondrial function and dynamic behavior. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles and the balance in fusion/fission is strictly associated with their bioenergetics. Fusion processes are associated with the optimization of mitochondrial function, whereas fission processes are associated with the removal of damaged mitochondria. In diet-induced obesity, impaired mitochondrial function and increased fission processes were found in liver and skeletal muscle. Diverse dietary fat sources differently affect mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetics. In contrast to saturated fatty acids, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids induce fusion processes and improve mitochondrial function. Moreover, the pro-longevity effect of caloric restriction has been correlated with changes in mitochondrial dynamics leading to decreased cell oxidative injury. Noteworthy, emerging findings revealed an important role for mitochondrial dynamics within neuronal populations involved in central regulation of body energy balance. In conclusion, mitochondrial dynamic processes with their strict interconnection with mitochondrial bioenergetics are involved in energy balance and diet impact on metabolic tissues. PMID:25904870

  17. Glacier length fluctuations in southern Norway back to the 17th century based on historical data: opposite behaviour compared to the Alps?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, S. U.; Luterbacher, J.; Nesje, A.; Wanner, H.; Zumbühl, H. J.

    2009-04-01

    The understanding of past and present glacier variations is a key task for evaluating current climate change. Historical and proxy-records have documented a partly asynchronous evolution in temperature, precipitation and glacial variations between European regions during the Little Ice Age (LIA), with the causes of these temporal anomalies yet being poorly understood. The comparison between the Alps and Scandinavia allows an assessment of the spatial distribution of glacier fluctuations in the studied areas during the last few centuries. Here we present temporally high-resolved glacier reconstructions for southern Norway covering the period back to the 17th century, based on newly discovered historical material. Length changes were determined by the interpretation of high-quality historical documents such as drawings, paintings, prints, photographs, maps and written sources that are abundant for selected glaciers in the area (Folgefonna, Jostedalsbreen). Historical material is only available in adequate quantity for those glaciers which drew the attention of travellers, scientists and artists through their reputation and scenic attraction, reflecting also the glacier perception at that time. A critical quality check of the documentary data was necessary in order to get reliable information on past glacier extents. The glacier extents obtained were finally compared with existing moraine findings in the glacier forefield. Results from outlet glaciers from Folgefonna (Bondhusbreen, Buerbreen) and Jostedalsbreen (Briksdalsbreen, Bøyabreen, Suphellebreen, Bergsetbreen, Nigardsbreen, Lodalsbreen) indicate a highly different glacier evolution compared to the Alps. According to the historical record, the maximum glacier extent occurred at Folgefonna at around 1890, and at Jostedalsbreen at around 1750, respectively. In the Alps, existing glacier length records (e.g. for Unterer Grindelwaldgletscher, Switzerland, or Mer de Glace, France) show glacier advances around 1600

  18. Report from the European Prison Education Association, September 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behan, Cormac

    2007-01-01

    The main activity of the European Prison Education Association (EPEA) since the last edition of the Journal was the 11th European Prison Education Association International Conference, which took place in Dublin, Ireland from June 13th to 17th. The conference, Learning for Liberation, was the largest EPEA conference to date with 180 participants…

  19. [Principles of order in the color systems of the 17th century. (Franciscus Aguilonius--Athanasius Kircher--Isaac Newton)].

    PubMed

    Jaeger, W

    1984-04-01

    Since Aristotle there have been two colour order systems: The first is according to the subjective luminosity of colours, and the second is that which is found in the rainbow. Almost all the medieval concepts of colour order were based on the subjective luminosity of colours. At the beginning of the 17th century Franciscus Aguilonius still described the traditional sequence according to subjective luminosity: white, yellow, red, blue and black in his colour order system. - Athanasius Kircher demonstrated two sequences: The first was the same as Aguilonius 's, completed by lists of symbolic qualities attributed to the respective colours; The second was the sequence of the prismatic spectrum; red, orange, yellow, green and blue. Violet was still missing from his spectrum. For that reason the idea of arranging the colours in a closed circle did not occur to him. - Isaac Newton added violet to the prismatic spectrum. Hence he was able to bring the ends of the spectrum together, forming a colour circle. He completed the colours of his spectrum "with those purple hues which, although not present in the spectrum, were familiar to painters and dyers , and in this way closed up the colour-circle into a band returning on itself" (W. Ostwald). Thus he combined the perceptual concept of the colour wheel, containing pairs of complementary colours, with the physical concept of the prismatic spectrum.

  20. Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister Categories of Transuranic Waste Stored Below Ground within Area G

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Kenneth Marshall

    2015-03-01

    A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned large areas near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2011 and heightened public concern and news media attention over transuranic (TRU) waste stored at LANL’s Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G waste management facility. The removal of TRU waste from Area G had been placed at a lower priority in budget decisions for environmental cleanup at LANL because TRU waste removal is not included in the March 2005 Compliance Order on Consent (Reference 1) that is the primary regulatory driver for environmental cleanup at LANL. The Consent Order is a settlement agreement between LANL and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) that contains specific requirements and schedules for cleaning up historical contamination at the LANL site. After the Las Conchas Fire, discussions were held by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the NMED on accelerating TRU waste removal from LANL and disposing it at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report summarizes available information on the origin, configuration, and composition of the waste containers within the Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister categories; their physical and radiological characteristics; the results of the radioassays; and potential issues in retrieval and processing of the waste containers.

  1. Microscopy and Microanalysis of an Extreme Case of Salt and Biodegradation in 17th Century Wall Paintings.

    PubMed

    Gil, Milene; Martins, Maria Rosário; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Souto, Cátia; Longelin, Stephane; Cardoso, Ana; Mirão, José; Candeias, António Estevão

    2015-06-01

    The present study characterizes the main deterioration mechanisms affecting the early 17th frescoes of Casa de Fresco, the only known example in Portugal of a semi-underground leisure room richly decorated with a balcony over a water well. Frescoes from the vault are at risk due to salt weathering and biodeterioration. The aim of the research was identification of the deterioration materials, determination of their origin, and their effect on the frescoes before future intervention. Scanning electron microscopy with an energy-dispersive X-ray detector (SEM-EDS) was used to determine salt morphology and microanalysis. The mineralogical characterization was performed by X-ray powder diffraction, complemented with µ-Raman and µ-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Biological assessment was evaluated with optical microscopy and SEM-EDS. Bacterial and fungal isolation and identification were performed using standard culture media and methods according to Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology and from the Compendium of Soil Fungi. The results show that Ca and Ca-Mg carbonates from the paint renderings are the predominant salt species affecting the site. Bacterial strains from the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas and fungal strains from the Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. were isolated in the salt formations, within and between the mortar layers. Azurite, malachite, and smalt paint layers are the most affected by the weathering conditions. PMID:26149345

  2. [Genealogical study of the Pijart dynasty, goldsmiths or apothecaries in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2007-10-01

    The Pijart dynasty, established in Paris during the 16th and 17th centuries, included apothecaries and goldsmiths who had a common ancestor, Michel Pijart, warden of the goldsmith's guild (garde de l'orfèvrerie) in 1507. He was married to Jehanne Daumont and died 23rd July 1524. This couple had four sons, all goldsmiths, Pierre, Michel, Jehan and Nicolas. Pierre married twice. His first wife, Philippe Dusseau, was the sister of a famous apothecary. Only their eldest son, François, chose the profession of apothecary; the other three, Jacques, Jehan and Philibert, all followed their father's profession. By his second marriage to Marie de Mézières, Pierre had two sons, Claude the elder and Claude the younger, who both became goldsmiths. Thus, the goldsmith's trade became the favoured profession of the Pijart family. Professional endogamy prevailed in this dynasty, after the fashion of merchants belonging to the six most prestigious guilds (Six-Corps de métiers). Goldsmiths and apothecaries retained strong family ties, demonstrated by family reunions (baptisms, betrothals, etc.). It is undisputable that the renown of this dynasty is based on the fame of its goldsmiths. However, through marriage, the Pijart's developed links with other families of apothecaries, of which the most outstanding were the Boulduc's. PMID:18348497

  3. Proceedings: Indian Education Conference 1976 (17th, Tempe, Arizona, April 2, 1976). 200 Years of Indian Education--What Now? Where Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Indian Education Association, Phoenix.

    Addressing the theme "200 Years of Indian Education--What Now--Where Now?", these transcripts of the 17th Annual Indian Education Conference (Arizona, 1976) include comments, questions, and definitive statements of professionals in the field of Indian Education. Presented by workshop title, the seven workshops included in this document are:…

  4. Providing Quality Education and Training for Rural Australians. SPERA National Conference Proceedings (17th, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia, July 8-11, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian, Ed.; Boylan, Colin, Ed.

    This proceedings of the 17th annual conference of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) contains 28 keynote addresses and conference papers. Major conference themes were vocational education and training (VET) in rural schools, small schools, flexible rural delivery systems, and the community as a resource and…

  5. The hepatic sinusoid 'classic and contemporary’: a report on the 17th international symposium on cells of the hepatic sinusoid (ISCHS)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The 17th ISCHS took place in Osaka, Japan, on 23 to 25 September 2013. This symposium focuses on an exchange of views on the structure and function of hepatic sinusoidal cells in addition to their roles in clinical pathophysiology. PMID:24484528

  6. Systemic modelling of human bioenergetics and blood circulation.

    PubMed

    Lim, K M; Yang, S-H; Shim, E B

    2012-10-01

    This work reviews the main aspects of human bioenergetics and the dynamics of the cardiovascular system, with emphasis on modelling their physiological characteristics. The methods used to study human bioenergetics and circulation dynamics, including the use of mathematical models, are summarised. The main characteristics of human bioenergetics, including mitochondrial metabolism and global energy balance, are first described, and the systemic aspects of blood circulation and related physiological issues are introduced. The authors also discuss the present status of studies of human bioenergetics and blood circulation. Then, the limitations of the existing studies are described in an effort to identify directions for future research towards integrated and comprehensive modelling. This review emphasises that a multi-scale and multi-physical approach to bioenergetics and blood circulation that considers multiple scales and physiological factors are necessary for the appropriate clinical application of computational models.

  7. Floods of the Lower Tisza from the late 17th century onwards: frequency, magnitude, seasonality and great flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The present paper is based on a recently developed database including contemporary original, administrative, legal and private source materials (published and archival) as well as media reports related to the floods occurred on the lower sections of the Tisza river in Hungary, with special emphasis on the area of Szeged town. The study area is well-represented by contemporary source evidence from the late 17th century onwards, when the town and its broader area was reoccupied from the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Concerning the applied source materials, the main bases of investigation are the administrative (archival) sources such as town council protocols of Szeged and county meeting protocols of Csanád and Csongrád Counties. In these (legal-)administrative documents damaging events (natural/environmental hazards) were systematically recorded. Moreover, other source types such as taxation-related damage accounts as well as private and official reports, letters and correspondence (published, unpublished) were also included. Concerning published evidence, a most important source is flood reports in contemporary newspapers as well as town chronicles and other contemporary narratives. In the presentation the main focus is on the analysis of flood-rich flood-poor periods of the last ca. 330 years; moreover, the seasonality distribution as well as the magnitude of Tisza flood events are also discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to provide a short overview, in the form of case studies, on the greatest flood events (e.g. duration, magnitude, damages, multi-annual consequences), and their further impacts on the urban and countryside development as well as on (changes in) flood defence strategies. In this respect, especially two flood events, the great (1815-)1816 and the catastrophic 1879 flood (shortly with causes and consequences) - that practically erased Szeged town from the ground - are presented in more detail.

  8. The ``System of Chymists'' and the ``Newtonian dream'' in Greek-speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-06-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a “philosophy” of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This “philosophical” chemistry was not based on the existence of any academic institutions, it was focused on the ontology of principles and forces governing the analysis/synthesis of matter and formulated two didactic traditions. The one, named “the system of chymists”, close to the Boylean/Cartesian tradition, accepted, contrary to Aristotelianism, the five “chymical” principles and also the analytical ideal, but the “chymical” principles were not under a conceptual and experimental investigation, as they were in Europe. Also, a crucial issue for this tradition remained the “mechanical” principles which were under the influence of the metaphysical nature of the Aristotelian principles. The other, close to the Boylean/Newtonian tradition, was the integrated presentation of the Newtonian “dream”, which maintained a discursive attitude with reference to the “chemical attractions”-“chemical affinities” and actualised the mathematical atomism of Boscovich, according to which the elementary texture of matter could be causally explained within this complex architecture of mathematical “ punkta”. In this tradition also coexisted, in a discursive synthesis, the “chemical element” of Lavoisier and the arguments of the new theory and its opposition to the phlogiston theory, but the “chemical affinities” were under the realm of the “physical element” as “metaphysical point”.

  9. The relativistic solar particle event of May 17th, 2012 observed on board the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrilli, Francesco; Casolino, Marco; Del Moro, Dario; Di Fino, Luca; Larosa, Marianna; Narici, Livio; Piazzesi, Roberto; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Scardigli, Stefano; Sparvoli, Roberta; Stangalini, Marco; Zaconte, Veronica

    2014-05-01

    High-energy charged particles represent a severe radiation risk for astronauts and spacecrafts and could damage ground critical infrastructures related to space services. Different natural sources are the origin of these particles, among them galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles and particles trapped in radiation belts. Solar particle events (SPE) consist in the emission of high-energy protons, alpha-particles, electrons and heavier particles from solar flares or shocks driven by solar plasma propagating through the corona and interplanetary space. Ground-level enhancements (GLE) are rare solar events in which particles are accelerated to near relativistic energies and affect space and ground-based infrastructures. During the current solar cycle 24 a single GLE event was recorded on May 17th, 2012 associated with an M5.1-class solar flare. The investigation of such a special class of solar events permits us to measure conditions in space critical to both scientific and operational research. This event, classified as GLE71, was detected on board the International Space Station (ISS) by the active particle detectors of the ALTEA (Anomalous Long Term Effects in Astronauts) experiment. The collected data permit us to study the radiation environment inside the ISS. In this work we present the first results of the analysis of data acquired by ALTEA detectors during GLE71 associated with an M5.1-class solar flare. We estimate the energy loss spectrum of the solar particles and evaluate the contribution to the total exposure of ISS astronauts to solar high-energy charged particles.

  10. Hydrometeorological extremes reconstructed from documentary evidence for the Jihlava region in the 17th-19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolak, Lukas; Brazdil, Rudolf; Chroma, Katerina; Valasek, Hubert; Belinova, Monika; Reznickova, Ladislava

    2016-04-01

    Different documentary evidence (taxation records, chronicles, insurance reports etc.) is used for reconstruction of hydrometeorological extremes (HMEs) in the Jihlava region (central part of the recent Czech Republic) in the 17th-19th centuries. The aim of the study is description of the system of tax alleviation in Moravia, presentation of utilization of early fire and hail damage insurance claims and application of the new methodological approaches for the analysis of HMEs impacts. During the period studied more than 400 HMEs were analysed for the 16 estates (past basic economic units). Late frost on 16 May 1662 on the Nove Mesto na Morave estate, which destroyed whole cereals and caused damage in the forests, is the first recorded extreme event. Downpours causing flash floods and hailstorms are the most frequently recorded natural disasters. Moreover, floods, droughts, windstorms, blizzards, late frosts and lightning strikes starting fires caused enormous damage as well. The impacts of HMEs are classified into three categories: impacts on agricultural production, material property and the socio-economic impacts. Natural disasters became the reasons of losses of human lives, property, supplies and farming equipment. HMEs caused damage to fields and meadows, depletion of livestock and triggered the secondary consequences as lack of seeds and finance, high prices, indebtedness, poverty and deterioration in field fertility. The results are discussed with respect to uncertainties associated with documentary evidences and their spatiotemporal distribution. Archival records, preserved in the Moravian Land Archives in Brno and other district archives, create a unique source of data contributing to the better understanding of extreme events and their impacts.

  11. [Scholarly life in the late 17th century: the Giessen professor of medicine Michael Bernhard Valentini (1657-1729)].

    PubMed

    Enke, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Towards the end of the 17th century the university of Giessen was--compared to, for example, Leipzig or the newly founded university of Halle--a rather small university in terms of student numbers. Situated in a provincial town of about 5,000 inhabitants and far away from the capital, Darmstadt, the university was a firmly denominational, i.e. orthodox Lutheran, counter-foundation against the neighbouring university of Marburg in Calvinist Hesse-Kassel. This paper describes under what circumstances Michael Bernhard Valentini (1657-1729), a typical and well-known scholar in his time, became successful and influential in the early Enlightenment. Born in 1657 as the son of a university servant (Pedell) and therefore underprivileged, he succeeded in becoming dean of the medical faculty and eventually rector of Giessen University. He was professor of Physica naturalis as well as of medicine and gained importance and influence by establishing experimental physics in Giessen. Numerous publications, not only in medicine but also in natural history and about curiosities, attracted the attention of many scientific societies whose membership he obtained. Valentini had studied philosophy and medicine in Giessen at a time when the curricula in medicine and natural philosophy were still taught in the traditional scholastic manner. After having worked as a medical practitioner, he made an educational tour through Western Europe in 1686, during which he met Robert Boyle in London. In 1687 Valentini became professor of physics in Giessen. In the same year, he bought several physical instruments--including an air pump from the Musschenbroek workshop in Leiden, at that time a centre of technical and scientific innovation. Thanks to Valentini Giessen became the third university in Germany (after Altdorf and Marburg) that offered the "new" experimental physics in its curriculum. PMID:18196757

  12. Reevaluation of a walleye (Sander vitreus) bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Wang, Chunfang

    2013-01-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus) is an important sport fish throughout much of North America, and walleye populations support valuable commercial fisheries in certain lakes as well. Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye in the laboratory. Walleyes were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks each day during a 126-day experiment. Feeding rates ranged from 1.4 to 1.7 % of walleye body weight per day. Based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of monthly consumption with observed monthly consumption, we concluded that the bioenergetics model estimated food consumption by walleye without any significant bias. Similarly, based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of weight at the end of the monthly test period with observed weight, we concluded that the bioenergetics model predicted walleye growth without any detectable bias. In addition, the bioenergetics model predictions of cumulative consumption over the 126-day experiment differed fromobserved cumulative consumption by less than 10 %. Although additional laboratory and field testing will be needed to fully evaluate model performance, based on our laboratory results, the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye appears to be providing unbiased predictions of food consumption.

  13. Cosmic ray composition between 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 17th power eV obtained by air shower experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the air shower data, the chemical composition of the primary cosmic rays in the energy range 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 17th power eV was obtained. The method is based on a well known N sub e-N sub mu and N sub e-N sub gamma. The simulation is calibrated by the CERN SPS pp collider results.

  14. Simulated weightlessness - Effects on bioenergetic balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J. P.; Sykes, H. A.; Crownover, J. C.; Schatte, C. L.; Simmons, J. B., II; Jordan, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    As a prelude to a flight experiment, an attempt was made to separate energy requirements associated with gravity from all other metabolic needs. The biological effects of weightlessness were simulated by suspending animals in a harness so that antigravity muscles were not supporting the body. Twelve pairs of rats were allowed to adapt to wearing a harness for 5 d. Experimental animals were then suspended in harness for 7 d followed by recovery for 7 d. Control animals were harnessed but never suspended. Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and rate of (C-14)O2 expiration from radio-labeled glucose were monitored on selected days. Food intake and body mass were recorded daily. Metabolic rate decreased in experimental animals during 7 d of suspension and returned to normal during recovery. Although some of the metabolic changes may have related to variation in food intake, simulated weightlessness appears to directly affect bioenergetic balance.

  15. Integration of cellular bioenergetics with mitochondrial quality control and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Bradford G.; Benavides, Gloria A.; Lancaster, Jack R.; Ballinger, Scott; Dell’Italia, Lou; Zhang, Jianhua; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    Bioenergetic dysfunction is emerging as a cornerstone for establishing a framework for understanding the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and neurodegeneration. Recent advances in cellular bioenergetics have shown that many cells maintain a substantial bioenergetic reserve capacity, which is a prospective index of “healthy” mitochondrial populations. The bioenergetics of the cell are likely regulated by energy requirements and substrate availability. Additionally, the overall quality of the mitochondrial population and the relative abundance of mitochondria in cells and tissues also impinge on overall bioenergetic capacity and resistance to stress. Because mitochondria are susceptible to damage mediated by reactive oxygen/nitrogen and lipid species, maintaining a “healthy” population of mitochondria through quality control mechanisms appears to be essential for cell survival under conditions of pathological stress. Accumulating evidence suggest that mitophagy is particularly important for preventing amplification of initial oxidative insults, which otherwise would further impair the respiratory chain or promote mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The processes underlying the regulation of mitophagy depend on several factors including the integrity of mtDNA, electron transport chain activity, and the interaction and regulation of the autophagic machinery. The integration and interpretation of cellular bioenergetics in the context of mitochondrial quality control and genetics is the theme of this review. PMID:23092819

  16. Reevaluation of lake trout and lake whitefish bioenergetics models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.

  17. Report from the European Prison Education Association, June 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behan, Cormac

    2006-01-01

    It has just been announced that the 11th European Prison Education Association (EPEA) International Conference will take place in Dublin, Ireland from the 13th to 17th June 2007. Further details and an application form will be available in September 2006. Regular updates will be available at www.epea.org.

  18. Report from the European Prison Education Association, December 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behan, Cormac

    2006-01-01

    The main activity of the European Prison Education Association over the last number of months has been organizing the 11th EPEA conference in Dublin, Ireland in 2007. Application forms to attend the conference (13th-17th June 2007), are available to download at www.epea.org. Applications can be submitted online or by regular mail. The closing date…

  19. Development of a bioenergetics model for age-0 American Shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergetics modeling can be used as a tool to investigate the impact of non-native age-0 American shad (Alosa sapidissima) on reservoir and estuary food webs. The model can increase our understanding of how these fish influence lower trophic levels as well as predatory fish populations that feed on juvenile salmonids. Bioenergetics modeling can be used to investigate ecological processes, evaluate alternative research hypotheses, provide decision support, and quantitative prediction. Bioenergetics modeling has proven to be extremely useful in fisheries research (Ney et al. 1993,Chips and Wahl 2008, Petersen et al. 2008). If growth and diet parameters are known, the bioenergetics model can be used to quantify the relative amount of zooplankton or insects consumed by age-0 American shad. When linked with spatial and temporal information on fish abundance, model output can guide inferential hypothesis development to demonstrate where the greatest impacts of age-0 American shad might occur.


    Bioenergetics modeling is particularly useful when research questions involve multiple species and trophic levels (e.g. plankton communities). Bioenergetics models are mass-balance equations where the energy acquired from food is partitioned between maintenance costs, waste products, and growth (Winberg 1956). Specifically, the Wisconsin bioenergetics model (Hanson et al. 1997) is widely used in fisheries science. Researchers have extensively tested, reviewed, and improved on this modeling approach for over 30 years (Petersen et al. 2008). Development of a bioenergetics model for any species requires three key components: 1) determine physiological parameters for the model through laboratory experiments or incorporate data from a closely related species, 2) corroboration of the model with growth and consumption estimates from independent research, and 3) error analysis of model parameters.


    Wisconsin bioenergetics models have been parameterized for

  20. Bioenergetics of salt tolerance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, L.

    1986-10-28

    Major findings are presented on how Synechococcus responds to a transition from low salt (12mM NaCl) to high salt (0.5 M NaCl) medium; we have studied immediate and long-term osmotic responses, identified deleterious effects of NaCl on cellular processes, and analyzed adaptations of the bioenergetic systems that permit the organism to tolerate a high salt environment. We have also developed new electron spin resonance methods for measuring intracellular O/sub 2/ concentrations and intracellular pH. In addition studies on the physiology and molecular mechanism of light-driven chloride transport by halorhodopsin in the halobacteria are reported. The ion-transport ATPase of halobacteria and the respiration-linked sodium transport system of the halotolerant bacterium, Bal were studied with respect to the role and functioning of ionic pumps. Chloride transport was shown to be an integral componet of the overall ion circulation in halobacterial cells, one which maintains internal salt concentration and therefore cellular volume. How halorhodopsin functions, its photointermediates, the nature of chloride-binding sites, the role of the deprotonation of the retinal Schiff-base, and how removal of most of the arginine residues, does not affect chloride-binding are reported. Methods were developed for the study of membrane-bound halobacterial ATPase, its solubilization and partial purification. 43 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Bioenergetic Evolution in Proteobacteria and Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelles of our cells and derive from bacterial ancestors that became endosymbionts of microorganisms from a different lineage, together with which they formed eukaryotic cells. For a long time it has remained unclear from which bacteria mitochondria actually evolved, even if these organisms in all likelihood originated from the α lineage of proteobacteria. A recent article (Degli Esposti M, et al. 2014. Evolution of mitochondria reconstructed from the energy metabolism of living bacteria. PLoS One 9:e96566) has presented novel evidence indicating that methylotrophic bacteria could be among the closest living relatives of mitochondrial ancestors. Methylotrophs are ubiquitous bacteria that live on single carbon sources such as methanol and methane; in the latter case they are called methanotrophs. In this review, I examine their possible ancestry to mitochondria within a survey of the common features that can be found in the central and terminal bioenergetic systems of proteobacteria and mitochondria. I also discuss previously overlooked information on methanotrophic bacteria, in particular their intracytoplasmic membranes resembling mitochondrial cristae and their capacity of establishing endosymbiotic relationships with invertebrate animals and archaic plants. This information appears to sustain the new idea that mitochondrial ancestors could be related to extant methanotrophic proteobacteria, a possibility that the genomes of methanotrophic endosymbionts will hopefully clarify. PMID:25432941

  2. Bioenergetics and solute uptake under extreme conditions.

    PubMed

    Albers, S V; Van de Vossenberg, J L; Driessen, A J; Konings, W N

    2001-10-01

    The ion and particularly the proton and sodium ion permeabilities of cytoplasmic membranes play crucial roles in the bioenergetics of microorganisms. The proton and sodium permeabilities of membranes increase with temperature. Psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria and mesophilic, (hyper)thermophilic, and halophilic archaea are capable of adjusting the lipid composition of their membranes in such a way that the proton permeability at the respective growth temperature remains constant (homeoproton permeability). Thermophilic bacteria are an exception. They rely on the less permeable sodium ions to generate a sodium motive force, which is subsequently used to drive energy-requiring membrane-bound processes. Transport of solutes across bacterial and archaeal membranes is mainly catalyzed by primary ATP-driven transport systems or by proton- or sodium-motive-force-driven secondary transport systems. Unlike most bacteria, hyperthermophilic bacteria and archaea prefer primary uptake systems. Several high-affinity ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters for sugars from hyperthermophiles have been identified and characterized. The activities of these ABC transporters allow these organisms to thrive in their nutrient-poor environments.

  3. [The beginnings of the nursing profession : the complementary relationship between secular caregivers and hospital nuns in France in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Diebolt, Evelyne

    2013-06-01

    The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salpêtrière hospital, Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charité" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied.

  4. Elevated Frequencies of Circulating Th22 Cell in Addition to Th17 Cell and Th17/Th1 Cell in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Ting; Wang, Xiao-qi; Du, Rui-zhi; Zhang, Kai-ning; Liu, Xin-guang; Ma, Dao-xin; Yu, Shuang; Su, Guo-hai; Li, Zhen-hua; Guan, Yu-qing; Du, Nai-li

    2013-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by immune cells. Th22 cells are CD4+ T cells that secret IL-22 but not IL-17 or IFN-γ and are implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease. The roles of Th22 cells in the pathophysiologic procedures of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the profile of Th22, Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells in ACS patients, including unstable angina (UA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Design and Methods In this study, 26 AMI patients, 16 UA patients, 16 stable angina (SA) patients and 16 healthy controls were included. The frequencies of Th22, Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells in AMI, UA, SA patients and healthy controls were examined by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of IL-22, IL-17 and IFN-γ were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Th22, Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells were significantly increased in AMI and UA patients compared with SA patients and healthy controls. Moreover, plasma IL-22 level was significantly elevated in AMI and UA patients. In addition, Th22 cells correlated positively with IL-22 as well as Th17 cells in AMI and UA patients. Conclusion Our findings showed increased frequencies of both Th22 and Th17 cells in ACS patients, which suggest that Th22 and Th17 cells may play a potential role in plaque destabilization and the development of ACS. PMID:24312440

  5. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 2: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes of the three main production centers.

    PubMed

    Vieira Ferreira, L F; Ferreira, D P; Conceição, D S; Santos, L F; Pereira, M F C; Casimiro, T M; Ferreira Machado, I

    2015-01-01

    Sherds representative of the three Portuguese faience production centers of the 17th century - Lisbon, Coimbra and Vila Nova were studied with the use of mostly non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence emission (XRF). X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments were also performed. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the pastes of the pottery produced Vila Nova and some of the ceramic pastes from Lisbon, in accordance with documental sources that described the use of Lisbon clays by Vila Nova potters, at least since mid 17th century. Quartz and Gehlenite are the main components of the Lisbon's pastes, but differences between the ceramic pastes were detected pointing out to the use of several clay sources. The spectroscopic trend exhibited Coimbra's pottery is remarkably different, Quartz and Diopside being the major components of these pastes, enabling one to well define a pattern for these ceramic bodies. The blue pigment from the Lisbon samples is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix, which enables the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals in most productions of the second half of the 17th century. No micro-Raman cobalt blue signature could be detected in the Vila Nova and Coimbra blue glazes. This is in accordance with the lower kiln temperatures in these two production centers and with Co(2+) ions dispersed in the silicate matrix. In all cases the white glaze is obtained with the use of tin oxide. Hausmannite was detected as the manganese oxide mineral used to produce the purple glaze (wine color "vinoso") in Lisbon. PMID:25965511

  6. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 2: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes of the three main production centers.

    PubMed

    Vieira Ferreira, L F; Ferreira, D P; Conceição, D S; Santos, L F; Pereira, M F C; Casimiro, T M; Ferreira Machado, I

    2015-01-01

    Sherds representative of the three Portuguese faience production centers of the 17th century - Lisbon, Coimbra and Vila Nova were studied with the use of mostly non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence emission (XRF). X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments were also performed. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the pastes of the pottery produced Vila Nova and some of the ceramic pastes from Lisbon, in accordance with documental sources that described the use of Lisbon clays by Vila Nova potters, at least since mid 17th century. Quartz and Gehlenite are the main components of the Lisbon's pastes, but differences between the ceramic pastes were detected pointing out to the use of several clay sources. The spectroscopic trend exhibited Coimbra's pottery is remarkably different, Quartz and Diopside being the major components of these pastes, enabling one to well define a pattern for these ceramic bodies. The blue pigment from the Lisbon samples is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix, which enables the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals in most productions of the second half of the 17th century. No micro-Raman cobalt blue signature could be detected in the Vila Nova and Coimbra blue glazes. This is in accordance with the lower kiln temperatures in these two production centers and with Co(2+) ions dispersed in the silicate matrix. In all cases the white glaze is obtained with the use of tin oxide. Hausmannite was detected as the manganese oxide mineral used to produce the purple glaze (wine color "vinoso") in Lisbon.

  7. [The beginnings of the nursing profession : the complementary relationship between secular caregivers and hospital nuns in France in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Diebolt, Evelyne

    2013-06-01

    The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salpêtrière hospital, Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charité" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied. PMID:23923734

  8. Determination of droughts and high floods of the Bermejo River (Argentina) based on documentary evidence (17th to 20th century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, M. R.; Rojas, F.

    2015-10-01

    This study reconstructs a series of droughts and high flow volumes of the Bermejo River from the 17th to 20th century based on a content analysis of historic documentary evidence, which is calibrated with instrumental climate data. The historic data series shows an increase in the frequency of extraordinarily high waters beginning in the 19th century and a significant decrease in extreme droughts beginning in 1890. The data are compared to variations in the Mendoza River for the same period, which show that there was a long-standing lack of correlation between the rivers.

  9. [The magic universe of cures: the role of magic practices and witchcraft in the universe of 17th century Mato Grosso].

    PubMed

    Sá, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the role of healing agents played by practitioners of magic and witchcraft in Mato Grosso society during the 17th century. It observes that magic and witchcraft were developed as competitors, alternatives or associated with other forms of healing (official and lay). It points out how such roles contributed to the process of subjugating its practitioners, especially Africans, Indians and their descendents, and were appropriated as an opportunity for survival in the colonial slave society. The pastoral visit made by Bruno Pinna in 1785 to Cuiabá and nearby areas served as the principal source of knowledge regarding the practices and practitioners of magic and witchcraft.

  10. Bioenergetic relevance of hydrogen sulfide and the interplay between gasotransmitters at human cystathionine β-synthase.

    PubMed

    Vicente, João B; Malagrinò, Francesca; Arese, Marzia; Forte, Elena; Sarti, Paolo; Giuffrè, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Merely considered as a toxic gas in the past, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is currently viewed as the third 'gasotransmitter' in addition to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), playing a key signalling role in human (patho)physiology. H2S can either act as a substrate or, similarly to CO and NO, an inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration, in the latter case by targeting cytochrome c oxidase (CcOX). The impact of H(2)S on mitochondrial energy metabolism crucially depends on the bioavailability of this gaseous molecule and its interplay with the other two gasotransmitters. The H(2)S-producing human enzyme cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), sustaining cellular bioenergetics in colorectal cancer cells, plays a role in the interplay between gasotransmitters. The enzyme was indeed recently shown to be negatively modulated by physiological concentrations of CO and NO, particularly in the presence of its allosteric activator S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet). These newly discovered regulatory mechanisms are herein reviewed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:27039165

  11. Bioenergetic relevance of hydrogen sulfide and the interplay between gasotransmitters at human cystathionine β-synthase.

    PubMed

    Vicente, João B; Malagrinò, Francesca; Arese, Marzia; Forte, Elena; Sarti, Paolo; Giuffrè, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Merely considered as a toxic gas in the past, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is currently viewed as the third 'gasotransmitter' in addition to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), playing a key signalling role in human (patho)physiology. H2S can either act as a substrate or, similarly to CO and NO, an inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration, in the latter case by targeting cytochrome c oxidase (CcOX). The impact of H(2)S on mitochondrial energy metabolism crucially depends on the bioavailability of this gaseous molecule and its interplay with the other two gasotransmitters. The H(2)S-producing human enzyme cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), sustaining cellular bioenergetics in colorectal cancer cells, plays a role in the interplay between gasotransmitters. The enzyme was indeed recently shown to be negatively modulated by physiological concentrations of CO and NO, particularly in the presence of its allosteric activator S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet). These newly discovered regulatory mechanisms are herein reviewed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of a walleye (Sander vitreus) bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Wang, C.; O'Brien, T. P.; Holuszko, M.J.; Ogilvie, L.M.; Stickel, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus) is an important game fish throughout much of North America. We evaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye in the laboratory. Walleyes were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks during a 126-day experiment. Based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of monthly consumption with the observed monthly consumption, we concluded that the bioenergetics model significantly underestimated food consumption by walleye in the laboratory. The degree of underestimation appeared to depend on the feeding rate. For the tank with the lowest feeding rate (1.4% of walleye body weight per day), the agreement between the bioenergetics model prediction of cumulative consumption over the entire 126-day experiment and the observed cumulative consumption was remarkably close, as the prediction was within 0.1% of the observed cumulative consumption. Feeding rates in the other three tanks ranged from 1.6% to 1.7% of walleye body weight per day, and bioenergetics model predictions of cumulative consumption over the 126-day experiment ranged between 11 and 15% less than the observed cumulative consumption. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Visualizing the 17th century underpainting in Portrait of an Old Man by Rembrandt van Rijn using synchrotron-based scanning macro-XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfeld, Matthias; Siddons, D. Peter; Janssens, Koen; Dik, Joris; Woll, Arthur; Kirkham, Robin; van de Wetering, Ernst

    2013-04-01

    In 17th century Old Master Paintings, the underpainting generally refers to the first sketch of a composition. The underpainting is applied to a prepared ground using a monochrome, brown oil paint to roughly indicate light, shade and contours. So far, methods to visualize the underpainting—other than in localized cross-sections—have been very limited. Neither infrared reflectography nor neutron induced autoradiography have proven to be practical, adequate visualization tools. Thus, although of fundamental interest in the understanding of a painting's genesis, the underpainting has virtually escaped all imaging efforts. In this contribution we will show that 17th century underpainting may consist of a highly heterogeneous mixture of pigments, including copper pigments. We suggest that this brown pigment mixture is actually the recycled left-over of a palette scraping. With copper as the heaviest exclusive elemental component, we will hence show in a case study on a Portrait of an Old Man attributed to Rembrandt van Rijn how scanning macro-XRF can be used to efficiently visualize the underpainting below the surface painting and how this information can contribute to the discussion of the painting's authenticity.

  14. Neurohormetic phytochemicals: An evolutionary-bioenergetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Mattson, Mark P

    2015-10-01

    The impact of dietary factors on brain health and vulnerability to disease is increasingly appreciated. The results of epidemiological studies, and intervention trials in animal models suggest that diets rich in phytochemicals can enhance neuroplasticity and resistance to neurodegeneration. Here we describe how interactions of plants and animals during their co-evolution, and resulting reciprocal adaptations, have shaped the remarkable characteristics of phytochemicals and their effects on the physiology of animal cells in general, and neurons in particular. Survival advantages were conferred upon plants capable of producing noxious bitter-tasting chemicals, and on animals able to tolerate the phytochemicals and consume the plants as an energy source. The remarkably diverse array of phytochemicals present in modern fruits, vegetables spices, tea and coffee may have arisen, in part, from the acquisition of adaptive cellular stress responses and detoxification enzymes in animals that enabled them to consume plants containing potentially toxic chemicals. Interestingly, some of the same adaptive stress response mechanisms that protect neurons against noxious phytochemicals are also activated by dietary energy restriction and vigorous physical exertion, two environmental challenges that shaped brain evolution. In this perspective article, we describe some of the signaling pathways relevant to cellular energy metabolism that are modulated by 'neurohormetic phytochemicals' (potentially toxic chemicals produced by plants that have beneficial effects on animals when consumed in moderate amounts). We highlight the cellular bioenergetics-related sirtuin, adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) pathways. The inclusion of dietary neurohormetic phytochemicals in an overall program for brain health that also includes exercise and energy restriction may find applications in the

  15. Neurohormetic Phytochemicals: An Evolutionary - Bioenergetic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of dietary factors on brain health and vulnerability to disease is increasingly appreciated. The results of epidemiological studies, and intervention trials in animal models suggest that diets rich in phytochemicals can enhance neuroplasticity and resistance to neurodegeneration. Here we describe how interactions of plants and animals during their co-evolution, and resulting reciprocal adaptations, have shaped the remarkable characteristics of phytochemicals and their effects on the physiology of animal cells in general, and neurons in particular. Survival advantages were conferred upon plants capable of producing noxious bitter-tasting chemicals, and on animals able to tolerate the phytochemicals and consume the plants as an energy source. The remarkably diverse array of phytochemicals present in modern fruits, vegetables spices, tea and coffee may have arisen, in part, from the acquisition of adaptive cellular stress responses and detoxification enzymes in animals that enabled them to consume plants containing potentially toxic chemicals. Interestingly, some of the same adaptive stress response mechanisms that protect neurons against noxious phytochemicals are also activated by dietary energy restriction and vigorous physical exertion, two environmental challenges that shaped brain evolution. In this perspective article, we describe some of the signaling pathways relevant to cellular energy metabolism that are modulated by ‘neurohormetic phytochemicals’ (potentially toxic chemicals produced by plants that have beneficial effects on animals when consumed in moderate amounts). We highlight the cellular bioenergetics-related sirtuin, adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) pathways. The inclusion of dietary neurohormetic phytochemicals in an overall program for brain health that also includes exercise and energy restriction may find applications in the

  16. Neurohormetic phytochemicals: An evolutionary-bioenergetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Mattson, Mark P

    2015-10-01

    The impact of dietary factors on brain health and vulnerability to disease is increasingly appreciated. The results of epidemiological studies, and intervention trials in animal models suggest that diets rich in phytochemicals can enhance neuroplasticity and resistance to neurodegeneration. Here we describe how interactions of plants and animals during their co-evolution, and resulting reciprocal adaptations, have shaped the remarkable characteristics of phytochemicals and their effects on the physiology of animal cells in general, and neurons in particular. Survival advantages were conferred upon plants capable of producing noxious bitter-tasting chemicals, and on animals able to tolerate the phytochemicals and consume the plants as an energy source. The remarkably diverse array of phytochemicals present in modern fruits, vegetables spices, tea and coffee may have arisen, in part, from the acquisition of adaptive cellular stress responses and detoxification enzymes in animals that enabled them to consume plants containing potentially toxic chemicals. Interestingly, some of the same adaptive stress response mechanisms that protect neurons against noxious phytochemicals are also activated by dietary energy restriction and vigorous physical exertion, two environmental challenges that shaped brain evolution. In this perspective article, we describe some of the signaling pathways relevant to cellular energy metabolism that are modulated by 'neurohormetic phytochemicals' (potentially toxic chemicals produced by plants that have beneficial effects on animals when consumed in moderate amounts). We highlight the cellular bioenergetics-related sirtuin, adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) pathways. The inclusion of dietary neurohormetic phytochemicals in an overall program for brain health that also includes exercise and energy restriction may find applications in the

  17. The Pancreatic β-Cell: A Bioenergetic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, David G

    2016-10-01

    The pancreatic β-cell secretes insulin in response to elevated plasma glucose. This review applies an external bioenergetic critique to the central processes of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, including glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism, the cytosolic adenine nucleotide pool, and its interaction with plasma membrane ion channels. The control mechanisms responsible for the unique responsiveness of the cell to glucose availability are discussed from bioenergetic and metabolic control standpoints. The concept of coupling factor facilitation of secretion is critiqued, and an attempt is made to unravel the bioenergetic basis of the oscillatory mechanisms controlling secretion. The need to consider the physiological constraints operating in the intact cell is emphasized throughout. The aim is to provide a coherent pathway through an extensive, complex, and sometimes bewildering literature, particularly for those unfamiliar with the field. PMID:27582250

  18. Bioenergetic analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, N; Piasecka, J; Bryant, A H; Jones, R H; Skibinski, D O F; Francis, Nigel J; Thornton, C A

    2015-10-01

    Leucocytes respond rapidly to pathogenic and other insults, with responses ranging from cytokine production to migration and phagocytosis. These are bioenergetically expensive, and increased glycolytic flux provides adenosine triphosphate (ATP) rapidly to support these essential functions. However, much of this work is from animal studies. To understand more clearly the relative role of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in human leucocytes, especially their utility in a translational research setting, we undertook a study of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) bioenergetics. Glycolysis was essential during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α production, as 2-deoxy-D-glucose decreased significantly the output of all three cytokines. After optimizing cell numbers and the concentrations of all activators and inhibitors, oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis profiles of fresh and cryopreserved/resuscitated MNCs were determined to explore the utility of MNCs for determining the bioenergetics health profile in multiple clinical settings. While the LPS-induced cytokine response did not differ significantly between fresh and resuscitated cells from the same donors, cryopreservation/resuscitation significantly affected mainly some measures of oxidative phosphorylation, but also glycolysis. Bioenergetics analysis of human MNCs provides a quick, effective means to measure the bioenergetics health index of many individuals, but cryopreserved cells are not suitable for such an analysis. The translational utility of this approach was tested by comparing MNCs of pregnant and non-pregnant women to reveal increased bioenergetics health index with pregnancy but significantly reduced basal glycolysis and glycolytic capacity. More detailed analysis of discrete leucocyte populations would be required to understand the relative roles of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation during inflammation and

  19. Bioenergetic analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    Jones, N; Piasecka, J; Bryant, A H; Jones, R H; Skibinski, D O F; Francis, Nigel J; Thornton, C A

    2015-01-01

    Leucocytes respond rapidly to pathogenic and other insults, with responses ranging from cytokine production to migration and phagocytosis. These are bioenergetically expensive, and increased glycolytic flux provides adenosine triphosphate (ATP) rapidly to support these essential functions. However, much of this work is from animal studies. To understand more clearly the relative role of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in human leucocytes, especially their utility in a translational research setting, we undertook a study of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) bioenergetics. Glycolysis was essential during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated interleukin (IL)−1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α production, as 2-deoxy-D-glucose decreased significantly the output of all three cytokines. After optimizing cell numbers and the concentrations of all activators and inhibitors, oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis profiles of fresh and cryopreserved/resuscitated MNCs were determined to explore the utility of MNCs for determining the bioenergetics health profile in multiple clinical settings. While the LPS-induced cytokine response did not differ significantly between fresh and resuscitated cells from the same donors, cryopreservation/resuscitation significantly affected mainly some measures of oxidative phosphorylation, but also glycolysis. Bioenergetics analysis of human MNCs provides a quick, effective means to measure the bioenergetics health index of many individuals, but cryopreserved cells are not suitable for such an analysis. The translational utility of this approach was tested by comparing MNCs of pregnant and non-pregnant women to reveal increased bioenergetics health index with pregnancy but significantly reduced basal glycolysis and glycolytic capacity. More detailed analysis of discrete leucocyte populations would be required to understand the relative roles of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation during inflammation and

  20. Effect of Cholinergic Signaling on Neuronal Cell Bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianghua; Lezi, E; Roy, Nairita; Hutfles, Lewis; Selfridge, Eva; Funk, Eric; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have reduced brain acetylcholine and reversing this deficit yields clinical benefits. In this study we explored how increased cholinergic tone impacts cell bioenergetics, which are also perturbed in AD. We treated SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells with carbachol, a cholinergic agonist, and tested for bioenergetic flux and bioenergetic infrastructure changes. Carbachol rapidly increased both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis fluxes. ATP levels rose slightly, as did cell energy demand, and AMPK phosphorylation occurred. At least some of these effects depended on muscarinic receptor activation, ER calcium release, and ER calcium re-uptake. Our data show that increasing cholinergic signaling enhances cell bioenergetics, and reveal mechanisms that mediate this effect. Phenomena we observed could potentially explain why cholinesterase inhibitor therapy increases AD brain glucose utilization and N-acetyl aspartate levels. The question of whether cholinesterase inhibitors have a disease modifying effect in AD has long been debated; our data suggest a theoretical mechanism through which such an effect could potentially arise. PMID:23099815

  1. A bioenergetic model for zebrafish Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chizinski, C.J.; Sharma, Bibek; Pope, K.L.; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    A bioenergetics model was developed from observed consumption, respiration and growth rates for zebrafish Danio rerio across a range (18-32?? C) of water temperatures, and evaluated with a 50 day laboratory trial at 28?? C. No significant bias in variable estimates was found during the validation trial; namely, predicted zebrafish mass generally agreed with observed mass. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  2. Collaborations in population-based health research: the 17th annual HMO Research Network Conference, March 23-25, 2011, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Tracy A; Hinrichsen, Virginia L; Moreira, Andrea; Platt, Richard

    2011-11-01

    The HMO Research Network (HMORN) is a consortium of 16 health care systems with integrated research centers. Approximately 475 people participated in its 17(th) annual conference, hosted by the Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute and Harvard Medical School. The theme, "Collaborations in Population-Based Health Research," reflected the network's emphasis on collaborative studies both among its members and with external investigators. Plenary talks highlighted the initial phase of the HMORN's work to establish the NIH-HMO Collaboratory, opportunities for public health collaborations, the work of early career investigators, and the state of the network. Platform and poster presentations showcased a broad spectrum of innovative public domain research in areas including disease epidemiology and treatment, health economics, and information technology. Special interest group sessions and ancillary meetings provided venues for informal conversation and structured work among ongoing groups, including networks in cancer, cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, medical product safety, and mental health.

  3. Historical and Metallurgical Characterization of a "Falchion" Sword Manufactured in Caino (Brescia, Italy) in the Early 17th Century A.D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonelli, G.; Faccoli, M.; Gotti, R.; Roberti, R.; Cornacchia, G.

    2016-08-01

    A historical and metallurgical characterization of a "falchion" sword manufactured in Caino (Brescia, northern Italy) and dating from the early 17th century was performed to understand the manufacture methods of a Renaissance sword. At first, a set of size measurements was carried out to look for the existence of constant and/or recurring macroscopic sizes, which would indicate a standardized production, or of any type of proportionality between different parts of a sword, which would prove an intentional design activity. Light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, quantometer analyses, and Vickers microhardness tests were then employed to analyze the microstructure and obtain the mechanical properties. All the metallurgical work is supported by an accurate study on the chemical composition of both metal-matrix and nonmetallic inclusions, which allowed for rebuilding and evaluating the efficiency of the whole production process.

  4. [[The apothecaries of the district of Les Halles in Paris in the 17th century. Molière's ancestors in Les Halles].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Les Halles were created by King Louis VI at the begining of the 12th century as a central market for food and trade. Apothecaries conducted their trade there from that time. In the 17th century, eleven apothecaries were established in this district, bordered on the south by the rue Saint-Honoré, on the east by the rue Saint-Denis, on the west by the rue de la Tonnellerie, and the north by the rue Montmartre. Their biographies have been analysed, and the data that has been collected has enabled their précise location to be fixed on a map of 1700. Molière's ancestors, both maternal (the Cressé family) and paternal (the Pocquelin's), lived in this district. Details of their relationships with their apothecary neighbours have been revealed.

  5. [[The apothecaries of the district of Les Halles in Paris in the 17th century. Molière's ancestors in Les Halles].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Les Halles were created by King Louis VI at the begining of the 12th century as a central market for food and trade. Apothecaries conducted their trade there from that time. In the 17th century, eleven apothecaries were established in this district, bordered on the south by the rue Saint-Honoré, on the east by the rue Saint-Denis, on the west by the rue de la Tonnellerie, and the north by the rue Montmartre. Their biographies have been analysed, and the data that has been collected has enabled their précise location to be fixed on a map of 1700. Molière's ancestors, both maternal (the Cressé family) and paternal (the Pocquelin's), lived in this district. Details of their relationships with their apothecary neighbours have been revealed. PMID:27281935

  6. Historical and Metallurgical Characterization of a "Falchion" Sword Manufactured in Caino (Brescia, Italy) in the Early 17th Century A.D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonelli, G.; Faccoli, M.; Gotti, R.; Roberti, R.; Cornacchia, G.

    2016-04-01

    A historical and metallurgical characterization of a "falchion" sword manufactured in Caino (Brescia, northern Italy) and dating from the early 17th century was performed to understand the manufacture methods of a Renaissance sword. At first, a set of size measurements was carried out to look for the existence of constant and/or recurring macroscopic sizes, which would indicate a standardized production, or of any type of proportionality between different parts of a sword, which would prove an intentional design activity. Light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, quantometer analyses, and Vickers microhardness tests were then employed to analyze the microstructure and obtain the mechanical properties. All the metallurgical work is supported by an accurate study on the chemical composition of both metal-matrix and nonmetallic inclusions, which allowed for rebuilding and evaluating the efficiency of the whole production process.

  7. Comparative bioenergetics modeling of two Lake Trout morphotypes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kepler, Megan V.; Wagner, Tyler; Sweka, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to restore Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush in the Laurentian Great Lakes have been hampered for decades by several factors, including overfishing and invasive species (e.g., parasitism by Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus and reproductive deficiencies associated with consumption of Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus). Restoration efforts are complicated by the presence of multiple body forms (i.e., morphotypes) of Lake Trout that differ in habitat utilization, prey consumption, lipid storage, and spawning preferences. Bioenergetics models constitute one tool that is used to help inform management and restoration decisions; however, bioenergetic differences among morphotypes have not been evaluated. The goal of this research was to investigate bioenergetic differences between two actively stocked morphotypes: lean and humper Lake Trout. We measured consumption and respiration rates across a wide range of temperatures (4–22°C) and size-classes (5–100 g) to develop bioenergetics models for juvenile Lake Trout. Bayesian estimation was used so that uncertainty could be propagated through final growth predictions. Differences between morphotypes were minimal, but when present, the differences were temperature and weight dependent. Basal respiration did not differ between morphotypes at any temperature or size-class. When growth and consumption differed between morphotypes, the differences were not consistent across the size ranges tested. Management scenarios utilizing the temperatures presently found in the Great Lakes (e.g., predicted growth at an average temperature of 11.7°C and 14.4°C during a 30-d period) demonstrated no difference in growth between the two morphotypes. Due to a lack of consistent differences between lean and humper Lake Trout, we developed a model that combined data from both morphotypes. The combined model yielded results similar to those of the morphotype-specific models, suggesting that accounting for morphotype differences may

  8. The May 17th, 2012 M4.8 earthquake near Timpson, east Texas: Was it natural or was it induced?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. A.; Frohlich, C. A.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Luetgert, J. H.; Brunt, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    The May 17th, 2012 earthquake occurred in the early morning near Timpson, Texas, about 50 km NE of Nacogdoches, where it awakened numerous residents. The highest intensities of MMI VII occurred 5 km southwest of Timpson, where chimneys, fireplaces, and brick veneer siding suffered significant damage. This is the largest recorded earthquake in eastern Texas. Following the earthquake we installed three temporary seismographs in the epicentral area. Data from these instruments, from a permanent station in Nacogdoches (NATX), and from several temporary USArray stations allowed us to identify foreshocks and aftershocks, and obtain locations for these events. A review of the NATX seismograms revealed activity in the same location as early as April 2008. There were several foreshocks in 2010-2012; the largest, a M3.9 on May 10th, 2012, was widely felt. Following the May 17th mainshock there have been about a dozen aftershocks. The best-recorded event occurred on June 16th and its preferred location is about 3 km north of the highest-intensity area. The focal depth is poorly constrained by travel times. However, a depth of 4 km or less is consistent with S-P times of ~1.0 sec at one station and the observation of whispering gallery phases at a distance of ~30 km at station NATX. At all stations the range of S-P times for foreshocks and aftershock is only a few tenths of a second, indicating that all events originated from nearly the same focus. Four injection disposal wells are situated within a few km of the epicentral region. One of these wells has had monthly injection rates between 16,000 m3/mo and 64,000 m3/mo since 2007. In the Barnett Shale of Texas, seismic activity is sometimes associated with wells having maximum monthly rates exceeding 24,000 m3/mo. Thus it is possible that the Timpson earthquakes were induced by injection. Historical record indicates that in 1891 and 1981, well before injection began, M4.0 and M3.2 earthquakes occurred 80 km west, and 25 km

  9. The bioenergetics of salt tolerance: Final report (1)

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, L.

    1986-10-28

    Studies on the sequence of events that lead to salt adaptation in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus 6311 are reported. We present here our major findings on how this freshwater organism responds to a transition from low salt (12 M NaCl) to high salt (0.5 M NaCl) medium; we have studied immediate and long-term osmotic responses, identified deleterious effects of NaCl on cellular processes, and analyzed adaptations of the bioenergetic systems that permit Synechococcus 6311 to tolerate a high salt environment. We have also developed new electron spin resonance (ESR) methods for measuring intracellular O/sub 2/ concentrations and intracellular pH. These new methods will continue to be of great value in our future studies on the bioenergetics of salt tolerance. 26 refs.

  10. Cellular Bioenergetics as a Target for Obesity Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yu-Hua; Cypess, Aaron M.; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Summary Obesity develops when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. While most current obesity therapies are focused on reducing caloric intake, recent data suggest that increasing cellular energy expenditure (bioenergetics) may be an attractive alternative approach. This is especially true for adaptive thermogenesis - the physiological process whereby energy is dissipated in the form of heat in response to external stimuli. There have been significant recent advances in identifying factors that control the development and function of these tissues and in techniques to measure brown fat in human adults. In this review, we integrate these developments in relation to the classic understandings of cellular bioenergetics to explore the potential for developing novel anti-obesity therapies that target cellular energy expenditure. PMID:20514071

  11. Cellular bioenergetics of guanidinoacetic acid: the role of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M

    2015-10-01

    Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is a natural precursor of creatine, and a possible substrate for the creatine kinase (CK) enzyme system, serving as a creatine mimetic. Its direct role in cellular bioenergetics has been confirmed in several studies, however GAA utilization by CK seems to be a second-rate as compared to creatine, and compartment-dependent. Here we discuss various factors that might affect GAA use in high-energy phosphoryl transfer in the cytosol and mitochondria. PMID:26255041

  12. ANT2-defective fibroblasts exhibit normal mitochondrial bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Dolly; Goldstein, Amy C.; El-Khoury, Riyad; Rak, Malgorzata; Edmunds, Lia; Rustin, Pierre; Vockley, Jerry; Schiff, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Adenine nucleotide translocase 2 (ANT2) transports glycolytic ATP across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Patients with ANT2 deletion were recently reported. We aimed at characterizing mitochondrial functions in ANT2-defective fibroblasts. In spite of ANT2 expression in fibroblasts, we observed no difference between ANT2-defective and control fibroblasts for mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain activities, mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ATP levels. This indicates that ANT2 insufficiency does not alter fibroblast basal mitochondrial bioenergetics. PMID:26000237

  13. A new approach toward evaluation of fish bioenergetics models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Nortrup, David A.

    2000-01-01

    A new approach was used to evaluate the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Lake trout in laboratory tanks were fed alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), prey typical of lake trout in Lake Michigan. Food consumption and growth by lake trout during the experiment were measured. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of the alewife and rainbow smelt, as well as of the lake trout at the beginning and end of the experiment, were determined. From these data, we calculated that lake trout retained 81% of the PCBs contained within their food. In an earlier study, application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to growth and diet data for lake trout in Lake Michigan, in conjunction with PCB data for lake trout and prey fish from Lake Michigan, yielded an estimate of PCB assimilation efficiency from food of 81%. This close agreement in the estimates of efficiency with which lake trout retain PCBs from their food indicated that the bioenergetics model was furnishing accurate predictions of food consumption by lake trout in Lake Michigan.

  14. Bioenergetics, Trophic Ecology, and Niche Separation of Tunas.

    PubMed

    Olson, R J; Young, J W; Ménard, F; Potier, M; Allain, V; Goñi, N; Logan, J M; Galván-Magaña, F

    2016-01-01

    Tunas are highly specialized predators that have evolved numerous adaptations for a lifestyle that requires large amounts of energy consumption. Here we review our understanding of the bioenergetics and feeding dynamics of tunas on a global scale, with an emphasis on yellowfin, bigeye, skipjack, albacore, and Atlantic bluefin tunas. Food consumption balances bioenergetics expenditures for respiration, growth (including gonad production), specific dynamic action, egestion, and excretion. Tunas feed across the micronekton and some large zooplankton. Some tunas appear to time their life history to take advantage of ephemeral aggregations of crustacean, fish, and molluscan prey. Ontogenetic and spatial diet differences are substantial, and significant interdecadal changes in prey composition have been observed. Diet shifts from larger to smaller prey taxa highlight ecosystem-wide changes in prey availability and diversity and provide implications for changing bioenergetics requirements into the future. Where tunas overlap, we show evidence of niche separation between them; resources are divided largely by differences in diet percentages and size ranges of prey taxa. The lack of long-term data limits the ability to predict impacts of climate change on tuna feeding behaviour. We note the need for systematic collection of feeding data as part of routine monitoring of these species, and we highlight the advantages of using biochemical techniques for broad-scale analyses of trophic relations. We support the continued development of ecosystem models, which all too often lack the regional-specific trophic data needed to adequately investigate climate and fishing impacts. PMID:27573052

  15. Quantification of the Early Small-Scale Fishery in the North-Eastern Baltic Sea in the Late 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Verliin, Aare; Ojaveer, Henn; Kaju, Katre; Tammiksaar, Erki

    2013-01-01

    Historical perspectives on fisheries and related human behaviour provide valuable information on fishery resources and their exploitation, helping to more appropriately set management targets and determine relevant reference levels. In this study we analyse historical fisheries and fish trade at the north-eastern Baltic Sea coast in the late 17th century. Local consumption and export together amounted to the annual removal of about 200 tonnes of fish from the nearby sea and freshwater bodies. The fishery was very diverse and exploited altogether one cyclostome and 17 fish species with over 90% of the catch being consumed locally. The exported fish consisted almost entirely of high-valued species with Stockholm (Sweden) being the most important export destination. Due to rich political history and natural features of the region, we suggest that the documented evidence of this small-scale fishery should be considered as the first quantitative summary of exploitation of aquatic living resources in the region and can provide a background for future analyses. PMID:23861914

  16. Identification of resinous materials on 16th and 17th century reverse-glass objects by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumer, Ursula; Dietemann, Patrick; Koller, Johann

    2009-07-01

    Objects of hinterglasmalerei, reverse-glass paintings, are painted on the back side of glass panels. Obviously, the paint layers are applied in reverse order, starting with the uppermost layer. The finished hinterglas painting is viewed through the glass, thus revealing an impressive gloss and depth of colour. The binding media of two precious objects of hinterglasmalerei from the 16th and 17th century have been identified as almost exclusively resinous. Identification was performed by a special optimised analysis procedure, which is discussed in this paper: solvent extracts are analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, both with and without derivatisation or hydrolysis. In an additional step, oxalic acid is added to the methanol extracts prior to injection. This attenuates the peaks of the non-acidic compounds, whereas the acids elute with good resolution. The non-acidic compounds are emphasised after injection of the underivatised extracts. This approach minimises compositional changes caused by the sample preparation and derivatisation steps. Chromatograms of aged samples with a very complex composition are simplified, which allows a more reliable and straightforward identification of significant markers for various materials. The binding media of the hinterglas objects were thus shown to consist of mixtures of different natural resins, larch turpentine, heat-treated Pinaceae resin or mastic. Typical compounds of dragon's blood, a natural red resin, were also detectable in red glazes by the applied analysis routine. Identification of the binding media provides valuable information that can be used in the development of an adequate conservation treatment.

  17. The Teaching of Russian Language and Literature in Europe = L'enseignement de la langue et de la litterature russes en Europe = Prepodavanie russkogo yaeyka i literatury v Europe. Proceedings of the AIMAV Seminar (17th, Brussels, Belgium, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankoff, Jean, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from the Proceedings of the 17th meeting of the AIMAV (Association internationale pour le developpement de la communication interculturelle) are collected in this volume. Conference papers appear either in English, in French, or in Russian. For purposes of this abstract, all titles below have been translated into English. The…

  18. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  19. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  20. PREFACE: 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP): Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Nesheva, Diana; Pecheva, Emilia; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2012-12-01

    We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The Chairman of the School was Professor Alexander G Petrov. Like prior events, the School took place in the beautiful Black Sea resort of Saints Constantine and Helena near Varna, going back to the refurbished facilities of the Panorama hotel. Participants from 17 different countries delivered 31 invited lecturers and 78 posters, contributing through three sessions of poster presentations. Papers submitted to the Proceedings were refereed according to the high standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series and the accepted papers illustrate the diversity and the high level of the contributions. Not least significant factor for the success of the 17 ISCMP was the social program, both the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and the variety of pleasant local restaurants and beaches. Visits to the Archaeological Museum (rich in valuable gold treasures of the ancient Thracian culture) and to the famous rock monastery Aladja were organized for the participants from the Varna Municipality. These Proceedings are published for the second time by the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are grateful to the Journal's staff for supporting this idea. The Committee decided that the next event will take place again in Saints Constantine and Helena, 1-5 September 2014. It will be entitled: Challenges of the Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials and Applications. Doriana Dimova-Malinovska, Diana Nesheva, Emilia Pecheva, Alexander G Petrov and Marina T Primatarowa Editors

  1. N-acetylglucosamine inhibits T-helper 1 (Th1)/T-helper 17 (Th17) cell responses and treats experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Grigorian, Ani; Araujo, Lindsey; Naidu, Nandita N; Place, Dylan J; Choudhury, Biswa; Demetriou, Michael

    2011-11-18

    Current treatments and emerging oral therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) are limited by effectiveness, cost, and/or toxicity. Genetic and environmental factors that alter the branching of Asn (N)-linked glycans result in T cell hyperactivity, promote spontaneous inflammatory demyelination and neurodegeneration in mice, and converge to regulate the risk of MS. The sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) enhances N-glycan branching and inhibits T cell activity and adoptive transfer experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we report that oral GlcNAc inhibits T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 17 (Th17) responses and attenuates the clinical severity of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE when administered after disease onset. Oral GlcNAc increased expression of branched N-glycans in T cells in vivo as shown by high pH anion exchange chromatography, MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy and FACS analysis with the plant lectin l-phytohemagglutinin. Initiating oral GlcNAc treatment on the second day of clinical disease inhibited MOG-induced EAE as well as secretion of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-17, and interleukin-22. In the more severe 2D2 T cell receptor transgenic EAE model, oral GlcNAc initiated after disease onset also inhibits clinical disease, except for those with rapid lethal progression. These data suggest that oral GlcNAc may provide an inexpensive and nontoxic oral therapeutic agent for MS that directly targets an underlying molecular mechanism causal of disease. PMID:21965673

  2. Social differences in oral health: Dental status of individuals buried in and around Trakai Church in Lithuania (16th-17th c.c.).

    PubMed

    Miliauskienė, Žydrūnė; Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of social differences in dental health is based on the assumption that individuals belonging to a higher social class consumed a different diet than a common people. The aim of our study was to analyse and compare dental health of 16(th) - 17(th) c. individuals, buried inside and around the Roman Catholic Church in Trakai (Lithuania). All material (189 adult individuals) was divided in two samples of a presumably different social status: the Churchyard (ordinary townsmen) and the Presbytery (elite). Dental status analysis included that of tooth loss, tooth wear, caries, abscesses and calculus. Results revealed higher prevalence of dental disease in the Churchyard sample compared to the Presbytery. Individuals buried around the church had statistically higher prevalence of caries, antemortem tooth loss and abscesses compared to those who were buried inside the church. The Churchyard sample was also characterised by a higher increase in severity of caries with age, and a more rapid tooth wear. Differences in dental health between the samples the most probably reflect different dietary habits of people from different social groups: poor quality carbohydrate based diet of laymen buried in the churchyard and more varied diet with proteins and of a better quality of local elite, buried inside the church. Substantial sex differences in dental health were found only in the Churchyard sample: males had statistically higher prevalence of abscesses and calculus, while females had higher prevalence of caries and AMTL (antemortem tooth loss). Females were also characterised by a higher increase in the number of dental decay and tooth loss with age and had higher prevalence of gross caries, which indicates a more rapid progression of the disease. Worse dental health of females could be a result of culturally based dietary differences between females (more carbohydrates) and males (more proteins) and different physiological demands (hormonal fluctuations and

  3. Applications of bioenergetics models to fish ecology and management: where do we go from here?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Boisclair, Daniel; Brandt, Stephen B.; Hewett, Steven W.; Kitchell, James F.; Lucas, Martyn C.; Ney, John J.

    1993-01-01

    Papers and panel discussions given during a 1992 symposium on bioenergetics models are summarized. Bioenergetics models have been applied to a variety of research and management questions related to fish stocks, populations, food webs, and ecosystems. Applications include estimates of the intensity and dynamics of predator-prey interactions, nutrient cycling within aquatic food webs of varying trophic structure, and food requirements of single animals, whole populations, and communities of fishes. As tools in food web and ecosystem applications, bioenergetics models have been used to compare forage consumption by salmonid predators across the Laurentian Great Lakes for single populations and whole communities, and to estimate the growth potential of pelagic predators in Chesapeake Bay and Lake Ontario. Some critics say that bioenergetics models lack sufficient detail to produce reliable results in such field applications, whereas others say that the models are too complex to be useful tools for fishery managers. Nevertheless, bioenergetics models have achieved notable predictive successes. Improved estimates are needed for model parameters such as metabolic costs of activity, and more complete studies are needed of the bioenergetics of larval and juvenile fishes. Future research on bioenergetics should include laboratory and field measurements of key model parameters such as weight-dependent maximum consumption, respiration and activity, and thermal habitats actually occupied by fish. Future applications of bioenergetics models to fish populations also depend on accurate estimates of population sizes and survival rates.

  4. Pathways and Bioenergetics of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Sousa, Diana Z.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO-rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis, and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved. PMID:26635746

  5. Reconstructing hydroclimatic variability of the Bermejo River (Subtropical Andes of Argentina-Bolivia) through Archival Documents - 17th to 20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rosario Prieto, M.; Cueto, C.

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use climatic history for contributing to the general objectives of the IAI -CRN II-047 Project. It will reconstruct, from archival documents, the hydroclimatic variability occurring in the high basin of the Bermejo River during the last centuries and its effects on the floods and swellings in the middle basin. The Río Bermejo in the Southern Andes, is a binational (Argentina-Bolivia) river that contributes the largest proportion of the sediment load to the La Plata basin. Its headwaters are in the Subtropical Andes, near Tarija, Bolivia (22?00'14"S, 64?57'38"W). The main headwater tributaries are the Río Grande de Tarija, in Bolivia and the Iruya and San Francisco Rivers in Argentina. When the river abandons the mountain and turns eastwards (Gran Chaco), it acquires the characteristics of typical lowland rivers, widens its course, and occupies a large, low sedimentary plain with vast floodland areas. Quite often during very high sediment discharge the main river avulses and changes its course, creating big alluvial plains that are occupied for many years. Administrative documents from the colonial and republican periods have provided useful information to reconstruct climate and hydrology of the region. Documents from the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Archivo Nacional de Bolivia and Archivo General de la Nación (Argentina) have been used to identify extreme floods and swellings in the high and middle-basin of the Rio Bermejo from the 17th century to the first decades of the 20th century. Old maps of the region, reports from annals, chronicles, priests' and travelers' descriptions were also used. Diaries written by the military, explorers and government officials in charge of discovering and taking possession of the territory also provide important sources of information. The archival documents show abrupt hydrological changes in response to the climatic fluctuations in the headwaters region. These records document

  6. A full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna.

    PubMed

    Jusup, Marko; Klanjscek, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Kooijman, S A L M

    2011-01-01

    We formulated a full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna relying on the principles of Dynamic Energy Budget theory. Traditional bioenergetic models in fish research deduce energy input and utilization from observed growth and reproduction. In contrast, our model predicts growth and reproduction from food availability and temperature in the environment. We calibrated the model to emulate physiological characteristics of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis, hereafter PBT), a species which has received considerable scientific attention due to its high economic value. Computer simulations suggest that (i) the main cause of different growth rates between cultivated and wild PBT is the difference in average body temperature of approximately 6.5°C, (ii) a well-fed PBT individual can spawn an average number of 9 batches per spawning season, (iii) food abundance experienced by wild PBT is rather constant and sufficiently high to provide energy for yearly reproductive cycle, (iv) energy in reserve is exceptionally small, causing the weight-length relationship of cultivated and wild PBT to be practically indistinguishable and suggesting that these fish are poorly equipped to deal with starvation, (v) accelerated growth rate of PBT larvae is connected to morphological changes prior to metamorphosis, while (vi) deceleration of growth rate in the early juvenile stage is related to efficiency of internal heat production. Based on these results, we discuss a number of physiological and ecological traits of PBT, including the reasons for high Feed Conversion Ratio recorded in bluefin tuna aquaculture. PMID:21779352

  7. Increased mitochondrial arginine metabolism supports bioenergetics in asthma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weiling; Ghosh, Sudakshina; Comhair, Suzy A.A.; Asosingh, Kewal; Janocha, Allison J.; Mavrakis, Deloris A.; Bennett, Carole D.; Gruca, Lourdes L.; Graham, Brian B.; Queisser, Kimberly A.; Kao, Christina C.; Wedes, Samuel H.; Petrich, John M.; Tuder, Rubin M.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2016-01-01

    High levels of arginine metabolizing enzymes, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase (ARG), are typical in asthmatic airway epithelium; however, little is known about the metabolic effects of enhanced arginine flux in asthma. Here, we demonstrated that increased metabolism sustains arginine availability in asthmatic airway epithelium with consequences for bioenergetics and inflammation. Expression of iNOS, ARG2, arginine synthetic enzymes, and mitochondrial respiratory complexes III and IV was elevated in asthmatic lung samples compared with healthy controls. ARG2 overexpression in a human bronchial epithelial cell line accelerated oxidative bioenergetic pathways and suppressed hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and phosphorylation of the signal transducer for atopic Th2 inflammation STAT6 (pSTAT6), both of which are implicated in asthma etiology. Arg2-deficient mice had lower mitochondrial membrane potential and greater HIF-2α than WT animals. In an allergen-induced asthma model, mice lacking Arg2 had greater Th2 inflammation than WT mice, as indicated by higher levels of pSTAT6, IL-13, IL-17, eotaxin, and eosinophils and more mucus metaplasia. Bone marrow transplants from Arg2-deficient mice did not affect airway inflammation in recipient mice, supporting resident lung cells as the drivers of elevated Th2 inflammation. These data demonstrate that arginine flux preserves cellular respiration and suppresses pathological signaling events that promote inflammation in asthma. PMID:27214549

  8. Bioenergetic and physiological studies of hyperthermophilic archaea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.M.

    1999-03-01

    This project focuses on physiological and bioenergetic characteristics of two representative hyperthermophilic archaea: Thermococcus litoralis (T{sub opt} 88 C) and Pyrococcus furiosus (T{sub opt} 98 C). Both are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs which grow in the presence or absence of reducible sulfur compounds. T. litoralis was studied in relation to information previously developed for P. furiosus: effect of sulfur reduction on bioenergetics, preferred fermentation patterns, tungsten requirement, etc. A defined medium was developed for T. litoralis consisting of amino acids, vitamins and nucleotides. This serves as the basis for continuous culture studies probing metabolic response to media changes. P. furiosus and T. litoralis have also been found to produce a polysaccharide in the presence of maltose and yeast extract. The composition and chemical structure of this polysaccharide was investigated as well as the metabolic motivation for its production. A novel and, perhaps, primitive intracellular proteolytic complex (previously designated as protease S66) in P. furiosus was isolated and the gene encoding the subunit of the complex was cloned, sequenced and the protease expressed in active form in Eschericia coli. Among other issues, the role of this complex in protein turnover and stress response was examined in the context of this organism in addition to comparing it to other complexes in eubacterial and eukaryotic cells. Biochemical characteristics of the protease have been measured in addition to examining other proteolytic species in P. furiosus.

  9. The epigenome and the mitochondrion: bioenergetics and the environment [corrected].

    PubMed

    Wallace, Douglas C

    2010-08-01

    In the July 15, 2010, issue of Genes & Development, Yoon and colleagues (pp. 1507-1518) report that, in a siRNA knockdown survey of 6363 genes in mouse C2C12 cells, they discovered 150 genes that regulated mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics. Many of these genes have been studied previously for their importance in regulating transcription, protein and nucleic acid modification, and signal transduction. Some notable examples include Brac1, Brac2, Pax4, Sin3A, Fyn, Fes, Map2k7, Map3k2, calmodulin 3, Camk1, Ube3a, and Wnt. Yoon and colleagues go on to validate their observations by extensively documenting the role of Wnt signaling in the regulation of mitochondrial function.

  10. Bioenergetic Constraints on the Evolution of Complex Life

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Nick

    2014-01-01

    All morphologically complex life on Earth, beyond the level of cyanobacteria, is eukaryotic. All eukaryotes share a common ancestor that was already a complex cell. Despite their biochemical virtuosity, prokaryotes show little tendency to evolve eukaryotic traits or large genomes. Here I argue that prokaryotes are constrained by their membrane bioenergetics, for fundamental reasons relating to the origin of life. Eukaryotes arose in a rare endosymbiosis between two prokaryotes, which broke the energetic constraints on prokaryotes and gave rise to mitochondria. Loss of almost all mitochondrial genes produced an extreme genomic asymmetry, in which tiny mitochondrial genomes support, energetically, a massive nuclear genome, giving eukaryotes three to five orders of magnitude more energy per gene than prokaryotes. The requirement for endosymbiosis radically altered selection on eukaryotes, potentially explaining the evolution of unique traits, including the nucleus, sex, two sexes, speciation, and aging. PMID:24789818

  11. Shedding light on fish otolith biomineralization using a bioenergetic approach.

    PubMed

    Fablet, Ronan; Pecquerie, Laure; de Pontual, Hélène; Høie, Hans; Millner, Richard; Mosegaard, Henrik; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths are biocalcified bodies connected to the sensory system in the inner ears of fish. Their layered, biorhythm-following formation provides individual records of the age, the individual history and the natural environment of extinct and living fish species. Such data are critical for ecosystem and fisheries monitoring. They however often lack validation and the poor understanding of biomineralization mechanisms has led to striking examples of misinterpretations and subsequent erroneous conclusions in fish ecology and fisheries management. Here we develop and validate a numerical model of otolith biomineralization. Based on a general bioenergetic theory, it disentangles the complex interplay between metabolic and temperature effects on biomineralization. This model resolves controversial issues and explains poorly understood observations of otolith formation. It represents a unique simulation tool to improve otolith interpretation and applications, and, beyond, to address the effects of both climate change and ocean acidification on other biomineralizing organisms such as corals and bivalves.

  12. Review of methods to probe single cell metabolism and bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Single cell investigations have enabled unexpected discoveries, such as the existence of biological noise and phenotypic switching in infection, metabolism and treatment. Herein, we review methods that enable such single cell investigations specific to metabolism and bioenergetics. Firstly, we discuss how to isolate and immobilize individuals from a cell suspension, including both permanent and reversible approaches. We also highlight specific advances in microbiology for its implications in metabolic engineering. Methods for probing single cell physiology and metabolism are subsequently reviewed. The primary focus therein is on dynamic and high-content profiling strategies based on label-free and fluorescence microspectroscopy and microscopy. Non-dynamic approaches, such as mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, are also briefly discussed. PMID:25448400

  13. Shedding Light on Fish Otolith Biomineralization Using a Bioenergetic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fablet, Ronan; Pecquerie, Laure; de Pontual, Hélène; Høie, Hans; Millner, Richard; Mosegaard, Henrik; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths are biocalcified bodies connected to the sensory system in the inner ears of fish. Their layered, biorhythm-following formation provides individual records of the age, the individual history and the natural environment of extinct and living fish species. Such data are critical for ecosystem and fisheries monitoring. They however often lack validation and the poor understanding of biomineralization mechanisms has led to striking examples of misinterpretations and subsequent erroneous conclusions in fish ecology and fisheries management. Here we develop and validate a numerical model of otolith biomineralization. Based on a general bioenergetic theory, it disentangles the complex interplay between metabolic and temperature effects on biomineralization. This model resolves controversial issues and explains poorly understood observations of otolith formation. It represents a unique simulation tool to improve otolith interpretation and applications, and, beyond, to address the effects of both climate change and ocean acidification on other biomineralizing organisms such as corals and bivalves. PMID:22110601

  14. A Bioenergetic Basis for Membrane Divergence in Archaea and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sojo, Víctor; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Lane, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Membrane bioenergetics are universal, yet the phospholipid membranes of archaea and bacteria—the deepest branches in the tree of life—are fundamentally different. This deep divergence in membrane chemistry is reflected in other stark differences between the two domains, including ion pumping and DNA replication. We resolve this paradox by considering the energy requirements of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). We develop a mathematical model based on the premise that LUCA depended on natural proton gradients. Our analysis shows that such gradients can power carbon and energy metabolism, but only in leaky cells with a proton permeability equivalent to fatty acid vesicles. Membranes with lower permeability (equivalent to modern phospholipids) collapse free-energy availability, precluding exploitation of natural gradients. Pumping protons across leaky membranes offers no advantage, even when permeability is decreased 1,000-fold. We hypothesize that a sodium-proton antiporter (SPAP) provided the first step towards modern membranes. SPAP increases the free energy available from natural proton gradients by ∼60%, enabling survival in 50-fold lower gradients, thereby facilitating ecological spread and divergence. Critically, SPAP also provides a steadily amplifying advantage to proton pumping as membrane permeability falls, for the first time favoring the evolution of ion-tight phospholipid membranes. The phospholipids of archaea and bacteria incorporate different stereoisomers of glycerol phosphate. We conclude that the enzymes involved took these alternatives by chance in independent populations that had already evolved distinct ion pumps. Our model offers a quantitatively robust explanation for why membrane bioenergetics are universal, yet ion pumps and phospholipid membranes arose later and independently in separate populations. Our findings elucidate the paradox that archaea and bacteria share DNA transcription, ribosomal translation, and ATP synthase

  15. Ontogeny of muscle bioenergetics in Adelie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    PubMed

    Fongy, Anaïs; Romestaing, Caroline; Blanc, Coralie; Lacoste-Garanger, Nicolas; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Raccurt, Mireille; Duchamp, Claude

    2013-11-01

    The ontogeny of pectoralis muscle bioenergetics was studied in growing Adélie penguin chicks during the first month after hatching and compared with adults using permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria. With pyruvate-malate-succinate or palmitoyl-carnitine as substrates, permeabilized fiber respiration markedly increased during chick growth (3-fold) and further rose in adults (1.4-fold). Several markers of muscle fiber oxidative activity (cytochrome oxidase, citrate synthase, hydroxyl-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) increased 6- to 19-fold with age together with large rises in intermyofibrillar (IMF) and subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondrial content (3- to 5-fold) and oxidative activities (1.5- to 2.4-fold). The proportion of IMF relative to SS mitochondria increased with chick age but markedly dropped in adults. Differences in oxidative activity between mitochondrial fractions were reduced in adults compared with hatched chicks. Extrapolation of mitochondrial to muscle respirations revealed similar figures with isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibers with carbohydrate-derived but not with lipid-derived substrates, suggesting diffusion limitations of lipid substrates with permeabilized fibers. Two immunoreactive fusion proteins, mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), were detected by Western blots on mitochondrial extracts and their relative abundance increased with age. Muscle fiber respiration was positively related with Mfn2 and OPA1 relative abundance. Present data showed by two complementary techniques large ontogenic increases in muscle oxidative activity that may enable birds to face thermal emancipation and growth in childhood and marine life in adulthood. The concomitant rise in mitochondrial fusion protein abundance suggests a role of mitochondrial networks in the skeletal muscle processes of bioenergetics that enable penguins to overcome harsh environmental constraints.

  16. Laboratory evaluation of a lake trout bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.

    1999-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, aged 3 and 6 years and with average weights of 700 and 2,000 g, were grown in laboratory tanks for up to 407 d under a thermal regime similar to that experienced by lake trout in nearshore Lake Michigan. Lake trout were fed alewifeAlosa pseudoharengus and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, prey typical of lake trout in Lake Michigan. Of the 120 lake trout used in the experiment, 40 were fed a low ration (0.25% of their body weight per day), 40 were fed a medium ration (0.5% of their body weight per day), and 40 were fed a high ration (ad libitum). We measured consumption and growth, and we compared observed consumption with that predicted by the Wisconsin bioenergetics model. For lake trout fed the medium ration, model predictions for monthly consumption were unbiased. Moreover, predicted cumulative consumption by medium-ration lake trout for the entire experiment (320 d for smaller lake trout and 407 d for larger lake trout) agreed quite well with observed cumulative consumption; predictions were as close as within 0.1 to 5.2% of observed cumulative consumption. Even so, the model consistently overestimated consumption by low-ration fish and underestimated consumption by high-ration fish. The bias was significant in both cases, but was more severe for the low-ration trout. Because the low-ration and high-ration regimes were probably unrealistic for lake trout residing in Lake Michigan and because the model fit our laboratory data rather well for medium-ration trout, we conclude that applying the Wisconsin bioenergetics model to the Lake Michigan lake trout population in order to estimate the amount of prey fish consumed by lake trout each year is appropriate.

  17. Oxaloacetate enhances neuronal cell bioenergetic fluxes and infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Heather M; Koppel, Scott; Carl, Steven M; Ramanujan, Suruchi; Weidling, Ian; Michaelis, Mary L; Michaelis, Elias K; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2016-04-01

    We tested how the addition of oxaloacetate (OAA) to SH-SY5Y cells affected bioenergetic fluxes and infrastructure, and compared the effects of OAA to malate, pyruvate, and glucose deprivation. OAA displayed pro-glycolysis and pro-respiration effects. OAA pro-glycolysis effects were not a consequence of decarboxylation to pyruvate because unlike OAA, pyruvate lowered the glycolysis flux. Malate did not alter glycolysis flux and reduced mitochondrial respiration. Glucose deprivation essentially eliminated glycolysis and increased mitochondrial respiration. OAA increased, while malate decreased, the cell NAD+/NADH ratio. Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase 1 protein increased with OAA treatment, but not with malate or glucose deprivation. Glucose deprivation increased protein levels of ATP citrate lyase, an enzyme which produces cytosolic OAA, whereas OAA altered neither ATP citrate lyase mRNA nor protein levels. OAA, but not glucose deprivation, increased cytochrome oxidase subunit 2, PGC1α, PGC1β, and PGC1 related co-activator protein levels. OAA increased total and phosphorylated SIRT1 protein. We conclude that adding OAA to SH-SY5Y cells can support or enhance both glycolysis and respiration fluxes. These effects appear to depend, at least partly, on OAA causing a shift in the cell redox balance to a more oxidized state, that it is not a glycolysis pathway intermediate, and possibly its ability to act in an anaplerotic fashion. We examined how oxaloacetate (OAA) affects bioenergetic fluxes. To advance the understanding of how OAA mediates these changes, we compared the effects of OAA to malate, pyruvate, and glucose deprivation. We further examined how OAA affects levels of enzymes that facilitate its cytosolic metabolism, and found OAA increased the expression of malate dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1-cytosolic). We propose the following: OAA supports both glycolysis and respiration fluxes, shifts the cell redox balance toward a more oxidized state, and acts in an anaplerotic

  18. Estrogen: A master regulator of bioenergetic systems in the brain and body

    PubMed Central

    Rettberg, Jamaica R; Yao, Jia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen is a fundamental regulator of the metabolic system of the female brain and body. Within the brain, estrogen regulates glucose transport, aerobic glycolysis, and mitochondrial function to generate ATP. In the body, estrogen protects against adiposity, insulin resistance, and type II diabetes, and regulates energy intake and expenditure. During menopause, decline in circulating estrogen is coincident with decline in brain bioenergetics and shift towards a metabolically compromised phenotype. Compensatory bioenergetic adaptations, or lack thereof, to estrogen loss could determine risk of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Estrogen coordinates brain and body metabolism, such that peripheral metabolic state can indicate bioenergetic status of the brain. By generating biomarker profiles that encompass peripheral metabolic changes occurring with menopause, individual risk profiles for decreased brain bioenergetics and cognitive decline can be created. Biomarker profiles could identify women at risk while also serving as indicators of efficacy of hormone therapy or other preventative interventions. PMID:23994581

  19. Estrogen: a master regulator of bioenergetic systems in the brain and body.

    PubMed

    Rettberg, Jamaica R; Yao, Jia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen is a fundamental regulator of the metabolic system of the female brain and body. Within the brain, estrogen regulates glucose transport, aerobic glycolysis, and mitochondrial function to generate ATP. In the body, estrogen protects against adiposity, insulin resistance, and type II diabetes, and regulates energy intake and expenditure. During menopause, decline in circulating estrogen is coincident with decline in brain bioenergetics and shift towards a metabolically compromised phenotype. Compensatory bioenergetic adaptations, or lack thereof, to estrogen loss could determine risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Estrogen coordinates brain and body metabolism, such that peripheral metabolic state can indicate bioenergetic status of the brain. By generating biomarker profiles that encompass peripheral metabolic changes occurring with menopause, individual risk profiles for decreased brain bioenergetics and cognitive decline can be created. Biomarker profiles could identify women at risk while also serving as indicators of efficacy of hormone therapy or other preventative interventions. PMID:23994581

  20. Mitochondrial bioenergetics in young, adult, middle-age and senescent brown Norway rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and may play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence and age-related neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. However, mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters have not been systematically evaluated under identi...

  1. Emerging concepts in bioenergetics and cancer research: metabolic flexibility, coupling, symbiosis, switch, oxidative tumors, metabolic remodeling, signaling and bioenergetic therapy.

    PubMed

    Obre, Emilie; Rossignol, Rodrigue

    2015-02-01

    The field of energy metabolism dramatically progressed in the last decade, owing to a large number of cancer studies, as well as fundamental investigations on related transcriptional networks and cellular interactions with the microenvironment. The concept of metabolic flexibility was clarified in studies showing the ability of cancer cells to remodel the biochemical pathways of energy transduction and linked anabolism in response to glucose, glutamine or oxygen deprivation. A clearer understanding of the large-scale bioenergetic impact of C-MYC, MYCN, KRAS and P53 was obtained, along with its modification during the course of tumor development. The metabolic dialog between different types of cancer cells, but also with the stroma, also complexified the understanding of bioenergetics and raised the concepts of metabolic symbiosis and reverse Warburg effect. Signaling studies revealed the role of respiratory chain-derived reactive oxygen species for metabolic remodeling and metastasis development. The discovery of oxidative tumors in human and mice models related to chemoresistance also changed the prevalent view of dysfunctional mitochondria in cancer cells. Likewise, the influence of energy metabolism-derived oncometabolites emerged as a new means of tumor genetic regulation. The knowledge obtained on the multi-site regulation of energy metabolism in tumors was translated to cancer preclinical studies, supported by genetic proof of concept studies targeting LDHA, HK2, PGAM1, or ACLY. Here, we review those different facets of metabolic remodeling in cancer, from its diversity in physiology and pathology, to the search of the genetic determinants, the microenvironmental regulators and pharmacological modulators.

  2. [Pierre and Philippe Ranquet, father and son, apothecaries in rue Saint-Honoré, Paris in the 17th century, suppliers to the duchess of Vendôme].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2008-05-01

    This research concerns two apothecaries in Paris living in the rue Saint-Honoré in the 17th century. Pierre Ranquet, father of Philippe Ranquet, was apothecary to the Duchess of Mercoeur and her daughter the Duchess of Vendôme, members of the nobility. Philippe was a member of the community of apothecary-grocers of Paris, keeping shop and dispensing drugs to a large clientele in the Saint-Honoré district, including many noblemen and women. He became supplier to the Duchess of Vendôme following the death of his father in 1652. PMID:19069198

  3. Adolescent growth: genes, hormones and the peer group. Proceedings of the 20th Aschauer Soiree, held at Glücksburg castle, Germany, 15th to 17th November 2013.

    PubMed

    Hermanussen, M; Meitinger, T; Veldhuis, J D; Low, M J; Pfäffle, R; Staub, K; Panczak, R; Groth, D; Brabec, M; von Salisch, M; Loh, C P A; Tassenaar, V; Scheffler, C; Mumm, R; Godina, E; Lehmann, A; Tutkuviene, J; Gervickaite, S; Nierop, A F M; Holmgren, A; Assmann, C; van Buuren, S; Koziel, S; Zadzińska, E; Varela-Silva, I; Vignerová, J; Salama, E; El-Shabrawi, M; Huiji, A; Satake, T; Bogin, B

    2014-03-01

    The association between poverty, malnutrition, illness and poor socioeconomic conditions on the one side, and poor growth and short adult stature on the other side, is well recognized. Yet, the simple assumption by implication that poor growth and short stature result from poor living conditions, should be questioned. Recent evidence on the impact of the social network on adolescent growth and adult height further challenges the traditional concept of growth being a mirror of health. Twenty-nine scientists met at Glücksburg castle, Northern Germany, November 15th - 17th 2013, to discuss genetic, endocrine, mathematical and psychological aspects and related issues, of child and adolescent growth and final height.

  4. Biochemical fossils of the ancient transition from geoenergetics to bioenergetics in prokaryotic one carbon compound metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Filipa L; Martin, William F

    2014-07-01

    The deep dichotomy of archaea and bacteria is evident in many basic traits including ribosomal protein composition, membrane lipid synthesis, cell wall constituents, and flagellar composition. Here we explore that deep dichotomy further by examining the distribution of genes for the synthesis of the central carriers of one carbon units, tetrahydrofolate (H4F) and tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT), in bacteria and archaea. The enzymes underlying those distinct biosynthetic routes are broadly unrelated across the bacterial-archaeal divide, indicating that the corresponding pathways arose independently. That deep divergence in one carbon metabolism is mirrored in the structurally unrelated enzymes and different organic cofactors that methanogens (archaea) and acetogens (bacteria) use to perform methyl synthesis in their H4F- and H4MPT-dependent versions, respectively, of the acetyl-CoA pathway. By contrast, acetyl synthesis in the acetyl-CoA pathway - from a methyl group, CO2 and reduced ferredoxin - is simpler, uniform and conserved across acetogens and methanogens, and involves only transition metals as catalysts. The data suggest that the acetyl-CoA pathway, while being the most ancient of known CO2 assimilation pathways, reflects two phases in early evolution: an ancient phase in a geochemically confined and non-free-living universal common ancestor, in which acetyl thioester synthesis proceeded spontaneously with the help of geochemically supplied methyl groups, and a later phase that reflects the primordial divergence of the bacterial and archaeal stem groups, which independently invented genetically-encoded means to synthesize methyl groups via enzymatic reactions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 18th European Bioenergetic Conference.

  5. The Bioenergetic Health Index is a sensitive measure of oxidative stress in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Balu K; Zhi, Degui; Darley-Usmar, Victor M; Mitchell, Tanecia

    2016-08-01

    Metabolic and bioenergetic dysfunction are associated with oxidative stress and thought to be a common underlying mechanism of chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. Recent findings support an emerging concept that circulating leukocytes and platelets can act as sensors or biomarkers of mitochondrial function in patients subjected to metabolic diseases. It is proposed that systemic stress-induced alterations in leukocyte bioenergetics are the consequence of several factors including reactive oxygen species. This suggests that oxidative stress mediated changes in leukocyte mitochondrial function could be used as an indicator of bioenergetic health in individuals. To test this concept, we investigated the effect of the redox cycling agent, 2,3 dimethoxynaphthoquinone (DMNQ) on the bioenergetic profiles of monocytes isolated from healthy human subjects using the extracellular flux analyzer. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that the bioenergetic health index (BHI), a single value that represents the bioenergetic health of individuals, is dynamically sensitive to oxidative stress in human monocytes. DMNQ decreased monocyte ATP-linked respiration, maximal respiration, and reserve capacity and caused an increase in proton leak and non-mitochondrial respiration compared to monocytes not treated with DMNQ. The BHI was a more sensitive indicator of the DMNQ-dependent changes in bioenergetics than any individual parameter. These data suggest that monocytes are susceptible to oxidative stress mediated by DMNQ and this can be accurately assessed by the BHI. Taken together, our findings suggest that the BHI has the potential to act as a functional biomarker of the impact of systemic oxidative stress in patients with metabolic disorders.

  6. Beluga (Huso huso, Brandet 1869) bioenergetics under dietary methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Gharaei, A; Esmaili-Sari, A; Jafari-Shamoshaki, V; Ghaffari, M

    2008-12-01

    Recently, there have been reports of increasing amounts of mercury (Hg) in muscles of beluga (Huso huso, Brandet 1869) in the Caspian Sea which exceeds its guideline level for food in the UK. Our intensive effort was to investigate the effects of dietary methylmercury (MeHg) on Beluga bioenergetics. Beluga juveniles were fed with four diets containing MeHg (control: 0.04 mg kg(-1); low: 0.76 mg kg(-1); medium: 7.88 mg kg(-1); and high: 16.22 mg kg(-1)) for 70 days. There were significant differences in food consumption among the treatment groups. After 42 days, all individuals of the high dose died. After 35 and 70 days, all treatment groups (low, medium and high) showed a significant decline in their growth rate, unlike the control group. They also showed considerable lower specific growth rates (SGR) comparing to the control group. All treatment groups assimilated the dietary MeHg into their muscle tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Assimilation percent was significant among the treatment groups at days 35 and 70, but it was lower in the first 35 days than in the second 35 days. The data obtained from the dietary MeHg concentration and bioaccumulation rates were modeled for better natural resources management of the Caspian Sea.

  7. H2 cycling and microbial bioenergetics in anoxic sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The simple biochemistry of H2 is central to a large number of microbial processes, affecting the interaction of organisms with each other and with the environment. In anoxic sediments, the great majority of microbial redox processes involve H2 as a reactant, product, or potential by-product, and the thermodynamics of these processes are thus highly sensitive to fluctuations in environmental H2 concentrations. In turn, H2 concentrations are controlled by the activity of H2-consuming microorganisms, which efficiently utilize this substrate down to levels which correspond to their bioenergetic limitations. Consequently, any environmental change which impacts the thermodynamics of H2-consuming organisms is mirrored by a corresponding change in H2 concentrations. This phenomenon is illustrated in anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, USA: H2 concentrations are controlled by a suite of environmental parameters (e.g., temperature, sulfate concentrations) in a fashion which can be quantitatively described by a simple thermodynamic model. These findings allow us to calculate the apparent minimum quantity of biologically useful energy in situ. We find that sulfate reducing bacteria are not active at energy yields below -18 kJ per mole sulfate, while methanogenic archaea exhibit a minimum close to -10 kJ per mole methane.

  8. Control of respiration and bioenergetics during muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Chung, Youngran; Molé, Paul A; Sailasuta, Napapon; Tran, Tuan Khanh; Hurd, Ralph; Jue, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    (1)H-NMR experiments have determined intracellular O(2) consumption (Vo(2)) with oxymyoglobin (MbO(2)) desaturation kinetics in human calf muscle during plantar flexion exercise at 0.75, 0.92, and 1.17 Hz with a constant load. At the onset of muscle contraction, myoglobin (Mb) desaturates rapidly. The desaturation rate constant of approximately 30 s reflects the intracellular Vo(2). Although Mb desaturates quickly with a similar time constant at all workload levels, its final steady-state level differs. As work increases, the final steady-state cellular Po(2) decreases progressively. After Mb desaturation has reached a steady state, however, Vo(2) continues to rise. On the basis of current respiratory control models, the analysis in the present report reveals two distinct Vo(2) phases: an ADP-independent phase at the onset of contraction and an ADP-dependent phase after Mb has reached a steady state. In contrast to the accepted view, the initial intracellular Vo(2) shows that oxidative phosphorylation can support up to 36% of the energy cost, a significantly higher fraction than expected. Partitioning of the energy flux shows that a 31% nonoxidative component exists and responds to the dynamic energy utilization-restoration cycle (which lasts for only milliseconds) as postulated in the glycogen shunt theory. The present study offers perspectives on the regulation of respiration, bioenergetics, and Mb function during muscle contraction.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of a lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Brandt, Stephen B.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a preliminary evaluation of a lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) bioenergetics model by applying the model to size-at-age data for lake whitefish from northern Lake Michigan. We then compared estimates of gross growth efficiency (GGE) from our bioenergetis model with previously published estimates of GGE for bloater (C. hoyi) in Lake Michigan and for lake whitefish in Quebec. According to our model, the GGE of Lake Michigan lake whitefish decreased from 0.075 to 0.02 as age increased from 2 to 5 years. In contrast, the GGE of lake whitefish in Quebec inland waters decreased from 0.12 to 0.05 for the same ages. When our swimming-speed submodel was replaced with a submodel that had been used for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan and an observed predator energy density for Lake Michigan lake whitefish was employed, our model predicted that the GGE of Lake Michigan lake whitefish decreased from 0.12 to 0.04 as age increased from 2 to 5 years.

  10. BDE-154 induces mitochondrial permeability transition and impairs mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lílian Cristina; Miranda, Luiz Felippe Cabral; de Souza, Alecsandra Oliveira; Dorta, Daniel Junqueira

    2014-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants are used in various consumer goods to make these materials difficult to burn. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), which are representative of this class of retardants, consist of two benzene rings linked by an oxygen atom, and contain between 1 and 10 bromine atoms in their chemical structure, with the possibility of up to 209 different congeners. Among these congeners, BDE-154 (hexa-BDE) is persistent in the environment and easy to detect in the biota, but no apparent information regarding the mechanism underlying action and toxicity is available. Mitochondria, as the main energy-producing organelles, play an important role in the maintenance of various cellular functions. Therefore, mitochondria were used in the present study as an experimental model to determine the effects of BDE-154 congener at concentrations ranging from 0.1 μM to 50 μM. Our results demonstrated that BDE-154 interacts with the mitochondrial membrane, preferably by inserting into the hydrophobic core of the mitochondrial membrane, which partially inhibits respiration, dissipates Δψ, and permeabilizes the inner mitochondrial membrane to deplete ATP. These effects are more pronounced at concentrations equal to or higher than 10 μM. Results also showed that BDE-154 did not induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation within the mitochondria, indicating the absence of oxidative stress. Therefore, BDE-154 impairs mitochondrial bioenergetics and permeabilizes the mitochondrial membrane, potentially leading to cell death but not via mechanisms involving oxidative stress. PMID:24555644

  11. Bioenergetics breakdown in Alzheimer's disease: targets for new therapies.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Uday

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is rapidly growing worldwide and yet there is no cure for it. Currently available drugs only provide symptomatic relief and do not intervene in disease process sufficiently enough to prevent or cure it. Characteristic features of this disease are decline in neuronal mass and cognitive functions. The most dominant hypothesis proposed for pathogenesis of this disease is called "amyloid hypothesis". It states that excessive production of amyloid peptides called abeta peptides (Aβ) is the underlying cause of neuronal death and dysfunction. However, recent drugs designed based on amyloid hypothesis have failed in clinical trails, demanding fresh assessment. Early and persistent molecular events in this disease progression are energy deficiency and high oxidative stress in the neurons. Our review will put together a disease model based on known human and animal data with regards to breakdown in neuronal energy generation. The model will integrate energy deficits as the cause of neuronal dysfunction and abeta peptide production culminating in catastrophic loss of cognitive functions. Finally, based on this model, we will also suggest enzyme targets in neuronal bioenergetics pathway for design and development of new disease modifying therapies. PMID:21760971

  12. Dysfunctional mitochondrial bioenergetics and the pathogenesis of hepatic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Christopher; Alhasawi, Azhar; Contavadoo, Manuraj; Appanna, Vasu D.

    2015-01-01

    The liver is involved in a variety of critical biological functions including the homeostasis of glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, and the synthesis of proteins that are secreted in the blood. It is also at the forefront in the detoxification of noxious metabolites that would otherwise upset the functioning of the body. As such, this vital component of the mammalian system is exposed to a notable quantity of toxicants on a regular basis. It therefore comes as no surprise that there are over a hundred disparate hepatic disorders, encompassing such afflictions as fatty liver disease, hepatitis, and liver cancer. Most if not all of liver functions are dependent on energy, an ingredient that is primarily generated by the mitochondrion, the power house of all cells. This organelle is indispensable in providing adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a key effector of most biological processes. Dysfunctional mitochondria lead to a shortage in ATP, the leakage of deleterious reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the excessive storage of fats. Here we examine how incapacitated mitochondrial bioenergetics triggers the pathogenesis of various hepatic diseases. Exposure of liver cells to detrimental environmental hazards such as oxidative stress, metal toxicity, and various xenobiotics results in the inactivation of crucial mitochondrial enzymes and decreased ATP levels. The contribution of the latter to hepatic disorders and potential therapeutic cues to remedy these conditions are elaborated. PMID:26161384

  13. Bioenergetics and mitochondrial transmembrane potential during differentiation of cultured osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komarova, S. V.; Ataullakhanov, F. I.; Globus, R. K.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between osteoblast differentiation and bioenergetics, cultured primary osteoblasts from fetal rat calvaria were grown in medium supplemented with ascorbate to induce differentiation. Before ascorbate treatment, the rate of glucose consumption was 320 nmol. h(-1). 10(6) cells(-1), respiration was 40 nmol. h(-1). 10(6) cells(-1), and the ratio of lactate production to glucose consumption was approximately 2, indicating that glycolysis was the main energy source for immature osteoblasts. Ascorbate treatment for 14 days led to a fourfold increase in respiration, a threefold increase in ATP production, and a fivefold increase in ATP content compared with that shown in immature cells. Confocal imaging of mitochondria stained with a transmembrane potential-sensitive vital dye showed that mature cells possessed abundant amounts of high-transmembrane-potential mitochondria, which were concentrated near the culture medium-facing surface. Acute treatment of mature osteoblasts with metabolic inhibitors showed that the rate of glycolysis rose to maintain the cellular energy supply constant. Thus progressive differentiation coincided with changes in cellular metabolism and mitochondrial activity, which are likely to play key roles in osteoblast function.

  14. Archaeological Remains Accounting for the Presence and Exploitation of the North Atlantic Right Whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001–2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  15. Archaeological remains accounting for the presence and exploitation of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001-2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  16. Advanced and High-Throughput Method for Mitochondrial Bioenergetics Evaluation in Neurotrauma.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Jignesh D; Sullivan, Patrick G; Leung, Lai Yee; Tortella, Frank C; Shear, Deborah A; Deng-Bryant, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the key posttraumatic neuropathological events observed in various experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The extent of mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with the severity and time course of secondary injury following brain trauma. Critically, several mitochondrial targeting preclinical drugs used in experimental TBI models have shown improved mitochondrial bioenergetics, together with cortical tissue sparing and cognitive behavioral outcome. Mitochondria, being a central regulator of cellular metabolic pathways and energy producer of cells, are of a great interest for researchers aiming to adopt cutting-edge methodology for mitochondrial bioenergetics assessment. The traditional way of mitochondrial bioenergetics analysis utilizing a Clark-type oxygen electrode (aka. oxytherm) is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In the present chapter, we describe an advanced and high-throughput method for mitochondrial bioenergetics assessments utilizing the Seahorse Biosciences XF(e)24 Flux Analyzer. This allows for simultaneous measurement of multiple samples with higher efficiency than the oxytherm procedure. This chapter provides helpful guidelines for conducting mitochondrial isolation and studying mitochondrial bioenergetics in brain tissue homogenates following experimental TBI. PMID:27604740

  17. Metagenomic study of red biofilms from Diamante Lake reveals ancient arsenic bioenergetics in haloarchaea.

    PubMed

    Rascovan, Nicolás; Maldonado, Javier; Vazquez, Martín P; Eugenia Farías, María

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic metabolism is proposed to be an ancient mechanism in microbial life. Different bacteria and archaea use detoxification processes to grow under high arsenic concentration. Some of them are also able to use arsenic as a bioenergetic substrate in either anaerobic arsenate respiration or chemolithotrophic growth on arsenite. However, among the archaea, bioenergetic arsenic metabolism has only been found in the Crenarchaeota phylum. Here we report the discovery of haloarchaea (Euryarchaeota phylum) biofilms forming under the extreme environmental conditions such as high salinity, pH and arsenic concentration at 4589 m above sea level inside a volcano crater in Diamante Lake, Argentina. Metagenomic analyses revealed a surprisingly high abundance of genes used for arsenite oxidation (aioBA) and respiratory arsenate reduction (arrCBA) suggesting that these haloarchaea use arsenic compounds as bioenergetics substrates. We showed that several haloarchaea species, not only from this study, have all genes required for these bioenergetic processes. The phylogenetic analysis of aioA showed that haloarchaea sequences cluster in a novel and monophyletic group, suggesting that the origin of arsenic metabolism in haloarchaea is ancient. Our results also suggest that arsenite chemolithotrophy likely emerged within the archaeal lineage. Our results give a broad new perspective on the haloarchaea metabolism and shed light on the evolutionary history of arsenic bioenergetics. PMID:26140530

  18. Metagenomic study of red biofilms from Diamante Lake reveals ancient arsenic bioenergetics in haloarchaea.

    PubMed

    Rascovan, Nicolás; Maldonado, Javier; Vazquez, Martín P; Eugenia Farías, María

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic metabolism is proposed to be an ancient mechanism in microbial life. Different bacteria and archaea use detoxification processes to grow under high arsenic concentration. Some of them are also able to use arsenic as a bioenergetic substrate in either anaerobic arsenate respiration or chemolithotrophic growth on arsenite. However, among the archaea, bioenergetic arsenic metabolism has only been found in the Crenarchaeota phylum. Here we report the discovery of haloarchaea (Euryarchaeota phylum) biofilms forming under the extreme environmental conditions such as high salinity, pH and arsenic concentration at 4589 m above sea level inside a volcano crater in Diamante Lake, Argentina. Metagenomic analyses revealed a surprisingly high abundance of genes used for arsenite oxidation (aioBA) and respiratory arsenate reduction (arrCBA) suggesting that these haloarchaea use arsenic compounds as bioenergetics substrates. We showed that several haloarchaea species, not only from this study, have all genes required for these bioenergetic processes. The phylogenetic analysis of aioA showed that haloarchaea sequences cluster in a novel and monophyletic group, suggesting that the origin of arsenic metabolism in haloarchaea is ancient. Our results also suggest that arsenite chemolithotrophy likely emerged within the archaeal lineage. Our results give a broad new perspective on the haloarchaea metabolism and shed light on the evolutionary history of arsenic bioenergetics.

  19. Improvement of neuronal bioenergetics by neurosteroids: implications for age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Amandine; Schmitt, Karen; Lang, Undine E; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe Guy; Eckert, Anne

    2014-12-01

    The brain has high energy requirements to maintain neuronal activity. Consequently impaired mitochondrial function will lead to disease. Normal aging is associated with several alterations in neurosteroid production and secretion. Decreases in neurosteroid levels might contribute to brain aging and loss of important nervous functions, such as memory. Up to now, extensive studies only focused on estradiol as a promising neurosteroid compound that is able to ameliorate cellular bioenergetics, while the effects of other steroids on brain mitochondria are poorly understood or not investigated at all. Thus, we aimed to characterize the bioenergetic modulating profile of a panel of seven structurally diverse neurosteroids (progesterone, estradiol, estrone, testosterone, 3α-androstanediol, DHEA and allopregnanolone), known to be involved in brain function regulation. Of note, most of the steroids tested were able to improve bioenergetic activity in neuronal cells by increasing ATP levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and basal mitochondrial respiration. In parallel, they modulated redox homeostasis by increasing antioxidant activity, probably as a compensatory mechanism to a slight enhancement of ROS which might result from the rise in oxygen consumption. Thereby, neurosteroids appeared to act via their corresponding receptors and exhibited specific bioenergetic profiles. Taken together, our results indicate that the ability to boost mitochondria is not unique to estradiol, but seems to be a rather common mechanism of different steroids in the brain. Thus, neurosteroids may act upon neuronal bioenergetics in a delicate balance and an age-related steroid disturbance might be involved in mitochondrial dysfunction underlying neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25281013

  20. History of health in the Indian Ocean: care, prevention, teaching, and research from the 17(th) to the mid-20th century.

    PubMed

    Aubry, P; Gaüzère, B-A

    2016-05-01

    In 1498, the Portuguese crossed the Cape of Good Hope. It was not until the period of 1633 and 1666, dates of the founding, respectively, of the Compagnie de l'Orient and the Compagnie des Indes orientales, that the way was definitively opened for trade between France and India. Because so many sailors developed scurvy after voyages that lasted 4 to 5 months, the French settled on Bourbon Island (Réunion) and Ile de France (Mauritius), to provide them with medical care. Created in 1689 by Louis XIV, the Navy Health Service was responsible for health in the colonies until it was replaced in 1890 by the Colonial Health Service. European medicine began its slow diffusion around the Indian Ocean in Pondicherry (India). The naval doctors reported their experiences in the Archives de médecine navale (1864-1889), and the colonial doctors afterwards in the Archives de médecine navale et coloniale (1890-1896). The health system in Madagascar developed strongly during 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, and the subsequent development of health care in the other Indian Ocean islands became closely linked to that of Madagascar. On Bourbon, the two navy hospitals in Saint-Paul and Saint-Denis treated only naval and military personnel. The colony had no hospital providing care for civilians and poor people until three civilian doctors opened a maison de santé (health house) in 1846.

  1. History of health in the Indian Ocean: care, prevention, teaching, and research from the 17(th) to the mid-20th century.

    PubMed

    Aubry, P; Gaüzère, B-A

    2016-05-01

    In 1498, the Portuguese crossed the Cape of Good Hope. It was not until the period of 1633 and 1666, dates of the founding, respectively, of the Compagnie de l'Orient and the Compagnie des Indes orientales, that the way was definitively opened for trade between France and India. Because so many sailors developed scurvy after voyages that lasted 4 to 5 months, the French settled on Bourbon Island (Réunion) and Ile de France (Mauritius), to provide them with medical care. Created in 1689 by Louis XIV, the Navy Health Service was responsible for health in the colonies until it was replaced in 1890 by the Colonial Health Service. European medicine began its slow diffusion around the Indian Ocean in Pondicherry (India). The naval doctors reported their experiences in the Archives de médecine navale (1864-1889), and the colonial doctors afterwards in the Archives de médecine navale et coloniale (1890-1896). The health system in Madagascar developed strongly during 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, and the subsequent development of health care in the other Indian Ocean islands became closely linked to that of Madagascar. On Bourbon, the two navy hospitals in Saint-Paul and Saint-Denis treated only naval and military personnel. The colony had no hospital providing care for civilians and poor people until three civilian doctors opened a maison de santé (health house) in 1846. PMID:27412971

  2. On the antiquity of metalloenzymes and their substrates in bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Wolfgang; McGlynn, Shawn E; Milner-White, E James; Russell, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Many metalloenzymes that inject and extract reducing equivalents at the beginning and the end of electron transport chains involved in chemiosmosis are suggested, through phylogenetic analysis, to have been present in the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA). Their active centres are affine with the structures of minerals presumed to contribute to precipitate membranes produced on the mixing of hydrothermal solutions with the Hadean Ocean ~4 billion years ago. These mineral precipitates consist of transition element sulphides and oxides such as nickelian mackinawite ([Fe>Ni]2S2), a nickel-bearing greigite (~FeSS[Fe3NiS4]SSFe), violarite (~NiSS[Fe2Ni2S4]SSNi), a molybdenum bearing complex (~Mo(IV/VI)2Fe3S(0/2-)9) and green rust or fougerite (~[Fe(II)Fe(III)(OH)4](+)[OH](-)). They may be respectively compared with the active centres of Ni-Fe hydrogenase, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), acetyl coenzyme-A synthase (ACS), the complex iron-sulphur molybdoenzyme (CISM) superfamily and methane monooxygenase (MMO). With the look of good catalysts - a suggestion that gathers some support from prebiotic hydrothermal experimentation - and sequestered by short peptides, they could be thought of as the original building blocks of proto-enzyme active centres. This convergence of the makeup of the LUCA-metalloenzymes with mineral structure and composition of hydrothermal precipitates adds credence to the alkaline hydrothermal (chemiosmotic) theory for the emergence of life, specifically to the possibility that the first metabolic pathway - the acetyl CoA pathway - was initially driven from either end, reductively from CO2 to CO and oxidatively and reductively from CH4 through to a methane thiol group, the two entities assembled with the help of a further thiol on a violarite cluster sequestered by peptides. By contrast, the organic coenzymes were entirely a product of the first metabolic pathways. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Metals in Bioenergetics and

  3. Development and evaluation of a bioenergetics model for bull trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Welland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.; Sauter, Sally T.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to parameterize a bioenergetics model for wild Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus, estimating the effects of body mass (12–1,117 g) and temperature (3–20°C) on maximum consumption (C max) and standard metabolic rates. The temperature associated with the highest C max was 16°C, and C max showed the characteristic dome-shaped temperature-dependent response. Mass-dependent values of C max (N = 28) at 16°C ranged from 0.03 to 0.13 g·g−1·d−1. The standard metabolic rates of fish (N = 110) ranged from 0.0005 to 0.003 g·O2·g−1·d−1 and increased with increasing temperature but declined with increasing body mass. In two separate evaluation experiments, which were conducted at only one ration level (40% of estimated C max), the model predicted final weights that were, on average, within 1.2 ± 2.5% (mean ± SD) of observed values for fish ranging from 119 to 573 g and within 3.5 ± 4.9% of values for 31–65 g fish. Model-predicted consumption was within 5.5 ± 10.9% of observed values for larger fish and within 12.4 ± 16.0% for smaller fish. Our model should be useful to those dealing with issues currently faced by Bull Trout, such as climate change or alterations in prey availability.

  4. Ergothioneine maintains redox and bioenergetic homeostasis essential for drug susceptibility and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Vikram; Cumming, Bridgette M.; Guidry, Loni; Lamprecht, Dirk; Adamson, John H.; Reddy, Vineel P.; Chinta, Krishna C.; Mazorodzo, James; Glasgow, Joel N.; Richard-Greenblatt, Melissa; Gomez-Velasco, Anaximandro; Bach, Horacio; Av-Gay, Yossef; Eoh, Hyungjin; Rhee, Kyu; Steyn, Adrie J.C.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The mechanisms by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) maintains metabolic equilibrium to survive during infection and upon exposure to antimycobacterial drugs are poorly characterized. Ergothioneine (EGT) and mycothiol (MSH) are the major redox buffers present in Mtb, but the contribution of EGT to Mtb redox homeostasis and virulence remains unknown. We report that Mtb WhiB3, a 4Fe-4S redox sensor protein, regulates EGT production and maintains bioenergetic homeostasis. We show that central carbon metabolism and lipid precursors regulate EGT production and that EGT modulates drug sensitivity. Notably, EGT and MSH are both essential for redox and bioenergetic homeostasis. Transcriptomic analyses of EGT and MSH mutants indicate overlapping, but distinct functions of EGT and MSH. Lastly, we show that EGT is critical for Mtb survival in both macrophages and mice. This study has uncovered a dynamic balance between Mtb redox and bioenergetic homeostasis, which critically influences Mtb drug susceptibility and pathogenicity. PMID:26774486

  5. Impaired Myocardial Bioenergetics in HFpEF and the Role of Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Hiebert, John B.; Shen, Qiuhua; Thimmesch, Amanda; Pierce, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a significant cardiovascular condition for more than 50% of patients with heart failure. Currently, there is no effective treatment to decrease morbidity and mortality rates associated with HFpEF because of its pathophysiological heterogeneity. Recent evidence shows that deficiency in myocardial bioenergetics is one of the key pathophysiological factors contributing to diastolic dysfunction in HFpEF. Another known mechanism for HFpEF is an overproduction of free radicals, specifically reactive oxygen species. To reduce free radical formation, antioxidants are often used. This article is a summative review of the recent relevant literature that addresses cardiac bioenergetics, deficiency in myocardial bioenergetics, and increased reactive oxygen species associated with HFpEF and the promising potential use of antioxidants in managing this condition. PMID:27583040

  6. Application of a bioenergetics model for hatchery production: Largemouth bass fed commercial diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Csargo, Isak J.; Michael L. Brown,; Chipps, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Fish bioenergetics models based on natural prey items have been widely used to address research and management questions. However, few attempts have been made to evaluate and apply bioenergetics models to hatchery-reared fish receiving commercial feeds that contain substantially higher energy densities than natural prey. In this study, we evaluated a bioenergetics model for age-0 largemouth bass Micropterus salmoidesreared on four commercial feeds. Largemouth bass (n ≈ 3,504) were reared for 70 d at 25°C in sixteen 833-L circular tanks connected in parallel to a recirculation system. Model performance was evaluated using error components (mean, slope, and random) derived from decomposition of the mean square error obtained from regression of observed on predicted values. Mean predicted consumption was only 8.9% lower than mean observed consumption and was similar to error rates observed for largemouth bass consuming natural prey. Model evaluation showed that the 97.5% joint confidence region included the intercept of 0 (−0.43 ± 3.65) and slope of 1 (1.08 ± 0.20), which indicates the model accurately predicted consumption. Moreover model error was similar among feeds (P = 0.98), and most error was probably attributable to sampling error (unconsumed feed), underestimated predator energy densities, or consumption-dependent error, which is common in bioenergetics models. This bioenergetics model could provide a valuable tool in hatchery production of largemouth bass. Furthermore, we believe that bioenergetics modeling could be useful in aquaculture production, particularly for species lacking historical hatchery constants or conventional growth models.

  7. Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms

    SciTech Connect

    Spotila, J.R.

    1992-11-01

    The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During this project we conducted studies: to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina; to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field; to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also completed our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles.

  8. Breakthrough cancer medicine and its impact on novel drug development in China: report of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) and Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) Joint Session at the 17th CSCO Annual Meeting.

    PubMed

    Luo, Feng Roger; Ding, Jian; Chen, Helen X; Liu, Hao; Fung, Man-Cheong; Koehler, Maria; Armand, Jean Pierre; Jiang, Lei; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Ge; Xu, Li; Qian, Pascal; Yan, Li

    2014-12-01

    The US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) teamed up with Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) to host a joint session at the17th CSCO Annual Meeting on September 20th, 2014 in Xiamen, China. With a focus on breakthrough cancer medicines, the session featured innovative approaches to evaluate breakthrough agents and established a platform to interactively share successful experiences from case studies of 6 novel agents from both the United States and China. The goal of the session is to inspire scientific and practical considerations for clinical trial design and strategy to expedite cancer drug development in China. A panel discussion further provided in-depth advice on advancing both early and full development of novel cancer medicines in China.

  9. Tick-borne encephalitis as a notifiable disease--Status quo and the way forward. Report of the 17th annual meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE).

    PubMed

    Kunze, Ursula

    2015-07-01

    The 17th meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE), a group of neurologists, general practicioners, clinicians, travel physicians, virologists, pediatricians, and epidemiologists, was held under the title "Tick-borne encephalitis as a notifiable disease--status quo and the way forward". The conference agenda was divided into three parts on the first day: "Epidemiology & Risk areas", "Poster Walk: Epidemiological Update in Europe", and "News in TBE Research". On the second day, a World Café Working Session took place where the participants could choose three tables out of six to join for discussion. Key topics on current epidemiological developments and investigations, risk areas, cases, travel and mobility, TBE in children, vaccination rates, and latest news on vaccination were presented and extensively discussed.

  10. On the antiquity of metalloenzymes and their substrates in bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Wolfgang; McGlynn, Shawn E; Milner-White, E James; Russell, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Many metalloenzymes that inject and extract reducing equivalents at the beginning and the end of electron transport chains involved in chemiosmosis are suggested, through phylogenetic analysis, to have been present in the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA). Their active centres are affine with the structures of minerals presumed to contribute to precipitate membranes produced on the mixing of hydrothermal solutions with the Hadean Ocean ~4 billion years ago. These mineral precipitates consist of transition element sulphides and oxides such as nickelian mackinawite ([Fe>Ni]2S2), a nickel-bearing greigite (~FeSS[Fe3NiS4]SSFe), violarite (~NiSS[Fe2Ni2S4]SSNi), a molybdenum bearing complex (~Mo(IV/VI)2Fe3S(0/2-)9) and green rust or fougerite (~[Fe(II)Fe(III)(OH)4](+)[OH](-)). They may be respectively compared with the active centres of Ni-Fe hydrogenase, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), acetyl coenzyme-A synthase (ACS), the complex iron-sulphur molybdoenzyme (CISM) superfamily and methane monooxygenase (MMO). With the look of good catalysts - a suggestion that gathers some support from prebiotic hydrothermal experimentation - and sequestered by short peptides, they could be thought of as the original building blocks of proto-enzyme active centres. This convergence of the makeup of the LUCA-metalloenzymes with mineral structure and composition of hydrothermal precipitates adds credence to the alkaline hydrothermal (chemiosmotic) theory for the emergence of life, specifically to the possibility that the first metabolic pathway - the acetyl CoA pathway - was initially driven from either end, reductively from CO2 to CO and oxidatively and reductively from CH4 through to a methane thiol group, the two entities assembled with the help of a further thiol on a violarite cluster sequestered by peptides. By contrast, the organic coenzymes were entirely a product of the first metabolic pathways. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Metals in Bioenergetics and

  11. Predation rates by North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) - Predictions from models on gastric evacuation and bioenergetics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansson, S.; Rudstam, L. G.; Kitchell, J.F.; Hilden, M.; Johnson, B.L.; Peppard, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    We compared four different methods for estimating predation rates by North Sea cod (Gadus moi hua). Three estimates, based on gastric evacuation rates, came from an ICES multispecies working group and the fourth from a bioenergetics model. The bioenergetics model was developed from a review of literature on cod physiology. The three gastric evacuation rate models produced very different prey consumption estimates for small (2 kg) fish. For most size and age classes, the bioenergetics model predicted food consumption rates intermediate to those predicted by the gastric evacuation models. Using the standard ICES model and the average population abundance and age structure for 1974-1989, annual, prey consumption by the North Sea cod population (age greater than or equal to 1) was 840 kilotons. The other two evacuation rate models produced estimates of 1020 and 1640 kilotons, respectively. The bioenergetics model estimate was 1420 kilotons. The major differences between models were due to consumption rate estimates for younger age groups of cod. (C) 1996 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea

  12. Dysfunctional cardiac mitochondrial bioenergetic, lipidomic, and signaling in a murine model of Barth syndrome[S

    PubMed Central

    Kiebish, Michael A.; Yang, Kui; Liu, Xinping; Mancuso, David J.; Guan, Shaoping; Zhao, Zhongdan; Sims, Harold F.; Cerqua, Rebekah; Cade, W. Todd; Han, Xianlin; Gross, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Barth syndrome is a complex metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the mitochondrial transacylase tafazzin. Recently, an inducible tafazzin shRNA knockdown mouse model was generated to deconvolute the complex bioenergetic phenotype of this disease. To investigate the underlying cause of hemodynamic dysfunction in Barth syndrome, we interrogated the cardiac structural and signaling lipidome of this mouse model as well as its myocardial bioenergetic phenotype. A decrease in the distribution of cardiolipin molecular species and robust increases in monolysocardiolipin and dilysocardiolipin were demonstrated. Additionally, the contents of choline and ethanolamine glycerophospholipid molecular species containing precursors for lipid signaling at the sn-2 position were altered. Lipidomic analyses revealed specific dysregulation of HETEs and prostanoids, as well as oxidized linoleic and docosahexaenoic metabolites. Bioenergetic interrogation uncovered differential substrate utilization as well as decreases in Complex III and V activities. Transgenic expression of cardiolipin synthase or iPLA2γ ablation in tafazzin-deficient mice did not rescue the observed phenotype. These results underscore the complex nature of alterations in cardiolipin metabolism mediated by tafazzin loss of function. Collectively, we identified specific lipidomic, bioenergetic, and signaling alterations in a murine model that parallel those of Barth syndrome thereby providing novel insights into the pathophysiology of this debilitating disease. PMID:23410936

  13. Re-estimating temperature-dependent consumption parameters in bioenergetics models for juvenile Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumb, John M.; Moffitt, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have cautioned against the borrowing of consumption and growth parameters from other species and life stages in bioenergetics growth models. In particular, the function that dictates temperature dependence in maximum consumption (Cmax) within the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha produces estimates that are lower than those measured in published laboratory feeding trials. We used published and unpublished data from laboratory feeding trials with subyearling Chinook Salmon from three stocks (Snake, Nechako, and Big Qualicum rivers) to estimate and adjust the model parameters for temperature dependence in Cmax. The data included growth measures in fish ranging from 1.5 to 7.2 g that were held at temperatures from 14°C to 26°C. Parameters for temperature dependence in Cmax were estimated based on relative differences in food consumption, and bootstrapping techniques were then used to estimate the error about the parameters. We found that at temperatures between 17°C and 25°C, the current parameter values did not match the observed data, indicating that Cmax should be shifted by about 4°C relative to the current implementation under the bioenergetics model. We conclude that the adjusted parameters for Cmax should produce more accurate predictions from the bioenergetics model for subyearling Chinook Salmon.

  14. Bioenergetic components of reproductive effort in viviparous snakes: costs of vitellogenesis exceed costs of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, James U; Beaupre, Steven J

    2011-12-01

    Reproductive effort has been defined as the proportion of an organism's energy budget that is allocated to reproduction over a biologically meaningful time period. Historically, studies of reproductive bioenergetics considered energy content of gametes, but not costs of gamete production. Although metabolic costs of vitellogenesis (MCV) fundamentally reflect the primary bioenergetic cost of reproductive allocation in female reptiles, the few investigations that have considered costs of reproductive allocation have focused on metabolic costs of pregnancy (MCP) in viviparous species. We define MCP as energetic costs incurred by pregnant females, including all costs of maintaining gestation conditions necessary for embryogenesis. MCP by our definition do not include fetal costs of embryogenesis. We measured metabolic rates in five species of viviparous snakes (Agkistrodon contortrix, Boa constrictor, Eryx colubrinus, Nerodia sipedon, and Thamnophis sirtalis) during vitellogenesis and pregnancy in order to estimate MCV and MCP. Across all species, MCV were responsible for 30% increases in maternal metabolism. Phylogenetically-independent contrasts showed that MCV were significantly greater in B. constrictor than in other species, likely because B. constrictor yolk energy content was greater than that of other species. Estimates of MCP were not significantly different from zero in any species. In viviparous snakes, MCV appear to represent significant bioenergetic expenditures, while MCP do not. We suggest that MCV, together with yolk energy content, represent the most significant component of reptilian reproductive effort, and therefore deserve greater attention than MCP in studies of reptilian reproductive bioenergetics.

  15. Metalloprotease OMA1 Fine-tunes Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Function and Respiratory Supercomplex Stability

    PubMed Central

    Bohovych, Iryna; Fernandez, Mario R.; Rahn, Jennifer J.; Stackley, Krista D.; Bestman, Jennifer E.; Anandhan, Annadurai; Franco, Rodrigo; Claypool, Steven M.; Lewis, Robert E.; Chan, Sherine S. L.; Khalimonchuk, Oleh

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in key cellular functions including energy production, metabolic homeostasis, and apoptosis. Normal mitochondrial function is preserved by several interrelated mechanisms. One mechanism – intramitochondrial quality control (IMQC) – is represented by conserved proteases distributed across mitochondrial compartments. Many aspects and physiological roles of IMQC components remain unclear. Here, we show that the IMQC protease Oma1 is required for the stability of the respiratory supercomplexes and thus balanced and tunable bioenergetic function. Loss of Oma1 activity leads to a specific destabilization of respiratory supercomplexes and consequently to unbalanced respiration and progressive respiratory decline in yeast. Similarly, experiments in cultured Oma1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts link together impeded supercomplex stability and inability to maintain proper respiration under conditions that require maximal bioenergetic output. Finally, transient knockdown of OMA1 in zebrafish leads to impeded bioenergetics and morphological defects of the heart and eyes. Together, our biochemical and genetic studies in yeast, zebrafish and mammalian cells identify a novel and conserved physiological role for Oma1 protease in fine-tuning of respiratory function. We suggest that this unexpected physiological role is important for cellular bioenergetic plasticity and may contribute to Oma1-associated disease phenotypes in humans. PMID:26365306

  16. Estrogen regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics: implications for prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with a complex and progressive pathological phenotype characterized first by hypometabolism and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics followed by pathological burden. Increasing evidence indicates an antecedent and potentially causal role of mitochondrial bioenergetic deficits and brain hypometabolism coupled with increased mitochondrial oxidative stress in AD pathogenesis. Compromised aerobic glycolysis pathway coupled with oxidative stress is first accompanied by a shift toward a ketogenic pathway that eventually progresses into fatty acid oxidation (FAO) pathways and leads to white matter degeneration and overproduction and mitochondrial accumulation of β-amyloid. Estrogen-induced signaling pathways converge upon the mitochondria to enhance mitochondrial function and to sustain aerobic glycolysis coupled with citric acid cycle-driven oxidative phosphorylation to potentiate ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) generation. In addition to potentiated mitochondrial bioenergetics, estrogen also enhances neural survival and health through maintenance of calcium homeostasis, promotion of antioxidant defense against free radicals, efficient cholesterol trafficking, and beta amyloid clearance. Significantly, the convergence of E2 mechanisms of action onto mitochondria is also a potential point of vulnerability when activated in diseased neurons that exacerbates degeneration through increased load on dysregulated calcium homeostasis. The "healthy cell bias of estrogen action" hypothesis examines the role that regulating mitochondrial function and bioenergetics play in promoting neural health and the mechanistic crossroads that lead to divergent outcomes following estrogen exposure. As the continuum of neurological health progresses from healthy to unhealthy, so too do the benefits of estrogen or hormone therapy. PMID:22840752

  17. Respiratory syncytial virus increases lung cellular bioenergetics in neonatal C57BL/6 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Alsuwaidi, Ahmed R.; Albawardi, Alia; Almarzooqi, Saeeda; Benedict, Sheela; Othman, Aws R.; Hartwig, Stacey M.; Varga, Steven M.; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2014-04-15

    We have previously reported that lung cellular bioenergetics (cellular respiration and ATP) increased in 4–10 week-old BALB/c mice infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study examined the kinetics and changes in cellular bioenergetics in ≤2-week-old C57BL/6 mice following RSV infection. Mice (5–14 days old) were inoculated intranasally with RSV and the lungs were examined on days 1–10 post-infection. Histopathology and electron microscopy revealed preserved pneumocyte architectures and organelles. Increased lung cellular bioenergetics was noted from days 1–10 post-infection. Cellular GSH remained unchanged. These results indicate that the increased lung cellular respiration (measured by mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption) and ATP following RSV infection is independent of either age or genetic background of the host. - Highlights: • RSV infection increases lung cellular respiration and ATP in neonatal C57BL/6 mice. • Increased lung cellular bioenergetics is a biomarker of RSV infection. • Lung cellular glutathione remains unchanged in RSV infection.

  18. Estrogen regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics: implications for prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with a complex and progressive pathological phenotype characterized first by hypometabolism and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics followed by pathological burden. Increasing evidence indicates an antecedent and potentially causal role of mitochondrial bioenergetic deficits and brain hypometabolism coupled with increased mitochondrial oxidative stress in AD pathogenesis. Compromised aerobic glycolysis pathway coupled with oxidative stress is first accompanied by a shift toward a ketogenic pathway that eventually progresses into fatty acid oxidation (FAO) pathways and leads to white matter degeneration and overproduction and mitochondrial accumulation of β-amyloid. Estrogen-induced signaling pathways converge upon the mitochondria to enhance mitochondrial function and to sustain aerobic glycolysis coupled with citric acid cycle-driven oxidative phosphorylation to potentiate ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) generation. In addition to potentiated mitochondrial bioenergetics, estrogen also enhances neural survival and health through maintenance of calcium homeostasis, promotion of antioxidant defense against free radicals, efficient cholesterol trafficking, and beta amyloid clearance. Significantly, the convergence of E2 mechanisms of action onto mitochondria is also a potential point of vulnerability when activated in diseased neurons that exacerbates degeneration through increased load on dysregulated calcium homeostasis. The "healthy cell bias of estrogen action" hypothesis examines the role that regulating mitochondrial function and bioenergetics play in promoting neural health and the mechanistic crossroads that lead to divergent outcomes following estrogen exposure. As the continuum of neurological health progresses from healthy to unhealthy, so too do the benefits of estrogen or hormone therapy.

  19. BEEP: An assay to detect bio-energetic and envelope permeability alterations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sang-Jin; Shuman, Jon; Carroll, Leslie P; Silo-Suh, Laura

    2016-06-01

    We developed an effective and rapid assay to detect both bio-energetic and envelope permeability (BEEP) alterations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The assay is based on quantification of extracellular ATP in bacterial cultures using luciferase as a reporter. To demonstrate the validity of our assay we conducted a biased screen of a transposon insertion library in P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 in order to expedite the isolation of mutants with defects in bioenergetic pathways. We successfully isolated insertion mutants that were reduced for extracellular ATP accumulation and identified the corresponding mutations that caused the phenotype. Most of the genes identified from this analysis were associated with energy metabolism and several appeared to be potentially novel bioenergetic targets. In addition, we show that treatment of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 with antibiotics that disrupt the bacterial cell envelope leads to greater extracellular ATP accumulation. In summary, increases in extracellular ATP accumulation above wild type levels indicated a perturbation of membrane permeability while decreases in extracellular ATP accumulation indicated defects in bioenergetics. PMID:27089860

  20. Colloquium paper: bioenergetics, the origins of complexity, and the ascent of man.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Douglas C

    2010-05-11

    Complex structures are generated and maintained through energy flux. Structures embody information, and biological information is stored in nucleic acids. The progressive increase in biological complexity over geologic time is thus the consequence of the information-generating power of energy flow plus the information-accumulating capacity of DNA, winnowed by natural selection. Consequently, the most important component of the biological environment is energy flow: the availability of calories and their use for growth, survival, and reproduction. Animals can exploit and adapt to available energy resources at three levels. They can evolve different anatomical forms through nuclear DNA (nDNA) mutations permitting exploitation of alternative energy reservoirs, resulting in new species. They can evolve modified bioenergetic physiologies within a species, primarily through the high mutation rate of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded bioenergetic genes, permitting adjustment to regional energetic environments. They can alter the epigenomic regulation of the thousands of dispersed bioenergetic genes via mitochondrially generated high-energy intermediates permitting individual accommodation to short-term environmental energetic fluctuations. Because medicine pertains to a single species, Homo sapiens, functional human variation often involves sequence changes in bioenergetic genes, most commonly mtDNA mutations, plus changes in the expression of bioenergetic genes mediated by the epigenome. Consequently, common nDNA polymorphisms in anatomical genes may represent only a fraction of the genetic variation associated with the common "complex" diseases, and the ascent of man has been the product of 3.5 billion years of information generation by energy flow, accumulated and preserved in DNA and edited by natural selection. PMID:20445102

  1. Modelling and interpreting fish bioenergetics: a role for behaviour, life-history traits and survival trade-offs

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, C; Enberg, K; Mangel, M

    2016-01-01

    Bioenergetics is used as the mechanistic foundation of many models of fishes. As the context of a model gradually extends beyond pure bioenergetics to include behaviour, life-history traits and function and performance of the entire organism, so does the need for complementing bioenergetic measurements with trade-offs, particularly those dealing with survival. Such a broadening of focus revitalized and expanded the domain of behavioural ecology in the 1980s. This review makes the case that a similar change of perspective is required for physiology to contribute to the types of predictions society currently demands, e.g. regarding climate change and other anthropogenic stressors. PMID:26768979

  2. Modelling and interpreting fish bioenergetics: a role for behaviour, life-history traits and survival trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, C; Enberg, K; Mangel, M

    2016-01-01

    Bioenergetics is used as the mechanistic foundation of many models of fishes. As the context of a model gradually extends beyond pure bioenergetics to include behaviour, life-history traits and function and performance of the entire organism, so does the need for complementing bioenergetic measurements with trade-offs, particularly those dealing with survival. Such a broadening of focus revitalized and expanded the domain of behavioural ecology in the 1980s. This review makes the case that a similar change of perspective is required for physiology to contribute to the types of predictions society currently demands, e.g. regarding climate change and other anthropogenic stressors.

  3. Bioenergetic and antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q10: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Littarru, Gian Paolo; Tiano, Luca

    2007-09-01

    For a number of years, coenzyme Q (CoQ10 in humans) was known for its key role in mitochondrial bioenergetics; later studies demonstrated its presence in other subcellular fractions and in plasma, and extensively investigated its antioxidant role. These two functions constitute the basis on which research supporting the clinical use of CoQ10 is founded. Also at the inner mitochondrial membrane level, coenzyme Q is recognized as an obligatory co-factor for the function of uncoupling proteins and a modulator of the transition pore. Furthermore, recent data reveal that CoQ10 affects expression of genes involved in human cell signalling, metabolism, and transport and some of the effects of exogenously administered CoQ10 may be due to this property. Coenzyme Q is the only lipid soluble antioxidant synthesized endogenously. In its reduced form, CoQH2, ubiquinol, inhibits protein and DNA oxidation but it is the effect on lipid peroxidation that has been most deeply studied. Ubiquinol inhibits the peroxidation of cell membrane lipids and also that of lipoprotein lipids present in the circulation. Dietary supplementation with CoQ10 results in increased levels of ubiquinol-10 within circulating lipoproteins and increased resistance of human low-density lipoproteins to the initiation of lipid peroxidation. Moreover, CoQ10 has a direct anti-atherogenic effect, which has been demonstrated in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed with a high-fat diet. In this model, supplementation with CoQ10 at pharmacological doses was capable of decreasing the absolute concentration of lipid hydroperoxides in atherosclerotic lesions and of minimizing the size of atherosclerotic lesions in the whole aorta. Whether these protective effects are only due to the antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q remains to be established; recent data point out that CoQ10 could have a direct effect on endothelial function. In patients with stable moderate CHF, oral CoQ10 supplementation was shown to ameliorate

  4. The 17th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings of the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft tether, magnetic bearing suspension, explosive welding, and a deployable/retractable mast are also described.

  5. 17th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori

    2004-11-29

    It's not exactly Russian roulette, but scheduling October events outdoors is not risk-free, even in usually sunny California. An overflow crowd of more than 400 registered users, ALS staff, and vendors enjoyed a full indoor program featuring science highlights and workshops spread over two and a half days from October 18 to October 20. However, a major storm, heralding the onset of the San Francisco Bay Area rainy season, posed a few weather challenges for the events on the ALS patio.

  6. The 17th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period September 1980 to February 1981 is described. Included are reports on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area silicon sheet and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering, and operations. A report on and copies of visual presentations made at the Project Integration Meeting held at Pasadena, California on February 4 and 5, 1981 are also included.

  7. A combined Raman microscopy, XRF and SEM-EDX study of three valuable objects - A large painted leather screen and two illuminated title pages in 17th century books of ordinances of the Worshipful Company of Barbers, London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, Tracey D.; Clark, Robin J. H.; Martinón-Torres, Marcos

    2010-07-01

    Raman microscopy has been used to identify the pigments decorating three valuable items owned by the Worshipful Company of Barbers (established in 1308 in London), one being a large leather screen dating to before 1712, the other two being illuminated title pages of books of ordinances of the Company dating to 1605 and 1658. Pigments which could not be fully characterised by this technique (particularly the green paints) have also been subject to XRF or SEM-EDX analysis. The combined analytical approach has shown that the pigments identified on all three items are typical of those in use as artists' pigments in the 17th C and include azurite, indigo, vermilion, red lead, pink and yellow lakes, verdigris, lead white, calcite (and chalk), gypsum, carbon-based black, and gold and silver leaf. However in the case of the screen alone, restoration in the 1980s has been carried out with different pigments - haematite, phthalocyanine green, rutile, and a mixture of azurite, malachite and barium sulfate. This work constitutes the first in-depth study of painted leatherwork and demonstrates that the palette used for this purpose is similar to that used on other works of art of the same date. It has also allowed the original colour schemes of the decorations to be determined where pigment degradation has occurred. The combined analysis has also provided a more complete understanding of the materials used for, or on, objects to which access is limited.

  8. What could you do with 400 years of biological history on african americans? Evaluating the potential scientific benefit of systematic studies of dental and skeletal materials on African Americans from the 17th through 20th centuries

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Latifa; Cross, Christopher; Clarke, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Objectives How important is it to be able to reconstruct the lives of a highly diverse, historically recent macroethnic group over the course of 400 years? How many insights into human evolutionary biology and disease susceptibilities could be gained, even with this relatively recent window into the past? In this article, we explore the potential ramifications of a newly constructed dataset of Four Centuries of African American Biological Variation (4Cs). Methods This article provides initial lists of digitized variables formatted as SQL tables for the 17th and 18th century samples and for the 19th and 20th century samples. Results This database is dynamic and new information is added yearly. The database provides novel opportunities for significant insights into the past biological history of this group and three case study applications are detailed for comparative computational systems biology studies of (1) hypertension, (2) the oral microbiome, and (3) mental health disorders. Conclusions The 4Cs dataset is ideal for interdisciplinary “next generation” science research and these data represent a unique step toward the accumulation of historically contextualized Big Data on an underrepresented group known to have experienced differential survival over time. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:510–513, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published byWiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26749025

  9. Mitochondrial involvement in skeletal muscle insulin resistance: A case of imbalanced bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Affourtit, Charles

    2016-10-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance in obesity associates with mitochondrial dysfunction, but the causality of this association is controversial. This review evaluates mitochondrial models of nutrient-induced muscle insulin resistance. It transpires that all models predict that insulin resistance arises as a result of imbalanced cellular bioenergetics. The nature and precise origin of the proposed insulin-numbing molecules differ between models but all species only accumulate when metabolic fuel supply outweighs energy demand. This observation suggests that mitochondrial deficiency in muscle insulin resistance is not merely owing to intrinsic functional defects, but could instead be an adaptation to nutrient-induced changes in energy expenditure. Such adaptive effects are likely because muscle ATP supply is fully driven by energy demand. This market-economic control of myocellular bioenergetics offers a mechanism by which insulin-signalling deficiency can cause apparent mitochondrial dysfunction, as insulin resistance lowers skeletal muscle anabolism and thus dampens ATP demand and, consequently, oxidative ATP synthesis. PMID:27473535

  10. Theoretical Studies of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer: Models and Concepts Relevant to Bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Elizabeth; Ishikita, Hiroshi; Skone, Jonathan H.; Soudackov, Alexander V.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical studies of proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions for model systems provide insight into fundamental concepts relevant to bioenergetics. A dynamical theoretical formulation for vibronically nonadiabatic PCET reactions has been developed. This theory enables the calculation of rates and kinetic isotope effects, as well as the pH and temperature dependences, of PCET reactions. Methods for calculating the vibronic couplings for PCET systems have also been developed and implemented. These theoretical approaches have been applied to a wide range of PCET reactions, including tyrosyl radical generation in a tyrosine-bound rhenium polypyridyl complex, phenoxyl/phenol and benzyl/toluene self-exchange reactions, and hydrogen abstraction catalyzed by the enzyme lipoxygenase. These applications have elucidated some of the key underlying physical principles of PCET reactions. The tools and concepts derived from these theoretical studies provide the foundation for future theoretical studies of PCET in more complex bioenergetic systems such as Photosystem II. PMID:21057592

  11. Parameter uncertainty, sensitivity, and sediment coupling in bioenergetics-based food web models

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, M.G.; Cacela, D.; Beltman, D.

    1995-12-31

    A bioenergetics-based food web model was developed and calibrated using measured PCB water and sediment concentrations in two Great Lakes food webs: Green Bay, Michigan and Lake Ontario. The model incorporated functional based trophic levels and sediment, water, and food chain exposures of PCBs to aquatic biota. Sensitivity analysis indicated the parameters with the greatest influence on PCBs in top predators were lipid content of plankton and benthos, planktivore assimilation efficiency, Kow, prey selection, and ambient temperature. Sediment-associated PCBs were estimated to contribute over 90% of PCBs in benthivores and less than 50% in piscivores. Ranges of PCB concentrations in top predators estimated by Monte Carlo simulation incorporating parameter uncertainty were within one order of magnitude of modal values. Model applications include estimation of exceedences of human and ecological thresholds. The results indicate that point estimates from bioenergetics-based food web models have substantial uncertainty that should be considered in regulatory and scientific applications.

  12. Estrogen receptor-β in mitochondria: implications for mitochondrial bioenergetics and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Tien-Ling; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Yu, Chao-Lan; Wang, Yi-Pei; Kao, Shu-Huei

    2015-09-01

    Estrogen enhances mitochondrial function by enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis and sustaining mitochondrial energy-transducing capacity. Shifts in mitochondrial bioenergetic pathways from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis have been hypothesized to be involved in estrogen-induced tumorigenesis. Studies have shown that mitochondria are an important target of estrogen. Estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) has been shown to localize to mitochondria in a ligand-dependent or -independent manner and can affect mitochondrial bioenergetics and anti-apoptotic signaling. However, the functional role of mitochondrial ERβ in tumorigenesis remains unclear. Clinical studies of ERβ-related tumorigenesis have shown that ERβ stimulates mitochondrial metabolism to meet the high energy demands of processes such as cell proliferation, cell survival, and transformation. Thus, in elucidating the precise role of mitochondrial ERβ in cell transformation and tumorigenesis, it will be particularly valuable to explore new approaches for the development of medical treatments targeting mitochondrial ERβ-mediated mitochondrial function and preventing apoptosis.

  13. Bioenergetics estimate of the effects of stocking density on hatchery production of smallmouth bass fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robel, G.L.; Fisher, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    Production of and consumption by hatchery-reared tingerling (age-0) smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu at various simulated stocking densities were estimated with a bioenergetics model. Fish growth rates and pond water temperatures during the 1996 growing season at two hatcheries in Oklahoma were used in the model. Fish growth and simulated consumption and production differed greatly between the two hatcheries, probably because of differences in pond fertilization and mortality rates. Our results suggest that appropriate stocking density depends largely on prey availability as affected by pond fertilization and on fingerling mortality rates. The bioenergetics model provided a useful tool for estimating production at various stocking density rates. However, verification of physiological parameters for age-0 fish of hatchery-reared species is needed.

  14. First principles design of a core bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Goparaju, Geetha; Fry, Bryan A; Chobot, Sarah E; Wiedman, Gregory; Moser, Christopher C; Dutton, P Leslie; Discher, Bohdana M

    2016-05-01

    Here we describe the design, Escherichia coli expression and characterization of a simplified, adaptable and functionally transparent single chain 4-α-helix transmembrane protein frame that binds multiple heme and light activatable porphyrins. Such man-made cofactor-binding oxidoreductases, designed from first principles with minimal reference to natural protein sequences, are known as maquettes. This design is an adaptable frame aiming to uncover core engineering principles governing bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer function and recapitulate protein archetypes proposed to represent the origins of photosynthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson.

  15. First principles design of a core bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Goparaju, Geetha; Fry, Bryan A; Chobot, Sarah E; Wiedman, Gregory; Moser, Christopher C; Dutton, P Leslie; Discher, Bohdana M

    2016-05-01

    Here we describe the design, Escherichia coli expression and characterization of a simplified, adaptable and functionally transparent single chain 4-α-helix transmembrane protein frame that binds multiple heme and light activatable porphyrins. Such man-made cofactor-binding oxidoreductases, designed from first principles with minimal reference to natural protein sequences, are known as maquettes. This design is an adaptable frame aiming to uncover core engineering principles governing bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer function and recapitulate protein archetypes proposed to represent the origins of photosynthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. PMID:26672896

  16. Bioenergetic properties of human sarcoma cells help define sensitivity to metabolic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Issaq, Sameer H; Teicher, Beverly A; Monks, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Sarcomas represent a diverse group of malignancies with distinct molecular and pathological features. A better understanding of the alterations associated with specific sarcoma subtypes is critically important to improve sarcoma treatment. Renewed interest in the metabolic properties of cancer cells has led to an exploration of targeting metabolic dependencies as a therapeutic strategy. In this study, we have characterized key bioenergetic properties of human sarcoma cells in order to identify metabolic vulnerabilities between sarcoma subtypes. We have also investigated the effects of compounds that inhibit glycolysis or mitochondrial respiration, either alone or in combination, and examined relationships between bioenergetic parameters and sensitivity to metabolic inhibitors. Using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a competitive inhibitor of glycolysis, oligomycin, an inhibitor of mitochondrial ATP synthase, and metformin, a widely used anti-diabetes drug and inhibitor of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, we evaluated the effects of metabolic inhibition on sarcoma cell growth and bioenergetic function. Inhibition of glycolysis by 2-DG effectively reduced the viability of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells vs. embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and normal cells. Interestingly, inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration did not significantly affect viability, but were able to increase sensitivity of sarcomas to inhibition of glycolysis. Additionally, inhibition of glycolysis significantly reduced intracellular ATP levels, and sensitivity to 2-DG-induced growth inhibition was related to respiratory rates and glycolytic dependency. Our findings demonstrate novel relationships between sarcoma bioenergetics and sensitivity to metabolic inhibitors, and suggest that inhibition of metabolic pathways in sarcomas should be further investigated as a potential therapeutic strategy.

  17. Development of a bioenergetics model for the threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hovel, Rachel A.; Beauchamp, David A.; Hansen, Adam G.; Sorel, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    The Threespine Stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus is widely distributed across northern hemisphere ecosystems, has ecological influence as an abundant planktivore, and is commonly used as a model organism, but the species lacks a comprehensive model to describe bioenergetic performance in response to varying environmental or ecological conditions. This study parameterized a bioenergetics model for the Threespine Stickleback using laboratory measurements to determine mass- and temperature-dependent functions for maximum consumption and routine respiration costs. Maximum consumption experiments were conducted across a range of temperatures from 7.5°C to 23.0°C and a range of fish weights from 0.5 to 4.5 g. Respiration experiments were conducted across a range of temperatures from 8°C to 28°C. Model sensitivity was consistent with other comparable models in that the mass-dependent parameters for maximum consumption were the most sensitive. Growth estimates based on the Threespine Stickleback bioenergetics model suggested that 22°C is the optimal temperature for growth when food is not limiting. The bioenergetics model performed well when used to predict independent, paired measures of consumption and growth observed from a separate wild population of Threespine Sticklebacks. Predicted values for consumption and growth (expressed as percent body weight per day) only deviated from observed values by 2.0%. Our model should provide insight into the physiological performance of this species across a range of environmental conditions and be useful for quantifying the trophic impact of this species in food webs containing other ecologically or economically important species.

  18. Design and fine-tuning redox potentials of metalloproteins involved in electron transfer in bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Parisa; Lu, Yi

    2016-05-01

    Redox potentials are a major contributor in controlling the electron transfer (ET) rates and thus regulating the ET processes in the bioenergetics. To maximize the efficiency of the ET process, one needs to master the art of tuning the redox potential, especially in metalloproteins, as they represent major classes of ET proteins. In this review, we first describe the importance of tuning the redox potential of ET centers and its role in regulating the ET in bioenergetic processes including photosynthesis and respiration. The main focus of this review is to summarize recent work in designing the ET centers, namely cupredoxins, cytochromes, and iron-sulfur proteins, and examples in design of protein networks involved these ET centers. We then discuss the factors that affect redox potentials of these ET centers including metal ion, the ligands to metal center and interactions beyond the primary ligand, especially non-covalent secondary coordination sphere interactions. We provide examples of strategies to fine-tune the redox potential using both natural and unnatural amino acids and native and nonnative cofactors. Several case studies are used to illustrate recent successes in this area. Outlooks for future endeavors are also provided. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson.

  19. Design and fine-tuning redox potentials of metalloproteins involved in electron transfer in bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Parisa; Lu, Yi

    2016-05-01

    Redox potentials are a major contributor in controlling the electron transfer (ET) rates and thus regulating the ET processes in the bioenergetics. To maximize the efficiency of the ET process, one needs to master the art of tuning the redox potential, especially in metalloproteins, as they represent major classes of ET proteins. In this review, we first describe the importance of tuning the redox potential of ET centers and its role in regulating the ET in bioenergetic processes including photosynthesis and respiration. The main focus of this review is to summarize recent work in designing the ET centers, namely cupredoxins, cytochromes, and iron-sulfur proteins, and examples in design of protein networks involved these ET centers. We then discuss the factors that affect redox potentials of these ET centers including metal ion, the ligands to metal center and interactions beyond the primary ligand, especially non-covalent secondary coordination sphere interactions. We provide examples of strategies to fine-tune the redox potential using both natural and unnatural amino acids and native and nonnative cofactors. Several case studies are used to illustrate recent successes in this area. Outlooks for future endeavors are also provided. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. PMID:26301482

  20. Dysregulated mitochondrial and chloroplast bioenergetics from a translational medical perspective (Review).

    PubMed

    Stefano, George B; Kream, Richard M

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondria and chloroplasts represent endosymbiotic models of complex organelle development, driven by intense evolutionary pressure to provide exponentially enhanced ATP-dependent energy production functionally linked to cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Within the realm of translational medicine, it has become compellingly evident that mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in compromised cellular bioenergetics, represents a key causative factor in the etiology and persistence of major diseases afflicting human populations. As a pathophysiological consequence of enhanced oxygen utilization that is functionally uncoupled from the oxidative phosphorylation of ADP, significant levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be generated within mitochondria and chloroplasts, which may effectively compromise cellular energy production following prolonged stress/inflammatory conditions. Empirically determined homologies in biochemical pathways, and their respective encoding gene sequences between chloroplasts and mitochondria, suggest common origins via entrapped primordial bacterial ancestors. From evolutionary and developmental perspectives, the elucidation of multiple biochemical and molecular relationships responsible for errorless bioenergetics within mitochondrial and plastid complexes will most certainly enhance the depth of translational approaches to ameliorate or even prevent the destructive effects of multiple disease states. The selective choice of discussion points contained within the present review is designed to provide theoretical bases and translational insights into the pathophysiology of human diseases from a perspective of dysregulated mitochondrial bioenergetics with special reference to chloroplast biology. PMID:26821064

  1. Dysregulated mitochondrial and chloroplast bioenergetics from a translational medical perspective (Review)

    PubMed Central

    STEFANO, GEORGE B.; KREAM, RICHARD M.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria and chloroplasts represent endosymbiotic models of complex organelle development, driven by intense evolutionary pressure to provide exponentially enhanced ATP-dependent energy production functionally linked to cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Within the realm of translational medicine, it has become compellingly evident that mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in compromised cellular bioenergetics, represents a key causative factor in the etiology and persistence of major diseases afflicting human populations. As a pathophysiological consequence of enhanced oxygen utilization that is functionally uncoupled from the oxidative phosphorylation of ADP, significant levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be generated within mitochondria and chloroplasts, which may effectively compromise cellular energy production following prolonged stress/inflammatory conditions. Empirically determined homologies in biochemical pathways, and their respective encoding gene sequences between chloroplasts and mitochondria, suggest common origins via entrapped primordial bacterial ancestors. From evolutionary and developmental perspectives, the elucidation of multiple biochemical and molecular relationships responsible for errorless bioenergetics within mitochondrial and plastid complexes will most certainly enhance the depth of translational approaches to ameliorate or even prevent the destructive effects of multiple disease states. The selective choice of discussion points contained within the present review is designed to provide theoretical bases and translational insights into the pathophysiology of human diseases from a perspective of dysregulated mitochondrial bioenergetics with special reference to chloroplast biology. PMID:26821064

  2. Enzymatic systems of inorganic pyrophosphate bioenergetics in photosynthetic and heterotrophic protists: remnants or metabolic cornerstones?

    PubMed

    Pérez-Castiñeira, J R; Gómez-García, R; López-Marqués, R L; Losada, M; Serrano, A

    2001-09-01

    An increasing body of biochemical and genetic evidence suggests that inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) plays an important role in protist bioenergetics. In these organisms, two types of inorganic pyrophosphatases [EC 3.6.1.1, namely soluble PPases (sPPases) and proton-translocating PPases (H+-PPases)] that hydrolyse the PPi generated by cell anabolism, thereby replenishing the orthophosphate pool needed for phosphorylation reactions, are present in different cellular compartments. Photosynthetic and heterotrophic protists possess sPPases located in cellular organelles (plastids and mitochondria), where many anabolic and biosynthetic reactions take place, in addition to H+-PPases, which are integral membrane proteins of the vacuolysosomal membranes and use the chemical energy of PPi to generate an electrochemical proton gradient useful in cell bioenergetics. This last category of proton pumps was considered to be restricted to higher plants and some primitive photosynthetic bacteria, but it has been found recently in many protists (microalgae and protozoa) and bacteria, thus indicating that H+-PPases are much more widespread than previously thought. No cytosolic sPPase (in bacteria, fungi and animal cells) has been shown to occur in these lower eukaryotes. The widespread occurrence of these key enzymes of PPi metabolism among evolutionarily divergent protists strongly supports the ancestral character of the bioenergetics based on this simple energy-rich compound, which may play an important role in survival under different biotic and abiotic stress conditions.

  3. Age Related Bioenergetics Profiles in Isolated Rat Cardiomyocytes Using Extracellular Flux Analyses.

    PubMed

    Mdaki, Kennedy S; Larsen, Tricia D; Weaver, Lucinda J; Baack, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly recognized and studied as a mediator of heart disease. Extracellular flux analysis (XF) has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate cellular bioenergetics in the context of cardiac health and disease, however its use and interpretation requires improved understanding of the normal metabolic differences in cardiomyocytes (CM) at various stages of maturation. This study standardized XF analyses methods (mitochondrial stress test, glycolytic stress test and palmitate oxidation test) and established age related differences in bioenergetics profiles of healthy CMs at newborn (NB1), weaning (3WK), adult (10WK) and aged (12-18MO) time points. Findings show that immature CMs demonstrate a more robust and sustained glycolytic capacity and a relative inability to oxidize fatty acids when compared to older CMs. The study also highlights the need to recognize the contribution of CO2 from the Krebs cycle as well as lactate from anaerobic glycolysis to the proton production rate before interpreting glycolytic capacity in CMs. Overall, this study demonstrates that caution should be taken to assure that translatable developmental time points are used to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction as a cause of cardiac disease. Specifically, XF analysis of newborn CMs should be reserved to study fetal/neonatal disease and older CMs (≥10 weeks) should be used to investigate adult disease pathogenesis. Knowledge gained will aid in improved investigation of developmentally programmed heart disease and stress the importance of discerning maturational differences in bioenergetics when developing mitochondrial targeted preventative and therapeutic strategies for cardiac disease. PMID:26872351

  4. A Multi-Analytical Approach for the Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Conservation-Restoration Treatment of Moroccan Historical Manuscripts Dating to the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Latifa; Boukir, Abdellatif; Assouik, Jamal; Kerbal, Abdelali; Kajjout, Mohamed; Doumenq, Pierre; De Carvalho, Maria Luisa

    2015-08-01

    The most critical steps during the conservation-restoration treatment applied in Moroccan libraries are the deacidification using immersion in a saturated aqueous calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) solution and the consolidation of degraded manuscripts using Japanese paper. The present study aims to assess the efficiency of this restoration method using a multi-analytical approach. For this purpose, three ancient Arabic Moroccan manuscript papers dating back to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries were investigated to characterize the paper support and make a comparative study between pre-restoration and post-restoration states. Three structural and molecular characterization techniques including solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on (13)C with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CP-MAS NMR), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to elucidate the cellulose main features, to identify the inorganic composition of the papers, and to study the crystallinity of the samples. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) allowed us to obtain a qualitative and quantitative characterization of the mineral fillers used in the manufacturing of the papers. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) ascertained the state of conservation of the different papers and helped us to study the elemental composition of the samples. After restoration, it was shown that the deacidification improved the stability of papers by providing an important alkaline buffer, as demonstrated using FT-IR and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) results. However, XRD and ICP-AES did not confirm the pertinence of the treatment for all samples because of the unequal distribution of Ca on the paper surface during the restoration. The consolidation process was studied using SEM analysis; its effectiveness in restoring

  5. Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms: Progress report, 1 January 1988-31 December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Spotila, J.R.

    1988-08-01

    The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During 1988, we conducted studies: (1) to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, (2) to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field, (3) to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and (4) to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also continued our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles. In addition, we completed editing the symposium volume from our symposium on Constraints of Bioenergetics on Animal Population Dynamics that was held at the last meeting of the American Society of Zoologists. 43 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. First-in-class cardiolipin-protective compound as a therapeutic agent to restore mitochondrial bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Szeto, Hazel H

    2014-01-01

    A decline in energy is common in aging, and the restoration of mitochondrial bioenergetics may offer a common approach for the treatment of numerous age-associated diseases. Cardiolipin is a unique phospholipid that is exclusively expressed on the inner mitochondrial membrane where it plays an important structural role in cristae formation and the organization of the respiratory complexes into supercomplexes for optimal oxidative phosphorylation. The interaction between cardiolipin and cytochrome c determines whether cytochrome c acts as an electron carrier or peroxidase. Cardiolipin peroxidation and depletion have been reported in a variety of pathological conditions associated with energy deficiency, and cardiolipin has been identified as a target for drug development. This review focuses on the discovery and development of the first cardiolipin-protective compound as a therapeutic agent. SS-31 is a member of the Szeto-Schiller (SS) peptides known to selectively target the inner mitochondrial membrane. SS-31 binds selectively to cardiolipin via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. By interacting with cardiolipin, SS-31 prevents cardiolipin from converting cytochrome c into a peroxidase while protecting its electron carrying function. As a result, SS-31 protects the structure of mitochondrial cristae and promotes oxidative phosphorylation. SS-31 represents a new class of compounds that can recharge the cellular powerhouse and restore bioenergetics. Extensive animal studies have shown that targeting such a fundamental mechanism can benefit highly complex diseases that share a common pathogenesis of bioenergetics failure. This review summarizes the mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential of SS-31 and provides an update of its clinical development programme. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014

  7. The evolving role of the NAD+/nicotinamide metabolome in skin homeostasis, cellular bioenergetics, and aging.

    PubMed

    Oblong, John E

    2014-11-01

    Human skin is exposed to daily environmental insults, particularly solar radiation, that triggers a range of molecular responses. These perturbations to the normal homeostatic state can lead to cellular dysfunction and, ultimately, impacts tissue integrity and accelerates skin aging (photoaging). One of the responses is increased oxidative stress which has been shown to disrupt cellular bioenergetics. This can be detected by depletion of the nucleotide energy metabolites NAD+ and ATP as both an acute transient decrease and, over time, a more permanent chronic reduction due in part to cumulative damage of mitochondria. NAD+ and its primary precursor nicotinamide have been known for some time to impact skin homeostasis based on linkages to dietary requirements, treatment of various inflammatory conditions, photoaging, and prevention of cancer. Cellular NAD+ pools are known to be lower in aged skin and treatment with nicotinamide is hypothesized to restore these levels, thereby mitigating cellular bioenergetics dysfunction. In dermal fibroblasts, nicotinamide is able to protect against oxidative stress to glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation as well as increase mitochondrial efficiency via sirtuin-dependent selective mitophagy. Recent research has found that NAD+ cellular pools are more dynamic than previously thought, oscillating in tandem with free nicotinamide, and serves as a regulatory point and feedback loop in cellular metabolism regulation, maintenance of mitochondrial efficiency, and circadian rhythmicity. Since UV-induced oxidative stress in skin can disrupt these processes, continued molecular understanding of the role of NAD+ and nicotinamide in skin biology is important to identify interventions that would help maintain its normal homeostatic functions and efficient cellular bioenergetics.

  8. Regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetic function by hydrogen sulfide. Part I. Biochemical and physiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Csaba; Ransy, Céline; Módis, Katalin; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Murghes, Baptiste; Coletta, Ciro; Olah, Gabor; Yanagi, Kazunori; Bouillaud, Frédéric

    2014-04-01

    Until recently, hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) was exclusively viewed a toxic gas and an environmental hazard, with its toxicity primarily attributed to the inhibition of mitochondrial Complex IV, resulting in a shutdown of mitochondrial electron transport and cellular ATP generation. Work over the last decade established multiple biological regulatory roles of H2 S, as an endogenous gaseous transmitter. H2 S is produced by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST). In striking contrast to its inhibitory effect on Complex IV, recent studies showed that at lower concentrations, H2 S serves as a stimulator of electron transport in mammalian cells, by acting as a mitochondrial electron donor. Endogenous H2 S, produced by mitochondrially localized 3-MST, supports basal, physiological cellular bioenergetic functions; the activity of this metabolic support declines with physiological aging. In specialized conditions (calcium overload in vascular smooth muscle, colon cancer cells), CSE and CBS can also associate with the mitochondria; H2 S produced by these enzymes, serves as an endogenous stimulator of cellular bioenergetics. The current article overviews the biochemical mechanisms underlying the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of H2 S on mitochondrial function and cellular bioenergetics and discusses the implication of these processes for normal cellular physiology. The relevance of H2 S biology is also discussed in the context of colonic epithelial cell physiology: colonocytes are exposed to high levels of sulfide produced by enteric bacteria, and serve as a metabolic barrier to limit their entry into the mammalian host, while, at the same time, utilizing it as a metabolic 'fuel'.

  9. The evolving role of the NAD+/nicotinamide metabolome in skin homeostasis, cellular bioenergetics, and aging.

    PubMed

    Oblong, John E

    2014-11-01

    Human skin is exposed to daily environmental insults, particularly solar radiation, that triggers a range of molecular responses. These perturbations to the normal homeostatic state can lead to cellular dysfunction and, ultimately, impacts tissue integrity and accelerates skin aging (photoaging). One of the responses is increased oxidative stress which has been shown to disrupt cellular bioenergetics. This can be detected by depletion of the nucleotide energy metabolites NAD+ and ATP as both an acute transient decrease and, over time, a more permanent chronic reduction due in part to cumulative damage of mitochondria. NAD+ and its primary precursor nicotinamide have been known for some time to impact skin homeostasis based on linkages to dietary requirements, treatment of various inflammatory conditions, photoaging, and prevention of cancer. Cellular NAD+ pools are known to be lower in aged skin and treatment with nicotinamide is hypothesized to restore these levels, thereby mitigating cellular bioenergetics dysfunction. In dermal fibroblasts, nicotinamide is able to protect against oxidative stress to glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation as well as increase mitochondrial efficiency via sirtuin-dependent selective mitophagy. Recent research has found that NAD+ cellular pools are more dynamic than previously thought, oscillating in tandem with free nicotinamide, and serves as a regulatory point and feedback loop in cellular metabolism regulation, maintenance of mitochondrial efficiency, and circadian rhythmicity. Since UV-induced oxidative stress in skin can disrupt these processes, continued molecular understanding of the role of NAD+ and nicotinamide in skin biology is important to identify interventions that would help maintain its normal homeostatic functions and efficient cellular bioenergetics. PMID:24794404

  10. Regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetic function by hydrogen sulfide. Part I. Biochemical and physiological mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Csaba; Ransy, Céline; Módis, Katalin; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Murghes, Baptiste; Coletta, Ciro; Olah, Gabor; Yanagi, Kazunori; Bouillaud, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was exclusively viewed a toxic gas and an environmental hazard, with its toxicity primarily attributed to the inhibition of mitochondrial Complex IV, resulting in a shutdown of mitochondrial electron transport and cellular ATP generation. Work over the last decade established multiple biological regulatory roles of H2S, as an endogenous gaseous transmitter. H2S is produced by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST). In striking contrast to its inhibitory effect on Complex IV, recent studies showed that at lower concentrations, H2S serves as a stimulator of electron transport in mammalian cells, by acting as a mitochondrial electron donor. Endogenous H2S, produced by mitochondrially localized 3-MST, supports basal, physiological cellular bioenergetic functions; the activity of this metabolic support declines with physiological aging. In specialized conditions (calcium overload in vascular smooth muscle, colon cancer cells), CSE and CBS can also associate with the mitochondria; H2S produced by these enzymes, serves as an endogenous stimulator of cellular bioenergetics. The current article overviews the biochemical mechanisms underlying the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of H2S on mitochondrial function and cellular bioenergetics and discusses the implication of these processes for normal cellular physiology. The relevance of H2S biology is also discussed in the context of colonic epithelial cell physiology: colonocytes are exposed to high levels of sulfide produced by enteric bacteria, and serve as a metabolic barrier to limit their entry into the mammalian host, while, at the same time, utilizing it as a metabolic ‘fuel’. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:23991830

  11. Bioenergetics model for estimating food requirements of female Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noren, S.R.; Udevitz, M.S.; Jay, C.V.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific walruses Odobenus rosmarus divergens use sea ice as a platform for resting, nursing, and accessing extensive benthic foraging grounds. The extent of summer sea ice in the Chukchi Sea has decreased substantially in recent decades, causing walruses to alter habitat use and activity patterns which could affect their energy requirements. We developed a bioenergetics model to estimate caloric demand of female walruses, accounting for maintenance, growth, activity (active in-water and hauled-out resting), molt, and reproductive costs. Estimates for non-reproductive females 0–12 yr old (65−810 kg) ranged from 16359 to 68960 kcal d−1 (74−257 kcal d−1 kg−1) for years with readily available sea ice for which we assumed animals spent 83% of their time in water. This translated into the energy content of 3200–5960 clams per day, equivalent to 7–8% and 14–9% of body mass per day for 5–12 and 2–4 yr olds, respectively. Estimated consumption rates of 12 yr old females were minimally affected by pregnancy, but lactation had a large impact, increasing consumption rates to 15% of body mass per day. Increasing the proportion of time in water to 93%, as might happen if walruses were required to spend more time foraging during ice-free periods, increased daily caloric demand by 6–7% for non-lactating females. We provide the first bioenergetics-based estimates of energy requirements for walruses and a first step towards establishing bioenergetic linkages between demography and prey requirements that can ultimately be used in predicting this population’s response to environmental change.

  12. Transfer of computer software technology through workshops: The case of fish bioenergetics modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    A three-part program is proposed to promote the availability and use of computer software packages to fishery managers and researchers. The approach consists of journal articles that announce new technologies, technical reports that serve as user's guides, and hands-on workshops that provide direct instruction to new users. Workshops, which allow experienced users to directly instruct novices in software operation and application are important, but often neglected. The author's experience with organizing and conducting bioenergetics modeling workshops suggests the optimal workshop would take 2 days, have 10-15 participants, one computer for every two users, and one instructor for every 5-6 people.

  13. Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms. Final report, 1 September 1988--30 June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Spotila, J.R.

    1992-11-01

    The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During this project we conducted studies: to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina; to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field; to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also completed our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles.

  14. European Community.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

  15. Modulating Molecular Chaperones Improves Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Decreases the Inflammatory Transcriptome in Diabetic Sensory Neurons.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiacheng; Pan, Pan; Anyika, Mercy; Blagg, Brian S J; Dobrowsky, Rick T

    2015-09-16

    We have previously demonstrated that modulating molecular chaperones with KU-32, a novobiocin derivative, ameliorates physiologic and bioenergetic deficits of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Replacing the coumarin core of KU-32 with a meta-fluorinated biphenyl ring system created KU-596, a novobiocin analogue (novologue) that showed neuroprotective activity in a cell-based assay. The current study sought to determine whether KU-596 offers similar therapeutic potential for treating DPN. Administration of 2-20 mg/kg of KU-596 improved diabetes induced hypoalgesia and sensory neuron bioenergetic deficits in a dose-dependent manner. However, the drug could not improve these neuropathic deficits in diabetic heat shock protein 70 knockout (Hsp70 KO) mice. To gain further insight into the mechanisms by which KU-596 improved DPN, we performed transcriptomic analysis of sensory neuron RNA obtained from diabetic wild-type and Hsp70 KO mice using RNA sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that diabetes strongly increased inflammatory pathways and that KU-596 therapy effectively reversed these increases independent of Hsp70. In contrast, the effects of KU-596 on decreasing the expression of genes regulating the production of reactive oxygen species were more Hsp70-dependent. These data indicate that modulation of molecular chaperones by novologue therapy offers an effective approach toward correcting nerve dysfunction in DPN but that normalization of inflammatory pathways alone by novologue therapy seems to be insufficient to reverse sensory deficits associated with insensate DPN. PMID:26161583

  16. HSP70 of Leishmania amazonensis alters resistance to different stresses and mitochondrial bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Codonho, Bárbara Santoni; Costa, Solange dos Santos; Peloso, Eduardo de Figueiredo; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Gadelha, Fernanda Ramos; Giorgio, Selma

    2016-01-01

    The 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) is a molecular chaperone that assists the parasite Leishmania in returning to homeostasis after being subjected to different types of stress during its life cycle. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of HSP70 transfection of L. amazonensis promastigotes (pTEX-HSP70) in terms of morphology, resistance, infectivity and mitochondrial bioenergetics. The pTEX-HSP70 promastigotes showed no ultrastructural morphological changes compared to control parasites. Interestingly, the pTEX-HSP70 promastigotes are resistant to heat shock, H2O2-induced oxidative stress and hyperbaric environments. Regarding the bioenergetics parameters, the pTEX-HSP70 parasites had higher respiratory rates and released less H2O2 than the control parasites. Nevertheless, the infectivity capacity of the parasites did not change, as verified by the infection of murine peritoneal macrophages and human macrophages, as well as the infection of BALB/c mice. Together, these results indicate that the overexpression of HSP70 protects L. amazonensis from stress, but does not interfere with its infective capacity. PMID:27304024

  17. Changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics in the brain versus spinal cord become more apparent with age.

    PubMed

    Yonutas, Heather M; Pandya, Jignesh D; Sullivan, Patrick G

    2015-04-01

    The cell is known to be the most basic unit of life. However, this basic unit of life is dependent on the proper function of many intracellular organelles to thrive. One specific organelle that has vast implications on the overall health of the cell and cellular viability is the mitochondrion. These cellular power plants generate the energy currency necessary for cells to maintain homeostasis and function properly. Additionally, when mitochondria become dysfunctional, they can orchestrate the cell to undergo cell-death. Therefore, it is important to understand what insults can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction in order to promote cell health and increase cellular viability. After years of research, is has become increasingly accepted that age has a negative effect on mitochondrial bioenergetics. In support of this, we have found decreased mitochondrial bioenergetics with increased age in Sprague-Dawley rats. Within this same study we found a 200 to 600% increase in ROS production in old rats compared to young rats. Additionally, the extent of mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production seems to be spatially defined affecting the spinal cord to a greater extent than certain regions of the brain. These tissue specific differences in mitochondrial function may be the reason why certain regions of the Central Nervous System, CNS, are disproportionately affected by aging and may play a pivotal role in specific age-related neurodegenerative diseases like Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, ALS. PMID:25472025

  18. A method for assessing mitochondrial bioenergetics in whole white adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J; Sandel, Michael W; Westbrook, David G; Ballinger, Scott W

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a primary risk factor for numerous metabolic diseases including metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular disease and cancer. Although classically viewed as a storage organ, the field of white adipose tissue biology is expanding to include the consideration of the tissue as an endocrine organ and major contributor to overall metabolism. Given its role in energy production, the mitochondrion has long been a focus of study in metabolic dysfunction and a link between the organelle and white adipose tissue function is likely. Herein, we present a novel method for assessing mitochondrial bioenergetics from whole white adipose tissue. This method requires minimal manipulation of tissue, and eliminates the need for cell isolation and culture. Additionally, this method overcomes some of the limitations to working with transformed and/or isolated primary cells and allows for results to be obtained more expediently. In addition to the novel method, we present a comprehensive statistical analysis of bioenergetic data as well as guidelines for outlier analysis.

  19. Down-regulating overexpressed human Lon in cervical cancer suppresses cell proliferation and bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiaobo; Li, Min; Lu, Bin; Zhang, Yuxin; Lan, Linhua; Chen, Lin; Lu, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    The human mitochondrial ATP-dependent Lon protease functions in regulating the metabolism and quality control of proteins and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). However, the role of Lon in cancer is not well understood. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the importance of Lon in cervical cancer cells from patients and in established cell lines. Microarray analysis from 30 cancer and 10 normal cervical tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for Lon protein levels. The expression of Lon was also examined by immunoblotting 16 fresh cervical cancer tissues and their respective non-tumor cervical tissues. In all cases, Lon expression was significantly elevated in cervical carcinomas as compared to normal tissues. Augmented Lon expression in tissue microarrays did not vary between age, tumor-node-metastasis grades, or lymph node metastasis. Knocking down Lon in HeLa cervical cancer cells by lentivrial transduction resulted in a substantial decrease in both mRNA and protein levels. Such down-regulation of Lon expression significantly blocked HeLa cell proliferation. In addition, knocking down Lon resulted in decreased cellular bioenergetics as determined by measuring aerobic respiration and glycolysis using the Seahorse XF24 extracellular flux analyzer. Together, these data demonstrate that Lon plays a potential role in the oncogenesis of cervical cancer, and may be a useful biomarker and target in the treatment of cervical cancer. Lon; immunohistochemistry; cervical cancer; cell proliferation; cellular bioenergetics.

  20. Ancient Systems of Sodium/Potassium Homeostasis as Predecessors of Membrane Bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Dibrova, D V; Galperin, M Y; Koonin, E V; Mulkidjanian, A Y

    2015-05-01

    Cell cytoplasm of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes contains substantially more potassium than sodium, and potassium cations are specifically required for many key cellular processes, including protein synthesis. This distinct ionic composition and requirements have been attributed to the emergence of the first cells in potassium-rich habitats. Different, albeit complementary, scenarios have been proposed for the primordial potassium-rich environments based on experimental data and theoretical considerations. Specifically, building on the observation that potassium prevails over sodium in the vapor of inland geothermal systems, we have argued that the first cells could emerge in the pools and puddles at the periphery of primordial anoxic geothermal fields, where the elementary composition of the condensed vapor would resemble the internal milieu of modern cells. Marine and freshwater environments generally contain more sodium than potassium. Therefore, to invade such environments, while maintaining excess of potassium over sodium in the cytoplasm, primordial cells needed means to extrude sodium ions. The foray into new, sodium-rich habitats was the likely driving force behind the evolution of diverse redox-, light-, chemically-, or osmotically-dependent sodium export pumps and the increase of membrane tightness. Here we present a scenario that details how the interplay between several, initially independent sodium pumps might have triggered the evolution of sodium-dependent membrane bioenergetics, followed by the separate emergence of the proton-dependent bioenergetics in archaea and bacteria. We also discuss the development of systems that utilize the sodium/potassium gradient across the cell membranes.

  1. The Mitochondrial Unfoldase-Peptidase Complex ClpXP Controls Bioenergetics Stress and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jae Ho; Rivadeneira, Dayana B.; Caino, M. Cecilia; Chae, Young Chan; Speicher, David W.; Vaira, Valentina; Bosari, Silvano; Rampini, Paolo; Kossenkov, Andrew V.; Languino, Lucia R.; Altieri, Dario C.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria must buffer the risk of proteotoxic stress to preserve bioenergetics, but the role of these mechanisms in disease is poorly understood. Using a proteomics screen, we now show that the mitochondrial unfoldase-peptidase complex ClpXP associates with the oncoprotein survivin and the respiratory chain Complex II subunit succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB) in mitochondria of tumor cells. Knockdown of ClpXP subunits ClpP or ClpX induces the accumulation of misfolded SDHB, impairing oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production while activating “stress” signals of 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and autophagy. Deregulated mitochondrial respiration induced by ClpXP targeting causes oxidative stress, which in turn reduces tumor cell proliferation, suppresses cell motility, and abolishes metastatic dissemination in vivo. ClpP is universally overexpressed in primary and metastatic human cancer, correlating with shortened patient survival. Therefore, tumors exploit ClpXP-directed proteostasis to maintain mitochondrial bioenergetics, buffer oxidative stress, and enable metastatic competence. This pathway may provide a “drugable” therapeutic target in cancer. PMID:27389535

  2. Homeostatic bioenergetic network regulation – a novel concept to avoid pharmacoresistance in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Boison, Detlev; Masino, Susan A.; Geiger, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Despite epilepsy being one of the most prevalent neurological disorders, one third of all patients with epilepsy cannot adequately be treated with available antiepileptic drugs. One of the significant causes for the failure of conventional pharmacotherapeutic treatment is the development of pharmacoresistance in many forms of epilepsy. The problem of pharmacoresistance has called for the development of new conceptual strategies that improve future drug development efforts. Areas covered A thorough review of the recent literature on pharmacoresistance in epilepsy was completed and select examples were chosen to highlight the mechanisms of pharmacoresistance in epilepsy and to demonstrate how those mechanistic findings might lead to improved treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. The reader will gain a thorough understanding of pharmacoresistance in epilepsy and an appreciation of the limitations of conventional drug development strategies. Expert opinion Conventional drug development efforts aim to achieve specificity of symptom control by enhancing the selectivity of drugs acting on specific downstream targets; this conceptual strategy bears the undue risk of development of pharmacoresistance. Modulation of homeostatic bioenergetic network regulation is a novel conceptual strategy to affect whole neuronal networks synergistically by mobilizing multiple endogenous biochemical and receptor-dependent molecular pathways. In our expert opinion we conclude that homeostatic bioenergetic network regulation might thus be used as an innovative strategy for the control of pharmacoresistant seizures. Recent focal adenosine augmentation strategies support the feasibility of this strategy. PMID:21731576

  3. Essential regulation of cell bioenergetics in Trypanosoma brucei by the mitochondrial calcium uniporter

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guozhong; Vercesi, Anibal E.; Docampo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms of regulation of mitochondrial metabolism in trypanosomes are not completely understood. Here we present evidence that the Trypanosoma brucei mitochondrial calcium uniporter (TbMCU) is essential for regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics, autophagy, and cell death, even in the bloodstream forms that are devoid of a functional respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Localization studies reveal its co-localization with MitoTracker staining. TbMCU overexpression increases mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation in intact and permeabilized trypanosomes, generates excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), and sensitizes them to apoptotic stimuli. Ablation of TbMCU in RNAi or conditional knockout trypanosomes reduces mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake without affecting their membrane potential, increases the AMP/ATP ratio, stimulates autophagosome formation, and produces marked defects in growth in vitro and infectivity in mice, revealing its essentiality in these parasites. The requirement of TbMCU for proline and pyruvate metabolism in procyclic and bloodstream forms, respectively, reveals its role in regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics. PMID:24305511

  4. Reduced bioenergetics and toll-like receptor 1 function in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in aging.

    PubMed

    Qian, Feng; Guo, Xiuyang; Wang, Xiaomei; Yuan, Xiaoling; Chen, Shu; Malawista, Stephen E; Bockenstedt, Linda K; Allore, Heather G; Montgomery, Ruth R

    2014-02-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in immune function (immunosenescence) resulting in an increased susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections. Here we show reduced expression of Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and an underlying age-dependent deficiency in PMN bioenergetics. In older (>65 years) adults, stimulation through TLR1 led to lower activation of integrins (CD11b and CD18), lower production of the chemokine IL-8, and lower levels of the phosphorylated signaling intermediate p38 MAP kinase than in PMN from younger donors (21-30 years). In addition, loss of CD62L, a marker of PMN activation, was reduced in PMN of older adults stimulated through multiple pathways. Rescue of PMN from apoptosis by stimulation with TLR1 was reduced in PMN from older adults. In seeking an explanation for effects of aging across multiple pathways, we examined PMN energy utilization and found that glucose uptake after stimulation through TLR1 was dramatically lower in PMN of older adults. Our results demonstrate a reduction in TLR1 expression and TLR1-mediated responses in PMN with aging, and reduced efficiency of bioenergetics in PMN. These changes likely contribute to reduced PMN efficiency in aging through multiple aspects of PMN function and suggest potential therapeutic opportunities.

  5. Bioenergetics of Juvenile Salmon During the Spring Outmigration, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.

    1985-07-01

    Main stem reservoirs in the Columbia River Basin may have increased the energy demands of smolts during outmigration by prolonging migration and exposing smolts to seasonally rising water temperatures. A bioenergetic model for spring chinook salmon smolts (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is being developed to test these hypotheses. Results have thus far indicated that the seaward migration can be separated into two distinct phases. Phase I can be described as a period of intense smolt development in which there was a post hatchery release surge in gill Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ ATPase activity, depletion of energy available in body lipids, and a concurrent decline in caloric density. Phase II was characterized by maintenence of smolt status in apparent anticipation of reaching the estuary. Phase II is the period most affected by impoundments and annual changes in water flow; the latter period will therefore be modeled in bioenergetic simulations. Laboratory and field observations provided input parameters for the model and empirical data to verify model simmulations. Total calories, caloric density, proximate body composition, ration, and caloric intake were determined in smolts as seaward migration progressed. The effect of swimming and starvation on energy reserves and seawater survival were determined in the laboratory. Fatty acid analysis indicated ..omega..3 neutral fatty acids influenced smolt development and seawater survival. 46 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Mitochondria hyperfusion and elevated autophagic activity are key mechanisms for cellular bioenergetic preservation in centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Pinti, Marcello; Lanzarini, Catia; Ascione, Barbara; Gibellini, Lara; Dika, Emi; Patrizi, Annalisa; Tommasino, Chiara; Capri, Miriam; Cossarizza, Andrea; Baracca, Alessandra; Lenaz, Giorgio; Solaini, Giancarlo; Franceschi, Claudio; Malorni, Walter; Salvioli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria have been considered for long time as important determinants of cell aging because of their role in the production of reactive oxygen species. In this study we investigated the impact of mitochondrial metabolism and biology as determinants of successful aging in primary cultures of fibroblasts isolated from the skin of long living individuals (LLI) (about 100 years old) compared with those from young (about 27 years old) and old (about 75 years old) subjects. We observed that fibroblasts from LLI displayed significantly lower complex I-driven ATP synthesis and higher production of H2O2 in comparison with old subjects. Despite these changes, bioenergetics of these cells appeared to operate normally. This lack of functional consequences was likely due to a compensatory phenomenon at the level of mitochondria, which displayed a maintained supercomplexes organization and an increased mass. This appears to be due to a decreased mitophagy, induced by hyperfused, elongated mitochondria. The overall data indicate that longevity is characterized by a preserved bioenergetic function likely attained by a successful mitochondria remodeling that can compensate for functional defects through an increase in mass, i.e. a sort of mitochondrial “hypertrophy”. PMID:24799450

  7. Bioenergetic Impairment in Animal and Cellular Models of Alzheimer's Disease: PARP-1 Inhibition Rescues Metabolic Dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Martire, Sara; Fuso, Andrea; Mosca, Luciana; Forte, Elena; Correani, Virginia; Fontana, Mario; Scarpa, Sigfrido; Maras, Bruno; d'Erme, Maria

    2016-08-10

    Amyloid-beta peptide accumulation in the brain is one of the main hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. The amyloid aggregation process is associated with the generation of free radical species responsible for mitochondrial impairment and DNA damage that in turn activates poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP-1). PARP-1 catalyzes the poly(ADP-ribosylation), a post-translational modification of proteins, cleaving the substrate NAD+ and transferring the ADP-ribose moieties to the enzyme itself or to an acceptor protein to form branched polymers of ADP-ribose. In this paper, we demonstrate that a mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in Alzheimer's transgenic mice TgCRND8, in SH-SY5Y treated with amyloid-beta and in 7PA2 cells. Moreover, PARP-1 activation contributes to the functional energetic decline affecting cytochrome oxidase IV protein levels, oxygen consumption rates, and membrane potential, resulting in cellular bioenergetic deficit. We also observed, for the first time, an increase of pyruvate kinase 2 expression, suggesting a modulation of the glycolytic pathway by PARP-1. PARP-1 inhibitors are able to restore both mitochondrial impairment and pyruvate kinase 2 expression. The overall data here presented indicate a pivotal role for this enzyme in the bioenergetic network of neuronal cells and open new perspectives for investigating molecular mechanisms underlying energy charge decline in Alzheimer's disease. In this scenario, PARP-1 inhibitors might represent a novel therapeutic intervention to rescue cellular energetic metabolism. PMID:27567805

  8. Intermittent fasting results in tissue-specific changes in bioenergetics and redox state.

    PubMed

    Chausse, Bruno; Vieira-Lara, Marcel A; Sanchez, Angélica B; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is a dietary intervention often used as an alternative to caloric restriction (CR) and characterized by 24 hour cycles alternating ad libitum feeding and fasting. Although the consequences of CR are well studied, the effects of IF on redox status are not. Here, we address the effects of IF on redox state markers in different tissues in order to uncover how changes in feeding frequency alter redox balance in rats. IF rats displayed lower body mass due to decreased energy conversion efficiency. Livers in IF rats presented increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and enhanced levels of protein carbonyls. Surprisingly, IF animals also presented an increase in oxidative damage in the brain that was not related to changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Conversely, IF promoted a substantial protection against oxidative damage in the heart. No difference in mitochondrial bioenergetics or redox homeostasis was observed in skeletal muscles of IF animals. Overall, IF affects redox balance in a tissue-specific manner, leading to redox imbalance in the liver and brain and protection against oxidative damage in the heart. PMID:25749501

  9. Real-Time Monitoring of Cellular Bioenergetics with a Multi-Analyte Screen-Printed Electrode

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jennifer R.; Cognata, Andrew C.; Davis, Anna N.; Wikswo, John P.; Cliffel, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of changes to cellular bioenergetics can provide new insights into mechanisms of action for disease and toxicity. This work describes the development of a multi-analyte screen-printed electrode for the detection of analytes central to cellular bioenergetics: glucose, lactate, oxygen, and pH. Platinum screen-printed electrodes were designed in-house and printed by Pine Research Instrumentation. Electrochemical plating techniques were used to form quasi-reference and pH electrodes. A Dimatix materials inkjet printer was used to deposit enzyme and polymer films to form sensors for glucose, lactate, and oxygen. These sensors were evaluated in bulk solution and microfluidic environments, and found to behave reproducibly and possess a lifetime of up to six weeks. Linear ranges and limits of detection for enzyme-based sensors were found to have an inverse relationship with enzyme loading, and iridium oxide pH sensors were found to have super-Nernstian responses. Preliminary measurements where the sensor was enclosed within a microfluidic channel with RAW 264.7 macrophages were performed to demonstrate the sensors’ capabilities for performing real-time microphysiometry measurements. PMID:26125545

  10. Ancient Systems of Sodium/Potassium Homeostasis as Predecessors of Membrane Bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Dibrova, D V; Galperin, M Y; Koonin, E V; Mulkidjanian, A Y

    2015-05-01

    Cell cytoplasm of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes contains substantially more potassium than sodium, and potassium cations are specifically required for many key cellular processes, including protein synthesis. This distinct ionic composition and requirements have been attributed to the emergence of the first cells in potassium-rich habitats. Different, albeit complementary, scenarios have been proposed for the primordial potassium-rich environments based on experimental data and theoretical considerations. Specifically, building on the observation that potassium prevails over sodium in the vapor of inland geothermal systems, we have argued that the first cells could emerge in the pools and puddles at the periphery of primordial anoxic geothermal fields, where the elementary composition of the condensed vapor would resemble the internal milieu of modern cells. Marine and freshwater environments generally contain more sodium than potassium. Therefore, to invade such environments, while maintaining excess of potassium over sodium in the cytoplasm, primordial cells needed means to extrude sodium ions. The foray into new, sodium-rich habitats was the likely driving force behind the evolution of diverse redox-, light-, chemically-, or osmotically-dependent sodium export pumps and the increase of membrane tightness. Here we present a scenario that details how the interplay between several, initially independent sodium pumps might have triggered the evolution of sodium-dependent membrane bioenergetics, followed by the separate emergence of the proton-dependent bioenergetics in archaea and bacteria. We also discuss the development of systems that utilize the sodium/potassium gradient across the cell membranes. PMID:26071768

  11. Hydrogen sulfide in cell signaling, signal transduction, cellular bioenergetics and physiology in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Módis, Katalin; Wolanska, Katarzyna; Vozdek, Roman

    2013-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), long viewed as a toxic gas and environmental hazard, is emerging as a biological mediator with remarkable physiological and pathophysiological relevance. H2S is now viewed as the third main gasotransmitter in the mammalian body. Its pharmacological characteristic possesses similarities to the other two gasotransmitters - nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). Many of the biological effects of H2S follow a bell-shaped concentration-response; at low concentration or at lower release rates it has beneficial and cytoprotective effects, while at higher concentrations or fast release rates toxicity becomes apparent. Cellular bioenergetics is a prime example for this bell-shaped dose-response, where H2S, at lower concentrations/rates serves as an inorganic substrate and electron donor for mitochondrial ATP generation, while at high concentration it inhibits mitochondrial respiration by blocking the Complex IV in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The current review is aimed to focus on the following aspects of H2S biology: 1) a general overview of the general pharmacological characteristics of H2S, 2) a summary of the key H2S-mediated signal transduction pathways, 3) an overview of role of H2S in regulation of cellular bioenergetics, 4) key aspects of H2S physiology in C. elegans (a model system) and, finally 5) the therapeutic potential of H2S donating molecules in various disease states. PMID:23531831

  12. Effects of activity and energy budget balancing algorithm on laboratory performance of a fish bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that were fed ad libitum in laboratory tanks under regimes of low activity and high activity. In addition, we compared model performance under two different model algorithms: (1) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t and (2) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t + 1. Results indicated that the model significantly underestimated consumption for both inactive and active lake trout when algorithm 1 was used and that the degree of underestimation was similar for the two activity levels. In contrast, model performance substantially improved when using algorithm 2, as no detectable bias was found in model predictions of consumption for inactive fish and only a slight degree of overestimation was detected for active fish. The energy budget was accurately balanced by using algorithm 2 but not by using algorithm 1. Based on the results of this study, we recommend the use of algorithm 2 to estimate food consumption by fish in the field. Our study results highlight the importance of accurately accounting for changes in fish energy density when balancing the energy budget; furthermore, these results have implications for the science of evaluating fish bioenergetics model performance and for more accurate estimation of food consumption by fish in the field when fish energy density undergoes relatively rapid changes.

  13. Effect of Feeding-Fasting Cycles on Oxygen Consumption and Bioenergetics of Yellow Perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chipps, Steven R.; Travis W. Schaeffer,; Daniel E. Spengler,; Casey W. Schoenebeck,; Michael L. Brown,

    2012-01-01

    We measured growth and oxygen consumption of age-1 yellow perch Perca flavescenssubjected to ad libitum (control) or variable feeding cycles of 2 (i.e., 2 d of feed, 2 d of deprivation), 6, or 12 d for a 72-d period. Individual, female yellow perch (initial weight = 51.9 ± 0.9 g [mean ± SE]) were stocked in 110-L aquaria to provide six replicates per treatment and fed measured rations of live fathead minnow Pimephales promelas. Consumption, absolute growth rate, growth efficiency, and oxygen consumption were similar among feeding regimens. However, growth trajectories for fish on the 2-d cycle were significantly lower than other feed–fast cycles. Hyperphagia occurred in all treatments. Bioenergetics model simulations indicated that consumption was significantly underestimated (t = 5.4, df = 4, P = 0.006), while growth was overestimated (t = −5.5, df = 4, P = 0.005) for fish on the 12-d cycle. However, model errors detected between observed and predicted values were low, ranging from −10.1% to +7.8%. We found that juvenile yellow perch exhibited compensatory growth (CG), but none of the feed–fast treatments resulted in growth overcompensation. Likewise, we found no evidence that respiration rates varied with CG, implying that yellow perch bioenergetics models could be used to predict the effects of feeding history and CG response on food consumption and fish growth.

  14. Growth, condition factor, and bioenergetics modeling link warmer stream temperatures below a small dam to reduced performance of juvenile steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, S.T.; Connolly, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the growth and feeding performance of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss using field measures and bioenergetics modeling. Juvenile steelhead populations were sampled from mid-June through August 2004 at study sites upstream and downstream of Hemlock Dam. The growth and diet of juvenile steelhead were determined for a warm (summer) and subsequent (late summer) transitional period at each study site. Empirical data on the growth and diet of juvenile steelhead and mean daily temperatures were used in a bioenergetics model to estimate the proportion of maximum consumption achieved by juvenile steelhead by site and period. Modeled estimates of feeding performance were better for juvenile steelhead at the upstream compared to the downstream site during both periods. The median condition factor of juvenile steelhead did not change over the summer at the upstream site, but showed a significant decline over time at the downstream site. A negative trend in median condition factor at the downstream site supported bioenergetics modeling results that suggested the warmer stream temperatures had a negative impact on juvenile steelhead. Bioenergetics modeling predicted a lower feeding performance for juvenile steelhead rearing downstream compared to upstream of Hemlock Dam although food availability appeared to be limited at both study sites during the warm period. Warmer water temperatures, greater diel variation, and change in diel pattern likely led to the reduced feeding performance and reduced growth, which could have affected the overall survival of juvenile steelhead downstream of Hemlock Dam. ?? 2010 by the Northwest Scientific Association.

  15. European Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.; Blochmann, Georg M., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    A special six-article section of this journal is devoted to the theme of "European Education" (EU): (1) "Reform of EU Educational Policy" (Volker Thomas); (2) "Living in Europe, Working for Europe" (Volker Thomas); (3) "EURES Helps to Find Jobs" (Volker Thomas); (4) "Help for Higher Education Institutions in Central and Eastern Europe" (Siegbert…

  16. Growth and food consumption by tiger muskellunge: Effects of temperature and ration level on bioenergetic model predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chipps, S.R.; Einfalt, L.M.; Wahl, David H.

    2000-01-01

    We measured growth of age-0 tiger muskellunge as a function of ration size (25, 50, 75, and 100% C(max))and water temperature (7.5-25??C) and compared experimental results with those predicted from a bioenergetic model. Discrepancies between actual and predicted values varied appreciably with water temperature and growth rate. On average, model output overestimated winter consumption rates at 10 and 7.5??C by 113 to 328%, respectively, whereas model predictions in summer and autumn (20-25??C) were in better agreement with actual values (4 to 58%). We postulate that variation in model performance was related to seasonal changes in esocid metabolic rate, which were not accounted for in the bioenergetic model. Moreover, accuracy of model output varied with feeding and growth rate of tiger muskellunge. The model performed poorly for fish fed low rations compared with estimates based on fish fed ad libitum rations and was attributed, in part, to the influence of growth rate on the accuracy of bioenergetic predictions. Based on modeling simulations, we found that errors associated with bioenergetic parameters had more influence on model output when growth rate was low, which is consistent with our observations. In addition, reduced conversion efficiency at high ration levels may contribute to variable model performance, thereby implying that waste losses should be modeled as a function of ration size for esocids. Our findings support earlier field tests of the esocid bioenergetic model and indicate that food consumption is generally overestimated by the model, particularly in winter months and for fish exhibiting low feeding and growth rates.

  17. Mitochondrial Bioenergetics of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells in Response to Dynamic Changes in Oxygen Tension: Effects of HIF-1α

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Claudia R.; Griguer, Corinne E.; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Hurst, Douglas R.; Welch, Danny R.; Landar, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    Solid tumors are characterized by regions of low oxygen tension (OT), which play a central role in tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Low OT affects mitochondrial function and for the cells to survive, mitochondria must functionally adapt to low OT to maintain the cellular bioenergetics. In this study, a novel experimental approach was developed to examine the real-time bioenergetic changes in breast cancer cells (BCCs) during adaptation to OT (from 20% to <1% oxygen) using sensitive extracellular flux technology. Oxygen was gradually removed from the medium, and the bioenergetics of metastatic BCCs (MDA-MB-231 and MCF10CA clones) was compared with non-tumorigenic (MCF10A) cells. BCCs, but not MCF10A, rapidly responded to low OT by stabilizing HIF-1α and increasing HIF-1α responsive gene expression and glucose uptake. BCCs also increased extracellular acidification rate (ECAR), which was markedly lower in MCF10A. Interestingly, BCCs exhibited a biphasic response in basal respiration as the OT was reduced from 20% to <1%. The initial stimulation of oxygen consumption is found to be due to increased mitochondrial respiration. This effect was HIF-1α-dependent, as silencing HIF-1α abolished the biphasic response. During hypoxia and reoxygenation, BCCs also maintained oxygen consumption rates at specific OT; however, HIF-1α silenced BCC were less responsive to changes in OT. Our results suggest that HIF-1α provides a high degree of bioenergetic flexibility under different OT which may confer an adaptive advantage for BCC survival in the tumor microenvironment and during invasion and metastasis. This study thus provides direct evidence for the cross-talk between HIF-1α and mitochondria during adaptation to low OT by BCCs and may be useful in identifying novel therapeutic agents that target the bioenergetics of BCCs in response to low OT. PMID:23840849

  18. The bioenergetic consequences of invasive-induced food web disruption to Lake Ontario alewives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Thomas J.; O'Gorman, Robert; Sprules, W. Gary; Lantry, B.F.

    2010-01-01

    Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus are the dominant prey fish in Lake Ontario, and their response to ecological change can alter the structure and function of the Lake Ontario food web. Using stochastic population-based bioenergetic models of Lake Ontario alewives for 1987–1991 and 2001–2005, we evaluated changes to alewife production, consumption, and associated bioenergetic ratios after invasive-induced food web disruption. After the disruption, mean biomass of alewives declined from 28.0 to 14.6 g/m2, production declined from 40.8 to 13.6 g·m−2·year−1, and consumption declined from 342.1 to 137.2 g·m−2·year−1, but bootstrapping of error sources suggested that the changes were not statistically significant. Population-based bioenergetic ratios of production to biomass (P/B ratio), total consumption to biomass (Q/B ratio), and production efficiency did not change. Pathways of energy flow measured as prey-group-specific Q/B ratios changed significantly between the two time periods for invasive predatory cladocerans (from 0.6 to 1.3), Mysis diluviana (from 0.4 to 2.5), and other prey (from 0.8 to 0.1), but the observed decline in the zooplankton Q/B ratio (from 10.6 to 5.5) was not significant. Gross production efficiency did not change; values ranged from 8% to 15%. Age-group mean gross conversion efficiency (GCE) declined with age; GCE ranged from 7.5% to 11.0% for yearlings, was approximately 5% for age-2 alewives, and was less than 2% for age-3 and older alewives. The GCE increased significantly between the time periods for yearling alewives. Our analyses support the hypothesis that after 2003, alewives could not sustain their growth while feeding on zooplankton closer to shore. Modeling of observed spatial variation in diet and alternative occupied temperatures demonstrates the potential for reducing consumption by alewives. Our results suggest that Lake Ontario alewives can exploit spatial heterogeneity in resource patches and thermal habitat to

  19. Improving consumption rate estimates by incorporating wild activity into a bioenergetics model.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Stephanie; Taylor, Matthew D; Smith, James A; Suthers, Iain M; Gray, Charles A; Payne, Nicholas L

    2016-04-01

    Consumption is the basis of metabolic and trophic ecology and is used to assess an animal's trophic impact. The contribution of activity to an animal's energy budget is an important parameter when estimating consumption, yet activity is usually measured in captive animals. Developments in telemetry have allowed the energetic costs of activity to be measured for wild animals; however, wild activity is seldom incorporated into estimates of consumption rates. We calculated the consumption rate of a free-ranging marine predator (yellowtail kingfish, Seriola lalandi) by integrating the energetic cost of free-ranging activity into a bioenergetics model. Accelerometry transmitters were used in conjunction with laboratory respirometry trials to estimate kingfish active metabolic rate in the wild. These field-derived consumption rate estimates were compared with those estimated by two traditional bioenergetics methods. The first method derived routine swimming speed from fish morphology as an index of activity (a "morphometric" method), and the second considered activity as a fixed proportion of standard metabolic rate (a "physiological" method). The mean consumption rate for free-ranging kingfish measured by accelerometry was 152 J·g(-1)·day(-1), which lay between the estimates from the morphometric method (μ = 134 J·g(-1)·day(-1)) and the physiological method (μ = 181 J·g(-1)·day(-1)). Incorporating field-derived activity values resulted in the smallest variance in log-normally distributed consumption rates (σ = 0.31), compared with the morphometric (σ = 0.57) and physiological (σ = 0.78) methods. Incorporating field-derived activity into bioenergetics models probably provided more realistic estimates of consumption rate compared with the traditional methods, which may further our understanding of trophic interactions that underpin ecosystem-based fisheries management. The general methods used to estimate active metabolic rates of free-ranging fish

  20. Oxidative stress suppresses the cellular bioenergetic effect of the 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase/hydrogen sulfide pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Módis, Katalin; Asimakopoulou, Antonia; Coletta, Ciro; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Szabo, Csaba

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Oxidative stress impairs 3-MST-derived H{sub 2}S production in isolated enzyme and in isolated mitochondria. •This impairs the stimulatory bioenergetic effects of H{sub 2}S in hepatocytes. •This has implications for the pathophysiology of diseases with oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Recent data show that lower concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), as well as endogenous, intramitochondrial production of H{sub 2}S by the 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP)/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) pathway serves as an electron donor and inorganic source of energy to support mitochondrial electron transport and ATP generation in mammalian cells by donating electrons to Complex II. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress on the activity of the 3-MP/3-MST/H{sub 2}S pathway in vitro. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 100–500 μM) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the activity of recombinant mouse 3-MST enzyme. In mitochondria isolated from murine hepatoma cells, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (50–500 μM) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in production of H{sub 2}S from 3-MP. In cultured murine hepatoma cells H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, (3–100 μM), did not result in overall cytotoxicity, but caused a partial decrease in basal oxygen consumption and respiratory reserve rapacity. The positive bioenergetic effect of 3-MP (100–300 nM) was completely abolished by pre-treatment of the cells with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (50 μM). The current findings demonstrate that oxidative stress inhibits 3-MST activity and interferes with the positive bioenergetic role of the 3-MP/3-MST/H{sub 2}S pathway. These findings may have implications for the pathophysiology of various conditions associated with increased oxidative stress, such as various forms of critical illness, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes or physiological aging.

  1. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls by zebra mussel populations predicted on the basis of bioenergetics

    SciTech Connect

    Yankovich, T.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants, such as PCBs, partition between several phases in aquatic environments. In order to predict contaminant partitioning and flux rates between aquatic biota and other environmental phases, it is necessary to have a basic understanding of the physico-chemical properties characteristic of the contaminant of interest, in addition to exposure rates of organisms to various contaminated phases. Exposure regimes are often dictated by food availability and corresponding feeding rates necessary to meet organism energetic requirements. Therefore, a model coupling zebra mussel bioenergetics and predicted PCB bioaccumulation has been constructed to assess the impact of zebra mussel populations on organic contaminant transfer in freshwater systems. The potential impact of mussel populations on organic contaminant transfer and energy flow will be discussed.

  2. Cellular bioenergetics changes in magnocellular neurons may affect copeptin expression in the late phase of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Pelegrin, Gabriela R; Basso, Paulo J; Rocha, Maria José A

    2014-02-15

    We investigated whether inflammatory mediators during cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis may diminish copeptin expression in magnocellular neurons, thus affecting arginine-vasopressin (AVP) synthesis. The transcript abundance of IL-1β, IL-1R1, iNOS and HIF-1α was continuously elevated. IL-1β, iNOS and cytochrome c protein levels progressively increased until 24h. Immunostaining for these proteins was higher at 6 and 24h, as also seen in the annexin-V assay, while copeptin was continuously decreased. This suggests that increased IL-1β and NO levels may cause significant bioenergetics changes in magnocellular neurons, affecting copeptin expression and compromising AVP synthesis and secretion in the late phase of sepsis.

  3. Aging synaptic mitochondria exhibit dynamic proteomic changes while maintaining bioenergetic function.

    PubMed

    Stauch, Kelly L; Purnell, Phillip R; Fox, Howard S

    2014-04-01

    Aging correlates with a progressive impairment of mitochondrial homeostasis and is an influential factor for several forms of neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms underlying age-related alterations in synaptosomal mitochondria, a neuronal mitochondria population highly susceptible to insults and critical for brain function, remain incompletely understood. Therefore this study investigates the synaptic mitochondrial proteomic and bioenergetic alterations that occur with age. The utilization of a state of the art quantitative proteomics approach allowed for the comparison of protein expression levels in synaptic mitochondria isolated from 5 (mature), 12 (old), and 24 (aged) month old mice. During the process of aging we find that dynamic proteomic alterations occur in synaptic mitochondria. Despite direct (mitochondrial DNA deletions) and indirect (increased antioxidant protein levels) signs of mitochondrial damage in the aged mice, there was an overall maintenance of mitochondrial function. Therefore the synaptic mitochondrial proteomic changes that occur with aging correlate with preservation of synaptic mitochondrial function.

  4. Bioenergetic profiling of Trypanosoma cruzi life stages using Seahorse extracellular flux technology.

    PubMed

    Shah-Simpson, Sheena; Pereira, Camila F A; Dumoulin, Peter C; Caradonna, Kacey L; Burleigh, Barbara A

    2016-08-01

    Energy metabolism is an attractive target for the development of new therapeutics against protozoan pathogens, including Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of human Chagas disease. Despite emerging evidence that mitochondrial electron transport is essential for the growth of intracellular T. cruzi amastigotes in mammalian cells, fundamental knowledge of mitochondrial energy metabolism in this parasite life stage remains incomplete. The Clark-type electrode, which measures the rate of oxygen consumption, has served as the traditional tool to study mitochondrial energetics and has contributed to our understanding of it in T. cruzi. Here, we evaluate the Seahorse XF(e)24 extracellular flux platform as an alternative method to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in isolated T. cruzi parasites. We report optimized assay conditions used to perform mitochondrial stress tests with replicative life cycle stages of T. cruzi using the XF(e)24 instrument, and discuss the advantages and potential limitations of this methodology, as applied to T. cruzi and other trypanosomatids.

  5. The healthy cell bias of estrogen action: mitochondrial bioenergetics and neurological implications.

    PubMed

    Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2008-10-01

    The 'healthy cell bias of estrogen action' hypothesis examines the role that regulating mitochondrial function and bioenergetics play in promoting neural health and the mechanistic crossroads that lead to divergent outcomes following estrogen exposure. Estrogen-induced signaling pathways in hippocampal and cortical neurons converge upon the mitochondria to enhance aerobic glycolysis coupled to the citric acid cycle, mitochondrial respiration and ATP generation. Convergence of estrogen-induced signaling onto mitochondria is also a point of vulnerability when activated in diseased neurons which exacerbates degeneration through increased load on dysregulated calcium homeostasis. As the continuum of neurological health progresses from healthy to unhealthy so too do the benefits of estrogen or hormone therapy. The healthy cell bias of estrogen action hypothesis provides a lens through which to assess disparities in outcomes across basic and clinical science and on which to predict outcomes of estrogen interventions for sustaining neurological health and preventing age-associated neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's.

  6. Bioenergetic profiling of Trypanosoma cruzi life stages using Seahorse extracellular flux technology.

    PubMed

    Shah-Simpson, Sheena; Pereira, Camila F A; Dumoulin, Peter C; Caradonna, Kacey L; Burleigh, Barbara A

    2016-08-01

    Energy metabolism is an attractive target for the development of new therapeutics against protozoan pathogens, including Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of human Chagas disease. Despite emerging evidence that mitochondrial electron transport is essential for the growth of intracellular T. cruzi amastigotes in mammalian cells, fundamental knowledge of mitochondrial energy metabolism in this parasite life stage remains incomplete. The Clark-type electrode, which measures the rate of oxygen consumption, has served as the traditional tool to study mitochondrial energetics and has contributed to our understanding of it in T. cruzi. Here, we evaluate the Seahorse XF(e)24 extracellular flux platform as an alternative method to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in isolated T. cruzi parasites. We report optimized assay conditions used to perform mitochondrial stress tests with replicative life cycle stages of T. cruzi using the XF(e)24 instrument, and discuss the advantages and potential limitations of this methodology, as applied to T. cruzi and other trypanosomatids. PMID:27392747

  7. Interventions that improve body and brain bioenergetics for Parkinson's disease risk reduction and therapy.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Mark P

    2014-01-01

    Studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, animal models and pathogenic actions of genetic mutations that cause familial PD have established that neuronal bioenergetics are compromised with brainstem and midbrain monoaminergic neurons being particularly vulnerable. Peripheral insulin resistance and diabetes in midlife may increase the risk of PD, and diet and lifestyle changes that increase insulin sensitivity (exercise and intermittent energy restriction) can counteract neurodegenerative processes and improve functional outcome in animal models. Insulin sensitizing glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogs are beneficial in animal models of PD, and the results of an initial clinical trial in PD patients are promising. In addition to improving peripheral and brain energy metabolism, exercise, intermittent energy restriction and GLP-1 analogs may bolster neuronal adaptive stress response pathways that enhance neurotrophic signaling, DNA repair, proteostasis and mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:24473219

  8. Metabolic Targeting of Malignant Tumors: Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Bioenergetic Flux

    PubMed Central

    Mathupala, Saroj P.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolism in tumors deviates significantly from that of normal tissues. Increasingly, the underlying aberrant metabolic pathways are being considered as novel targets for cancer therapy. Denoted “metabolic targeting”, small molecule drugs are under investigation for focused inhibition of key metabolic steps that are utilized by tumors, since such inhibitors should harbor minimal toxicity towards surrounding normal tissues.This review will examine the primary biochemical pathways that tumors harness to enhance their bioenergetic capacity, which in turn, help their rapid proliferation and metastasis within the host. It is hoped that “metabolite-mimetic” drugs can be utilized to interfere with metabolic flux pathways active within the tumor, and across tumor-microenvironment boundary. In fact, the major pathways of mammalian metabolism, i.e., the carbohydrate, amino-acid, and fatty-acid metabolic pathways have been examined as putative targets for drug development, with some drug candidates advancing to phase II/III stages. In this regard, glucose metabolism, i.e., the glycolytic pathway - that predominates the bio-energetic flux in tumors, and the associated mitochondrial metabolism have received the most attention as suitable “druggable” targets, focused either at the pathway enzymes or at the plasma-membrane-bound metabolite transporters. Outlined in this review are pre-clinical studies that have led to the discovery of promising drug candidates to target tumor-metabolic flux, and ensuing patents, with descriptions of the biochemical rationale for the combinatorial strategy of a particular metabolic pathway-drug candidate pair. PMID:21110820

  9. Modulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics in a skeletal muscle cell line model of mitochondrial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Dott, William; Mistry, Pratibha; Wright, Jayne; Cain, Kelvin; Herbert, Karl E

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity is increasingly being implicated as a contributing factor to many xenobiotic-induced organ toxicities, including skeletal muscle toxicity. This has necessitated the need for predictive in vitro models that are able to sensitively detect mitochondrial toxicity of chemical entities early in the research and development process. One such cell model involves substituting galactose for glucose in the culture media. Since cells cultured in galactose are unable to generate sufficient ATP from glycolysis they are forced to rely on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for ATP generation and consequently are more sensitive to mitochondrial perturbation than cells grown in glucose. The aim of this study was to characterise cellular growth, bioenergetics and mitochondrial toxicity of the L6 rat skeletal muscle cell line cultured in either high glucose or galactose media. L6 myoblasts proliferated more slowly when cultured in galactose media, although they maintained similar levels of ATP. Galactose cultured L6 cells were significantly more sensitive to classical mitochondrial toxicants than glucose-cultured cells, confirming the cells had adapted to galactose media. Analysis of bioenergetic function with the XF Seahorse extracellular flux analyser demonstrated that oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was significantly increased whereas extracellular acidification rate (ECAR), a measure of glycolysis, was decreased in cells grown in galactose. Mitochondria operated closer to state 3 respiration and had a lower mitochondrial membrane potential and basal mitochondrial O2 (•-) level compared to cells in the glucose model. An antimycin A (AA) dose response revealed that there was no difference in the sensitivity of OCR to AA inhibition between glucose and galactose cells. Importantly, cells in glucose were able to up-regulate glycolysis, while galactose cells were not. These results confirm that L6 cells are able to adapt to growth in a galactose media model

  10. Suitability of Lake Erie for bigheaded carps based on bioenergetic models and remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Karl R.; Chapman, Duane C.; Wynne, Timothy; Masagounder, Karthik; Paukert, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Algal blooms in the Great Lakes are a potential food source for silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis; together bigheaded carps). Understanding these blooms thus plays an important role in understanding the invasion potential of bigheaded carps. We used remote sensing imagery, temperatures, and improved species specific bioenergetics models to determine algal concentrations sufficient for adult bigheaded carps. Depending on water temperature we found that bigheaded carp require between 2 and 7 μg/L chlorophyll or between 0.3 and 1.26 × 105cells/mL Microcystis to maintain body weight. Algal concentrations in the western basin and shoreline were found to be commonly several times greater than the concentrations required for weight maintenance. The remote sensing images show that area of sufficient algal foods commonly encompassed several hundred square kilometers to several thousands of square kilometers when blooms form. From 2002 to 2011, mean algal concentrations increased 273%–411%. This indicates Lake Erie provides increasingly adequate planktonic algal food for bigheaded carps. The water temperatures and algal concentrations detected in Lake Erie from 2008 to 2012 support positive growth rates such that a 4 kg silver carp could gain between 19 and 57% of its body weight in a year. A 5 kg bighead carp modeled at the same water temperatures could gain 20–81% of their body weight in the same period. The remote sensing imagery and bioenergetic models suggest that bigheaded carps would not be food limited if they invaded Lake Erie.

  11. Quantifying the role of woody debris in providing bioenergetically favorable habitat for juvenile salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, L.; Hafs, A. W.; Utz, R.; Dunne, T.

    2013-12-01

    The habitat complexity of a riverine ecosystem substantially influences aquatic communities, and especially the bioenergetics of drift feeding fish. We coupled hydrodynamic and bioenergetic models to assess the influence of habitat complexity, generated via large woody debris (LWD) additions, on juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) growth potential in a river that lacked large wood. Model simulations indicated that LWD diversified the flow field, creating pronounced velocity gradients, which enhanced fish feeding and resting activities at the micro-habitat (sub-meter) scale. Fluid drag created by individual wood structures was increased under higher wood loading rates, leading to a 5-19% reduction in the reach-averaged velocity. We found that wood loading was asymptotically related to the reach-scale growth potential, suggesting that the river became saturated with LWD and additional loading would produce minimal benefit. In our study reach, LWD additions could potentially quadruple the potential growth area available before that limit was reached. Wood depletion in the world's rivers has been widely documented, leading to widespread attempts by river managers to reverse this trend by adding wood to simplified aquatic habitats, though systematic prediction of the effects of wood on fish growth has not been previously accomplished. We offer a quantitative, theory-based approach for assessing the role of wood on habitat potential as it affects fish growth at the micro-habitat and reach-scales. Fig. 1. Predicted flow field and salmon growth potential maps produced from model simulations with no woody debris (Graphs A and D), a low density (Graphs B and E), and a high density (Graphs C and E) of woody debris.

  12. Oxidative stress suppresses the cellular bioenergetic effect of the 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase/hydrogen sulfide pathway.

    PubMed

    Módis, Katalin; Asimakopoulou, Antonia; Coletta, Ciro; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Szabo, Csaba

    2013-04-19

    Recent data show that lower concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as well as endogenous, intramitochondrial production of H2S by the 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP)/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) pathway serves as an electron donor and inorganic source of energy to support mitochondrial electron transport and ATP generation in mammalian cells by donating electrons to Complex II. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress on the activity of the 3-MP/3-MST/H2S pathway in vitro. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 100-500 μM) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the activity of recombinant mouse 3-MST enzyme. In mitochondria isolated from murine hepatoma cells, H2O2 (50-500 μM) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in production of H2S from 3-MP. In cultured murine hepatoma cells H2O2, (3-100 μM), did not result in overall cytotoxicity, but caused a partial decrease in basal oxygen consumption and respiratory reserve rapacity. The positive bioenergetic effect of 3-MP (100-300 nM) was completely abolished by pre-treatment of the cells with H2O2 (50 μM). The current findings demonstrate that oxidative stress inhibits 3-MST activity and interferes with the positive bioenergetic role of the 3-MP/3-MST/H2S pathway. These findings may have implications for the pathophysiology of various conditions associated with increased oxidative stress, such as various forms of critical illness, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes or physiological aging. PMID:23537657

  13. Photobiomodulatory effects of superpulsed 904nm laser therapy on bioenergetics status in burn wound healing.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anju; Gupta, Asheesh; Keshri, Gaurav K; Verma, Saurabh; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2016-09-01

    Burn wounds exhibit impaired healing as the progression through the normal sequential stages of tissue repair gets hampered by epidermal barrier disruption, compromised blood circulation, abrogated defence mechanism, pathologic inflammation, and septicemia. Our earlier results reported that superpulsed 904nm LLLT enhanced healing and attenuated inflammatory response in burn wounds. The present study investigated the effect of superpulsed 904nm LLLT (200ns pulse width; 100Hz; 0.7mW mean output power; 0.4mW/cm(2) average irradiance) on biochemical and molecular markers pertaining to bioenergetics and redox homeostasis on full-thickness burn wounds in experimental rats. Results indicated that superpulsed laser irradiation for 7days post-wounding propelled the cellular milieu towards aerobic energy metabolism as evidenced by significantly enhanced activities of key energy regulatory enzymes viz. HK, PFK, CS and G6PD, whereas LDH showed reduced activity as compared to the non-irradiated controls. LLLT showed a significant increased CCO activity and ATP level. Moreover, LLLT also regulated redox homeostasis as evidenced by enhanced NADPH levels and decreased NADP/NADPH ratio. Western blot analysis demonstrated that LLLT produced an up-regulation of GLUT1, pAMPKα and down-regulation of glycogen synthase1 (GS1). Our findings suggest that superpulsed 904nm LLLT augments burn wound healing by enhancing intracellular energy contents through modulation of aerobic metabolism for maximum energy output. Bioenergetic activation and maintenance of redox homeostasis could be one of the noteworthy mechanisms responsible for the beneficial NIR photobiomodulatory effect mediated through superpulsed 904nm LLLT in burn wound healing. PMID:27344636

  14. Behavioural thermoregulation and bioenergetics of riverine smallmouth bass associated with ambient cold-period thermal refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westhoff, J.T.; Paukert, Craig P.; Ettinger-Dietzel, Sarah; Dodd, H.R.; Siepker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Smallmouth bass in thermally heterogeneous streams may behaviourally thermoregulate during the cold period (i.e., groundwater temperature greater than river water temperature) by inhabiting warm areas in the stream that result from high groundwater influence or springs. Our objectives were to determine movement of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) that use thermal refuge and project differences in growth and consumption among smallmouth bass exhibiting different thermal-use patterns. We implanted radio transmitters in 29 smallmouth bass captured in Alley Spring on the Jacks Fork River, Missouri, USA, during the winter of 2012. Additionally, temperature archival tags were implanted in a subset of nine fish. Fish were tracked using radio telemetry monthly from January 2012 through January of 2013. The greatest upstream movement was 42.5 km, and the greatest downstream movement was 22.2 km. Most radio tagged fish (69%) departed Alley Spring when daily maximum river water temperature first exceeded that of the spring (14 °C) and during increased river discharge. Bioenergetic modelling predicted that a 350 g migrating smallmouth bass that used cold-period thermal refuge would grow 16% slower at the same consumption level as a fish that did not seek thermal refuge. Contrary to the bioenergetics models, extrapolation of growth scope results suggested migrating fish grow 29% more than fish using areas of stream with little groundwater influence. Our results contradict previous findings that smallmouth bass are relatively sedentary, provide information about potential cues for migratory behaviour, and give insight to managers regarding use and growth of smallmouth bass in thermally heterogeneous river systems.

  15. Problema vizual'noj registratsii nablyudenij v opticheskoj astronomii XVII-XVIII vekov %t Problem of visual registration of observations in optical astronomy in the 17th-18th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Kostantin V.

    This paper attempts to explain the growth of optical astronomy as a result of more general social and cultural change in European life during the two post-Renaissance centuries. It shows how the introduction of optical instruments into astronomical work was accompanied (and partly conditioned) by a few nonastronomical practices, such as collecting unusual things and their images, producing illusionary effects by means of optical devices, manufacturing pictures that could disturb the common visual perception, etc. The paper draws particular attention to the practices of manipulation with visual images that could help to introduce "illusionary" optical knowledge into making "true" drawings from natural objects, including celestial ones. In this way, the formation of new astronomical language can be understood as closely connected to the explicit formulation of technological instructions and legal rules for making copies from natural objects, as well as the general development of printing production and broadening of the market of printed illustrations. These often not enough co-ordinated practices stipulated the shift of optical astronomy into a significant part of seigniorial culture, where it obtained recognition as an essentially new and elite knowledge, associated with particular technological vigilance. During the transition of European monarchies into the absolutist social order, astronomy, on a level with other court services, assumed a shape of professional occupation supplied with certain monetary salaries, a stable position in official hierarchy, and supreme privileges. This was the way by which astronomy merged with the other natural studies and became one of the publicly recognised scientific disciplines.

  16. Removal of algae by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population in western Lake Erie: a bioenergetics approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.

    1995-01-01

    A bioenergetics model for growth of a zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) individual was verified with observations on zebra mussel growth in western Lake Erie. The bioenergetics model was then applied to the zebra mussel population in the western basin of Lake Erie to estimate the removal of phytoplankton by mussels. According to the modeling results, the zebra mussel population consumed 5.0 million tonnes of phytoplankton, while 1.4 million tonnes of phytoplankton was deposited in pseudofeces from the mussels. Thus, a total of 6.4 ± 2.4 million tonnes of phytoplankton was removed from the water column by zebra mussel in western Lake Erie during 1990. Primary production was estimated to be 24.8 million tonnes; therefore, zebra mussel removed the equivalent of 26 ± 10% of the primary production for western Lake Erie.

  17. Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms: Progress report, 1 January 1988-31 August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Spotila, J.R.

    1988-07-01

    We quantified the constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms. During the first eight months of 1988 we conducted studies to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field, to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures, and water flux rates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also organized and chaired a national symposium on Constraints of Bioenergetics on Animal Population Dynamics at the 1987 meeting of the American Society of Zoologists. 18 refs.

  18. Bioenergetic analysis of intact mammalian cells using the Seahorse XF24 Extracellular Flux analyzer and a luciferase ATP assay.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Michelle Barbi; Van Houten, Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic pathways and bioenergetics were described in great detail over half a century ago, and during the past decade there has been a resurgence in integrating these cellular processes with other biological properties of the cell, including growth control, protein kinase cascade signaling, cell cycle division, and autophagy. Since many disease conditions are associated with altered metabolism and production of energy, it is important to develop new approaches to measure these cellular parameters. This chapter summarizes a new and exciting approach based on the Seahorse XF24 Extracelluar Flux analyzer, which takes real time measurements of oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in living cells. These bioenergetic profiles are then compared with steady-state levels of cellular ATP as measured by a luciferase assay.

  19. Development and corroboration of a bioenergetics model for northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) feeding on juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Ward, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A bioenergetics model was developed and corroborated for northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an important predator on juvenile salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. Predictions of modeled predation rate on salmonids were compared with field data from three areas of John Day Reservoir (Columbia River). To make bioenergetics model estimates of predation rate, three methods were used to approximate the change in mass of average predators during 30-d growth periods: observed change in mass between the first and the second month, predicted change in mass calculated with seasonal growth rates, and predicted change in mass based on an annual growth model. For all reservoir areas combined, bioenergetics model predictions of predation on salmon were 19% lower than field estimates based on observed masses, 45% lower than estimates based on seasonal growth rates, and 15% lower than estimates based on the annual growth model. For each growth approach, the largest differences in field-versus-model predation occurred at the midreservoir area (-84% to -67% difference). Model predictions of the rate of predation on salmonids were examined for sensitivity to parameter variation, swimming speed, sampling bias caused by gear selectivity, and asymmetric size distributions of predators. The specific daily growth rate of northern pikeminnow predicted by the model was highest in July and October and decreased during August. The bioenergetics model for northern pikeminnow performed well compared with models for other fish species that have been tested with field data. This model should be a useful tool for evaluating management actions such as predator removal, examining the influence of temperature on predation rates, and exploring interactions between predators in the Columbia River basin.

  20. Chemiosmotic concept of the membrane bioenergetics: what is already clear and what is still waiting for elucidation?

    PubMed

    Skulachev, V P

    1994-12-01

    The present state of the chemiosmotic concept is reviewed. Special attention is paid to (i) further progress in studies on the Na(+)-coupled energetics and (ii) paradoxical bioenergetic effects when protonic or sodium potentials are utilized outside the coupling membrane (TonB-mediated uphill transports across the outer bacterial membrane). A hypothesis is put forward assuming that the same principle is employed in the bacterial flagellar motor. PMID:7721720

  1. Exploring geomorphic controls on fish bioenergetics in mountain streams: linkages between channel morphology and rearing habitat for cutthroat trout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cienciala, P.; Hassan, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Landscape heterogeneity constitutes an important control on spatial distribution of habitat for living organisms, at a range of spatial scales. For example, spatial variation in geomorphic processes can spatially structure populations as well as entire communities, and affect various ecosystem processes. We have coupled a 2D hydrodynamic model with a bioenergetic model to study the effects of various channel morphologies and bed textures on rearing habitat for coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) in four reaches of a mountain stream. The bioenergetic model uses energy conservation principle to calculate energy budget for fish at any point of the study domain, given a set of relevant local conditions. Specifically, the energy intake is a function of food availability (invertebrate drift) while the energy expenditure occurs through, for example, basal metabolism and swimming to hold position against the flow. Channel morphology and bed texture, through their influence on channel hydraulics, can exert strong control on the spatial pattern of both food flux and swimming cost for drift-feeding fish. Therefore, the coupled hydrodynamic and bioenergetic models, parameterized using an extensive field data set, enabled us to explore mechanistic linkages between geomorphic properties of the study reaches, food resource availability, and the energetic profitability of rearing habitat for different age-classes at both between- and within-reach spatial scales.

  2. Testing a bioenergetics-based habitat choice model: bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) responses to food availability and temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2011-01-01

    Using an automated shuttlebox system, we conducted patch choice experiments with 32, 8–12 g bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to test a behavioral energetics hypothesis of habitat choice. When patch temperature and food levels were held constant within patches but different between patches, we expected bluegill to choose patches that maximized growth based on the bioenergetic integration of food and temperature as predicted by a bioenergetics model. Alternative hypotheses were that bluegill may choose patches based only on food (optimal foraging) or temperature (behavioral thermoregulation). The behavioral energetics hypothesis was not a good predictor of short-term (from minutes to weeks) patch choice by bluegill; the behavioral thermoregulation hypothesis was the best predictor. In the short-term, food and temperature appeared to affect patch choice hierarchically; temperature was more important, although food can alter temperature preference during feeding periods. Over a 19-d experiment, mean temperatures occupied by fish offered low rations did decline as predicted by the behavioral energetics hypothesis, but the decline was less than 1.0 °C as opposed to a possible 5 °C decline. A short-term, bioenergetic response to food and temperature may be precluded by physiological costs of acclimation not considered explicitly in the behavioral energetics hypothesis.

  3. Essential Regulation of Cell Bioenergetics By Constitutive InsP3 Receptor Ca2+ Transfer to Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, César; Miller, Russell A.; Smith, Ian; Bui, Thi; Molgó, Jordi; Müller, Marioly; Vais, Horia; Cheung, King-Ho; Yang, Jun; Parker, Ian; Thompson, Craig; Birnbaum, Morris; Hallows, Kenneth R.; Foskett, J. Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms that regulate cellular metabolism are a fundamental requirement of all cells. Most eukaryotic cells rely on aerobic mitochondrial metabolism to generate ATP. Nevertheless, regulation of mitochondrial activity is incompletely understood. Here we identified an unexpected and essential role for constitutive InsP3R-mediated Ca2+ release in maintaining cellular bioenergetics. Macroautophagy provides eukaryotes with an adaptive response to nutrient deprivation that prolongs survival. Constitutive InsP3R Ca2+ signaling is required for macroautophagy suppression in cells in nutrient-replete media. In its absence, cells become metabolically compromised due to diminished mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Mitochondrial uptake of InsP3R released Ca2+ is fundamentally required to provide optimal bioenergetics by providing sufficient reducing equivalents to support oxidative phosphorylation. Absence of this Ca2+ transfer results in enhanced phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and activation of AMPK, which activates pro-survival macroautophagy. Thus, constitutive InsP3R Ca2+ release to mitochondria is an essential cellular process that is required for efficient mitochondrial respiration and maintenance of normal cell bioenergetics. PMID:20655468

  4. The bioenergetic signature of isogenic colon cancer cells predicts the cell death response to treatment with 3-bromopyruvate, iodoacetate or 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Metabolic reprogramming resulting in enhanced glycolysis is a phenotypic trait of cancer cells, which is imposed by the tumor microenvironment and is linked to the down-regulation of the catalytic subunit of the mitochondrial H+-ATPase (β-F1-ATPase). The bioenergetic signature is a protein ratio (β-F1-ATPase/GAPDH), which provides an estimate of glucose metabolism in tumors and serves as a prognostic indicator for cancer patients. Targeting energetic metabolism could be a viable alternative to conventional anticancer chemotherapies. Herein, we document that the bioenergetic signature of isogenic colon cancer cells provides a gauge to predict the cell-death response to the metabolic inhibitors, 3-bromopyruvate (3BrP) and iodoacetate (IA), and the anti-metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Methods The bioenergetic signature of the cells was determined by western blotting. Aerobic glycolysis was determined from lactate production rates. The cell death was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Cellular ATP concentrations were determined using bioluminiscence. Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to assess the relationship between the bioenergetic signature and the cell death response. In vivo tumor regression activities of the compounds were assessed using a xenograft mouse model injected with the highly glycolytic HCT116 colocarcinoma cells. Results We demonstrate that the bioenergetic signature of isogenic HCT116 cancer cells inversely correlates with the potential to execute necrosis in response to 3BrP or IA treatment. Conversely, the bioenergetic signature directly correlates with the potential to execute apoptosis in response to 5-FU treatment in the same cells. However, despite the large differences observed in the in vitro cell-death responses associated with 3BrP, IA and 5-FU, the in vivo tumor regression activities of these agents were comparable. Conclusions Overall, we suggest that the determination of the bioenergetic

  5. Foxg1 localizes to mitochondria and coordinates cell differentiation and bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Pancrazi, Laura; Di Benedetto, Giulietta; Colombaioni, Laura; Della Sala, Grazia; Testa, Giovanna; Olimpico, Francesco; Reyes, Aurelio; Zeviani, Massimo; Pozzan, Tullio; Costa, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Forkhead box g1 (Foxg1) is a nuclear-cytosolic transcription factor essential for the forebrain development and involved in neurodevelopmental and cancer pathologies. Despite the importance of this protein, little is known about the modalities by which it exerts such a large number of cellular functions. Here we show that a fraction of Foxg1 is localized within the mitochondria in cell lines, primary neuronal or glial cell cultures, and in the mouse cortex. Import of Foxg1 in isolated mitochondria appears to be membrane potential-dependent. Amino acids (aa) 277–302 were identified as critical for mitochondrial localization. Overexpression of full-length Foxg1 enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and promoted mitochondrial fission and mitosis. Conversely, overexpression of the C-term Foxg1 (aa 272–481), which is selectively localized in the mitochondrial matrix, enhanced organelle fusion and promoted the early phase of neuronal differentiation. These findings suggest that the different subcellular localizations of Foxg1 control the machinery that brings about cell differentiation, replication, and bioenergetics, possibly linking mitochondrial functions to embryonic development and pathological conditions. PMID:26508630

  6. Coupling calcium dynamics and mitochondrial bioenergetic: an in silico study to simulate cardiomyocyte dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Das, Phonindra Nath; Pedruzzi, Gabriele; Bairagi, Nandadulal; Chatterjee, Samrat

    2016-03-01

    The coupling of intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics with mitochondrial bioenergetic is crucial for the functioning of cardiomyocytes both in healthy and disease conditions. The pathophysiological signature of the Cardiomyocyte Dysfunction (CD) is commonly related to decreased ATP production due to mitochondrial functional impairment and to an increased mitochondrial calcium content ([Ca(2+)]m). These features advanced the therapeutic approaches which aim to reduce [Ca(2+)]m. But whether [Ca(2+)]m overload is the pathological trigger for CD or a physiological consequence, remained controversial. We addressed this issue in silico and showed that [Ca(2+)]m might not directly cause CD. Through model parameter recalibration, we demonstrated how mitochondria cope up with functionally impaired processes and consequently accumulate calcium. A strong coupling of the [Ca(2+)]m oscillations with the ATP synthesis rate ensures robust calcium cycling and avoids CD. We suggested a cardioprotective role of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter and predicted that a mitochondrial sodium calcium exchanger could be a potential therapeutic target to restore the normal functioning of the cardiomyocyte.

  7. The Perimenopausal Aging Transition in the Female Rat Brain: Decline in Bioenergetic Systems and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fei; Yao, Jia; Sancheti, Harsh; Feng, Tao; Melcangi, Roberto C.; Morgan, Todd E.; Finch, Caleb E.; Pike, Christian J.; Mack, Wendy J.; Cadenas, Enrique; Brinton, Roberta D.

    2015-01-01

    The perimenopause is an aging transition unique to the female that leads to reproductive senescence which can be characterized by multiple neurological symptoms. To better understand potential underlying mechanisms of neurological symptoms of perimenopause, the current study determined genomic, biochemical, brain metabolic and electrophysiological transformations that occur during this transition using a rat model recapitulating fundamental characteristics of the human perimenopause. Gene expression analyses indicated two distinct aging programs: chronological and endocrine. A critical period emerged during the endocrine transition from regular to irregular cycling characterized by decline in bioenergetic gene expression, confirmed by deficits in FDG-PET brain metabolism, mitochondrial function, and long-term potentiation. Bioinformatic analysis predicted insulin/IGF1 and AMPK/PGC1α signaling pathways as upstream regulators. Onset of acyclicity was accompanied by a rise in genes required for fatty acid metabolism, inflammation, and mitochondrial function. Subsequent chronological aging resulted in decline of genes required for mitochondrial function and β-amyloid degradation. Emergence of glucose hypometabolism and impaired synaptic function in brain provide plausible mechanisms of neurological symptoms of perimenopause and may be predictive of later life vulnerability to hypometabolic conditions such as Alzheimer’s. PMID:25921624

  8. In vivo and in vitro assessment of brain bioenergetics in aging rats

    PubMed Central

    Vančová, Ol’ga; Bačiak, Ladislav; Kašparová, Svatava; Kucharská, Jarmila; Palacios, Hector H; Horecký, Jaromír; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Brain energy disorders can be present in aged men and animals. To this respect, the mitochondrial and free radical theory of aging postulates that age-associated brain energy disorders are caused by an imbalance between pro- and anti-oxidants that can result in oxidative stress. Our study was designed to investigate brain energy metabolism and the activity of endogenous antioxidants during their lifespan in male Wistar rats. In vivo brain bioenergetics were measured using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and in vitro by polarographic analysis of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. When compared to the young controls, a significant decrease of age-dependent mitochondrial respiration and adenosine-3-phosphate (ATP) production measured in vitro correlated with significant reduction of forward creatine kinase reaction (kfor) and with an increase in phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP, PCr/Pi and PME/ATP ratio measured in vivo. The levels of enzymatic antioxidants catalase, GPx and GST significantly decreased in the brain tissue as well as in the peripheral blood of aged rats. We suppose that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative inactivation of endogenous enzymes may participate in age-related disorders of brain energy metabolism. PMID:19906014

  9. Effect of a levee setback on aquatic resources using two-dimensional flow and bioenergetics models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, Robert W.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Magirl, Christopher S.; McCarthy, Sarah; Berge, Hans; Comanor, Kyle

    2016-04-05

    Watershed restoration is the focus of many resource managers and can include a multitude of restoration actions each with specific restoration objectives. For the White River flowing through the cities of Pacific and Sumner, Washington, a levee setback has been proposed to reconnect the river with its historical floodplain to help reduce flood risks, as well as provide increased habitat for federally listed species of salmonids. The study presented here documents the use of a modeling framework that integrates two-dimensional hydraulic modeling with process-based bioenergetics modeling for predicting how changes in flow from reconnecting the river with its floodplain affects invertebrate drift density and the net rate of energy intake of juvenile salmonids. Modeling results were calculated for flows of 25.9 and 49.3 cubic meters per second during the spring, summer, and fall. Predicted hypothetical future mean velocities and depths were significantly lower and more variable when compared to current conditions. The abundance of low energetic cost and positive growth locations for salmonids were predicted to increase significantly in the study reach following floodplain reconnection, particularly during the summer. This modeling framework presents a viable approach for evaluating the potential fisheries benefits of reconnecting a river to its historical floodplain that integrates our understanding of hydraulic, geomorphology, and organismal biology.

  10. Ion Channels in Plant Bioenergetic Organelles, Chloroplasts and Mitochondria: From Molecular Identification to Function.

    PubMed

    Carraretto, Luca; Teardo, Enrico; Checchetto, Vanessa; Finazzi, Giovanni; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Szabo, Ildiko

    2016-03-01

    Recent technical advances in electrophysiological measurements, organelle-targeted fluorescence imaging, and organelle proteomics have pushed the research of ion transport a step forward in the case of the plant bioenergetic organelles, chloroplasts and mitochondria, leading to the molecular identification and functional characterization of several ion transport systems in recent years. Here we focus on channels that mediate relatively high-rate ion and water flux and summarize the current knowledge in this field, focusing on targeting mechanisms, proteomics, electrophysiology, and physiological function. In addition, since chloroplasts evolved from a cyanobacterial ancestor, we give an overview of the information available about cyanobacterial ion channels and discuss the evolutionary origin of chloroplast channels. The recent molecular identification of some of these ion channels allowed their physiological functions to be studied using genetically modified Arabidopsis plants and cyanobacteria. The view is emerging that alteration of chloroplast and mitochondrial ion homeostasis leads to organelle dysfunction, which in turn significantly affects the energy metabolism of the whole organism. Clear-cut identification of genes encoding for channels in these organelles, however, remains a major challenge in this rapidly developing field. Multiple strategies including bioinformatics, cell biology, electrophysiology, use of organelle-targeted ion-sensitive probes, genetics, and identification of signals eliciting specific ion fluxes across organelle membranes should provide a better understanding of the physiological role of organellar channels and their contribution to signaling pathways in plants in the future. PMID:26751960

  11. Development of a methodology to assess organometallic effects on bioenergetic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, L.; Mehlhorn, R.J.

    1981-06-01

    A methodology for assessing the impact of subacute concentrations of organometallic agents on bioenergetic and oxidative damage processes in animals, cells and energy transducing subcellular organelles is being developed. Several of the assays are noninvasive and thus lend themselves to human tests. At the whole-animal level we utilize a treadmill chamber where physiological parameters of exercising animals are monitored. These include parameters of whole animals' work performance such as oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide evolution and endurance. Oxidative damage can be monitored in experiments by analyzing expired air of the animals for ethane and n-pentane. These alkanes correlate with lipid peroxidation in vivo. At the cellular and subcellular levels, respiratory activity, lipid peroxidation and free radical species are assayed. Respiratory activity is measured in muscle homogenates and isolated mitochondria using substrates which feed into different segments of the electron transport chain. To demonstrate how these assay procedures correlate, iron deficiency anemia in rats was analyzed. Physiologically, iron deficiency caused a 90% decrease in endurance which correlated with an 80% decrease in pyruvate-malate oxidation rates in muscle homogenates. Significant but smaller effects were seen in hemoglobin/hematocrit levels (50% decrease) and in maximal oxygen consumption (50% decrease). Tissue free-radical signals observed by ESR at room temperature increased with exercise.

  12. Genome Analysis of Structure–Function Relationships in Respiratory Complex I, an Ancient Bioenergetic Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is a ubiquitous bioenergetic enzyme formed by over 40 subunits in eukaryotes and a minimum of 11 subunits in bacteria. Recently, crystal structures have greatly advanced our knowledge of complex I but have not clarified the details of its reaction with ubiquinone (Q). This reaction is essential for bioenergy production and takes place in a large cavity embedded within a conserved module that is homologous to the catalytic core of Ni–Fe hydrogenases. However, how a hydrogenase core has evolved into the protonmotive Q reductase module of complex I has remained unclear. This work has exploited the abundant genomic information that is currently available to deduce structure–function relationships in complex I that indicate the evolutionary steps of Q reactivity and its adaptation to natural Q substrates. The results provide answers to fundamental questions regarding various aspects of complex I reaction with Q and help re-defining the old concept that this reaction may involve two Q or inhibitor sites. The re-definition leads to a simplified classification of the plethora of complex I inhibitors while throwing a new light on the evolution of the enzyme function. PMID:26615219

  13. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain Bioenergetics, Sleep, and Cognitive Performance in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Trksak, George H.; Bracken, Bethany K.; Jensen, J. Eric; Plante, David T.; Penetar, David M.; Tartarini, Wendy L.; Maywalt, Melissa A.; Dorsey, Cynthia M.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent individuals, sleep is disturbed during cocaine use and abstinence, highlighting the importance of examining the behavioral and homeostatic response to acute sleep loss in these individuals. The current study was designed to identify a differential effect of sleep deprivation on brain bioenergetics, cognitive performance, and sleep between cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants. 14 healthy control and 8 cocaine-dependent participants experienced consecutive nights of baseline, total sleep deprivation, and recovery sleep in the research laboratory. Participants underwent [31]P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) brain imaging, polysomnography, Continuous Performance Task, and Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Following recovery sleep, [31]P MRS scans revealed that cocaine-dependent participants exhibited elevated global brain β-NTP (direct measure of adenosine triphosphate), α-NTP, and total NTP levels compared to those of healthy controls. Cocaine-dependent participants performed worse on the Continuous Performance Task and Digit Symbol Substitution Task at baseline compared to healthy control participants, but sleep deprivation did not worsen cognitive performance in either group. Enhancements of brain ATP levels in cocaine dependent participants following recovery sleep may reflect a greater impact of sleep deprivation on sleep homeostasis, which may highlight the importance of monitoring sleep during abstinence and the potential influence of sleep loss in drug relapse. PMID:24250276

  14. Effects of sleep deprivation on brain bioenergetics, sleep, and cognitive performance in cocaine-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Trksak, George H; Bracken, Bethany K; Jensen, J Eric; Plante, David T; Penetar, David M; Tartarini, Wendy L; Maywalt, Melissa A; Dorsey, Cynthia M; Renshaw, Perry F; Lukas, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent individuals, sleep is disturbed during cocaine use and abstinence, highlighting the importance of examining the behavioral and homeostatic response to acute sleep loss in these individuals. The current study was designed to identify a differential effect of sleep deprivation on brain bioenergetics, cognitive performance, and sleep between cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants. 14 healthy control and 8 cocaine-dependent participants experienced consecutive nights of baseline, total sleep deprivation, and recovery sleep in the research laboratory. Participants underwent ³¹P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) brain imaging, polysomnography, Continuous Performance Task, and Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Following recovery sleep, ³¹P MRS scans revealed that cocaine-dependent participants exhibited elevated global brain β-NTP (direct measure of adenosine triphosphate), α-NTP, and total NTP levels compared to those of healthy controls. Cocaine-dependent participants performed worse on the Continuous Performance Task and Digit Symbol Substitution Task at baseline compared to healthy control participants, but sleep deprivation did not worsen cognitive performance in either group. Enhancements of brain ATP levels in cocaine dependent participants following recovery sleep may reflect a greater impact of sleep deprivation on sleep homeostasis, which may highlight the importance of monitoring sleep during abstinence and the potential influence of sleep loss in drug relapse. PMID:24250276

  15. Symbiosis with an endobacterium increases the fitness of a mycorrhizal fungus, raising its bioenergetic potential.

    PubMed

    Salvioli, Alessandra; Ghignone, Stefano; Novero, Mara; Navazio, Lorella; Venice, Francesco; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Bonfante, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) occur in the rhizosphere and in plant tissues as obligate symbionts, having key roles in plant evolution and nutrition. AMF possess endobacteria, and genome sequencing of the endobacterium Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum revealed a reduced genome and a dependence on the fungal host. To understand the effect of bacteria on fungal fitness, we used next-generation sequencing to analyse the transcriptional profile of Gigaspora margarita in the presence and in the absence of its endobacterium. Genomic data on AMF are limited; therefore, we first generated a gene catalogue for G. margarita. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the endobacterium has a stronger effect on the pre-symbiotic phase of the fungus. Coupling transcriptomics with cell biology and physiological approaches, we demonstrate that the bacterium increases the fungal sporulation success, raises the fungal bioenergetic capacity, increasing ATP production, and eliciting mechanisms to detoxify reactive oxygen species. By using TAT peptide to translocate the bioluminescent calcium reporter aequorin, we demonstrated that the line with endobacteria had a lower basal intracellular calcium concentration than the cured line. Lastly, the bacteria seem to enhance the fungal responsiveness to strigolactones, the plant molecules that AMF perceive as branching factors. Although the endobacterium exacts a nutritional cost on the AMF, endobacterial symbiosis improves the fungal ecological fitness by priming mitochondrial metabolic pathways and giving the AMF more tools to face environmental stresses. Thus, we hypothesise that, as described for the human microbiota, endobacteria may increase AMF innate immunity.

  16. Mitochondria Biogenesis and Bioenergetics Gene Profiles in Isogenic Prostate Cells with Different Malignant Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Burch, Tanya C.; Rhim, Johng S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The most significant hallmarks of cancer are directly or indirectly linked to deregulated mitochondria. In this study, we sought to profile mitochondria associated genes in isogenic prostate cell lines with different tumorigenic phenotypes from the same patient. Results. Two isogenic human prostate cell lines RC77N/E (nonmalignant cells) and RC77T/E (malignant cells) were profiled for expression of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism genes by qRT-PCR using the Human Mitochondria and the Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism RT2 PCR arrays. Forty-seven genes were differentially regulated between the two cell lines. The interaction and regulatory networks of these genes were generated by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. UCP2 was the most significantly upregulated gene in primary adenocarcinoma cells in the current study. The overexpression of UCP2 upon malignant transformation was further validated using human prostatectomy clinical specimens. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the overexpression of multiple genes that are involved in mitochondria biogenesis, bioenergetics, and modulation of apoptosis. These genes may play a role in malignant transformation and disease progression. The upregulation of some of these genes in clinical samples indicates that some of the differentially transcribed genes could be the potential targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27478826

  17. Acetate is a Bioenergetic Substrate for Human Glioblastoma and Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Pichumani, Kumar; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Sirasanagandla, Shyam; Nannepaga, Suraj; Piccirillo, Sara G.; Kovacs, Zoltan; Foong, Chan; Huang, Zhiguang; Barnett, Samuel; Mickey, Bruce E.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Tu, Benjamin P.; Maher, Elizabeth A.; Bachoo, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastomas and brain metastases are highly proliferative brain tumors with short survival times. Previously, using 13C-NMR analysis of brain tumors resected from patients during infusion of 13C-glucose, we demonstrated that there is robust oxidation of glucose in the citric acid cycle, yet glucose contributes less than 50% of the carbons to the acetyl-CoA pool. Here we show that primary and metastatic mouse orthotopic brain tumors have the capacity to oxidize [1,2-13C]acetate and can do so simultaneously with [1,6-13C]glucose oxidation. The tumors do not oxidize [U-13C]glutamine. In vivo oxidation of [1,2-13C]acetate was validated in brain tumor patients and was correlated with expression of acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme 2, ACSS2. Together the data demonstrate a strikingly common metabolic phenotype in diverse brain tumors that includes the ability to oxidize acetate in the citric acid cycle. This adaptation may be important for meeting the high biosynthetic and bioenergetic demands of malignant growth. PMID:25525878

  18. Cardiac system bioenergetics: metabolic basis of the Frank-Starling law

    PubMed Central

    Saks, Valdur; Dzeja, Petras; Schlattner, Uwe; Vendelin, Marko; Terzic, Andre; Wallimann, Theo

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental principle of cardiac behaviour is described by the Frank-Starling law relating force of contraction during systole with end-diastolic volume. While both work and respiration rates increase linearly with imposed load, the basis of mechano-energetic coupling in heart muscle has remained a long-standing enigma. Here, we highlight advances made in understanding of complex cellular and molecular mechanisms that orchestrate coupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation with ATP utilization for muscle contraction. Cardiac system bioenergetics critically depends on an interrelated metabolic infrastructure regulating mitochondrial respiration and energy fluxes throughout cellular compartments. The data reviewed indicate the significance of two interrelated systems regulating mitochondrial respiration and energy fluxes in cells: (1) the creatine kinase, adenylate kinase and glycolytic pathways that communicate flux changes generated by cellular ATPases within structurally organized enzymatic modules and networks; and (2) a secondary system based on mitochondrial participation in cellular calcium cycle, which adjusts substrate oxidation and energy-transducing processes to meet increasing cellular energy demands. By conveying energetic signals to metabolic sensors, coupled phosphotransfer reactions provide a high-fidelity regulation of the excitation–contraction cycle. Such integration of energetics with calcium signalling systems provides the basis for ‘metabolic pacing’, synchronizing the cellular electrical and mechanical activities with energy supply processes. PMID:16410283

  19. Regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetic function by hydrogen sulfide. Part II. Pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Módis, Katalin; Bos, Eelke M; Calzia, Enrico; van Goor, Harry; Coletta, Ciro; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Hellmich, Mark R; Radermacher, Peter; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Szabo, Csaba

    2014-04-01

    Emerging work demonstrates the dual regulation of mitochondrial function by hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), including, at lower concentrations, a stimulatory effect as an electron donor, and, at higher concentrations, an inhibitory effect on cytochrome C oxidase. In the current article, we overview the pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of these processes. During cellular hypoxia/acidosis, the inhibitory effect of H2 S on complex IV is enhanced, which may shift the balance of H2 S from protective to deleterious. Several pathophysiological conditions are associated with an overproduction of H2 S (e.g. sepsis), while in other disease states H2 S levels and H2 S bioavailability are reduced and its therapeutic replacement is warranted (e.g. diabetic vascular complications). Moreover, recent studies demonstrate that colorectal cancer cells up-regulate the H2 S-producing enzyme cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), and utilize its product, H2 S, as a metabolic fuel and tumour-cell survival factor; pharmacological CBS inhibition or genetic CBS silencing suppresses cancer cell bioenergetics and suppresses cell proliferation and cell chemotaxis. In the last chapter of the current article, we overview the field of H2 S-induced therapeutic 'suspended animation', a concept in which a temporary pharmacological reduction in cell metabolism is achieved, producing a decreased oxygen demand for the experimental therapy of critical illness and/or organ transplantation.

  20. Wavy membranes and the growth rate of a planar chemical garden: Enhanced diffusion and bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yang; Batista, Bruno; Steinbock, Oliver; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Cardoso, Silvana S S

    2016-08-16

    To model ion transport across protocell membranes in Hadean hydrothermal vents, we consider both theoretically and experimentally the planar growth of a precipitate membrane formed at the interface between two parallel fluid streams in a 2D microfluidic reactor. The growth rate of the precipitate is found to be proportional to the square root of time, which is characteristic of diffusive transport. However, the dependence of the growth rate on the concentrations of hydroxide and metal ions is approximately linear and quadratic, respectively. We show that such a difference in ionic transport dynamics arises from the enhanced transport of metal ions across a thin gel layer present at the surface of the precipitate. The fluctuations in transverse velocity in this wavy porous gel layer allow an enhanced transport of the cation, so that the effective diffusivity is about one order of magnitude higher than that expected from molecular diffusion alone. Our theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with our laboratory measurements of the growth of a manganese hydroxide membrane in a microfluidic channel, and this enhanced transport is thought to have been needed to account for the bioenergetics of the first single-celled organisms.

  1. Measuring Bioenergetics in T Cells Using a Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer.

    PubMed

    van der Windt, Gerritje J W; Chang, Chih-Hao; Pearce, Erika L

    2016-04-01

    This unit contains several protocols to determine the energy utilization of T cells in real-time using a Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer (http://www.seahorsebio.com). The advantages to using this machine over traditional metabolic assays include the simultaneous measurement of glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, in real-time, on relatively small numbers of cells, without any radioactivity. The Basic Protocol describes a standard mitochondrial stress test on the XF(e) 96, which yields information about oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, two energy-generating pathways. The alternate protocols provide examples of adaptations to the Basic Protocol, including adjustments for the use of the XF(e) 24. A protocol for real-time bioenergetic responses to T cell activation allows for the analysis of immediate metabolic changes after T cell receptor stimulation. Specific substrate utilization can be determined by the use of differential assay media, or the injection of drugs that specifically affect certain metabolic processes. Accurate cell numbers, purity, and viability are critical to obtain reliable results.

  2. MCUR1 Is a Scaffold Factor for the MCU Complex Function and Promotes Mitochondrial Bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Dhanendra; Dong, Zhiwei; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Koch, Diana A; Thomas, Toby; Hoffman, Nicholas E; Timbalia, Shrishiv A; Goldman, Samuel J; Breves, Sarah L; Corbally, Daniel P; Nemani, Neeharika; Fairweather, Joseph P; Cutri, Allison R; Zhang, Xueqian; Song, Jianliang; Jaña, Fabián; Huang, Jianhe; Barrero, Carlos; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Luongo, Timothy S; Schumacher, Sarah M; Rockman, Michael E; Dietrich, Alexander; Merali, Salim; Caplan, Jeffrey; Stathopulos, Peter; Ahima, Rexford S; Cheung, Joseph Y; Houser, Steven R; Koch, Walter J; Patel, Vickas; Gohil, Vishal M; Elrod, John W; Rajan, Sudarsan; Madesh, Muniswamy

    2016-05-24

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) Uniporter (MCU)-dependent mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is the primary mechanism for increasing matrix Ca(2+) in most cell types. However, a limited understanding of the MCU complex assembly impedes the comprehension of the precise mechanisms underlying MCU activity. Here, we report that mouse cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells lacking MCU regulator 1 (MCUR1) have severely impaired [Ca(2+)]m uptake and IMCU current. MCUR1 binds to MCU and EMRE and function as a scaffold factor. Our protein binding analyses identified the minimal, highly conserved regions of coiled-coil domain of both MCU and MCUR1 that are necessary for heterooligomeric complex formation. Loss of MCUR1 perturbed MCU heterooligomeric complex and functions as a scaffold factor for the assembly of MCU complex. Vascular endothelial deletion of MCU and MCUR1 impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and migration but elicited autophagy. These studies establish the existence of a MCU complex that assembles at the mitochondrial integral membrane and regulates Ca(2+)-dependent mitochondrial metabolism.

  3. The Bioenergetics of Isolated Mitochondria from Different Animal Models for Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Dairo A

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic alteration characterized by a higher than normal blood glucose level. For the experimental study of the metabolic changes that occur during this illness, various animal models have been introduced: alloxan- and streptozotocin-injected animals, as well as depancreatized animals, as models for type 1 diabetes, and high-fat fed diabetic animals and laboratory animals with genetic diabetes as models for type 2 diabetes. All these models have been used to investigate specific events on the cellular and organ levels that occur as a consequence of diabetes. In particular, mitochondrial energy metabolism has been extensively studied using these experimental models for diabetes. The experimental results for the bioenergetics of isolated mitochondria harvested from different animal models for diabetes, with the exception of those obtained with high-fat fed diabetic animals, are conflicting; nevertheless, many researchers now consider mitochondrial energy dysfunction as one of the direct causes of the serious complications, in various organs and tissues, that are exhibited as a result of this illness. For this reason, it is important that future research clarify the true energy functional state of these organelles isolated from diabetic animals. In the present paper, the published data on this controversial but important issue of the energetic functioning of the mitochondria isolated from diabetic animals is reviewed. This paper also includes commentary on the status of current research and makes useful suggestions for the future direction of research on this topic.

  4. Genome Analysis of Structure-Function Relationships in Respiratory Complex I, an Ancient Bioenergetic Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2015-11-27

    Respiratory complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is a ubiquitous bioenergetic enzyme formed by over 40 subunits in eukaryotes and a minimum of 11 subunits in bacteria. Recently, crystal structures have greatly advanced our knowledge of complex I but have not clarified the details of its reaction with ubiquinone (Q). This reaction is essential for bioenergy production and takes place in a large cavity embedded within a conserved module that is homologous to the catalytic core of Ni-Fe hydrogenases. However, how a hydrogenase core has evolved into the protonmotive Q reductase module of complex I has remained unclear. This work has exploited the abundant genomic information that is currently available to deduce structure-function relationships in complex I that indicate the evolutionary steps of Q reactivity and its adaptation to natural Q substrates. The results provide answers to fundamental questions regarding various aspects of complex I reaction with Q and help re-defining the old concept that this reaction may involve two Q or inhibitor sites. The re-definition leads to a simplified classification of the plethora of complex I inhibitors while throwing a new light on the evolution of the enzyme function.

  5. Early preservation of mitochondrial bioenergetics supports both structural and functional recovery after neurotrauma.

    PubMed

    Semple, Bridgette D

    2014-11-01

    N-acetylcysteine, a precursor to the potent antioxidant glutathione, has been investigated as a potential therapeutic agent for several decades; however, inconsistent efficacy has been reported for diseases of the central nervous system, postulated to result from restricted passage of this molecule across the blood-brain/spinal cord barriers and cellular membranes, resulting in low bioavailability. The amide form of N-acetylcysteine (NACA) overcomes these limitations while maintaining a high antioxidant potential, and shows promise for combating secondary pathogenesis attributed to oxidative stress. Neurotrauma precipitates a rapid and prolonged disruption of mitochondrial bioenergetics, whereby the production of reactive oxygen species overwhelms the endogenous antioxidant capacity of the cells. Two noteworthy papers from collaborative teams have recently been published in Experimental Neurology, in which NACA was applied to rodent models of traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, respectively. Using sensitive methods to measure respiratory rates in isolated mitochondrial populations, treatment with NACA was shown to maintain mitochondrial function and boost antioxidant reserves, which corresponded with improvements in structural and functional outcomes in both studies. This commentary aims to highlight key findings from this research in a broader context, with an emphasis on methodological advances, future research possibilities, and potential applicability to brain and/or spinal cord injured patients.

  6. Wavy membranes and the growth rate of a planar chemical garden: Enhanced diffusion and bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yang; Batista, Bruno; Steinbock, Oliver; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Cardoso, Silvana S S

    2016-08-16

    To model ion transport across protocell membranes in Hadean hydrothermal vents, we consider both theoretically and experimentally the planar growth of a precipitate membrane formed at the interface between two parallel fluid streams in a 2D microfluidic reactor. The growth rate of the precipitate is found to be proportional to the square root of time, which is characteristic of diffusive transport. However, the dependence of the growth rate on the concentrations of hydroxide and metal ions is approximately linear and quadratic, respectively. We show that such a difference in ionic transport dynamics arises from the enhanced transport of metal ions across a thin gel layer present at the surface of the precipitate. The fluctuations in transverse velocity in this wavy porous gel layer allow an enhanced transport of the cation, so that the effective diffusivity is about one order of magnitude higher than that expected from molecular diffusion alone. Our theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with our laboratory measurements of the growth of a manganese hydroxide membrane in a microfluidic channel, and this enhanced transport is thought to have been needed to account for the bioenergetics of the first single-celled organisms. PMID:27486248

  7. Improving mitochondrial bioenergetics under ischemic conditions increases warm ischemia tolerance in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Hazel H; Liu, Shaoyi; Soong, Yi; Birk, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia time during partial nephrectomy is strongly associated with acute and chronic renal injury. ATP depletion during warm ischemia inhibits ATP-dependent processes, resulting in cell swelling, cytoskeletal breakdown, and cell death. The duration of ischemia tolerated by the kidney depends on the amount of ATP that can be produced with residual substrates and oxygen in the tissue to sustain cell function. We previously reported that the rat can tolerate 30-min ischemia quite well but 45-min ischemia results in acute kidney injury and progressive interstitial fibrosis. Here, we report that pretreatment with SS-20 30 min before warm ischemia in the rat increased ischemia tolerance from 30 to 45 min. Histological examination of kidney tissues revealed that SS-20 reduced cytoskeletal breakdown and cell swelling after 45-min ischemia. Electron microscopy showed that SS-20 reduced mitochondrial matrix swelling and preserved cristae membranes, suggesting that SS-20 enhanced mitochondrial ATP synthesis under ischemic conditions. Studies with isolated kidney mitochondria showed dramatic reduction in state 3 respiration and respiratory control ratio after 45-min ischemia, and this was significantly improved by SS-20 treatment. These results suggest that SS-20 increases efficiency of the electron transport chain and improves coupling of oxidative phosphorylation. SS-20 treatment after ischemia also significantly reduced interstitial fibrosis. These new findings reveal that enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics may be an important target for improving ischemia tolerance, and SS-20 may serve well for minimizing acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease following surgical procedures such as partial nephrectomy and transplantation.

  8. Bioenergetic and pharmacokinetic model for exposure of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks to methylmercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karasov, W.H.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Fournier, F.

    2007-01-01

    A bioenergetics model was used to predict food intake of common loon (Gavia immer) chicks as a function of body mass during development, and a pharmacokinetics model, based on first-order kinetics in a single compartment, was used to predict blood Hg level as a function of food intake rate, food Hg content, body mass, and Hg absorption and elimination. Predictions were tested in captive growing chicks fed trout (Salmo gairdneri) with average MeHg concentrations of 0.02 (control), 0.4, and 1.2 ??g/g wet mass (delivered as CH3HgCl). Predicted food intake matched observed intake through 50 d of age but then exceeded observed intake by an amount that grew progressively larger with age, reaching a significant overestimate of 28% by the end of the trial. Respiration in older, nongrowing birds probably was overestimated by using rates measured in younger, growing birds. Close agreement was found between simulations and measured blood Hg, which varied significantly with dietary Hg and age. Although chicks may hatch with different blood Hg levels, their blood level is determined mainly by dietary Hg level beyond approximately two weeks of age. The model also may be useful for predicting Hg levels in adults and in the eggs that they lay, but its accuracy in both chicks and adults needs to be tested in free-living birds. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  9. Bioenergetic cues shift FXR splicing towards FXRα2 to modulate hepatic lipolysis and fatty acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Jorge C.; Massart, Julie; de Boer, Jan Freark; Porsmyr-Palmertz, Margareta; Martínez-Redondo, Vicente; Agudelo, Leandro Z.; Sinha, Indranil; Meierhofer, David; Ribeiro, Vera; Björnholm, Marie; Sauer, Sascha; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Zierath, Juleen R.; Groen, Albert K.; Ruas, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays a prominent role in hepatic lipid metabolism. The FXR gene encodes four proteins with structural differences suggestive of discrete biological functions about which little is known. Methods We expressed each FXR variant in primary hepatocytes and evaluated global gene expression, lipid profile, and metabolic fluxes. Gene delivery of FXR variants to Fxr−/− mouse liver was performed to evaluate their role in vivo. The effects of fasting and physical exercise on hepatic Fxr splicing were determined. Results We show that FXR splice isoforms regulate largely different gene sets and have specific effects on hepatic metabolism. FXRα2 (but not α1) activates a broad transcriptional program in hepatocytes conducive to lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis. Consequently, FXRα2 decreases cellular lipid accumulation and improves cellular insulin signaling to AKT. FXRα2 expression in Fxr−/− mouse liver activates a similar gene program and robustly decreases hepatic triglyceride levels. On the other hand, FXRα1 reduces hepatic triglyceride content to a lesser extent and does so through regulation of lipogenic gene expression. Bioenergetic cues, such as fasting and exercise, dynamically regulate Fxr splicing in mouse liver to increase Fxrα2 expression. Conclusions Our results show that the main FXR variants in human liver (α1 and α2) reduce hepatic lipid accumulation through distinct mechanisms and to different degrees. Taking this novel mechanism into account could greatly improve the pharmacological targeting and therapeutic efficacy of FXR agonists. PMID:26909306

  10. Photoheterotrophic Fluxome in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 and Its Implications for Cyanobacterial Bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    You, Le; He, Lian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated metabolic responses in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 to photosynthetic impairment. We used 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU; a photosystem II inhibitor) to block O2 evolution and ATP/NADPH generation by linear electron flow. Based on 13C-metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA) and RNA sequencing, we have found that Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 employs a unique photoheterotrophic metabolism. First, glucose catabolism forms a cyclic route that includes the oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP) pathway and the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (PGI) reaction. Glucose-6-phosphate is extensively degraded by the OPP pathway for NADPH production and is replenished by the reversed PGI reaction. Second, the Calvin cycle is not fully functional, but RubisCO continues to fix CO2 and synthesize 3-phosphoglycerate. Third, the relative flux through the complete tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and succinate dehydrogenase is small under heterotrophic conditions, indicating that the newly discovered cyanobacterial TCA cycle (via the γ-aminobutyric acid pathway or α-ketoglutarate decarboxylase/succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase) plays a minimal role in energy metabolism. Fourth, NAD(P)H oxidation and the cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I are the two main ATP sources, and the CEF accounts for at least 40% of total ATP generation from photoheterotrophic metabolism (without considering maintenance loss). This study not only demonstrates a new topology for carbohydrate oxidation but also provides quantitative insights into metabolic bioenergetics in cyanobacteria. PMID:25535269

  11. Nuclear respiratory factor-1 and bioenergetics in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Radde, Brandie N; Ivanova, Margarita M; Mai, Huy Xuan; Alizadeh-Rad, Negin; Piell, Kellianne; Van Hoose, Patrick; Cole, Marsha P; Muluhngwi, Penn; Kalbfleisch, Ted S; Rouchka, Eric C; Hill, Bradford G; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2016-09-10

    Acquired tamoxifen (TAM) resistance is a significant clinical problem in treating patients with estrogen receptor α (ERα)+ breast cancer. We reported that ERα increases nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), which regulates nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene transcription, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and NRF-1 knockdown stimulates apoptosis. Whether NRF-1 and target gene expression is altered in endocrine resistant breast cancer cells is unknown. We measured NRF-1and metabolic features in a cell model of progressive TAM-resistance. NRF-1 and its target mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) were higher in TAM-resistant LCC2 and LCC9 cells than TAM-sensitive MCF-7 cells. Using extracellular flux assays we observed that LCC1, LCC2, and LCC9 cells showed similar oxygen consumption rate (OCR), but lower mitochondrial reserve capacity which was correlated with lower Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit B in LCC1 and LCC2 cells. Complex III activity was lower in LCC9 than MCF-7 cells. LCC1, LCC2, and LCC9 cells had higher basal extracellular acidification (ECAR), indicating higher aerobic glycolysis, relative to MCF-7 cells. Mitochondrial bioenergetic responses to estradiol and 4-hydroxytamoxifen were reduced in the endocrine-resistant cells compared to MCF-7 cells. These results suggest the acquisition of altered metabolic phenotypes in response to long term antiestrogen treatment may increase vulnerability to metabolic stress. PMID:27515002

  12. Mitochondria Biogenesis and Bioenergetics Gene Profiles in Isogenic Prostate Cells with Different Malignant Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Burch, Tanya C; Rhim, Johng S; Nyalwidhe, Julius O

    2016-01-01

    Background. The most significant hallmarks of cancer are directly or indirectly linked to deregulated mitochondria. In this study, we sought to profile mitochondria associated genes in isogenic prostate cell lines with different tumorigenic phenotypes from the same patient. Results. Two isogenic human prostate cell lines RC77N/E (nonmalignant cells) and RC77T/E (malignant cells) were profiled for expression of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism genes by qRT-PCR using the Human Mitochondria and the Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism RT(2) PCR arrays. Forty-seven genes were differentially regulated between the two cell lines. The interaction and regulatory networks of these genes were generated by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. UCP2 was the most significantly upregulated gene in primary adenocarcinoma cells in the current study. The overexpression of UCP2 upon malignant transformation was further validated using human prostatectomy clinical specimens. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the overexpression of multiple genes that are involved in mitochondria biogenesis, bioenergetics, and modulation of apoptosis. These genes may play a role in malignant transformation and disease progression. The upregulation of some of these genes in clinical samples indicates that some of the differentially transcribed genes could be the potential targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27478826

  13. Waterbird predation on fish in western Lake Erie: a bioenergetics model application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Gabrey, Steven W.

    1995-01-01

    To better understand the role of piscivorous waterbirds in the food web of western Lake Erie, we applied a bioenergetics model to determine their total fish consumption, The important nesting species included the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus), Ring-billed Gull (L. delawarensis), Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), and Great Egret (Casmerodius albus). The impact of migrant waterbirds, including the Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator), on western Lake Erie fish biomass was also considered in the analysis. According to the modeling results, during the early 1990s, piscivorous waterbirds consumed 13,368 tonnes of fish from western Lake Erie each year. This tonnage was equivalent to 15.2% of the prey fish biomass needed to support the walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) population in western Lake Erie during a single growing season. The model application was useful in quantifying energy flow between birds and fish in a large lake ecosystem.

  14. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Alzheimer’s Disease and the Rationale for Bioenergetics Based Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Onyango, Isaac G.; Dennis, Jameel; Khan, Shaharyah M.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of cholinergic neurons, leading to the onset of severe behavioral, motor and cognitive impairments. It is a pressing public health problem with no effective treatment. Existing therapies only provide symptomatic relief without being able to prevent, stop or reverse the pathologic process. While the molecular basis underlying this multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder remains a significant challenge, mitochondrial dysfunction appears to be a critical factor in the pathogenesis of this disease. It is therefore important to target mitochondrial dysfunction in the prodromal phase of AD to slow or prevent the neurodegenerative process and restore neuronal function. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of action and translational potential of current mitochondrial and bioenergetic therapeutics for AD including: mitochondrial enhancers to potentiate energy production; antioxidants to scavenge reactive oxygen species and reduce oxidative damage; glucose metabolism and substrate supply; and candidates that target apoptotic and mitophagy pathways to remove damaged mitochondria. While mitochondrial therapeutic strategies have shown promise at the preclinical stage, there has been little progress in clinical trials thus far. PMID:27114851

  15. Microbial genome analyses: global comparisons of transport capabilities based on phylogenies, bioenergetics and substrate specificities.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, I T; Sliwinski, M K; Saier, M H

    1998-04-01

    We have conducted genome sequence analyses of seven prokaryotic microorganisms for which completely sequenced genomes are available (Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Helicobacter pylori, Bacillus subtilis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Synechocystis PCC6803 and Methanococcus jannaschii). We report the distribution of encoded known and putative polytopic cytoplasmic membrane transport proteins within these genomes. Transport systems for each organism were classified according to (1) putative membrane topology, (2) protein family, (3) bioenergetics, and (4) substrate specificities. The overall transport capabilities of each organism were thereby estimated. Probable function was assigned to greater than 90% of the putative transport proteins identified. The results show the following: (1) Numbers of transport systems in eubacteria are approximately proportional to genome size and correspond to 9.7 to 10.8% of the total encoded genes except for H. pylori (5.4%), Synechocystis (4.7%) and M. jannaschii (3.5%) which exhibit substantially lower proportions. (2) The distribution of topological types is similar in all seven organisms. (3) Transport systems belonging to 67 families were identified within the genomes of these organisms, and about half of these families are also found in eukaryotes. (4) 12% of these families are found exclusively in Gram-negative bacteria, but none is found exclusively in Gram-positive bacteria, cyanobacteria or archaea. (5) Two superfamilies, the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and major facilitator (MF) superfamilies account for nearly 50% of all transporters in each organism, but the relative representation of these two transporter types varies over a tenfold range, depending on the organism. (6) Secondary, pmf-dependent carriers are 1.5 to threefold more prevalent than primary ATP-dependent carriers in E. coli, H. influenzae, H. pylori and B. subtilis while primary carriers are about twofold more prevalent in M. genitalium and Synechocystis. M

  16. Predicting Fish Growth Potential and Identifying Water Quality Constraints: A Spatially-Explicit Bioenergetics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budy, Phaedra; Baker, Matthew; Dahle, Samuel K.

    2011-10-01

    Anthropogenic impairment of water bodies represents a global environmental concern, yet few attempts have successfully linked fish performance to thermal habitat suitability and fewer have distinguished co-varying water quality constraints. We interfaced fish bioenergetics, field measurements, and Thermal Remote Imaging to generate a spatially-explicit, high-resolution surface of fish growth potential, and next employed a structured hypothesis to detect relationships among measures of fish performance and co-varying water quality constraints. Our thermal surface of fish performance captured the amount and spatial-temporal arrangement of thermally-suitable habitat for three focal species in an extremely heterogeneous reservoir, but interpretation of this pattern was initially confounded by seasonal covariation of water residence time and water quality. Subsequent path analysis revealed that in terms of seasonal patterns in growth potential, catfish and walleye responded to temperature, positively and negatively, respectively; crappie and walleye responded to eutrophy (negatively). At the high eutrophy levels observed in this system, some desired fishes appear to suffer from excessive cultural eutrophication within the context of elevated temperatures whereas others appear to be largely unaffected or even enhanced. Our overall findings do not lead to the conclusion that this system is degraded by pollution; however, they do highlight the need to use a sensitive focal species in the process of determining allowable nutrient loading and as integrators of habitat suitability across multiple spatial and temporal scales. We provide an integrated approach useful for quantifying fish growth potential and identifying water quality constraints on fish performance at spatial scales appropriate for whole-system management.

  17. Alveolar type II cells maintain bioenergetic homeostasis in hypoxia through metabolic and molecular adaptation.

    PubMed

    Lottes, Robyn G; Newton, Danforth A; Spyropoulos, Demetri D; Baatz, John E

    2014-05-15

    Although many lung diseases are associated with hypoxia, alveolar type II epithelial (ATII) cell impairment, and pulmonary surfactant dysfunction, the effects of O(2) limitation on metabolic pathways necessary to maintain cellular energy in ATII cells have not been studied extensively. This report presents results of targeted assays aimed at identifying specific metabolic processes that contribute to energy homeostasis using primary ATII cells and a model ATII cell line, mouse lung epithelial 15 (MLE-15), cultured in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. MLEs cultured in normoxia demonstrated a robust O(2) consumption rate (OCR) coupled to ATP generation and limited extracellular lactate production, indicating reliance on oxidative phosphorylation for ATP production. Pharmacological uncoupling of respiration increased OCR in normoxic cultures to 175% of basal levels, indicating significant spare respiratory capacity. However, when exposed to hypoxia for 20 h, basal O(2) consumption fell to 60% of normoxic rates, and cells maintained only ∼50% of normoxic spare respiratory capacity, indicating suppression of mitochondrial function, although intracellular ATP levels remained at near normoxic levels. Moreover, while hypoxic exposure stimulated glycogen synthesis and storage in MLE-15, glycolytic rate (as measured by lactate generation) was not significantly increased in the cells, despite enhanced expression of several enzymes related to glycolysis. These results were largely recapitulated in murine primary ATII, demonstrating MLE-15 suitability for modeling ATII metabolism. The ability of ATII cells to maintain ATP levels in hypoxia without enhancing glycolysis suggests that these cells are exceptionally efficient at conserving ATP to maintain bioenergetic homeostasis under O(2) limitation. PMID:24682450

  18. Anacardic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Oleic Acid Differentially Alter Cellular Bioenergetic Function in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Radde, Brandie N; Alizadeh-Rad, Negin; Price, Stephanie M; Schultz, David J; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2016-11-01

    Anacardic acid is a dietary and medicinal phytochemical that inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Since mitochondrial-targeted anticancer therapy (mitocans) may be useful in breast cancer, we examined the effect of anacardic acid on cellular bioenergetics and OXPHOS pathway proteins in breast cancer cells modeling progression to endocrine-independence: MCF-7 estrogen receptor α (ERα)+ endocrine-sensitive; LCC9 and LY2 ERα+, endocrine-resistant, and MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. At concentrations similar to cell proliferation IC50 s, anacardic acid reduced ATP-linked oxygen consumption rate (OCR), mitochondrial reserve capacity, and coupling efficiency while increasing proton leak, reflecting mitochondrial toxicity which was greater in MCF-7 compared to endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells. These results suggest tolerance in endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells to mitochondrial stress induced by anacardic acid. Since anacardic acid is an alkylated 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, the effects of salicylic acid (SA, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety) and oleic acid (OA, monounsaturated alkyl moiety) were tested. SA inhibited whereas OA stimulated cell viability. In contrast to stimulation of basal OCR by anacardic acid (uncoupling effect), neither SA nor OA altered basal OCR- except OA inhibited basal and ATP-linked OCR, and increased ECAR, in MDA-MB-231 cells. Changes in OXPHOS proteins correlated with changes in OCR. Overall, neither the 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety nor the monounsaturated alky moiety of anacardic acid is solely responsible for the observed mitochondria-targeted anticancer activity in breast cancer cells and hence both moieties are required in the same molecule for the observed effects. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2521-2532, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990649

  19. Magnesium Sulfate Protects Against the Bioenergetic Consequences of Chronic Glutamate Receptor Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Clerc, Pascaline; Young, Christina A.; Bordt, Evan A.; Grigore, Alina M.; Fiskum, Gary; Polster, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular glutamate is elevated following brain ischemia or trauma and contributes to neuronal injury. We tested the hypothesis that magnesium sulfate (MgSO4, 3 mM) protects against metabolic failure caused by excitotoxic glutamate exposure. Rat cortical neuron preparations treated in medium already containing a physiological concentration of Mg2+ (1 mM) could be segregated based on their response to glutamate (100 µM). Type I preparations responded with a decrease or small transient increase in oxygen consumption rate (OCR). Type II neurons responded with >50% stimulation in OCR, indicating a robust response to increased energy demand without immediate toxicity. Pre-treatment with MgSO4 improved the initial bioenergetic response to glutamate and ameliorated subsequent loss of spare respiratory capacity, measured following addition of the uncoupler FCCP, in Type I but not Type II neurons. Spare respiratory capacity in Type I neurons was also improved by incubation with MgSO4 or NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 in the absence of glutamate treatment. This finding indicates that the major difference between Type I and Type II preparations is the amount of endogenous glutamate receptor activity. Incubation of Type II neurons with 5 µM glutamate prior to excitotoxic (100 µM) glutamate exposure recapitulated a Type I phenotype. MgSO4 protected against an excitotoxic glutamate-induced drop in neuronal ATP both with and without prior 5 µM glutamate exposure. Results indicate that MgSO4 protects against chronic moderate glutamate receptor stimulation and preserves cellular ATP following treatment with excitotoxic glutamate. PMID:24236167

  20. Bioenergetic function in cardiovascular cells: the importance of the reserve capacity and its biological regulation

    PubMed Central

    Sansbury, Brian E.; Jones, Steven P.; Riggs, Daniel W.; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; Hill, Bradford G.

    2010-01-01

    The ability of the cell to generate sufficient energy through oxidative phosphorylation and to maintain healthy pools of mitochondria are critical for survival and maintenance of normal biological function, especially during periods of increased oxidative stress. Mitochondria in most cardiovascular cells function at a basal level that only draws upon a small fraction of the total bioenergetic capability of the organelle; the apparent respiratory state of mitochondria in these cells is often close to state 4. The difference between the basal and maximal activity, equivalent to state 3, of the respiratory chain is called the reserve capacity. We hypothesize that the reserve capacity serves the increased energy demands for maintenance of organ function and cellular repair. However, the factors that determine the volume of the reserve capacity and its relevance to biology are not well understood. In this study, we first examined whether responses to 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a lipid peroxidation product found in atherosclerotic lesions and the diseased heart, differ between vascular smooth muscle cells, adult mouse cardiomyocytes, and rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. In both types of cardiomyocytes, oxygen consumption increased after HNE treatment, while oxygen consumption in smooth muscle cells decreased. The increase in oxygen consumption in cardiomyocytes decreased the reserve capacity and shifted the apparent respiratory state closer to state 3. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes respiring on pyruvate alone had a fourfold higher reserve capacity than cells with glucose as the sole substrate, and these cells were more resistant to mitochondrial dysfunction induced by 4-HNE. The integration of the concepts of reserve capacity and state-apparent are discussed along with the proposal of two potential models by which mitochondria respond to stress. PMID:21147079

  1. Regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetic function by hydrogen sulfide. Part II. Pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Módis, Katalin; Bos, Eelke M; Calzia, Enrico; van Goor, Harry; Coletta, Ciro; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Hellmich, Mark R; Radermacher, Peter; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Szabo, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    Emerging work demonstrates the dual regulation of mitochondrial function by hydrogen sulfide (H2S), including, at lower concentrations, a stimulatory effect as an electron donor, and, at higher concentrations, an inhibitory effect on cytochrome C oxidase. In the current article, we overview the pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of these processes. During cellular hypoxia/acidosis, the inhibitory effect of H2S on complex IV is enhanced, which may shift the balance of H2S from protective to deleterious. Several pathophysiological conditions are associated with an overproduction of H2S (e.g. sepsis), while in other disease states H2S levels and H2S bioavailability are reduced and its therapeutic replacement is warranted (e.g. diabetic vascular complications). Moreover, recent studies demonstrate that colorectal cancer cells up-regulate the H2S-producing enzyme cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), and utilize its product, H2S, as a metabolic fuel and tumour-cell survival factor; pharmacological CBS inhibition or genetic CBS silencing suppresses cancer cell bioenergetics and suppresses cell proliferation and cell chemotaxis. In the last chapter of the current article, we overview the field of H2S-induced therapeutic ‘suspended animation’, a concept in which a temporary pharmacological reduction in cell metabolism is achieved, producing a decreased oxygen demand for the experimental therapy of critical illness and/or organ transplantation. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:23991749

  2. Effects of methylglyoxal and pyridoxamine in rat brain mitochondria bioenergetics and oxidative status.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Susana; Carvalho, Cristina; Marinho, Ricardo; Simões, Anabel; Sena, Cristina M; Matafome, Paulo; Santos, Maria S; Seiça, Raquel M; Moreira, Paula I

    2014-10-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and methylglyoxal (MG), an important intermediate in AGEs synthesis, are thought to contribute to protein aging and to the pathogenesis of age-and diabetes-associated complications. This study was intended to investigate brain mitochondria bioenergetics and oxidative status of rats previously exposed to chronic treatment with MG and/or with pyridoxamine (PM), a glycation inhibitor. Brain mitochondrial fractions were obtained and several parameters were analyzed: respiratory chain [states 3 and 4 of respiration, respiratory control ratio (RCR), and ADP/O index] and phosphorylation system [transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), ADP-induced depolarization, repolarization lag phase, and ATP levels]; hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production levels, mitochondrial aconitase activity, and malondialdehyde levels as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses (vitamin E and glutathione levels) and enzymatic antioxidant defenses (glutathione disulfide reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activities). MG treatment induced a statistical significant decrease in RCR, aconitase and GR activities, and an increase in H2O2 production levels. The administration of PM did not counteract MG-induced effects and caused a significant decrease in ΔΨm. In mitochondria from control animals, PM caused an adaptive mechanism characterized by a decrease in aconitase and GR activities as well as an increase in both α-tocopherol levels and GPx and MnSOD activities. Altogether our results show that high levels of MG promote brain mitochondrial impairment and PM is not able to reverse MG-induced effects. PMID:24831520

  3. An overview of methods for developing bioenergetic and life history models for rare and endangered species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Paukert, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Many fish species are at risk to some degree, and conservation efforts are planned or underway to preserve sensitive populations. For many imperiled species, models could serve as useful tools for researchers and managers as they seek to understand individual growth, quantify predator-prey dynamics, and identify critical sources of mortality. Development and application of models for rare species however, has been constrained by small population sizes, difficulty in obtaining sampling permits, limited opportunities for funding, and regulations on how endangered species can be used in laboratory studies. Bioenergetic and life history models should help with endangered species-recovery planning since these types of models have been used successfully in the last 25 years to address management problems for many commercially and recreationally important fish species. In this paper we discuss five approaches to developing models and parameters for rare species. Borrowing model functions and parameters from related species is simple, but uncorroborated results can be misleading. Directly estimating parameters with laboratory studies may be possible for rare species that have locally abundant populations. Monte Carlo filtering can be used to estimate several parameters by means of performing simple laboratory growth experiments to first determine test criteria. Pattern-oriented modeling (POM) is a new and developing field of research that uses field-observed patterns to build, test, and parameterize models. Models developed using the POM approach are closely linked to field data, produce testable hypotheses, and require a close working relationship between modelers and empiricists. Artificial evolution in individual-based models can be used to gain insight into adaptive behaviors for poorly understood species and thus can fill in knowledge gaps. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  4. Comparison of selenium bioaccumulation in the clams Corbicula fluminea and Potamocorbula amurensis: A bioenergetic modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, B.-G.; Lee, J.-S.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    Selenium uptake from food (assimilation efficiency) and dissolved phase (influx rate) as well as loss kinetics (efflux rate) were compared between two bivalves, Corbicula fluminea and Potamocorbula amurensis. The effects of salinity and temperature on these kinetic parameters for both clam species also were evaluated. The Asiatic clam, C. fluminea, more efficiently assimilated Se associated with algae (66-87%) than Se associated with oxic sediments (20-37%). However, no consistent difference was found between Se assimilation efficiencies from both food types (19-60%) for P. amurensis. The temperature and salinity had a minor influence on the Se assimilation from ingested food. However, the effects of temperature and salinity were more evident in the uptake from dissolved sources. The influx rate of Se(IV) increased by threefold with the increase of temperature from 5 to 21??C for C. fluminea. The increase of salinity from 4 to 20 psu decreased the uptake rate constant (ku) of Se in P. amurensis from 0.011 to 0.005 L/g/h, whereas salinity change (0-8 psu) had a negligible effect on the Se influx rate of C. fluminea. The Se influx rate of P. amurensis decreased by half with the 3.5-fold increase in tissue dry weight. The rate constant of loss was greater for P. amurensis (0.029/d at 8 psu) than for C. fluminea (0.014/d at 0 psu and 0.01/d at 8 psu). A bioenergetic model suggests that dietary uptake is the dominant pathway for Se bioaccumulation in the two clams in San Francisco Bay and that interspecies differences in Se bioaccumulation can be explained by differences in food ingestion rates. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  5. Pancreatic cancer cell migration and metastasis is regulated by chemokine-biased agonism and bioenergetic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ishan; McAllister, Donna M.; Gorse, Egal; Dixon, Kate; Piper, Clinton T.; Zimmerman, Noah P.; Getschman, Anthony E.; Tsai, Susan; Engle, Dannielle D.; Evans, Douglas B.; Volkman, Brian F.; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Dwinell, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) invariably succumb to metastatic disease, but the underlying mechanisms that regulate PDAC cell movement and metastasis remain little understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of the chemokine gene CXCL12, which is silenced in PDAC tumors yet is sufficient to suppress growth and metastasis when re-expressed. Chemokines like CXCL12 regulate cell movement in a biphasic pattern, with peak migration typically in the low nanomolar concentration range. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that the biphasic cell migration pattern induced by CXCL12 reflected a bias of agonist bioenergetic signaling that might be exploited to interfere with PDAC metastasis. In human and murine PDAC cell models, we observed that non-migratory doses of CXCL12 were sufficient to decrease oxidative phosphorylation and glycolytic capacity and to increase levels of phosphorylated forms of the master metabolic kinase AMPK. Those same doses of CXCL12 locked myosin light chain into a phosphorylated state, thereby decreasing F-actin polymerization and preventing cell migration in a manner dependent upon AMPK and the calcium-dependent kinase CAMKII. Notably, at elevated concentrations of CXCL12 that were insufficient to trigger chemotaxis of PDAC cells, AMPK blockade resulted in increased cell movement. In two preclinical mouse models of PDAC, administration of CXCL12 decreased tumor dissemination, supporting our hypothesis that chemokine-biased agonist signaling may offer a useful therapeutic strategy. Our results offer a mechanistic rationale for further investigation of CXCL12 as a potential therapy to prevent or treat PDAC metastasis. PMID:26330165

  6. Improving mitochondrial bioenergetics under ischemic conditions increases warm ischemia tolerance in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Hazel H; Liu, Shaoyi; Soong, Yi; Birk, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia time during partial nephrectomy is strongly associated with acute and chronic renal injury. ATP depletion during warm ischemia inhibits ATP-dependent processes, resulting in cell swelling, cytoskeletal breakdown, and cell death. The duration of ischemia tolerated by the kidney depends on the amount of ATP that can be produced with residual substrates and oxygen in the tissue to sustain cell function. We previously reported that the rat can tolerate 30-min ischemia quite well but 45-min ischemia results in acute kidney injury and progressive interstitial fibrosis. Here, we report that pretreatment with SS-20 30 min before warm ischemia in the rat increased ischemia tolerance from 30 to 45 min. Histological examination of kidney tissues revealed that SS-20 reduced cytoskeletal breakdown and cell swelling after 45-min ischemia. Electron microscopy showed that SS-20 reduced mitochondrial matrix swelling and preserved cristae membranes, suggesting that SS-20 enhanced mitochondrial ATP synthesis under ischemic conditions. Studies with isolated kidney mitochondria showed dramatic reduction in state 3 respiration and respiratory control ratio after 45-min ischemia, and this was significantly improved by SS-20 treatment. These results suggest that SS-20 increases efficiency of the electron transport chain and improves coupling of oxidative phosphorylation. SS-20 treatment after ischemia also significantly reduced interstitial fibrosis. These new findings reveal that enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics may be an important target for improving ischemia tolerance, and SS-20 may serve well for minimizing acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease following surgical procedures such as partial nephrectomy and transplantation. PMID:25339695

  7. Cortisol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine: Neurohormonal Aspects of Bioenergetic Stress in Ecstasy Users

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can affect both neurotransmitter and neurohormonal activity. This review will debate the role of the metabolic activation hormone cortisol for the psychobiological effects of ecstasy/MDMA. Methods The empirical literature on cortisol release following acute MDMA administration and cortisol functioning in drug-free recreational ecstasy/MDMA users will be reviewed. This will be followed by an overview of cortisol as a bioenergetic stress neurohormone, and a debate on how it could be modulating the acute and chronic psychobiological effects of MDMA. Results Cortisol release is increased by stimulatory factors, including physical activity, thermal stress and stimulant drugs. In laboratory studies MDMA leads to an acute cortisol increase of around 150% in sedentary humans. In MDMA-using dance clubbers, the cortisol levels are increased by around 800%, possibly due to the combined factors of stimulant drug, physical exertion and psychosocial stimulation. Regular ecstasy/MDMA users also demonstrate changes in baseline cortisol levels and cortisol reactivity, with compromised hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. Nonpharmacological research has shown how cortisol is important for psychological aspects such as memory, cognition, sleep, impulsivity, depression and neuronal damage. These same functions are often impaired in recreational ecstasy/MDMA users, and cortisol may be an important modulatory co-factor. Conclusions The energizing hormone cortisol is involved in the psychobiology of MDMA, probably via its effects on energy metabolism. Acute cortisol release may potentiate the stimulating effects of MDMA in dance clubbers. Chronically, cortisol may contribute to the variance in functional and structural consequences of repeated ecstasy usage. PMID:19893332

  8. Effect of oxygen tension on bioenergetics and proteostasis in young and old myoblast precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Konigsberg, M; Pérez, V I; Ríos, C; Liu, Y; Lee, S; Shi, Y; Van Remmen, H

    2013-01-01

    In the majority of studies using primary cultures of myoblasts, the cells are maintained at ambient oxygen tension (21% O2), despite the fact that physiological O2 at the tissue level in vivo is much lower (~1-5% O2). We hypothesized that the cellular response in presence of high oxygen concentration might be particularly important in studies comparing energetic function or oxidative stress in cells isolated from young versus old animals. To test this, we asked whether oxygen tension plays a role in mitochondrial bioenergetics (oxygen consumption, glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation) or oxidative damage to proteins (protein disulfides, carbonyls and aggregates) in myoblast precursor cells (MPCs) isolated from young (3-4 m) and old (29-30 m) C57BL/6 mice. MPCs were grown under physiological (3%) or ambient (21%) O2 for two weeks prior to exposure to an acute oxidative insult (H2O2). Our results show significantly higher basal mitochondrial respiration in young versus old MPCs, an increase in basal respiration in young MPCs maintained at 3% O2 compared to cells maintained at 21% O2, and a shift toward glycolytic metabolism in old MPCs grown at 21% O2. H2O2 treatment significantly reduced respiration in old MPCs grown at 3% O2 but did not further repress respiration at 21% O2 in old MPCs. Oxidative damage to protein was higher in cells maintained at 21% O2 and increased in response to H2O2 in old MPCs. These data underscore the importance of understanding the effect of ambient oxygen tension in cell culture studies, in particular studies measuring oxidative damage and mitochondrial function. PMID:24191243

  9. Bioenergetics and the epigenome: interface between the environment and genes in common diseases.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Douglas C

    2010-01-01

    Extensive efforts have been directed at using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify the genes responsible for common metabolic and degenerative diseases, cancer, and aging, but with limited success. While environmental factors have been evoked to explain this conundrum, the nature of these environmental factors remains unexplained. The availability of and demands for energy constitute one of the most important aspects of the environment. The flow of energy through the cell is primarily mediated by the mitochondrion, which oxidizes reducing equivalents from hydrocarbons via acetyl-CoA, NADH + H(+), and FADH(2) to generate ATP through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The mitochondrial genome encompasses hundreds of nuclear DNA (nDNA)-encoded genes plus 37 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded genes. Although the mtDNA has a high mutation rate, only milder, potentially adaptive mutations are introduced into the population through female oocytes. In contrast, nDNA-encoded bioenergetic genes have a low mutation rate. However, their expression is modulated by histone phosphorylation and acetylation using mitochondrially-generated ATP and acetyl-CoA, which permits increased gene expression, growth, and reproduction when calories are abundant. Phosphorylation, acetylaton, and cellular redox state also regulate most signal transduction pathways and activities of multiple transcription factors. Thus, mtDNA mutations provide heritable and stable adaptation to regional differences while mitochondrially-mediated changes in the epigenome permit reversible modulation of gene expression in response to fluctuations in the energy environment. The most common genomic changes that interface with the environment and cause complex disease must, therefore, be mitochondrial and epigenomic in origin. PMID:20818725

  10. Metastasis is promoted by a bioenergetic switch: new targets for progressive renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Langbein, Sigrun; Frederiks, Wilma M; zur Hausen, Axel; Popa, Juljane; Lehmann, Jan; Weiss, Christel; Alken, Peter; Coy, Johannes F

    2008-06-01

    Targeted therapies have demonstrated clinical benefit with limited impact on long-term disease specific survival in the treatment of renal cell cancer (RCC). New opportunities for the treatment of tumors that are resistant or have relapsed, are needed. Increased anaerobic glucose fermentation to lactate (aerobic glycolysis), leading to oxygen- and mitochondria-independent ATP generation is a hallmark of aggressive cancer growth. This metabolic shift results in increased lactate production via cycling through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and plays an important role in tumor immune escape, progression and resistance to immune-, radiation- and chemo-therapy. This study explored the activity and impact of the oxidative and nonoxidative branches of the PPP on RCC to evaluate new therapeutic options. Activity was determined in the oxidative branch by glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity, and in the nonoxidative branch by the total transketolase activity and the specific expression of the transketolase-like-1 (TKTL1) protein. Transketolase and G6PD activity were intensely elevated in tumor tissues. Transketolase, but not G6PD activity, was more elevated in metastasizing tumors and TKTL1 protein was significantly overexpressed in progressing tumors (p = 0.03). Lethal tumors, where surrogate parameters such as grading and staging had failed to predict progression, showed intensive TKTL1 protein expression. RCC was found to have activated oxidative and nonoxidative glucose metabolism through the PPP, displaying a bioenergetic shift toward nonoxidative glucose fermentation in progressing tumors. The coexistence of cancer cells with differentially regulated energy supplies provides new insights in carcinogenesis and novel anticancer targets.

  11. Predicting fish growth potential and identifying water quality constraints: a spatially-explicit bioenergetics approach.

    PubMed

    Budy, Phaedra; Baker, Matthew; Dahle, Samuel K

    2011-10-01

    Anthropogenic impairment of water bodies represents a global environmental concern, yet few attempts have successfully linked fish performance to thermal habitat suitability and fewer have distinguished co-varying water quality constraints. We interfaced fish bioenergetics, field measurements, and Thermal Remote Imaging to generate a spatially-explicit, high-resolution surface of fish growth potential, and next employed a structured hypothesis to detect relationships among measures of fish performance and co-varying water quality constraints. Our thermal surface of fish performance captured the amount and spatial-temporal arrangement of thermally-suitable habitat for three focal species in an extremely heterogeneous reservoir, but interpretation of this pattern was initially confounded by seasonal covariation of water residence time and water quality. Subsequent path analysis revealed that in terms of seasonal patterns in growth potential, catfish and walleye responded to temperature, positively and negatively, respectively; crappie and walleye responded to eutrophy (negatively). At the high eutrophy levels observed in this system, some desired fishes appear to suffer from excessive cultural eutrophication within the context of elevated temperatures whereas others appear to be largely unaffected or even enhanced. Our overall findings do not lead to the conclusion that this system is degraded by pollution; however, they do highlight the need to use a sensitive focal species in the process of determining allowable nutrient loading and as integrators of habitat suitability across multiple spatial and temporal scales. We provide an integrated approach useful for quantifying fish growth potential and identifying water quality constraints on fish performance at spatial scales appropriate for whole-system management.

  12. Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms: Progress report for period 1 January 1987 to 31 December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Spotila, J.R.; Standora, E.A.

    1987-09-01

    We quantified the constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms. We completed studies on the thermoregulation of largemouth bass, on the bioenergetics of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, and on the role of temperature dependent sex determination in the extinction of dinosaurs. We also began research to develop the three dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles, to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field, to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and water flux rates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. 60 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Bioenergetic analysis of ovarian cancer cell lines: profiling of histological subtypes and identification of a mitochondria-defective cell line.

    PubMed

    Dier, Usawadee; Shin, Dong-Hui; Hemachandra, L P Madhubhani P; Uusitalo, Larissa M; Hempel, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal of all gynecological cancers, and encompasses distinct histological subtypes that have specific genetic and tissues-of-origin differences. Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) represents approximately 10% of cases and has been termed a stress responsive cancer. OCCC is characterized by increased expression of oxidative stress and glycolysis-related genes. In the present study, we hypothesized that bioenergetic profiling might uniquely distinguish OCCC from other EOC histological subtypes. Using an extracellular flux analyzer, OCCC lines (ES-2, TOV-21-G) were shown to be highly metabolically active, with high oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and high extracellular acidification rate (ECAR), indicative of enhanced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and glycolytic rate, respectively. A high bioenergetics profile was associated with the cell lines' ability to form anchorage independent spheroids. Given their high glycolytic and mitochondrial activity, OCCC cells displayed strong sensitivity to 2-deoxy-D-glucose and Rotenone growth inhibition, although this chemosensitivity profile was not specific to only OCCC cells. Bioenergetic profiling also identified a non-OCCC cell line, OVCA420, to have severely compromised mitochondrial function, based on low OCR and a lack of stimulation of maximal respiration following application of the uncoupler FCCP. This was accompanied by mitochondrial morphology changes indicative of enhanced fission, increased expression of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and dependence on glycolysis. Importantly, this loss of mitochondrial function was accompanied by the inability of OVCA420 cells to cope with hypoxic stress, and a compromised ability to stabilize HIF-1α in response to 1% O2 hypoxia. This knowledge may be imperative for researchers planning to utilize this cell line for further studies of metabolism and hypoxia, and suggests that

  14. Bioenergetics and diving activity of internesting leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea at Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Bryan P; Williams, Cassondra L; Paladino, Frank V; Morreale, Stephen J; Lindstrom, R Todd; Spotila, James R

    2005-10-01

    Physiology, environment and life history demands interact to influence marine turtle bioenergetics and activity. However, metabolism and diving behavior of free-swimming marine turtles have not been measured simultaneously. Using doubly labeled water, we obtained the first field metabolic rates (FMRs; 0.20-0.74 W kg(-1)) and water fluxes (16-30% TBW day(-1), where TBW=total body water) for free-ranging marine turtles and combined these data with dive information from electronic archival tags to investigate the bioenergetics and diving activity of reproductive adult female leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea. Mean dive durations (7.8+/-2.4 min (+/-1 s.d.), bottom times (2.7+/-0.8 min), and percentage of time spent in water temperatures (Tw) < or =24 degrees C (9.5+/-5.7%) increased with increasing mean maximum dive depths (22.6+/-7.1 m; all P< or =0.001). The FMRs increased with longer mean dive durations, bottom times and surface intervals and increased time spent in Tw< or =24 degrees C (all r2> or =0.99). This suggests that low FMRs and activity levels, combined with shuttling between different water temperatures, could allow leatherbacks to avoid overheating while in warm tropical waters. Additionally, internesting leatherback dive durations were consistently shorter than aerobic dive limits calculated from our FMRs (11.7-44.3 min). Our results indicate that internesting female leatherbacks maintained low FMRs and activity levels, thereby spending relatively little energy while active at sea. Future studies should incorporate data on metabolic rate, dive patterns, water temperatures, and body temperatures to develop further the relationship between physiological and life history demands and marine turtle bioenergetics and activity.

  15. Methane efflux from marine sediments in passive and active margins: Estimations from bioenergetic reaction-transport simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, A. W.; Van Cappellen, P.; Aguilera, D. R.; Regnier, P.

    2008-01-01

    A simplified version of a kinetic-bioenergetic reaction model for anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments [Dale, A.W., Regnier, P., Van Cappellen, P., 2006. Bioenergetic controls on anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in coastal marine sediments: a theoretical analysis. Am. J. Sci. 306, 246-294.] is used to assess the impact of transport processes on biomass distributions, AOM rates and methane release fluxes from the sea floor. The model explicitly represents the functional microbial groups and the kinetic and bioenergetic limitations of the microbial metabolic pathways involved in AOM. Model simulations illustrate the dominant control exerted by the transport regime on the activity and abundance of AOM communities. Upward fluid flow at active seep systems restricts AOM to a narrow subsurface reaction zone and sustains high rates of methane oxidation. In contrast, pore-water transport dominated by molecular diffusion leads to deeper and broader zones of AOM, characterized by much lower rates and biomasses. Under steady-state conditions, less than 1% of the upward dissolved methane flux reaches the water column, irrespective of the transport regime. However, a sudden increase in the advective flux of dissolved methane, for example as a result of the destabilization of methane hydrates, causes a transient efflux of methane from the sediment. The benthic efflux of dissolved methane is due to the slow growth kinetics of the AOM community and lasts on the order of 60 years. This time window is likely too short to allow for a significant escape of pore-water methane following a large scale gas hydrate dissolution event such as the one that may have accompanied the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM).

  16. Bioenergetic and volume regulatory effects of mitoKATP channel modulators protect against hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Onukwufor, John O; Stevens, Don; Kamunde, Collins

    2016-09-01

    The mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) (mitoKATP) channel plays a significant role in mitochondrial physiology and protects against ischemic reperfusion injury in mammals. Although fish frequently face oxygen fluctuations in their environment, the role of the mitoKATP channel in regulating the responses to oxygen stress is rarely investigated in this class of animals. To elucidate whether and how the mitoKATP channel protects against hypoxia-reoxygenation (H-R)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in fish, we first determined the mitochondrial bioenergetic effects of two key modulators of the channel, diazoxide and 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD), using a wide range of doses. Subsequently, the effects of low and high doses of the modulators on mitochondrial bioenergetics and volume under normoxia and after H-R using buffers with and without magnesium and ATP (Mg-ATP) were tested. In the absence of Mg-ATP (mitoKATP channel open), both low and high doses of diazoxide improved mitochondrial coupling, but only the high dose of 5-HD reversed the post-H-R coupling-enhancing effect of diazoxide. In the presence of Mg-ATP (mitoKATP channel closed), diazoxide at the low dose improved coupling post-H-R, and this effect was abolished by 5-HD at the low dose. Interestingly, both low and high doses of diazoxide reversed H-R-induced swelling under mitoKATP channel open conditions, but this effect was not sensitive to 5-HD. Under mitoKATP channel closed conditions, diazoxide at the low dose protected the mitochondria from H-R-induced swelling and 5-HD at the low dose reversed this effect. In contrast, diazoxide at the high dose failed to reduce the swelling caused by H-R, and the addition of the high dose of 5-HD enhanced mitochondrial swelling. Overall, our study showed that in the presence of Mg-ATP, both opening of mitoKATP channels and bioenergetic effects of diazoxide were protective against H-R in fish mitochondria, while in the absence of Mg-ATP only the bioenergetic effect of

  17. A holistic view of cancer bioenergetics: mitochondrial function and respiration play fundamental roles in the development and progression of diverse tumors.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Maksudul; Lal, Sneha; FitzGerald, Keely E; Zhang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Since Otto Warburg made the first observation that tumor cells exhibit altered metabolism and bioenergetics in the 1920s, many scientists have tried to further the understanding of tumor bioenergetics. Particularly, in the past decade, the application of the state-of the-art metabolomics and genomics technologies has revealed the remarkable plasticity of tumor metabolism and bioenergetics. Firstly, a wide array of tumor cells have been shown to be able to use not only glucose, but also glutamine for generating cellular energy, reducing power, and metabolic building blocks for biosynthesis. Secondly, many types of cancer cells generate most of their cellular energy via mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. Glutamine is the preferred substrate for oxidative phosphorylation in tumor cells. Thirdly, tumor cells exhibit remarkable versatility in using bioenergetics substrates. Notably, tumor cells can use metabolic substrates donated by stromal cells for cellular energy generation via oxidative phosphorylation. Further, it has been shown that mitochondrial transfer is a critical mechanism for tumor cells with defective mitochondria to restore oxidative phosphorylation. The restoration is necessary for tumor cells to gain tumorigenic and metastatic potential. It is also worth noting that heme is essential for the biogenesis and proper functioning of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. Hence, it is not surprising that recent experimental data showed that heme flux and function are elevated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and that elevated heme function promotes intensified oxygen consumption, thereby fueling tumor cell proliferation and function. Finally, emerging evidence increasingly suggests that clonal evolution and tumor genetic heterogeneity contribute to bioenergetic versatility of tumor cells, as well as tumor recurrence and drug resistance. Although mutations are found only in several metabolic enzymes in tumors, diverse

  18. Bioenergetic studies of coal sulfur oxidation by extremely thermophilic bacteria. Final report, September 15, 1992--August 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.M.; Han, C.J.

    1997-12-31

    Thermoacidophilic microorganisms have been considered for inorganic sulfur removal from coal because of expected improvements in rates of both biotic and abiotic sulfur oxidation reactions with increasing temperature. In this study, the bioenergetic response of the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon, Metallosphaera sedula, to environmental changes have been examined in relation to its capacity to catalyze pyrite oxidation in coal. Given an appropriate bioenergetic challenge, the metabolic response was to utilize additional amounts of energy sources (i.e., pyrite) to survive. Of particular interest were the consequences of exposing the organism to various forms of stress (chemical, nutritional, thermal, pH) in the presence of coal pyrite. Several approaches to take advantage of stress response to accelerate pyrite oxidation by this organism were examined, including attempts to promote acquired thermal tolerance to extend its functional range, exposure to chemical uncouplers and decouplers, and manipulation of heterotrophic and chemolithotrophic tendencies to optimize biomass concentration and biocatalytic activity. Promising strategies were investigated in a continuous culture system. This study identified environmental conditions that promote better coupling of biotic and abiotic oxidation reactions to improve biosulfurization rates of thermoacidophilic microorganisms.

  19. Antiproliferative effects of mitochondria-targeted cationic antioxidants and analogs: Role of mitochondrial bioenergetics and energy-sensing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gang; Zielonka, Jacek; McAllister, Donna; Hardy, Micael; Ouari, Olivier; Joseph, Joy; Dwinell, Michael B; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2015-08-28

    One of the proposed mechanisms for tumor proliferation involves redox signaling mediated by reactive oxygen species such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generated at moderate levels. Thus, the antiproliferative and anti-tumor effects of certain antioxidants were attributed to their ability to mitigate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent reports support a role for mitochondrial ROS in stimulating tumor cell proliferation. In this study, we compared the antiproliferative effects and the effects on mitochondrial bioenergetic functions of a mitochondria-targeted cationic carboxyproxyl nitroxide (Mito-CP), exhibiting superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity and a synthetic cationic acetamide analog (Mito-CP-Ac) lacking the nitroxide moiety responsible for the SOD activity. Results indicate that both Mito-CP and Mito-CP-Ac potently inhibited tumor cell proliferation. Both compounds altered mitochondrial and glycolytic functions, and intracellular citrate levels. Both Mito-CP and Mito-CP-Ac synergized with 2-deoxy-glucose (2-DG) to deplete intracellular ATP, inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. We conclude that mitochondria-targeted cationic agents inhibit tumor proliferation via modification of mitochondrial bioenergetics pathways rather than by dismutating and detoxifying mitochondrial superoxide.

  20. Antiproliferative effects of mitochondria-targeted cationic antioxidants and analogs: Role of mitochondrial bioenergetics and energy-sensing mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gang; Zielonka, Jacek; McAllister, Donna; Hardy, Micael; Ouari, Olivier; Joseph, Joy; Dwinell, Michael B.; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2015-01-01

    One of the proposed mechanisms for tumor proliferation involves redox signaling mediated by reactive oxygen species such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generated at moderate levels. Thus, the antiproliferative and anti-tumor effects of certain antioxidants were attributed to their ability to mitigate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent reports support a role for mitochondrial ROS in stimulating tumor cell proliferation. In this study, we compared the antiproliferative effects and the effects on mitochondrial bioenergetic functions of a mitochondria-targeted cationic carboxyproxyl nitroxide (Mito-CP), exhibiting superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity and a synthetic cationic acetamide analog (Mito-CP-Ac) lacking the nitroxide moiety responsible for the SOD activity. Results indicate that both Mito-CP and Mito-CP-Ac potently inhibited tumor cell proliferation. Both compounds altered mitochondrial and glycolytic functions, and intracellular citrate levels. Both Mito-CP and Mito-CP-Ac synergized with 2-deoxy-glucose (2-DG) to deplete intracellular ATP, inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. We conclude that mitochondria-targeted cationic agents inhibit tumor proliferation via modification of mitochondrial bioenergetics pathways rather than by dismutating and detoxifying mitochondrial superoxide. PMID:26004344

  1. Bioenergetic response of the extreme thermoacidophile Metallosphaera sedula to thermal and nutritional stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Peeples, T.L.; Kelly, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    The bioenergetic response of the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Metallosphaera sedula to thermal and nutritional stresses was examined. Continuous cultures (pH 2.0, 70{degrees}C, and dilution rate of 0.05h{sup {minus}1}) in which the levels of Casamino Acids and ferrous iron in growth media were reduced by a step change of 25 to 50% resulted in higher levels of several proteins. At 70{degrees}C under optimal growth conditions, M. sedula was typically found to have a {triangle}p of approximately -190 to -200{sub m}V, the result of an intracellular {sub p}H of 5.4 (extracellular {sub p}H, 2.0) and a {triangle}{Psi} of +40 to +50 {sub m}V, (positive inside). After cells had been shifted to either 80 or 85{degrees}C, {triangle}{Psi} decreased to nearly 0 {sub m}V and internal {sub p}H approached 4.0 within 4 h of the shift; respiratory activity, as evidenced by iron speciation in parallel temperature-shifted cultures on iron pyrite, had ceased by this point. If cultures shifted from ;70 to 80{degrees}C were shifted back to 70{degrees}C after 4 h, cells were able to regain pyrite oxidation capacity and internal {sub p}H increased to nearly normal levels after 13 h. However, {triangle}{Psi} remained close to 9 {sub m}V, possibly the result of enhanced ionic exchange with media upon thermal damage to cell membranes. Further, when M. sedula was subjected to an intermediate temperature shift from 73 to 79{degrees}C, an increase in pyrite dissolution (ferric iron levels doubled) over that of the unshifted control at 73{degrees}C was noted. The improvement in leaching was attributed to the synergistic effect of chemical and biological factors. As such, periodic exposure to higher temperatures, followed by a suitable recovery period, may provide a basis for improving bioleaching rates of acidophilic chemolithotrophs. 38 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Erythropoietin improves skeletal muscle microcirculation and tissue bioenergetics in a mouse sepsis model

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Raymond; Xenocostas, Anargyros; Rui, Tao; Yu, Pei; Huang, Weixiong; Rose, James; Martin, Claudio M

    2007-01-01

    +normal saline mice (49.4 versus 52.7 FU; p = 0.03). Conclusion rHuEPO produced an immediate increase in capillary perfusion and decrease in NADH fluorescence in skeletal muscle. Thus, it appears that rHuEPO improves tissue bioenergetics, which is sustained for at least six hours in this murine sepsis model. PMID:17509156

  3. Relating suborganismal processes to ecotoxicological and population level endpoints using a bioenergetic model.

    PubMed

    Ananthasubramaniam, Bharath; McCauley, Edward; Gust, Kurt A; Kennedy, Alan J; Muller, Erik B; Perkins, Edward J; Nisbet, Roger M

    2015-09-01

    Ecological effects of environmental stressors are commonly evaluated using organismal or suborganismal data, such as standardized toxicity tests that characterize responses of individuals (e.g., mortality and reproduction) and a rapidly growing body of "omics" data. A key challenge for environmental risk assessment is relating such information to population dynamics. One approach uses dynamic energy budget (DEB) models that relate growth and reproduction of individuals to underlying flows of energy and elemental matter. We hypothesize that suborganismal information identifies DEB parameters that are most likely impacted by a particular stressor and that the DEB model can then project suborganismal effects on life history and population endpoints. We formulate and parameterize a model of growth and reproduction for the water flea Daphnia magna. Our model resembles previous generic bioenergetic models, but has explicit representation of discrete molts, an important feature of Daphnia life history. We test its ability to predict six endpoints commonly used in chronic toxicity studies in specified food environments. With just one adjustable parameter, the model successfully predicts growth and reproduction of individuals from a wide array of experiments performed in multiple laboratories using different clones of D. magna raised on different food sources. Fecundity is the most sensitive endpoint, and there is broad correlation between the sensitivities of fecundity and long-run growth rate, as is desirable for the default metric used in chronic toxicity tests. Under some assumptions, we can combine our DEB model with the Euler-Lotka equation to estimate longrun population growth rates at different food levels. A review of Daphnia gene-expression experiments on the effects of contaminant exposure reveals several connections to model parameters, in particular a general trend of increased transcript expression of genes involved in energy assimilation and utilization at

  4. Athanasius Kircher: The 17th Century Science at the Crossroads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonanno, R.

    2011-06-01

    Athanasius Kircher, who entered the Society of Jesus in 1628, is a peculiar scientist who is in love with everything he sees and with everything he thinks he sees. He is a non-Galilean scientist whose general attitude is not obscurantism but rather a defense of established faith. He arrives in Rome in the fall of 1633 when he is in his thirties. Even if at the epoch Kircher has already written some of his many books, it is amazing that Galileo does not even quote him in the letters he will wrote in the rest of his life. In spite of having stridden along a minor scientific path, opposite of that shown by Galileo, it is nonetheless surprising to find out that Athanasius Kircher was gifted with remarkable intuition, and was in some cases even decades in advance with respect to the age he lived in.

  5. Final Report: 17th international Symposium on Plant Lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Christoph Benning

    2007-03-07

    This meeting covered several emerging areas in the plant lipid field such as the biosynthesis of cuticle components, interorganelle lipid trafficking, the regulation of lipid homeostasis, and the utilization of algal models. Stimulating new insights were provided not only based on research reports based on plant models, but also due to several excellent talks by experts from the yeast field.

  6. [Jan Swammerdam, physician and naturalist of the 17th century].

    PubMed

    Hoerni, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Jan Swammerdam (1637-1680) was a physician and a naturalist who clarified some details of human anatomy and who made many microscopic observations on insects and their metamorphosis. His life was marked by spirituality and a malaria which caused his death and prevented him from publishing his works which were edited after a long delay.

  7. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  8. 17th Environmental Quality Index: Troubling Times with Toxics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents a subjective analysis of the status of United States' natural resources, reviewing 1985's key environmental events, problems, and successes. Reports current conditions and/or dilemmas concerning wildlife, air, water, energy, forests, and soils. Provides both a public rating of the quality of life and a priority ranking of environmental…

  9. Globalization: The European Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The experience of the United Kingdom and other European countries in designing legal education which responds to the changing needs of the European Union is described. The three-stage British system of legal education is outlined, and the impact of European Union formation discussed briefly. Changes in undergraduate study, professional training,…

  10. [A sketch of history of the European tanatopraxis].

    PubMed

    Gryglewski, Ryszard W

    2002-01-01

    Tanatopraxis is an intentional action aiming to stop all the processes, which lead to a complete decomposition of a body after death. The words embalmment or mummification makes us think about cultures of the ancient Egypt or pre-Columbian America and not about burials of Indo-European nomads or Chinese aristocrats. Meanwhile practices aiming to protect mortal remains against a destructive force of death were known in Europe very long ago. We can see it in paludal burials of the Iron Age and in some testimonies of the ancient epochs. Interventions, which could materially retard decomposition of a body, had been rather generally practiced from the Middle Ages. More practical than religious reasons justified it, but the latter cannot be overlooked. The religious background of such actions can be seen in the custom of embalming mortal remains of popes or kings of France. It was in Europe where the preservation of crops had started to be treated as a scientific problem, and we can see it for the first time in the Renaissance. Together with a development of medical knowledge and especially of anatomy and preparations, a great progress both in methods and substances used for embalming, took place. Ruysh and Holmes in the 17th century, the Hunter brothers in the 18th century and Gannal and Holmes in the 19th century are the milestones in the history of tanatopraxis in Europe. Foundation of the French Institute of Tanatopraxis (IFT) has crowned the many hundred years old experience in the field.

  11. Assessment of contaminant impacts in a semi-enclosed estuary (Amvrakikos Gulf, NW Greece): bioenergetics and biochemical biomarkers in mussels.

    PubMed

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Cotou, Efthimia; Papathanassiou, Enangelos; Nicolaidou, Artemis

    2010-02-01

    A combination of bioenergetics and biochemical biomarkers in mussels was applied to assess possible pollution impacts in a protected semi-enclosed estuary (Amvrakikos Gulf, NW Greece) that receives pesticide discharges through riverine transport. Scope for growth, a physiological condition index representing the energy budget of the organism, was applied to detect general stress effects on the health status of mussels. The low energy budgets of mussels revealed stress conditions and provided early warning signals of possible consequences at higher levels of biological organization. Biochemical markers of exposure confirmed a risk of pesticide contamination. Decreased acetylcholinesterase activities indicated exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Responses of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase suggested the presence of contaminants capable of reactive oxygen species production that could be related to organochlorine pesticide contamination in the area. On the other hand, metallothionein levels implied low metal contamination.

  12. Bioenergetic response by steelhead to variation in diet, thermal habitat, and climate in the north Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atcheson, Margaret E.; Myers, Katherine W.; Beauchamp, David A.; Mantua, Nathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Energetic responses of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss to climate-driven changes in marine conditions are expected to affect the species’ ocean distribution, feeding, growth, and survival. With a unique 18-year data series (1991–2008) for steelhead sampled in the open ocean, we simulated interannual variation in prey consumption and growth efficiency of steelhead using a bioenergetics model to evaluate the temperature-dependent growth response of steelhead to past climate events and to estimate growth potential of steelhead under future climate scenarios. Our results showed that annual ocean growth of steelhead is highly variable depending on prey quality, consumption rates, total consumption, and thermal experience. At optimal growing temperatures, steelhead can compensate for a low-energy diet by increasing consumption rates and consuming more prey, if available. Our findings suggest that steelhead have a narrow temperature window in which to achieve optimal growth, which is strongly influenced by climate-driven changes in ocean temperature.

  13. Age-related decline in mitochondrial bioenergetics: Does supercomplex destabilization determine lower oxidative capacity and higher superoxide production?

    PubMed Central

    Gόmez, Luis A.; Hagen, Tory M.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial decay plays a central role in the aging process. Although certainly multifactorial in nature, defective operation of the electron transport chain (ETC) constitutes a key mechanism involved in the age-associated loss of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Primarily, mitochondrial dysfunction affects the aging animal by limiting bioenergetic reserve capacity and/or increasing oxidative stress via enhanced electron leakage from the ETC. Even though the important aging characteristics of mitochondrial decay are known, the molecular events underlying inefficient electron flux that ultimately leads to higher superoxide appearance and impaired respiration are not completely understood. This review focuses on the potential role(s) that age-associated destabilization of the macromolecular organization of the ETC (i.e. supercomplexes) may be important for development of the mitochondrial aging phenotype, particularly in post-mitotic tissues. PMID:22521482

  14. The Dual Function of Reactive Oxygen/Nitrogen Species in Bioenergetics and Cell Death: The Role of ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Kaludercic, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) targeting mitochondria are major causative factors in disease pathogenesis. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) is a mega-channel modulated by calcium and ROS/RNS modifications and it has been described to play a crucial role in many pathophysiological events since prolonged channel opening causes cell death. The recent identification that dimers of ATP synthase form the PTP and the fact that posttranslational modifications caused by ROS/RNS also affect cellular bioenergetics through the modulation of ATP synthase catalysis reveal a dual function of these modifications in the cells. Here, we describe mitochondria as a major site of production and as a target of ROS/RNS and discuss the pathophysiological conditions in which oxidative and nitrosative modifications modulate the catalytic and pore-forming activities of ATP synthase. PMID:27034734

  15. High-Throughput Tissue Bioenergetics Analysis Reveals Identical Metabolic Allometric Scaling for Teleost Hearts and Whole Organisms.

    PubMed

    Jayasundara, Nishad; Kozal, Jordan S; Arnold, Mariah C; Chan, Sherine S L; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Organismal metabolic rate, a fundamental metric in biology, demonstrates an allometric scaling relationship with body size. Fractal-like vascular distribution networks of biological systems are proposed to underlie metabolic rate allometric scaling laws from individual organisms to cells, mitochondria, and enzymes. Tissue-specific metabolic scaling is notably absent from this paradigm. In the current study, metabolic scaling relationships of hearts and brains with body size were examined by improving on a high-throughput whole-organ oxygen consumption rate (OCR) analysis method in five biomedically and environmentally relevant teleost model species. Tissue-specific metabolic scaling was compared with organismal routine metabolism (RMO2), which was measured using whole organismal respirometry. Basal heart OCR and organismal RMO2 scaled identically with body mass in a species-specific fashion across all five species tested. However, organismal maximum metabolic rates (MMO2) and pharmacologically-induced maximum cardiac metabolic rates in zebrafish Danio rerio did not show a similar relationship with body mass. Brain metabolic rates did not scale with body size. The identical allometric scaling of heart and organismal metabolic rates with body size suggests that hearts, the power generator of an organism's vascular distribution network, might be crucial in determining teleost metabolic rate scaling under routine conditions. Furthermore, these findings indicate the possibility of measuring heart OCR utilizing the high-throughput approach presented here as a proxy for organismal metabolic rate-a useful metric in characterizing organismal fitness. In addition to heart and brain OCR, the current approach was also used to measure whole liver OCR, partition cardiac mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters using pharmacological agents, and estimate heart and brain glycolytic rates. This high-throughput whole-organ bioenergetic analysis method has important applications in

  16. Development of a bioenergetics model for humpback chub and evaluation of water temperature changes in the Grand Canyon, Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Paukert, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    The construction of Glen Canyon Dam above the Grand Canyon (Arizona) has reduced the water temperature in the Colorado River and altered the growth rate and feeding patterns of the federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. A bioenergetics model for humpback chub was developed and used to examine how warmer water temperatures in the lower Colorado River (achieved through a temperature control device [TCD] at Glen Canyon Dam) might influence their growth rate and food requirements. Parameter values for humpback chub were developed by Monte Carlo filtering and fitting to laboratory growth. Parameter bounds were established from the literature for Gila species, random parameter sets were selected within these bounds, and the growth of modeled humpback chub was compared with criteria from a laboratory growth experiment at 24??C. This method of parameter estimation could be applied to other imperiled fishes where physiological studies are impractical. Final parameter values were corroborated by comparison with the growth rates of humpback chub from independent field and laboratory studies. Simulations indicated that increasing water temperatures from approximately 9??C to 16??C during summer and fall, the change expected from the TCD, may have a minimal effect on humpback chub growth rate unless food availability also increases with temperature. To evaluate the effects of increased temperatures on humpback chub in the lower Colorado River, it will be essential to monitor their growth rate, the invertebrate community, and the predators of humpback chub, which are also influenced by temperature changes. Bioenergetics models for humpback chub and their predators should be helpful tools for identifying potential scenarios and evaluating the complex interactions resulting from a TCD. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  17. Alkaliphilic Bacteria with Impact on Industrial Applications, Concepts of Early Life Forms, and Bioenergetics of ATP Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Preiss, Laura; Hicks, David B; Suzuki, Shino; Meier, Thomas; Krulwich, Terry Ann

    2015-01-01

    Alkaliphilic bacteria typically grow well at pH 9, with the most extremophilic strains growing up to pH values as high as pH 12-13. Interest in extreme alkaliphiles arises because they are sources of useful, stable enzymes, and the cells themselves can be used for biotechnological and other applications at high pH. In addition, alkaline hydrothermal vents represent an early evolutionary niche for alkaliphiles and novel extreme alkaliphiles have also recently been found in alkaline serpentinizing sites. A third focus of interest in alkaliphiles is the challenge raised by the use of proton-coupled ATP synthases for oxidative phosphorylation by non-fermentative alkaliphiles. This creates a problem with respect to tenets of the chemiosmotic model that remains the core model for the bioenergetics of oxidative phosphorylation. Each of these facets of alkaliphilic bacteria will be discussed with a focus on extremely alkaliphilic Bacillus strains. These alkaliphilic bacteria have provided a cogent experimental system to probe adaptations that enable their growth and oxidative phosphorylation at high pH. Adaptations are clearly needed to enable secreted or partially exposed enzymes or protein complexes to function at the high external pH. Also, alkaliphiles must maintain a cytoplasmic pH that is significantly lower than the pH of the outside medium. This protects cytoplasmic components from an external pH that is alkaline enough to impair their stability or function. However, the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane, with its orientation of more acidic inside than outside, is in the reverse of the productive orientation for bioenergetic work. The reversed gradient reduces the trans-membrane proton-motive force available to energize ATP synthesis. Multiple strategies are hypothesized to be involved in enabling alkaliphiles to circumvent the challenge of a low bulk proton-motive force energizing proton-coupled ATP synthesis at high pH.

  18. Alkaliphilic Bacteria with Impact on Industrial Applications, Concepts of Early Life Forms, and Bioenergetics of ATP Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Preiss, Laura; Hicks, David B.; Suzuki, Shino; Meier, Thomas; Krulwich, Terry Ann

    2015-01-01

    Alkaliphilic bacteria typically grow well at pH 9, with the most extremophilic strains growing up to pH values as high as pH 12–13. Interest in extreme alkaliphiles arises because they are sources of useful, stable enzymes, and the cells themselves can be used for biotechnological and other applications at high pH. In addition, alkaline hydrothermal vents represent an early evolutionary niche for alkaliphiles and novel extreme alkaliphiles have also recently been found in alkaline serpentinizing sites. A third focus of interest in alkaliphiles is the challenge raised by the use of proton-coupled ATP synthases for oxidative phosphorylation by non-fermentative alkaliphiles. This creates a problem with respect to tenets of the chemiosmotic model that remains the core model for the bioenergetics of oxidative phosphorylation. Each of these facets of alkaliphilic bacteria will be discussed with a focus on extremely alkaliphilic Bacillus strains. These alkaliphilic bacteria have provided a cogent experimental system to probe adaptations that enable their growth and oxidative phosphorylation at high pH. Adaptations are clearly needed to enable secreted or partially exposed enzymes or protein complexes to function at the high external pH. Also, alkaliphiles must maintain a cytoplasmic pH that is significantly lower than the pH of the outside medium. This protects cytoplasmic components from an external pH that is alkaline enough to impair their stability or function. However, the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane, with its orientation of more acidic inside than outside, is in the reverse of the productive orientation for bioenergetic work. The reversed gradient reduces the trans-membrane proton-motive force available to energize ATP synthesis. Multiple strategies are hypothesized to be involved in enabling alkaliphiles to circumvent the challenge of a low bulk proton-motive force energizing proton-coupled ATP synthesis at high pH. PMID:26090360

  19. Dynamin-related protein 1 is required for normal mitochondrial bioenergetic and synaptic function in CA1 hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Shields, L Y; Kim, H; Zhu, L; Haddad, D; Berthet, A; Pathak, D; Lam, M; Ponnusamy, R; Diaz-Ramirez, L G; Gill, T M; Sesaki, H; Mucke, L; Nakamura, K

    2015-01-01

    Disrupting particular mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins leads to the death of specific neuronal populations; however, the normal functions of mitochondrial fission in neurons are poorly understood, especially in vivo, which limits the understanding of mitochondrial changes in disease. Altered activity of the central mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) may contribute to the pathophysiology of several neurologic diseases. To study Drp1 in a neuronal population affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD), stroke, and seizure disorders, we postnatally deleted Drp1 from CA1 and other forebrain neurons in mice (CamKII-Cre, Drp1lox/lox (Drp1cKO)). Although most CA1 neurons survived for more than 1 year, their synaptic transmission was impaired, and Drp1cKO mice had impaired memory. In Drp1cKO cell bodies, we observed marked mitochondrial swelling but no change in the number of mitochondria in individual synaptic terminals. Using ATP FRET sensors, we found that cultured neurons lacking Drp1 (Drp1KO) could not maintain normal levels of mitochondrial-derived ATP when energy consumption was increased by neural activity. These deficits occurred specifically at the nerve terminal, but not the cell body, and were sufficient to impair synaptic vesicle cycling. Although Drp1KO increased the distance between axonal mitochondria, mitochondrial-derived ATP still decreased similarly in Drp1KO boutons with and without mitochondria. This indicates that mitochondrial-derived ATP is rapidly dispersed in Drp1KO axons, and that the deficits in axonal bioenergetics and function are not caused by regional energy gradients. Instead, loss of Drp1 compromises the intrinsic bioenergetic function of axonal mitochondria, thus revealing a mechanism by which disrupting mitochondrial dynamics can cause dysfunction of axons. PMID:25880092

  20. High-Throughput Tissue Bioenergetics Analysis Reveals Identical Metabolic Allometric Scaling for Teleost Hearts and Whole Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Jayasundara, Nishad; Kozal, Jordan S.; Arnold, Mariah C.; Chan, Sherine S. L.; Di Giulio, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Organismal metabolic rate, a fundamental metric in biology, demonstrates an allometric scaling relationship with body size. Fractal-like vascular distribution networks of biological systems are proposed to underlie metabolic rate allometric scaling laws from individual organisms to cells, mitochondria, and enzymes. Tissue-specific metabolic scaling is notably absent from this paradigm. In the current study, metabolic scaling relationships of hearts and brains with body size were examined by improving on a high-throughput whole-organ oxygen consumption rate (OCR) analysis method in five biomedically and environmentally relevant teleost model species. Tissue-specific metabolic scaling was compared with organismal routine metabolism (RMO2), which was measured using whole organismal respirometry. Basal heart OCR and organismal RMO2 scaled identically with body mass in a species-specific fashion across all five species tested. However, organismal maximum metabolic rates (MMO2) and pharmacologically-induced maximum cardiac metabolic rates in zebrafish Danio rerio did not show a similar relationship with body mass. Brain metabolic rates did not scale with body size. The identical allometric scaling of heart and organismal metabolic rates with body size suggests that hearts, the power generator of an organism’s vascular distribution network, might be crucial in determining teleost metabolic rate scaling under routine conditions. Furthermore, these findings indicate the possibility of measuring heart OCR utilizing the high-throughput approach presented here as a proxy for organismal metabolic rate—a useful metric in characterizing organismal fitness. In addition to heart and brain OCR, the current approach was also used to measure whole liver OCR, partition cardiac mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters using pharmacological agents, and estimate heart and brain glycolytic rates. This high-throughput whole-organ bioenergetic analysis method has important applications in

  1. Roles of sirtuins in the regulation of antioxidant defense and bioenergetic function of mitochondria under oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y-T; Wu, S-B; Wei, Y-H

    2014-09-01

    In addition to serving as the power house of mammalian cells, mitochondria are crucial for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis in response to physiological or environmental changes. Several lines of evidence suggest that posttranslational modification (PTM) of proteins plays a pivotal role in the regulation of the bioenergetic function of mitochondria. Among them, reversible lysine acetylation of mitochondrial proteins has been established as one of the key mechanisms in cellular response to energy demand by modulating the flux of a number of key metabolic pathways. In this article, we focus on the role of Sirt3-mediated deacetylation in: (1) flexibility of energy metabolism, (2) activation of antioxidant defense, and (3) maintenance of cellular redox status in response to dietary challenge and oxidative stress. We suggest that oxidative stress-elicited down-regulation of Sirt3 plays a role in the pathophysiology of diabetes, cardiac hypotrophy, mitochondrial diseases, and age-related diseases. Besides, the physiological role of newly identified lysine acylation mediated by Sirt5 and its biochemical effects on oxidative metabolism are also discussed. Moreover, we have integrated the regulatory function of several protein kinases that are involved in the phosphorylation of mitochondrial enzymes during oxidative stress. Finally, the functional consequence of the synergistic regulation through diverse protein modifications is emphasized on the maintenance of the bioenergetic homeostasis and metabolic adaptation of the animal and human cells. Together, we have provided an updated review of PTM in mitochondrial biology and their implications in aging and human diseases through an intricate regulation of energy metabolism under oxidative stress.

  2. Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Alterations in Mouse Neuroblastoma Cells Infected with Sindbis Virus: Implications to Viral Replication and Neuronal Death

    PubMed Central

    Silva da Costa, Leandro; Pereira da Silva, Ana Paula; Da Poian, Andrea T.; El-Bacha, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic resources crucial for viral replication are provided by the host. Details of the mechanisms by which viruses interact with host metabolism, altering and recruiting high free-energy molecules for their own replication, remain unknown. Sindbis virus, the prototype of and most widespread alphavirus, causes outbreaks of arthritis in humans and serves as a model for the study of the pathogenesis of neurological diseases induced by alphaviruses in mice. In this work, respirometric analysis was used to evaluate the effects of Sindbis virus infection on mitochondrial bioenergetics of a mouse neuroblastoma cell lineage, Neuro 2a. The modulation of mitochondrial functions affected cellular ATP content and this was synchronous with Sindbis virus replication cycle and cell death. At 15 h, irrespective of effects on cell viability, viral replication induced a decrease in oxygen consumption uncoupled to ATP synthesis and a 36% decrease in maximum uncoupled respiration, which led to an increase of 30% in the fraction of oxygen consumption used for ATP synthesis. Decreased proton leak associated to complex I respiration contributed to the apparent improvement of mitochondrial function. Cellular ATP content was not affected by infection. After 24 h, mitochondria dysfunction was clearly observed as maximum uncoupled respiration reduced 65%, along with a decrease in the fraction of oxygen consumption used for ATP synthesis. Suppressed respiration driven by complexes I- and II-related substrates seemed to play a role in mitochondrial dysfunction. Despite the increase in glucose uptake and glycolytic flux, these changes were followed by a 30% decrease in ATP content and neuronal death. Taken together, mitochondrial bioenergetics is modulated during Sindbis virus infection in such a way as to favor ATP synthesis required to support active viral replication. These early changes in metabolism of Neuro 2a cells may form the molecular basis of neuronal dysfunction and Sindbis

  3. The antiestrogen 4-hydroxytamoxifen protects against isotretinoin-induced permeability transition and bioenergetic dysfunction of liver mitochondria: comparison with tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Silva, Filomena S G; Ribeiro, Mariana P C; Santos, Maria S; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Santos-Silva, Alice; Custódio, José B A

    2013-08-01

    The combination of isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) with antiestrogens seems to be a promising strategy for cancer chemotherapy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of isotretinoin alone or in combination with 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHTAM) and with its prodrug tamoxifen (TAM), on the functions of rat liver mitochondria, i.e., mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), bioenergetic functions and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT). Isotretinoin (5 nmol/mg protein) induced the Ca²⁺-dependent MPT pore opening in mitochondria energized with succinate, which was prevented by OHTAM, cyclosporine A, TAM and ANT ligands. When mitochondria were energized with glutamate/malate and in the absence of added Ca²⁺ isotretinoin decreased the state 3 respiration, the ATP levels, the active ANT content and increased the lag phase of the phosphorylation cycle, demonstrating that isotretinoin decreased the mitochondrial phosphorylation efficiency. These changes of isotretinoin in bioenergetic parameters were not significant in the presence of succinate. The effects of isotretinoin at 5 nmol/mg protein on the Ca²⁺-dependent MPT and phosphorylative efficacy may be related with interactions with the ANT. Above 10 nmol/mg protein isotretinoin strongly diminished the active ANT content, decreased the Δψ, inhibited the complex I and induced proton leak through the Fo fraction of complex V. The combination of OHTAM with isotretinoin only induced significant changes in the energy production systems at concentrations ≥5 nmol isotretinoin/mg protein. Therefore, our results suggest that isotretinoin-associated liver toxicity is possibly related with mitochondrial dysfunctions and that the combination with OHTAM may contribute to decrease its toxicity.

  4. Alkaliphilic Bacteria with Impact on Industrial Applications, Concepts of Early Life Forms, and Bioenergetics of ATP Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Preiss, Laura; Hicks, David B; Suzuki, Shino; Meier, Thomas; Krulwich, Terry Ann

    2015-01-01

    Alkaliphilic bacteria typically grow well at pH 9, with the most extremophilic strains growing up to pH values as high as pH 12-13. Interest in extreme alkaliphiles arises because they are sources of useful, stable enzymes, and the cells themselves can be used for biotechnological and other applications at high pH. In addition, alkaline hydrothermal vents represent an early evolutionary niche for alkaliphiles and novel extreme alkaliphiles have also recently been found in alkaline serpentinizing sites. A third focus of interest in alkaliphiles is the challenge raised by the use of proton-coupled ATP synthases for oxidative phosphorylation by non-fermentative alkaliphiles. This creates a problem with respect to tenets of the chemiosmotic model that remains the core model for the bioenergetics of oxidative phosphorylation. Each of these facets of alkaliphilic bacteria will be discussed with a focus on extremely alkaliphilic Bacillus strains. These alkaliphilic bacteria have provided a cogent experimental system to probe adaptations that enable their growth and oxidative phosphorylation at high pH. Adaptations are clearly needed to enable secreted or partially exposed enzymes or protein complexes to function at the high external pH. Also, alkaliphiles must maintain a cytoplasmic pH that is significantly lower than the pH of the outside medium. This protects cytoplasmic components from an external pH that is alkaline enough to impair their stability or function. However, the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane, with its orientation of more acidic inside than outside, is in the reverse of the productive orientation for bioenergetic work. The reversed gradient reduces the trans-membrane proton-motive force available to energize ATP synthesis. Multiple strategies are hypothesized to be involved in enabling alkaliphiles to circumvent the challenge of a low bulk proton-motive force energizing proton-coupled ATP synthesis at high pH. PMID:26090360

  5. The European Communications Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, T. A.

    1985-09-01

    Two European Communication Satellites (ECSs) are now in operation for Eutelsat, forming the orbital portion of a communications system that will operate until 1993, carrying telephony and TV for the European Broadcasting Union. A total of five ECSs are to be constructed in order to ensure continuity of service over the systems lifetime. ECSs will also serve as the bases for the European Regional Communication System, which furnishes small receiver dish specialized services and preemptive TV distribution channels within Europe.

  6. Application of matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight mass spectrometry to the study of the proteinaceous binders in paint: blue paint composition in the series "The Life of Virgin" by Alonso Cano (17th century) as a case study.

    PubMed

    Romero-Pastor, Julia; Natalia Navas, Natalia Navas; Rodríguez-Simón, Luís; Lario-Simón, Antonio; Kuckova, Stepanka; Manzano, Eloísa

    2015-01-01

    The identification of proteinaceous materials in paint constituents provides very valuable information regarding the techniques used by the painter and the most suitable procedures for conserving and restoring their works. Although the analysis of proteinaceous materials is nowadays a common task when dealing with works of art, the reliable detection and identification of protein traces is still complicated, particularly when very small samples can be taken that may contain a mixture of different organic materials (oils, waxes, resins, gums etc.). We therefore proposed a proteomic approach to investigate protein materials in paintings at trace levels in order to obtain a better understanding of the painter's technique. After trypsin digestion of the paint samples, mass spectra were obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and they were compared with the Mascot database and with theoretical digested proteins. This study contributes to the knowledge about the technique used by Alonso Cano (Granada, Spain, 1601-1667), one of the most original and brilliant artists from the Spanish Golden Age (17th century), in the series called the Life of the Virgin (six paintings), part of the iconographic program about the life of the Virgin Mary, nowadays seen in the main chapel of Granada Cathedral. The objective of the present study was to test the use of proteinaceous material, mainly egg yolk, in the paint used by Cano, as suggested in previous research, although this would have been unusual at that time when most artists used oil paints. Based on the results of the analysis here presented, the use of protein in the binding media can most likely be excluded.

  7. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners.

  8. Effect of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), an allosteric activator of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) on colorectal cancer cell proliferation and bioenergetics in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Módis, Katalin; Coletta, Ciro; Asimakopoulou, Antonia; Szczesny, Bartosz; Chao, Celia; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Hellmich, Mark R.; Szabo, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    Recent data show that colon cancer cells selectively overexpress cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), which produces hydrogen sulfide (H2S), to maintain cellular bioenergetics, support tumor growth and stimulate angiogenesis and vasorelaxation in the tumor microenvironment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of the allosteric CBS activator S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) on the proliferation and bioenergetics of the CBS-expressing colon cancer cell line HCT116. The non-transformed, non-tumorigenic colon epithelial cell line NCM356 was used as control. For assessment of cell proliferation, the xCELLigence system was used. Bioenergetic function was measured by Extracellular Flux Analysis. Experiments using human recombinant CBS or HCT116 homogenates complemented the cell-based studies. SAM markedly enhanced CBS-mediated H2S production in vitro, especially when a combination of cysteine and homocysteine was used as substrates. Addition of SAM (0.1 – 3 mM) to HCT116 cells induced a concentration-dependent increase H2S production. SAM exerted time-and concentration-dependent modulatory effects on cell proliferation. At 0.1–1 mM SAM increased HCT116 proliferation between 0–12 h, while the highest SAM concentration (3 mM) inhibited proliferation. Over a longer time period (12–24 h), only the lowest concentration of SAM used (0.1 mM) stimulated cell proliferation; higher SAM concentrations produced a concentration-dependent inhibition. The short-term stimulatory effects of SAM were attenuated by the CBS inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) or by stable silencing of CBS. In contrast, the inhibitory effects of SAM on cell proliferation was unaffected by CBS inhibition or CBS silencing. In contrast to HCT116 cells, the lower rate of proliferation of the low-CBS expressor NCM356 cells was unaffected by SAM. Short-term (1h) exposure of HCT116 cells to SAM induced a concentration-dependent increase in oxygen consumption and bioenergetic function at

  9. Effect of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), an allosteric activator of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) on colorectal cancer cell proliferation and bioenergetics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Módis, Katalin; Coletta, Ciro; Asimakopoulou, Antonia; Szczesny, Bartosz; Chao, Celia; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Hellmich, Mark R; Szabo, Csaba

    2014-09-15

    Recent data show that colon cancer cells selectively overexpress cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), which produces hydrogen sulfide (H2S), to maintain cellular bioenergetics, support tumor growth and stimulate angiogenesis and vasorelaxation in the tumor microenvironment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of the allosteric CBS activator S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) on the proliferation and bioenergetics of the CBS-expressing colon cancer cell line HCT116. The non-transformed, non-tumorigenic colon epithelial cell line NCM356 was used as control. For assessment of cell proliferation, the xCELLigence system was used. Bioenergetic function was measured by Extracellular Flux Analysis. Experiments using human recombinant CBS or HCT116 homogenates complemented the cell-based studies. SAM markedly enhanced CBS-mediated H2S production in vitro, especially when a combination of cysteine and homocysteine was used as substrates. Addition of SAM (0.1-3 mM) to HCT116 cells induced a concentration-dependent increase H2S production. SAM exerted time- and concentration-dependent modulatory effects on cell proliferation. At 0.1-1 mM SAM increased HCT116 proliferation between 0 and 12 h, while the highest SAM concentration (3 mM) inhibited proliferation. Over a longer time period (12-24 h), only the lowest concentration of SAM used (0.1 mM) stimulated cell proliferation; higher SAM concentrations produced a concentration-dependent inhibition. The short-term stimulatory effects of SAM were attenuated by the CBS inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) or by stable silencing of CBS. In contrast, the inhibitory effects of SAM on cell proliferation was unaffected by CBS inhibition or CBS silencing. In contrast to HCT116 cells, the lower rate of proliferation of the low-CBS expressor NCM356 cells was unaffected by SAM. Short-term (1 h) exposure of HCT116 cells to SAM induced a concentration-dependent increase in oxygen consumption and bioenergetic function at 0

  10. Education and European Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, John

    1992-01-01

    Reviews implications for education and training of the movement toward integration among European Community nations and the end of Communist governments. Discusses common concerns for new Europe, including data sharing, teacher training, educational quality, disadvantaged learners, demographic and employment trends, European Studies curricula, and…

  11. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  12. Bioenergetic Insufficiencies Due to Metabolic Alterations Regulated by the Inhibitory Receptor PD-1 Are an Early Driver of CD8(+) T Cell Exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Bengsch, Bertram; Johnson, Andy L; Kurachi, Makoto; Odorizzi, Pamela M; Pauken, Kristen E; Attanasio, John; Stelekati, Erietta; McLane, Laura M; Paley, Michael A; Delgoffe, Greg M; Wherry, E John

    2016-08-16

    Dynamic reprogramming of metabolism is essential for T cell effector function and memory formation. However, the regulation of metabolism in exhausted CD8(+) T (Tex) cells is poorly understood. We found that during the first week of chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, before severe dysfunction develops, virus-specific CD8(+) T cells were already unable to match the bioenergetics of effector T cells generated during acute infection. Suppression of T cell bioenergetics involved restricted glucose uptake and use, despite persisting mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and upregulation of many anabolic pathways. PD-1 regulated early glycolytic and mitochondrial alterations and repressed transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α. Improving bioenergetics by overexpression of PGC-1α enhanced function in developing Tex cells. Therapeutic reinvigoration by anti-PD-L1 reprogrammed metabolism in a subset of Tex cells. These data highlight a key metabolic control event early in exhaustion and suggest that manipulating glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism might enhance checkpoint blockade outcomes. PMID:27496729

  13. Mitochondrial bioenergetics and drug-induced toxicity in a panel of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with mitochondrial DNA single nucleotide polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Claudia V.; Oliveira, Paulo J.; Will, Yvonne; Nadanaciva, Sashi

    2012-10-15

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been proposed to be involved in idiosyncratic drug reactions. However, current in vitro and in vivo models lack the genetic diversity seen in the human population. Our hypothesis is that different cell strains with distinct mtDNA SNPs may have different mitochondrial bioenergetic profiles and may therefore vary in their response to drug-induced toxicity. Therefore, we used an in vitro system composed of four strains of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with mtDNA polymorphisms. We sequenced mtDNA from embryonic fibroblasts isolated from four mouse strains, C57BL/6J, MOLF/EiJ, CZECHII/EiJ and PERA/EiJ, with the latter two being sequenced for the first time. The bioenergetic profile of the four strains of MEFs was investigated at both passages 3 and 10. Our results showed that there were clear differences among the four strains of MEFs at both passages, with CZECHII/EiJ having a lower mitochondrial robustness when compared to C57BL/6J, followed by MOLF/EiJ and PERA/EiJ. Seven drugs known to impair mitochondrial function were tested for their effect on the ATP content of the four strains of MEFs in both glucose- and galactose-containing media. Our results showed that there were strain-dependent differences in the response to some of the drugs. We propose that this model is a useful starting point to study compounds that may cause mitochondrial off-target toxicity in early stages of drug development, thus decreasing the number of experimental animals used. -- Highlights: ► mtDNA SNPs may be linked to individual predisposition to drug-induced toxicity. ► CZECHII/EiJ and PERA/EiJ mtDNA was sequenced for the first time in this study. ► Strain-dependent mitochondrial capacity differences were measured. ► Strain-dependent differences in response to mitochondrial toxicants were observed.

  14. Premutation in the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) Gene Affects Maternal Zn-milk and Perinatal Brain Bioenergetics and Scaffolding

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Eleonora; Ross-Inta, Catherine; Song, Gyu; Wong, Sarah; Hagerman, Randi; Gane, Louise W.; Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; Tassone, Flora; Giulivi, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X premutation alleles have 55–200 CGG repeats in the 5′ UTR of the FMR1 gene. Altered zinc (Zn) homeostasis has been reported in fibroblasts from >60 years old premutation carriers, in which Zn supplementation significantly restored Zn-dependent mitochondrial protein import/processing and function. Given that mitochondria play a critical role in synaptic transmission, brain function, and cognition, we tested FMRP protein expression, brain bioenergetics, and expression of the Zn-dependent synaptic scaffolding protein SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (Shank3) in a knock-in (KI) premutation mouse model with 180 CGG repeats. Mitochondrial outcomes correlated with FMRP protein expression (but not FMR1 gene expression) in KI mice and human fibroblasts from carriers of the pre- and full-mutation. Significant deficits in brain bioenergetics, Zn levels, and Shank3 protein expression were observed in the Zn-rich regions KI hippocampus and cerebellum at PND21, with some of these effects lasting into adulthood (PND210). A strong genotype × age interaction was observed for most of the outcomes tested in hippocampus and cerebellum, whereas in cortex, age played a major role. Given that the most significant effects were observed at the end of the lactation period, we hypothesized that KI milk might have a role at compounding the deleterious effects on the FMR1 genetic background. A higher gene expression of ZnT4 and ZnT6, Zn transporters abundant in brain and lactating mammary glands, was observed in the latter tissue of KI dams. A cross-fostering experiment allowed improving cortex bioenergetics in KI pups nursing on WT milk. Conversely, WT pups nursing on KI milk showed deficits in hippocampus and cerebellum bioenergetics. A highly significant milk type × genotype interaction was observed for all three-brain regions, being cortex the most influenced. Finally, lower milk-Zn levels were recorded in milk from lactating women carrying the premutation as well

  15. Filling the Eastern European gap in millennium-long temperature reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Büntgen, Ulf; Kyncl, Tomáš; Ginzler, Christian; Jacks, David S; Esper, Jan; Tegel, Willy; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Kyncl, Josef

    2013-01-29

    Tree ring-based temperature reconstructions form the scientific backbone of the current global change debate. Although some European records extend into medieval times, high-resolution, long-term, regional-scale paleoclimatic evidence is missing for the eastern part of the continent. Here we compile 545 samples of living trees and historical timbers from the greater Tatra region to reconstruct interannual to centennial-long variations in Eastern European May-June temperature back to 1040 AD. Recent anthropogenic warming exceeds the range of past natural climate variability. Increased plague outbreaks and political conflicts, as well as decreased settlement activities, coincided with temperature depressions. The Black Death in the mid-14th century, the Thirty Years War in the early 17th century, and the French Invasion of Russia in the early 19th century all occurred during the coldest episodes of the last millennium. A comparison with summer temperature reconstructions from Scandinavia, the Alps, and the Pyrenees emphasizes the seasonal and spatial specificity of our results, questioning those large-scale reconstructions that simply average individual sites. PMID:23319641

  16. European journals on microbiology.

    PubMed

    Ronda, C; Vázquez, M

    1997-12-01

    A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).

  17. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroos M.; Calaga R.; Bousson S.; Danared H.; Devanz G. et al

    2011-04-20

    In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

  18. Landscape scale measures of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioenergetic growth rate potential in Lake Michigan and comparison with angler catch rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Brines, Shannon J.; Geddes, C.A.; Mason, D.M.; Schwab, D.J.; Fleischer, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relative quality of a habitat can influence fish consumption, growth, mortality, and production. In order to quantify habitat quality, several authors have combined bioenergetic and foraging models to generate spatially explicit estimates of fish growth rate potential (GRP). However, the capacity of GRP to reflect the spatial distributions of fishes over large areas has not been fully evaluated. We generated landscape scale estimates of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) GRP throughout Lake Michigan for 1994-1996, and used these estimates to test the hypotheses that GRP is a good predictor of spatial patterns of steelhead catch rates. We used surface temperatures (measured with AVHRR satellite imagery) and acoustically measured steelhead prey densities (alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus) as inputs for the GRP model. Our analyses demonstrate that potential steelhead growth rates in Lake Michigan are highly variable in both space and time. Steelhead GRP tended to increase with latitude, and mean GRP was much higher during September 1995, compared to 1994 and 1996. In addition, our study suggests that landscape scale measures of GRP are not good predictors of steelhead catch rates throughout Lake Michigan, but may provide an index of interannual variation in system-wide habitat quality.

  19. Philosophical basis and some historical aspects of systems biology: from Hegel to Noble - applications for bioenergetic research.

    PubMed

    Saks, Valdur; Monge, Claire; Guzun, Rita

    2009-03-01

    We live in times of paradigmatic changes for the biological sciences. Reductionism, that for the last six decades has been the philosophical basis of biochemistry and molecular biology, is being displaced by Systems Biology, which favors the study of integrated systems. Historically, Systems Biology - defined as the higher level analysis of complex biological systems - was pioneered by Claude Bernard in physiology, Norbert Wiener with the development of cybernetics, and Erwin Schrödinger in his thermodynamic approach to the living. Systems Biology applies methods inspired by cybernetics, network analysis, and non-equilibrium dynamics of open systems. These developments follow very precisely the dialectical principles of development from thesis to antithesis to synthesis discovered by Hegel. Systems Biology opens new perspectives for studies of the integrated processes of energy metabolism in different cells. These integrated systems acquire new, system-level properties due to interaction of cellular components, such as metabolic compartmentation, channeling and functional coupling mechanisms, which are central for regulation of the energy fluxes. State of the art of these studies in the new area of Molecular System Bioenergetics is analyzed.

  20. Bioenergetics assessment of fish and crayfish consumption by river otter (Lontra canadensis): integrating prey availability, diet, and field metabolic rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dekar, Matthew P.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; Beringer, J.

    2010-01-01

    River otters (Lontra canadensis) are important predators in aquatic ecosystems, but few studies quantify their prey consumption. We trapped crayfish monthly as an index of availability and collected otter scat for diet analysis in the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas, USA. We measured otter daily energy expenditure (DEE) with the doubly labeled water method to develop a bioenergetics model for estimating monthly prey consumption. Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki) catch-per-unit-effort was positively related to stream temperature, indicating that crayfish were more available during warmer months. The percentage frequency of occurrence for crayfish in scat samples peaked at 85.0% in summer and was lowest (42.3%) in winter. In contrast, the percentage occurrence of fish was 13.3% in summer and 57.7% in winter. Estimates of DEE averaged 4738 kJ·day-1 for an otter with a body mass of 7842 g. Total biomass consumption ranged from 35 079 to 52 653 g·month-1 (wet mass), corresponding to a high proportion of fish and crayfish in the diet, respectively. Otter consumption represents a large fraction of prey production, indicating potentially strong effects of otters on trophic dynamics in stream ecosystems.

  1. Mode of Bioenergetic Metabolism during B Cell Differentiation in the Intestine Determines the Distinct Requirement for Vitamin B1.

    PubMed

    Kunisawa, Jun; Sugiura, Yuki; Wake, Taichi; Nagatake, Takahiro; Suzuki, Hidehiko; Nagasawa, Risa; Shikata, Shiori; Honda, Kurara; Hashimoto, Eri; Suzuki, Yuji; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Suematsu, Makoto; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    Bioenergetic metabolism varies during cell differentiation, but details of B cell metabolism remain unclear. Here, we show the metabolic changes during B cell differentiation in the intestine, where B cells differentiate into IgA(+) plasma cells (PCs). Naive B cells in the Peyer's patches (PPs) and IgA(+) PCs in the intestinal lamina propria (iLP) both used the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, but only IgA(+) PCs underwent glycolysis. These metabolic differences reflected their dependencies on vitamin B1, an essential cofactor for the TCA cycle. Indeed, the diminished activity of the TCA cycle after dietary vitamin B1 depletion decreased the number of naive B cells in PPs without affecting IgA(+) PCs in the iLP. The maintenance of naive B cells by dietary vitamin B1 was required to induce-but not maintain-intestinal IgA responses against oral antigens. These findings reveal the diet-mediated maintenance of B cell immunometabolism in organized and diffuse intestinal tissues.

  2. Climate regimes and water temperature changes in the Columbia River: bioenergetic implications for predators of juvenile salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Kitchell, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    We examined how climatic regime shifts may have affected predation rates on juvenile Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) by northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis, also called northern pikeminnow), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) in the Columbia River. During 1933-1996, oceanic, coastal, and freshwater indices of climate were highly correlated, and an index for the Columbia River Basin suggested that climate shifts may have occurred about 1946, 1958, 1969, and 1977. Summer water temperature varied as much as 2??C between climate periods. We used a bioenergetics model for northern squawfish, the most important piscivore, to predict that predation on salmonids would have been 26-31% higher during two periods with relatively warm spring-summer water temperatures (1933-1946, 1978-1996) than during an extremely cold period (1947-1958). Predicted predation rates of northern squawfish were 68-96% higher in the warmest year compared with the coldest year. Predation rates of smallmouth bass and walleye on juvenile salmonids varied among climate periods similar to rates predicted for northern squawfish. Climatic effects need to be understood in both freshwater and nearshore marine habitats, since growth rates of salmon populations are especially sensitive to mortality during early life stages.

  3. Resveratrol affects differently rat liver and brain mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative stress in vitro: investigation of the role of gender.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ana C; Silva, Ana M; Santos, Maria S; Sardão, Vilma A

    2013-03-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans stilbene) is commonly recognized by its antioxidant properties. Despite its beneficial qualities, the toxic effects of this natural compound are still unknown. Since mitochondria are essential to support the energy-dependent regulation of several cell functions, the objective of this study was to evaluate resveratrol effects on rat brain and liver mitochondrial fractions from male and females regarding oxidative stress and bioenergetics. No basal differences were observed between mitochondrial fractions from males and females, except in liver mitochondria, the generation of H(2)O(2) by the respiratory chain is lower for female preparations. Resveratrol inhibited lipid peroxidation in preparations from both genders and organs. Furthermore, brain mitochondria in both gender groups appeared susceptible to resveratrol as seen by a decrease in state 3 respiration and alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential fluctuations during ADP phosphorylation. As opposed, liver mitochondria were less affected by resveratrol. Our data also demonstrates that resveratrol inhibits complex I activity in all mitochondrial preparations. The results suggest that brain mitochondria appear to be more susceptible to resveratrol effects, and gender appears to play a minor role. It remains to be determined if resveratrol effects on brain mitochondria contribute to deterioration of mitochondrial function or instead to mediate hormesis-mediated events.

  4. Kinetics and bioenergetics of Spirulina platensis cultivation by fed-batch addition of urea as nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Sassano, Carlos E N; Carvalho, João C M; Gioielli, Luiz A; Sato, Sunao; Torre, Paolo; Converti, Attilio

    2004-03-01

    The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis was cultivated in bench-scale miniponds on bicarbonate/carbonate solutions using urea as nitrogen source. To minimize limitation and inhibition phenomena, urea was supplied semicontinuously using exponentially increasing feeding rates. The average growth rates obtained alternately varying the total mass of urea added per unit reactor volume (275 < mT < 725 mg/L) and the total feeding time (9 < tT < 15 d) clearly evidenced nitrogen limitation for mT< 500 mg/L and excess nitrogen inhibition above this threshold. The time behavior of the specific growth rate at variable urea feeding patterns allowed estimation of the time-dependent Gibbs energy dissipation for cell growth under the actual depletion conditions of fed-batch cultivations. Comparison of the yield of growth on Gibbs energy obtained using either urea or KNO3 pointed to the preference of S. platensis for the former nitrogen source, likely owing to more favorable bioenergetic conditions. PMID:15007182

  5. A bioenergetics modeling evaluation of top-down control of ruffe in the St. Louis River, western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, Kathleen R.; Selgeby, James H.; McDonald, Michael E.

    1998-01-01

    Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), were accidentally introduced into the St. Louis River estuary, western Lake Superior, in the mid 1980s and it was feared that they might affect native fish through predation on eggs and competition for forage and habitat. In an effort to control the abundance of ruffe and limit dispersal, a top-down control strategy using predators was implemented in 1989. We used bioenergetics modeling to examine the efficacy of top-down control in the St. Louis River from 1991 to 1994. Five predators--northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens)--were modeled to determine their consumption of ruffe and four other native prey species-spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus). Although predators ate as much as 47% of the ruffe biomass in 1 year, they were not able to halt the increase in ruffe abundance. The St. Louis River is an open system that allows predators to move freely out of the system, and the biomass of managed predators did not increase. A selectivity index showed all five predators selected the native prey and avoided ruffe. The St. Louis River has several predator and prey species creating many complex predator-prey interactions; and top-down control of ruffe by the predators examined in this study did not occur.

  6. Philosophical Basis and Some Historical Aspects of Systems Biology: From Hegel to Noble - Applications for Bioenergetic Research

    PubMed Central

    Saks, Valdur; Monge, Claire; Guzun, Rita

    2009-01-01

    We live in times of paradigmatic changes for the biological sciences. Reductionism, that for the last six decades has been the philosophical basis of biochemistry and molecular biology, is being displaced by Systems Biology, which favors the study of integrated systems. Historically, Systems Biology - defined as the higher level analysis of complex biological systems - was pioneered by Claude Bernard in physiology, Norbert Wiener with the development of cybernetics, and Erwin Schrödinger in his thermodynamic approach to the living. Systems Biology applies methods inspired by cybernetics, network analysis, and non-equilibrium dynamics of open systems. These developments follow very precisely the dialectical principles of development from thesis to antithesis to synthesis discovered by Hegel. Systems Biology opens new perspectives for studies of the integrated processes of energy metabolism in different cells. These integrated systems acquire new, system-level properties due to interaction of cellular components, such as metabolic compartmentation, channeling and functional coupling mechanisms, which are central for regulation of the energy fluxes. State of the art of these studies in the new area of Molecular System Bioenergetics is analyzed. PMID:19399243

  7. Comparisons between consumption estimates from bioenergetics simulations and field measurements for walleyes from Oneida Lake, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; Rudstam, L. G.; Forney, J.L.; VanDeValk, A.J.; Mills, E.L.; Stewart, D.J.; Adams, J.V.

    2008-01-01

    Daily consumption was estimated from the stomach contents of walleyes Sander vitreus collected weekly from Oneida Lake, New York, during June-October 1975, 1992, 1993, and 1994 for one to four age-groups per year. Field rations were highly variable between weeks, and trends in ration size varied both seasonally and annually. The coefficient of variation for weekly field rations within years and ages ranged from 45% to 97%. Field estimates were compared with simulated consumption from a bioenergetics model. The simulation averages of daily ration deviated from those of the field estimates by -20.1% to +70.3%, with a mean across all simulations of +14.3%. The deviations for each time step were much greater than those for the simulation averages, ranging from -92.8% to +363.6%. A systematic trend in the deviations was observed, the model producing overpredictions at rations less than 3.7% of body weight. Analysis of variance indicated that the deviations were affected by sample year and week but not age. Multiple linear regression using backwards selection procedures and Akaike's information criterion indicated that walleye weight, walleye growth, lake temperature, prey energy density, and the proportion of gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum in the diet significantly affected the deviations between simulated and field rations and explained 32% of the variance. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  8. European Union Regulations.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has been a leader in the development of both guidance and regulations to ensure food safety throughout the member states. Because of the free movement of food commodities among the countries that belong to the European Union, there is a great need to assure high quality monitoring of both imported food and member state products. The procedures and methods required need to be practical, state-of-the art, and harmonised. The European Commission has developed a network of laboratories and scientific studies to meet this goal. This chapter describes the current Regulations, Directives and Decisions of the European Commission that protect the food supply throughout Europe. Because imported food needs to comply with the EU requirements, and the need to have common compliance throughout the member states, the developed system could be a worldwide template for monitoring the food supply. In addition, the integral role of chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry is described.

  9. The European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collados, M.; Bettonvil, F.; Cavaller, L.; Ermolli, I.; Gelly, B.; Pérez, A.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Soltau, D.; Volkmer, R.; EST Team

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a project to design, build and operate an European Solar 4-meter class telescope to be located in the Canary Islands, with the participation of institutions from fifteen European countries gathered around the consortium EAST (European Association for Solar Telescopes). The project main objective up to the present has been the development of the conceptual design study (DS) of a large aperture Solar Telescope. The study has demonstrated the scientific, technical and financial feasibility of EST. The DS has been possible thanks to the co-financing allocated specifically by the EU and the combined efforts of all the participant institutions. Different existing alternatives have been analysed for all telescope systems and subsystems, and decisions have been taken on the ones that are most compatible with the scientific goals and the technical strategies. The present status of some subsystems is reviewed in this paper.

  10. European Stroke Science Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Mattle, Heinrich P.; Brainin, Michael; Chamorro, Angel; Diener, Hans Christoph; Hacke, Werner; Leys, Didier; Norrving, Bo; Ward, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The European Stroke Organisation (ESO) held its first European Stroke Science Workshop in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (15-17 December 2011). Stroke experts based in Europe were invited to present and discuss their current research. The scope of the workshop was to review the most recent findings of selected topics in stroke, to exchange ideas, to stimulate new research and to enhance collaboration between European stroke research groups. Seven scientific sessions were held, each starting with a keynote lecture to review the state of the art of the given topic, followed by 4 or 5 short presentations by experts. They were asked to limit their presentations to 10 slides containing only recent information. The meeting was organized by the executive committee of the ESO (Heinrich Mattle, chairman, Michael Brainin, Angel Chamorro, Werner Hacke, Didier Leys) and supported by the European Stroke Conference (Michael Hennerici). In this article we summarize the main contents of this successful workshop. PMID:22836350

  11. European PTTI report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, Franco; Grimaldi, Sabrina; Leschiutta, Sigfrido

    1994-01-01

    Time and frequency metrology in Europe presents some peculiar features in its three main components: research on clocks, comparisons and dissemination methods, and dissemination services. Apart from the usual activities of the national metrological laboratories, an increasing number of cooperation between the European countries are promoted inside some European organizations, such as the ECC, EFTA, EUROMET, and WECC. Cooperation between these organizations is covered. The present, evolving situation will be further influenced by the recent political changes in Eastern Europe.

  12. European Education, European Citizenship? On the Role of Education in Constructing Europeanness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollikainen, Aaro

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the role of the European Union (EU) education programs in fostering a sense of European citizenship. Addresses the five meanings given to the concept of European citizenship: (1) recognition of European heritage; (2) EU loyalty; (3) right of free movement; (4) political participation; and (5) active citizenship. (CMK)

  13. Skeletal muscle dysfunction is associated with derangements in mitochondrial bioenergetics (but not UCP3) in a rodent model of sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Carré, Jane E.; Parker, Nadeene; Curtin, Nancy A.; Duchen, Michael R.; Singer, Mervyn

    2015-01-01

    Muscle dysfunction is a common feature of severe sepsis and multiorgan failure. Recent evidence implicates bioenergetic dysfunction and oxidative damage as important underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Increased abundance of uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) in sepsis suggests increased mitochondrial proton leak, which may reduce mitochondrial coupling efficiency but limit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Using a murine model, we examined metabolic, cardiovascular, and skeletal muscle contractile changes following induction of peritoneal sepsis in wild-type and Ucp3−/− mice. Mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was measured using two-photon microscopy in living diaphragm, and contractile function was measured in diaphragm muscle strips. The kinetic relationship between membrane potential and oxygen consumption was determined using a modular kinetic approach in isolated mitochondria. Sepsis was associated with significant whole body metabolic suppression, hypothermia, and cardiovascular dysfunction. Maximal force generation was reduced and fatigue accelerated in ex vivo diaphragm muscle strips from septic mice. Δψm was lower in the isolated diaphragm from septic mice despite normal substrate oxidation kinetics and proton leak in skeletal muscle mitochondria. Even though wild-type mice exhibited an absolute 26 ± 6% higher UCP3 protein abundance at 24 h, no differences were seen in whole animal or diaphragm physiology, nor in survival rates, between wild-type and Ucp3−/− mice. In conclusion, this murine sepsis model shows a hypometabolic phenotype with evidence of significant cardiovascular and muscle dysfunction. This was associated with lower Δψm and alterations in mitochondrial ATP turnover and the phosphorylation pathway. However, UCP3 does not play an important functional role, despite its upregulation. PMID:25714676

  14. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) limit food for larval fish (Pimephales promelas) in turbulent systems: a bioenergetics analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch, L.A.; Richardson, W.B.; Sandheinrich, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a factorial experiment, in outdoor mesocosms, on the effects of zebra mussels and water column mixing (i.e., turbulence) on the diet, growth, and survival of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Significant (P < 0.05) larval mortality occurred by the end of the experiment with the highest mortality (90%) occurring in the presence of both turbulence and zebra mussels, whereas mortality was 37% in treatment with turbulence and 17% and 18% in the zebra mussels treatment, and the control, respectively. The size of individual fish was significantly different among treatments at the end of the experiment and was inversely related to survival. Levels of trophic resources (i.e., phyto and zooplankton) varied among treatments and were treatment specific. Turbulent mixing facilitated removal of phytoplankton by zebra mussels by making the entire water column of the tanks available to these benthic filter feeders. Early in the experiment (Day = 0 to 14) the physical process of turbulent mixing likely caused a reduction in standing stocks of zooplankton. The interactive effect of turbulence and mussels reduced copepod and rotifer stocks, through physical processes and through filtration by zebra mussels, relative to the turbulence treatment. The reductions in the number of total zooplankton in the turbulent mixing mesocosms and the further reduction of rotifer and copepod in the turbulence and mussels treatment coincided with a period of increased reliance of larval fathead minnows on these prey. Estimates of consumption from bioenergetics modeling and measured prey standing stocks indicated caloric resources of suitable prey in turbulence treatments during the early weeks of the experiment were insufficient to prevent starvation. Early mortality in the turbulence and mussels treatment likely released surviving fish from intense intraspecific competition and resulted in higher individual growth rates. A combination of high abundance of zebra mussels in an

  15. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) limit food for larval fish (Pimephales promelas) in turbulent systems: A bioenergetics analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch, L.A.; Richardson, W.B.; Sandheinrich, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a factorial experiment, in outdoor mesocosms, on the effects of zebra mussels and water column mixing (i.e., turbulence) on the diet, growth, and survival of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Significant (P < 0.05) larval mortality occurred by the end of the experiment with the highest mortality (90%) occurring in the presence of both turbulence and zebra mussels, whereas mortality was 37% in treatment with turbulence and 17% and 18% in the zebra mussels treatment, and the control, respectively. The size of individual fish was significantly different among treatments at the end of the experiment and was inversely related to survival. Levels of trophic resources (i.e., phyto and zooplankton) varied among treatments and were treatment specific. Turbulent mixing facilitated removal of phytoplankton by zebra mussels by making the entire water column of the tanks available to these benthic filter feeders. Early in the experiment (Day = 0 to 14) the physical process of turbulent mixing likely caused a reduction in standing stocks of zooplankton. The interactive effect of turbulence and mussels reduced copepod and rotifer stocks, through physical processes and through filtration by zebra mussels, relative to the turbulence treatment. The reductions in the number of total zooplankton in the turbulent mixing mesocosms and the further reduction of rotifer and copepod in the turbulence and mussels treatment coincided with a period of increased reliance of larval fathead minnows on these prey. Estimates of consumption from bioenergetics modeling and measured prey standing stocks indicated caloric resources of suitable prey in turbulence treatments during the early weeks of the experiment were insufficient to prevent starvation. Early mortality in the turbulence and mussels treatment likely released surviving fish from intense intraspecific competition and resulted in higher individual growth rates. A combination of high abundance of zebra mussels in an

  16. Sex hormone-related neurosteroids differentially rescue bioenergetic deficits induced by amyloid-β or hyperphosphorylated tau protein.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Amandine; Biliouris, Emily E; Lang, Undine E; Götz, Jürgen; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe Guy; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease marked by a progressive cognitive decline. Metabolic impairments are common hallmarks of AD, and amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau protein--the two foremost histopathological signs of AD--have been implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction. Neurosteroids have recently shown promise in alleviating cognitive and neuronal sequelae of AD. The present study evaluates the impact of neurosteroids belonging to the sex hormone family (progesterone, estradiol, estrone, testosterone, 3α-androstanediol) on mitochondrial dysfunction in cellular models of AD: human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) stably transfected with constructs encoding (1) the human amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulting in overexpression of APP and Aβ, (2) wild-type tau (wtTau), and (3) mutant tau (P301L), that induces abnormal tau hyperphosphorylation. We show that while APP and P301L cells both display a drop in ATP levels, they present distinct mitochondrial impairments with regard to their bioenergetic profiles. The P301L cells presented a decreased maximal respiration and spare respiratory capacity, while APP cells exhibited, in addition, a decrease in basal respiration, ATP turnover, and glycolytic reserve. All neurosteroids showed beneficial effects on ATP production and mitochondrial membrane potential in APP/Aβ overexpressing cells while only progesterone and estradiol increased ATP levels in mutant tau cells. Of note, testosterone was more efficient in alleviating Aβ-induced mitochondrial deficits, while progesterone and estrogen were the most effective neurosteroids in our model of AD-related tauopathy. Our findings lend further support to the neuroprotective effects of neurosteroids in AD and may open new avenues for the development of gender-specific therapeutic approaches in AD. PMID:26198711

  17. Growth of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss under size-selective pressure limited by seasonal bioenergetic and environmental constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Jamie N.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased freshwater growth of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss improved survival to smolt and adult stages, thus prompting an examination of factors affecting growth during critical periods that influenced survival through subsequent life stages. For three tributaries with contrasting thermal regimes, a bioenergetics model was used to evaluate how feeding rate and energy density of prey influenced seasonal growth and stage-specific survival of juvenile O. mykiss. Sensitivity analysis examined target levels for feeding rate and energy density of prey during the growing season that improved survival to the smolt and adult stages in each tributary. Simulated daily growth was greatest during warmer months (1 July to 30 September), whereas substantial body mass was lost during cooler months (1 December to 31 March). Incremental increases in annual feeding rate or energy density of prey during summer broadened the temperature range at which faster growth occurred and increased the growth of the average juvenile to match those that survived to smolt and adult stages. Survival to later life stages could be improved by increasing feeding rate or energy density of the diet during summer months, when warmer water temperatures accommodated increased growth potential. Higher growth during the summer period in each tributary could improve resiliency during subsequent colder periods that lead to metabolic stress and weight loss. As growth and corresponding survival rates in fresh water are altered by shifting abiotic regimes, it will be increasingly important for fisheries managers to better understand the mechanisms affecting growth limitations in rearing habitats and what measures might maintain or improve growth conditions and survival.

  18. Physical exercise prevents and mitigates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-induced liver mitochondrial structural and bioenergetics impairments.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Inês O; Passos, Emanuel; Rocha-Rodrigues, Silvia; Diogo, Cátia V; Torrella, Joan R; Rizo, David; Viscor, Ginés; Santos-Alves, Estela; Marques-Aleixo, Inês; Oliveira, Paulo J; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José

    2014-03-01

    Exercise is considered a non-pharmacological tool against several lifestyle disorders in which mitochondrial dysfunction is involved. The present study aimed to analyze the preventive (voluntary physical activity-VPA) and therapeutic (endurance training-ET) role of exercise against non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into standard-diet sedentary (SS, n=20), standard-diet VPA (SVPA, n=10), high-fat diet sedentary (HS, n=20) and high-fat diet VPA (HVPA, n=10). After 9weeks of diet-treatment, half of SS and HS animals were engaged in an ET program (SET and HET) for 8weeks, 5days/week and 60min/day. Liver mitochondrial oxygen consumption and transmembrane-electric potential (ΔΨ) were evaluated in the presence of glutamate-malate (G/M), palmitoyl-malate (P/M) and succinate (S/R). Mitochondrial enzymes activity, lipid and protein oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunits, cytochrome c, adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) and uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) content were assessed. HS groups show the histological features of NASH in parallel with decreased ΔΨ and respiratory control (RCR) and ADP/O ratios (G/M and P/M). A state 3 decrease (G/M and S/R), FCCP-induced uncoupling respiration (S/R) and ANT content were also observed. Both exercise types counteracted oxygen consumption (RCR, ADP/O and FCCP-uncoupling state) impairments and improved ΔΨ (lag-phase). In conclusion, exercise prevented or reverted (VPA and ET, respectively) the bioenergetic impairment induced by NASH, but only ET positively remodeled NASH-induced liver structural damage and abnormal mitochondria. It is possible that alterations in inner membrane integrity and fatty acid oxidation may be related to the observed phenotypes induced by exercise.

  19. Bioenergetic trade-offs in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in response to CO2-driven ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiutang; Shao, Senlin; Yang, Xiaolong; Yang, Dazuo; Xu, Qinzeng; Zong, Humin; Liu, Shilin

    2016-05-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) caused by excessive CO2 is a potential ecological threat to marine organisms. The impacts of OA on echinoderms are well-documented, but there has been a strong bias towards sea urchins, and limited information is available on sea cucumbers. This work examined the effect of medium-term (60 days) exposure to three pH levels (pH 8.06, 7.72, and 7.41, covering present and future pH variability) on the bioenergetic responses of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, an ecologically and economically important holothurian in Asian coasts. Results showed that the measured specific growth rate linearly decreased with decreased pH, leading to a 0.42 %·day(-1) decrease at pH 7.41 compared with that at pH 8.06. The impacts of pH on physiological energetics were variable: measured energy consumption and defecation rates linearly decreased with decreased pH, whereas maintenance energy in calculated respiration and excretion were not significantly affected. No shift in energy allocation pattern was observed in A. japonicus upon exposure to pH 7.72 compared with pH 8.06. However, a significant shift in energy budget occurred upon exposure to pH 7.41, leading to decreased energy intake and increased percentage of energy that was lost in feces, thereby resulting in a significantly lowered allocation into somatic growth. These findings indicate that adult A. japonicus is resilient to the OA scenario at the end of the twenty-first century, but further acidification may negatively influence the grazing capability and growth, thereby influencing its ecological functioning as an "ecosystem engineer" and potentially harming its culture output. PMID:26782325

  20. Physical exercise improves brain cortex and cerebellum mitochondrial bioenergetics and alters apoptotic, dynamic and auto(mito)phagy markers.

    PubMed

    Marques-Aleixo, I; Santos-Alves, E; Balça, M M; Rizo-Roca, D; Moreira, P I; Oliveira, P J; Magalhães, J; Ascensão, A

    2015-08-20

    We here investigate the effects of two exercise modalities (endurance treadmill training-TM and voluntary free-wheel activity-FW) on the brain cortex and cerebellum mitochondrial bioenergetics, permeability transition pore (mPTP), oxidative stress, as well as on proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, apoptosis, and quality control. Eighteen male rats were assigned to sedentary-SED, TM and FW groups. Behavioral alterations and ex vivo brain mitochondrial function endpoints were assessed. Proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS, including the adenine nucleotide translocator), oxidative stress markers and regulatory proteins (SIRT3, p66shc, UCP2, carbonyls, MDA, -SH, aconitase, Mn-SOD), as well as proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α, TFAM) were evaluated. Apoptotic signaling was measured through quantifying caspase 3, 8 and 9-like activities, Bax, Bcl2, CypD, and cofilin expression. Mitochondrial dynamics (Mfn1/2, OPA1 and DRP1) and auto(mito)phagy (LC3II, Beclin1, Pink1, Parkin, p62)-related proteins were also measured by Western blotting. Only the TM exercise group showed increased spontaneous alternation and exploratory activity. Both exercise regimens improved mitochondrial respiratory activity, increased OXPHOS complexes I, III and V subunits in both brain subareas and decreased oxidative stress markers. Increased resistance to mPTP and decreased apoptotic signaling were observed in the brain cortex from TM and in the cerebellum from TM and FW groups. Also, exercise increased the expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, autophagy and fusion, simultaneous with decreased expression of mitochondrial fission-related protein DRP1. In conclusion, physical exercise improves brain cortex and cerebellum mitochondrial function, decreasing oxidative stress and apoptotic related markers. It is also possible that favorable alterations in mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and autophagy signaling induced by exercise

  1. No evidence for a bioenergetic advantage from forced swimming in rainbow trout under a restrictive feeding regime.

    PubMed

    Skov, Peter V; Lund, Ivar; Pargana, Alexandre M

    2015-01-01

    Sustained swimming at moderate speeds is considered beneficial in terms of the productive performance of salmonids, but the causative mechanisms have yet to be unequivocally established. In the present study, the effects of moderate exercise on the bioenergetics of rainbow trout were assessed during a 15 week growth experiment, in which fish were reared at three different current speeds: 1 BL s(-1), 0.5 BL s(-1) and still water (≈ 0 BL s(-1)). Randomly selected groups of 100 fish were distributed among twelve 600 L tanks and maintained on a restricted diet regime. Specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated from weight and length measurements every 3 weeks. Routine metabolic rate (RMR) was measured every hour as rate of oxygen consumption in the tanks, and was positively correlated with swimming speed. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) excretion rates showed a tendency to decrease with increasing swimming speeds, yet neither they nor the resulting nitrogen quotients (NQ) indicated that swimming significantly reduced the fraction of dietary protein used to fuel metabolism. Energetic budgets revealed a positive correlation between energy expenditure and the current speed at which fish were reared, fish that were forced to swim and were fed restrictively consequentially had poorer growth and feed utilization. The results show that for rainbow trout, water current can negatively affect growth despite promoting minor positive changes in substrate utilization. We hypothesize that this may be the result of either a limited dietary energy supply from diet restriction being insufficient for both covering the extra costs of swimming and supporting enhanced growth. PMID:25705195

  2. Bioenergetic trade-offs in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in response to CO2-driven ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiutang; Shao, Senlin; Yang, Xiaolong; Yang, Dazuo; Xu, Qinzeng; Zong, Humin; Liu, Shilin

    2016-05-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) caused by excessive CO2 is a potential ecological threat to marine organisms. The impacts of OA on echinoderms are well-documented, but there has been a strong bias towards sea urchins, and limited information is available on sea cucumbers. This work examined the effect of medium-term (60 days) exposure to three pH levels (pH 8.06, 7.72, and 7.41, covering present and future pH variability) on the bioenergetic responses of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, an ecologically and economically important holothurian in Asian coasts. Results showed that the measured specific growth rate linearly decreased with decreased pH, leading to a 0.42 %·day(-1) decrease at pH 7.41 compared with that at pH 8.06. The impacts of pH on physiological energetics were variable: measured energy consumption and defecation rates linearly decreased with decreased pH, whereas maintenance energy in calculated respiration and excretion were not significantly affected. No shift in energy allocation pattern was observed in A. japonicus upon exposure to pH 7.72 compared with pH 8.06. However, a significant shift in energy budget occurred upon exposure to pH 7.41, leading to decreased energy intake and increased percentage of energy that was lost in feces, thereby resulting in a significantly lowered allocation into somatic growth. These findings indicate that adult A. japonicus is resilient to the OA scenario at the end of the twenty-first century, but further acidification may negatively influence the grazing capability and growth, thereby influencing its ecological functioning as an "ecosystem engineer" and potentially harming its culture output.

  3. Bioenergetics of Nutrient Reserves and Metabolism in Spiny Lobster Juveniles Sagmariasus verreauxi: Predicting Nutritional Condition from Hemolymph Biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Simon, C J; Fitzgibbon, Q P; Battison, A; Carter, C G; Battaglene, S C

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional condition of cultured Sagmariasus verreauxi juveniles over the molt and during starvation was investigated by studying their metabolism, bioenergetics of nutrient reserves, and hemolymph biochemistry. Juveniles were shown to downregulate standard metabolic rate by as much as 52% within 14 d during starvation. Hepatopancreas (HP) lipid was prioritized as a source of energy, but this reserve represented only between 1% and 13% of the total measured energy reserve and was used quickly during starvation, especially in the immediate postmolt period when as much as 60% was depleted within 3 d. Abdominal muscle (AM) protein represented between 74% and 90% of the total measured energy reserve in juvenile lobsters, and as much as 40% of available AM protein energy was used over 28 d of starvation after the molt. Carbohydrate reserves represented less than 2% of the measured total energy reserve in fed intermolt lobsters and provided negligible energy during starvation. Eighteen hemolymph parameters were measured to identify a nondestructive biomarker of condition that would reflect accurately the state of energy reserves of the lobster. Among these, the hemolymph Brix index was the most accurate and practical method to predict HP lipid and the total energy content of both the HP and the AM in juvenile S. verreauxi. The Brix index was strongly correlated with hemolymph proteins, triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations, as well as lipase activity; all were useful in predicting condition. Electrolytes such as chloride, magnesium, and potassium and metabolites such as glucose and lactate were poor indicators of nutritional condition. Uric acid and the "albumin"-to-"globulin" ratio provided complementary information to the Brix index, which may assist in determining nutritional condition of wild juvenile lobsters of unknown intermolt development. This study will greatly assist future ecological studies examining the nutritional condition

  4. Contributions of Bcl-xL to acute and long term changes in bioenergetics during neuronal plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria manufacture and release metabolites and manage calcium during neuronal activity and synaptic transmission, but whether long term alterations in mitochondrial function contribute to neuronal plasticity that underlies changes in organism behavior patterns is still poorly understood. Although normal neuronal plasticity may determine learning, in contrast a persistent decline in synaptic strength or neuronal excitability may portend neurite retraction and eventual somatic death. Anti-death proteins such as Bcl-xL provide neuroprotection at the neuronal soma during cell death stimuli, but also appear to enhance neurotransmitter release and synaptic growth and development. It is proposed that Bcl-xL performs these functions through its ability to regulate mitochondrial release of bioenergetic metabolites and calcium, its ability to rapidly alter mitochondrial positioning and morphology as well as its role in interacting with proteins that directly alter synaptic vesicle recycling. Bcl-xL translocates acutely to subcellular membranes during neuronal activity to achieve these changes. After stressful stimuli, pro-apoptotic cleaved delta N Bcl-xL (ΔN Bcl-xL)-induced mitochondrial ion channel activity leads to synaptic depression and this is regulated by caspase activation. During physiological states of decreased synaptic stimulation, loss of mitochondrial Bcl-xL and low level caspase activation occur prior to the onset of long term decline in synaptic efficacy. The degree to which Bcl-xL changes mitochondrial membrane permeability may control the direction of change in synaptic strength. The small molecule Bcl-xL inhibitor ABT-737 has been useful in defining the role of Bcl-xL in synaptic processes. Bcl-xL is crucial to the normal health of neurons and synapses and its malfunction may contribute to neurodegenerative disease. PMID:24240091

  5. Bioenergetics of Nutrient Reserves and Metabolism in Spiny Lobster Juveniles Sagmariasus verreauxi: Predicting Nutritional Condition from Hemolymph Biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Simon, C J; Fitzgibbon, Q P; Battison, A; Carter, C G; Battaglene, S C

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional condition of cultured Sagmariasus verreauxi juveniles over the molt and during starvation was investigated by studying their metabolism, bioenergetics of nutrient reserves, and hemolymph biochemistry. Juveniles were shown to downregulate standard metabolic rate by as much as 52% within 14 d during starvation. Hepatopancreas (HP) lipid was prioritized as a source of energy, but this reserve represented only between 1% and 13% of the total measured energy reserve and was used quickly during starvation, especially in the immediate postmolt period when as much as 60% was depleted within 3 d. Abdominal muscle (AM) protein represented between 74% and 90% of the total measured energy reserve in juvenile lobsters, and as much as 40% of available AM protein energy was used over 28 d of starvation after the molt. Carbohydrate reserves represented less than 2% of the measured total energy reserve in fed intermolt lobsters and provided negligible energy during starvation. Eighteen hemolymph parameters were measured to identify a nondestructive biomarker of condition that would reflect accurately the state of energy reserves of the lobster. Among these, the hemolymph Brix index was the most accurate and practical method to predict HP lipid and the total energy content of both the HP and the AM in juvenile S. verreauxi. The Brix index was strongly correlated with hemolymph proteins, triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations, as well as lipase activity; all were useful in predicting condition. Electrolytes such as chloride, magnesium, and potassium and metabolites such as glucose and lactate were poor indicators of nutritional condition. Uric acid and the "albumin"-to-"globulin" ratio provided complementary information to the Brix index, which may assist in determining nutritional condition of wild juvenile lobsters of unknown intermolt development. This study will greatly assist future ecological studies examining the nutritional condition

  6. Growth of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss under size-selective pressure limited by seasonal bioenergetic and environmental constraints.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J N; Beauchamp, D A

    2016-09-01

    Increased freshwater growth of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss improved survival to smolt and adult stages, thus prompting an examination of factors affecting growth during critical periods that influenced survival through subsequent life stages. For three tributaries with contrasting thermal regimes, a bioenergetics model was used to evaluate how feeding rate and energy density of prey influenced seasonal growth and stage-specific survival of juvenile O. mykiss. Sensitivity analysis examined target levels for feeding rate and energy density of prey during the growing season that improved survival to the smolt and adult stages in each tributary. Simulated daily growth was greatest during warmer months (1 July to 30 September), whereas substantial body mass was lost during cooler months (1 December to 31 March). Incremental increases in annual feeding rate or energy density of prey during summer broadened the temperature range at which faster growth occurred and increased the growth of the average juvenile to match those that survived to smolt and adult stages. Survival to later life stages could be improved by increasing feeding rate or energy density of the diet during summer months, when warmer water temperatures accommodated increased growth potential. Higher growth during the summer period in each tributary could improve resiliency during subsequent colder periods that lead to metabolic stress and weight loss. As growth and corresponding survival rates in fresh water are altered by shifting abiotic regimes, it will be increasingly important for fisheries managers to better understand the mechanisms affecting growth limitations in rearing habitats and what measures might maintain or improve growth conditions and survival. PMID:27397641

  7. Differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells to a neuronal phenotype changes cellular bioenergetics and the response to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Lonnie; Giordano, Samantha; Zelickson, Blake R; S Johnson, Michelle; A Benavides, Gloria; Ouyang, Xiaosen; Fineberg, Naomi; Darley-Usmar, Victor M; Zhang, Jianhua

    2011-12-01

    Cell differentiation is associated with changes in metabolism and function. Understanding these changes during differentiation is important in the context of stem cell research, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. An early event in neurodegenerative diseases is the alteration of mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress. Studies using both undifferentiated and differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells have shown distinct responses to cellular stressors; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that because the regulation of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation is modulated during cellular differentiation, this would change bioenergetic function and the response to oxidative stress. To test this, we used retinoic acid (RA) to induce differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells and assessed changes in cellular bioenergetics using extracellular flux analysis. After exposure to RA, the SH-SY5Y cells had an increased mitochondrial membrane potential, without changing mitochondrial number. Differentiated cells exhibited greater stimulation of mitochondrial respiration with uncoupling and an increased bioenergetic reserve capacity. The increased reserve capacity in the differentiated cells was suppressed by the inhibitor of glycolysis 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Furthermore, we found that differentiated cells were substantially more resistant to cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by the reactive lipid species 4-hydroxynonenal or the reactive oxygen species generator 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone. We then analyzed the levels of selected mitochondrial proteins and found an increase in complex IV subunits, which we propose contributes to the increase in reserve capacity in the differentiated cells. Furthermore, we found an increase in MnSOD that could, at least in part, account for the increased resistance to oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that profound changes in mitochondrial metabolism and antioxidant defenses occur upon

  8. The European nitrogen case.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Klaas; Bresser, Ton; Bouwman, Lex

    2002-03-01

    The N budget for Europe (excluding the former Soviet Union) indicates that the 3 principal driving forces of the acceleration of the European N cycle are fertilizer production (14 Mt (mill. tonnes) N yr-1), fossil fuel combustion and other industry (3.3 Mt N yr-1) and import of N in various products (7.6 Mt N yr-1). The various leaks of reactive N species from European food, energy and industrial production systems are estimated and their effects on human health and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are assessed. Future European environmental policy measures to close the N cycle and to reduce leaks of reactive N can best focus on the three major driving forces, taking into consideration the possible consequences in the N cascade. Critical loads may be useful tools in determining N-emission ceilings and developing integrated policies for regulating N flows such as fertilizer use and imports and N levels.

  9. European Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  10. Cell bioenergetics in Leghorn male hepatoma cells and immortalized chicken liver cells in response to 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Piekarski, A L; Kong, B-W; Lassiter, K; Hargis, B M; Bottje, W G

    2014-11-01

    The major objectives of this study were to compare cell bioenergetics in 2 avian liver cell lines under control conditions and in response to oxidative stress imposed by 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (4-HNE). Cells in this study were from a chemically immortalized Leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) cell line and a spontaneously immortalized chicken liver (CELi) cell line. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was monitored in specialized microtiter plates using an XF24 Flux Analyzer (Seahorse Bioscience, Billerica, MA). Cell bioenergetics was assessed by sequential additions of oligomycin, carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), and antimycin-A that enables the determination of a) OCR linked to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase activity, b) mitochondrial oxygen reserve capacity, c) proton leak, and d) nonmitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity. Under control (unchallenged) conditions, LMH cells exhibited higher basal OCR and higher OCR attributed to each of the bioenergetic components listed above compared with CELi cells. When expressed as a percentage of maximal OCR (following uncoupling with FCCP), LMH cells exhibited higher OCR due to ATP synthase and proton leak activity, but lower mitochondrial oxygen reserve capacity compared with CELi cells; there were no differences in OCR associated with nonmitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity. Whereas the LMH cells exhibited robust ATP synthase activity up to 50 μM 4-HNE, CELi cells exhibited a progressive decline in ATP synthase activity with 10, 20, and 30 μM 4-HNE. The CELi cells exhibited higher mitochondrial oxygen reserve capacity compared with LMH cells with 0 and 20 μM 4-HNE but not with 30 μM 4-HNE. Both cell lines exhibited inducible proton leak in response to increasing levels of 4-HNE that was evident with 30 μM 4-HNE for CELi cells and with 40 and 50 μM 4-HNE in LMH cells. The results of these studies demonstrate fundamental differences in cell bioenergetics in 2 avian liver-derived cell lines

  11. Trends in European English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Robert

    It is proposed that a European variety of English without native speakers is emerging as a language of international communication in Europe. This is a consequence of many factors, including the strength of the American economy, the breadth and depth of American research in science and technology, the pervasive influence of American-style popular…

  12. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

  13. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  14. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  15. The European Economic Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchart, Kelvin

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that social studies students need to realize the relationship of the European Economic Community to the United States in order to understand the trade bonds that exist between us. Briefly reviews the history of the Community, outlines its Common Agricultural Policy, and provides situations for classroom role playing. (JDH)

  16. The European VLBI network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilizzi, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The capabilities of the European very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) network are summarized. The range of baseline parameters, sensitivities, and recording and other equipment available are included. Plans for upgrading the recording facilities and the use of geostationary satellites for signal transfer and clock synchronization are discussed.

  17. In vivo 31P NMR OSIRIS of bioenergetic changes in rabbit kidneys during and after ischaemia: effect of pretreatment with an indeno-indole compound.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, V; Jonsson, O; Pettersson, S; Scherstén, T; Soussi, B

    1998-04-01

    Changes in energy phosphates of rabbit kidneys subjected to ischaemia-reperfusion have been measured in vivo with volume selective 31P NMR spectroscopy. The effects of pretreatment with a new lipid peroxidation inhibitor (indeno-indol derivate--code name H290/51) on the bioenergetic changes were analysed. The left kidney was moved to a subcutaneous pocket to facilitate exact positioning over the surface coil. A 1H NMR image was acquired and a 3.5-mL cube selected for 31P NMR spectra. 31P NMR spectra were recorded before occlusion of the left renal artery, during 1 h of ischaemia and 2 hours of reperfusion. Ischaemia induced drastic changes in the levels of inorganic phosphates and ATP as well as intracellular acidosis. A normalization was observed during reperfusion. Two hours after reperfusion significantly higher values for beta-ATP/Pi and intracellular pH were recorded in the animals pretreated with H290/51. The present technique allows quantitative analyses of changes in kidney bioenergetics in vivo during different experimental conditions. The importance of ischaemia-reperfusion induced lipid peroxidation for mitochondrial function is emphasized.

  18. Short-term exposure of nontumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells to carcinogenic chromium(VI) compromises their respiratory capacity and alters their bioenergetic signature.

    PubMed

    Cerveira, Joana F; Sánchez-Aragó, María; Urbano, Ana M; Cuezva, José M

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the impact of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] on mammalian cell energetics revealed alterations suggestive of a shift to a more fermentative metabolism. Aiming at a more defined understanding of the metabolic effects of Cr(VI) and of their molecular basis, we assessed the impact of a mild Cr(VI) exposure on critical bioenergetic parameters (lactate production, oxygen consumption and intracellular ATP levels). Cells derived from normal human bronchial epithelium (BEAS-2B cell line), the main in vivo target of Cr(VI) carcinogenicity, were subjected for 48 h to 1 μM Cr(VI). We could confirm a shift to a more fermentative metabolism, resulting from the simultaneous inhibition of respiration and stimulation of glycolysis. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in the protein levels of the catalytic subunit (subunit β) of the mitochondrial H(+)-ATP synthase (β-F1-ATPase) and a concomitant marked increase in those of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The corresponding alteration in the β-F1-ATPase/GAPDH protein ratio (viewed as a bioenergetic signature) upon Cr(VI) exposure was in agreement with the observed attenuation of cellular respiration and enhancement of glycolytic flux. Altogether, these results constitute a novel finding in terms of the molecular mechanisms of Cr(VI) effects. PMID:25161867

  19. Computational Analysis of AMPK-Mediated Neuroprotection Suggests Acute Excitotoxic Bioenergetics and Glucose Dynamics Are Regulated by a Minimal Set of Critical Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Niamh M. C.; D’Orsi, Beatrice; Monsefi, Naser; Huber, Heinrich J.; Prehn, Jochen H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Loss of ionic homeostasis during excitotoxic stress depletes ATP levels and activates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), re-establishing energy production by increased expression of glucose transporters on the plasma membrane. Here, we develop a computational model to test whether this AMPK-mediated glucose import can rapidly restore ATP levels following a transient excitotoxic insult. We demonstrate that a highly compact model, comprising a minimal set of critical reactions, can closely resemble the rapid dynamics and cell-to-cell heterogeneity of ATP levels and AMPK activity, as confirmed by single-cell fluorescence microscopy in rat primary cerebellar neurons exposed to glutamate excitotoxicity. The model further correctly predicted an excitotoxicity-induced elevation of intracellular glucose, and well resembled the delayed recovery and cell-to-cell heterogeneity of experimentally measured glucose dynamics. The model also predicted necrotic bioenergetic collapse and altered calcium dynamics following more severe excitotoxic insults. In conclusion, our data suggest that a minimal set of critical reactions may determine the acute bioenergetic response to transient excitotoxicity and that an AMPK-mediated increase in intracellular glucose may be sufficient to rapidly recover ATP levels following an excitotoxic insult. PMID:26840769

  20. Short-term exposure of nontumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells to carcinogenic chromium(VI) compromises their respiratory capacity and alters their bioenergetic signature

    PubMed Central

    Cerveira, Joana F.; Sánchez-Aragó, María; Urbano, Ana M.; Cuezva, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the impact of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] on mammalian cell energetics revealed alterations suggestive of a shift to a more fermentative metabolism. Aiming at a more defined understanding of the metabolic effects of Cr(VI) and of their molecular basis, we assessed the impact of a mild Cr(VI) exposure on critical bioenergetic parameters (lactate production, oxygen consumption and intracellular ATP levels). Cells derived from normal human bronchial epithelium (BEAS-2B cell line), the main in vivo target of Cr(VI) carcinogenicity, were subjected for 48 h to 1 μM Cr(VI). We could confirm a shift to a more fermentative metabolism, resulting from the simultaneous inhibition of respiration and stimulation of glycolysis. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in the protein levels of the catalytic subunit (subunit β) of the mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase (β-F1-ATPase) and a concomitant marked increase in those of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The corresponding alteration in the β-F1-ATPase/GAPDH protein ratio (viewed as a bioenergetic signature) upon Cr(VI) exposure was in agreement with the observed attenuation of cellular respiration and enhancement of glycolytic flux. Altogether, these results constitute a novel finding in terms of the molecular mechanisms of Cr(VI) effects. PMID:25161867

  1. Short-term exposure of nontumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells to carcinogenic chromium(VI) compromises their respiratory capacity and alters their bioenergetic signature.

    PubMed

    Cerveira, Joana F; Sánchez-Aragó, María; Urbano, Ana M; Cuezva, José M

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the impact of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] on mammalian cell energetics revealed alterations suggestive of a shift to a more fermentative metabolism. Aiming at a more defined understanding of the metabolic effects of Cr(VI) and of their molecular basis, we assessed the impact of a mild Cr(VI) exposure on critical bioenergetic parameters (lactate production, oxygen consumption and intracellular ATP levels). Cells derived from normal human bronchial epithelium (BEAS-2B cell line), the main in vivo target of Cr(VI) carcinogenicity, were subjected for 48 h to 1 μM Cr(VI). We could confirm a shift to a more fermentative metabolism, resulting from the simultaneous inhibition of respiration and stimulation of glycolysis. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in the protein levels of the catalytic subunit (subunit β) of the mitochondrial H(+)-ATP synthase (β-F1-ATPase) and a concomitant marked increase in those of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The corresponding alteration in the β-F1-ATPase/GAPDH protein ratio (viewed as a bioenergetic signature) upon Cr(VI) exposure was in agreement with the observed attenuation of cellular respiration and enhancement of glycolytic flux. Altogether, these results constitute a novel finding in terms of the molecular mechanisms of Cr(VI) effects.

  2. A new bioenergetic and thermodynamic approach to batch photoautotrophic growth of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis in different photobioreactors and under different light conditions.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Milena Fernandes; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Perego, Patrizia; Bezerra, Raquel Pedrosa; Converti, Attilio; Porto, Ana Lucia Figueiredo

    2016-05-01

    Photobioreactor configuration, mode of operation and light intensity are known to strongly impact on cyanobacteria growth. To shed light on these issues, kinetic, bioenergetic and thermodynamic parameters of batch Arthrospira platensis cultures were estimated along the time at photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 70μmolm(-2)s(-1) in different photobioreactors with different surface/volume ratio (S/V), namely open pond (0.25cm(-1)), shaken flask (0.48cm(-1)), horizontal photobioreactor (HoP) (1.94cm(-1)) and helicoidal photobioreactor (HeP) (3.88cm(-1)). Maximum biomass concentration and productivity remarkably increased with S/V up to 1.94cm(-1). HoP was shown to be the best-performing system throughout the whole runs, while HeP behaved better only at the start. Runs carried out in HoP increasing PPFD from 40 to 100μmolm(-2)s(-1) revealed a progressive enhancement of bioenergetics and thermodynamics likely because of favorable light distribution. HoP appeared to be a promising configuration to perform high-yield indoor cyanobacterial cultures. PMID:26890797

  3. 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo of six human melanoma xenograft lines: tumour bioenergetic status and blood supply.

    PubMed Central

    Lyng, H.; Olsen, D. R.; Southon, T. E.; Rofstad, E. K.

    1993-01-01

    Six human melanoma xenograft lines grown s.c. in BALB/c-nu/nu mice were subjected to 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy in vivo. The following resonances were detected: phosphomonoesters (PME), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiesters (PDE), phosphocreatine (PCr) and nucleoside triphosphate gamma, alpha and beta (NTP gamma, alpha and beta). The main purpose of the work was to search for possible relationships between 31P-NMR resonance ratios and tumour pH on the one hand and blood supply per viable tumour cell on the other. The latter parameter was measured by using the 86Rb uptake method. Tumour bioenergetic status [the (PCr + NTP beta)/Pi resonance ratio], tumour pH and blood supply per viable tumour cell decreased with increasing tumour volume for five of the six xenograft lines. The decrease in tumour bioenergetic status was due to a decrease in the (PCr + NTP beta)/total resonance ratio as well as an increase in the Pi/total resonance ratio. The decrease in the (PCr + NTP beta)/total resonance ratio was mainly a consequence of a decrease in the PCr/total resonance ratio for two lines and mainly a consequence of a decrease in the NTP beta/total resonance ratio for three lines. The magnitude of the decrease in the (PCr + NTP beta)/total resonance ratio and the magnitude of the decrease in tumour pH were correlated to the magnitude of the decrease in blood supply per viable tumour cell. Tumour pH decreased with decreasing tumour bioenergetic status, and the magnitude of this decrease was larger for the tumour lines showing a high than for those showing a low blood supply per viable tumour cell. No correlations across the tumour lines were found between tumour pH and tumour bioenergetic status or any other resonance ratio on the one hand and blood supply per viable tumour cell on the other. The differences in the 31P-NMR spectrum between the tumour lines were probably caused by differences in the intrinsic biochemical properties of the tumour

  4. Inhibition of oxidative stress by coenzyme Q10 increases mitochondrial mass and improves bioenergetic function in optic nerve head astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Y H; Kim, K-Y; Shim, M S; Choi, S-H; Choi, S; Ellisman, M H; Weinreb, R N; Perkins, G A; Ju, W-K

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to dysfunction of glial cells in the optic nerve head (ONH). However, the biological basis of the precise functional role of mitochondria in this dysfunction is not fully understood. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an essential cofactor of the electron transport chain and a potent antioxidant, acts by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) for protecting neuronal cells against oxidative stress in many neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we tested whether hydrogen peroxide (100 μM H2O2)-induced oxidative stress alters the mitochondrial network, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex (Cx) expression and bioenergetics, as well as whether CoQ10 can ameliorate oxidative stress-mediated alterations in mitochondria of the ONH astrocytes in vitro. Oxidative stress triggered the activation of ONH astrocytes and the upregulation of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression in the ONH astrocytes. In contrast, CoQ10 not only prevented activation of ONH astrocytes but also significantly decreased SOD2 and HO-1 protein expression in the ONH astrocytes against oxidative stress. Further, CoQ10 prevented a significant loss of mitochondrial mass by increasing mitochondrial number and volume density and by preserving mitochondrial cristae structure, as well as promoted mitofilin and peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 protein expression in the ONH astrocyte, suggesting an induction of mitochondrial biogenesis. Finally, oxidative stress triggered the upregulation of OXPHOS Cx protein expression, as well as reduction of cellular adeonsine triphosphate (ATP) production and increase of ROS generation in the ONH astocytes. However, CoQ10 preserved OXPHOS protein expression and cellular ATP production, as well as decreased ROS generation in the ONH astrocytes. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction or alteration may be an important

  5. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    PubMed

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  6. Telemedicine and European law.

    PubMed

    Callens, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues. PMID:15074761

  7. The neurogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD6 enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics to confer tolerance of neuronal PC12-NeuroD6 cells to the mitochondrial stressor rotenone

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Kristin Kathleen; Uittenbogaard, Martine; Chiaramello, Anne

    2012-10-15

    The fundamental question of how and which neuronal specific transcription factors tailor mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics to the need of developing neuronal cells has remained largely unexplored. In this study, we report that the neurogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD6 possesses mitochondrial biogenic properties by amplifying the mitochondrial DNA content and TFAM expression levels, a key regulator for mitochondrial biogenesis. NeuroD6-mediated increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in the neuronal progenitor-like PC12-NEUROD6 cells is concomitant with enhanced mitochondrial bioenergetic functions, including increased expression levels of specific subunits of respiratory complexes of the electron transport chain, elevated mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels produced by oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, NeuroD6 augments the bioenergetic capacity of PC12-NEUROD6 cells to generate an energetic reserve, which confers tolerance to the mitochondrial stressor, rotenone. We found that NeuroD6 induces an adaptive bioenergetic response throughout rotenone treatment involving maintenance of the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels in conjunction with preservation of the actin network. In conclusion, our results support the concept that NeuroD6 plays an integrative role in regulating and coordinating the onset of neuronal differentiation with acquisition of adequate mitochondrial mass and energetic capacity to ensure energy demanding events, such as cytoskeletal remodeling, plasmalemmal expansion, and growth cone formation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NeuroD6 induces mitochondrial biogenesis in neuroprogenitor-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NeuroD6 augments the bioenergetic reserve of the neuronal PC12-NeuroD6 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NeuroD6 increases the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NeuroD6 confers tolerance to rotenone via an adaptive

  8. Bioenergetic Aspects of Halophilism

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Aharon

    1999-01-01

    Examinination of microbial diversity in environments of increasing salt concentrations indicates that certain types of dissimilatory metabolism do not occur at the highest salinities. Examples are methanogenesis for H2 + CO2 or from acetate, dissimilatory sulfate reduction with oxidation of acetate, and autotrophic nitrification. Occurrence of the different metabolic types is correlated with the free-energy change associated with the dissimilatory reactions. Life at high salt concentrations is energetically expensive. Most bacteria and also the methanogenic archaea produce high intracellular concentrations of organic osmotic solutes at a high energetic cost. All halophilic microorganisms expend large amounts of energy to maintain steep gradients of NA+ and K+ concentrations across their cytoplasmic membrane. The energetic cost of salt adaptation probably dictates what types of metabolism can support life at the highest salt concentrations. Use of KCl as an intracellular solute, while requiring far-reaching adaptations of the intracellular machinery, is energetically more favorable than production of organic-compatible solutes. This may explain why the anaerobic halophilic fermentative bacteria (order Haloanaerobiales) use this strategy and also why halophilic homoacetogenic bacteria that produce acetate from H2 + CO2 exist whereas methanogens that use the same substrates in a reaction with a similar free-energy yield do not. PMID:10357854

  9. Bioenergetics of exercising humans.

    PubMed

    Brooks, George A

    2012-01-01

    Human muscles, limbs and supporting ventilatory, cardiovascular, and metabolic systems are well adapted for walking, and there is reasonable transfer of efficiency of movement to bicycling. Our efficiency and economy of movement of bipedal walking (≈30%) are far superior to those of apes. This overall body efficiency during walking and bicycling represents the multiplicative interaction of a phosphorylative coupling efficiency of ≈60%, and a mechanical coupling efficiency of ≈50%. These coupling efficiencies compare well with those of other species adapted for locomotion. We are capable runners, but our speed and power are inferior to carnivorous and omnivorous terrestrial mammalian quadrupeds because of biomechanical and physiological constraints. But, because of our metabolic plasticity (i.e., the ability to switch among carbohydrate (CHO)- and lipid-derived energy sources) our endurance capacity is very good by comparison to most mammals, but inferior to highly adapted species such as wolves and migratory birds. Our ancestral ability for hunting and gathering depends on strategy and capabilities in the areas of thermoregulation, and metabolic plasticity. Clearly, our competitive advantage of survival in the biosphere depends in intelligence and behavior. Today, those abilities that served early hunter-gatherers make for interesting athletic competitions due to wide variations in human phenotypes. In contemporary society, the stresses of regular physical exercise serve to minimize morbidities and mortality associated with physical inactivity, overnutrition, and aging.

  10. Assessing Neuronal Bioenergetic Status

    PubMed Central

    Zeiger, Stephanie L.H.; Stankowski, Jeannette N.; McLaughlin, BethAnn

    2013-01-01

    Drug discovery and therapeutic development for disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) represents one of the largest unmet markets in modern medicine. We have increasingly recognized that the lack of stringent assessment of mitochondrial function during the discovery process has resulted in drug recalls, black box warnings, and an urgent need to understand the metabolic liability of small molecules in neural systems. Given that the brain is the most energetically demanding organ, even modest perturbations in neuronal energetic pathways have been shown to impact growth, signaling, connectivity, and the restorative capacity of the CNS. In this work, we describe several tools to assess metabolic activity of primary neuronal cultures and neural cell lines using an acute model of injury induced by oxygen glucose deprivation. Methods include the measurement of total ATP and NADH, enzymatic assessment of lactate production by anaerobic respiration, as well as viability assays. We also present a modified screening method for assessing aerobic respiration of immortalized cell lines using galactose challenge. PMID:21815069

  11. Assessing neuronal bioenergetic status.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, Stephanie L H; Stankowski, Jeannette N; McLaughlin, BethAnn

    2011-01-01

    Drug discovery and therapeutic development for disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) represents one of the largest unmet markets in modern medicine. We have increasingly recognized that the lack of stringent assessment of mitochondrial function during the discovery process has resulted in drug recalls, black box warnings, and an urgent need to understand the metabolic liability of small molecules in neural systems. Given that the brain is the most energetically demanding organ, even modest perturbations in neuronal energetic pathways have been shown to impact growth, signaling, connectivity, and the restorative capacity of the CNS. In this work, we describe several tools to assess metabolic activity of primary neuronal cultures and neural cell lines using an acute model of injury induced by oxygen glucose deprivation. Methods include the measurement of total ATP and NADH, enzymatic assessment of lactate production by anaerobic respiration, as well as viability assays. We also present a modified screening method for assessing aerobic respiration of immortalized cell lines using galactose challenge.

  12. Biophotonics: a European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Thierry; Cochard, Jacques; Breussin, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to determine the opportunities and challenges for Biophotonics business development in Europe for the next five years with a focus on sensors and systems: for health diagnostics and monitoring; for air, water and food safety and quality control. The development of this roadmap was initiated and supported by EPIC (The European Photonics Industry Consortium). We summarize the final roadmap data: market application segments and trends, analysis of the market access criteria, analysis of the technology trends and major bottlenecks and challenges per application.

  13. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  14. Population dynamics and bioenergetics of a fossorial herbivore, Thomomys talpoides (Rodentia: Geomyidae), in a spruce-fir sere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Douglas C.; MacMahon, James A.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of the bioenergetics of the northern pocket gopher, Thomomys talpoides, are coupled with data on demography, activity budgets, and microclimates to model the energy requirements of individuals and populations in the Wasatch Mountains of Utah during 1976-1979. Metabolic rates during rest increased linearly with decreasing ambient temperature, but burrowing metabolic rates (16.3 mL O2 • h-1 • g-9.75) were independent of both temperature and physical properties of the soil. Radio-telemetry studies indicated that free-ranging gophers are active =50% of each day. Conservative estimates of true energy consumption were calculated using estimates of habitat-specific minimum daily burrowing requirements. Rates of burrowing measured in the laboratory were either ∞ 0.0 or ∞ 2.0 cm/min. The low burrowing rate was observed when the soil was frozen or saturated with water, as would occur in the field in early winter and in spring, respectively. Gophers burrowed through soil at the study site at an average rate of ∞ 1.5 cm/min. Belowground food energy densities at gopher foraging depth declined from 24.6 to 3.2 J/cm3 along a successional gradient (subalpine forb meadow to Engelmann spruce dominated forest). We conclude that individual gophers are food limited within the climax spruce seral stage. Further, daily energy costs associated with reproduction in females may exceed the belowground energy supply available in intermediate seral stages (aspen and subalpine fir). Reduction of burrowing rates for any reason will affect gophers in the late seral stages proportionately more than those resident in the meadow. The peak gopher densities recorded (from 62 individuals/ha in the meadow to 2 individuals/ha in spruce forest) support these inferences. Detailed demographic information was obtained only in the meadow seral stage. Adult survivorship was lower in winter than in summer and varied greatly between years (0.18-0.70 yr-1). Juvenile survivorship from weaning

  15. Geographic analysis of thermal equilibria: a bioenergetic model for predicting thermal response of aquatic insect communities. Progress report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Vannote, R L; Sweeney, B W

    1980-04-01

    This report summarizes the first 9 months of field and laboratory work to test our central hypothesis. Five river systems were selected for intensive studies on insect growth, metabolism, and fecundity as well as determination of community structure for distinct assemblages of insect species exploiting various trophic and habitat resources. Laboratory studies were initiated to test the relative importance of temperature and food quality on growth, size, and fecundity of insects. Our project is intended to test the hypothesis that population stability, within the geographic range of many stream species, reflects largely a dynamic equilibrium between temperature and individual growth, metabolism, reproductive potential, and generation time. We propose to delineate the significance of natural thermal variation by quantifying the bioenergetics, developmental dynamics, and spatial distribution of major representative groups of stream insects throughout their geographic range.

  16. Acute administration of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine to hypothyroid rats affects bioenergetic parameters in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Assunta; Lanni, Antonia; de Lange, Pieter; Silvestri, Elena; Grasso, Paola; Senese, Rosalba; Goglia, Fernando; Moreno, Maria

    2007-12-22

    We investigated the mechanism by which 3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine (T2) affects skeletal muscle mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters following its acute administration to hypothyroid rats. One hour after injection, T2 increased both coupled and uncoupled respiration rates by +27% and +42%, respectively. Top-down elasticity analysis revealed that these effects were the result of increases in the substrate oxidation and mitochondrial uncoupling. Discriminating between proton-leak and redox-slip processes, we identified an increased mitochondrial proton conductance as the "pathway" underlying the effect of T2 on mitochondrial uncoupling. As a whole, these results may provide a mechanism by which T2 rapidly affects energy metabolism in hypothyroid rats.

  17. EAC: The European Astronauts Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripoll, Andres

    The newly established European Astronauts Centre (EAC) in Cologne represents the European Astronauts Home Base and will become a centre of expertise on European astronauts activities. The paper gives an overview of the European approach to man-in-space, describes the European Astronauts Policy and presents the major EAC roles and responsibilities including the management of selection, recruitment and flight assignment of astronauts; the astronauts support and medical surveillance; the supervision of the astronauts' non-flight assignments; crew safety; the definition of the overall astronauts training programme; the scheduling and supervision of the training facilities; the implementation of Basic Training; the recruitment, training and certification of instructors, and the interface to NASA in the framework of the Space Station Freedom programme. An overview is given on the organisation of EAC, and on the European candidate astronauts selection performed in 1991.

  18. The first modern Europeans.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of new human fossil remains is one of the most obvious ways to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human evolution. The reanalysis of existing fossils using newer methods is also crucial, and may lead to a reconsideration of the biological and taxonomical status of some specimens, and improve our understanding of highly debated periods in human prehistory. This is particularly true for those remains that have previously been studied using traditional approaches, with only morphological descriptions and standard calliper measurements available. My own interest in the Uluzzian, and its associated human remains grew from my interest in applying recently developed analytical techniques to quantify morphological variation. Discovered more than 40 years ago, the two deciduous molars from Grotta del Cavallo (Apulia, Italy) are the only human remains associated with the Uluzzian culture (one of the main three European "transitional" cultures). These teeth were previously attributed to Neanderthals. This attribution contributed to a consensus view that the Uluzzian, with its associated ornament and tool complexes, was produced by Neanderthals. A reassessment of these deciduous teeth by means of digital morphometric analysis revealed that these remains belong to anatomically modern humans (AMHs). This finding contradicts previous assumptions and suggests that modern humans, and not Neanderthals, created the Uluzzian culture. Of equal importance, new chronometric analyses date these dental remains to 43,000-45,000 cal BP. Thus, the teeth from Grotta del Cavallo represent the oldest European AMH currently known.

  19. European drought trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2015-06-01

    Recent climate projections suggest pronounced changes in European drought frequency. In the north, increased precipitation volumes are likely to reduce drought occurrence, whereas more frequent droughts are expected for southern Europe. To assess whether this pattern of changes in drought frequency can already be identified for the past decades, we analyse trends in a recently developed pan-European drought climatology that is based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The index is derived on multiple time scales, ranging from 1 to 36 months, which allows the assessment of trends in both short term and multi-year droughts. Trends are quantified using the Theil-Sen trend estimator combined with an extension of the Mann-Kendal test (p < 0.05) that accounts for serial correlation. Field significance is assessed on the basis of techniques that control the false discovery rate in a multiple testing setting. The trend analysis indicates that changes in drought frequency are more pronounced on time scales of one year and longer. The analysis also reveals that there has been a tendency for decreased drought frequency in northern Europe in the past decades, whereas droughts have likely become more frequent in selected southern regions.

  20. Plasma Membrane Potential Oscillations in Insulin Secreting Ins-1 832/13 Cells Do Not Require Glycolysis and Are Not Initiated by Fluctuations in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics*

    PubMed Central

    Goehring, Isabel; Gerencser, Akos A.; Schmidt, Sara; Brand, Martin D.; Mulder, Hindrik; Nicholls, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Oscillations in plasma membrane potential play a central role in glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells and related insulinoma cell lines. We have employed a novel fluorescent plasma membrane potential (Δψp) indicator in combination with indicators of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c), mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), matrix ATP concentration, and NAD(P)H fluorescence to investigate the role of mitochondria in the generation of plasma membrane potential oscillations in clonal INS-1 832/13 β-cells. Elevated glucose caused oscillations in plasma membrane potential and cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration over the same concentration range required for insulin release, although considerable cell-to-cell heterogeneity was observed. Exogenous pyruvate was as effective as glucose in inducing oscillations, both in the presence and absence of 2.8 mm glucose. Increased glucose and pyruvate each produced a concentration-dependent mitochondrial hyperpolarization. The causal relationships between pairs of parameters (Δψp and [Ca2+]c, Δψp and NAD(P)H, matrix ATP and [Ca2+]c, and Δψm and [Ca2+]c) were investigated at single cell level. It is concluded that, in these β-cells, depolarizing oscillations in Δψp are not initiated by mitochondrial bioenergetic changes. Instead, regardless of substrate, it appears that the mitochondria may simply be required to exceed a critical bioenergetic threshold to allow release of insulin. Once this threshold is exceeded, an autonomous Δψp oscillatory mechanism is initiated. PMID:22418435

  1. Prey size and availability limits maximum size of rainbow trout in a large tailwater: insights from a drift-foraging bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodrill, Michael J.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Haye, John W

    2016-01-01

    The cold and clear water conditions present below many large dams create ideal conditions for the development of economically important salmonid fisheries. Many of these tailwater fisheries have experienced declines in the abundance and condition of large trout species, yet the causes of these declines remain uncertain. Here, we develop, assess, and apply a drift-foraging bioenergetics model to identify the factors limiting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) growth in a large tailwater. We explored the relative importance of temperature, prey quantity, and prey size by constructing scenarios where these variables, both singly and in combination, were altered. Predicted growth matched empirical mass-at-age estimates, particularly for younger ages, demonstrating that the model accurately describes how current temperature and prey conditions interact to determine rainbow trout growth. Modeling scenarios that artificially inflated prey size and abundance demonstrate that rainbow trout growth is limited by the scarcity of large prey items and overall prey availability. For example, shifting 10% of the prey biomass to the 13 mm (large) length class, without increasing overall prey biomass, increased lifetime maximum mass of rainbow trout by 88%. Additionally, warmer temperatures resulted in lower predicted growth at current and lower levels of prey availability; however, growth was similar across all temperatures at higher levels of prey availability. Climate change will likely alter flow and temperature regimes in large rivers with corresponding changes to invertebrate prey resources used by fish. Broader application of drift-foraging bioenergetics models to build a mechanistic understanding of how changes to habitat conditions and prey resources affect growth of salmonids will benefit management of tailwater fisheries.

  2. Gray Matter-Specific Changes in Brain Bioenergetics after Acute Sleep Deprivation: A 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study at 4 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Plante, David T.; Trksak, George H.; Jensen, J. Eric; Penetar, David M.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Riedner, Brady A.; Tartarini, Wendy L.; Dorsey, Cynthia M.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Lukas, Scott E.; Harper, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: A principal function of sleep may be restoration of brain energy metabolism caused by the energetic demands of wakefulness. Because energetic demands in the brain are greater in gray than white matter, this study used linear mixed-effects models to examine tissue-type specific changes in high-energy phosphates derived using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) after sleep deprivation and recovery sleep. Design: Experimental laboratory study. Setting: Outpatient neuroimaging center at a private psychiatric hospital. Participants: A total of 32 MRS scans performed in eight healthy individuals (mean age 35 y; range 23-51 y). Interventions: Phosphocreatine (PCr) and β-nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) were measured using 31P MRS three dimensional-chemical shift imaging at high field (4 Tesla) after a baseline night of sleep, acute sleep deprivation, and 2 nights of recovery sleep. Novel linear mixed-effects models were constructed using spectral and tissue segmentation data to examine changes in bioenergetics in gray and white matter. Measurements and Results: PCr increased in gray matter after 2 nights of recovery sleep relative to sleep deprivation with no significant changes in white matter. Exploratory analyses also demonstrated that increases in PCr were associated with increases in electroencephalographic slow wave activity during recovery sleep. No significant changes in β-NTP were observed. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that sleep deprivation and subsequent recovery-induced changes in high-energy phosphates primarily occur in gray matter, and increases in phosphocreatine after recovery sleep may be related to sleep homeostasis. Citation: Plante DT, Trksak GH, Jensen JE, Penetar DM, Ravichandran C, Riedner BA, Tartarini WL, Dorsey CM, Renshaw PF, Lukas SE, Harper DG. Gray matter-specific changes in brain bioenergetics after acute sleep deprivation: a 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study at 4 Tesla. SLEEP 2014

  3. The European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socas-Navarro, H.

    2012-12-01

    In this presentation I will describe the current status of the European Solar Telescope (EST) project. The EST design has a 4-m aperture to achieve both a large photon collection and very high spatial resolution. It includes a multi-conjugate adaptive system integrated in the light path for diffraction-limited imaging. The optical train is optimized to minimize instrumental polarization and to keep it nearly constant as the telescope tracks the sky. A suite of visible and infrared instruments are planned with a light distribution system that accomodates full interoperability and simultaneous usage. The science drivers emphasize combined observations at multiple heights in the atmosphere to build a connected view of solar magnetism from the photosphere to the corona.

  4. An American Construction of European Education Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta; Brehm, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the European education space has typically been attributed to European education policy makers, institutions, and networks. Rarely do scholars consider the role of outside, non-European actors in shaping the terrain of European education thought and practice. This article considers the construction of the European education…

  5. European Schoolnet: Enabling School Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scimeca, Santi; Dumitru, Petru; Durando, Marc; Gilleran, Anne; Joyce, Alexa; Vuorikari, Riina

    2009-01-01

    School networking is increasingly important in a globalised world, where schools themselves can be actors on an international stage. This article builds on the activities and experience of the longest established European initiative in this area, European Schoolnet (EUN), a network of 31 Ministries of Education. First, we offer an introduction…

  6. The European Dimension in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.

    This paper addresses concerns about a European dimension in education that has been created by the enlargement of the European Union (EU) (the inclusion of Austria, Finland, and Sweden) and the gradual transformations of institutions into a future federal state. Sections of the paper include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Defining the European…

  7. Vascular surgery: the European perspective.

    PubMed

    Harris, P

    1999-09-01

    Isaac Newton, among others, observed that 'we see so far because we are standing upon the shoulders of giants'. In vascular surgery most of the giants have been European, and this is a heritage which we as Europeans can take pride in and build upon if we chose to do so. As in other areas of life, commitment is essential in order to influence the future. For vascular surgeons in Europe this means active participation in the European scientific societies for vascular surgery and in the UEMS. The main value of the EBSQ.VASC assessments to date has been to expose the uneven standards of training in vascular surgery within the European Union. Only if action follows to address these inequalities will the tactics of the European Board of Vascular Surgery be vindicated.

  8. Comprehensive Application of Time-of-flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) for Ionic Imaging and Bio-energetic Analysis of Club Drug-induced Cognitive Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Su-Chung; Chen, Li-You; Chiou, Ruei-Jen; Lai, Te-Jen; Liao, Wen-Chieh; Mai, Fu-Der; Chang, Hung-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure to club drug (GHB) would cause cognitive dysfunction in which impaired hippocampal Ca2+-mediated neuroplasticity may correlate with this deficiency. However, the potential changes of in vivo Ca2+ together with molecular machinery engaged in GHB-induced cognitive dysfunction has never been reported. This study aims to determine these changes in bio-energetic level through ionic imaging, spectrometric, biochemical, morphological, as well as behavioral approaches. Adolescent rats subjected to GHB were processed for TOF-SIMS, immunohistochemistry, biochemical assay, together with Morris water maze to detect the ionic, molecular, neurochemical, and behavioral changes of GHB-induced cognitive dysfunction, respectively. Extent of oxidative stress and bio-energetics were assessed by levels of lipid peroxidation, Na+/K+ ATPase, cytochrome oxidase, and [14C]-2-deoxyglucose activity. Results indicated that in GHB intoxicated rats, decreased Ca2+ imaging and reduced NMDAR1, nNOS, and p-CREB reactivities were detected in hippocampus. Depressed Ca2+-mediated signaling corresponded well with intense oxidative stress, diminished Na+/K+ ATPase, reduced COX, and decreased 2-DG activity, which all contributes to the development of cognitive deficiency. As impaired Ca2+-mediated signaling and oxidative stress significantly contribute to GHB-induced cognitive dysfunction, delivering agent(s) that improves hippocampal bio-energetics may thus serve as a promising strategy to counteract the club drug-induced cognitive dysfunction emerging in our society nowadays. PMID:26674573

  9. European Neutron Activation System.

    2013-01-11

    Version 03 EASY-2010 (European Activation System) consists of a wide range of codes, data and documentation all aimed at satisfying the objective of calculating the response of materials irradiated in a neutron flux. The main difference from the previous version is the upper energy limit, which has increased from 20 to 60 MeV. It is designed to investigate both fusion devices and accelerator based materials test facilities that will act as intense sources of high-energymore » neutrons causing significant activation of the surrounding materials. The very general nature of the calculational method and the data libraries means that it is applicable (with some reservations) to all situations (e.g. fission reactors or neutron sources) where materials are exposed to neutrons below 60 MeV. EASY can be divided into two parts: data and code development tools and user tools and data. The former are required to develop the latter, but EASY users only need to be able to use the inventory code FISPACT and be aware of the contents of the EAF library (the data source). The complete EASY package contains the FISPACT-2007 inventory code, the EAF-2003, EAF-2005, EAF-2007 and EAF-2010 libraries, and the EASY User Interface for the Window version. The activation package EASY-2010 is the result of significant development to extend the upper energy range from 20 to 60 MeV so that it is capable of being used for IFMIF calculations. The EAF-2010 library contains 66,256 reactions, almost five times more than in EAF-2003 (12,617). Deuteron-induced and proton-induced cross section libraries are also included, and can be used with EASY to enable calculations of the activation due to deuterons and proton [2].« less

  10. European MEMS foundries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Patric R.

    2003-01-01

    According to the latest release of the NEXUS market study, the market for MEMS or Microsystems Technology (MST) is predicted to grow to $68B by the year 2005, with systems containing these components generating even higher revenues and growth. The latest advances in MST/MEMS technology have enabled the design of a new generation of microsystems that are smaller, cheaper, more reliable, and consume less power. These integrated systems bring together numerous analog/mixed signal microelectronics blocks and MEMS functions on a single chip or on two or more chips assembled within an integrated package. In spite of all these advances in technology and manufacturing, a system manufacturer either faces a substantial up-front R&D investment to create his own infrastructure and expertise, or he can use design and foundry services to get the initial product into the marketplace fast and with an affordable investment. Once he has a viable product, he can still think about his own manufacturing efforts and investments to obtain an optimized high volume manufacturing for the specific product. One of the barriers to successful exploitation of MEMS/MST technology has been the lack of access to industrial foundries capable of producing certified microsystems devices in commercial quantities, including packaging and test. This paper discusses Multi-project wafer (MPW) runs, requirements for foundries and gives some examples of foundry business models. Furthermore, this paper will give an overview on MST/MEMS services that are available in Europe, including pure commercial activities, European project activities (e.g. Europractice), and some academic services.

  11. Regulation of Vascular Tone, Angiogenesis and Cellular Bioenergetics by the 3-Mercaptopyruvate Sulfurtransferase/H2S Pathway: Functional Impairment by Hyperglycemia and Restoration by DL-α-Lipoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Coletta, Ciro; Módis, Katalin; Szczesny, Bartosz; Brunyánszki, Attila; Oláh, Gábor; Rios, Ester C S; Yanagi, Kazunori; Ahmad, Akbar; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Szabo, Csaba

    2015-02-18

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as a reducing agent and an antioxidant molecule, exerts protective effects against hyperglycemic stress in the vascular endothelium. The mitochondrial enzyme 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) is an important biological source of H2S. We have recently demonstrated that 3-MST activity is inhibited by oxidative stress in vitro and speculated that this may have an adverse effect on cellular homeostasis. In the current study, given the importance of H2S as a vasorelaxant, angiogenesis stimulator and cellular bioenergetic mediator, we first determined whether the 3-MST/H2S system plays a physiological regulatory role in endothelial cells. Next, we tested whether a dysfunction of this pathway develops during the development of hyperglycemia and μmol/L to diabetes-associated vascular complications. Intraperitoneal (IP) 3-MP (1 mg/kg) raised plasma H2S levels in rats. 3-MP (10 1 mmol/L) promoted angiogenesis in vitro in bEnd3 microvascular endothelial cells and in vivo in a Matrigel assay in mice (0.3-1 mg/kg). In vitro studies with bEnd3 cell homogenates demonstrated that the 3-MP-induced increases in H2S production depended on enzymatic activity, although at higher concentrations (1-3 mmol/L) there was also evidence for an additional nonenzymatic H2S production by 3-MP. In vivo, 3-MP facilitated wound healing in rats, induced the relaxation of dermal microvessels and increased mitochondrial bioenergetic function. In vitro hyperglycemia or in vivo streptozotocin diabetes impaired angiogenesis, attenuated mitochondrial function and delayed wound healing; all of these responses were associated with an impairment of the proangiogenic and bioenergetic effects of 3-MP. The antioxidants DL-α-lipoic acid (LA) in vivo, or dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) in vitro restored the ability of 3-MP to stimulate angiogenesis, cellular bioenergetics and wound healing in hyperglycemia and diabetes. We conclude that diabetes leads to an impairment of the 3-MST

  12. Regulation of Vascular Tone, Angiogenesis and Cellular Bioenergetics by the 3-Mercaptopyruvate Sulfurtransferase/H2S Pathway: Functional Impairment by Hyperglycemia and Restoration by dl-α-Lipoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Coletta, Ciro; Módis, Katalin; Szczesny, Bartosz; Brunyánszki, Attila; Oláh, Gábor; Rios, Ester CS; Yanagi, Kazunori; Ahmad, Akbar; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Szabo, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as a reducing agent and an antioxidant molecule, exerts protective effects against hyperglycemic stress in the vascular endothelium. The mitochondrial enzyme 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) is an important biological source of H2S. We have recently demonstrated that 3-MST activity is inhibited by oxidative stress in vitro and speculated that this may have an adverse effect on cellular homeostasis. In the current study, given the importance of H2S as a vasorelaxant, angiogenesis stimulator and cellular bioenergetic mediator, we first determined whether the 3-MST/H2S system plays a physiological regulatory role in endothelial cells. Next, we tested whether a dysfunction of this pathway develops during the development of hyperglycemia and μmol/L to diabetes-associated vascular complications. Intraperitoneal (IP) 3-MP (1 mg/kg) raised plasma H2S levels in rats. 3-MP (10 1 mmol/L) promoted angiogenesis in vitro in bEnd3 microvascular endothelial cells and in vivo in a Matrigel assay in mice (0.3–1 mg/kg). In vitro studies with bEnd3 cell homogenates demonstrated that the 3-MP-induced increases in H2S production depended on enzymatic activity, although at higher concentrations (1–3 mmol/L) there was also evidence for an additional nonenzymatic H2S production by 3-MP. In vivo, 3-MP facilitated wound healing in rats, induced the relaxation of dermal microvessels and increased mitochondrial bioenergetic function. In vitro hyperglycemia or in vivo streptozotocin diabetes impaired angiogenesis, attenuated mitochondrial function and delayed wound healing; all of these responses were associated with an impairment of the proangiogenic and bioenergetic effects of 3-MP. The antioxidants dl-α-lipoic acid (LA) in vivo, or dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) in vitro restored the ability of 3-MP to stimulate angiogenesis, cellular bioenergetics and wound healing in hyperglycemia and diabetes. We conclude that diabetes leads to an impairment of the 3

  13. Regulation of Vascular Tone, Angiogenesis and Cellular Bioenergetics by the 3-Mercaptopyruvate Sulfurtransferase/H2S Pathway: Functional Impairment by Hyperglycemia and Restoration by DL-α-Lipoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Coletta, Ciro; Módis, Katalin; Szczesny, Bartosz; Brunyánszki, Attila; Oláh, Gábor; Rios, Ester C S; Yanagi, Kazunori; Ahmad, Akbar; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Szabo, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as a reducing agent and an antioxidant molecule, exerts protective effects against hyperglycemic stress in the vascular endothelium. The mitochondrial enzyme 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) is an important biological source of H2S. We have recently demonstrated that 3-MST activity is inhibited by oxidative stress in vitro and speculated that this may have an adverse effect on cellular homeostasis. In the current study, given the importance of H2S as a vasorelaxant, angiogenesis stimulator and cellular bioenergetic mediator, we first determined whether the 3-MST/H2S system plays a physiological regulatory role in endothelial cells. Next, we tested whether a dysfunction of this pathway develops during the development of hyperglycemia and μmol/L to diabetes-associated vascular complications. Intraperitoneal (IP) 3-MP (1 mg/kg) raised plasma H2S levels in rats. 3-MP (10 1 mmol/L) promoted angiogenesis in vitro in bEnd3 microvascular endothelial cells and in vivo in a Matrigel assay in mice (0.3-1 mg/kg). In vitro studies with bEnd3 cell homogenates demonstrated that the 3-MP-induced increases in H2S production depended on enzymatic activity, although at higher concentrations (1-3 mmol/L) there was also evidence for an additional nonenzymatic H2S production by 3-MP. In vivo, 3-MP facilitated wound healing in rats, induced the relaxation of dermal microvessels and increased mitochondrial bioenergetic function. In vitro hyperglycemia or in vivo streptozotocin diabetes impaired angiogenesis, attenuated mitochondrial function and delayed wound healing; all of these responses were associated with an impairment of the proangiogenic and bioenergetic effects of 3-MP. The antioxidants DL-α-lipoic acid (LA) in vivo, or dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) in vitro restored the ability of 3-MP to stimulate angiogenesis, cellular bioenergetics and wound healing in hyperglycemia and diabetes. We conclude that diabetes leads to an impairment of the 3-MST

  14. The non-apoptotic action of Bcl-xL: regulating Ca(2+) signaling and bioenergetics at the ER-mitochondrion interface.

    PubMed

    Williams, Abasha; Hayashi, Teruo; Wolozny, Daniel; Yin, Bojiao; Su, Tzu-Chieh; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Bcl-2 family proteins are known to competitively regulate Ca(2+); however, the specific inter-organelle signaling pathways and related cellular functions are not fully elucidated. In this study, a portion of Bcl-xL was detected at the ER-mitochondrion interface or MAM (mitochondria-associated ER membrane) in association with type 3 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3R3); an association facilitated by the BH4 and transmembrane domains of Bcl-xL. Moreover, increasing Bcl-xL expression enhanced transient mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels upon ER Ca(2+) depletion induced by short-term, non-apoptotic incubation with thapsigargin (Tg), while concomitantly reducing cytosolic Ca(2+) release. These mitochondrial changes appear to be IP3R3-dependent and resulted in decreased NAD/NADH ratios and higher electron transport chain oxidase activity. Interestingly, extended Tg exposure stimulated ER stress, but not apoptosis, and further enhanced TCA cycling. Indeed, confocal analysis indicated that Bcl-xL translocated to the MAM and increased its interaction with IP3R3 following extended Tg treatment. Thus, the MAM is a critical cell-signaling junction whereby Bcl-xL dynamically interacts with IP3R3 to coordinate mitochondrial Ca(2+) transfer and alters cellular metabolism in order to increase the cells' bioenergetic capacity, particularly during periods of stress.

  15. DLK-1, SEK-3 and PMK-3 Are Required for the Life Extension Induced by Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Disruption in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Munkácsy, Erin; Khan, Maruf H; Lane, Rebecca K; Borror, Megan B; Park, Jae H; Bokov, Alex F; Fisher, Alfred L; Link, Christopher D; Rea, Shane L

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction underlies numerous age-related pathologies. In an effort to uncover how the detrimental effects of mitochondrial dysfunction might be alleviated, we examined how the nematode C. elegans not only adapts to disruption of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, but in many instances responds with extended lifespan. Studies have shown various retrograde responses are activated in these animals, including the well-studied ATFS-1-dependent mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt). Such processes fall under the greater rubric of cellular surveillance mechanisms. Here we identify a novel p38 signaling cascade that is required to extend life when the mitochondrial electron transport chain is disrupted in worms, and which is blocked by disruption of the Mitochondrial-associated Degradation (MAD) pathway. This novel cascade is defined by DLK-1 (MAP3K), SEK-3 (MAP2K), PMK-3 (MAPK) and the reporter gene Ptbb-6::GFP. Inhibition of known mitochondrial retrograde responses does not alter induction of Ptbb-6::GFP, instead induction of this reporter often occurs in counterpoint to activation of SKN-1, which we show is under the control of ATFS-1. In those mitochondrial bioenergetic mutants which activate Ptbb-6::GFP, we find that dlk-1, sek-3 and pmk-3 are all required for their life extension. PMID:27420916

  16. Bioenergetics-based modeling of individual PCB congeners in nestling tree swallows from two contaminated sites on the Upper Hudson River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.W.; Echols, K.R.; Tillitt, D.E.; Secord, A.L.; McCarty, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    A bioenergetics-based model was used to simulate the accumulation of total PCBs and 20 PCB congeners by nestling tree swallows at two contaminated sites on the Upper Hudson River, New York. PCB concentrations in birds were calculated as the sum of inherited residues and those acquired through consumption of contaminated insects. Close agreement between simulations and measured residues in 5-, 10-, and 15-day-old nestlings was obtained when PCB concentrations in the diet were set equal to those in food boli taken from adult birds. These simulations were further optimized by fitting the value of a dietary assimilation efficiency constant. Fitted constants for both sites were similar and averaged about 0.7. An evaluation of model performance for individual congeners provided no evidence of metabolic biotransformation. The results of this study are consistent with a companion effort in which principal components analysis was used to compare PCB congener patterns in insects and in tree swallow eggs, nestlings, and adults. Together, these studies establish a quantitative linkage between nestling tree swallows and the insects that they consume and provide strong support for the use of nestling swallows as a biomonitoring species for exposure assessment.

  17. An experimental study of the multiple effects of brown trout Salmo trutta on the bioenergetics of two Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus morphs.

    PubMed

    Guénard, G; Boisclair, D; Ugedal, O; Forseth, T; Jonsson, B; Fleming, I A

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the importance of competition with brown trout Salmo trutta as a driver of the morphological and behavioural divergence of two morphs of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus. The morphs originated from two lakes differing in absence or presence of the competitor. The bioenergetics and behaviour of S. alpinus were quantified in replicate experimental enclosures (mean volume: 150 m(3)) stocked with 15 S. alpinus of one morph or the other and in the absence or presence of nine S. trutta. The presence of S. trutta decreased growth rate, affected food consumption and increased activity costs in S. alpinus, but provided little support for the hypothesis that competition with S. trutta is a major driver of the divergence of the two S. alpinus morphs. Both morphs responded similarly in terms of mean growth and consumption rates per enclosure, but the association between individual morphology and growth rate reversed between allopatric and sympatric enclosures. While the activity patterns of the two morphs were unaffected by the presence of S. trutta, their swimming speed and activity rate differed. Since the profound differences in the structure of the physical habitat of the source lakes provided a more likely explanation for the difference observed among these two morphs than interspecific competition, it is hypothesized that physical habitat may sometimes be a significant driving force of the phenotypic divergence. PMID:22957868

  18. The Effect of Glucose Concentration and Sodium Phenylbutyrate Treatment on Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and ER Stress in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tanis, Ross M.; Piroli, Gerardo G.; Day, Stani D.; Frizzell, Norma

    2016-01-01

    While the 3T3-L1 adipocyte model is routinely used for the study of obesity and diabetes, the mitochondrial respiratory profile in normal versus high glucose has not been examined in detail. We matured adipocytes in normal (5 mM) or high (30 mM) glucose and insulin and examined the mitochondrial bioenergetics. We also assessed the requirement for the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) and ER stress under these conditions. Basal respiration was ∼1.7-fold greater in adipocytes that had matured in 30 mM glucose; however, their ability to increase oxygen consumption in response to stress was impaired. Adipogenesis proceeded in both normal and high glucose with concomitant activation of the UPR, but only high glucose was associated with increased levels of ER stress and mitochondrial stress as observed by parallel increases in CHOP and protein succination. Treatment of adipocytes with sodium phenylbutyrate relieved mitochondrial stress through a reduction in mitochondrial respiration. Our data suggests that mitochondrial stress, protein succination and ER stress are uniquely linked in adipocytes matured in high glucose. PMID:25448036

  19. Bioenergetic strategy of microalgae for the biodegradation of phenolic compounds: exogenously supplied energy and carbon sources adjust the level of biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2007-05-10

    The biodegradation of phenolic compounds by microalgae seems to be not a simple feature of a particular organism, but mostly a bioenergetic process depending on the growth conditions, especially on the exogenously supplied energy (carbon and light) sources. By using chlorophyll fluorescence induction measurements to estimate the molecular structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus and therefore the tolerance/sensitivity of microalgae incubated with phenols, it can be assumed that, at least in low concentrations, phenol have no toxic effects on the cultures and can be used as alternative carbon source in them. Halophenols (chlorophenols, bromophenols and iodophenols) are quite toxic for the microalgal cultures. In halophenols the first step of the biodegradation is the split of the halogen substituent (dehalogenation). This is strongly determined by the bond dissociation energy of the corresponding substituent and therefore the energetic requirement for the biodegradation of halophenols increases following the sequence: iodophenol

  20. Improved amino acid, bioenergetic metabolite and neurotransmitter profiles following human amnion epithelial cell transplant in intermediate maple syrup urine disease mice.

    PubMed

    Skvorak, Kristen J; Dorko, Kenneth; Marongiu, Fabio; Tahan, Veysel; Hansel, Marc C; Gramignoli, Roberto; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Gibson, K Michael; Strom, Stephen C

    2013-06-01

    Orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) significantly improves patient outcomes in maple syrup urine disease (MSUD; OMIM: 248600), yet organ shortages point to the need for alternative therapies. Hepatocyte transplantation has shown both clinical and preclinical efficacy as an intervention for metabolic liver diseases, yet the availability of suitable livers for hepatocyte isolation is also limited. Conversely, human amnion epithelial cells (hAEC) may have utility as a hepatocyte substitute, and they share many of the characteristics of pluripotent embryonic stem cells while lacking their safety and ethical concerns. We reported that like hepatocytes, transplantation of hAEC significantly improved survival and lifespan, normalized body weight, and significantly improved branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels in sera and brain in a transgenic murine model of intermediate maple syrup urine disease (imsud). In the current report, we detail the neural and peripheral metabolic improvements associated with hAEC transplant in imsud mice, including amino acids associated with bioenergetics, the urea cycle, as well as the neurotransmitter systems for serotonin, dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This stem cell therapy results in significant global correction of the metabolic profile that characterizes the disease, both in the periphery and the central nervous system, the target organ for toxicity in iMSUD. The significant correction of the disease phenotype, coupled with the theoretical benefits of hAEC, particularly their lack of immunogenicity and tumorigenicity, suggests that human amnion epithelial cells deserve serious consideration for clinical application to treat metabolic liver diseases.