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Sample records for 17th iaea fusion

  1. Contribution to fusion research from IAEA coordinated research projects and joint experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryaznevich, M.; Van Oost, G.; Stöckel, J.; Kamendje, R.; Kuteev, B. N.; Melnikov, A.; Popov, T.; Svoboda, V.; The IAEA CRP Teams

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents objectives and activities of IAEA Coordinated Research Projects ‘Conceptual development of steady-state compact fusion neutron sources’ and ‘Utilisation of a network of small magnetic confinement fusion devices for mainstream fusion research’. The background and main projects of the CRP on FNS are described in detail, as this is a new activity at IAEA. Recent activities of the second CRP, which continues activities of previous CRPs, are overviewed.

  2. 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: Summary Of Sessions EX/C and ICC

    SciTech Connect

    Richard J. Hawryluk

    2011-01-05

    An overview is given of recent experimental results in the areas of innovative confinement concepts, operational scenarios and confinement experiments as presented at the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. Important new findings are presented from fusion devices worldwide, with a strong focus towards the scientific and technical issues associated with ITER and W7-X devices, presently under construction.

  3. 17th Annual School Construction Report, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 "School Planning & Management"'s 17th Annual School Construction Report reports over the last two years although school construction had fallen from previous highs, the pipeline of projects funded before the recession was still full. And so, in 2009 total construction was a solid $16.4 billion. But the pipeline is not being…

  4. CONFERENCE REPORT: Summary of the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, J. Ph.; Gulden, W.; Kolbasov, B.; Louzeiro-Malaquias, A.-J.; Petti, D.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.

    2008-01-01

    for materials selection which will have a large impact on waste disposal and recycling and in the real limits of radiation releases if indexed to the real impact on individuals and the environment given the differences in the types of radiation emitted by tritium when compared with the fission products. Round table sessions resulted in some common recommendations. The discussions also created the awareness of the need for a larger involvement of the IAEA in support of fusion safety standards development.

  5. IAEA activities on atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction data for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braams, Bastiaan J.; Chung, Hyun-Kyung

    2013-09-01

    The IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit (http://www-amdis.iaea.org/) aims to provide internationally evaluated and recommended data for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (A+M+PMI) processes in fusion research. The Unit organizes technical meetings and coordinates an A+M Data Centre Network (DCN) and a Code Centre Network (CCN). In addition the Unit organizes Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs), for which the objectives are mixed between development of new data and evaluation and recommendation of existing data. In the area of A+M data we are placing new emphasis in our meeting schedule on data evaluation and especially on uncertainties in calculated cross section data and the propagation of uncertainties through structure data and fundamental cross sections to effective rate coefficients. Following a recent meeting of the CCN it is intended to use electron scattering on Be, Ne and N2 as exemplars for study of uncertainties and uncertainty propagation in calculated data; this will be discussed further at the presentation. Please see http://www-amdis.iaea.org/CRP/ for more on our active and planned CRPs, which are concerned with atomic processes in core and edge plasma and with plasma interaction with beryllium-based surfaces and with irradiated tungsten.

  6. 17th World Food Day observed.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The UN Food and Agriculture Organization has dubbed October 16 World Food Day in an effort to create awareness and generate interest in the efforts being made to alleviate hunger and malnutrition, and to increase food production. A flag-raising ceremony marked the 17th World Food Day, on investing in food security, in Accra, Ghana. The Vice-President of Ghana noted at the ceremony that his government has made agriculture its top priority and is determined to invest as much as needed to achieve significant growth in the sector. The government is also taking steps to make agriculture so attractive that both private individuals and companies will find it a profitable sector in which to partake. The government of Ghana will provide its fullest cooperation and support in all technical and logistical aspects of the production process to prospective investors in the sector. Enlightened government policies are needed to ensure a broader framework for improving food security through agricultural development. PMID:12348737

  7. DIMMING OF THE 17TH CENTURY SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Foukal, Peter; Ortiz, Ada; Schnerr, Roald

    2011-06-01

    Reconstructions of total solar irradiance (TSI) rely mainly on linear relations between TSI variation and indices of facular area. When these are extrapolated to the prolonged 15th-17th century Spoerer and Maunder solar activity minima, the estimated solar dimming is insufficient to explain the mid-millennial climate cooling of the Little Ice Age. We draw attention here to evidence that the relation departs from linearity at the lowest activity levels. Imaging photometry and radiometry indicate an increased TSI contribution per unit area from small network faculae by a factor of 2-4 compared with larger faculae in and around active regions. Even partial removal of this more TSI-effective network at prolonged minima could enable climatically significant solar dimming, yet be consistent with the weakened but persistent 11 yr cycle observed in Be 10 during the Maunder Minimum. The mechanism we suggest would not alter previous findings that increased solar radiative forcing is insufficient to account for 20th century global warming.

  8. 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: summary of sessions EX/S, EX/W and ICC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides a summary overview, based on papers presented at the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC), in the area of magnetic confinement experiments related to stability (EX/S), wave-plasma interactions, current drive, heating, energetic particles (EX/W) and innovative confinement concepts (ICCs). A selection of results that represent progress made since the last FEC in a few important thematic areas that are relevant for the successful and safe operation of future fusion devices like ITER, is highlighted.

  9. 17th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research

    SciTech Connect

    Judith Bender

    2006-07-01

    The 17th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research was held at the University of Madison, Wisconsin from June 27- July 2, 2006. ICAR-2006 included approximately 625 scientists from across the world. The scientific program was of excellent quality featuring 73 talks, including 30 from invited speakers. There were also 6 community-organized workshops (facilitated by conference staff) featuring additional talks on topics including ‘Submitting data to long-term repositories,’ ‘TAIR introductory workshop,’ ‘Web services and demonstration,’ ‘Public engagement: broadening the impact of your research,’ ‘Systems biology approaches to analysis of metabolic and regulatory networks of Arabidopsis,’ and ‘Mechanotransduction in Arabidopsis.’ Approximately 440 posters were presented in general topic areas including, among others, Development, Modeling/Other Systems, Energy, Environment, and Genetic/Epigenetic mechanisms. Graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, junior faculty, and underrepresented minorities made up a significant portion of the oral presentations thereby promoting the training of young scientists and facilitating important career development opportunities for speakers. Several poster sessions provided an opportunity for younger participants to freely meet with more established scientists. The North American Arabidopsis Steering Committee (NAASC) continued its outreach effort and again sponsored two special luncheons to encourage personal and professional development of young scientists and also underrepresented minorities. The ‘Emerging Scientists Luncheon’ featured 10 graduate students selected on the basis of scientific excellence of their submitted research abstracts. The ‘Minority Funding Luncheon,’ featured 8 awardees selected by the NAASC through a widely-publicized application process. This luncheon was established specifically to provide an opportunity for underrepresented minorities, and/or scientists from

  10. [Discovery of blood cells in the 17th century].

    PubMed

    Doubek, M

    2001-07-01

    Landmark works of the 17th century concerning observations of blood cells are quoted in the article. "Simple" and successively "compound" microscopes made their appearance in the late 16th century and early 17th century. In 1656, Frenchman Pierre Borel, physician-in-ordinary to the King Louis XIV, who first applied the microscope to medicine described a type of "worn" found in human blood. In 1657, Athanasius Kircher, a Jesuit priest and scientist from Germany, examined blood from plague victims, and described "worms" of plague. In 1661, 1664 and 1665, the blood cells were discerned by Marcello Malpighi. In 1678, the red blood corpuscles was described by Jan Swammerdam of Amsterdam, a Dutch naturalist and physician. The first complete account of the red cells was made by Anthony van Leeuwenhoek of Delft in the last quarter of the 17th century. PMID:11505724

  11. Scientific Misconduct and Theft: Case Report from 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella

    2008-01-01

    Gjuro Armen Baglivi was one of the most famous medical authorities of the 17th century. Apart from his numerous books and publications, several extensive collections of his correspondence have been preserved and are available in libraries around the world. They provide new information about the 17th century scientific culture and place of Baglivi’s work in the scientific European context. Also, they shed light on his personality more than other writings intended for the public eye. In this paper I will present the case of a theft of intellectual property, which Baglivi described in one of his letters to Jean Jacques Manget. PMID:18293461

  12. High Life: 17th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Residence hall construction continues to be a priority for colleges and universities. With enrollments on the upswing, higher-education institutions are spending more and building larger facilities to entice students to live on campus. This article presents the findings of "American School & University's" 17th annual Residence Hall Construction…

  13. Harvard Humanities Students Discover the 17th Century Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article profiles Harvard professor Stephen Greenblatt's new course, "Travel and Transformation in the Early 17th Century." The product of an intense, months-long collaboration between computing specialists, graduate students, librarians, and scholars, the course makes innovative use of all the tools and technical know-how a major university…

  14. Anatomy and anatomists in Tuscany in the 17th century.

    PubMed

    Orlandini, Giovanni E; Paternostro, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The 17th century was characterized by a real revolution in the field of scientific research due to the introduction of the experimental method, promoted by Galileo Galilei who was the most representative scientist of this period. Therefore, medical disciplines, particularly Anatomy, underwent innovative and deep changes shattering traditional culture and representing the background for the modern science. In this fermenting period, Tuscany played a significant role since numerous distinguished scientists were gathered by Medici Grand Dukes (especially Ferdinando the 2nd and Cosimo the 3rd) at Pisa University and at their court in Florence. Among them, it must be mentioned Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, creator of iathromechanics, Marcello Malpighi, founder of microscopic Anatomy, Francesco Redi, who denied the insect spontaneous generation, Nils Steensen who continued in Florence his anatomical studies on lymph nodes and salivary glands while setting also the bases of modern geology. Moreover, at the end of the 17th century, the anatomical wax modelling techniques arose and developed in Florence thanks to the work of Gaetano Zumbo (or Zummo), capable of creating some real masterpieces, still very well preserved and collected in the Museum of Natural Sciences "La Specola". PMID:21287970

  15. 17th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The 17th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVII) Conference was held September 11-13, 2001, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Cleveland, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar technology. This year's conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVI; the use of new high-efficiency cells for commercial use and the development of novel array concepts such as Boeing's Solar Tile concept. In addition, new information was presented on space environmental interactions with solar arrays.

  16. Anomalous solar rotation in the early 17th century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, J. A.; Gilman, P. A.; Trotter, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    The character of solar rotation has been examined for two periods in the early 17th century for which detailed sunspot drawings are available: A.D. 1625 through 1626 and 1642 through 1644. The first period occurred 20 years before the start of the Maunder sunspot minimum, 1645 through 1715; the second occurred just at its commencement. Solar rotation in the earlier period was much like that of today. In the later period, the equatorial velocity of the sun was faster by 3 to 5 percent and the differential rotation was enhanced by a factor of 3. The equatorial acceleration with declining solar activity is in the same sense as that found in recent Doppler data. It seems likely that the change in rotation of the solar surface between 1625 and 1645 was associated with the onset of the Maunder Minimum.

  17. The low countries - 16th/17th century.

    PubMed

    De Broe, M E; De Weerdt, D L; Ysebaert, D K; Vercauteren, S R; De Greef, K E; De Broe, L C

    1999-01-01

    Andreas Vesalius and Jan Baptist Van Helmont are the two major personalities who contributed substantially and in a different way to the early development of renal anatomy/physiology of the 16th/17th century in the Southern Low Countries. The importance of A. Vesalius' publication 'de humani corporis fabrica libri septem' cannot be overestimated. The kidney was an intriguing organ to Vesalius, the function of which he could not fully grasp. J.B. Van Helmont was the first to demonstrate the importance of the measurement of the specific gravity of the urine and relating it to physiological and pathophysiological conditions. He made accurate clinical observations supported by autopsy examinations concerning the role of the kidney in the generation of dropsy. PMID:10213829

  18. JANNAF 17th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Volume 1, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 16 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 17th meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) held jointly with the 35th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS). The meeting was held on 7 - 11 December 1998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include projectile and shaped charge jet impact vulnerability of munitions; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; damage and hot spot initiation mechanisms with energetic materials; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  19. PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

    2015-03-01

    Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) - 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for

  20. A Mediterranean derecho: Catalonia (Spain), 17th August 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. Manuel

    2007-02-01

    At approximately 6:10 UTC in the morning of 17th August 2003, a squall line developed over south Catalonia (the northeast region of Spain). During the next 9 h, the squall moved rapidly northeast and crossed Catalonia and the French regions of Languedoc-Roussillon and Province, damaging and uprooting hundreds of trees and blocking trains in the region. Wind gusts reached were recoded up to 52 m/s with evidence of F2 intensity damage. This case study shows the characteristics of a derecho (widespread convectively induced windstorm). Radar observations of the evolving squall line show signatures often correlated with damaging surface winds, including: Bow echoes, Rear inflow notches, Rear inflow jets, Medium altitude radial convergence, Narrow gradient of very marked reflectivity, Development of isolated cells ahead of the convective line, A band of convection off the northern end of the line known as a "warm advection wing". When examining the different surface observations, satellite, radar imagery and cloud-to-ground lightning data, this case shows many similarities to those investigated in the United States. The derecho is a hybrid case, but has many characteristics of warm season derechoes. This emanates from a mesoscale convective complex (MCC) moving along a quasi-stationary, low-level thermal boundary in an environment characterized by high potential instability and relatively strong mid-tropospheric winds.

  1. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    PubMed

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:27035922

  2. The 17th International Conference on Antiviral Research.

    PubMed

    Buckheit, Robert W

    2004-09-01

    The focus of the 17th International Conference on Antiviral Research was the discovery and development of antiviral agents (chemistry, biology, animal models and clinical trial results) against a variety of human infectious agents including HIV, herpes viruses, hepatitis viruses, respiratory viruses and emerging/re-emerging pathogens. The meeting included the symposium 'Clinical Update on Antiviral Drugs', plenary sessions dedicated to each of the individual classes of infectious agents, a symposium on new developments surrounding emerging pathogens, and three special award lectures, which discussed the history of nucleotide antiviral agents, mechanisms of viral persistence and drug resistance, and the therapy of herpes virus infections. Within each infectious agent session the presentations included those describing the development of new and novel anti-infectives, including research based on the preclinical development of new molecules, and the results of animal modelling and clinical studies on advanced-stage antiviral agents. A summary of the meeting highlights, segregated by infectious agent, will be presented in this review. PMID:15330752

  3. PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

    2015-03-01

    Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) - 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for

  4. Surface data for fusion devices. Progress report on data compilation and assessment by the US, Japanese, and IAEA data centers

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, E.W.; Itoh, N.; Langley, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Besides presenting data in a format useful to plasma modellers, these data collection activities also serve the function of disclosing gaps in the available data base. The IAEA review panel has pointed out that information on processes of electron ejection and reflection is sparse and is generally unsatisfactory for purposes of modelling sheath effects. The US and Japanese Data Centers recently held a joint workshop where it was concluded that data on trapping and reemission was in an unsatisfactory state. In this case the parameters used to record the phenomena are closely related to the model adopted to describe the process. Existing handbooks on materials are generally weak in the areas closely related to metallurgical properties. All three data centers continue to pursue different aspects of the data collection and review process with a close interaction to avoid significant overlap of activities.

  5. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 1: Pigments and glazes characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira Ferreira, L. F.; Casimiro, T. M.; Colomban, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    Two sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the first and second halves of the 17th century were studied carefully with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Laser Induced Luminescence (LIL) and Proton Induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for a Chinese Ming porcelain, Wanli period (16th/beginning of the 17th centuries), which served as an influence for the initial Lisbon's faience production. By combining information of the different non-destructive spectroscopic techniques used in this work, it was possible to conclude that: Co3O4 (Co II and Co III) can be found in the silicate matrix and is the blue pigment in the "Especieiro" sample (1st half of the 17th C.). Cobalt olivine silicate (Co2SiO4, Co II only) was clearly identified as the blue pigment in "Aranhões" sample (2nd half of the17th C.) - 824 cm-1 band in the micro-Raman-spectrum. Cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4, Co II only) is the blue pigment in the Wanli plate - 203 and 512 cm-1 bands in the micro-Raman spectrum. The blue pigment in the 1st half 17th century of Lisbon's production was obtained by addition of a cobalt ore in low concentrations, which gives no specific Raman signature, because of complete dissolution in the glass. However, in most cases of the 2nd half 17th century, the Raman signature was quite evident, from a cobalt silicate. These findings point to the use of higher temperature kilns in the second case.

  6. My Experience with Alcohol, a 17th-Century Mathematician, and a Personal Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Dennis R.; Rector, Sheila M.

    2009-01-01

    This writing shares the first author's personal experience with alcohol, the negative consequences of his choices, and the ultimate answering of the question, "Am I an alcoholic and should I drink again?" The decision-making process and the eventual answer come from Blaise Pascal, a 17th-century mathematician. This process is explained and…

  7. Propionibacterium acnes promotes Th17 and Th17/Th1 responses in acne patients.

    PubMed

    Kistowska, Magdalena; Meier, Barbara; Proust, Tatiana; Feldmeyer, Laurence; Cozzio, Antonio; Kuendig, Thomas; Contassot, Emmanuel; French, Lars E

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive commensal bacterium thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Although the ability of P. acnes in the initiation of pro-inflammatory responses is well documented, little is known about adaptive immune responses to this bacterium. The observation that infiltrating immune cells consist mainly of CD4(+) T cells in the perifollicular space of early acne lesions suggests that helper T cells may be involved in immune responses caused by the intra-follicular colonization of P. acnes. A recent report showing that P. acnes can induce IL-17 production by T cells suggests that acne might be a T helper type 17 (Th17)-mediated disease. In line with this, we show in this work that, in addition to IL-17A, both Th1 and Th17 effector cytokines, transcription factors, and chemokine receptors are strongly upregulated in acne lesions. Furthermore, we found that, in addition to Th17, P. acnes can promote mixed Th17/Th1 responses by inducing the concomitant secretion of IL-17A and IFN-γ from specific CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Finally, we show that both P. acnes-specific Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells can be found in the peripheral blood of patients suffering from acne and, at lower frequencies, in healthy individuals. We therefore identified P. acnes-responding Th17/Th1 cells as, to our knowledge, a previously unreported CD4(+) subpopulation involved in inflammatory acne. PMID:25010142

  8. Concurrent phenomena of science and history in the 17th century and their essential interdependence.

    PubMed

    Bloch, H

    1992-06-01

    The explanation for the explosion of science in the 17th century lies in history and medical historiography. Without this approach, it becomes fantasy, accidents, or success stories. Sigerist grasped the essential interdependence of science and history, and had no need for devised reasons or speculation. He realized that once the dark night of the Middle Ages was over, the sciences arose with undreamt of force and accelerated development. The advances in astronomy, mathematics, mechanics, and experimental science benefitted a society developing in seafaring, manufacture, and trade in the 17th century. Sigerist's views make the scientific explosion understandable in human and social terms. He did not overlook the capabilities of some extraordinary individuals, such as Paracelsus (1493-1541), to shape the course of medicine, nor the importance of the mechanistic philosophy in the 17th century. Man makes history and science; hence, we find concurrent phenomena of history and science essentially interdependent. The spirit of experimental science of 17th century England was inspired by the new needs of commercial enterprise for more means of transportation and communication. Likewise, the interest in the mechanics of the pump for waterworks and for the drainage of swamps led Harvey to think of the heart as a pump, and to explain the circulation of the blood in terms of its functioning. PMID:1608066

  9. Construction of a 17th Century Telescope: An Experiment in the History of Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainer, Michael K.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the construction of a 17th-century telescope using old lenses and compares observations using this instrument with Galileo's observations. Describes experiments with modern eyepieces, the educational value of the activity, and given recommendations for construction of similar telescopes. (JN)

  10. Why "Worser" Is Better: The Double Comparative in 16th- to 17th-Century English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schluter, Julia

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the redundantly marked comparative "worser" in relation to its irregular, but etymologically justified, counterpart, "worse." Examines the diachronic development of the form as well as its distribution in the written language of the 16th and 17th centuries. (Author/VWL)

  11. Computers in Libraries Annual Conference (17th, Washington, DC, March 13-15, 2002): Collected Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Carol, Comp.

    This book contains presentations from the 17th annual Computers in Libraries Conference. Topics covered include: chatting with a librarian; verbots for library Web sites; collaborative IT (Information Technology) planning at Montgomery County Public Library (Maryland); designing a local government taxonomy; Weblogs; new roles for librarians in…

  12. Native American Games & European Religious Attitudes in the 16th & 17th Centuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, George

    Some aspects of the white-Indian relationship are reflected in the writings of 16th and 17th century observers of Indian pastimes. The Noble Savage image was apparently accepted by French colonists as a consequence of an intellectual disappointment in the contemporary societies. In an age of absolutism and religious intolerance, the picture of the…

  13. Mosquito Vector Control and Biology in Latin America - A 17th Symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 17th Annual Latin America American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 73rd Annual Meeting in Orlando, FL, in April 2007. The principal objective, as for the previous 16 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector cont...

  14. Concurrent phenomena of science and history in the 17th century and their essential interdependence.

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, H.

    1992-01-01

    The explanation for the explosion of science in the 17th century lies in history and medical historiography. Without this approach, it becomes fantasy, accidents, or success stories. Sigerist grasped the essential interdependence of science and history, and had no need for devised reasons or speculation. He realized that once the dark night of the Middle Ages was over, the sciences arose with undreamt of force and accelerated development. The advances in astronomy, mathematics, mechanics, and experimental science benefitted a society developing in seafaring, manufacture, and trade in the 17th century. Sigerist's views make the scientific explosion understandable in human and social terms. He did not overlook the capabilities of some extraordinary individuals, such as Paracelsus (1493-1541), to shape the course of medicine, nor the importance of the mechanistic philosophy in the 17th century. Man makes history and science; hence, we find concurrent phenomena of history and science essentially interdependent. The spirit of experimental science of 17th century England was inspired by the new needs of commercial enterprise for more means of transportation and communication. Likewise, the interest in the mechanics of the pump for waterworks and for the drainage of swamps led Harvey to think of the heart as a pump, and to explain the circulation of the blood in terms of its functioning. PMID:1608066

  15. Power Relationships on the Unionized Campus. Proceedings, Annual Conference (17th, April 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel M., Ed.

    Papers from the 17th Annual Conference present observations and analysis of how the power equation has, or has not, been altered by the introduction of faculty and support staff unionism. The first section on power relationships between professors and senates contains: "The Academic as Political Man or Woman" (Seymour Lipset); "Governance: Senates…

  16. Nonmilitary applications of the rocket between the 17th and 20th centuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    Nonmilitary uses of the rocket through history were investigated. It was found that through the 17th century rockets were used in whaling as harpoon drives. In later years, rockets were used in lifesaving and in commercial signalling at sea. Rocket utilization was traced up to the present application of sending the first men to the moon.

  17. Solutions To the Problem of Impact in the 17th and 18th Centuries and Teaching Newton's Third Law Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauld, Colin

    1998-01-01

    Compares the ideas of young people about Newton's third law, focusing on youth of today and youth of the 17th and 18th centuries. Examines the use of Newton's third law in understanding impact phenomena in the 17th and 18th centuries. Contains 46 references. (DDR)

  18. 17th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest SupercomputersReseased

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack J.; Simon,Horst D.

    2001-06-21

    17th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released MANNHEIM, GERMANY; KNOXVILLE, TENN.; BERKELEY, CALIF. In what has become a much-anticipated event in the world of high-performance computing, the 17th edition of the TOP500 list of the world's fastest supercomputers was released today (June 21). The latest edition of the twice-yearly ranking finds IBM as the leader in the field, with 40 percent in terms of installed systems and 43 percent in terms of total performance of all the installed systems. In second place in terms of installed systems is Sun Microsystems with 16 percent, while Cray Inc. retained second place in terms of performance (13 percent). SGI Inc. was third both with respect to systems with 63 (12.6 percent) and performance (10.2 percent).

  19. Acupuncture points & use of moxibustion, found in the popular literature & paintings of 17th century Japan.

    PubMed

    Omura, Y

    1984-01-01

    Acupuncture and moxibustion have long been an integral part of Far Eastern oriental medicine. Moxibustion and acupuncture cannot be discussed without each other since both use the same acupuncture point locations and nomenclatures. In the late 17th century, the famous travel diary of Basho, a Japanese master of haiku poetry, made reference to personal use of moxibustion on one of the well-known acupuncture points, stomach 36. Recently, the author found 2 paintings of a 17th century Kyoto geisha house and its surroundings in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, painted in realistic color by Moronobu, the originator of the Ukiyoe style and a contemporary of Basho. Part of the scene depicts some professional porters at work; on their legs are white scars at some of the well-known acupuncture points, including stomach 36 and spleen 6. The scars appear to be the result of moxibustion. This may indicate the common use of moxibustion on well-known acupuncture points of the lower extremities in late 17th century Japan for professional porters and for people making extensive journeys. Further support of the relatively widespread use of acupuncture and moxibustion is even found in the popular, non-medical literature of late 17th century Japan. In one of the short stories about the life of average people, written by the novelist Saikaku, the details of a young woman giving moxibustion on the back of a young man is realistically described with illustrations. Reports written by some of the foreign physicians who visited Japan during this period were published, describing these methods with illustrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6152509

  20. 17th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B. L.

    2007-08-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 17th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 5-8, 2007. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'Expanding Technology for a Future Powered by Si Photovoltaics.'

  1. [Rules of hygiene and moral guidance in medical practice, 16th-17th centuries Spain].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Somavilla, María José

    2002-01-01

    In recent decades, we have seen how members of the illiterate, popular classes gained access to specific contents of elite culture by means of oral expression collected through texts. This development may be related to the target readership of medical texts published in Spain during the 16th and 17th centuries. The study also analyses how information about preventive measures in health care was passed on through medical books from professionals to lay-people. This represents one of the key methods used by medical practice in the modern world. PMID:12678024

  2. Transient uplift after a 17th-century earthquake along the kuril subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawai, Y.; Satake, K.; Kamataki, T.; Nasu, H.; Shishikura, M.; Atwater, B.F.; Horton, B.P.; Kelsey, H.M.; Nagumo, T.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2004-01-01

    In eastern Hokkaido, 60 to 80 kilometers above a subducting oceanic plate, tidal mudflats changed into freshwater forests during the first decades after a 17th-century tsunami. The mudflats gradually rose by a meter, as judged from fossil diatom assemblages. Both the tsunami and the ensuing uplift exceeded any in the region's 200 years of written history, and both resulted from a shallow plate-boundary earthquake of unusually large size along the Kuril subduction zone. This earthquake probably induced more creep farther down the plate boundary than did any of the region's historical events.

  3. Pigment characterization of important golden age panel paintings of the 17th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pięta, Ewa; Proniewicz, Edyta; Szmelter-Fausek, Bożena; Olszewska-Świetlik, Justyna; Proniewicz, Leonard M.

    2015-02-01

    Samples were obtained from two world-famous 17th century panel paintings of the Gdańsk school of panting: 'Seven Acts of Charity' (1607, in St. Mary's Church in Gdańsk, Poland) by Anton Möller and 'Angelic Concert' (1611, in Diocesan Museum in Pelplin, Poland) by Hermann Han. Micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS), optical microscopy (OM), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy studies of the samples were performed to characterize the pigments present in the individual painting layers (a rich palette of white, black, blue, red, and yellow pigments) and the pictorial techniques used by the artists.

  4. Too Little too Soon: The Literature of Deaf Education in 17th-Century Britain (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoolihan, Christopher

    1985-01-01

    The article describes the growth in literature on deaf education in 17th century Britain. Noted is the work of John Wallis, William Holder, George Dalgarno, Anton Deusing, and Johann Conrad Amman. (CL)

  5. Food flora in 17th century northeast region of Brazil in Historia Naturalis Brasiliae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This article reports historical ethnobotany research conducted from a study of the work Historia Naturalis Brasiliae (Natural History of Brazil), authored by Piso and Marcgrave and published in 1648, with main focus on Caatinga of northeast region of Brazil. Methods Focusing the content analysis on the section dedicated to plant species with multiple uses, Marcgrave's contribution to the aforementioned work, this research had the following objectives: the retrieval of 17th century knowledge about the food uses of the flora in the northeast region of Brazil, including the taxonomic classifications; the identification of plant parts, their modes of consumption and the ethnic group of consumers; and the verification of the use of these species over time. Results The use of 80 food species at the time of the publication of the work is indicated, some of which are endemic to the Caatinga, such as “umbu” (Spondias tuberosa Arruda), “mandacaru” (Cereus jamacaru DC.) and “carnauba” (Copernicia cerifera Mart.). It is noticeable that among the species listed by Marcgrave, some species still lack current studies indicating their real nutritional value. The present study is an unprecedented work because it introduces, in a systematic way, the food plants described in a study of 17th century Brazil. Conclusions Finally, this study makes information about plants consumed in the past accessible, aiming to provide material for studies that could develop new food products today. PMID:24965737

  6. The place of the 17th century in Jung's encounter with China.

    PubMed

    Cambray, Joe

    2005-04-01

    After recounting several dreams and related alchemical interests of Jung's tied to the 17(th) century, a contextualizing look at select scientific and philosophical developments of that century is presented. Several precursors of the contemporary debates on the mind/body relation are noted, with special reference to the work of Antonio Damasio. This in turn leads to a reconsideration of the work of the 17(th) century polymath Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, which Jung read as a major precursor to his formulation of synchronicity (via Leibniz's concept of 'pre-established harmony'). Leibniz was the first philosopher to articulate the mind/body relationship in terms of supervenience, sharing an accord with those contemporary philosophers and scientists who see the mind as being an emergent property of the body-brain. Similarly, these ideas are also consistent with a reformulation of synchronicity in terms of emergence. Tracing Leibniz's interest in China reveals another set of links to Jung and to emergentism. Jung's use of Taoist concepts in developing the synchronicity principle is well known. According to scholars, Leibniz was the first major Western intellect to study the I-Ching, through the assistance of a Jesuit missionary in Beijing, Fr. Joachim Bouvet. Some details of the Leibniz-Bouvet correspondence are discussed here. Despite Helmut Wilhelm's presenting aspects of this correspondence at an Eranos conference, Jung does not appear to have integrated it into his writing on synchronicity--a possible reason for this omission is suggested. PMID:15817042

  7. IAEA TECDOC 055 Outline

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, Doug

    2015-07-13

    An outline of suggestions for updating a version of IAEA-TECDOC-1276 is provided. This update will become IAEA-TECDOC-055, titled ''IAEA handbook for designing and implementing physical protection systems for nuclear material and nuclear facilities.''

  8. Raman spectroscopy analysis of pigments on 16-17th c. Persian manuscripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralha, Vânia S. F.; Burgio, Lucia; Clark, Robin J. H.

    2012-06-01

    The palette of four Persian manuscripts of the 16th and 17th centuries were established by Raman microscopy to include lazurite, red lead, vermilion, orpiment, a carbon-based black, lead white, malachite, haematite, indigo, carmine and pararealgar. The first five pigments were identified on all four manuscripts, as previously found for other Islamic manuscripts of this period. The findings were compared with information available in treatises on Persian painting techniques. Red lead, although identified on all of the manuscripts analysed in this study as the main red pigment, is seldom mentioned in the literature. Two unusual pigments were also identified: the intermediate phase between realgar and pararealgar in the manuscript Timur namah, and carmine in the manuscript Shah namah. Although the established palette comprises few pigments, it was found that the illuminations were enhanced by the use of pigment mixtures, the components of which could be identified by Raman microscopy.

  9. Biological Warfare Plan in the 17th Century—the Siege of Candia, 1648–1669

    PubMed Central

    Thalassinou, Eleni; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    A little-known effort to conduct biological warfare occurred during the 17th century. The incident transpired during the Venetian–Ottoman War, when the city of Candia (now Heraklion, Greece) was under siege by the Ottomans (1648–1669). The data we describe, obtained from the Archives of the Venetian State, are related to an operation organized by the Venetian Intelligence Services, which aimed at lifting the siege by infecting the Ottoman soldiers with plague by attacking them with a liquid made from the spleens and buboes of plague victims. Although the plan was perfectly organized, and the deadly mixture was ready to use, the attack was ultimately never carried out. The conception and the detailed cynical planning of the attack on Candia illustrate a dangerous way of thinking about the use of biological weapons and the absence of reservations when potential users, within their religious framework, cast their enemies as undeserving of humanitarian consideration. PMID:26894254

  10. Binary Star Measurements with a 17th Century, Long-Focal, Non-Achromatic Refractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Alan

    2010-10-01

    As part of the evaluation of my long-focal, non-achromatic refractor of the type developed during the first century, i.e., the 17th century, of optical astronomy, I have observed 175 double and multiple stars. After having observed most of these binary stars visually, I decided to see if it would be possible to measure their position angles and separations. Thus, I built a micrometer and began a program to determine if - and how accurately - I could measure the characteristics of these binaries. To my great surprise, the average error of the measured position angles is only 2 degrees and that of the separations is only 1 arc-second - values that are almost a good as modern measurements. These results further indicate that these very early and relatively primitive telescopes were much better that modern astronomical historians believe.

  11. In the sign of Galileo: pictorial representation in the 17th-century Copernican debate.

    PubMed

    Remmert, Volker R

    2003-03-01

    After Galileo had discovered the four moons of Jupiter in 1609 he became increasingly convinced that the Copernican, heliocentric system of the world was correct. However, this ran against the opinions of the Church and a large number of contemporary astronomers and natural philosophers. The ensuing development culminated in the condemnation of the Copernican system by the Church in 1616 and of Galileo himself, who had propagated the Copernican system in his Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632), in 1633. Nevertheless, there was a constant debate about the right world system during the whole 17th century. Pictorial representation played an important role in it and the illustrations used as book frontispieces were a significant medium for the dispute. PMID:12642143

  12. Study of 2012 may 17th solar particle event with PAMELA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergè, Matteo

    The PAMELA (Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics) satellite-borne experiment has been collecting data in orbit since July 2006, providing accurate measurements of the energy spectra and composition of the cosmic radiation from about one hundred MeV/n up to hundreds GeV/n. The energy interval explored makes PAMELA well suited to observe Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events measuring their energy spectra and composition and overlapping with the ground based observation capability of neutron monitors (NM). In particular, on 17th of May 2012, a Ground Level Enhancement has been observed by PAMELA and many NMs in the polar regions, the event was classified as GLE 71. The high accuracy achieved in the measurement of the particle rigidity as well as the sampling of the spatial distribution of the trajectories for this event may contribute to the understanding of several issues of the injection and propagation of SEPs in the Heliosphere.

  13. Biological Warfare Plan in the 17th Century—the Siege of Candia, 1648–1669.

    PubMed

    Thalassinou, Eleni; Tsiamis, Costas; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-12-01

    A little-known effort to conduct biological warfare occurred during the 17th century. The incident transpired during the Venetian–Ottoman War, when the city of Candia (now Heraklion, Greece) was under siege by the Ottomans (1648–1669). The data we describe, obtained from the Archives of the Venetian State, are related to an operation organized by the Venetian Intelligence Services, which aimed at lifting the siege by infecting the Ottoman soldiers with plague by attacking them with a liquid made from the spleens and buboes of plague victims. Although the plan was perfectly organized, and the deadly mixture was ready to use, the attack was ultimately never carried out. The conception and the detailed cynical planning of the attack on Candia illustrate a dangerous way of thinking about the use of biological weapons and the absence of reservations when potential users, within their religious framework, cast their enemies as undeserving of humanitarian consideration. PMID:26894254

  14. [Pharmacies in Rzeszów (17th-19th centuries)].

    PubMed

    Swieboda, J

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation is available thanks to many years investigation into the development of education and the history of the church in Galicia and the surrounding region. On the basis of gathered record materials and works concerning medical care, the author presents a history of drug stores in Rzezów in 17th-19th centuries. First, he deals with a pharmacy run by the Pijar monks in the years 1670-1697. There is a unique polychromy in it showing the different way of treating sick patients in the years 1695-1697. Next, he depicts the development of pharmacies according to Austrian law, when southern Poland came under the rule of the Habsburg family between 1772-1918. The lot of all pharmacies, the role of their owners, illustrious pharmacists, Polish - Austrian marriages among pharmacists, their connections with doctors and their position in society during this period are also described. PMID:11770491

  15. ICOS-based chimeric antigen receptors program bipolar TH17/TH1 cells.

    PubMed

    Guedan, Sonia; Chen, Xi; Madar, Aviv; Carpenito, Carmine; McGettigan, Shannon E; Frigault, Matthew J; Lee, Jihyun; Posey, Avery D; Scholler, John; Scholler, Nathalie; Bonneau, Richard; June, Carl H

    2014-08-14

    With the notable exception of B-cell malignancies, the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells has been limited, and CAR T cells have not been shown to expand and persist in patients with nonlymphoid tumors. Here we demonstrate that redirection of primary human T cells with a CAR containing the inducible costimulator (ICOS) intracellular domain generates tumor-specific IL-17-producing effector cells that show enhanced persistence. Compared with CARs containing the CD3ζ chain alone, or in tandem with the CD28 or the 4-1BB intracellular domains, ICOS signaling increased IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 following antigen recognition. In addition, T cells redirected with an ICOS-based CAR maintained a core molecular signature characteristic of TH17 cells and expressed higher levels of RORC, CD161, IL1R-1, and NCS1. Of note, ICOS signaling also induced the expression of IFN-γ and T-bet, consistent with a TH17/TH1 bipolarization. When transferred into mice with established tumors, TH17 cells that were redirected with ICOS-based CARs mediated efficient antitumor responses and showed enhanced persistence compared with CD28- or 4-1BB-based CAR T cells. Thus, redirection of TH17 cells with a CAR encoding the ICOS intracellular domain is a promising approach to augment the function and persistence of CAR T cells in hematologic malignancies. PMID:24986688

  16. Guglielmo Riva (1627-1677) and the end of hepatocentrism: a 17th-century painting.

    PubMed

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Benedetti, Marta; Vaglienti, Francesca; Torre, Chiara; Baggieri, Gaspare; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    During the seventeenth century, the description of the lymphatic system provided a decisive contribution to resolving the misconceptions of Galenic physiology concerning the production of blood in the liver. The transition from a liver-centered (hepatocentrism) to a heart-centered model (cardiocentrism) was fundamental in the history of medicine, since it allowed the role of the liver and of the heart in the bodily processes to be more correctly identified. The modification of the medical knowledge on the liver and its functions during that period is well represented in a 17th-century painting,"ll Fegato" ("The Liver"), probably belonging to the "anatomical museum" of the Roman surgeon Giovanni Guglielmo Riva (1627-1677). In particular, this Italian physician significantly contributed to the discovery of the lymphatic system and to the study of the hematopoiesis. Thus, this painting as well as the figure of Guglielmo Riva would deserve a major consideration in the history of medicine and of hepatology in particular. PMID:25739148

  17. Radiological Diagnosis of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in 17th Century Korean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, In Sun; Jung, Go-Un; Kim, Myeung Ju; Oh, Chang Seok; Yoo, Dong Su; Lee, Won-Joon; Lee, Eunju; Cha, Soon Chul; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a birth defect of the diaphragm resulting in pulmonary sequelae that threaten the lives of infants. In computed tomography (CT) images of a 17th century middle-aged male mummy (the Andong mummy), we observed that the abdominal contents had protruded into the right thoracic cavity through the diaphragmatic defect, accompanied by a mediastinal shift to the left. On autopsy, the defect in the right posterolateral aspect of the diaphragm was reconfirmed, as was the herniation of the abdominal organs. The herniated contents included the right lobe of the liver, the pyloric part of the stomach, a part of the greater omentum, and the right colic flexure connecting the superior part of the ascending colon and the right part of the transverse colon. Taking our CT and autopsy results together, this case was diagnosed as the Bochdalek-type CDH. Herein we make the first ever report of a CT-assisted diagnosis of a pre-modern historical case of CDH. Our results show the promising utility of this modality in investigations of mummified human remains archaeologically obtained. PMID:24988465

  18. Reconstructing early 17th century estuarine drought conditions from Jamestown oysters

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Juliana M.; Spero, Howard J.; Mann, Roger; Herbert, Gregory S.; Sliko, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were a central component of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem in 1607 when European settlers established Jamestown, VA, the first permanent English settlement in North America. These estuarine bivalves were an important food resource during the early years of the James Fort (Jamestown) settlement while the colonists were struggling to survive in the face of inadequate supplies and a severe regional drought. Although oyster shells were discarded as trash after the oysters were eaten, the environmental and ecological data recorded in the bivalve geochemistry during shell deposition remain intact over centuries, thereby providing a unique window into conditions during the earliest Jamestown years. We compare oxygen isotope data from these 17th century oyster shells with modern shells to quantify and contrast estuarine salinity, season of oyster collection, and shell provenance during Jamestown colonization (1609–1616) and the 21st century. Data show that oysters were collected during an extended drought between fall 1611 and summer 1612. The drought shifted the 14 psu isohaline above Jamestown Island, facilitating individual oyster growth and extension of oyster habitat upriver toward the colony, thereby enhancing local oyster food resources. Data from distinct well layers suggest that the colonists also obtained oysters from reefs near Chesapeake Bay to augment oyster resources near Jamestown Island. The oyster shell season of harvest reconstructions suggest that these data come from either a 1611 well with a very short useful period or an undocumented older well abandoned by late 1611. PMID:20534581

  19. A Possible Case of Cherubism in a 17th-Century Korean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Spigelman, Mark; Sarig, Rachel; Lim, Do-Sun; Lee, In Sun; Oh, Chang Seok; May, Hila; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, Soong Deok; Peled, Nathan; Kim, Myeung Ju; Toledano, Talya; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2014-01-01

    Cherubism is a benign fibro-osseous disease of childhood limited specifically to the maxilla and mandible. The progressive replacement of the jaw bones with expansile multilocular cystic lesions causes eventual prominence of the lower face, and hence the classic “cherubic” phenotype reflecting variable extents of jaw hypertrophy. Histologically, this condition has been characterized as replacement of the normal bone matrix with multicystic pockets of fibrous stroma and osteoclastic giant cells. Because of radiographic features common to both, primarily the presence of multiloculated lucencies with heterogeneous “ground-glass” sclerosis on CT imaging, cherubism was long mistaken for a craniofacial subtype of fibrous dysplasia. In 1999, however, the distinct genetic basis for cherubism was mapped to chromosome 4p16.3 and the SH-3 binding protein SH3BP2. But while there are already three suspected cases of fibrous dysplasia amongst archaeological populations, no definitive cases of cherubism have yet been reported in historical populations. In the current study we describe micro- and macro-structural changes in the face of a 17th century Joseon Dynasty Korean mummy which may coincide with the clinic-pathologic and radiologic features of cherubism. PMID:25093864

  20. Equatorial All Sky Imager Images from the Seychelles during the March 17th, 2015 geomagnetic storm.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, B.

    2015-12-01

    An all sky imager was installed in the Seychelles earlier this year. The Seychelles islands are located northeast of Madagascar and east of Somalia in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The all sky imager is located on the island of Mahe (4.6667°S, 55.4667°E geographic), (10.55°S, 127.07°E geomagnetic), with filters of 557.7, 620.0, 630.0, 765.0 and 777.4 nm. Images with a 90 second exposure from Seychelles in 777.4nm and 630.0nm from the night before and night of the March 17th geomagnetic storm are discussed in comparison to solar wind measurements at ACE and the disturbance storm time (Dst) index. These images show line-of-sight intensities of photons received dependent on each filters wavelength. A time series of these images sometimes will show the movement of relatively dark areas, or depletions, in each emission. The depletion regions are known to cause scintillation in GPS signals. The direction and speed of movement of these depletions are related to changes observed in the solar wind.

  1. [Chemistry of life: ferments and fermentation in 17th-century iatrochemistry].

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The concepts of ferment and fermentation played an important, though heretofore neglected, role in 17th-century physiology. Though these notions can be found in ancient philosophy and medicine, as well as in medieval medicine, they became integral part of the chemical medicine that was advocated by Paracelsus and his school. Paracelsians made fermentation a central concept in their successful effort to give chemical foundation to medicine. Jean Baptiste van Helmont and Sylvius used the concepts of ferment and fermentation to explain a variety of physiological processes in human body. Corpuscular philosophers like Robert Boyle and Thomas Willis reinterpreted these notions in corpuscular terms and separated the concept of ferment from that of fermentation. In the second half of the seventeenth century, physiologist tried to explain fermentation by means of chemical reactions, as for instance acid -alkali, and ruled out the notion of ferment as superfluous to their investigations. At the end of hte seventeenth century fermentation attracted the interest of physicists like Johannes Bernoulli and Isaac Newton, who tried to explain fermentative processes in terms of matter and motion (Bernoulli) and short-range forces (Newton). George Ernst Stahl devoted a work to fermentation: the Zymotechnia. He explained fermentation as the outcome of the reactions of molecules formed of saline, oily and earthy corpuscles with particles of water. He saw fermentation as a mechanical process, i.e. as collision of different kinds of corpuscles. PMID:15311436

  2. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  3. 76 FR 70178 - Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th Street NW., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20036; Notice of Intention to Cancel Registration Pursuant...

  4. A summary of ground motion effects at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) resulting from the Oct 17th 1989 earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1990-08-01

    Ground motions resulting from the October 17th 1989 (Loma Prieta) earthquake are described and can be correlated with some geologic features of the SLAC site. Recent deformations of the linac are also related to slow motions observed over the past 20 years. Measured characteristics of the earthquake are listed. Some effects on machine components and detectors are noted. 18 refs., 16 figs.

  5. 76 FR 67005 - Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... COMMISSION Investment Advisers Act of 1940; In the Matter of Creative Investment Research, Inc., 1050 17th... the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (the ``Act''), cancelling the registration of Creative Investment... application for registration filed under that section, is no longer in existence, is not engaged in...

  6. The "System of Chymists" and the "Newtonian Dream" in Greek-Speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-01-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a "philosophy" of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This…

  7. Re-estimated fault model of the 17th century great earthquake off Hokkaido using tsunami deposit data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioki, Kei; Tanioka, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Paleotsunami researches revealed that a great earthquake occurred off eastern Hokkaido, Japan and generated a large tsunami in the 17th century. Tsunami deposits from this event have been found at far inland from the Pacific coast in eastern Hokkaido. Previous study estimated the fault model of the 17th century great earthquake by comparing locations of lowland tsunami deposits and computed tsunami inundation areas. Tsunami deposits were also traced at high cliff near the coast as high as 18 m above the sea level. Recent paleotsunami study also traced tsunami deposits at other high cliffs along the Pacific coast. The fault model estimated from previous study cannot explain the tsunami deposit data at high cliffs near the coast. In this study, we estimated the fault model of the 17th century great earthquake to explain both lowland widespread tsunami deposit areas and tsunami deposit data at high cliffs near the coast. We found that distributions of lowland tsunami deposits were mainly explained by wide rupture area at the plate interface in Tokachi-Oki segment and Nemuro-Oki segment. Tsunami deposits at high cliff near the coast were mainly explained by very large slip of 25 m at the shallow part of the plate interface near the trench in those segments. The total seismic moment of the 17th century great earthquake was calculated to be 1.7 ×1022 Nm (Mw 8.8). The 2011 great Tohoku earthquake ruptured large area off Tohoku and very large slip amount was found at the shallow part of the plate interface near the trench. The 17th century great earthquake had the same characteristics as the 2011 great Tohoku earthquake.

  8. Assessment of soil-gas contamination at the 17th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir G.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of contaminants in soil gas were conducted in two study areas at Fort Gordon, Georgia, in July and August of 2011 to supplement environmental contaminant data for previous studies at the 17th Street landfill. The two study areas include northern and eastern parts of the 17th Street landfill and the adjacent wooded areas to the north and east of the landfill. These study areas were chosen because of their close proximity to the surface water in Wilkerson Lake and McCoys Creek. A total of 48 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the July 28 to August 3, 2011, assessment in the eastern study area. The assessment mostly identified detections of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and gasoline- and diesel-range compounds, but also identified the presence of chlorinated solvents in six samplers, chloroform in three samplers, 2-methyl naphthalene in one sampler, and trimethylbenzene in one sampler. The TPH masses exceeded 0.02 microgram (μg) in all 48 samplers and exceeded 0.9 μg in 24 samplers. Undecane, one of the three diesel-range compounds used to calculate the combined mass for diesel-range compounds, was detected in 17 samplers and is the second most commonly detected compound in the eastern study area, exceeded only by the number of TPH detections. Six samplers had detections of toluene, but other gasoline compounds were detected with toluene in three of the samplers, including detections of ethylbenzene, meta- and para-xylene, and octane. All detections of chlorinated organic compounds had soil-gas masses equal to or less than 0.08 μg, including three detections of trichloroethene, three detections of perchloroethene, three chloroform detections, one 1,4-dichlorobenzene detection, and one 1,1,2-trichloroethane detection. Three methylated compounds were detected in the eastern study area, but were detected at or below method detection levels. A total of 32 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the August 11–24, 2011, assessment in the northern study

  9. Giacomo Castelvetro's salads. Anti-HER2 oncogene nutraceuticals since the 17th century?

    PubMed

    Colomer, R; Lupu, R; Papadimitropoulou, A; Vellón, L; Vázquez-Martín, A; Brunet, J; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Segura-Carretero, A; Menéndez, J A

    2008-01-01

    We are accumulating evidence to suggest that 17(th) century Renaissance foodways -largely based on the old "Mediterranean dietary traditions"- may provide new nutraceutical management strategies against HER2-positive breast cancer disease in the 21st century. Epidemiological and experimental studies begin to support the notion that "The Sacred Law of Salads" (i.e., "raw vegetables... plenty of generous (olive) oil") -originally proposed in 1614 by Giacomo Castelvetro in its book The Fruit, Herbs & Vegetables of Italy- might be considered the first (unintended) example of customised diets for breast cancer prevention based on individual genetic make-up (i.e., nutraceuticals against human breast carcinomas bearing HER2 oncogene amplification/overexpression). First, the so-called salad vegetables dietary pattern (i.e., a high consumption of raw vegetables and olive oil) appears to exert a protective effect mostly confined to the HER2-positive breast cancer subtype, with no significant influence on the occurrence of HER2-negative breast cancers. Second, all the main olive oil constituents (i.e., the omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid and polyphenolic compounds such as the secoiridoid oleuropein or the lignan 1-[+]-acetoxypinoresinol) dramatically reduce HER2 expression and specifically induce apoptotic cell death in cultured HER2- positive breast cancer cells, with marginal effects against HER2-negative cells. Third, an olive oil-rich diet negatively influences experimental mammary tumorigenesis in rats likewise decreasing HER2 expression levels. If early 1600s Castelvetro's salads can be used as dietary protocols capable to protecting women against biologically aggressive HER2-positive breast cancer subtypes is an intriguing prospect that warrants to be evaluated in human pilot studies in the future. Here, at least, we would like to recognise Giacomo Castelvetro as the father of modern nutritional genomics in oncology. PMID:18208790

  10. [Semantics of learned quackery in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Füssel, Marian

    2004-06-01

    In the 17th and 18th century republic of letters the problem of scientific fraud was met with a discourse of charlatanism. Departing from Johann Burchhard Menckes famous treatise on the Charlatanry of the learned the following essay traces how the accusations of academic and scientific misconduct put in terms of 'charlatanry' primarily helped to produce the new species of the erudite 'charlatan'. Facing a growing complexity of scientific culture this new frame of meaning, structured by numerous examples of scientific misconduct offered a new way of orientation in the world of learning. But besides its cognitive impacts the discourse of charlatanry allowed to create symbolic boundaries, which determined decisions upon the affiliation or non affiliation to the new forming scientific community by separating honourable from dishonourable scientific personae. Speaking of charlatanry therefore always implied a social distinction as much as a scientific. The discourses on charlatanry also mirror differentiations within the scientific field. At first dominated by a critique built on courteous or bourgeois values, the scientific field later on developed its own criteria of appraisal like authorship, originality, transparency etc. Attracting the attention of a further growing public sphere, the explicit verbalisation of claims not relating to the value system of a republic of letters primarily concerned with the production and distribution of knowledge finally led up to a more implicit moral economy of science. A change that at a large scale level can be described both as an internalisation of the values of scientific conduct and differentiation between justiciable and unjusticiable transgressions of the norms set up by the scientific community. PMID:15338535

  11. Plastic surgery in 17th century Europe. case study: Nicolae Milescu, the snub-nosed.

    PubMed

    Dumbravă, Daniela; Luchian, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The rising and the existence of plastic and aesthetic surgery in early modern Europe did not have a specific pattern, but was completely different from one nation to another. Colleges of Physicians could only be found in some places in Europe; different Parliaments of Europe's nations did not always elevate being a surgeon to the dignity of a profession, and being a surgeon did not always come with corporate and municipal privileges, or with attractive stipends. Conversely, corporal punishments for treacherous surgeons were ubiquitous. Rhinoplasty falls into the category of what Ambroise Paré named "facial plastic surgery". The technique is a medical source from which many histories derive, one more fascinating than the other: the history of those whose nose was cut off (because of state betrayal, adultery, abjuration, or duelling with swords), the history of those who invented the surgery of nose reconstruction (e.g. SuSruta-samhita or Tagliacozzi?), the history of surgeries kept secret in early modern Europe (e.g. Tropea, Calabria, Leiden, Padua, Paris, Berlin), and so on. Where does the history of Nicolae Milescu the Snub-nosed fall in all of this? How much of this history do the Moldavian Chronicles record? Is there any "scholarly gossip" in the aristocratic and diplomatic environments at Constantinople? What exactly do the British ambassadors learn concerning Rhinoplasty when they meet Milescu? How do we "walk" within these histories, and why should we be interested at all? What is their stike for modernity? Such are the interrogations that this article seeks to provoke; its purpose is to question (and eventually, synchronise) histories, and not exclusively history, both in academic terms but also by reassessing the practical knowledge of the 17th century. PMID:24502038

  12. [The apothecaries of the quartier de la Harpe in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Large families of apothecaries, some of them very famous, lived in the Quartier de la Harpe in Paris, on the left bank of Seine, from the 16th to the 17th century. The study confirms a well-established fact that apothecaries practised endogamy, in others words marriage within the same social class. The biographical research includes ten apothecaries, most of whom lived in the rue Saint-André-des-Arts. PMID:26529892

  13. Invitation to the 17th international congress on photosynthesis research in 2016: photosynthesis in a changing world.

    PubMed

    van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

    2016-02-01

    The 17th International Congress on Photosynthesis will be held from August 7 to 12, 2016 in Maastricht, The Netherlands. The congress will include an opening reception, 15 plenary lectures, 28 scientific symposia, many poster sessions, displays by scientific companies, excursions, congress dinner, social activities, and the first photosynthesis soccer world championship. See http://www.ps2016.com/ . The congress is organized as an official event of the International Society of Photosynthesis Research (see http://www.photosynthesisresearch.org/). PMID:26572769

  14. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrotzki, Werner; Oertel, Carl-Georg

    2015-04-01

    The 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17) took place in Dresden, Germany, August 24-29, 2014. It belongs to the "triennial" series of ICOTOM meetings with a long tradition, starting in 1969 - Clausthal, 1971 - Cracow, 1973 - Pont-à-Mousson, 1975 - Cambridge, 1978 - Aachen, 1981 - Tokyo, 1984 - Noordwijkerhout, 1987 - Santa Fe, 1990 - Avignon, 1993 - Clausthal, 1996 - Xian, 1999 - Montreal, 2002 - Seoul, 2005 - Leuven, 2008 - Pittsburgh, 2011 - Mumbai, 2014 - Dresden. ICOTOM 17 was hosted by the Dresden University of Technology, Institute of Structural Physics. Following the tradition of the ICOTOM conferences, the main focus of ICOTOM-17 was to promote and strengthen the fundamental understanding of the basic processes that govern the formation of texture and its relation to the properties of polycrystalline materials. Nonetheless, it was the aim to forge links between basic research on model materials and applied research on engineering materials of technical importance. Thus, ICOTOM 17 provided a forum for the presentation and discussion of recent progress in research of texture and related anisotropy of mechanical and functional properties of all kinds of polycrystalline materials including natural materials like rocks. Particular attention was paid to recent advances in texture measurement and analysis as well as modeling of texture development for all kinds of processes like solidification, plastic deformation, recrystallization and grain growth, phase transformations, thin film deposition, etc. Hence, ICOTOM 17 was of great interest to materials scientists, engineers from many different areas and geoscientists. The topics covered by ICOTOM 17 were: 1. Mathematical, numerical and statistical methods of texture analysis 2. Deformation textures 3. Crystallization, recrystallization and growth textures 4. Transformation textures 5. Textures in functional materials 6. Textures in advanced materials 7. Textures in rocks 8. Texture

  15. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories (MBT17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholz, Heidi; Boronat, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    These are the proceedings of the XVII International Conference on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories, which was held from 8-13 September 2013 in Rostock, Germany. The conference continued the triennial series initiated in Trieste in 1978 and was devoted to new developments in the field of many-body theories. The conference series encourages the exchange of ideas between physicists working in such diverse areas as nuclear physics, quantum chemistry, lattice Hamiltonians or quantum uids. Many-body theories are an integral part in different fields of theoretical physics such as condensed matter, nuclear matter and field theory. Phase transitions and macroscopic quantum effects such as magnetism, Bose-Einstein condensation, super uidity or superconductivity have been investigated within ultra-cold gases, finite systems or various nanomaterials. The conference series on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories is devoted to foster the interaction and to cross-fertilize between different fields and to discuss future lines of research. The topics of the 17th meeting were Cluster Physics Cold Gases High Energy Density Matter and Intense Lasers Magnetism New Developments in Many-Body Techniques Nuclear Many-Body and Relativistic Theories Quantum Fluids and Solids Quantum Phase Transitions Topological Insulators and Low Dimensional Systems. 109 participants from 20 countries participated. 44 talks and 61 posters werde presented. As a particular highlight of the conference, The Eugene Feenberg Memorial Medal for outstanding results in the field of many-body theory and The Hermann Kümmel Early Achievement Award in Many-Body Physics for young scientists in that field were awarded. The Feenberg Medal went jointly to Patrick Lee (MIT, USA) for his fundamental contributions to condensed-matter theory, especially in regard to the quantum Hall effect, to universal conductance uctuations, and to the Kondo effect in quantum dots, and Douglas Scalapino (UC Santa Barbara, USA) for his

  16. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, T.; Midgley, P. A.

    2011-11-01

    This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 17th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at Churchill College, University of Cambridge, on 4-7 April 2011. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Institute of Physics and supported by the Royal Microscopical Society as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and related techniques with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 131 delegates from 25 countries world-wide, a record in terms of internationality. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes of device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, the electronic structure, the chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two examples of topics at this meeting that have attracted a number of interesting studies were: the correlation of microstructural, optical and chemical information at atomic resolution with nanometre-scale resolved maps of the local electrical fields in (In,Al)GaN based semiconductors and tomographic approaches to characterise ensembles of nanowires and stacks of processed layers in devices Figure 1 Figure 1. Opening lecture by Professor Sir Colin J Humphreys. Each manuscript submitted for publication in this proceedings volume has been independently reviewed and revised

  17. [Effects of the periodical spread of rinderpest on famine, epidemic, and tiger disasters in the late 17th Century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Jin; Yoo, Han Sang; Lee, Hang

    2014-04-01

    This study clarifies the causes of the repetitive occurrences of such phenomena as rinderpest, epidemic, famine, and tiger disasters recorded in the Joseon Dynasty Chronicle and the Seungjeongwon Journals in the period of great catastrophe, the late 17th century in which the great Gyeongsin famine (1670~1671) and the great Eulbyeong famine (1695~1696) occurred, from the perspective that they were biological exchanges caused by the new arrival of rinderpest in the early 17th century. It is an objection to the achievements by existing studies which suggest that the great catastrophes occurring in the late 17th century are evidence of phenomena in a little ice age. First of all, rinderpest has had influence on East Asia as it had been spread from certain areas in Machuria in May 1636 through Joseon, where it raged throughout the nation, and then to the west part of Japan. The new arrival of rinderpest was indigenized in Joseon, where it was localized and spread periodically while it was adjusted to changes in the population of cattle with immunity in accordance with their life spans and reproduction rates. As the new rinderpest, which showed high pathogenicity in the early 17th century, was indigenized with its high mortality and continued until the late 17th century, it broke out periodically in general. Contrastively, epidemics like smallpox and measles that were indigenized as routine ones had occurred constantly from far past times. As a result, the rinderpest, which tried a new indigenization, and the human epidemics, which had been already indigenized long ago, were unexpectedly overlapped in their breakout, and hence great changes were noticed in the aspects of the human casualty due to epidemics. The outbreak of rinderpest resulted in famine due to lack of farming cattle, and the famine caused epidemics among people. The casualty of the human population due to the epidemics in turn led to negligence of farming cattle, which constituted factors that triggered

  18. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrotzki, Werner; Oertel, Carl-Georg

    2015-04-01

    The 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17) took place in Dresden, Germany, August 24-29, 2014. It belongs to the "triennial" series of ICOTOM meetings with a long tradition, starting in 1969 - Clausthal, 1971 - Cracow, 1973 - Pont-à-Mousson, 1975 - Cambridge, 1978 - Aachen, 1981 - Tokyo, 1984 - Noordwijkerhout, 1987 - Santa Fe, 1990 - Avignon, 1993 - Clausthal, 1996 - Xian, 1999 - Montreal, 2002 - Seoul, 2005 - Leuven, 2008 - Pittsburgh, 2011 - Mumbai, 2014 - Dresden. ICOTOM 17 was hosted by the Dresden University of Technology, Institute of Structural Physics. Following the tradition of the ICOTOM conferences, the main focus of ICOTOM-17 was to promote and strengthen the fundamental understanding of the basic processes that govern the formation of texture and its relation to the properties of polycrystalline materials. Nonetheless, it was the aim to forge links between basic research on model materials and applied research on engineering materials of technical importance. Thus, ICOTOM 17 provided a forum for the presentation and discussion of recent progress in research of texture and related anisotropy of mechanical and functional properties of all kinds of polycrystalline materials including natural materials like rocks. Particular attention was paid to recent advances in texture measurement and analysis as well as modeling of texture development for all kinds of processes like solidification, plastic deformation, recrystallization and grain growth, phase transformations, thin film deposition, etc. Hence, ICOTOM 17 was of great interest to materials scientists, engineers from many different areas and geoscientists. The topics covered by ICOTOM 17 were: 1. Mathematical, numerical and statistical methods of texture analysis 2. Deformation textures 3. Crystallization, recrystallization and growth textures 4. Transformation textures 5. Textures in functional materials 6. Textures in advanced materials 7. Textures in rocks 8. Texture

  19. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-01-01

    The 17th edition of the International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2014) was held in San Carlos de Bariloche, in the southern region of Argentina known as Patagonia, from August 31 to September 5, 2014. This meeting corresponds to a series of HCI conferences, which has been held every other year since 1982 in cities in Europe, USA, Japan and China. This was the first time that the conference took place in Latin America. This edition was organized by a Local Committee made up of physicists mainly from the cities of Bariloche and Rosario and also from Buenos Aires and Bahía Blanca, all sites where research on Atomic Collisions is developed. The conference was attended by delegates coming from 18 countries, more that 23% of whom were women. The field of highly charged ions has seen in recent years a promising evolution originating from bold progress in theory and significant advances in experimental techniques. The HCI conferences aim at bringing together experimentalists and theoreticians from as wide a range of fields as, for instance, Fundamental Aspects, Structure and Spectroscopy, Collisions with Electrons, Ions, Atoms and Molecules, Interaction with Clusters, Surfaces and Solids, Interactions with Photons and Plasmas, Strong Field Processes, and Production, Experimental Developments and Applications. The Scientific Programme, selected by an International Advisory Board, included 5 Review Lectures, 11 Progress Reports, 1 Local Report and 24 Special Reports. In addition, the results of 132 contributed works were presented as poster communications and a Public Lecture on 'The wonders of the Southern Skies' was delivered by an Argentinean expert. Thus, a wide range of subjects comprising a balanced mix of topics was covered throughout the course of the conference. The HCI 2014 was a resounding success for the international and local communities, from both the scientific and social aspects, considering that the attendees and accompanying

  20. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-01-01

    The 17th edition of the International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2014) was held in San Carlos de Bariloche, in the southern region of Argentina known as Patagonia, from August 31 to September 5, 2014. This meeting corresponds to a series of HCI conferences, which has been held every other year since 1982 in cities in Europe, USA, Japan and China. This was the first time that the conference took place in Latin America. This edition was organized by a Local Committee made up of physicists mainly from the cities of Bariloche and Rosario and also from Buenos Aires and Bahía Blanca, all sites where research on Atomic Collisions is developed. The conference was attended by delegates coming from 18 countries, more that 23% of whom were women. The field of highly charged ions has seen in recent years a promising evolution originating from bold progress in theory and significant advances in experimental techniques. The HCI conferences aim at bringing together experimentalists and theoreticians from as wide a range of fields as, for instance, Fundamental Aspects, Structure and Spectroscopy, Collisions with Electrons, Ions, Atoms and Molecules, Interaction with Clusters, Surfaces and Solids, Interactions with Photons and Plasmas, Strong Field Processes, and Production, Experimental Developments and Applications. The Scientific Programme, selected by an International Advisory Board, included 5 Review Lectures, 11 Progress Reports, 1 Local Report and 24 Special Reports. In addition, the results of 132 contributed works were presented as poster communications and a Public Lecture on 'The wonders of the Southern Skies' was delivered by an Argentinean expert. Thus, a wide range of subjects comprising a balanced mix of topics was covered throughout the course of the conference. The HCI 2014 was a resounding success for the international and local communities, from both the scientific and social aspects, considering that the attendees and accompanying

  1. Union catalogue of printed books of 15th, 16th and 17th centuries in European astronomical observatories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, G.

    This catalogue deals with the scientific subjects of that historical period such as astronomy, astrology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, historia naturalis and so forth, and contains extremely rare volumes such as the first printed editions of the eminent Arab, Latin, Greek and Persian scientists Albumasar, Albohazen Aly, Aristoteles, Ptolemaeus, Pliny the Elder and Ulugh Beig. In addition the catalogue contains the first works of such great astronomers of the 16th and 17th centuries as Copernicus, Kepler, Clavius, Regiomontanus, Sacrobosco, Mercator, Newton, Gassendi, Galilei and Hevelius, just to quote the most representative ones. The catalogue is followed by a chronological index and an index of printers and publishers.

  2. Non Destructive Investigation on the 17th/18th Century Sicilian Jewellery Collection at the Messina Regional Museum Using Mobile Raman Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, G.; Bersani, D.; Jehlicka, J.; Lottici, P. P.; Mazzoleni, P.; Raneri, S.; Vandenabeele, P.; Di Giacomo, C.; Larinà, G.

    2014-06-01

    A handheld Raman spectrometer operating at 785 nm was used for the in situ analysis of the gems present in the 17th/18th century Sicilian jewelry collection preserved in the Messina Regional Museum (Italy).

  3. 17th Workshop on MHD Stability Control: addressing the disruption challenge for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttery, Richard

    2013-08-01

    This annual workshop on magnetohydrodynamic stability control was held on 5-7 November 2012 at Columbia University in the city of New York, in the aftermath of a violent hydrodynamic instability event termed 'Hurricane Sandy'. Despite these challenging circumstances, Columbia University managed an excellent meeting, enabling the full participation of the community. This Workshop has been held since 1996 to help in the development of understanding and control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities for future fusion reactors. It covers a wide range of stability topics—from disruptions, to tearing modes, error fields, edge-localized modes (ELMs), resistive wall modes (RWMs) and ideal MHD—spanning many device types (tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches) to identify commonalities in the physics and a means of control. The theme for 2012 was 'addressing the disruption challenge for ITER', and thus the first day had a heavy focus on both the avoidance and mitigation of disruptions in ITER. Key elements included understanding how to apply 3D fields to maintain stability, as well as managing the disruption process itself through mitigating loads in the thermal quench and handling so called 'runaway electrons'. This culminated in a panel discussion on the disruption mitigation strategy for ITER, which noted that heat load asymmetries during the thermal quench appear to be an artifact of MHD processes, and that runaway electron generation may be inevitable, suggesting research should focus on control and dissipation of the runaway beam. The workshop was combined this year with the annual US-Japan MHD Workshop, with a special section looking more deeply at 'Fundamentals of 3D Perturbed Equilibrium Control', with interesting sessions on 3D equilibrium reconstruction, RWM physics, novel control concepts such as non-magnetic sensing, adaptive control, q < 2 tokamak operation, and the effects of flow. The final day turned to tearing mode interactions

  4. JANNAF 28th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and 17th Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Mulder, Edwin J. (Editor); Gomez-Knight, Sylvia J. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains 37 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers that were presented at the JANNAF 28th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) and 17th Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) Joint Meeting, held 26-30 April 1999 at the Town & Country Hotel and the Naval Submarine Base, San Diego, California. Volume II contains 29 unclassified/limited-distribution papers that were presented at the 28th PDCS and 17th S&EPS Joint Meeting. Volume III contains a classified paper that was presented at the 28th PDCS Meeting on 27 April 1999. Topics covered in PDCS sessions include: solid propellant rheology; solid propellant surveillance and aging; propellant process engineering; new solid propellant ingredients and formulation development; reduced toxicity liquid propellants; characterization of hypergolic propellants; and solid propellant chemical analysis methods. Topics covered in S&EPS sessions include: space launch range safety; liquid propellant hazards; vapor detection methods for toxic propellant vapors and other hazardous gases; toxicity of propellants, ingredients, and propellant combustion products; personal protective equipment for toxic liquid propellants; and demilitarization/treatment of energetic material wastes.

  5. Finding ancient parasite larvae in a sample from a male living in late 17th century Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, D H; Chai, J Y; Park, E A; Lee, W; Lee, H; Lee, J S; Choi, Y M; Koh, B J; Park, J B; Oh, C S; Bok, G D; Kim, W L; Lee, E; Lee, E J; Seo, M

    2009-06-01

    Parasitological examination of samples from tombs of the Korean Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) could be helpful to researchers in understanding parasitic infection prevalence in pre-industrial Korean society. Whereas most of our previous parasitological studies revealed the presence of ancient parasite eggs in coprolites of Korean mummies, a sample from a man living in late 17th century Korea proved to be relatively unique in possessing what appeared to be several species of parasite larvae. The larvae identified included Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichostrongylus spp., along with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Paragonimus westermani. Since ancient parasite larvae retain enough morphology to make proper species identification possible, even after long burial times, the examination of parasite larvae within ancient samples will be conducted more carefully in our future work. PMID:19071966

  6. International Society for Aerosols in Medicine, 17th congress, 10-14 May 2009, Monterey, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Newman, Steve

    2009-08-01

    The 17th biennial congress of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine (ISAM) was held in Monterey, California, between 10 and 14 May 2009. The congress was attended by approximately 300 delegates from 18 countries. Podium presentations were focused on advances in pulmonary drug delivery, but clearance of materials from the lungs by a variety of processes and the potential harmful effects of inhaled particles were also covered. There were > 100 proffered posters, and a commercial exhibition in which 20 companies displayed their products. There were excellent networking opportunities, and the inauguration of more formal networking groups will allow dialogue to continue. Abstracts of podium and poster presentations were provided in the Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery, and it is likely that some of the podium presentations will appear as full papers in that journal in due course. The next conference in this series takes place in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, in June 2011. PMID:19637975

  7. Footprints of the EADV: a meeting report from the 17th Congress of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

    PubMed

    Alexandroff, A B; Burd, R

    2009-05-01

    The 17th Congress of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology took place in Paris on 17-20 September 2008 and brought together nearly 11,000 participants. Various plenary lectures, subspecialty meetings, 'free communications', 'top ten', 'test yourself' and 'junior' sessions, 19 courses and 14 'lunches with the expert', six forums, 27 symposia and 45 workshops were pressed into the 4 days of the meeting. Over 1700 posters were presented and exhibited. The themes of a number of symposiums, workshops and sessions overlapped, offering additional educational opportunities despite a very busy schedule. The meeting was well organized. Aesthetic dermatology comprised a significant part of the meeting. It is impossible to encompass all important presentations and we highlight a few medical pearls presented at the meeting; however, our report is not intended as a substitute for reading the conference proceedings and related references quoted in this article. PMID:19309366

  8. Venetian Rule and Control of Plague Epidemics on the Ionian Islands during 17th and 18th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidou, Katerina; Mantadakis, Elpis; Sardi, Thalia; Samonis, George

    2009-01-01

    During the 17th and 18th centuries, measures were taken by the Venetian administration to combat plague on the Ionian Islands. At that time, although the scientific basis of plague was unknown, the Venetians recognized its infectious nature and successfully decreased its spread by implementing an information network. Additionally, by activating a system of inspection that involved establishing garrisons along the coasts, the Venetians were able to control all local movements in plague-infested areas, which were immediately isolated. In contrast, the neighboring coast of mainland Greece, which was under Ottoman rule, was a plague-endemic area during the same period. We conclude that even in the absence of scientific knowledge, close observation and social and political measures can effectively restrain infectious outbreaks to the point of disappearance. PMID:19116047

  9. Late Holocene history of Chaitén Volcano: new evidence for a 17th century eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lara, Luis E.; Moreno, Rodrigo; Amigo, Álvaro; Hoblitt, Richard P.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Prior to May 2008, it was thought that the last eruption of Chaitén Volcano occurred more than 5,000 years ago, a rather long quiescent period for a volcano in such an active arc segment. However, increasingly more Holocene eruptions are being identified. This article presents both geological and historical evidence for late Holocene eruptive activity in the 17th century (AD 1625-1658), which included an explosive rhyolitic eruption that produced pumice ash fallout east of the volcano and caused channel aggradation in the Chaitén River. The extents of tephra fall and channel aggradation were similar to those of May 2008. Fine ash, pumice and obsidian fragments in the pre-2008 deposits are unequivocally derived from Chaitén Volcano. This finding has important implications for hazards assessment in the area and suggests the eruptive frequency and magnitude should be more thoroughly studied.

  10. Immunology's first priority dispute--an account of the 17th-century Rudbeck-Bartholin feud.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Charles T

    2006-07-01

    Modern immunology has been notably free of public disputes over credit for major discoveries in this discipline. But the early recognition of the lymphatic system witnessed two examples of heated priority feuds. The first in the 17th-century concerned the greater anatomical organization of the system, while the second in the 18th-century concerned its function. This essay reviews the earlier of the two disputes, in which a Swedish medical student (Ole Rudbeck) charged a respected Danish Professor (T. Bartholin) with plagiarism and antedating his observations. Thus ethical issues in immunology predate modern times. How this discipline reached this point in its history is another focus of this essay and also an excuse to review briefly the anatomy of the lymphatic system. The influence of nationalistic pride on priority disputes is also discussed. PMID:17083923

  11. Anatomical Confirmation of Computed Tomography-Based Diagnosis of the Atherosclerosis Discovered in 17th Century Korean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeung Ju; Kim, Yi-Suk; Oh, Chang Seok; Go, Jai-Hyang; Lee, In Sun; Park, Won-Kyu; Cho, Seok-Min; Kim, Soon-Kwan; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In the present study on a newly discovered 17th century Korean mummy, computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple aortic calcifications within the aortic wall that were indicative of ancient atherosclerosis. The CT-based findings were confirmed by our subsequent post-factum dissection, which exhibited possible signs of the disease including ulcerated plaques, ruptured hemorrhages, and intimal thickening where the necrotic core was covered by the fibrous cap. These findings are strong indicators that the mummy suffered from aortic atherosclerosis during her lifetime. The present study is a good example of how CT images of vascular calcifications can be a useful diagnostic tool in forming at least preliminary diagnoses of ancient atherosclerosis. PMID:25816014

  12. Venetian rule and control of plague epidemics on the Ionian Islands during 17th and 18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidou, Katerina; Mantadakis, Elpis; Falagas, Matthew E; Sardi, Thalia; Samonis, George

    2009-01-01

    During the 17th and 18th centuries, measures were taken by the Venetian administration to combat plague on the Ionian Islands. At that time, although the scientific basis of plague was unknown, the Venetians recognized its infectious nature and successfully decreased its spread by implementing an information network. Additionally, by activating a system of inspection that involved establishing garrisons along the coasts, the Venetians were able to control all local movements in plague-infested areas, which were immediately isolated. In contrast, the neighboring coast of mainland Greece, which was under Ottoman rule, was a plague-endemic area during the same period. We conclude that even in the absence of scientific knowledge, close observation and social and political measures can effectively restrain infectious outbreaks to the point of disappearance. PMID:19116047

  13. IAEA safeguards in perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Eklund, S.

    1987-07-01

    A review of the development of the International Atomic Energy Agency from President Eisenhower's 1953 Atoms for Peace proposal through development of the IAEA safeguards approach in the official documents (The Statute, INFCIRC/66 and 153), and related initiators, such as the Nuclear Supplier State Agreement (INFCE/254), The International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (1977-79), The Committee on Assurance and Supply, and the proposed International Plutonium Storage Regime. The accomplishments of IAEA safeguards are recognized as well as the continuing need for development and support.

  14. TECHNICAL SUPPORT TO IAEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    IAEA sponsors meetings of technical specialists from many nations on NORM and NORM industries in Member States, with particular emphasis on potential public exposure to, and the residual waste arising from, these activities, and aspects of how NORM differs from artificial, man-ma...

  15. Evidence for Precise Calendrical Observations in the 17th Century at the `Bruchhauser Steine', Olsberg, Northrhine-Westphalia, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinrücken, B.

    The `Bruchhauser Steine', four large rocks of volcanic origin in southern Westphalia, form perfect foresights for calendrical observations from the surrounding country. The ancient walls and embankments on the `Istenberg' with the rocks as cornerstones were built 500 BC. In the landscape are placed shrines with images of Christian saints, erected in the late 17th and the early 18th century. The positions of these shrines can be interpreted as observing sites with respect to the stones. The foresights reach several degrees to the sky, so variations in the astronomical refraction are strongly suppressed. The most impressive observing site with a shrine of 1699 (8o31'13'' E, 51o18'49'' N) is exactly at the position to observe the summer solstice sunrise at the topmost rock, the `Feldstein'. The solstice sun rises between two stones and grazes the Feldstein at 6:20 CEST. Today the sun is obstructed 2'-3' by the stone. Taking into account the slight variation of the obliquity of the ecliptic of 2' since 1699 the grazing procedure at the time of erection was perfect, without any obstruction of the suns disc. Similar shrines are placed at positions to observe the sunrise on May 1st in the identical manner (8o29'39'' E, 51o18'41'' N) and the lunar declination minimum on the meridian (8o32'44'' E, 51o20'33'' N). Some evidence indicates a prehistoric origin of this calendrical system.

  16. Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister Categories of Transuranic Waste Stored Below Ground within Area G

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Kenneth Marshall

    2015-03-01

    A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned large areas near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2011 and heightened public concern and news media attention over transuranic (TRU) waste stored at LANL’s Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G waste management facility. The removal of TRU waste from Area G had been placed at a lower priority in budget decisions for environmental cleanup at LANL because TRU waste removal is not included in the March 2005 Compliance Order on Consent (Reference 1) that is the primary regulatory driver for environmental cleanup at LANL. The Consent Order is a settlement agreement between LANL and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) that contains specific requirements and schedules for cleaning up historical contamination at the LANL site. After the Las Conchas Fire, discussions were held by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the NMED on accelerating TRU waste removal from LANL and disposing it at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report summarizes available information on the origin, configuration, and composition of the waste containers within the Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister categories; their physical and radiological characteristics; the results of the radioassays; and potential issues in retrieval and processing of the waste containers.

  17. [Genealogical study of the Pijart dynasty, goldsmiths or apothecaries in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2007-10-01

    The Pijart dynasty, established in Paris during the 16th and 17th centuries, included apothecaries and goldsmiths who had a common ancestor, Michel Pijart, warden of the goldsmith's guild (garde de l'orfèvrerie) in 1507. He was married to Jehanne Daumont and died 23rd July 1524. This couple had four sons, all goldsmiths, Pierre, Michel, Jehan and Nicolas. Pierre married twice. His first wife, Philippe Dusseau, was the sister of a famous apothecary. Only their eldest son, François, chose the profession of apothecary; the other three, Jacques, Jehan and Philibert, all followed their father's profession. By his second marriage to Marie de Mézières, Pierre had two sons, Claude the elder and Claude the younger, who both became goldsmiths. Thus, the goldsmith's trade became the favoured profession of the Pijart family. Professional endogamy prevailed in this dynasty, after the fashion of merchants belonging to the six most prestigious guilds (Six-Corps de métiers). Goldsmiths and apothecaries retained strong family ties, demonstrated by family reunions (baptisms, betrothals, etc.). It is undisputable that the renown of this dynasty is based on the fame of its goldsmiths. However, through marriage, the Pijart's developed links with other families of apothecaries, of which the most outstanding were the Boulduc's. PMID:18348497

  18. Microscopy and Microanalysis of an Extreme Case of Salt and Biodegradation in 17th Century Wall Paintings.

    PubMed

    Gil, Milene; Martins, Maria Rosário; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Souto, Cátia; Longelin, Stephane; Cardoso, Ana; Mirão, José; Candeias, António Estevão

    2015-06-01

    The present study characterizes the main deterioration mechanisms affecting the early 17th frescoes of Casa de Fresco, the only known example in Portugal of a semi-underground leisure room richly decorated with a balcony over a water well. Frescoes from the vault are at risk due to salt weathering and biodeterioration. The aim of the research was identification of the deterioration materials, determination of their origin, and their effect on the frescoes before future intervention. Scanning electron microscopy with an energy-dispersive X-ray detector (SEM-EDS) was used to determine salt morphology and microanalysis. The mineralogical characterization was performed by X-ray powder diffraction, complemented with µ-Raman and µ-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Biological assessment was evaluated with optical microscopy and SEM-EDS. Bacterial and fungal isolation and identification were performed using standard culture media and methods according to Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology and from the Compendium of Soil Fungi. The results show that Ca and Ca-Mg carbonates from the paint renderings are the predominant salt species affecting the site. Bacterial strains from the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas and fungal strains from the Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. were isolated in the salt formations, within and between the mortar layers. Azurite, malachite, and smalt paint layers are the most affected by the weathering conditions. PMID:26149345

  19. Teaching Science in Art: Technical Examination of 17th-Century Dutch Painting as Interdisciplinary Coursework for Science Majors and Nonmajors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uffelman, Erich S.

    2007-01-01

    Two linked courses examining conservation science and art history of 17th-century Dutch painting are described. The two courses have been taught on campus and, most recently, as study-abroad courses in collaboration with the Center for European Studies, Universiteit Maastricht, The Netherlands. The highly interdisciplinary courses are intense, yet…

  20. Providing Quality Education and Training for Rural Australians. SPERA National Conference Proceedings (17th, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia, July 8-11, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian, Ed.; Boylan, Colin, Ed.

    This proceedings of the 17th annual conference of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) contains 28 keynote addresses and conference papers. Major conference themes were vocational education and training (VET) in rural schools, small schools, flexible rural delivery systems, and the community as a resource and…

  1. Landscape paintings of the 17th and 19th century as a tool for coastal zone management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, P. D.; van den Ancker, J.

    2012-04-01

    For more than fifty years many Dutch landscapes suffered severe damage. For their management, it is valuable to know what they looked like in the past. Historic maps give inadequate information, and landscape and aerial photographs are scarcely available until the 1940s. Before then landscapes have been documented chiefly by landscape painters. Interpreted with care, Dutch landscape paintings of the 17th and 19th century are an invaluable geoheritage archive and also hold information that is relevant for present-day landscape management. We present paintings of the Dutch coastal zone as an example. The coastal zone of the Netherlands is geomorphologically well developed, with beaches, foredunes, medieval 'Young dunes', and 5000 year old beach ridges with several anthropic modifications. Each of these terrains attracted landscape painters. Representative paintings can be found in museums and art galleries. We evaluated hundreds of paintings of the collection of Simonis & Buunk, an art gallery in Ede specialised in 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings, for the geoheritage information they contain. The collection, which is the largest on the subject on¬line available in Europe, can be freely consulted (www.simonis--buunk.com). The freedom taken by the painters to adjust reality for compositional or stylistic reasons is still subject of discussion. The paintings became more realistic in the middle of the 19th century when paints became available in tubes and the painters could leave their studio to work in the field. We selected paintings that are sufficiently realistic to be translated in real landscape features, including geomorphological processes and elements. Some insights: • Because of the overriding control of marine and eolian processes, the appearance of the beaches has not changed since the 16th century. • The difference between the flat beaches of the Netherlands and the steeper beaches is accurately registered by the painters. • On a coast

  2. Programmed death-1 pathway in host tissues ameliorates Th17/Th1-mediated experimental chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hideaki; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Kobayashi, Koichiro; Nishimori, Hisakazu; Matsuoka, Ken-Ichi; Fujii, Nobuharu; Kondo, Eisei; Tanaka, Takehiro; Chen, Lieping; Azuma, Miyuki; Yagita, Hideo; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2014-09-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of late death and morbidity after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. We investigated the role of the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway in chronic GVHD using a well-defined mouse model of B10.D2 (H-2(d)) donor to BALB/c (H-2(d)) recipients. PD-1 expression on allogeneic donor T cells was upregulated continuously in chronic GVHD development, whereas PD-L1 expression in host tissues was transiently upregulated and declined to basal levels in the late posttransplant period. Blockade of the PD-1 pathway by anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, or anti-PD-L2 mAbs exacerbated clinical and pathologic chronic GVHD. Chimeric mice revealed that PD-L1 expression in host tissues suppressed expansion of IL-17(+)IFN-γ(+) T cells, and that PD-L1 expression on hematopoietic cells plays a role in the development of regulatory T cells only during the early transplantation period but does not affect the severity of chronic GVHD. Administration of the synthetic retinoid Am80 overcame the IL-17(+)IFN-γ(+) T cell expansion caused by PD-L1 deficiency, resulting in reduced chronic GVHD damage in PD-L1(-/-) recipients. Stimulation of the PD-1 pathway also alleviated chronic GVHD. These results suggest that the PD-1 pathway contributes to the suppression of Th17/Th1-mediated chronic GVHD and may represent a new target for the prevention or treatment of chronic GVHD. PMID:25080485

  3. Floods of the Lower Tisza from the late 17th century onwards: frequency, magnitude, seasonality and great flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The present paper is based on a recently developed database including contemporary original, administrative, legal and private source materials (published and archival) as well as media reports related to the floods occurred on the lower sections of the Tisza river in Hungary, with special emphasis on the area of Szeged town. The study area is well-represented by contemporary source evidence from the late 17th century onwards, when the town and its broader area was reoccupied from the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Concerning the applied source materials, the main bases of investigation are the administrative (archival) sources such as town council protocols of Szeged and county meeting protocols of Csanád and Csongrád Counties. In these (legal-)administrative documents damaging events (natural/environmental hazards) were systematically recorded. Moreover, other source types such as taxation-related damage accounts as well as private and official reports, letters and correspondence (published, unpublished) were also included. Concerning published evidence, a most important source is flood reports in contemporary newspapers as well as town chronicles and other contemporary narratives. In the presentation the main focus is on the analysis of flood-rich flood-poor periods of the last ca. 330 years; moreover, the seasonality distribution as well as the magnitude of Tisza flood events are also discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to provide a short overview, in the form of case studies, on the greatest flood events (e.g. duration, magnitude, damages, multi-annual consequences), and their further impacts on the urban and countryside development as well as on (changes in) flood defence strategies. In this respect, especially two flood events, the great (1815-)1816 and the catastrophic 1879 flood (shortly with causes and consequences) - that practically erased Szeged town from the ground - are presented in more detail.

  4. Hydrometeorological extremes reconstructed from documentary evidence for the Jihlava region in the 17th-19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolak, Lukas; Brazdil, Rudolf; Chroma, Katerina; Valasek, Hubert; Belinova, Monika; Reznickova, Ladislava

    2016-04-01

    Different documentary evidence (taxation records, chronicles, insurance reports etc.) is used for reconstruction of hydrometeorological extremes (HMEs) in the Jihlava region (central part of the recent Czech Republic) in the 17th-19th centuries. The aim of the study is description of the system of tax alleviation in Moravia, presentation of utilization of early fire and hail damage insurance claims and application of the new methodological approaches for the analysis of HMEs impacts. During the period studied more than 400 HMEs were analysed for the 16 estates (past basic economic units). Late frost on 16 May 1662 on the Nove Mesto na Morave estate, which destroyed whole cereals and caused damage in the forests, is the first recorded extreme event. Downpours causing flash floods and hailstorms are the most frequently recorded natural disasters. Moreover, floods, droughts, windstorms, blizzards, late frosts and lightning strikes starting fires caused enormous damage as well. The impacts of HMEs are classified into three categories: impacts on agricultural production, material property and the socio-economic impacts. Natural disasters became the reasons of losses of human lives, property, supplies and farming equipment. HMEs caused damage to fields and meadows, depletion of livestock and triggered the secondary consequences as lack of seeds and finance, high prices, indebtedness, poverty and deterioration in field fertility. The results are discussed with respect to uncertainties associated with documentary evidences and their spatiotemporal distribution. Archival records, preserved in the Moravian Land Archives in Brno and other district archives, create a unique source of data contributing to the better understanding of extreme events and their impacts.

  5. [Scholarly life in the late 17th century: the Giessen professor of medicine Michael Bernhard Valentini (1657-1729)].

    PubMed

    Enke, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Towards the end of the 17th century the university of Giessen was--compared to, for example, Leipzig or the newly founded university of Halle--a rather small university in terms of student numbers. Situated in a provincial town of about 5,000 inhabitants and far away from the capital, Darmstadt, the university was a firmly denominational, i.e. orthodox Lutheran, counter-foundation against the neighbouring university of Marburg in Calvinist Hesse-Kassel. This paper describes under what circumstances Michael Bernhard Valentini (1657-1729), a typical and well-known scholar in his time, became successful and influential in the early Enlightenment. Born in 1657 as the son of a university servant (Pedell) and therefore underprivileged, he succeeded in becoming dean of the medical faculty and eventually rector of Giessen University. He was professor of Physica naturalis as well as of medicine and gained importance and influence by establishing experimental physics in Giessen. Numerous publications, not only in medicine but also in natural history and about curiosities, attracted the attention of many scientific societies whose membership he obtained. Valentini had studied philosophy and medicine in Giessen at a time when the curricula in medicine and natural philosophy were still taught in the traditional scholastic manner. After having worked as a medical practitioner, he made an educational tour through Western Europe in 1686, during which he met Robert Boyle in London. In 1687 Valentini became professor of physics in Giessen. In the same year, he bought several physical instruments--including an air pump from the Musschenbroek workshop in Leiden, at that time a centre of technical and scientific innovation. Thanks to Valentini Giessen became the third university in Germany (after Altdorf and Marburg) that offered the "new" experimental physics in its curriculum. PMID:18196757

  6. The ``System of Chymists'' and the ``Newtonian dream'' in Greek-speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-06-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a “philosophy” of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This “philosophical” chemistry was not based on the existence of any academic institutions, it was focused on the ontology of principles and forces governing the analysis/synthesis of matter and formulated two didactic traditions. The one, named “the system of chymists”, close to the Boylean/Cartesian tradition, accepted, contrary to Aristotelianism, the five “chymical” principles and also the analytical ideal, but the “chymical” principles were not under a conceptual and experimental investigation, as they were in Europe. Also, a crucial issue for this tradition remained the “mechanical” principles which were under the influence of the metaphysical nature of the Aristotelian principles. The other, close to the Boylean/Newtonian tradition, was the integrated presentation of the Newtonian “dream”, which maintained a discursive attitude with reference to the “chemical attractions”-“chemical affinities” and actualised the mathematical atomism of Boscovich, according to which the elementary texture of matter could be causally explained within this complex architecture of mathematical “ punkta”. In this tradition also coexisted, in a discursive synthesis, the “chemical element” of Lavoisier and the arguments of the new theory and its opposition to the phlogiston theory, but the “chemical affinities” were under the realm of the “physical element” as “metaphysical point”.

  7. Analysis the flash floods occurred in the South Tyne river watershed (United Kingdom) on the 17th of July 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, V.; Milan, D.; Preciso, E.; Gaume, E.

    2009-04-01

    On the 17th, 19th and 23rd of July 2007, a series of local thunderstorms induced flash floods in the upper part of the South Tyne river in Northumberland, a rural area located near the border between England and Scotland. These events led to moderate damages in the villages and losses of livestock in local farms. They were shadowed in comparison to the widespread lowland floods that occurred throughout the UK during the same period but were nevertheless extreme events for the region. One of the affected streams, the Thinhope Burn, has been surveyed by the University of Gloucestershire during recent years. It is an active river from a geomorphological point of view. A survey conducted after the 2007 flood revealed that many of the boulders along the banks of the river, which had been deposited 50 to 100 years before, had been displaced, indicating a high return period for the flood (see EGU abstract EGU2008-A-04713). A complementary survey was conducted in July 2008 with the objective of gathering information on the discharges, the rainfall amounts and the active runoff processes. 14 cross-sections were surveyed, pictures were collected enabling a validation of peak discharge estimates, 5 witnesses were interviewed and additional rainfall data and geomorphological evidence were collected. This survey revealed that the peak discharges exceeded 5 m3/s/km2 in the most affected areas. Unfortunately, no rainfall measurements are available that would enable further analysis, including the computation of runoff rates. Nevertheless, witness accounts and field observations give a good insight into the hydrological processes indicating a significant initial storage capacity of the peat layer covering the affected watersheds. Concerning the boulders, the field observations suggest surprising and unexplained transport processes. Blocks of up to one meter diameter were displaced over short distances and deposited on the river banks without any sign of established debris flow, as

  8. The historical archaeology of the 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community of Nevis, British West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Michelle M.

    2000-11-01

    This is an historical archaeological examination of a 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies. Unlike earlier archaeological studies of the Jewish Caribbean Diaspora that focused on single sites, this investigation used a community-wide approach to elucidate the daily experience of Sephardic Jews within the colonial Caribbean. This project included an archaeological excavation at the purported location of the community's synagogue, an electrical resistivity survey of the surviving cemetery, the construction of a map of property ownership in 18th-century Charlestown, and archival research. This study was carded out within a multiscalar and contextual framework that emphasized the importance of understanding the diaspora that brought the Jews to the West Indies, the development of the colonial Caribbean, and the surrounding environs of the port city of Charlestown, Nevis. The archaeological analysis of the supposed site of the synagogue proved that it was in fact that of a late 18th-century townhouse, but the associated land record research revealed the actual location of the community's former synagogue. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the physical layout of colonial-period Charlestown from the land records indicated the presence of a distinct Jewish quarter in the undesirable southern portion of the town. Evidence from the public records of Nevis and the social history of the members of the Jewish population unveiled external social and political pressures placed upon the Sephardim as well as internal religious and ethnic ties dig bound the community together. It is argued in closing that the archival evidence, in conjunction with the continued presence of a clustered settlement pattern like that of European Jewish communities during the medieval period, indicates that the Jews of the Caribbean were not fully integrated socially or politically into British colonial society. This examination of the Nevis community

  9. Quantifying early 17th century changes in Chesapeake Bay estuarine carbon dynamics from James River, VA oyster geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, B. L.; Spero, H. J.; Harding, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    same shells provide seasonal signals and also show an offset from modern that is consistent with drought conditions during the early 17th century. These high fidelity records allow for a direct, high-resolution comparison of the residence time of carbon in the environment immediately prior to European colonization and during the first century of land use change in mid-Atlantic North America.

  10. Cosmic ray composition between 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 17th power eV obtained by air shower experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the air shower data, the chemical composition of the primary cosmic rays in the energy range 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 17th power eV was obtained. The method is based on a well known N sub e-N sub mu and N sub e-N sub gamma. The simulation is calibrated by the CERN SPS pp collider results.

  11. [The beginnings of the nursing profession : the complementary relationship between secular caregivers and hospital nuns in France in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Diebolt, Evelyne

    2013-06-01

    The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salpêtrière hospital, Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charité" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied. PMID:23923734

  12. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 2: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes of the three main production centers.

    PubMed

    Vieira Ferreira, L F; Ferreira, D P; Conceição, D S; Santos, L F; Pereira, M F C; Casimiro, T M; Ferreira Machado, I

    2015-01-01

    Sherds representative of the three Portuguese faience production centers of the 17th century - Lisbon, Coimbra and Vila Nova were studied with the use of mostly non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence emission (XRF). X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments were also performed. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the pastes of the pottery produced Vila Nova and some of the ceramic pastes from Lisbon, in accordance with documental sources that described the use of Lisbon clays by Vila Nova potters, at least since mid 17th century. Quartz and Gehlenite are the main components of the Lisbon's pastes, but differences between the ceramic pastes were detected pointing out to the use of several clay sources. The spectroscopic trend exhibited Coimbra's pottery is remarkably different, Quartz and Diopside being the major components of these pastes, enabling one to well define a pattern for these ceramic bodies. The blue pigment from the Lisbon samples is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix, which enables the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals in most productions of the second half of the 17th century. No micro-Raman cobalt blue signature could be detected in the Vila Nova and Coimbra blue glazes. This is in accordance with the lower kiln temperatures in these two production centers and with Co(2+) ions dispersed in the silicate matrix. In all cases the white glaze is obtained with the use of tin oxide. Hausmannite was detected as the manganese oxide mineral used to produce the purple glaze (wine color "vinoso") in Lisbon. PMID:25965511

  13. Determination of droughts and high floods of the Bermejo River (Argentina) based on documentary evidence (17th to 20th century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, M. R.; Rojas, F.

    2015-10-01

    This study reconstructs a series of droughts and high flow volumes of the Bermejo River from the 17th to 20th century based on a content analysis of historic documentary evidence, which is calibrated with instrumental climate data. The historic data series shows an increase in the frequency of extraordinarily high waters beginning in the 19th century and a significant decrease in extreme droughts beginning in 1890. The data are compared to variations in the Mendoza River for the same period, which show that there was a long-standing lack of correlation between the rivers.

  14. Traces and echoes of De Architectura by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio in the work of Xu Guangqi in 17th century China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigola, Michela; Fang, Yibing

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the role played by Xu Guangqi (1562-1633), minister of the Ming Dynasty, in the development of European scientific and technical knowledge in China between the 16th and 17th centuries by analyzing a book of Western technology that he wrote, namely, Taixi Shuifa ( On Western Hydraulics). Several Western books related to machine knowledge are searched to trace the source of the illustrations in Taixi Shuifa. We found that Archimedes' screw and Ctesibius' machine, which are included in Vitruvius' De Architectura volumes, also appear in the work of Xu Guangqi.

  15. Visualizing the 17th century underpainting in Portrait of an Old Man by Rembrandt van Rijn using synchrotron-based scanning macro-XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfeld, Matthias; Siddons, D. Peter; Janssens, Koen; Dik, Joris; Woll, Arthur; Kirkham, Robin; van de Wetering, Ernst

    2013-04-01

    In 17th century Old Master Paintings, the underpainting generally refers to the first sketch of a composition. The underpainting is applied to a prepared ground using a monochrome, brown oil paint to roughly indicate light, shade and contours. So far, methods to visualize the underpainting—other than in localized cross-sections—have been very limited. Neither infrared reflectography nor neutron induced autoradiography have proven to be practical, adequate visualization tools. Thus, although of fundamental interest in the understanding of a painting's genesis, the underpainting has virtually escaped all imaging efforts. In this contribution we will show that 17th century underpainting may consist of a highly heterogeneous mixture of pigments, including copper pigments. We suggest that this brown pigment mixture is actually the recycled left-over of a palette scraping. With copper as the heaviest exclusive elemental component, we will hence show in a case study on a Portrait of an Old Man attributed to Rembrandt van Rijn how scanning macro-XRF can be used to efficiently visualize the underpainting below the surface painting and how this information can contribute to the discussion of the painting's authenticity.

  16. Collaborations in population-based health research: the 17th annual HMO Research Network Conference, March 23-25, 2011, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Tracy A; Hinrichsen, Virginia L; Moreira, Andrea; Platt, Richard

    2011-11-01

    The HMO Research Network (HMORN) is a consortium of 16 health care systems with integrated research centers. Approximately 475 people participated in its 17(th) annual conference, hosted by the Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute and Harvard Medical School. The theme, "Collaborations in Population-Based Health Research," reflected the network's emphasis on collaborative studies both among its members and with external investigators. Plenary talks highlighted the initial phase of the HMORN's work to establish the NIH-HMO Collaboratory, opportunities for public health collaborations, the work of early career investigators, and the state of the network. Platform and poster presentations showcased a broad spectrum of innovative public domain research in areas including disease epidemiology and treatment, health economics, and information technology. Special interest group sessions and ancillary meetings provided venues for informal conversation and structured work among ongoing groups, including networks in cancer, cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, medical product safety, and mental health. PMID:22090515

  17. [[The apothecaries of the district of Les Halles in Paris in the 17th century. Molière's ancestors in Les Halles].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Les Halles were created by King Louis VI at the begining of the 12th century as a central market for food and trade. Apothecaries conducted their trade there from that time. In the 17th century, eleven apothecaries were established in this district, bordered on the south by the rue Saint-Honoré, on the east by the rue Saint-Denis, on the west by the rue de la Tonnellerie, and the north by the rue Montmartre. Their biographies have been analysed, and the data that has been collected has enabled their précise location to be fixed on a map of 1700. Molière's ancestors, both maternal (the Cressé family) and paternal (the Pocquelin's), lived in this district. Details of their relationships with their apothecary neighbours have been revealed. PMID:27281935

  18. Historical and Metallurgical Characterization of a "Falchion" Sword Manufactured in Caino (Brescia, Italy) in the Early 17th Century A.D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonelli, G.; Faccoli, M.; Gotti, R.; Roberti, R.; Cornacchia, G.

    2016-04-01

    A historical and metallurgical characterization of a "falchion" sword manufactured in Caino (Brescia, northern Italy) and dating from the early 17th century was performed to understand the manufacture methods of a Renaissance sword. At first, a set of size measurements was carried out to look for the existence of constant and/or recurring macroscopic sizes, which would indicate a standardized production, or of any type of proportionality between different parts of a sword, which would prove an intentional design activity. Light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, quantometer analyses, and Vickers microhardness tests were then employed to analyze the microstructure and obtain the mechanical properties. All the metallurgical work is supported by an accurate study on the chemical composition of both metal-matrix and nonmetallic inclusions, which allowed for rebuilding and evaluating the efficiency of the whole production process.

  19. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  20. TECHNOLOGY ROADMAPPING FOR IAEA SEALS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOFFHEINS,B.; ANNESE,C.; GOODMAN,M.; OCONNOR,W.; GUSHUE,S.; PEPPER,S.

    2003-07-13

    In the fall of 2002, the U.S. Support Program (USSP) initiated an effort to define a strategy or ''roadmap'' for future seals technologies and to develop a generalized process for planning safeguards equipment development, which includes seals and other safeguards equipment. The underlying objectives of the USSP include becoming more proactive than reactive in addressing safeguards equipment needs, helping the IAEA to maintain an inventory of cost-effective, reliable, and effective safeguards equipment, establishing a long-term planning horizon, and securing IAEA ownership in the process of effective requirements definition and timely transitioning of new or improved systems for IAEA use. At an initial workshop, seals, their functions, performance issues, and future embodiments were discussed in the following order: adhesive seals, metal seals, passive and active loop seals, ultrasonic seals, tamper indicating enclosures (including sample containers, equipment enclosures, and conduits). Suggested improvements to these technologies focused largely on a few themes: (1) The seals must be applied quickly, easily, and correctly; (2) Seals and their associated equipment should not unduly add bulk or weight to the inspectors load; (3) Rapid, in-situ verifiability of seals is desirable; and (4) Seal systems for high risk or high value applications should have two-way, remote communications. Based upon these observations and other insights, the participants constructed a skeletal approach for seals technology planning. The process begins with a top-level review of the fundamental safeguards requirements and extraction of required system features, which is followed by analysis of suitable technologies and identification of technology gaps, and finally by development of a planning schedule for system improvements and new technology integration. Development of a comprehensive procedure will require the partnership and participation of the IAEA. The presentation will include a

  1. Spinal fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion; Low back pain - fusion; Herniated disk - fusion ... If you had chronic back pain before surgery, you will likely still have some pain afterward. Spinal fusion is unlikely to take away all your pain ...

  2. Genotyping Yersinia pestis in Historical Plague: Evidence for Long-Term Persistence of Y. pestis in Europe from the 14th to the 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Lisa; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Harbeck, Michaela; Thomas, Astrid; Grupe, Gisela; Projahn, Michaela; Scholz, Holger C.; Riehm, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from plague victims of the second plague pandemic (14th to 17th century), excavated from two different burial sites in Germany, and spanning a time period of more than 300 years, was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Of 30 tested skeletons 8 were positive for Yersinia pestis-specific nucleic acid, as determined by qPCR targeting the pla gene. In one individual (MP-19-II), the pla copy number in DNA extracted from tooth pulp was as high as 700 gene copies/μl, indicating severe generalized infection. All positive individuals were identical in all 16 SNP positions, separating phylogenetic branches within nodes N07_N10 (14 SNPs), N07_N08 (SNP s19) and N06_N07 (s545), and were highly similar to previously investigated plague victims from other European countries. Thus, beside the assumed continuous reintroduction of Y. pestis from central Asia in multiple waves during the second pandemic, long-term persistence of Y. pestis in Europe in a yet unknown reservoir host has also to be considered. PMID:26760973

  3. Composition of Façon de Venise glass from early 17th century London in comparison with luxury glass of the same age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagno, S.; De Raedt, I.; Jeffries, T.; Janssens, K.

    SEM-EDX and LA-ICP-MS analyses were performed on a set of early 17th century London glass fragments. The samples originate from two archaeological sites (Aldgate and Old Broad Street) where glass workshops were active in this period. The great majority of the samples are made of soda glass. Two distinct compositional groups are observed, each typical of one site of provenance. The samples originating from the Old Broad Street excavation feature a silica-soda-lime composition, with a moderate amount of potash. The samples from Aldgate are richer in potassium and feature higher amounts of trace elements such as Rb, Zr and Cu. The distinction between the two groups stems from different flux and silica sources used for glassmaking. A comparison with different European glass compositions of that time reveals no resemblance with genuine Venetian production, yet the composition of the Old Broad Street glass shows a close similarity to that of fragments produced `à la façon de Venise' in Antwerp at the end of the 16th century. This coincides with historical sources attesting the arrival of glassworkers from the Low Countries in England and suggests that a transfer of technology took place near the turn of the century.

  4. Genotyping Yersinia pestis in Historical Plague: Evidence for Long-Term Persistence of Y. pestis in Europe from the 14th to the 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Lisa; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Harbeck, Michaela; Thomas, Astrid; Grupe, Gisela; Projahn, Michaela; Scholz, Holger C; Riehm, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from plague victims of the second plague pandemic (14th to 17th century), excavated from two different burial sites in Germany, and spanning a time period of more than 300 years, was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Of 30 tested skeletons 8 were positive for Yersinia pestis-specific nucleic acid, as determined by qPCR targeting the pla gene. In one individual (MP-19-II), the pla copy number in DNA extracted from tooth pulp was as high as 700 gene copies/μl, indicating severe generalized infection. All positive individuals were identical in all 16 SNP positions, separating phylogenetic branches within nodes N07_N10 (14 SNPs), N07_N08 (SNP s19) and N06_N07 (s545), and were highly similar to previously investigated plague victims from other European countries. Thus, beside the assumed continuous reintroduction of Y. pestis from central Asia in multiple waves during the second pandemic, long-term persistence of Y. pestis in Europe in a yet unknown reservoir host has also to be considered. PMID:26760973

  5. Quantification of the Early Small-Scale Fishery in the North-Eastern Baltic Sea in the Late 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Verliin, Aare; Ojaveer, Henn; Kaju, Katre; Tammiksaar, Erki

    2013-01-01

    Historical perspectives on fisheries and related human behaviour provide valuable information on fishery resources and their exploitation, helping to more appropriately set management targets and determine relevant reference levels. In this study we analyse historical fisheries and fish trade at the north-eastern Baltic Sea coast in the late 17th century. Local consumption and export together amounted to the annual removal of about 200 tonnes of fish from the nearby sea and freshwater bodies. The fishery was very diverse and exploited altogether one cyclostome and 17 fish species with over 90% of the catch being consumed locally. The exported fish consisted almost entirely of high-valued species with Stockholm (Sweden) being the most important export destination. Due to rich political history and natural features of the region, we suggest that the documented evidence of this small-scale fishery should be considered as the first quantitative summary of exploitation of aquatic living resources in the region and can provide a background for future analyses. PMID:23861914

  6. Identification of resinous materials on 16th and 17th century reverse-glass objects by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumer, Ursula; Dietemann, Patrick; Koller, Johann

    2009-07-01

    Objects of hinterglasmalerei, reverse-glass paintings, are painted on the back side of glass panels. Obviously, the paint layers are applied in reverse order, starting with the uppermost layer. The finished hinterglas painting is viewed through the glass, thus revealing an impressive gloss and depth of colour. The binding media of two precious objects of hinterglasmalerei from the 16th and 17th century have been identified as almost exclusively resinous. Identification was performed by a special optimised analysis procedure, which is discussed in this paper: solvent extracts are analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, both with and without derivatisation or hydrolysis. In an additional step, oxalic acid is added to the methanol extracts prior to injection. This attenuates the peaks of the non-acidic compounds, whereas the acids elute with good resolution. The non-acidic compounds are emphasised after injection of the underivatised extracts. This approach minimises compositional changes caused by the sample preparation and derivatisation steps. Chromatograms of aged samples with a very complex composition are simplified, which allows a more reliable and straightforward identification of significant markers for various materials. The binding media of the hinterglas objects were thus shown to consist of mixtures of different natural resins, larch turpentine, heat-treated Pinaceae resin or mastic. Typical compounds of dragon's blood, a natural red resin, were also detectable in red glazes by the applied analysis routine. Identification of the binding media provides valuable information that can be used in the development of an adequate conservation treatment.

  7. The Shaping of the Lutheran Teaching Profession and Lutheran Families of Teachers in the 16th and 17th Centuries (Illustrated by the Example of the Trencín, Liptov and Orava Superintendency)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernát, Libor

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with changes in the status of teachers and the shaping of Lutheran families of teachers in the 16th and 17th centuries in the Trencín, Liptov and Orava districts of the superintendency. It describes the formation of the families and their background.

  8. The Teaching of Russian Language and Literature in Europe = L'enseignement de la langue et de la litterature russes en Europe = Prepodavanie russkogo yaeyka i literatury v Europe. Proceedings of the AIMAV Seminar (17th, Brussels, Belgium, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankoff, Jean, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from the Proceedings of the 17th meeting of the AIMAV (Association internationale pour le developpement de la communication interculturelle) are collected in this volume. Conference papers appear either in English, in French, or in Russian. For purposes of this abstract, all titles below have been translated into English. The…

  9. IAEA reorganizes nuclear information services

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.

    2012-08-15

    As part of an overall restructuring of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Department of Nuclear Energy, the agency has established the Nuclear Information Section (NIS). The restructuring, recently announced by IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano, also includes the creation of a separate Nuclear Knowledge Management (NKM) Section, as demand for assistance in this area is growing among member countries. According to the NIS Web site, 'This restructuring and the creation of the NIS provides an opportunity for further enhancing existing information products and services and introducing new ones-all with an eye towards advancing higher organizational efficiency and effectiveness.'

  10. Fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989 to 1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R and D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R and D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  11. Fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  12. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  13. Stellar Occultations by Large TNOs on 2012: The February 3rd by (208996) 2003 AZ84, and the February 17th by (50000) Quaoar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga Ribas, Felipe; Sicardy, B.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Lecacheux, J.; Colas, F.; Vachier, F.; Tanga, P.; Sposetti, S.; Brosch, N.; Kaspi, S.; Manulis, I.; Baug, T.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Ganesh, S.; Jain, J.; Mohan, V.; Sharma, A.; Garcia-Lozano, R.; Klotz, A.; Frappa, E.; Jehin, E.; Assafin, M.; Vieira Martins, R.; Behrend, R.; Roques, F.; Widemann, T.; Morales, N.; Thirouin, A.; Mahasena, P.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Daassou, A.; Rinner, C.; Ofek, E. O.

    2012-10-01

    On February 2012, two stellar occultation's by large Trans-neptunian Objects (TNO's) were observed by our group. On the 3rd, an event by (208996) 2003 AZ84 was recorded from Mont Abu Observatory and IUCAA Girawali Observatory in India and from Weizmann Observatory in Israel. On the 17th, a stellar occultation by (50000) Quaoar was observed from south France and Switzerland. Both occultations are the second observed by our group for each object, and will be used to improve the results obtained on the previous events. The occultation by 2003 AZ84 is the first multi-chord event recorded for this object. From the single chord event on January 8th 2011, Braga-Ribas et al. 2011 obtained a lower limit of 573 +/- 21 km. From the 2012 occultation the longest chord has a size of 662 +/- 50 km. The other chords will permit to determine the size and shape of the TNO, and derive other physical parameters, such as the geometric albedo. The Quaoar occultation was observed from south of France (Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, TAROT telescope and Valensole) and from Gnosca, Switzerland. Unfortunately, all three sites in France are almost at the same Quaoar's latitude, so in practice, we have two chords that can be used to fit Quaoar's limb. The resulting fit will be compared with the results obtained by Braga-Ribas et al. 2011. Braga-Ribas F., Sicardy B., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS2011, 1060.Ribas F., Sicardy B., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS2011, 1060.

  14. N-acetylglucosamine inhibits T-helper 1 (Th1)/T-helper 17 (Th17) cell responses and treats experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Grigorian, Ani; Araujo, Lindsey; Naidu, Nandita N; Place, Dylan J; Choudhury, Biswa; Demetriou, Michael

    2011-11-18

    Current treatments and emerging oral therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) are limited by effectiveness, cost, and/or toxicity. Genetic and environmental factors that alter the branching of Asn (N)-linked glycans result in T cell hyperactivity, promote spontaneous inflammatory demyelination and neurodegeneration in mice, and converge to regulate the risk of MS. The sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) enhances N-glycan branching and inhibits T cell activity and adoptive transfer experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we report that oral GlcNAc inhibits T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 17 (Th17) responses and attenuates the clinical severity of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE when administered after disease onset. Oral GlcNAc increased expression of branched N-glycans in T cells in vivo as shown by high pH anion exchange chromatography, MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy and FACS analysis with the plant lectin l-phytohemagglutinin. Initiating oral GlcNAc treatment on the second day of clinical disease inhibited MOG-induced EAE as well as secretion of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-17, and interleukin-22. In the more severe 2D2 T cell receptor transgenic EAE model, oral GlcNAc initiated after disease onset also inhibits clinical disease, except for those with rapid lethal progression. These data suggest that oral GlcNAc may provide an inexpensive and nontoxic oral therapeutic agent for MS that directly targets an underlying molecular mechanism causal of disease. PMID:21965673

  15. Social differences in oral health: Dental status of individuals buried in and around Trakai Church in Lithuania (16th-17th c.c.).

    PubMed

    Miliauskienė, Žydrūnė; Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of social differences in dental health is based on the assumption that individuals belonging to a higher social class consumed a different diet than a common people. The aim of our study was to analyse and compare dental health of 16(th) - 17(th) c. individuals, buried inside and around the Roman Catholic Church in Trakai (Lithuania). All material (189 adult individuals) was divided in two samples of a presumably different social status: the Churchyard (ordinary townsmen) and the Presbytery (elite). Dental status analysis included that of tooth loss, tooth wear, caries, abscesses and calculus. Results revealed higher prevalence of dental disease in the Churchyard sample compared to the Presbytery. Individuals buried around the church had statistically higher prevalence of caries, antemortem tooth loss and abscesses compared to those who were buried inside the church. The Churchyard sample was also characterised by a higher increase in severity of caries with age, and a more rapid tooth wear. Differences in dental health between the samples the most probably reflect different dietary habits of people from different social groups: poor quality carbohydrate based diet of laymen buried in the churchyard and more varied diet with proteins and of a better quality of local elite, buried inside the church. Substantial sex differences in dental health were found only in the Churchyard sample: males had statistically higher prevalence of abscesses and calculus, while females had higher prevalence of caries and AMTL (antemortem tooth loss). Females were also characterised by a higher increase in the number of dental decay and tooth loss with age and had higher prevalence of gross caries, which indicates a more rapid progression of the disease. Worse dental health of females could be a result of culturally based dietary differences between females (more carbohydrates) and males (more proteins) and different physiological demands (hormonal fluctuations and

  16. PREFACE: 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP): Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Nesheva, Diana; Pecheva, Emilia; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2012-12-01

    We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The Chairman of the School was Professor Alexander G Petrov. Like prior events, the School took place in the beautiful Black Sea resort of Saints Constantine and Helena near Varna, going back to the refurbished facilities of the Panorama hotel. Participants from 17 different countries delivered 31 invited lecturers and 78 posters, contributing through three sessions of poster presentations. Papers submitted to the Proceedings were refereed according to the high standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series and the accepted papers illustrate the diversity and the high level of the contributions. Not least significant factor for the success of the 17 ISCMP was the social program, both the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and the variety of pleasant local restaurants and beaches. Visits to the Archaeological Museum (rich in valuable gold treasures of the ancient Thracian culture) and to the famous rock monastery Aladja were organized for the participants from the Varna Municipality. These Proceedings are published for the second time by the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are grateful to the Journal's staff for supporting this idea. The Committee decided that the next event will take place again in Saints Constantine and Helena, 1-5 September 2014. It will be entitled: Challenges of the Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials and Applications. Doriana Dimova-Malinovska, Diana Nesheva, Emilia Pecheva, Alexander G Petrov and Marina T Primatarowa Editors

  17. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  18. Glacier length fluctuations in southern Norway back to the 17th century based on historical data: opposite behaviour compared to the Alps?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, S. U.; Luterbacher, J.; Nesje, A.; Wanner, H.; Zumbühl, H. J.

    2009-04-01

    The understanding of past and present glacier variations is a key task for evaluating current climate change. Historical and proxy-records have documented a partly asynchronous evolution in temperature, precipitation and glacial variations between European regions during the Little Ice Age (LIA), with the causes of these temporal anomalies yet being poorly understood. The comparison between the Alps and Scandinavia allows an assessment of the spatial distribution of glacier fluctuations in the studied areas during the last few centuries. Here we present temporally high-resolved glacier reconstructions for southern Norway covering the period back to the 17th century, based on newly discovered historical material. Length changes were determined by the interpretation of high-quality historical documents such as drawings, paintings, prints, photographs, maps and written sources that are abundant for selected glaciers in the area (Folgefonna, Jostedalsbreen). Historical material is only available in adequate quantity for those glaciers which drew the attention of travellers, scientists and artists through their reputation and scenic attraction, reflecting also the glacier perception at that time. A critical quality check of the documentary data was necessary in order to get reliable information on past glacier extents. The glacier extents obtained were finally compared with existing moraine findings in the glacier forefield. Results from outlet glaciers from Folgefonna (Bondhusbreen, Buerbreen) and Jostedalsbreen (Briksdalsbreen, Bøyabreen, Suphellebreen, Bergsetbreen, Nigardsbreen, Lodalsbreen) indicate a highly different glacier evolution compared to the Alps. According to the historical record, the maximum glacier extent occurred at Folgefonna at around 1890, and at Jostedalsbreen at around 1750, respectively. In the Alps, existing glacier length records (e.g. for Unterer Grindelwaldgletscher, Switzerland, or Mer de Glace, France) show glacier advances around 1600

  19. Paleoclimate Reconstruction during the 17th to 18th Century Using Fossil Coral Tsunami Boulders from Ishigaki Island, the Ryukyus, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Seki, A.; Kawakubo, Y.; Araoka, D.; Suzuki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) to reconstruct paleo SST during LIA (Kawakubo et al., 2014). LA-HR-ICPMS enables us to measure the long coral core rapidly. Our result shows SST variation in 17th-18th century in this area and SST declined in around 1700. This result reveals the response of Little Ice Age in the northwestern Pacific.

  20. The IAEA: Neutralizing Iraq's nuclear weapons potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zifferero, M.

    1993-04-01

    With support from UNSCOM and staff members from several countries, the IAEA has succeeded in identifying and destroying most of Iraq's nuclear weapons potential. IAEA activities in Iraq have also established a sound basis for long-term monitoring of Iraq. This will involve several procedures and techniques, including the periodic monitoring of Iraq's main bodies of water and unannounced visits of resident inspectors to plants, factories, and research centers.

  1. EDITORIAL: The Nuclear Fusion Award The Nuclear Fusion Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Award ceremony for 2009 and 2010 award winners was held during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. This time, both 2009 and 2010 award winners were celebrated by the IAEA and the participants of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The Nuclear Fusion Award is a paper prize to acknowledge the best distinguished paper among the published papers in a particular volume of the Nuclear Fusion journal. Among the top-cited and highly-recommended papers chosen by the Editorial Board, excluding overview and review papers, and by analyzing self-citation and non-self-citation with an emphasis on non-self-citation, the Editorial Board confidentially selects ten distinguished papers as nominees for the Nuclear Fusion Award. Certificates are given to the leading authors of the Nuclear Fusion Award nominees. The final winner is selected among the ten nominees by the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board voting confidentially. 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2009 award, the papers published in the 2006 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, most of which are magnetic confinement experiments, theory and modeling, while one addresses inertial confinement. Sabbagh S.A. et al 2006 Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 635-44 La Haye R.J. et al 2006 Cross-machine benchmarking for ITER of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by electron cyclotron current drive Nucl. Fusion 46 451-61 Honrubia J.J. et al 2006 Three-dimensional fast electron transport for ignition-scale inertial fusion capsules Nucl. Fusion 46 L25-8 Ido T. et al 2006 Observation of the interaction between the geodesic acoustic mode and ambient fluctuation in the JFT-2M tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 512-20 Plyusnin V.V. et al 2006 Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 277-84 Pitts R.A. et al 2006 Far SOL ELM ion energies in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 82-98 Berk H.L. et al 2006

  2. [Pierre and Philippe Ranquet, father and son, apothecaries in rue Saint-Honoré, Paris in the 17th century, suppliers to the duchess of Vendôme].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2008-05-01

    This research concerns two apothecaries in Paris living in the rue Saint-Honoré in the 17th century. Pierre Ranquet, father of Philippe Ranquet, was apothecary to the Duchess of Mercoeur and her daughter the Duchess of Vendôme, members of the nobility. Philippe was a member of the community of apothecary-grocers of Paris, keeping shop and dispensing drugs to a large clientele in the Saint-Honoré district, including many noblemen and women. He became supplier to the Duchess of Vendôme following the death of his father in 1652. PMID:19069198

  3. Michael Mästlin as a Tübingen professor - academic everyday life at the beginning of the 17th century. (German Title: Michael Mästlin als Tübinger Professor - akademischer Alltag an der Schwelle zum 17. Jahrhundert)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wischnath, Johannes Michael

    This contribution elucidates everyday academic at Tübingen University at the beginning of the 17th century, which formed a framework for Michael Mästlin's life as a teacher ad researcher. These activities included administrative tasks, meetings and negotiations, disputations and examinations, church services, academic festivities, group ceremonies and meals. This reconstruction is not only based on unpublished files and minutes of the university and the faculty of arts, but also on the diary of the Greek scholar Martin Crusius, which contains numerous surprising and colourful details from the life of the astronomer.

  4. Quality assurance for IAEA inspection planning

    SciTech Connect

    Markin, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Under the provisions of the Treaty on Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons and other agreements with States, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts inspections at nuclear facilities to confirm that their operation is consistent with the peaceful use of nuclear material. The Department of Safeguards at the IAEA is considering a quality assurance program for activities related to the planning of these facility inspections. In this report, the authors summarize recent work in writing standards for planning inspections at the types of facilities inspected by the IAEA. The standards specify the sequence of steps in planning inspections, which are (1) administrative functions and communications with the State to confirm facility operating schedules and the State's acceptance of the assigned inspectors; (2) technical functions including a specification of the required inspection activities, determination of personnel and equipment resources, and a schedule for implementing the inspection activities at the facility; and (3) management functions.

  5. IAEA Safeguards: Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter A.; Hypes, Philip A.

    2012-06-14

    This talk will present an overview of the International Atomic Energy Agency with a specific focus on its international safeguards mission and activities. The talk will first present a brief history of the IAEA and discuss its current governing structure. It will then focus on the Safeguards Department and its role in providing assurance that nuclear materials are being used for peaceful purposes. It will then look at how the IAEA is currently evolving the way in which it executes its safeguards mission with a focus on the idea of a state-level approach.

  6. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  7. Tritium accountancy in fusion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Clark, E.A.; Harvel, C.D.; Farmer, D.A.; Tovo, L.L.; Poore, A.S.; Moore, M.L.

    2015-03-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MCA) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MCA requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBA) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material sub-accounts (MSA) are established along with key measurement points (KMP) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSA. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breeding, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of 'net' tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines. (authors)

  8. TRITIUM ACCOUNTANCY IN FUSION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.

    2014-03-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of “net” tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.

  9. Archaeological remains accounting for the presence and exploitation of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001-2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  10. Archaeological Remains Accounting for the Presence and Exploitation of the North Atlantic Right Whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001–2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  11. 10 CFR 75.8 - IAEA inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., inspections may be ad hoc, routine, special, or a complementary access (or a combination of the foregoing). The objectives of the IAEA inspectors in the performance of inspections are as follows: (1) Ad hoc... Agreement may be present; (2) Ad hoc inspections to identify and, if possible, verify the quantity...

  12. 10 CFR 75.8 - IAEA inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., inspections may be ad hoc, routine, special, or a complementary access (or a combination of the foregoing). The objectives of the IAEA inspectors in the performance of inspections are as follows: (1) Ad hoc... Agreement may be present; (2) Ad hoc inspections to identify and, if possible, verify the quantity...

  13. 10 CFR 75.8 - IAEA inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., inspections may be ad hoc, routine, special, or a complementary access (or a combination of the foregoing). The objectives of the IAEA inspectors in the performance of inspections are as follows: (1) Ad hoc... Agreement may be present; (2) Ad hoc inspections to identify and, if possible, verify the quantity...

  14. 10 CFR 75.8 - IAEA inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., inspections may be ad hoc, routine, special, or a complementary access (or a combination of the foregoing). The objectives of the IAEA inspectors in the performance of inspections are as follows: (1) Ad hoc... Agreement may be present; (2) Ad hoc inspections to identify and, if possible, verify the quantity...

  15. Nonproliferation, Disarmament and the IAEA in Tomorrow's World

    SciTech Connect

    Jill Cooley

    2008-09-09

    Jill Cooley, Director of the Division of Concepts and Planning in the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Department of Safeguards, gives an overview of the IAEA safeguards system and describe current verification challenges and potential new roles for the agency.

  16. 10 CFR 75.7 - Notification of IAEA safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of IAEA safeguards. 75.7 Section 75.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.7 Notification of IAEA safeguards. (a) The licensee must inform the...

  17. 10 CFR 110.11 - Export of IAEA safeguards samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export of IAEA safeguards samples. 110.11 Section 110.11... Exemptions § 110.11 Export of IAEA safeguards samples. A person is exempt from the requirements for a license... IAEA safeguards samples, if the samples are exported under § 75.8 of this chapter, or a...

  18. 10 CFR 110.11 - Export of IAEA safeguards samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Export of IAEA safeguards samples. 110.11 Section 110.11... Exemptions § 110.11 Export of IAEA safeguards samples. A person is exempt from the requirements for a license... IAEA safeguards samples, if the samples are exported in accordance with § 75.8 of this chapter, or...

  19. 10 CFR 75.7 - Notification of IAEA safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notification of IAEA safeguards. 75.7 Section 75.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.7 Notification of IAEA safeguards. (a) The licensee must inform the...

  20. Tick-borne encephalitis as a notifiable disease--Status quo and the way forward. Report of the 17th annual meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE).

    PubMed

    Kunze, Ursula

    2015-07-01

    The 17th meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE), a group of neurologists, general practicioners, clinicians, travel physicians, virologists, pediatricians, and epidemiologists, was held under the title "Tick-borne encephalitis as a notifiable disease--status quo and the way forward". The conference agenda was divided into three parts on the first day: "Epidemiology & Risk areas", "Poster Walk: Epidemiological Update in Europe", and "News in TBE Research". On the second day, a World Café Working Session took place where the participants could choose three tables out of six to join for discussion. Key topics on current epidemiological developments and investigations, risk areas, cases, travel and mobility, TBE in children, vaccination rates, and latest news on vaccination were presented and extensively discussed. PMID:26025269

  1. Strengthening radiopharmacy practice in IAEA Member States.

    PubMed

    Duatti, Adriano; Bhonsle, Uday

    2013-05-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are essential components of nuclear medicine procedures. Without radiopharmaceuticals nuclear medicine procedures cannot be performed. Therefore it could be said that 'No radiopharmaceutical-no nuclear medicine.' A good radiopharmacy practice supports nuclear medicine activities by producing radiopharmaceuticals that are safe and are of the required quality in a consistent way. As with any medicinal product, radiopharmaceuticals are required to be produced under carefully controlled conditions and are tested for their quality, prior to the administration to patients, using validated standard operating procedures. These procedures are based on the principles of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). The GMP principles are based on scientific knowledge and applicable regulatory requirements and guidance related to radiopharmaceutical productions and use. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is committed to promote, in the Member States (MS), a rational and practical approach for the implementation of GMP for compounding or manufacturing of diagnostic or therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. To pursue this goal the IAEA has developed various mechanisms and collaborations with individual experts in the field and with relevant national and international institutions or organizations. IAEA's activities in promoting radiopharmaceutical science include commissioning expert advice in the form of publications on radiopharmaceutical production, quality control and usage, producing technical guidance on production and regulatory aspects related to new radiopharmaceuticals, creating guidance documentation for self or internal audits of radiopharmaceutical production facilities, producing guidance on implementation of Quality Management System and GMP in radiopharmacy, assisting in creation of specific radiopharmaceutical monographs for the International Pharmacopoeia, and developing radiopharmacy-related human resource capabilities in MS through individual

  2. Quality assurance for IAEA inspection planning

    SciTech Connect

    Markin, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Under the provisions of the Treaty on Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons and other agreements with states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts inspections at nuclear facilities to confirm that their operation is consistent with the peaceful use of nuclear material. The Department of Safeguards at the IAEA is considering a quality assurance program for activities related to the planning of these facility inspections. In this report, we summarize recent work in writing standards for planning inspections at the types of facilities inspected by the IAEA. The standards specify the sequence of steps in planning inspections, which are: (1) administrative functions, such as arrangements for visas and travel, and communications with the state to confirm facility operating schedules and the state's acceptance of the assigned inspectors; (2) technical functions including a specification of the required inspection activities, determination of personnel and equipment resources, and a schedule for implementing the inspection activities at the facility; and (3) management functions, such as pre- and post-inspection briefings, where the planned and implemented inspection activities are reviewed.

  3. Statistics in fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, D. H.

    1997-11-01

    Since the reasons for the variability in data from plasma experiments are often unknown or uncontrollable, statistical methods must be applied. Reliable interpretation and public accountability require full data sets. Two examples of data misrepresentation at PPPL are analyzed: Te >100 eV on S-1 spheromak.(M. Yamada, Nucl. Fusion 25, 1327 (1985); reports to DoE; etc.) The reported high values (statistical artifacts of Thomson scattering measurements) were selected from a mass of data with an average of 40 eV or less. ``Correlated'' spectroscopic data were meaningless. (2) Extrapolation to Q >=0.5 for DT in TFTR.(D. Meade et al., IAEA Baltimore (1990), V. 1, p. 9; H. P. Furth, Statements to U. S. Congress (1989).) The DD yield used there was the highest through 1990 (>= 50% above average) and the DT to DD power ratio used was about twice any published value. Average DD yields and published yield ratios scale to Q<0.15 for DT, in accord with the observed performance over the last 3 1/2 years. Press reports of outlier data from TFTR have obscured the fact that the DT behavior follows from trivial scaling of the DD data. Good practice in future fusion research would have confidence intervals and other descriptive statistics accompanying reported numerical values (cf. JAMA).

  4. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-04-20

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  5. Fusion Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Schmidt

    2002-02-20

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans.

  6. Databases and coordinated research projects at the IAEA on atomic processes in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Braams, Bastiaan J.; Chung, Hyun-Kyung

    2012-05-25

    The Atomic and Molecular Data Unit at the IAEA works with a network of national data centres to encourage and coordinate production and dissemination of fundamental data for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (A+M/PMI) processes that are relevant to the realization of fusion energy. The Unit maintains numerical and bibliographical databases and has started a Wiki-style knowledge base. The Unit also contributes to A+M database interface standards and provides a search engine that offers a common interface to multiple numerical A+M/PMI databases. Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) bring together fusion energy researchers and atomic, molecular and surface physicists for joint work towards the development of new data and new methods. The databases and current CRPs on A+M/PMI processes are briefly described here.

  7. Databases and coordinated research projects at the IAEA on atomic processes in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braams, Bastiaan J.; Chung, Hyun-Kyung

    2012-05-01

    The Atomic and Molecular Data Unit at the IAEA works with a network of national data centres to encourage and coordinate production and dissemination of fundamental data for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (A+M/PMI) processes that are relevant to the realization of fusion energy. The Unit maintains numerical and bibliographical databases and has started a Wiki-style knowledge base. The Unit also contributes to A+M database interface standards and provides a search engine that offers a common interface to multiple numerical A+M/PMI databases. Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) bring together fusion energy researchers and atomic, molecular and surface physicists for joint work towards the development of new data and new methods. The databases and current CRPs on A+M/PMI processes are briefly described here.

  8. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well asmore » to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.« less

  9. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well as to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.

  10. Image fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

  11. The 17th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings of the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft tether, magnetic bearing suspension, explosive welding, and a deployable/retractable mast are also described.

  12. 17th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori

    2004-11-29

    It's not exactly Russian roulette, but scheduling October events outdoors is not risk-free, even in usually sunny California. An overflow crowd of more than 400 registered users, ALS staff, and vendors enjoyed a full indoor program featuring science highlights and workshops spread over two and a half days from October 18 to October 20. However, a major storm, heralding the onset of the San Francisco Bay Area rainy season, posed a few weather challenges for the events on the ALS patio.

  13. 17th International Microgravity Measurements Group Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Seventeenth International Microgravity Measurements Group (MGMG) meeting was held 24-26 March 1998 at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. This meeting focused on the transition of microgravity science research from the Shuttle, Mir, and free flyers to the International Space Station. The MGMG series of meetings are conducted by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project of the Microgravity Science Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The MGMG meetings provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas about the microgravity environment and microgravity acceleration research in the Microgravity Research Program. The meeting had participation from investigators in all areas of microgravity research. The attendees included representatives from: NASA centers; National Space Development Agency of Japan; European Space Agency; Daimler Benz Aerospace AG; Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt; Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales; Canadian Space Agency, national research institutions; Universities in U.S., Italy, Germany, and Russia; and commercial companies in the U.S. and Russia. Several agencies presented summaries of the measurement, analysis, and characterization of the microgravity environment of the Shuttle, Mir, and sounding rockets over the past fifteen years. This extensive effort has laid a foundation for pursuing a similar course during future microgravity science experiment operations on the ISS. Future activities of microgravity environment characterization were discussed by several agencies who plan to operate on the ISS.

  14. The 17th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period September 1980 to February 1981 is described. Included are reports on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area silicon sheet and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering, and operations. A report on and copies of visual presentations made at the Project Integration Meeting held at Pasadena, California on February 4 and 5, 1981 are also included.

  15. A combined Raman microscopy, XRF and SEM-EDX study of three valuable objects - A large painted leather screen and two illuminated title pages in 17th century books of ordinances of the Worshipful Company of Barbers, London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, Tracey D.; Clark, Robin J. H.; Martinón-Torres, Marcos

    2010-07-01

    Raman microscopy has been used to identify the pigments decorating three valuable items owned by the Worshipful Company of Barbers (established in 1308 in London), one being a large leather screen dating to before 1712, the other two being illuminated title pages of books of ordinances of the Company dating to 1605 and 1658. Pigments which could not be fully characterised by this technique (particularly the green paints) have also been subject to XRF or SEM-EDX analysis. The combined analytical approach has shown that the pigments identified on all three items are typical of those in use as artists' pigments in the 17th C and include azurite, indigo, vermilion, red lead, pink and yellow lakes, verdigris, lead white, calcite (and chalk), gypsum, carbon-based black, and gold and silver leaf. However in the case of the screen alone, restoration in the 1980s has been carried out with different pigments - haematite, phthalocyanine green, rutile, and a mixture of azurite, malachite and barium sulfate. This work constitutes the first in-depth study of painted leatherwork and demonstrates that the palette used for this purpose is similar to that used on other works of art of the same date. It has also allowed the original colour schemes of the decorations to be determined where pigment degradation has occurred. The combined analysis has also provided a more complete understanding of the materials used for, or on, objects to which access is limited.

  16. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  17. 10 CFR 75.12 - Communication of information to IAEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communication of information to IAEA. 75.12 Section 75.12... AGREEMENT Facility and Location Information § 75.12 Communication of information to IAEA. (a) Except as... retained for 3 years after each change is made. (2) In considering such a request, it is the policy of...

  18. Reference dosimeter system of the iaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Kishor; Girzikowsky, Reinhard

    1995-09-01

    Quality assurance programmes must be in operation at radiation processing facilities to satisfy national and international Standards. Since dosimetry has a vital function in these QA programmes, it is imperative that the dosimetry systems in use at these facilities are well calibrated with a traceability to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory. As a service to the Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency operates the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) to assist in this process. The transfer standard dosimetry system that is used for this service is based on ESR spectrometry. The paper describes the activities undertaken at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory to establish the QA programme for its reference dosimetry system. There are four key elements of such a programme: quality assurance manual; calibration that is traceable to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory; a clear and detailed statement of uncertainty in the dose measurement; and, periodic quality audit.

  19. A Multi-Analytical Approach for the Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Conservation-Restoration Treatment of Moroccan Historical Manuscripts Dating to the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Latifa; Boukir, Abdellatif; Assouik, Jamal; Kerbal, Abdelali; Kajjout, Mohamed; Doumenq, Pierre; De Carvalho, Maria Luisa

    2015-08-01

    The most critical steps during the conservation-restoration treatment applied in Moroccan libraries are the deacidification using immersion in a saturated aqueous calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) solution and the consolidation of degraded manuscripts using Japanese paper. The present study aims to assess the efficiency of this restoration method using a multi-analytical approach. For this purpose, three ancient Arabic Moroccan manuscript papers dating back to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries were investigated to characterize the paper support and make a comparative study between pre-restoration and post-restoration states. Three structural and molecular characterization techniques including solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on (13)C with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CP-MAS NMR), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to elucidate the cellulose main features, to identify the inorganic composition of the papers, and to study the crystallinity of the samples. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) allowed us to obtain a qualitative and quantitative characterization of the mineral fillers used in the manufacturing of the papers. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) ascertained the state of conservation of the different papers and helped us to study the elemental composition of the samples. After restoration, it was shown that the deacidification improved the stability of papers by providing an important alkaline buffer, as demonstrated using FT-IR and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) results. However, XRD and ICP-AES did not confirm the pertinence of the treatment for all samples because of the unequal distribution of Ca on the paper surface during the restoration. The consolidation process was studied using SEM analysis; its effectiveness in restoring

  20. Laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, W.A.; Boskma, P.

    1980-12-01

    Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons physics, simulating weapons effects, and applications for new weapons, the military interest shifted from developing a laser-ignited hydrogen bomb to more sophisticated weapons and civilian applications for power generation. Civilian and military research now overlap, making it possible for several countries to continue weapons activities and permitting proliferation of nuclear weapons. These countries are reluctant to include inertial confinement fusion research in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. 16 references. (DCK)

  1. Radionuclide transfer to fruit in the IAEA TRS 364 Revision.

    PubMed

    Carini, Franca

    2009-09-01

    Information on the transfer of radionuclides to fruits was almost absent in the former TRS 364 "Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments". The revision of the Handbook, carried out under the IAEA Programme on Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS), takes into account the information generated in the years following the Chernobyl accident and the knowledge produced under the IAEA BIOMASS (Biosphere Modelling and Assessment) Programme in the years 1997-2000. This paper describes the most important processes concerning the behaviour of radionuclides in fruits reported in the IAEA TRS 364 Revision and provides recommendations for research and modelling. PMID:19027202

  2. United States Program for Technical assistance to IAEA Standards. Concept Paper: Knowledge Acquisition, Skills training for enhanced IAEA safeguards inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Toquam, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    This concept paper explores the potential contribution of ``Knowledge Acquisition Skills`` in enhancing the effectiveness of international safeguards inspections by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA, or Agency) and identifies types of training that could be provided to develop or improve such skills. For purposes of this concept paper, Knowledge Acquisition Skills are defined broadly to include all appropriate techniques that IAEA safeguards inspectors can use to acquire and analyze information relevant to the performance of successful safeguards inspections. These techniques include a range of cognitive, analytic, judgmental, interpersonal, and communications skills that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively.

  3. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  4. Certified reference materials for radionuclides in Bikini Atoll sediment (IAEA-410) and Pacific Ocean sediment (IAEA-412).

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; van Beek, P; Carvalho, F P; Chamizo, E; Degering, D; Engeler, C; Gascó, C; Gurriaran, R; Hanley, O; Harms, A V; Herrmann, J; Hult, M; Ikeuchi, Y; Ilchmann, C; Kanisch, G; Kis-Benedek, G; Kloster, M; Laubenstein, M; Llaurado, M; Mas, J L; Nakano, M; Nielsen, S P; Osvath, I; Povinec, P P; Rieth, U; Schikowski, J; Smedley, P A; Suplinska, M; Sýkora, I; Tarjan, S; Varga, B; Vasileva, E; Zalewska, T; Zhou, W

    2016-03-01

    The preparation and characterization of certified reference materials (CRMs) for radionuclide content in sediments collected offshore of Bikini Atoll (IAEA-410) and in the open northwest Pacific Ocean (IAEA-412) are described and the results of the certification process are presented. The certified radionuclides include: (40)K, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (232)Th, (234)U, (238)U, (239)Pu, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am for IAEA-410 and (40)K, (137)Cs, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (232)Th, (235)U, (238)U, (239)Pu, (240)Pu and (239+240)Pu for IAEA-412. The CRMs can be used for quality assurance and quality control purposes in the analysis of radionuclides in sediments, for development and validation of analytical methods and for staff training. PMID:26631455

  5. IAEA support to medical physics in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Sgouros, George

    2013-05-01

    Through its programmatic efforts and its publications, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has helped define the role and responsibilities of the nuclear medicine physicist in the practice of nuclear medicine. This paper describes the initiatives that the IAEA has undertaken to support medical physics in nuclear medicine. In 1984, the IAEA provided guidance on how to ensure that the equipment used for detecting, imaging, and quantifying radioactivity is functioning properly (Technical Document [TECDOC]-137, "Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments"). An updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-137 was issued in 1991 as IAEA-TECDOC-602, and this included new chapters on scanner-computer systems and single-photon emission computed tomography systems. Nuclear medicine physics was introduced as a part of a project on radiation imaging and radioactivity measurements in the 2002-2003 IAEA biennium program in Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics. Ten years later, IAEA activities in this field have expanded to cover quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of nuclear medicine equipment, education and clinical training, professional recognition of the role of medical physicists in nuclear medicine physics, and finally, the coordination of research and development activities in internal dosimetry. As a result of these activities, the IAEA has received numerous requests to support the development and implementation of QA or QC programs for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine in many Member States. During the last 5 years, support was provided to 20 Member States through the IAEA's technical cooperation programme. The IAEA has also supported education and clinical training of medical physicists. This type of support has been essential for the development and expansion of the Medical Physics profession, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The need for basic as well as specialized clinical training in medical physics was identified as a

  6. INTRODUCTION: Status report on fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, Werner

    2005-10-01

    members' personal views on the latest achievements in fusion research, including magnetic and inertial confinement scenarios. The report describes fusion fundamentals and progress in fusion science and technology, with ITER as a possible partner in the realization of self-sustainable burning plasma. The importance of the socio-economic aspects of energy production using fusion power plants is also covered. Noting that applications of plasma science are of broad interest to the Member States, the report addresses the topic of plasma physics to assist in understanding the achievements of better coatings, cheaper light sources, improved heat-resistant materials and other high-technology materials. Nuclear fusion energy production is intrinsically safe, but for ITER the full range of hazards will need to be addressed, including minimising radiation exposure, to accomplish the goal of a sustainable and environmentally acceptable production of energy. We anticipate that the role of the Agency will in future evolve from supporting scientific projects and fostering information exchange to the preparation of safety principles and guidelines for the operation of burning fusion plasmas with a Q > 1. Technical progress in inertial and magnetic confinement, as well as in alternative concepts, will lead to a further increase in international cooperation. New means of communication will be needed, utilizing the best resources of modern information technology to advance interest in fusion. However, today the basis of scientific progress is still through journal publications and, with this in mind, we trust that this report will find an interested readership. We acknowledge with thanks the support of the members of the IFRC as an advisory body to the Agency. Seven chairmen have presided over the IFRC since its first meeting in 1971 in Madison, USA, ensuring that the IAEA fusion efforts were based on the best professional advice possible, and that information on fusion developments has

  7. Recommended observational skills training for IAEA safeguards inspections. Final report: Recommended observational skills training for IAEA safeguards inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.

    1994-09-01

    This is the second of two reports prepared to assist the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA or Agency) in enhancing the effectiveness of its international safeguards inspections through inspector training in {open_quotes}Observational Skills{close_quotes}. The first (Phase 1) report was essentially exploratory. It defined Observational Skills broadly to include all appropriate cognitive, communications, and interpersonal techniques that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively. It identified 10 specific Observational Skills components, analyzed their relevance to IAEA safeguards inspections, and reviewed a variety of inspection programs in the public and private sectors that provide training in one or more of these components. The report concluded that while it should be possible to draw upon these other programs in developing Observational Skills training for IAEA inspectors, the approaches utilized in these programs will likely require significant adaption to support the specific job requirements, policies, and practices that define the IAEA inspector`s job. The overall objective of this second (Phase 2) report is to provide a basis for the actual design and delivery of Observational Skills training to IAEA inspectors. The more specific purposes of this report are to convey a fuller understanding of the potential application of Observational Skills to the inspector`s job, describe inspector perspectives on the relevance and importance of particular Observational Skills, identify the specific Observational Skill components that are most important and relevant to enhancing safeguards inspections, and make recommendations as to Observational Skills training for the IAEA`s consideration in further developing its Safeguards training program.

  8. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  9. INTRODUCTION: Status report on fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, Werner

    2005-10-01

    members' personal views on the latest achievements in fusion research, including magnetic and inertial confinement scenarios. The report describes fusion fundamentals and progress in fusion science and technology, with ITER as a possible partner in the realization of self-sustainable burning plasma. The importance of the socio-economic aspects of energy production using fusion power plants is also covered. Noting that applications of plasma science are of broad interest to the Member States, the report addresses the topic of plasma physics to assist in understanding the achievements of better coatings, cheaper light sources, improved heat-resistant materials and other high-technology materials. Nuclear fusion energy production is intrinsically safe, but for ITER the full range of hazards will need to be addressed, including minimising radiation exposure, to accomplish the goal of a sustainable and environmentally acceptable production of energy. We anticipate that the role of the Agency will in future evolve from supporting scientific projects and fostering information exchange to the preparation of safety principles and guidelines for the operation of burning fusion plasmas with a Q > 1. Technical progress in inertial and magnetic confinement, as well as in alternative concepts, will lead to a further increase in international cooperation. New means of communication will be needed, utilizing the best resources of modern information technology to advance interest in fusion. However, today the basis of scientific progress is still through journal publications and, with this in mind, we trust that this report will find an interested readership. We acknowledge with thanks the support of the members of the IFRC as an advisory body to the Agency. Seven chairmen have presided over the IFRC since its first meeting in 1971 in Madison, USA, ensuring that the IAEA fusion efforts were based on the best professional advice possible, and that information on fusion developments has

  10. Nuclear Fusion Award 2009 speech Nuclear Fusion Award 2009 speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbagh, Steven Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This is an exceptional moment in my career, and so I want to thank all of my teachers, colleagues and mentors who have made this possible. From my co-authors and myself, many thanks to the International Atomic Energy Agency, IOP Publishing, the Nuclear Fusion journal team, and the selection committee for the great honor of receiving this award. Also gratitude to Kikuchi-sensei, not only for the inventive and visionary creation of this award, but also for being a key mentor dating back to his efforts in producing high neutron output in JT-60U. It was also a great honor to receive the award directly from IAEA Deputy Director General Burkart during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. Receiving the award at this venue is particularly exciting as Daejeon is home to the new, next-generation KSTAR tokamak device that will lead key magnetic fusion research areas going forward. I would also like to thank the mayor of Daejeon, Dr Yum Hong-Chul, and all of the meeting organizers for giving us all a truly spectacular and singular welcoming event during which the award was presented. The research leading to the award would not have been possible without the support of the US Department of Energy, and I thank the Department for the continued funding of this research. Special mention must be made to a valuable co-author who is no longer with us, Professor A. Bondeson, who was a significant pioneer in resistive wall mode (RWM) research. I would like to thank my wife, Mary, for her infinite patience and encouragement. Finally, I would like to personally thank all of you that have approached and congratulated me directly. There are no units to measure how important your words have been in this regard. When notified that our paper had been shortlisted for the 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award, my co-authors responded echoing how I felt—honored to be included in such a fine collection of research by colleagues. It was unfathomable—would this paper follow the brilliant work

  11. USSP-IAEA WORKSHOP ON ADVANCED SENSORS FOR SAFEGUARDS.

    SciTech Connect

    PEPPER,S.; QUEIROLO, A.; ZENDEL, M.; WHICHELLO, J.; ANNESE, C.; GRIEBE, J.; GRIEBE, R.

    2007-11-13

    The IAEA Medium Term Strategy (2006-2011) defines a number of specific goals in respect to the IAEA's ability to provide assurances to the international community regarding the peaceful use of nuclear energy through States adherences to their respective non-proliferation treaty commitments. The IAEA has long used and still needs the best possible sensors to detect and measure nuclear material. The Department of Safeguards, recognizing the importance of safeguards-oriented R&D, especially targeting improved detection capabilities for undeclared facilities, materials and activities, initiated a number of activities in early 2005. The initiatives included letters to Member State Support Programs (MSSPs), personal contacts with known technology holders, topical meetings, consultant reviews of safeguards technology, and special workshops to identify new and novel technologies and methodologies. In support of this objective, the United States Support Program to IAEA Safeguards hosted a workshop on ''Advanced Sensors for Safeguards'' in Santa Fe, New Mexico, from April 23-27, 2007. The Organizational Analysis Corporation, a U.S.-based management consulting firm, organized and facilitated the workshop. The workshop's goal was to help the IAEA identify and plan for new sensors for safeguards implementation. The workshop, which was attended by representatives of seven member states and international organizations, included presentations by technology holders and developers on new technologies thought to have relevance to international safeguards, but not yet in use by the IAEA. The presentations were followed by facilitated breakout sessions where the participants considered two scenarios typical of what IAEA inspectors might face in the field. One scenario focused on an enrichment plant; the other scenario focused on a research reactor. The participants brainstormed using the technologies presented by the participants and other technologies known to them to propose

  12. Potential applications of environmental sampling and analysis for the IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E.

    1993-03-01

    This objective of this paper is to address the usefulness of envirorunental sampling and analysis in support of the IAEA. In particular, whether state-of-the-art analytical methods may provide detection of undeclared nuclear activities. It is important to emphasize that envirorunental sampling offers the IAEA a method of improving the assurance that a particular facility has no ongoing undeclared nuclear activities. It is suggested as a supplement to the existing IAEA safeguards inspections and activities. Enviromental sampling with appropriate analytical techniques can detect unknown activity fairly well, but it is not very reliable for determining how much or when activity has actually occured. Additionally, it is important to point out that the cost of such an envirorunental sampling program needs to be balanced with the confidence provided to detect undeclared nuclear activities. Environmental sampling wig probably not allow the IAEA to reduce or eliminate some of its existing baseline activities. The addition of an environmental sampling and analysis program will entail a cost of its own, and adding such a program may not reduce IAEA total costs. The overall cost of such a program will depend on the level of confidence required, (e.g. number and type of samples and analyses), the Quality Assurance plan to be implemented and the number of sites to be inspected. A more detailed cost analysis is not within the scope of this paper.

  13. International Workshops to Foster Implementation of the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Coates, Cameron W.; Bedke, Michael L.

    2003-07-14

    A country’s adherence to the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) Additional Protocol is an important statement to the world of that country’s commitment to nuclear nonproliferation. Without the Additional Protocol (AP) it is possible, as demonstrated in Iraq, for a country party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) to clandestinely work toward nuclear weapons and be undetected by the IAEA. This is because classical safeguards under the NPT are directed at diversion of nuclear material from declared activities. But a country may instead build undeclared activities to produce weapons-grade nuclear material. The AP is directed at detecting those undeclared activities. As of May 2003, 73 countries had signed the AP, but only 35 have entered into force. To further adherence to the AP, the IAEA has held regional, high-level seminars in Japan, South Africa, Kazakhstan, Peru, Romania, and Malaysia to explain AP provisions. To supplement these policy-level seminars, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken to develop a set of modules of technical competencies required to implement the AP. The intent is to work closely with the IAEA by providing these technical competencies to countries as well as to complement the IAEA’s regional seminars and other outreach efforts. This paper briefly describes the technical competency modules.

  14. The US Support program to IAEA Safeguards - 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper,S.

    2008-06-09

    The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) was established in 1977 to provide technical assistance to the IAEA Department of Safeguards. Since that time the U.S. Department of State has provided funding of over $200 million and over 900 tasks have been completed by USSP contractors on behalf of the KEA. The USSP is directed by a U.S. interagency subcommittee known as the Subgroup on Safeguards Technical Support (SSTS) and is managed by the International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In recent years, the SSTS and ISPO have identified priorities to guide the process of determining which IAEA requests are aligned with US. policy and will be funded. The USSP priorities are reviewed and updated prior to the USSP Annual Review Meeting which is hosted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) each spring in Vienna, Austria. This paper will report on the 2008 USSP priorities and be an introduction for a session which will consist of four papers on USSP priorities and four other papers related to USSP activities.

  15. Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate in developing countries: An IAEA study.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Barton, Michael; Mackillop, William; Fidarova, Elena; Cordero, Lisbeth; Yarney, Joel; Lim, Gerard; Abad, Anthony; Cernea, Valentin; Stojanovic-Rundic, Suzana; Strojan, Primoz; Kobachi, Lotfi; Quarneti, Aldo

    2015-07-01

    Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate (RTU) is the proportion of all cancer cases that should receive radiotherapy. Optimal RTU was estimated for 9 Middle Income Countries as part of a larger IAEA project to better understand RTU and stage distribution. PMID:26164776

  16. Technical implementation in support of the IAEA`s remote monitoring field trial at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Corbell, B.H.; Moran, B.W.; Pickett, C.A.; Whitaker, J.M.; Resnik, W.; Landreth, D.

    1996-08-01

    A remote monitoring system (RMS) field trial will be conducted for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on highly enriched uranium materials in a vault at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Remote monitoring technologies are being evaluated to verify their capability to enhance the effectiveness and timeliness of IAEA safeguards in storage facilities while reducing the costs of inspections and burdens on the operator. Phase one of the field trial, which involved proving the satellite transmission of sensor data and safeguards images from a video camera activated by seals and motion sensors installed in the vault, was completed in September 1995. Phase two involves formal testing of the RMS as a tool for use by the IAEA during their tasks of monitoring the storage of nuclear material. The field trial to be completed during early 1997 includes access and item monitoring of nuclear materials in two storage trays. The RMS includes a variety of Sandia, Oak Ridge, and Aquila sensor technologies that provide video monitoring, radiation attribute measurements, and container identification to the on-site data acquisition system (DAS) by way of radio-frequency and Echelon LONWorks networks. The accumulated safeguards information will be transmitted to the IAEA via satellite (COMSAT/RSI) and international telephone lines.

  17. 10 CFR 150.17a - Compliance with requirements of US/IAEA Safeguards Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance with requirements of US/IAEA Safeguards... Authority in Agreement States § 150.17a Compliance with requirements of US/IAEA Safeguards Agreement. (a... shall take other action as may be necessary to implement the US/IAEA Safeguards Agreement, as...

  18. Assessment of Alternative Funding Mechanisms for the IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Ford, Benjamin E.

    2012-06-15

    While the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is growing concern that global demographic trends, advances in technology and the trend towards austerity in Member State budgets will stretch the Agency’s resources to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As part of an ongoing effort by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to evaluate the IAEA’s long-term budgetary concerns , this paper proposes a series of alternate funding mechanisms that have the potential to sustain the IAEA in the long-term, including endowment, charity, and fee-for-service funding models.

  19. Free toplogy networks and their application in IAEA safeguards.

    SciTech Connect

    Gholkar, R. V.; Halbig, J. K.

    2004-01-01

    IAEA Safeguards systems must perform in challenging environments with many varied operational constraints. The ability to dynamically interconnect instruments and inspector interfaces without being thwarted by the transfer medium or physical configuration of a network is of paramount importance when implementing integrated safeguards systems. A free network topology provides the robust set of options useful to the IAEA for successful connection of common instruments and collection devices in different facilities with varying physical layout. A general set of requirements for integrated safeguards systems networks is discussed, and an example of a current implementation is given. Areas of focus include authentication/encryption, bandwidth requirements, and possible technologies that can be used to maximize the versatility of free topology networks for safeguards systems.

  20. Iaea Activities Supporting the Applications of Research Reactors in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peld, Nathan D.; Ridikas, Danas

    2014-02-01

    As the underutilization of research reactors around the world persists as a primary topic of concern among facility owners and operators, the IAEA responded in 2013 with a broad range of activities to address the planning, execution and improvement of many experimental techniques. The revision of two critical documents for planning and diversifying a facility's portfolio of applications, TECDOC 1234 “The Applications of Research Reactors” and TECDOC 1212 “Strategic Planning for Research Reactors”, is in progress in order to keep this information relevant, corresponding to the dynamism of experimental techniques and research capabilities. Related to the latter TECDOC, the IAEA convened a meeting in 2013 for the expert review of a number of strategic plans submitted by research reactor operators in developing countries. A number of activities focusing on specific applications are either continuing or beginning as well. In neutron activation analysis, a joint round of inter-comparison proficiency testing sponsored by the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department will be completed, and facility progress in measurement accuracy is described. Also, a training workshop in neutron imaging and Coordinated Research Projects in reactor benchmarks, automation of neutron activation analysis and neutron beam techniques for material testing intend to advance these activities as more beneficial services to researchers and other users.

  1. IAEA Fellowship Program, 1997 report on United States participants

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Fellowship Program began in April 1958 as a part of the Agency`s Technical Cooperation (TC) Program. Through the TC Program, the IAEA provides technical assistance to meet the needs of recipient countries and to bring about a substantial transfer of technology. This is done by providing experts, equipment, fellowships, and training courses. This report addresses the US component of the fellowship program. These fellowships provide opportunities for research and training of scientists, engineers and physicians from developing countries in the peaceful application of nuclear energy. The fellowships are awarded to persons who are, or soon will be, trusted with responsibilities that are important to the development of their countries. Fellowship awards are classified into two groups, those financed by the IAEA General Fund or the UNDP Fund (Type 1 Fellowships and Scientific Visits), and those offered by Member States (Type 2 Fellowships). In placing individuals, preference is given to applicants from countries that are signatories to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America.

  2. IAEA Fellowship Program, 1996 report on United States participants

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Fellowship Program began in April 1958 as a part of the Agency`s Technical Cooperation (TC) Program. Through the TC Program, the IAEA provides technical assistance to meet the needs of recipient countries and to bring about a substantial transfer of technology. This is done by providing experts, equipment, fellowships, and training courses. This report addresses the US component of the fellowship program. These fellowships provide opportunities for research and training of scientists, engineers and physicians from developing countries in the peaceful application of nuclear energy. The fellowships are awarded to persons who are, or soon will be, trusted with responsibilities that are important to the development of their countries. Fellowship awards are classified into two groups, those financed by the IAEA General Fund or the UNDP Fund (Type 1 Fellowships and Scientific Visits), and those offered by Member States (Type 2 Fellowships). In placing individuals, preference is given to applicants from countries that are signatories to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America.

  3. Viral membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. PMID:25866377

  4. Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wurden, G. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Intrator, T. P.; Grabowski, T. C.; Degnan, J. H.; Domonkos, M.; Turchi, P. J.; Campbell, E. M.; Sinars, D. B.; Herrmann, M. C.; et al

    2015-11-17

    In this community white paper, we describe an approach to achieving fusion which employs a hybrid of elements from the traditional magnetic and inertial fusion concepts, called magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). The status of MIF research in North America at multiple institutions is summarized including recent progress, research opportunities, and future plans.

  5. Slow liner fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, M.J.

    1997-08-01

    {open_quotes}Slow{close_quotes} liner fusion ({approximately}10 ms compression time) implosions are nondestructive and make repetitive ({approximately} 1 Hz) pulsed liner fusion reactors possible. This paper summarizes a General Atomics physics-based fusion reactor study that showed slow liner feasibility, even with conservative open-line axial magnetic field confinement and Bohm radial transport.

  6. Cold fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  7. Cluster-impact fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Echenique, P.M.; Manson, J.R.; Ritchie, R.H. )

    1990-03-19

    We present a model for the cluster-impact-fusion experiments of Buehler, Friedlander, and Friedman, Calculated fusion rates as a function of bombarding energy for constant cluster size agree well with experiment. The dependence of the fusion rate on cluster size at fixed bombarding energy is explained qualitatively. The role of correlated, coherent collisions in enhanced energy loss by clusters is emphasized.

  8. Nuclear Fusion Award 2010 speech Nuclear Fusion Award 2010 speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, John

    2011-01-01

    Alex Ince-Cushman, John deGrassie, Lars-Goran Eriksson, Yoshiteru Sakamoto, Andrea Scarabosio and Yuri Podpaly, as well as the other coauthors. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to Earl Marmar, Martin Greenwald and Miklos Porkolab at MIT for continued support of this work, as well as to the entire C-Mod team. This award was made possible due to the insight of Mitsuru Kikuchi and the support of the IAEA through Werner Burkhart, and I am truly grateful to both of them. Many thanks as well to the outstanding staff at Nuclear Fusion. It is a distinct honor to be included in the group of previous winners: Tim Luce, Clemente Angioni, Todd Evans and Steve Sabbagh. It is also a great honor to be considered alongside the 2010 nominees: Phil Snyder, Sibylle Guenter, Maiko Yoshida, Hajime Urano, Fulvio Zonca, Erik Garcia, Costanza Maggi, Hartmut Zohm, Thierry Loarer and Bruce Lipschultz. Finally, I would like to thank the readers of Nuclear Fusion for the many citations. John Rice 2010 Nuclear Fusion Award winner Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA

  9. High-performance inertial confinement fusion target implosions on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Meyerhofer, D. D.; McCrory, R L; Betti, R; Boehly, T R; Casey, D T; Collins, T.J.B.; Craxton, R S; Delettrez, J A; Edgell, D H; Epstein, R; Fletcher, K A; Frenje, J A; Glebov, Y Yu; Goncharov, V N; Harding, D R; Hu, S X; Igumenshchev, I V; Knauer, J P; Li, C K; Marozas, J A; Marshall, F J; McKenty, P W; Nilson, P M; Padalino, S P; Petrasso, R D; Radha, P B; Regan, S P; Sangster, T C; Seguin, F H; Seka, W; Short, R W; Shvarts, D; Skupsky, S; Soures, J M; Stoeckl, C; Theobald, W; Yaakobi, B

    2011-04-18

    The Omega Laser Facility is used to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) concepts. This paper describes progress in direct-drive central hot-spot (CHS) ICF, shock ignition (SI) and fast ignition (FI) since the 2008 IAEA FEC conference. CHS cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) target implosions on OMEGA have produced the highest DT areal densities yet measured in ICF implosions (~300 mg cm{sup -2}). Integrated FI experiments have shown a significant increase in neutron yield caused by an appropriately timed high-intensity, high-energy laser pulse.

  10. Viral membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  11. Overview of the RFX-mod fusion science programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P.; Puiatti, M. E.; Agostinetti, P.; Agostini, M.; Alonso, J. A.; Antoni, V.; Apolloni, L.; Auriemma, F.; Avino, F.; Barbalace, A.; Barbisan, M.; Barbui, T.; Barison, S.; Barp, M.; Baruzzo, M.; Bettini, P.; Bigi, M.; Bilel, R.; Boldrin, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Bonfiglio, D.; Bonomo, F.; Brombin, M.; Buffa, A.; Bustreo, C.; Canton, A.; Cappello, S.; Carralero, D.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; Chacon, L.; Chapman, B.; Chitarin, G.; Ciaccio, G.; Cooper, W. A.; Dal Bello, S.; Dalla Palma, M.; Delogu, R.; De Lorenzi, A.; Delzanno, G. L.; De Masi, G.; De Muri, M.; Dong, J. Q.; Escande, D. F.; Fantini, F.; Fasoli, A.; Fassina, A.; Fellin, F.; Ferro, A.; Fiameni, S.; Finn, J. M.; Finotti, C.; Fiorentin, A.; Fonnesu, N.; Framarin, J.; Franz, P.; Frassinetti, L.; Furno, I.; Furno Palumbo, M.; Gaio, E.; Gazza, E.; Ghezzi, F.; Giudicotti, L.; Gnesotto, F.; Gobbin, M.; Gonzales, W. A.; Grando, L.; Guo, S. C.; Hanson, J. D.; Hidalgo, C.; Hirano, Y.; Hirshman, S. P.; Ide, S.; In, Y.; Innocente, P.; Jackson, G. L.; Kiyama, S.; Liu, S. F.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lòpez Bruna, D.; Lorenzini, R.; Luce, T. C.; Luchetta, A.; Maistrello, A.; Manduchi, G.; Mansfield, D. K.; Marchiori, G.; Marconato, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Marrelli, L.; Martini, S.; Matsunaga, G.; Martines, E.; Mazzitelli, G.; McCollam, K.; Momo, B.; Moresco, M.; Munaretto, S.; Novello, L.; Okabayashi, M.; Olofsson, E.; Paccagnella, R.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pavei, M.; Peruzzo, S.; Pesce, A.; Pilan, N.; Piovan, R.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, C.; Piron, L.; Pomaro, N.; Predebon, I.; Recchia, M.; Rigato, V.; Rizzolo, A.; Roquemore, A. L.; Rostagni, G.; Ruzzon, A.; Sakakita, H.; Sanchez, R.; Sarff, J. S.; Sartori, E.; Sattin, F.; Scaggion, A.; Scarin, P.; Schneider, W.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Spada, E.; Soppelsa, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spolaore, M.; Spong, D. A.; Spizzo, G.; Takechi, M.; Taliercio, C.; Terranova, D.; Theiler, C.; Toigo, V.; Trevisan, G. L.; Valente, M.; Valisa, M.; Veltri, P.; Veranda, M.; Vianello, N.; Villone, F.; Wang, Z. R.; White, R. B.; Xu, X. Y.; Zaccaria, P.; Zamengo, A.; Zanca, P.; Zaniol, B.; Zanotto, L.; Zilli, E.; Zollino, G.; Zuin, M.

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports the highlights of the RFX-mod fusion science programme since the last 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The RFX-mod fusion science programme focused on two main goals: exploring the fusion potential of the reversed field pinch (RFP) magnetic configuration and contributing to the solution of key science and technology problems in the roadmap to ITER. Active control of several plasma parameters has been a key tool in this endeavour. New upgrades on the system for active control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability are underway and will be presented in this paper. Unique among the existing fusion devices, RFX-mod has been operated both as an RFP and as a tokamak. The latter operation has allowed the exploration of edge safety factor qedge < 2 with active control of MHD stability and studies concerning basic energy and flow transport mechanisms. Strong interaction has continued with the stellarator community in particular on the physics of helical states and on three-dimensional codes.

  12. The fusion breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, Ralph W.

    1982-10-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the U.S. fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the U.S. fusion program and the U.S. nuclear energy program. There is wide agreement that many approaches will work and will produce fuel for five equal-sized LWRs, and some approach as many as 20 LWRs at electricity costs within 20% of those at today's price of uranium (30/lb of U3O8). The blankets designed to suppress fissioning, called symbiotes, fusion fuel factories, or just fusion breeders, will have safety characteristics more like pure fusion reactors and will support as many as 15 equal power LWRs. The blankets designed to maximize fast fission of fertile material will have safety characteristics more like fission reactors and will support 5 LWRs. This author strongly recommends development of the fission suppressed blanket type, a point of view not agreed upon by everyone. There is, however, wide agreement that, to meet the market price for uranium which would result in LWR electricity within 20% of today's cost with either blanket type, fusion components can cost severalfold more than would be allowed for pure fusion to meet the goal of making electricity alone at 20% over today's fission costs. Also widely agreed is that the critical-path-item for the fusion breeder is fusion development itself; however, development of fusion breeder specific items (blankets, fuel cycle) should be started now in order to have the fusion breeder by the time the rise in uranium prices forces other more costly choices.

  13. Deterring Nuclear Proliferation: The Importance of IAEA Safeguards: A TEXTBOOK

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.D.; Fishbone, L.G.; Gallini, L.; Krass, A.; Kratzer, M.; Sanborn, J.; Ward, B.; Wulf, N. A.

    2012-03-13

    Nuclear terrorism and nuclear proliferation are among the most pressing challenges to international peace and security that we face today. Iran and Syria remain in non-compliance with the safeguards requirements of the NPT, and the nuclear ambitions of North Korea remain unchecked. Despite these challenges, the NPT remains a cornerstone of the nuclear non-proliferation regime, and the safeguards implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under the NPT play a critical role in deterring nuclear proliferation.How do they work? Where did they come from? And what is their future? This book answers these questions. Anyone studying the field of nuclear non-proliferation will benefit from reading this book, and for anyone entering the field, the book will enable them to get a running start. Part I describes the foundations of the international safeguards system: its origins in the 1930s - when new discoveries in physics made it clear immediately that nuclear energy held both peril and promise - through the entry into force in 1970 of the NPT, which codified the role of IAEA safeguards as a means to verify states NPT commitments not to acquire nuclear weapons. Part II describes the NPT safeguards system, which is based on a model safeguards agreement developed specifically for the NPT, The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which has been published by the IAEA as INFCIRC/153. Part III describes events, especially in South Africa, the DPRK, and Iraq in the early 1990s, that triggered a transformation in the way in which safeguards were conceptualized and implemented.

  14. IAEA activities in the area of partitioning and transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, Alexander

    2006-06-01

    Four major challenges are facing the long-term development of nuclear energy: improvement of the economic competitiveness, meeting increasingly stringent safety requirements, adhering to the criteria of sustainable development, and public acceptance. Meeting the sustainability criteria is the driving force behind the topic of this paper. In this context, sustainability has two aspects: natural resources and waste management. IAEA's activities in the area of Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) are mostly in response to the latter. While not involving the large quantities of gaseous products and toxic solid wastes associated with fossil fuels, radioactive waste disposal is today's dominant public acceptance issue. In fact, small waste quantities permit a rigorous confinement strategy, and mined geological disposal is the strategy followed by some countries. Nevertheless, political opposition arguing that this does not yet constitute a safe disposal technology has largely stalled these efforts. One of the primary reasons cited is the long life of many of the radioisotopes generated from fission. This concern has led to increased R&D efforts to develop a technology aimed at reducing the amount and radio-toxicity of long-lived radioactive waste through transmutation in fission reactors or sub-critical systems. In the frame of the Project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS), the IAEA initiated a number of activities on utilization of plutonium and transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste, ADS, and deuterium-tritium plasma-driven sub-critical systems. The paper presents past accomplishments, current status and planned activities of this IAEA project.

  15. [Nuclear energy and environment: review of the IAEA environmental projects].

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Fogt, G

    2012-01-01

    The review of the environmental projects of the International Atomic Energy Agency is presented. Basic IAEA documents intended to protect humans and the Environment are considered and their main features are discussed. Some challenging issues in the area of protection of the Environment and man, including the impact of nuclear facilities on the environment, radioactive waste management, and remediation of the areas affected by radiological accidents, nuclear testing and sites of nuclear facilities are also discussed. The need to maintain the existing knowledge in radioecology and protection of the environment is emphasised. PMID:23516895

  16. Radiation detectors as surveillance monitors for IAEA safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.; Dowdy, E.J.

    1980-10-01

    Radiation detectors used for personnel dosimetry are examined for use under IAEA Safeguards as monitors to confirm the passage or nonpassage (YES/NO) of plutonium-bearing nuclear material at barrier penetrations declared closed. In this application where backgrounds are ill defined, no advantage is found for a particular detector type because of intrinsic efficiency. Secondary considerations such as complexity, ease of tamper-proofing, and ease of readout are used to recommend specific detector types for routine monitoring and for data-base measurements. Recommendations are made for applications, data acquisition, and instrument development.

  17. Strengthening IAEA safeguards in an era of nuclear cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, R.

    1995-11-01

    Since the end of the Cold War the world has witnessed a remarkable series of events demonstrating that universal adherence to the principles of nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament are no longer utopian dreams. The author reviews the actions of various countries to terminate or reduce nuclear weapons programs and those that are resisting the non-proliferation efforts. The author addresses efforts of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to safeguard declared nuclear material more cost-effectively and deal with the possibility of undeclared nuclear activities.

  18. Materials research for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to <2 MeV on average for fission neutrons) releases significant amounts of hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  19. RECRUITMENT OF U.S. CITIZENS FOR VACANCIES IN IAEA SAFEGUARDS

    SciTech Connect

    PEPPER,S.E.; DECARO,D.; WILLIAMS,G.; CARELLI,J.; ASSUR,M.

    1999-07-25

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on its member states to assist with recruiting qualified individuals for positions within the IAEA's secretariat. It is important that persons within and outside the US nuclear and safeguards industries become aware of career opportunities available at the IAEA, and informed about important vacancies. The IAEA has established an impressive web page to advertise opportunities for employment. However, additional effort is necessary to ensure that there is sufficient awareness in the US of these opportunities, and assistance for persons interested in taking positions at the IAEA. In 1998, the Subgroup on Safeguards Technical Support (SSTS) approved a special task under the US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) for improving US efforts to identify qualified candidates for vacancies in IAEA's Department of Safeguards. The International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) developed a plan that includes increased advertising, development of a web page to support US recruitment efforts, feedback from the US Mission in Vienna, and interaction with other recruitment services provided by US professional organizations. The main purpose of this effort is to educate US citizens about opportunities at the IAEA so that qualified candidates can be identified for the IAEA's consideration.

  20. Safety-Related Activities of the IAEA for Radioactive Waste, Decommissioning and Remediation - 13473

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Pil-Soo; Vesterlind, Magnus

    2013-07-01

    To fulfil its mandate and serve the needs of its Member States, the IAEA is engaged in a wide range of safety-related activities pertaining to radioactive waste management, decommissioning and remediation. One of the statutory obligations of the IAEA is to establish safety standards and to provide for the application of these standards. The present paper describes recent developments in regard to the IAEA's waste safety standards, and some of the ways the IAEA makes provision for their application. The safety standards and supporting safety demonstration projects seek to establish international consensus on methodologies and approaches for dealing with particular subject areas, for example, safety assessment for radioactive waste disposal. (authors)

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of correction factors for IAEA TLD holders.

    PubMed

    Hultqvist, Martha; Fernández-Varea, José M; Izewska, Joanna

    2010-03-21

    The IAEA standard thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) holder has been developed for the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose program for audits of high-energy photon beams, and it is also employed by the ESTRO-QUALity assurance network (EQUAL) and several national TLD audit networks. Factors correcting for the influence of the holder on the TL signal under reference conditions have been calculated in the present work from Monte Carlo simulations with the PENELOPE code for (60)Co gamma-rays and 4, 6, 10, 15, 18 and 25 MV photon beams. The simulation results are around 0.2% smaller than measured factors reported in the literature, but well within the combined standard uncertainties. The present study supports the use of the experimentally obtained holder correction factors in the determination of the absorbed dose to water from the TL readings; the factors calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulations may be adopted for the cases where there are no measured data. PMID:20197601

  2. Radionuclide transfer to fruit in the IAEA TRS No. 472

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carini, F.; Pellizzoni, M.; Giosuè, S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the approach taken to present the information on fruits in the IAEA report TRS No. 472, supported by the IAEA-TECDOC-1616, which describes the key transfer processes, concepts and conceptual models regarded as important for dose assessment, as well as relevant parameters for modelling radionuclide transfer in fruits. Information relate to fruit plants grown in agricultural ecosystems of temperate regions. The relative significance of each pathway after release of radionuclides depends upon the radionuclide, the kind of crop, the stage of plant development and the season at time of deposition. Fruit intended as a component of the human diet is borne by plants that are heterogeneous in habits, and morphological and physiological traits. Information on radionuclides in fruit systems has therefore been rationalised by characterising plants in three groups: woody trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. Parameter values have been collected from open literature, conference proceedings, institutional reports, books and international databases. Data on root uptake are reported as transfer factor values related to fresh weight, being consumption data for fruits usually given in fresh weight.

  3. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  4. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  5. 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, Herbert L.; Breizman, Boris N.

    2014-02-21

    The 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems took place in Austin, Texas (7–11 September 2011). This meeting was organized jointly with the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Theory of Plasma Instabilities (5–7 September 2011). The two meetings shared one day (7 September 2011) with presentations relevant to both groups. Some of the work reported at these meetings was then published in a special issue of Nuclear Fusion [Nucl. Fusion 52 (2012)]. Summaries of the Energetic Particle Conference presentations were given by Kazuo Toi and Boris Breizman. They respectively discussed the experimental and theoretical progress presented at the meeting. Highlights of this meeting include the tremendous progress that has been achieved in the development of diagnostics that enables the ‘viewing’ of internal fluctuations and allows comparison with theoretical predictions, as demonstrated, for example, in the talks of P. Lauber and M. Osakabe. The need and development of hardened diagnostics in the severe radiation environment, such as those that will exist in ITER, was discussed in the talks of V. Kiptily and V.A. Kazakhov. In theoretical studies, much of the effort is focused on nonlinear phenomena. For example, detailed comparison of theory and experiment on D-III-D on the n = 0 geodesic mode was reported in separate papers by R. Nazikian and G. Fu. A large number of theoretical papers were presented on wave chirping including a paper by B.N. Breizman, which notes that wave chirping from a single frequency may emanate continuously once marginal stability conditions have been established. Another area of wide interest was the detailed study of alpha orbits in a burning plasma, where losses can come from symmetry breaking due to finite coil number or magnetic field imperfections introduced by diagnostic or test modules. An important area of development, covered by M.A. Hole and D.A. Spong, is concerned with the self

  6. The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards - Destructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffheins,B.

    2008-07-13

    The U.S. Support Program (USSP) to IAEA Safeguards priority of destructive analysis is aimed at strengthening the IAEA's ability to use destructive analysis as a safeguards tool. IAEA inspectors bring back nuclear and environmental samples from inspections, which are first cataloged by the IAEA and then analyzed by a network of laboratories located in many Member States and the IAEA's own Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. Historically, the USSP was instrumental in introducing environmental sampling techniques to the IAEA in order to enhance its understanding of material processing activities conducted at nuclear facilities. The USSP has also worked with the IAEA to improve understanding of measurement uncertainty and measurement quality, incorporate new and improved analytical methods, and purchase analytical and computer equipment. Recent activities include a temporary increase in analysis of environmental samples using secondary ion mass spectrometry and provision of a cost-free expert to restore secondary ion mass spectroscopy laboratory functionality and to modernize the IAEA's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Information System.

  7. Role of IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) safeguards in confidence building

    SciTech Connect

    Augustson, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, I will examine some attributes of confidence building and connect them with how the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) interacts with its member states in carrying out its safeguards function. These interactions and the structure set up to define them help maintain and strengthen confidence between the IAEA and the member states and among these states. 3 refs.

  8. Two Horizons of Fusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Mun Ling; Chik, Pakey Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to differentiate the internal and external horizons of "fusion." "Fusion" in the internal horizon relates to the structure and meaning of the object of learning as experienced by the learner. It clarifies the interrelationships among an object's critical features and aspects. It also illuminates the…

  9. Fusion Science Education Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, C. A.; DIII-D Education Group

    1996-11-01

    This presentation will focus on education outreach activities at General Atomics that have been expanded to include the general population on science education with a focus on fusion energy. Outreach materials are distributed upon request both nationally and internationally. These materials include a notebook containing copies of DIII--D tour panels, fusion poster, new fusion energy video, new fusion energy brochure, and the electromagnetic spectrum curriculum. The 1996 Fusion Forum (held in the House Caucus Room) included a student/ teacher lunch with Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary and a private visit to the Forum exhibits. The continuing partnership with Kearny High School includes lectures, job shadowing, internship, equipment donations and an award-winning electric car-racing program. Development of distribution by CD of the existing interactive fusion energy kiosk and a virtual reality tour of the DIII--D facility are underway. The DIII--D fusion education WWW site includes e-mail addresses to ``Ask the Wizard,'' and/or receive GA's outreach materials. Steve Rodecker, a local science teacher, aided by DIII--D fusion staff, won his second Tapestry Award; he also was named the ``1995 National Science Teacher of the Year'' and will be present to share his experiences with the DIII--D educational outreach program.

  10. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  11. Los Alamos National Laboratory support to IAEA environmental safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert E; Dry, Don E; Roensch, Fred R; Kinman, Will S; Roach, Jeff L; La Mont, Stephen P

    2010-12-01

    The nuclear and radiochemistry group provides sample preparation and analysis support to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL). These analyses include both non-destructive (alpha and gamma-ray spectrometry) and destructive (thermal ionization mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) methods. On a bi-annual basis the NWAL laboratories are invited to meet to discuss program evolution and issues. During this meeting each participating laboratory summarizes their efforts over the previous two years. This presentation will present Los Alamos National Laboratories efforts in support of this program. Data showing results from sample and blank analysis will be presented along with capability enhancement and issues that arose over the previous two years.

  12. End user needs for enhanced IAEA Safeguards Information Management Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Badalamente, R.; Anzelon, G.; Deland, S.; Whiteson, R.

    1994-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is undertaking a program for strengthening its safeguards on the recognition that safeguards must give assurance not only of the non-diversion of declared material or that declared facilities are not being misused, but also of the absence of any undeclared nuclear activities in States which have signed comprehensive safeguards agreements with the Agency. The IAEA has determined that the detection of undeclared nuclear activities and the creation of confidence in the continuing peaceful use of declared material and facilities is largely dependent on more information being made available to the Agency and on the capability of the Agency to make more effective use of this additional information, as well as existing information.

  13. Patient exposure tracking: the IAEA smart card project.

    PubMed

    Rehani, Madan M; Frush, Donald P

    2011-09-01

    The existing approach of radiation protection is largely based on the collective dose to the population with provisions for protection at an individual level through justification and optimisation. With the individual patient dose now exceeding the life-long occupational dose to a worker in a typical radiology practice, there is a need to establish approaches based on the protection of an individual patient. Radiation exposure tracking seems a way forward in this respect. Technological advances in recent years have provided opportunities for tracking to becoming a reality. The IAEA project on Smart Card/SmartRadTrack is described in this paper. The tracking is now a reality in a few dozen centres in many countries connected by picture archiving and communication systems, and there is hope that this will extend to cover other countries and continents. PMID:21778155

  14. Technologies for pre-screening IAEA swipe samples

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Nicholas A.; Steeb, Jennifer L.; Lee, Denise L.; Huckabay, Heath A.; Ticknor, Brian W.

    2015-11-09

    During the course of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections, many samples are taken for the purpose of verifying the declared facility activities and identifying any possible undeclared activities. One of these sampling techniques is the environmental swipe sample. Due to the large number of samples collected, and the amount of time that is required to analyze them, prioritizing these swipes in the field or upon receipt at the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) will allow sensitive or mission-critical analyses to be performed sooner. As a result of this study, technologies were placed into one of three categories: recommended, promising, or not recommended. Both neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) are recommended for further study and possible field deployment. These techniques performed the best in initial trials for pre-screening and prioritizing IAEA swipes. We learned that for NAA more characterization of cold elements (such as calcium and magnesium) would need to be emphasized, and for XRF it may be appropriate to move towards a benchtop XRF versus a handheld XRF due to the increased range of elements available on benchtop equipment. Promising techniques that will require additional research and development include confocal Raman microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and infrared (IR) microscopy. These techniques showed substantive responses to uranium compounds, but expensive instrumentation upgrades (confocal Raman) or university engagement (fluorescence microscopy) may be necessary to investigate the utility of the techniques completely. Point-and-shoot (handheld) Raman and attenuated total reflectance–infrared (ATR-IR) measurements are not recommended, as they have not shown enough promise to continue investigations.

  15. The future of IAEA safeguards: challenges and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory W

    2011-01-01

    For nearly two decades, the International Atomic Energy Agency (lAEA) has been transforming its safeguards system to address the challenges posed by undeclared nuclear programs, the associated revelation of an extensive non-State nuclear procurement network and other issues, including past limits to its verification mandate and the burden of noncompliance issues. Implementing the new measures, including those in the Additional Protocol, and integrating new and old safeguards measures, remains a work in progress. Implementation is complicated by factors including the limited teclmological tools that are available to address such issues as safeguarding bulk handling facilities, detection of undeclared facilities/activities, especially related to enrichment, etc. As this process continues, new challenges are arising, including the demands of expanding nuclear power production worldwide, so-called safeguards by design for a new generation of facilities, the possible IAEA role in a fissile material cutoff treaty and other elements of the arms control and disarmament agenda, the possible role in 'rollback' cases, etc. There is no doubt safeguards will need to evolve in the future, as they have over the last decades. In order for the evolutionary path to proceed, there will inter alia be a need to identify technological gaps, especially with respect to undeclared facilities, and ensure they are filled by adapting old safeguards technologies, by developing and introducing new and novel safeguards teclmologies and/or by developing new procedures and protocols. Safeguards will also need to respond to anticipated emerging threats and to future, unanticipated threats. This will require strategic planning and cooperation among Member States and with the Agency. This paper will address challenges to IAEA safeguards and the technological possibilities and R&D strategies needed to meet those challenges in the context of the forty-year evolution of safeguards, including the ongoing

  16. Decomposition of incomplete fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sobotka, L.B.; Sarantities, D.G.; Stracener, D.W.; Majka, Z.; Abenante, V.; Semkow, T.M.; Hensley, D.C.; Beene, J.R.; Halbert, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The velocity distribution of fusion-like products formed in the reaction 701 MeV /sup 28/Si+/sup 100/Mo is decomposed into 26 incomplete fusion channels. The momentum deficit of the residue per nonevaporative mass unit is approximately equal to the beam momentum per nucleon. The yields of the incomplete fusion channels correlate with the Q-value for projectile fragmentation rather than that for incomplete fusion. The backward angle multiplicities of light particles and heavy ions increase with momentum transfer, however, the heavy ion multiplicities also depend on the extent of the fragmentation of the incomplete fusion channel. These data indicate that at fixed linear momentum transfer, increased fragmentation of the unfused component is related to a reduced transferred angular momentum. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    It is a great honor to receive the 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize, here at the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. On behalf of everyone involved in this work, I would like to thank the IAEA, the Nuclear Fusion journal team, the IOP, and specifically Mitsuru Kikuchi, for their support of this important award. I would also like to acknowledge the many important contributions made by the other ten papers nominated for this prize. Our paper investigates the physics of the H-mode pedestal in tokamaks, specifically the development of a predictive understanding of the pedestal structure based on electromagnetic instabilities which constrain it, and the testing of the resulting theoretical model (EPED) against detailed observations on multiple devices. In addition to making pedestal predictions for existing devices, the paper also presents predictions for ITER, including methods for optimizing its pedestal height and fusion performance. What made this work possible, and indeed a pleasure to be involved with, was an extensive set of collaborations, including theory-experiment, multi-institutional, and international collaborations. Many of these collaborations have gone on for over a decade, and have been fostered in part by the ITPA Pedestal Group. The eight authors of this paper, from five institutions, all made important contributions. Rich Groebner, Tom Osborne and Tony Leonard carried out dedicated experiments and data analysis on the DIII-D tokamak, testing the EPED model over a very wide range of parameters. Jerry Hughes led dedicated experiments on Alcator C-Mod which tested the model at high magnetic field and pedestal pressure. Marc Beurskens carried out experiments and data analysis on the JET tokamak, testing the model at large scale. Xueqiao Xu conducted two-fluid studies of diamagnetic stabilization, which enabled a more accurate treatment of this important effect. Finally, Howard Wilson and I have been working together for many years to develop analytic formalism

  18. EDITORIAL The 17th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2011-02-01

    Although the origin of quantum optics can be traced back to the beginning of the 20th century, when the fundamental ideas about the quantum nature of the interaction between light and matter were put forward, the splendid blossoming of this part of physics began half a century later, after the invention of masers and lasers. It is remarkable that after another half a century the tree of quantum optics is not only very strong and spreading, but all its branches continue to grow, showing new beautiful blossoms and giving very useful fruits. A reflection of this progress has been the origin and development of the series of annual events called the Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO). They started at the beginning of the 1990s as rather small meetings of physicists from a few countries in central-eastern Europe, but in less than two decades they have transformed into important events, gathering 100 to 200 participants from practically all European countries. Moreover, many specialists from other continents like to attend these meetings, since they provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. Regarding this, it seems worth mentioning at least some of the most interesting and important areas of quantum optics that have attracted the attention of researchers for the past two decades. One of these areas is quantum information, which over the course of time has become an almost independent area of quantum physics. But it still maintains very close ties with quantum optics. The specific parts of this area are, in particular, quantum computing, quantum communication and quantum cryptography, and the problem of quantitative description of such genuine quantum phenomena as entanglement is one of the central items in the current stream of publications. Theory and experiment related to quantum tomography have also become important to contemporary quantum optics. They are closely related to the subject of so-called quantum-state engineering. Different schemes proposed within the framework of this new area enabled the creation in laboratories of various superpositions of quantum states which had previously existed only as beautiful mathematical constructions by theoreticians. Connected to this, recent experiments related to such old problems as decoherence and quantum-classical transition are quite impressive. The same can be said about the interrelations between quantum optics and physics of ultracold atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates. Great progress has been made in cavity quantum electrodynamics, and the past decade gave rise to the new area of circuit quantum electrodynamics. Nowadays, we are very close to the observation of the quantum behavior of macroscopic bodies (mirrors), and the methods used in quantum optics help to achieve this goal. Quantum optics over the past two decades has resulted in such impressive discoveries as the slowing down of light to extremely low velocities and the creation of photonic crystals. The new methods of achieving very strong coupling coefficients between quantized field modes and atomic degrees of freedom open new possibilities for storing and retrieving quantum information transmitted by light. New areas of terahertz, femto- and atto-second optics were born or were significantly developed during the past two decades. In addition, the tomographic-probability representation of photon-quantum states has created new possibilities both in theoretical and experimental aspects of quantum optics. Traditionally, measured optical tomograms of photon states were considered as a technical tool for reconstructing the Wigner functions of quantum states. It became clear that these measured tomograms are primary objects; one does not need to reconstruct the Wigner function to extract information on physical properties of the state, for example, on the state purity. Purity is experimentally obtained directly from measured optical tomograms of photon states. The uncertainty relations for photon quadratures were also checked for the thermal photon st

  19. Otto von Guericke and 17th century cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, Eberhard

    Otto von Guericke's scientific method was based on reason and experimental science. His cosmology was embedded in theology and can be interpreted as a refutation of Descartes' worldview. He used Nicolaus Cusanus' theory of quantities in order to characterize space. The notion of space has to be distinguished from that of world or heaven. Forces play a crucial role in this respect described by Athanasius Kircher in his "Celestial Journey". Guericke read this work very diligently. In spite of some obvious similarities between Guericke's and Newton's scientific aims and methods there are crucial differences between the scientific convictions and results of these scholars.

  20. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  1. 17th Environmental Quality Index: Troubling Times with Toxics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents a subjective analysis of the status of United States' natural resources, reviewing 1985's key environmental events, problems, and successes. Reports current conditions and/or dilemmas concerning wildlife, air, water, energy, forests, and soils. Provides both a public rating of the quality of life and a priority ranking of environmental…

  2. [Jan Swammerdam, physician and naturalist of the 17th century].

    PubMed

    Hoerni, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Jan Swammerdam (1637-1680) was a physician and a naturalist who clarified some details of human anatomy and who made many microscopic observations on insects and their metamorphosis. His life was marked by spirituality and a malaria which caused his death and prevented him from publishing his works which were edited after a long delay. PMID:26050429

  3. Athanasius Kircher: The 17th Century Science at the Crossroads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonanno, R.

    2011-06-01

    Athanasius Kircher, who entered the Society of Jesus in 1628, is a peculiar scientist who is in love with everything he sees and with everything he thinks he sees. He is a non-Galilean scientist whose general attitude is not obscurantism but rather a defense of established faith. He arrives in Rome in the fall of 1633 when he is in his thirties. Even if at the epoch Kircher has already written some of his many books, it is amazing that Galileo does not even quote him in the letters he will wrote in the rest of his life. In spite of having stridden along a minor scientific path, opposite of that shown by Galileo, it is nonetheless surprising to find out that Athanasius Kircher was gifted with remarkable intuition, and was in some cases even decades in advance with respect to the age he lived in.

  4. Deafness in the 17th Century: Into Empiricism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, R; Weiskrantz, Barbara C.

    1984-01-01

    Recounts the history of deaf education in Britain and of studies into the abilities of those born deaf, beginning with the influence of Kenelm Digby's "Treatise on the Nature of Bodies" published in 1644 to about 100 years later when Henry Baker became the first professional teacher of the deaf in Britain. (SED)

  5. The 17th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the Seventeenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. Session titles include Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing; Applied Biological Research; Bioprocessing Research; Special Topics Discussion Groups; Process Economics and Commercialization; and Environmental Biotechnology.

  6. Final Report: 17th international Symposium on Plant Lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Christoph Benning

    2007-03-07

    This meeting covered several emerging areas in the plant lipid field such as the biosynthesis of cuticle components, interorganelle lipid trafficking, the regulation of lipid homeostasis, and the utilization of algal models. Stimulating new insights were provided not only based on research reports based on plant models, but also due to several excellent talks by experts from the yeast field.

  7. IL-17/Th17 Pathway Is Activated in Acne Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kelhälä, Hanna-Leena; Palatsi, Riitta; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Lehtimäki, Sari; Väyrynen, Juha P.; Kallioinen, Matti; Kubin, Minna E.; Greco, Dario; Tasanen, Kaisa; Alenius, Harri; Bertino, Beatrice; Carlavan, Isabelle; Mehul, Bruno; Déret, Sophie; Reiniche, Pascale; Martel, Philippe; Marty, Carine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Voegel, Johannes J.; Lauerma, Antti

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of inflammation in acne are currently subject of intense investigation. This study focused on the activation of adaptive and innate immunity in clinically early visible inflamed acne lesions and was performed in two independent patient populations. Biopsies were collected from lesional and non-lesional skin of acne patients. Using Affymetrix Genechips, we observed significant elevation of the signature cytokines of the Th17 lineage in acne lesions compared to non-lesional skin. The increased expression of IL-17 was confirmed at the RNA and also protein level with real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Luminex technology. Cytokines involved in Th17 lineage differentiation (IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL23p19) were remarkably induced at the RNA level. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-8, CSF2 and CCL20), Th1 markers (IL12p40, CXCR3, T-bet, IFN-γ), T regulatory cell markers (Foxp3, IL-10, TGF-β) and IL-17 related antimicrobial peptides (S100A7, S100A9, lipocalin, hBD2, hBD3, hCAP18) were induced. Importantly, immunohistochemistry revealed significantly increased numbers of IL-17A positive T cells and CD83 dendritic cells in the acne lesions. In summary our results demonstrate the presence of IL-17A positive T cells and the activation of Th17-related cytokines in acne lesions, indicating that the Th17 pathway is activated and may play a pivotal role in the disease process, possibly offering new targets of therapy. PMID:25153527

  8. Fusion Studies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  9. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  10. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are

  11. Four Years of Practical Arrangements between IAEA and Moscow SIA 'Radon': Preliminary Results - 13061

    SciTech Connect

    Batyukhnova, O.G.; Karlina, O.K.; Neveikin, P.P.

    2013-07-01

    The International Education Training Centre (IETC) at Moscow State Unitary Enterprise Scientific and Industrial Association 'Radon' (SIA 'Radon'), in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has developed expertise and provided training to waste management personnel for the last 15 years. Since 1997, the educational system of the enterprise with the support of the IAEA has acquired an international character: more than 470 experts from 35 countries- IAEA Member States completed the professional development. Training is conducted at various thematic courses or fellowships for individual programs and seminars on IAEA technical projects. In June 2008 a direct agreement (Practical Arrangements) was signed between SIA 'Radon' and the IAEA on cooperation in the field of development of new technologies, expert's advice to IAEA Member States, and, in particular, the training of personnel in the field of radioactive waste management (RWM), which opens up new perspectives for fruitful cooperation of industry professionals. The paper summarizes the current experience of the SIA 'Radon' in the organization and implementation of the IAEA sponsored training and others events and outlines some of strategic educational elements, which IETC will continue to pursue in the coming years. (authors)

  12. Summary of the 19th International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Meeting on 'Research Using Small Fusion Devices'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Oost, G.; Mank, G.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a summary of recent results reported on several topics on magnetic confinement, dense magnetized plasmas, innovative fusion technology and applications, diagnostic systems and control and data acquisition systems. The main topics covered on the magnetic confinement devices, diagnostics and data acquisition concern the tokamak KTM (Kazakhstan Tokamak for Material testing) for materials research and testing, and IAEA Joint Experiments on small tokamaks. For the dense magnetized plasmas results on development and commissioning of plasma focus devices were reported. The plasmatron VISION I for innovative plasma-wall interaction studies, a lithium divertor for KTM and compact fusion reactors as neutron sources were presented.

  13. Label fusion strategy selection.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, Nicolas; Duchesne, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Label fusion is used in medical image segmentation to combine several different labels of the same entity into a single discrete label, potentially more accurate, with respect to the exact, sought segmentation, than the best input element. Using simulated data, we compared three existing label fusion techniques-STAPLE, Voting, and Shape-Based Averaging (SBA)-and observed that none could be considered superior depending on the dissimilarity between the input elements. We thus developed an empirical, hybrid technique called SVS, which selects the most appropriate technique to apply based on this dissimilarity. We evaluated the label fusion strategies on two- and three-dimensional simulated data and showed that SVS is superior to any of the three existing methods examined. On real data, we used SVS to perform fusions of 10 segmentations of the hippocampus and amygdala in 78 subjects from the ICBM dataset. SVS selected SBA in almost all cases, which was the most appropriate method overall. PMID:22518113

  14. HIV-1 Fusion Assay

    PubMed Central

    Cavrois, Marielle; Neidleman, Jason; Greene, Warner C.

    2016-01-01

    The HIV-1 fusion assay measures all steps in the HIV-1 life cycle up to and including viral fusion. It relies on the incorporation of a β-lactamase Vpr (BlaM-Vpr) protein chimera into the virion and the subsequent transfer of this chimera into the target cell by fusion (Figure 1). The transfer is monitored by the enzymatic cleavage of CCF2, a fluorescent dye substrate of β-lactamase, loaded into the target cells. Cleavage of the β-lactam ring in CCF2 by β-lactamase changes the fluorescence emission spectrum of the dye from green (520 nm) to blue (447 nm). This change reflects virion fusion and can be detected by flow cytometry (Figure 2).

  15. Fusion power demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1983-09-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment.

  16. Laser-Driven Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the present status and future prospects of laser-driven fusion. Current research (which is classified under three main headings: laser-matter interaction processes, compression, and laser development) is also presented. (HM)

  17. Progress toward fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1981-03-11

    This paper summarizes the basis for the present optimism in the magnetic fusion program, and describes some of the remaining tasks leading to a demonstration power reactor and the primary technologies necessary for that endeavor.

  18. Cold nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyganov, E. N.

    2012-02-15

    Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

  19. Glossary of fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Whitson, M.O.

    1985-02-01

    The Glossary of Fusion Energy is an attempt to present a concise, yet comprehensive collection of terms that may be beneficial to scientists and laymen who are directly or tangentially concerned with this burgeoning energy enterprise. Included are definitions of terms in theoretical plasma physics, controlled thermonuclear fusion, and some related physics concepts. Also, short descriptions of some of the major thermonuclear experiments currently under way in the world today are included.

  20. Advances in fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Charles C.

    2000-12-01

    The US fusion technology program is an essential element in the development of the knowledge base for an attractive fusion power source. The technology program incorporates both near and long term R&D, contributes to material and engineering sciences as well as technology development, ranges from hardware production to theory and modeling, contributes significantly to spin-off applications, and performs global systems assessments and focused design studies.

  1. Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

  2. ITER Fusion Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

    2010-01-08

    ITER (in Latin ?the way?) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen ? deuterium and tritium ? fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project ? China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States ? represent more than half the world?s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

  3. Technology recommendations for pre-screening of IAEA swipe samples

    SciTech Connect

    Steeb, Jennifer L.; Smith, Nicholas A.; Lee, Denise L.; Huckabay, Heath A.; Ticknor, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories have prepared an analysis of recommended, possible, and not recommended technologies for pre-screening and prioritizing IAEA swipes. The analytical techniques listed under the recommended technology list are the most promising techniques available to date. The recommended list is divided into two sections: Argonne’s recommended techniques and Oak Ridge’s recommended techniques. This list was divided based upon the expertise of staff in each subject area and/or the instrumentation available at each laboratory. The following section, titled Possible Techniques, is a list of analytical techniques that could be used for pre-screening and prioritizing swipes if additional instrumentation and effort were provided. These techniques are not necessarily top priority, but should not be discounted for future or expanded efforts. Lastly, a list of not recommended techniques is provided to outline the analytical methods and instrumentation that were investigated by each lab but deemed not suitable for this task. In addition to the recommendation list, a short procedure is provided outlining the steps followed for destructive analysis by the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) for determination of uranium concentrations, isotopic content of sample and swipe. Swipes generated for this project will be given to ORNL’s NWAL laboratory for analysis after analysis by other techniques at both laboratories.

  4. Radiation processing of natural polymers: The IAEA contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Safrany, Agnes; Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Ramamoorthy, Natesan

    2010-03-01

    Radiation processing offers a clean and additive-free method for preparation of value-added novel materials based on renewable, non-toxic, and biodegradable natural polymers. Crosslinked natural polymers can be used as hydrogel wound dressings, face cleaning cosmetic masks, adsorbents of toxins, and non-bedsore mats; while low molecular weight products show antibiotic, antioxidant, and plant-growth promoting properties. Recognizing the potential benefits that radiation technology can offer for processing of natural polymers into useful products, the IAEA implemented a coordinated research project (CRP) on "Development of Radiation-processed products of Natural Polymers for application in Agriculture, Healthcare, Industry and Environment". This CRP was launched at the end of 2007 with participation of 16 MS to help connecting radiation technology and end-users to derive enhanced benefits from these new value-added products of radiation-processed natural materials. In this paper the results of activities in participating MS related to this work will be presented.

  5. Framework for fuel-cycle approaches to IAEA safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1986-10-01

    In order to compare several nuclear-safeguards verification approaches to one another and to the conventional facility-oriented approach, we establish a framework of the classes of information routinely verifiable by IAEA safeguards inspections. For each facility type within a State nuclear fuel cycle, the classes include flow data, inventory data, and shipper and receiver data. By showing which classes of information are verified for each facility type within three fuel cycles of different complexity, we distinguish the inspection approaches from one anoter and exhibit their fuel-cycle dependence, i.e., their need for sets of safeguards inspection activities different from those required under the facility-oriented approach at similar facilities in fuel cycles of differing complexity. Tables V-1, V-2, and V-3 graphically depict these relations and give a qualitative summary of the relative effectiveness and effort requirements of the approaches classified. The zone, information-correlation, diversion-assumption-change, and randomization-over-facilities approaches depend intrinsically on the complexity of the fuel cycle: their very definition implies fuel-cycle dependence. The approaches involving randomization over activities and goal relaxations do not have such dependence.

  6. The IAEA handbook on radionuclide transfer to wildlife.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Copplestone, D; Telleria, D; Proehl, G; Fesenko, S; Jeffree, R A; Yankovich, T L; Brown, J E; Higley, K; Johansen, M P; Mulye, H; Vandenhove, H; Gashchak, S; Wood, M D; Takata, H; Andersson, P; Dale, P; Ryan, J; Bollhöfer, A; Doering, C; Barnett, C L; Wells, C

    2013-07-01

    An IAEA handbook presenting transfer parameter values for wildlife has recently been produced. Concentration ratios (CRwo-media) between the whole organism (fresh weight) and either soil (dry weight) or water were collated for a range of wildlife groups (classified taxonomically and by feeding strategy) in terrestrial, freshwater, marine and brackish generic ecosystems. The data have been compiled in an on line database, which will continue to be updated in the future providing the basis for subsequent revision of the Wildlife TRS values. An overview of the compilation and analysis, and discussion of the extent and limitations of the data is presented. Example comparisons of the CRwo-media values are given for polonium across all wildlife groups and ecosystems and for molluscs for all radionuclides. The CRwo-media values have also been compared with those currently used in the ERICA Tool which represented the most complete published database for wildlife transfer values prior to this work. The use of CRwo-media values is a pragmatic approach to predicting radionuclide activity concentrations in wildlife and is similar to that used for screening assessments for the human food chain. The CRwo-media values are most suitable for a screening application where there are several conservative assumptions built into the models which will, to varying extents, compensate for the variable data quality and quantity, and associated uncertainty. PMID:22513215

  7. PREFACE: 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizuka, Tomonori

    2008-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers based on invited talks and contributed posters presented at the 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers. This meeting was held at the Tsukuba International Congress Center in Tsukuba, Japan, on 26-28 September 2007, and was organized jointly by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the University of Tsukuba. The previous ten meetings in this series were held in San Diego (USA) 1987, Gut Ising (Germany) 1989, Abingdon (UK) 1991, Naka (Japan) 1993, Princeton (USA) 1995, Kloster Seeon (Germany) 1997, Oxford (UK) 1999, Toki (Japan) 2001, San Diego (USA) 2003, and St Petersburg (Russia) 2005. The purpose of the eleventh meeting was to present and discuss new results on H-mode (edge transport barrier, ETB) and internal transport barrier, ITB, experiments, theory and modeling in magnetic fusion research. It was expected that contributions give new and improved insights into the physics mechanisms behind high confinement modes of H-mode and ITBs. Ultimately, this research should lead to improved projections for ITER. As has been the tradition at the recent meetings of this series, the program was subdivided into six topics. The topics selected for the eleventh meeting were: H-mode transition and the pedestal-width Dynamics in ETB: ELM threshold, non-linear evolution and suppression, etc Transport relations of various quantities including turbulence in plasmas with ITB: rotation physics is especially highlighted Transport barriers in non-axisymmetric magnetic fields Theory and simulation on transport barriers Projections of transport barrier physics to ITER For each topic there was an invited talk presenting an overview of the topic, based on contributions to the meeting and on recently published external results. The six invited talks were: A Leonard (GA, USA): Progress in characterization of the H-mode pedestal and L-H transition N Oyama (JAEA, Japan): Progress and issues in

  8. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are

  9. IAEA regulatory initiatives for the air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, Robert E.; Wangler, Michael W.; Selling, Hendrik A.

    1992-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been laboring since 1988 over a far reaching change to its model regulations (IAEA, 1990) for the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). This change could impact the manner in which certain classes of radioactive materials are shipped by air and change some of the basic tenets of radioactive material transport regulations around the world. This report discusses issues associated with air transport regulations.

  10. Application of matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight mass spectrometry to the study of the proteinaceous binders in paint: blue paint composition in the series "The Life of Virgin" by Alonso Cano (17th century) as a case study.

    PubMed

    Romero-Pastor, Julia; Natalia Navas, Natalia Navas; Rodríguez-Simón, Luís; Lario-Simón, Antonio; Kuckova, Stepanka; Manzano, Eloísa

    2015-01-01

    The identification of proteinaceous materials in paint constituents provides very valuable information regarding the techniques used by the painter and the most suitable procedures for conserving and restoring their works. Although the analysis of proteinaceous materials is nowadays a common task when dealing with works of art, the reliable detection and identification of protein traces is still complicated, particularly when very small samples can be taken that may contain a mixture of different organic materials (oils, waxes, resins, gums etc.). We therefore proposed a proteomic approach to investigate protein materials in paintings at trace levels in order to obtain a better understanding of the painter's technique. After trypsin digestion of the paint samples, mass spectra were obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and they were compared with the Mascot database and with theoretical digested proteins. This study contributes to the knowledge about the technique used by Alonso Cano (Granada, Spain, 1601-1667), one of the most original and brilliant artists from the Spanish Golden Age (17th century), in the series called the Life of the Virgin (six paintings), part of the iconographic program about the life of the Virgin Mary, nowadays seen in the main chapel of Granada Cathedral. The objective of the present study was to test the use of proteinaceous material, mainly egg yolk, in the paint used by Cano, as suggested in previous research, although this would have been unusual at that time when most artists used oil paints. Based on the results of the analysis here presented, the use of protein in the binding media can most likely be excluded. PMID:25906031

  11. The US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards Priority of Containment and Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz,R.A.

    2008-06-13

    The United States Support Program (USSP) priority for containment and surveillance (US) focuses on maintaining or improving the reliability and cost-effectiveness of C/S systems for IAEA safeguards, expanding the number of systems that are unattended and remotely monitored, and developing verification methods that help streamline the on-site inspection process. Existing IAEA C/S systems have evolved to become complex, integrated systems, which may include active seals, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments, video cameras, and other sensors. These systems operate autonomously. They send analytical data to IAEA headquarters where it can be reviewed. These systems present challenges to the goals of improved system performance, standardization, reliability, maintainability, documentation, and cost effectiveness. One critical lesson from past experiences is the need for cooperation and common objectives among the IAEA, the developer, and the facility operator, to create a successful, cost effective system. Recent USSP C/S activities include Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant safeguard systems, production of a new shift register, numerous vulnerability assessments of C/S systems, a conduit monitoring system which identifies tampering of IAEA conduit deployed in the field, fiber optic seal upgrades, unattended monitoring system software upgrades, next generation surveillance system which will upgrade existing camera systems, and support of the IAEA's development of the universal nondestructive assay data acquisition platform.

  12. Present status and strategic plan for the stable isotope reference materials at the IAEA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey; Groening, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    The presentation will give the overview of the stable isotope reference materials (SI-RMs) under distribution by the IAEA, its stable isotope laboratory and capacities related to material testing & production as well as future plans. Historically, most of the IAEA reference materials were produced and made available via collaborations with expert stable isotope laboratories worldwide. The IAEA plans include several directions as follows: • Maintaining the scale-defining SI-RMs at the highest level and introducing adequate replacements when needed; • Monitoring existing SI-RMs for any potential alteration(s) and of isotopic values assigned; • Identifying and then addressing the needs for new SI-RMs, with the priority to address the most critical applications (environmental and climate related applications, human health, food safety studies) and newly emerging analytical isotope techniques; • Performing all measurements aimed for characterisation of new SI-RMs and the corresponding uncertainty evaluation in accordance to the latest metrological concepts; • Promoting metrological approaches on traceability and uncertainty evaluation in every day practice of stable isotope measurements; • Expanding the IAEA capacities for SI-RMs by (i) planning a renewed laboratory at IAEA; (ii) enlarging collaboration with expert laboratories aimed to help IAEA in production and characterisation of new SI-RMs. These major directions will help to address the increasing demand for Stable Isotope Reference Materials.

  13. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  14. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Abhijit; Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-12-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  15. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-08-06

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or {sup 3}He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied.

  16. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Haralalka, Shruti; Abmayr, Susan M.

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  17. Automated Controlled-Potential Coulometer for the IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Cordaro, J.V.; Holland, M.K.; Fields, T.

    1998-01-29

    An automated controlled-potential coulometer has been developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the determination of plutonium for use at the International Atomic Energy Agency`s (IAEA) Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Siebersdorf, Austria. The system is functionally the same as earlier systems built for use at the Savannah River Site`s Analytical Laboratory. All electronic circuits and printed circuits boards have been upgraded with state-of-the-art components. A higher amperage potentiostat with improved control stability has been developed. The system achieves electronic calibration accuracy and linearity of better than 0.01 percent, with a precision and accuracy better than 0.1 percent has been demonstrated. This coulometer features electrical calibration of the integration system, electrolysis current background corrections, and control-potential adjustment capabilities. These capabilities allow application of the system to plutonium measurements without chemical standards, achieving traceability to the international measurement system through electrical standards and Faraday`s constant. the chemist is provided with the capability to perform measurements without depending upon chemical standards, which is a significant advantage for applications such as characterization of primary and secondary standards. Additional benefits include reducing operating cost to procure, prepare and measure calibration standards and the corresponding decrease in radioactive waste generation. The design and documentation of the automated instrument are provided herein. Each individual module`s operation, wiring, layout, and alignment are described. Interconnection of the modules and system calibration are discussed. A complete set of prints and a list of associated parts are included.

  18. Lessons from UNSCOM/IAEA applicable to nuclear arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, D.W.

    1995-12-05

    In early 1991, the Security Council of the United Nations tasked the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, with the assistance and cooperation of the United Nations Special Commission, to oversee the destruction, removal or rendering harmless of nuclear weapons material and capabilities in Iraq. The conduct of the nuclear inspections, and the subsequent activities (identification, destruction, removal rendering harmless), have provided a wealth of experience and insight into the inspection and monitoring process as well as into the political realities of such an operation. The early inspections were conducted in an atmosphere of discovery and inexperience on both the part of the Iraqis and the IAEA and UNSCOM. As time went on, the Iraqis became more adept at hiding and obscuring relevant documents and equipment, and the inspection teams became more knowledgeable about inspection and investigative techniques, and the pre-existing Iraqi programs. A continuous monitoring presence in Iraq has now been established and an import/export monitoring regime is being developed. While steps taken to date have proven effective in inhibiting resumption of nuclear weaponization activities, it remains to be seen how effective these measures will be in the future. The external and internal conditions which led the Iraqi leadership to undertake a nuclear weaponization program have not changed, and the prognosis for the long term is uncertain. The entire process in Iraq has shown how fragile are the tools available to the international community, and how a determined proliferator can evade inspection and monitoring measures. Such measures cannot prevent nuclear proliferation, they can only hope to deter it, or, failing in that, detect it.

  19. Containment and surveillance -- A principal IAEA safeguards measure

    SciTech Connect

    Drayer, D.D.; Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1997-12-31

    The growth of the safeguards inspectorate of the Agency, spanning more than 40 years, has produced a variety of interesting subjects (legal, technical, political, etc.) for recollection, discussion, and study. Although the Agency was established in 1957, the first practical inspections did not occur until the early 1960s. In the early inspections, thee was little C/S equipment available, and no optical surveillance was used. However, by the third decade of the IAEA, the 1980s, many technology advances were made, and the level of C/S equipment activities increased. By the late 1980s, some 200 Twin Minolta film camera systems were deployed by the Agency for safeguards use. At the present time, the Agency is evaluating and beginning to implement remote monitoring as part of the Strengthened Safeguards System. However, adoption of remote monitoring by international agencies cannot occur rapidly because of the many technical and policy issues associated with this activity. A glimpse into the future indicates that an important element of safeguards instrumentation will be the merging of C/S and NDA equipment into integrated systems. The use of modern interior area monitors in International Safeguards also offers a great potential for advancing C/S measures. The research in microsensors is in its infancy, and the opportunities for their reducing the cost, increasing the life time, and increasing the reliability of sensors for safeguards applications are manifold. A period may be approaching in which the terminology of C/S will no longer have its original meaning, as integrated systems combining NDA instruments and C/S instruments are already in use and are expected to be the norm in the near future.

  20. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  1. Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    ScienceCinema

    Holland, Chris [UC San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

    2010-01-08

    The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the ?burning plasma? regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

  2. Ceramics for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications.

  3. Colliding Beam Fusion Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostoker, Norman; Qerushi, Artan; Binderbauer, Michl

    2003-06-01

    The recirculating power for virtually all types of fusion reactors has previously been calculated [1] with the Fokker-Planck equation. The reactors involve non-Maxwellian plasmas. The calculations are generic in that they do not relate to specific confinement devices. In all cases except for a Tokamak with D-T fuel the recirculating power was found to exceed the fusion power by a large factor. In this paper we criticize the generality claimed for this calculation. The ratio of circulating power to fusion power is calculated for the Colliding Beam Reactor with fuels D-T, D-He3 and p-B11. The results are respectively, 0.070, 0.141 and 0.493.

  4. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-04-04

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  5. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-01-01

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  6. Intense fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  7. DD fusion in crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyganov, E. N.

    2010-12-15

    The article discusses the mechanism of DD {sup {yields} 4}He fusion and so-called nonradiative thermalization of the reaction in crystals. The dynamics of this process is considered. The assumption that the decay time of the compound nucleus depends on its excitation energy makes experiments in crystals compatible with the acceleration data.We consider the processes in the crystals that increase the intensity ofDD fusion in comparison to the amorphous media, and the yield of the reaction is estimated.

  8. Fusion welding process

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Kenneth C.; Jones, Eric D.; McBride, Marvin A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

  9. Atomic data for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  10. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, George R.; Santarius, John F.; Turchi, Peter J.; Siemon, Richard E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For efficient and affordable human exploration of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion obviously cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the fission energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant produces propellant velocity of the order of 10 kinds. Alternatively the fission energy can be converted into electricity that is used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. However, the necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment greatly increases the mass of the propulsion system. Fundamental considerations in waste heat rejection and power conditioning in a fission electric propulsion system place a limit on its jet specific power to the order of about 0.2 kW/kg. If fusion can be developed for propulsion, it appears to have the best of all worlds - it can provide the largest absolute amount of energy, the propellant exhaust velocity (> 100 km/s), and the high specific jet power (> 10 kW/kg). An intermediate step towards fusion propulsion might be a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. There are similarities as well as differences between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The similarities are the underlying plasma and fusion physics, the enabling component technologies, the computational and the diagnostics capabilities. These physics and

  11. Fusion technology status and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1982-01-26

    This paper summarizes the status of fusion technology and discusses the requirements to be met in order to build a demonstration fusion plant. Strategies and programmatic considerations in pursuing engineering feasibility are also outlined.

  12. Multisensor data fusion algorithm development

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, D.A.; Chadwick, M.D.; Goudy, S.P.; Johnson, D.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a two-year LDRD research effort into multisensor data fusion. We approached the problem by addressing the available types of data, preprocessing that data, and developing fusion algorithms using that data. The report reflects these three distinct areas. First, the possible data sets for fusion are identified. Second, automated registration techniques for imagery data are analyzed. Third, two fusion techniques are presented. The first fusion algorithm is based on the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. Using test images, the wavelet algorithm is compared against intensity modulation and intensity-hue-saturation image fusion algorithms that are available in commercial software. The wavelet approach outperforms the other two fusion techniques by preserving spectral/spatial information more precisely. The wavelet fusion algorithm was also applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT panchromatic imagery data. The second algorithm is based on a linear-regression technique. We analyzed the technique using the same Landsat and SPOT data.

  13. IAEA programs in empowering the nuclear medicine profession through online educational resources.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Thomas Nb; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Kashyap, Ravi; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

    2013-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme in human health aims to enhance the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases through the application of nuclear techniques. It has the specific mission of fostering the application of nuclear medicine techniques as part of the clinical management of certain types of diseases. Attuned to the continuous evolution of this specialty as well as to the advancement and diversity of methods in delivering capacity building efforts in this digital age, the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA has enhanced its program by incorporating online educational resources for nuclear medicine professionals into its repertoire of projects to further its commitment in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Through online educational resources such as the Human Health Campus website, e-learning modules, and scheduled interactive webinars, a validation of the commitment by the IAEA in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine is strengthened while utilizing the advanced internet and communications technology which is progressively becoming available worldwide. The Human Health Campus (www.humanhealth.iaea.org) is the online educational resources initiative of the Division of Human Health of the IAEA geared toward enhancing professional knowledge of health professionals in radiation medicine (nuclear medicine and diagnostic imaging, radiation oncology, and medical radiation physics), and nutrition. E-learning modules provide an interactive learning environment to its users while providing immediate feedback for each task accomplished. Webinars, unlike webcasts, offer the opportunity of enhanced interaction with the learners facilitated through slide shows where the presenter guides and engages the audience using video and live streaming. This paper explores the IAEA's available online

  14. Human-Centered Fusion Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Posse, Christian; White, Amanda M.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2007-05-16

    In recent years the benefits of fusing signatures extracted from large amounts of distributed and/or heterogeneous data sources have been largely documented in various problems ranging from biological protein function prediction to cyberspace monitoring. In spite of significant progress in information fusion research, there is still no formal theoretical framework for defining various types of information fusion systems, defining and analyzing relations among such types, and designing information fusion systems using a formal method approach. Consequently, fusion systems are often poorly understood, are less than optimal, and/or do not suit user needs. To start addressing these issues, we outline a formal humancentered fusion framework for reasoning about fusion strategies. Our approach relies on a new taxonomy for fusion strategies, an alternative definition of information fusion in terms of parameterized paths in signature related spaces, an algorithmic formalization of fusion strategies and a library of numeric and dynamic visual tools measuring the impact as well as the impact behavior of fusion strategies. Using a real case of intelligence analysis we demonstrate that the proposed framework enables end users to rapidly 1) develop and implement alternative fusion strategies, 2) understand the impact of each strategy, 3) compare the various strategies, and 4) perform the above steps without having to know the mathematical foundations of the framework. We also demonstrate that the human impact on a fusion system is critical in the sense that small changes in strategies do not necessarily correspond to small changes in results.

  15. Multilevel fusion exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Perry C.; Dasarathy, Belur V.; McCullough, Claire L.

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes a project that was sponsored by the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC) to develop, test, and demonstrate sensor fusion algorithms for target recognition. The purpose of the project was to exploit the use of sensor fusion at all levels (signal, feature, and decision levels) and all combinations to improve target recognition capability against tactical ballistic missile (TBM) targets. These algorithms were trained with simulated radar signatures to accurately recognize selected TBM targets. The simulated signatures represent measurements made by two radars (S-band and X- band) with the targets at a variety of aspect and roll angles. Two tests were conducted: one with simulated signatures collected at angles different from those in the training database and one using actual test data. The test results demonstrate a high degree of recognition accuracy. This paper describes the training and testing techniques used; shows the fusion strategy employed; and illustrates the advantages of exploiting multi-level fusion.

  16. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, J.; Buchholtz, B.; Ward, P.; Freuh, J.; Jensen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium. Helium can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

  17. Status of inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefe, D.

    1987-04-01

    The technology advancement to high-power beams has also given birth to new technologies. That class of Free Electron Lasers that employs RF linacs, synchrotrons, and storage rings - although the use of the tools of High Energy Physics (HEP) - was developed well behind the kinetic energy frontier. The induction linac, however, is something of an exception; it was born directly from the needs of the magnetic fusion program, and was not motivated by a high-energy physics application. The heavy-ion approach to inertial fusion starts with picking from the rich menu of accelerator technologies those that have, ab initio, the essential ingredients needed for a power plant driver: multigap acceleration - which leads to reliability/lifetime; electrical efficiency; repetition rate; and beams that can be reliably focused over a suitably long distance. The report describes the programs underway in Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research as well as listing expected advances in driver, target, and beam quality areas in the inertial fusion power program.

  18. Separating Fusion from Rivalry

    PubMed Central

    Dechent, Peter; Forster, Clemens; von Steinbüchel, Nicole; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Strasburger, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Visual fusion is the process in which differing but compatible binocular information is transformed into a unified percept. Even though this is at the basis of binocular vision, the underlying neural processes are, as yet, poorly understood. In our study we therefore aimed to investigate neural correlates of visual fusion. To this end, we presented binocularly compatible, fusible (BF), and incompatible, rivaling (BR) stimuli, as well as an intermediate stimulus type containing both binocularly fusible and monocular, incompatible elements (BFR). Comparing BFR stimuli with BF and BR stimuli, respectively, we were able to disentangle brain responses associated with either visual fusion or rivalry. By means of functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured brain responses to these stimulus classes in the visual cortex, and investigated them in detail at various retinal eccentricities. Compared with BF stimuli, the response to BFR stimuli was elevated in visual cortical areas V1 and V2, but not in V3 and V4 – implying that the response to monocular stimulus features decreased from V1 to V4. Compared to BR stimuli, the response to BFR stimuli decreased with increasing eccentricity, specifically within V3 and V4. Taken together, it seems that although the processing of exclusively monocular information decreases from V1 to V4, the processing of binocularly fused information increases from earlier to later visual areas. Our findings suggest the presence of an inhibitory neural mechanism which, depending on the presence of fusion, acts differently on the processing of monocular information. PMID:25054904

  19. Fusion reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  20. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedrick, James; Buchholtz, Brent; Ward, Paul; Freuh, Jim; Jensen, Eric

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium-3. Helium-3 can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

  1. A fusion of minds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corfield, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Mystery still surrounds the visit of the astronomer Sir Bernard Lovell to the Soviet Union in 1963. But his collaboration - and that of other British scientists - eased geopolitical tensions at the height of the Cold War and paved the way for today's global ITER fusion project, as Richard Corfield explains.

  2. EDITORIAL: Special issue containing papers presented at the 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems Special issue containing papers presented at the 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya.

    2010-08-01

    The history of fusion research resembles the way in which one builds skyscrapers: laying the first foundation stone, one thinks about the top of the skyscraper. At the early stages of fusion, when it became clear that the thermonuclear reactor would operate with DT plasma confined by the magnetic field, the study of the `top item'—the physics of 3.5 MeV alpha particles produced by the DT fusion reaction—was initiated. The first publications on this topic appeared as long ago as the 1960s. At that time, because the physics of alpha particles was far from the experimental demand, investigations were carried out by small groups of theoreticians who hoped to discover important and interesting phenomena in this new research area. Soon after the beginning of the work, theoreticians discovered that alpha particles could excite various instabilities in fusion plasmas. In particular, at the end of the 1960s an Alfvén instability driven by alpha particles was predicted. Later it turned out that a variety of Alfvén instabilities with very different features does exist. Instabilities with perturbations of the Alfvénic type play an important role in current experiments; it is likely that they will affect plasma performance in ITER and future reactors. The first experimental manifestation of instabilities excited by superthermal particles in fusion devices was observed in the PDX tokamak in 1983. In this device a large-scale instability—the so called `fishbone instability'—associated with ions produced by the neutral beam injection resulted in a loss of a large fraction of the injected energy. Since then, the study of energetic-ion-driven instabilities and the effects produced by energetic ions in fusion plasmas has attracted the growing attention of both experimentalists and theorists. Recognizing the importance of this topic, the first conference on fusion alpha particles was held in 1989 in Kyiv under the auspices of the IAEA. The meeting in Kyiv and several

  3. Cooperation between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA Under the State-Level Concept:

    SciTech Connect

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; Johnson, Jaclyn M

    2012-01-01

    The role of State and Regional Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials (SSACs/RSACs) will increase within the framework of the state-level concept that is being implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In order to effectively implement the concept and further establish a state-level approach, which is sought to tailor safeguards activities in a specific state accordingly, collaboration between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA is very important. Nevertheless, the implementation of such concept is not simple. Optimal relationship between operators and national/governmental authorities and between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA is an evolving process. Benefits of such an approach as well as roles and responsibilities must be made clear to all parties involved. Acknowledging the uniqueness and diversity of SSACs/RSACs is a first step, followed by the implementation of confidence-building measures that result from an efficient communication process, and culminating with a transparent technical cooperation program. This paper analyses various aspects of the complex relationship among all parties involved in the implementation of the state-level concept: operators, national authorities, government agencies, SSACs/RSACs, and the IAEA. The author analyses the intricate network of possibilities to improve cooperation and discusses issues involving the provision of additional and voluntary information by SSACs/RSACs to the IAEA.

  4. Enhanced image capture through fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Peter J.; Hanna, Keith; Kolczynski, Raymond J.

    1993-01-01

    Image fusion may be used to combine images from different sensors, such as IR and visible cameras, to obtain a single composite with extended information content. Fusion may also be used to combine multiple images from a given sensor to form a composite image in which information of interest is enhanced. We present a general method for performing image fusion and show that this method is effective for diverse fusion applications. We suggest that fusion may provide a powerful tool for enhanced image capture with broad utility in image processing and computer vision.

  5. Research on fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryaznevich, M. P.

    2012-06-01

    The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. "Fusion for Neutrons" (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

  6. Activation Characteristics of Fuel Breeding Blanket Module in Fusion Driven Subcritical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qun-Ying; Li, Jian-Gang; Chen, Yi-Xue

    2004-12-01

    Shortage of energy resources and production of long-lived radioactivity wastes from fission reactors are among the main problems which will be faced in the world in the near future. The conceptual design of a fusion driven subcritical system (FDS) is underway in Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. There are alternative designs for multi-functional blanket modules of the FDS, such as fuel breeding blanket module (FBB) to produce fuels for fission reactors, tritium breeding blanket module to produce the fuel, i.e. tritium, for fusion reactor and waste transmutation blanket module to try to permanently dispose of long-lived radioactivity wastes from fission reactors, etc. Activation of the fuel breeding blanket of the fusion driven subcritical system (FDS-FBB) by D-T fusion neutrons from the plasma and fission neutrons from the hybrid blanket are calculated and analysed under the neutron wall loading 0.5 MW/m2 and neutron fluence 15 MW.yr/m2. The neutron spectrum is calculated with the worldwide-used transport code MCNP/4C and activation calculations are carried out with the well known European inventory code FISPACT/99 with the latest released IAEA Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library FENDL-2.0 and the ENDF/B-V uranium evaluated data. Induced radioactivities, dose rates and afterheats, etc, for different components of the FDS-FBB are compared and analysed.

  7. The Need for Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassibry, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. In this talk those arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  8. Acquired spondylolysis after spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Brunet, J A; Wiley, J J

    1984-11-01

    Spondylolysis occurring after a spinal fusion is considered to result from operative damage to the pars interarticularis on both sides. Fourteen cases are reported, and compared with the 23 cases which have previously been published. The defects are usually recognised within five years of fusion, and usually occur immediately above the fusion mass. Other contributory causes may be: fatigue fracture from concentration of stress; damage and altered function of the posterior ligament complex; and degenerative disc disease immediately above or below the fusion. Fusion technique is critical, since virtually all cases occurred after posterior interlaminar fusions. This complication is easily overlooked in patients with recurrent back pain after an originally successful posterior spinal fusion. PMID:6501368

  9. 50 years of fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meade, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Fusion energy research began in the early 1950s as scientists worked to harness the awesome power of the atom for peaceful purposes. There was early optimism for a quick solution for fusion energy as there had been for fission. However, this was soon tempered by reality as the difficulty of producing and confining fusion fuel at temperatures of 100 million °C in the laboratory was appreciated. Fusion research has followed two main paths—inertial confinement fusion and magnetic confinement fusion. Over the past 50 years, there has been remarkable progress with both approaches, and now each has a solid technical foundation that has led to the construction of major facilities that are aimed at demonstrating fusion energy producing plasmas.

  10. IAEA workshop and field trial at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hembree, D.M. Jr.; Ross, H.H.; Carter, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    In March 1994, members of the International Safeguards Department in the National Security Program Office (NSPO) hosted an environmental monitoring field trial workshop for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors. The workshop was held at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and its primary purpose was to train the inspectors in the techniques needed for effective environmental sample collection and handling. The workshop emphasized both sampling theory and practice. First, detailed techniques for swipe, vegetation, soil, biota, and water-associated sampling were covered in the classroom. Subsequently, the inspectors were divided into three groups for actual sample collection in and around the K-25 locale. The collected samples were processed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Network of Analytical Laboratories using established analytical techniques. This activity is part of the IAEA ``Programme 93+2 in. assessment of measures to enhance IAEA safeguards.

  11. Testing the validity of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety culture model.

    PubMed

    López de Castro, Borja; Gracia, Francisco J; Peiró, José M; Pietrantoni, Luca; Hernández, Ana

    2013-11-01

    This paper takes the first steps to empirically validate the widely used model of safety culture of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), composed of five dimensions, further specified by 37 attributes. To do so, three independent and complementary studies are presented. First, 290 students serve to collect evidence about the face validity of the model. Second, 48 experts in organizational behavior judge its content validity. And third, 468 workers in a Spanish nuclear power plant help to reveal how closely the theoretical five-dimensional model can be replicated. Our findings suggest that several attributes of the model may not be related to their corresponding dimensions. According to our results, a one-dimensional structure fits the data better than the five dimensions proposed by the IAEA. Moreover, the IAEA model, as it stands, seems to have rather moderate content validity and low face validity. Practical implications for researchers and practitioners are included. PMID:24076304

  12. IAEA's role in the global management of cancer-focus on upgrading radiotherapy services.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Eeva; Izewska, Joanna; Andreo, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an intergovernmental organization composed by 138 Member States within the United Nations. It has a mandate to seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. Within the IAEA structure, the Division of Human Health contributes to the enhancement of the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to prevention, diagnosis and treatment of health problems through the development and application of nuclear and radiation techniques within a framework of quality assurance. In view of the increasing cancer incidence rates in developing countries the activities in improving management of cancer have become increasingly important. This review will outline the IAEA's role in cancer management focusing on activities related to improving radiotherapy worldwide. PMID:16332588

  13. JOINT UNITED STATES/IAEA PROPOSED APPROACH FOR SAFEGUARDS DURING PLUTONIUM STABILIZATION, PACKAGING, AND SHIPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    L. KWEI; B. SMITH; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    For safety reasons, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing to stabilize and package plutonium oxide currently subject to International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) beginning in the year 2001. The Hanford Site will also stabilize and package plutonium materials under IAEA safeguards. The U.S. and the IAEA began consultations in late 1996 to develop an approach to the application of safeguards during stabilization and packaging. With the plans to ship RFETS plutonium to Savannah River for interim storage prior to final disposition, this work has been extended to include safeguards during shipment. This paper will discuss the elements of a joint U.S./IAEA proposal for this task.

  14. Fusion pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, D.S.

    1987-07-31

    The apparatus of this invention may comprise a system for generating laser radiation from a high-energy neutron source. The neutron source is a tokamak fusion reactor generating a long pulse of high-energy neutrons and having a temperature and magnetic field effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s. Conversion means are provided adjacent the fusion reactor at a location operable for converting the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. A lasing medium is spaced about and responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Synaptic vesicle fusion

    PubMed Central

    Rizo, Josep; Rosenmund, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The core of the neurotransmitter release machinery is formed by SNARE complexes, which bring the vesicle and plasma membranes together and are key for fusion, and by Munc18-1, which controls SNARE-complex formation and may also have a direct role in fusion. In addition, SNARE complex assembly is likely orchestrated by Munc13s and RIMs, active-zone proteins that function in vesicle priming and diverse forms of presynaptic plasticity. Synaptotagmin-1 mediates triggering of release by Ca2+, probably through interactions with SNAREs and both membranes, as well as through a tight interplay with complexins. Elucidation of the release mechanism will require a full understanding of the network of interactions among all these proteins and the membranes. PMID:18618940

  16. Spectral Label Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wachinger, Christian; Golland, Polina

    2012-01-01

    We present a new segmentation approach that combines the strengths of label fusion and spectral clustering. The result is an atlas-based segmentation method guided by contour and texture cues in the test image. This offers advantages for datasets with high variability, making the segmentation less prone to registration errors. We achieve the integration by letting the weights of the graph Laplacian depend on image data, as well as atlas-based label priors. The extracted contours are converted to regions, arranged in a hierarchy depending on the strength of the separating boundary. Finally, we construct the segmentation by a region-wise, instead of voxel-wise, voting, increasing the robustness. Our experiments on cardiac MRI show a clear improvement over majority voting and intensity-weighted label fusion. PMID:23286157

  17. Adaptive sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadar, Ivan

    1995-07-01

    A perceptual reasoning system adaptively extracting, associating, and fusing information from multiple sources, at various levels of abstraction, is considered as the building block for the next generation of surveillance systems. A system architecture is presented which makes use of both centralized and distributed predetection fusion combined with intelligent monitor and control coupling both on-platform and off-board track and decision level fusion results. The goal of this system is to create a `gestalt fused sensor system' whose information product is greater than the sum of the information products from the individual sensors and has performance superior to either individual or a sub-group of combined sensors. The application of this architectural concept to the law enforcement arena (e.g. drug interdiction) utilizing multiple spatially and temporally diverse surveillance platforms and/or information sources, is used to illustrate the benefits of the adaptive perceptual reasoning system concept.

  18. Development of an IAEA Training Course for Future U.S. Inspectors

    SciTech Connect

    Savannah Avgerinos Fitzwater; Amanda R. Rynes; David S. Bracken; Richard R. M. Metcalf; James D. West

    2011-07-01

    U.S. citizens currently make up only 12% of the positions held in the IAEA’s Department of Safeguards. While the United States has maintained a high level of support for the Agency over the duration of its history, the number of American inspectors currently in the field does not reflect this level of involvement. As a result, the National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of International Relations, as part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) mission, has tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to develop a rigorous two week hands-on training program to encourage and operationally acclimatize U.S. Citizens who are interested in applying for IAEA inspector positions using IAEA authorized equipment at INL. Idaho National Laboratory is one-of-a-kind in its ability to train IAEA inspectors by including training at nuclear facilities on site and includes, for example, direct measurement of an active spent fuel storage cooling pond. This accredited course will introduce and train attendees on the major IAEA systems used in collecting nuclear safeguards data and performing safeguards inspections. Unique in the United States, these classes will give attendees direct hands-on training and will address equipment purpose, function, operating principles, application, and troubleshooting, based upon what would be expected of an IAEA Safeguards Inspector in the field and in the office. Upon completion, U.S. applicants will be better qualified to pursue a position in the IAEA Department of Safeguards Operational Divisions. In support, INL has recently established a new laboratory space to house state of the art nuclear safeguards instrumentation. Currently, equipment installed in the laboratory space includes attended systems: 3DLR (3-D Imaging Laser) for design information verification, a Digital Cerenkov Viewing Device for measurement of spent fuel, HM-5 handheld radiation detectors, quantitative neutron and gamma systems; unattended monitoring

  19. Fc-fusion mimetics.

    PubMed

    Khalili, H; Khaw, P T; Brocchini, S

    2016-06-24

    The Fc-fusion mimetic RpR 2[combining low line] was prepared by disulfide bridging conjugation using PEG in the place of the Fc. RpR 2[combining low line] displayed higher affinity for VEGF than aflibercept. This is caused primarily by a slower dissociation rate, which can prolong a drug at its site of action. RpRs have considerable potential for development as stable, organ specific therapeutics. PMID:27127811

  20. Fusion development and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  1. Inertial Confinement fusion targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques were devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems, and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented.

  2. (Fusion energy research)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  3. Modular Aneutronic Fusion Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Pajer, Yosef Razin, Michael Paluszek, A.H. Glasser and Samuel Cohen

    2012-05-11

    NASA's JUNO mission will arrive at Jupiter in July 2016, after nearly five years in space. Since operational costs tend to rise with mission time, minimizing such times becomes a top priority. We present the conceptual design for a 10MW aneutronic fusion engine with high exhaust velocities that would reduce transit time for a Jupiter mission to eighteen months and enable more challenging exploration missions in the solar system and beyond. __________________________________________________

  4. Cold fusion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hembree, D. M.; Burchfield, L. A.; Fuller, E. L., Jr.; Perey, F. G.; Mamantov, G.

    1990-06-01

    A series of experiments designed to detect the by-products expected from deuterium fusion occurring in the palladium and titanium cathodes of heavy water, D2O, electrolysis cells is reported. The primary purpose of this account is to outline the integrated experimental design developed to test the cold fusion hypothesis and to report preliminary results that support continuing the investigation. Apparent positive indicators of deuterium fusion were observed, but could not be repeated or proved to originate from the electrochemical cells. In one instance, two large increases in the neutron count rate, the largest of which exceeded the background by 27 standard deviations, were observed. In a separate experiment, one of the calorimetry cells appeared to be producing approximately 18 percent more power that the input value, but thermistor failure prevented an accurate recording of the event as a function of time. In general, the tritium levels in most cells followed the slow enrichment expected from the electrolysis of D2O containing a small amount of tritium. However, after 576 hours of electrolysis, one cell developed a tritium concentration approximately seven times greater than expected level.

  5. Stabilized Spheromak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T

    2007-04-03

    The U.S. fusion energy program is focused on research with the potential for studying plasmas at thermonuclear temperatures, currently epitomized by the tokamak-based International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) but also continuing exploratory work on other plasma confinement concepts. Among the latter is the spheromak pursued on the SSPX facility at LLNL. Experiments in SSPX using electrostatic current drive by coaxial guns have now demonstrated stable spheromaks with good heat confinement, if the plasma is maintained near a Taylor state, but the anticipated high current amplification by gun injection has not yet been achieved. In future experiments and reactors, creating and maintaining a stable spheromak configuration at high magnetic field strength may require auxiliary current drive using neutral beams or RF power. Here we show that neutral beam current drive soon to be explored on SSPX could yield a compact spheromak reactor with current drive efficiency comparable to that of steady state tokamaks. Thus, while more will be learned about electrostatic current drive in coming months, results already achieved in SSPX could point to a productive parallel development path pursuing auxiliary current drive, consistent with plans to install neutral beams on SSPX in the near future. Among possible outcomes, spheromak research could also yield pulsed fusion reactors at lower capital cost than any fusion concept yet proposed.

  6. RECRUITMENT OF U.S. CITIZENS FOR VACANCIES IN IAEA SAFEGUARDS.

    SciTech Connect

    OCCHIOGROSSO, D.; PEPPER, S.

    2006-07-16

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on its member states to assist with recruiting qualified individuals for positions within the IAEA's secretariat. It is likewise important to the U.S. government for U.S. citizens to take positions with the IAEA to contribute to its success. It is important for persons within and outside the U.S. nuclear and safeguards industries to become aware of the job opportunities available at the IAEA and to be informed of important vacancies as they arise. The International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is tasked by the U.S. government with recruiting candidates for positions within the Department of Safeguards at the IAEA and since 1998, has been actively seeking methods for improving outreach. In addition, ISPO has been working more closely with the IAEA Division of Personnel. ISPO staff members attend trade shows to distribute information about IAEA opportunities. The shows target the nuclear industry as well as shows that are unrelated to the nuclear industry. ISPO developed a web site that provides information for prospective candidates. They have worked with the IAEA to understand its recruitment processes, to make suggestions for improvements, and to understand employment benefits so they can be communicated to potential U.S. applicants. ISPO is also collaborating with a State Department working group that is focused on increasing U.S. representation within the United Nations as a whole. Most recently Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice issued a letter to all Federal Agency heads encouraging details and transfers of their employees to international organizations to the maximum extent feasible and with due regard to their manpower requirements. She urged all federal agencies to review their detail and transfer policies and practices to ensure that employment in international organizations is promoted in a positive and active manner. In addition, she wrote that it is

  7. Implementation of IAEA safeguards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Giacomini, J.J.; Finleon, C.A.; Larsen, R.K.; Lucas, M.; Langner, D.

    1995-07-01

    When President Clinton spoke to the United Nations General Assembly in September 1993, he offered to place US excess defense nuclear material under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, before the next Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) Extension Conference. This set in motion a flurry of activities at three DOE facilities, including Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site). With general guidance from DOE Headquarters, the facility selected a suitable storage area, identified appropriate materials, and acquired the necessary instrumentation to implement full-scale IAEA safeguards on excess plutonium oxide.

  8. The IAEA system and experience as a model for Information Management under the Chemical Weapons Convention

    SciTech Connect

    Bieber, A.M. Jr.; Kempf, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Similarities in the verification aims of the monitoring regimes of the future Organization for the Prohibition of chemical Weapons (OPCW) and of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), make their general data requirements similar: data are needed for planning inspections, for evaluating inspections, and for preparation of reports on compliance with the relevant treaty In this paper we discuss the legal, procedural and administrative structure behind the data system associated with IAEA safeguards, and, after comparing this to the CWC regime, suggest possible improvements for consideration during the development of national implementation programs and of the declaration and inspection data management system for the OPCW.

  9. The IAEA system and experience as a model for Information Management under the Chemical Weapons Convention

    SciTech Connect

    Bieber, A.M. Jr.; Kempf, C.R.

    1992-09-01

    Similarities in the verification aims of the monitoring regimes of the future Organization for the Prohibition of chemical Weapons (OPCW) and of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), make their general data requirements similar: data are needed for planning inspections, for evaluating inspections, and for preparation of reports on compliance with the relevant treaty In this paper we discuss the legal, procedural and administrative structure behind the data system associated with IAEA safeguards, and, after comparing this to the CWC regime, suggest possible improvements for consideration during the development of national implementation programs and of the declaration and inspection data management system for the OPCW.

  10. The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards - How It Works

    SciTech Connect

    Nock,C.; Hoffheins,B.

    2008-07-13

    The U.S. Support Program to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards (USSP) was established in 1977 to transfer US technology and expertise to assist the IAEA Department of Safeguards because its limited budget and scope would not allow for R&D activities and the procurement of specialized or customized equipment. Over the years, the USSP and the Department of Safeguards have worked together continuously to develop and improve processes for requesting, selecting, and managing projects that support the Safeguards verification mission. This paper will discuss the main USSP processes for accepting and processing Safeguards requests, and managing and reporting task progress.

  11. Comparison of acid leaching and fusion techniques to determine uranium in soil samples by alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dirican, Abdullah; Şahin, Mihriban

    2016-03-01

    Dissolution of radionuclides of interest is an indispensable first step in the alpha spectrometric analysis of soil samples. In this study a uranium recovery method for the analysis of uranium isotopes in soil samples is presented. Two different soil sample dissolution techniques were used: digestion in open beaker and fusion. The results of these techniques were compared. Two proficiency test samples and one reference material prepared by the IAEA were analyzed. Better results were obtained by fusion dissolution technique but impurities were higher than with acid leaching. Results of two techniques were more or less similar within the uncertainty limits. The detection limit (a(#)) was evaluated as part of the quality control. PMID:26651172

  12. Tritium retention in fusion reactor plasma facing components

    SciTech Connect

    Langley, R.A.

    1995-03-01

    The IAEA has proposed a coordinated research program to address tritium retention and release in fusion reactor plasma facing components. This program will address materials which are mainly of interest to the design and construction of ITER, namely beryllium, carbon based materials and medium and high-Z metals, e.g. tungsten, vanadium and molybdenum, but will not be limited to these materials. Experimental data are needed for: recycling models, tritium inventory estimates, tritium permeation calculations and hydrogen embrittlement characterization. The ultimate use of the data would be to influence the formation of models for use by fusion reactor designers. Judicious material choices must be made by the designers and accurate predictive codes are required in order to make these choices. The proposed coordinated research program will provide a forum for discussions between experimentalists, theoreticians, modelers and reactor designers, provide financial support for relevant research projects and collect and evaluate experimental and theoretical data. This paper briefly reviews existing data, addresses the data gaps and points out experiments designed to obtain the needed data. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. FENDL: International reference nuclear data library for fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashchenko, A. B.; Wienke, H.; Ganesan, S.

    1996-10-01

    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section, in co-operation with several national nuclear data centres and research groups, has created the first version of an internationally available Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL-1). The FENDL library has been selected to serve as a comprehensive source of processed and tested nuclear data tailored to the requirements of the engineering design activity (EDA) of the ITER project and other fusion-related development projects. The present version of FENDL consists of the following sublibraries covering the necessary nuclear input for all physics and engineering aspects of the material development, design, operation and safety of the ITER project in its current EDA phase: FENDL/A-1.1: neutron activation cross-sections, selected from different available sources, for 636 nuclides, FENDL/D-1.0: nuclear decay data for 2900 nuclides in ENDF-6 format, FENDL/DS-1.0: neutron activation data for dosimetry by foil activation, FENDL/C-1.0: data for the fusion reactions D(d,n), D(d,p), T(d,n), T(t,2n), He-3(d,p) extracted from ENDF/B-6 and processed, FENDL/E-1.0:data for coupled neutron—photon transport calculations, including a data library for neutron interaction and photon production for 63 elements or isotopes, selected from ENDF/B-6, JENDL-3, or BROND-2, and a photon—atom interaction data library for 34 elements. The benchmark validation of FENDL-1 as required by the customer, i.e. the ITER team, is considered to be a task of high priority in the coming months. The well tested and validated nuclear data libraries in processed form of the FENDL-2 are expected to be ready by mid 1996 for use by the ITER team in the final phase of ITER EDA after extensive benchmarking and integral validation studies in the 1995-1996 period. The FENDL data files can be electronically transferred to users from the IAEA nuclear data section online system through INTERNET. A grand total of 54 (sub)directories with 845 files with total size of about 2

  14. Special issue containing papers presented at the 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (7-11 September 2011) Special issue containing papers presented at the 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (7-11 September 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, H. L.

    2012-09-01

    The topic of the behaviour of energetic alpha particles in magnetic fusion confined plasmas is perhaps the ultimate frontier plasma physics issue that needs to be understood in the quest to achieve controlled power from the fusion reaction in magnetically confined plasmas. The partial pressure of alpha particles in a burning plasma will be ~5-10% of the total pressure and under these conditions the alpha particles may be prone to develop instability through Alfvénic interaction. This may lead, even with moderate alpha particle loss, to a burn quench or severe wall damage. Alternatively, benign Alfvénic signals may allow the vital information to control a fusion burn. The significance of this issue has led to extensive international investigations and a biannual meeting that began in Kyiv in 1989, followed by subsequent meetings in Aspenäs (1991), Trieste (1993), Princeton (1995), JET/Abingdon (1997), Naka (1999), Gothenburg (2001), San Diego (2003), Takayama (2005), Kloster Seeon (2007) and Kyiv (2009). The meeting was initially entitled 'Alpha Particles in Fusion Research' and then was changed during the 1997 meeting to 'Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems' in appreciation of the need to study the significance of the electron runaway, which can lead to the production of energetic electrons with energies that can even exceed the energy produced by fusion products. This special issue presents some of the mature interesting work that was reported at the 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems, which was held in Austin, Texas, USA (7-11 September 2011). This meeting immediately followed a related meeting, the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Theory of Plasma Wave Instabilities (5-7 September 2011). The meetings shared one day (7 September 2011) with presentations relevant to both groups. The presentations from most of the participants, as well as some preliminary versions of papers, are available at the

  15. Sensor fusion for synthetic vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.; Larimer, J.; Ahumada, A.

    1991-01-01

    Display methodologies are explored for fusing images gathered by millimeter wave sensors with images rendered from an on-board terrain data base to facilitate visually guided flight and ground operations in low visibility conditions. An approach to fusion based on multiresolution image representation and processing is described which facilitates fusion of images differing in resolution within and between images. To investigate possible fusion methods, a workstation-based simulation environment is being developed.

  16. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  17. Generic magnetic fusion rocket model

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, J.F.; Logan, B.G.

    1993-06-01

    A generic magnetic fusion rocket model is developed and used to explore the limits of fusion propulsion systems. Two fusion fuels are examined, D-T and D-(He-3), and the D-(He-3) fuel cycle is found to give a higher specific power in almost all parameter regimes. The key findings are that (1) magnetic fusion should ultimately be able to deliver specific powers of about 10 kW/kg and (2) specific powers of 15 kW/kg could be achieved with only modest extrapolations of present technology. 9 refs.

  18. Economic potential of inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1984-04-01

    Beyond the achievement of scientific feasibility, the key question for fusion energy is: does it have the economic potential to be significantly cheaper than fission and coal energy. If fusion has this high economic potential then there are compelling commercial and geopolitical incentives to accelerate the pace of the fusion program in the near term, and to install a global fusion energy system in the long term. Without this high economic potential, fusion's success depends on the failure of all alternatives, and there is no real incentive to accelerate the program. If my conjectures on the economic potential of inertial fusion are approximately correct, then inertial fusion energy's ultimate costs may be only half to two-thirds those of advanced fission and coal energy systems. Relative cost escalation is not assumed and could increase this advantage. Both magnetic and inertial approaches to fusion potentially have a two-fold economic advantage which derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity. The wining approach to fusion may excel in three areas: electrical generating efficiency, minimum material costs, and adaptability to manufacture in automated factories. The winning approach must also rate highly in environmental potential, safety, availability factor, lifetime, small 0 and M costs, and no possibility of utility-disabling accidents.

  19. OCULUS Sea Track Fusion Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotou, Stylianos C.; Rizogiannis, Constantinos; Katsoulis, Stavros; Lampropoulos, Vassilis; Kanellopoulos, Sotirios; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Oculus Sea is a complete solution regarding maritime surveillance and communications at Local as well as Central Command and Control level. It includes a robust and independent track fusion service whose main functions include: 1) Interaction with the User to suggest the fusion of two or more tracks, confirm Track ID and Vessel Metadata creation for the fused track, and suggest de-association of two tracks 2) Fusion of same vessel tracks arriving simultaneously from multiple radar sensors featuring track Association, track Fusion of associated tracks to produce a more accurate track, and Multiple tracking filters and fusion algorithms 3) Unique Track ID Generator for each fused track 4) Track Dissemination Service. Oculus Sea Track Fusion Service adopts a system architecture where each sensor is associated with a Kalman estimator/tracker that obtains an estimate of the state vector and its respective error covariance matrix. Finally, at the fusion center, association and track state estimation fusion are carried out. The expected benefits of this system include multi-sensor information fusion, enhanced spatial resolution, and improved target detection.

  20. Safety of evolutionary and innovative nuclear reactors: IAEA activities and world efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T.; Gasparini, M.

    2004-07-01

    'Defence in Depth' approach constitutes the basis of the IAEA safety standards for nuclear power plants. Lessons learned from the current generation of reactors suggest that, for the next generation of reactor designs, the Defence in Depth philosophy should be retained, and that its implementation should be guided by the probabilistic insights. Recent developments in the area of general safety requirements based on Defence in Depth approach are examined and summarized. Global efforts to harmonize safety requirements for evolutionary nuclear power plants have involved many countries and organizations such as IAEA, US EPRI and European Utility EUR Organization. In recent years, developments of innovative nuclear power plants are also being discussed. The IAEA is currently developing a safety approach specifically for innovative nuclear reactors. This approach will eventually lead to a proposal of safety requirements for innovative reactors. Such activities related to safety requirements of evolutionary and innovative reactors are introduced. Various evolutionary and innovative reactor designs are reported in the world. The safety design features of evolutionary large LWRs, innovative LWRs, Modular High Temperature Gas Reactors and Small Liquid Metal Cooled LMRs are also introduced. Enhanced safety features proposed in such reactors are discussed and summarized according to the levels of Defence in Depth. For future nuclear plants, international cooperation and harmonization, especially in the area of safety, appear to be inevitable. Based on the past experience with many member states, the IAEA believes itself to be the uniquely positioned international organization to play this key role. (authors)

  1. Implementation of IAEA /1/INT/054 Project in Nuclear Analytical Techniques Group of Argentina: Current State

    SciTech Connect

    Sara, Resnizky; Rita, Pla; Alba, Zaretzky

    2008-08-14

    This paper presents the implementation of the training received through the IAEA Project 'Preparation of Reference Materials and Organization of Proficiency Tests Rounds' in the Nuclear Analytical (NAT) Group of CNEA. Special emphasis is done on those activities related to the first Proficiency Test being carried out by the NAT Group.

  2. The US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards Priority of Training and Human Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Queirolo,A.

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) priority of training and human resources is aimed at providing the Department of Safeguards with an appropriate mixture of regular staff and extrabudgetary experts who are qualified to meet the IAEA's technical needs and to provide personnel with appropriate instruction to improve the technical basis and specific skills needed to perform their job functions. The equipment and methods used in inspection activities are unique, complex, and evolving. New and experienced safeguards inspectors need timely and effective training to perform required tasks and to learn new skills prescribed by new safeguards policies or agreements. The role of the inspector has changed from that of strictly an accountant to include that of a detective. New safeguards procedures are being instituted, and therefore, experienced inspectors must be educated on these new procedures. The USSP also recognizes the need for training safeguards support staff, particularly those who maintain and service safeguards equipment (SGTS), and those who perform information collection and analysis (SGIM). The USSP is committed to supporting the IAEA with training to ensure the effectiveness of all staff members and will continue to offer its assistance in the development and delivery of basic, refresher, and advanced training courses. This paper will discuss the USSP ongoing support in the area of training and IAEA staffing.

  3. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu speaks to the 2009 IAEA General Conference delegation

    SciTech Connect

    Secretary Chu

    2009-09-15

    On Sept. 14, 2009, U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu addressed the 2009 IAEA General Conference delegation. Chu is the first Cabinet official to discuss President Obama's nuclear security and nonproliferation agenda outside the United States since the President delivered his landmark speech in Prague in April 2009.

  4. Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William; Santi, Peter; Swinhoe, Martyn; Bonner, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

  5. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu speaks to the 2009 IAEA General Conference delegation

    ScienceCinema

    Secretary Chu

    2010-09-01

    On Sept. 14, 2009, U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu addressed the 2009 IAEA General Conference delegation. Chu is the first Cabinet official to discuss President Obama's nuclear security and nonproliferation agenda outside the United States since the President delivered his landmark speech in Prague in April 2009.

  6. Opening remarks for panel discussion on ''clarifying the role of the IAEA''

    SciTech Connect

    Parsick, R.J.

    1983-07-01

    The IAEA is part of a larger picture conducive to non-proliferation. The IAEA helps to set and maintain an environment in which the vast number of States advocate nonproliferation and allow and cooperate with inspections in loco and in which individual States do not advocate acquiring nuclear weapons. This international norm of behaviour with respect to non-proliferation provides a clear distinction between those States which have accepted safeguards on all present and future nuclear activities, those which have accepted safeguards only on all present nuclear activities and those which have accepted safeguards on only some of their present nuclear activities. Those very few States, if any, which might consider violating their safeguards agreements are deterred from doing so because many of the diversion possibilities and concealment methods, especially those which would be otherwise relatively easy for a potential divertor to use, cannot be attempted without a significant probability of early detection by the IAEA safeguards system. The combination of the genuine interests of individual States to forego nuclear weapons, States' acceptance of treaty obligations and of safeguards agreements, and the IAEA's safeguards activities contributes to the successful regime of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.

  7. COLLABORATIVE: FUSION SIMULATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Choong Seock

    2012-06-05

    New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, participated in the “Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) Planning Activities” [http://www.pppl.gov/fsp], with C.S. Chang as the institutional PI. FSP’s mission was to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. Specific institutional goal of the New York University was to participate in the planning of the edge integrated simulation, with emphasis on the usage of large scale HPCs, in connection with the SciDAC CPES project which the PI was leading. New York University successfully completed its mission by participating in the various planning activities, including the edge physics integration, the edge science drivers, and the mathematical verification. The activity resulted in the combined report that can be found in http://www.pppl.gov/fsp/Overview.html. Participation and presentations as part of this project are listed in a separation file.

  8. Cold nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, E. N.; Bavizhev, M. D.; Buryakov, M. G.; Dabagov, S. B.; Golovatyuk, V. M.; Lobastov, S. P.

    2015-07-01

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction's theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300-700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of 4He∗.

  9. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

  10. Physics of Fusion Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Applicabilities and limitations of three techniques analyzed. NASA technical memorandum discusses physics of electron-beam, gas/ tungsten-arc, and laser-beam welding. From comparison of capabilities and limitations of each technique with regard to various welding conditions and materials, possible to develop criteria for selecting best welding technique in specific application. All three techniques classified as fusion welding; small volume of workpiece melted by intense heat source. Heat source moved along seam, leaving in wake solid metal that joins seam edges together.

  11. Opportunities to more fully utilize safeguards information reported to the IAEA at Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, James R; Whitaker, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to increase transparency and to strengthen IAEA safeguards, more countries are adopting practices that provide the IAEA with more timely, safeguards-relevant information to confirm nuclear operations are as declared. At Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants (GCEPs) potential examples include installing unattended IAEA instruments that transmit selected information back to Vienna, instruments that collect and store measurement information on-site, and daily facility operator submissions of material receipts, shipments, or utilization of key operational systems (e.g., UF6 feed stations) to on-site mail boxes. Recently the IAEA has implemented the use of on-site mailbox systems supplemented with short notice or unannounced inspections to maintain effectiveness without significantly increasing the number of inspection days. While these measures significantly improves the IAEA’s effectiveness, we have identified several opportunities for how the use of this information could be improved and how some additional information would further improve safeguards. This paper presents concepts for how the safeguards information currently collected at GCEPs could be more effectively utilized through enhancing the way that raw data is displayed visually so that it is more intuitive to the inspector and provides for more effective inspection planning and execution, comparing information with previous IAEA inspection activities (lists of previous verified inventory), through comparing data with operator supplied data when inspectors arrive (notional inventory change reports), and through evaluating the data over time to provide even greater confidence in the data and operations as declared in between inspections. This paper will also discuss several potential improvements to the submissions themselves, such as including occupancy information about product and tails stations and including weight information for each station.

  12. Helium Find Thaws the Cold Fusion Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, E.

    1991-01-01

    Reported is a study of cold fusion in which trace amounts of helium, possible evidence of an actual fusion reaction, were found. Research methodology is detailed. The controversy over the validity of experimental results with cold fusion are reviewed. (CW)

  13. Inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, L.; Condouris, R.; Kotowski, M.; Murphy, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the ICF Quarterly contains seven articles that describe recent progress in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's ICF program. The Department of Energy recently initiated an effort to design a 1--2 MJ glass laser, the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF). These articles span various aspects of a program which is aimed at moving forward toward such a facility by continuing to use the Nova laser to gain understanding of NIF-relevant target physics, by developing concepts for an NIF laser driver, and by envisioning a variety of applications for larger ICF facilities. This report discusses research on the following topics: Stimulated Rotational Raman Scattering in Nitrogen; A Maxwell Equation Solver in LASNEX for the Simulation of Moderately Intense Ultrashort Pulse Experiments; Measurements of Radial Heat-Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Plasmas; Laser-Seeded Modulation Growth on Directly Driven Foils; Stimulated Raman Scattering in Large-Aperture, High-Fluence Frequency-Conversion Crystals; Fission Product Hazard Reduction Using Inertial Fusion Energy; Use of Inertial Confinement Fusion for Nuclear Weapons Effects Simulations.

  14. Fusion processor simulation (FPSim)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnell, Mark D.; Wynne, Douglas G.; Rahn, Brian J.

    1998-07-01

    The Fusion Processor Simulation (FPSim) is being developed by Rome Laboratory to support the Discrimination Interceptor Technology (DITP) and Advanced Sensor Technology (ASTP) Programs of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. The purpose of the FPSim is to serve as a test bed and evaluation tool for establishing the feasibility of achieving threat engagement timelines. The FPSim supports the integration, evaluation, and demonstration of different strategies, system concepts, and Acquisition Tracking & Pointing (ATP) subsystems and components. The environment comprises a simulation capability within which users can integrate and test their application software models, algorithms and databases. The FPSim must evolve as algorithm developments mature to support independent evaluation of contractor designs and the integration of a number of fusion processor subsystem technologies. To accomplish this, the simulation contains validated modules, databases, and simulations. It possesses standardized engagement scenarios, architectures and subsystem interfaces, and provides a hardware and software framework which is flexible to support growth, reconfigurration, and simulation component modification and insertion. Key user interaction features include: (1) Visualization of platform status through displays of the surveillance scene as seen by imaging sensors. (2) User-selectable data analysis and graphics display during the simulation execution as well as during post-simulation analysis. (3) Automated, graphical tools to permit the user to reconfigure the FPSim, i.e., 'Plug and Play' various model/software modules. The FPSim is capable of hosting and executing user's software algorithms of image processing, signal processing, subsystems, and functions for evaluation purposes.

  15. The status of cold fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storms, E.

    This report attempts to update the status of the phenomenon of cold fusion. The new field is continuing to grow as a variety of nuclear reactions are discovered to occur in a variety of chemical environments at modest temperatures. However, it must be cautioned that most scientists consider cold fusion as something akin to UFO's, ESP, and numerology.

  16. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  17. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  18. Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This document is the final report of the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee. The report conveys the Committee's views on the matters specified by the Secretary in his charge and subsequent letters to the Committee, and also satisfies the provisions of Section 7 of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, Public Law 96-386, which require a triennial review of the conduct of the national Magnetic Fusion Energy program. Three sub-Committee's were established to address the large number of topics associated with fusion research and development. One considered magnetic fusion energy, a second considered inertial fusion energy, and the third considered issues common to both. For many reasons, the promise of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally benign, and affordable source of energy is bright. At the present state of knowledge, however, it is uncertain that this promise will become reality. Only a vigorous, well planned and well executed program of research and development will yield the needed information. The Committee recommends that the US commit to a plan that will resolve this critically important issue. It also outlines the first steps in a development process that will lead to a fusion Demonstration Power Plant by 2025. The recommended program is aggressive, but we believe the goal is reasonable and attainable. International collaboration at a significant level is an important element in the plan.

  19. Feature-level sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peli, Tamar; Young, Mon; Knox, Robert; Ellis, Kenneth K.; Bennett, Frederick

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes two practical fusion techniques for automatic target cueing that combine features derived from each sensor data ta the object-level. In the hybrid fusion method each of the input sensor data is prescreened before the fusion stage. The cued fusion method assumes that one of the sensors is designated as a primary sensor, and thus ATC is only applied to its input data. If one of the sensors exhibits a higher Pd and/or a lower false alarm rate, it can be selected as the primary sensor. However, if the ground coverage can be segmented to regions in which one of the sensors is known to exhibit better performance, then the cued fusion can be applied locally/adaptively by switching the choice of a primary sensor. Otherwise, the cued fusion is applied both ways and the outputs of each cued mode are combined. Both fusion approaches use a back-end discrimination stage that is applied to a combined feature vector to reduce false alarms. The two fusion processes were applied to spectral and radar sensor data nd were shown to provide substantial false alarm reduction. The approaches are easily extendable to more than two sensors.

  20. The quest for fusion power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, Steven C.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion power is one of a very few sustainable options to replace fossil fuels as the world's primary energy source. Although the conditions for fusion have been reached, much remains to be done to turn scientific success into commercial electrical power.

  1. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.

    2016-06-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  2. Magnetic fusion energy and computers

    SciTech Connect

    Killeen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The application of computers to magnetic fusion energy research is essential. In the last several years the use of computers in the numerical modeling of fusion systems has increased substantially. There are several categories of computer models used to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies are also in use. To meet the needs of the fusion program, the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computer centers at each of the major MFE laboratories by a communication network. In addition to providing cost effective computing services, the NMFECC environment stimulates collaboration and the sharing of computer codes among the various fusion research groups.

  3. Information integration for data fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, O.H.

    1997-01-01

    Data fusion has been identified by the Department of Defense as a critical technology for the U.S. defense industry. Data fusion requires combining expertise in two areas - sensors and information integration. Although data fusion is a rapidly growing area, there is little synergy and use of common, reusable, and/or tailorable objects and models, especially across different disciplines. The Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project had two purposes: to see if a natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used for data fusion problems, and if so, to determine whether this methodology would help identify commonalities across areas and achieve greater synergy. The project confirmed both of the initial hypotheses: that the natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used effectively in data fusion areas and that commonalities could be found that would allow synergy across various data fusion areas. The project found five common objects that are the basis for all of the data fusion areas examined: targets, behaviors, environments, signatures, and sensors. Many of the objects and the specific facts related to these objects were common across several areas and could easily be reused. In some cases, even the terminology remained the same. In other cases, different areas had their own terminology, but the concepts were the same. This commonality is important with the growing use of multisensor data fusion. Data fusion is much more difficult if each type of sensor uses its own objects and models rather than building on a common set. This report introduces data fusion, discusses how the synergy generated by this LDRD would have benefited an earlier successful project and contains a summary information model from that project, describes a preliminary management information model, and explains how information integration can facilitate cross-treaty synergy for various arms control treaties.

  4. Role of sequence and structure of the Hendra fusion protein fusion peptide in membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Everett Clinton; Gregory, Sonia M; Tamm, Lukas K; Creamer, Trevor P; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2012-08-24

    Viral fusion proteins are intriguing molecular machines that undergo drastic conformational changes to facilitate virus-cell membrane fusion. During fusion a hydrophobic region of the protein, termed the fusion peptide (FP), is inserted into the target host cell membrane, with subsequent conformational changes culminating in membrane merger. Class I fusion proteins contain FPs between 20 and 30 amino acids in length that are highly conserved within viral families but not between. To examine the sequence dependence of the Hendra virus (HeV) fusion (F) protein FP, the first eight amino acids were mutated first as double, then single, alanine mutants. Mutation of highly conserved glycine residues resulted in inefficient F protein expression and processing, whereas substitution of valine residues resulted in hypofusogenic F proteins despite wild-type surface expression levels. Synthetic peptides corresponding to a portion of the HeV F FP were shown to adopt an α-helical secondary structure in dodecylphosphocholine micelles and small unilamellar vesicles using circular dichroism spectroscopy. Interestingly, peptides containing point mutations that promote lower levels of cell-cell fusion within the context of the whole F protein were less α-helical and induced less membrane disorder in model membranes. These data represent the first extensive structure-function relationship of any paramyxovirus FP and demonstrate that the HeV F FP and potentially other paramyxovirus FPs likely require an α-helical structure for efficient membrane disordering and fusion. PMID:22761418

  5. Calibrated sulfur isotope abundance ratios of three IAEA sulfur isotope reference materials and V-CDT with a reassessment of the atomic weight of sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, T.; Valkiers, S.; Kipphardt, H.; De Bièvre, P.; Taylor, P. D. P.; Gonfiantini, R.; Krouse, R.

    2001-09-01

    Calibrated values have been obtained for sulfur isotope abundance ratios of sulfur isotope reference materials distributed by the IAEA (Vienna). For the calibration of the measurements, a set of synthetic isotope mixtures were prepared gravimetrically from high purity Ag 2S materials enriched in 32S, 33S, and 34S. All materials were converted into SF 6 gas and subsequently, their sulfur isotope ratios were measured on the SF 5+ species using a special gas source mass spectrometer equipped with a molecular flow inlet system (IRMM's Avogadro II amount comparator). Values for the 32S/ 34S abundance ratios are 22.650 4(20), 22.142 4(20), and 23.393 3(17) for IAEA-S-1, IAEA-S-2, and IAEA-S-3, respectively. The calculated 32S/ 34S abundance ratio for V-CDT is 22.643 6(20), which is very close to the calibrated ratio obtained by Ding et al. (1999). In this way, the zero point of the VCDT scale is anchored firmly to the international system of units SI. The 32S/ 33S abundance ratios are 126.942(47), 125.473(55), 129.072(32), and 126.948(47) for IAEA-S-1, IAEA-S-2, IAEA-S-3, and V-CDT, respectively. In this way, the linearity of the V-CDT scale is improved over this range. The values of the sulfur molar mass for IAEA-S-1 and V-CDT were calculated to be 32.063 877(56) and 32.063 911(56), respectively, the values with the smallest combined uncertainty ever reported for the sulfur molar masses (atomic weights).

  6. Fusion pumped light source

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, Daniel S.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of light radiation. A fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The neutron flux is coupled directly with the lasing medium. The lasing medium includes a first component selected from Group O of the periodic table of the elements and having a high inelastic scattering cross section. Gamma radiation from the inelastic scattering reactions interacts with the first component to excite the first component, which decays by photon emission at a first output wavelength. The first output wavelength may be shifted to a second output wavelength using a second liquid component responsive to the first output wavelength. The light outputs may be converted to a coherent laser output by incorporating conventional optics adjacent the laser medium.

  7. Microwave superheaters for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.B.; Hoffman, M.A.; Logan, B.G.

    1987-10-16

    The microwave superheater uses the synchrotron radiation from a thermonuclear plasma to heat gas seeded with an alkali metal to temperatures far above the temperature of material walls. It can improve the efficiency of the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine (CFAR) cycle described elsewhere in these proceedings. For a proof-of-principle experiment using helium, calculations show that a gas superheat ..delta..T of 2000/sup 0/K is possible when the wall temperature is maintained at 1000/sup 0/K. The concept can be scaled to reactor grade systems. Because of the need for synchrotron radiation, the microwave superheater is best suited for use with plasmas burning an advanced fuel such as D-/sup 3/He. 5 refs.

  8. Multiple shell fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1975-10-31

    Multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron beam and ion beam implosion systems are described. The multiple shell targets are of the low-power type and use a separate relatively low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, which reduces the focusing and power requirements of the implosion system while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. The targets use a high Z, high density pusher shell placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. For example, with ion beams as a power source, breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles for imploding a multiple shell target can be accomplished.

  9. Fusion pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, Daniel S.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of laser radiation. A tokamak fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The tokamak design provides a temperature and a magnetic field which is effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10.sup.15 neutrons/cm.sup.2.s. A conversion medium receives neutrons from the tokamak and converts the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and an energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. The energy source typically comprises fission fragments, alpha particles, and radiation from a fission event. A lasing medium is provided which is responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion which is effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation.

  10. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, D.L.

    1987-09-04

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

  11. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

  12. LiWall Fusion - The New Concept of Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Zakharov

    2011-01-12

    Utilization of the outstanding abilities of a liquid lithium layer in pumping hydrogen isotopes leads to a new approach to magnetic fusion, called the LiWall Fusion. It relies on innovative plasma regimes with low edge density and high temperature. The approach combines fueling the plasma by neutral injection beams with the best possible elimination of outside neutral gas sources, which cools down the plasma edge. Prevention of cooling the plasma edge suppresses the dominant, temperature gradient related turbulence in the core. Such an approach is much more suitable for controlled fusion than the present practice, relying on high heating power for compensating essentially unlimited turbulent energy losses.

  13. Trip report on IAEA Training Workshop on Implementation of Integrated Management Systems for Research Reactors (T3-TR-45496).

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Richard J.

    2013-11-01

    From 17-21 June 2013, Sandia National Laboratories, Technical Area-V (SNL TA-V) represented the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Training Workshop (T3-TR-45486). This report gives a breakdown of the IAEA regulatory structure for those unfamiliar, and the lessons learned and observations that apply to SNL TA-V that were obtained from the workshop. The Safety Report Series, IAEA workshop final report, and SNL TA-V presentation are included as attachments.

  14. Prospects for bubble fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nigmatulin, R.I.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper a new method for the realization of fusion energy is presented. This method is based on the superhigh compression of a gas bubble (deuterium or deuterium/thritium) in heavy water or another liquid. The superhigh compression of a gas bubble in a liquid is achieved through forced non-linear, non-periodic resonance oscillations using moderate amplitudes of forcing pressure. The key feature of this new method is a coordination of the forced liquid pressure change with the change of bubble volume. The corresponding regime of the bubble oscillation has been called {open_quotes}basketball dribbling (BD) regime{close_quotes}. The analytical solution describing this process for spherically symmetric bubble oscillations, neglecting dissipation and compressibility of the liquid, has been obtained. This solution shown no limitation on the supercompression of the bubble and the corresponding maximum temperature. The various dissipation mechanisms, including viscous, conductive and radiation heat losses have been considered. It is shown that in spite of these losses it is possible to achieve very high gas bubble temperatures. This because the time duration of the gas bubble supercompression becomes very short when increasing the intensity of compression, thus limiting the energy losses. Significantly, the calculated maximum gas temperatures have shown that nuclear fusion may be possible. First estimations of the affect of liquid compressibility have been made to determine possible limitations on gas bubble compression. The next step will be to investigate the role of interfacial instability and breaking down of the bubble, shock wave phenomena around and in the bubble and mutual diffusion of the gas and the liquid.

  15. Analytical performance evaluation for autonomous sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K. C.

    2008-04-01

    A distributed data fusion system consists of a network of sensors, each capable of local processing and fusion of sensor data. There has been a great deal of work in developing distributed fusion algorithms applicable to a network centric architecture. Currently there are at least a few approaches including naive fusion, cross-correlation fusion, information graph fusion, maximum a posteriori (MAP) fusion, channel filter fusion, and covariance intersection fusion. However, in general, in a distributed system such as the ad hoc sensor networks, the communication architecture is not fixed. Each node has knowledge of only its local connectivity but not the global network topology. In those cases, the distributed fusion algorithm based on information graph type of approach may not scale due to its requirements to carry long pedigree information for decorrelation. In this paper, we focus on scalable fusion algorithms and conduct analytical performance evaluation to compare their performance. The goal is to understand the performance of those algorithms under different operating conditions. Specifically, we evaluate the performance of channel filter fusion, Chernoff fusion, Shannon Fusion, and Battachayya fusion algorithms. We also compare their results to NaÃve fusion and "optimal" centralized fusion algorithms under a specific communication pattern.

  16. Future of Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J H; Wood, L L

    2002-09-04

    In the past 50 years, fusion R&D programs have made enormous technical progress. Projected billion-dollar scale research facilities are designed to approach net energy production. In this century, scientific and engineering progress must continue until the economics of fusion power plants improves sufficiently to win large scale private funding in competition with fission and non-nuclear energy systems. This economic advantage must be sustained: trillion dollar investments will be required to build enough fusion power plants to generate ten percent of the world's energy. For Inertial Fusion Energy, multi-billion dollar driver costs must be reduced by up to an order of magnitude, to a small fraction of the total cost of the power plant. Major cost reductions could be achieved via substantial improvements in target performance-both higher gain and reduced ignition energy. Large target performance improvements may be feasible through a combination of design innovations, e.g., ''fast ignition,'' propagation down density gradients, and compression of fusion fuel with a combination of driver and chemical energy. The assumptions that limit projected performance of fusion targets should be carefully examined. The National Ignition Facility will enable development and testing of revolutionary targets designed to make possible economically competitive fusion power plants.

  17. Simulation Science for Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoric, M. M.; Sudo, S.

    2008-07-01

    The world fusion effort has recently entered a new age with the construction of ITER in Cadarache, France, which will be the first magnetic confinement fusion plasma experiment dominated by the self-heating of fusion reactions. In order to operate and control burning plasmas and future demo fusion reactors, an advanced ability for comprehensive computer simulations that are fully verified and validated against experimental data will be necessary. The ultimate goal is to develop the capability to predict reliably the behavior of plasmas in toroidal magnetic confinement devices on all relevant time and space scales. In addition to developing a sophisticated integrated simulation codes, directed advanced research in fusion physics, applied mathematics and computer science is envisaged. In this talk we review the basic strategy and main research efforts at the Department of Simulation Science of the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS)- which is the Inter University Institute and the coordinating Center of Excellence for academic fusion research in Japan. We overview a simulation research at NIFS, in particular relation to experiments in the Large Helical Device (LHD), the world's largest superconducting heliotron device, as a National Users' facility (see Motojima et al. 2003). Our main goal is understanding and systemizing the rich hierarchy of physical mechanisms in fusion plasmas, supported by exploring a basic science of complexity of plasma as a highly nonlinear, non-equilibrium, open system. The aim is to establish a simulation science as a new interdisciplinary field by fostering collaborative research in utilizing the large-scale supercomputer simulators. A concept of the hierarchy-renormalized simulation modelling will be invoked en route toward the LHD numerical test reactor. Finally, a perspective role is given on the ITER Broad Approach program at Rokkasho Center, as an integrated part of ITER and Development of Fusion Energy Agreement.

  18. Use of IAEA's phase-space files for virtual source model implementation: Extension to large fields.

    PubMed

    Rucci, Alexis; Carletti, Claudia; Cravero, Walter; Strbac, Bojan

    2016-08-01

    In a previous work, phase-space data files (phsp) provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were used to develop a hybrid virtual source model (VSM) for clinical photon beams. Very good agreement with dosimetric measurements performed on linear accelerators was obtained for field sizes up to 15×15cm(2). In the present work we extend the VSM to larger field sizes, for which phsp are not available. We incorporate a virtual flattening filter to our model, which can be determined from dose measurements for larger fields. In this way a fully functional VSM can be built, from publicly available IAEA's phsps and standard dose measurements, for fields of any size and tailored to a particular linac. PMID:27423827

  19. Neutron activation analysis of NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and IAEA animal bone (H-5)

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.

    1983-10-01

    Data have been presented for 35 elements determined by INAA for NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and for 38 elements determined by INAA and RNAA for IAEA animal bone (H-5). The experimental data showed excellent agreement with published values wherever the comparison exists. Additional trace-element data in the ppb range have been presented for the elements Sc, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W and Th in NBS oyster tissue. Also, additional trace-element data for IAEA animal bone (H-5) in the ppb range for the elements Al, Sc, Co, Rb, Cs, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, lu, Hf, Ta and Th have been presented.

  20. The US Support Program Assistance to the IAEA Safeguards Information Technology, Collection, and Analysis 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Tackentien,J.

    2008-06-12

    One of the United States Support Program's (USSP) priorities for 2008 is to support the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) development of an integrated and efficient safeguards information infrastructure, including reliable and maintainable information systems, and effective tools and resources to collect and analyze safeguards-relevant information. The USSP has provided funding in support of this priority for the ISIS Re-engineering Project (IRP), and for human resources support to the design and definition of the enhanced information analysis architecture project (nVision). Assistance for several other information technology efforts is provided. This paper will report on the various ongoing support measures undertaken by the USSP to support the IAEA's information technology enhancements and will provide some insights into activities that the USSP may support in the future.

  1. Progresses in tritium accident modelling in the frame of IAEA EMRAS II

    SciTech Connect

    Galeriu, D.; Melintescu, A.

    2015-03-15

    The assessment of the environmental impact of tritium release from nuclear facilities is a topic of interest in many countries. In the IAEA's Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS I) programme, progresses for routine releases were done and in the EMRAS II programme a dedicated working group (WG 7 - Tritium Accidents) focused on the potential accidental releases (liquid and atmospheric pathways). The progresses achieved in WG 7 were included in a complex report - a technical document of IAEA covering both liquid and atmospheric accidental release consequences. A brief description of the progresses achieved in the frame of EMRAS II WG 7 is presented. Important results have been obtained concerning washout rate, the deposition on the soil of HTO and HT, the HTO uptake by leaves and the subsequent conversion to OBT (organically bound tritium) during daylight. Further needs of the processes understanding and the experimental efforts are emphasised.

  2. NOTE: Monte Carlo simulation of correction factors for IAEA TLD holders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultqvist, Martha; Fernández-Varea, José M.; Izewska, Joanna

    2010-03-01

    The IAEA standard thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) holder has been developed for the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose program for audits of high-energy photon beams, and it is also employed by the ESTRO-QUALity assurance network (EQUAL) and several national TLD audit networks. Factors correcting for the influence of the holder on the TL signal under reference conditions have been calculated in the present work from Monte Carlo simulations with the PENELOPE code for 60Co γ-rays and 4, 6, 10, 15, 18 and 25 MV photon beams. The simulation results are around 0.2% smaller than measured factors reported in the literature, but well within the combined standard uncertainties. The present study supports the use of the experimentally obtained holder correction factors in the determination of the absorbed dose to water from the TL readings; the factors calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulations may be adopted for the cases where there are no measured data.

  3. The nuclear energy-nonproliferation link and what the IAEA can do now.

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, Ruth Ann; Sellers, Tommy Alvin; Ellis, Doris E.

    2006-01-01

    Projections of the World Bank indicate that world energy demand is increasing and may more than double by 2050. Several political leaders have recognised the importance of nuclear energy to meet growing energy needs. Indeed, availability of a secure, economically viable energy source is a major factor in the developing world's progress. This expansion, with the potential spread of sensitive material and technology that could be used to develop nuclear weapons, reinforces the need for a comprehensive strategy to counter or mitigate the proliferation risks. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is qualified to lead in developing and promoting a systems approach to enrich and integrate the wide range of national and international efforts required to manage this risk. This paper addresses specific actions that the IAEA, with other bilateral and multilateral efforts, could undertake to facilitate the expansion of nuclear energy while managing security risks.

  4. Towards a tactical nuclear weapons treaty? Is There a Role of IAEA Tools of Safeguards?

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, Emily C.; Rowberry, Ariana N.; Fearey, Bryan L.

    2012-07-12

    In recent years, there is growing interest in formal negotiations on non-strategic or tactical nuclear weapons. With the negotiations of New START, there has been much speculation that a tactical nuclear weapons treaty should be included in the follow on to New START. This paper examines the current policy environment related to tactical weapons and some of the issues surrounding the definition of tactical nuclear weapons. We then map out the steps that would need to be taken in order to begin discussions on a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. These steps will review the potential role of the IAEA in verification of a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. Specifically, does IAEA involvement in various arms control treaties serve as a useful roadmap on how to overcome some of the issues pertaining to a tactical nuclear weapons treaty?

  5. A method for comparing impacts with real targets to impacts onto the IAEA unyielding target

    SciTech Connect

    Ammerman, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The severity of the IAEA accident conditions test requirement (IAEA 1990) of an impact onto an essentially unyielding target from a drop height of 9 meters encompasses a large fraction of all real world impacts. This is true, in part, because of the unyielding nature of the impact target. Impacts onto the unyielding target have severities equivalent to higher velocity impacts onto real targets which are not unyielding. The severity of impacts with yielding targets is decreased by the amount of the impact energy absorbed in damaging the target. In demonstrating the severity of the regulatory impact event it is advantageous to be able to relate this impact onto an essentially unyielding target to impacts with yielding targets.

  6. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the sizemore » of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.« less

  7. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the size of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.

  8. The path to fusion power†

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Chris Llewellyn; Cowley, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The promise, status and challenges of developing fusion power are outlined. The key physics and engineering principles are described and recent progress quantified. As the successful demonstration of 16 MW of fusion in 1997 in the Joint European Torus showed, fusion works. The central issue is therefore to make it work reliably and economically on the scale of a power station. We argue that to meet this challenge in 30 years we must follow the aggressive programme known as the ‘Fast Track to Fusion’. This programme is described in some detail. PMID:20123748

  9. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

  10. [IAEA Training Course Series TCS-37 Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Radiation Oncology].

    PubMed

    Imamura, Kiyonari

    2015-01-01

    Training program IAEA TCS-37 (Training course series No.37) "Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Radiation Oncology (2009)" was fixed to practical training syllabus at faculty and graduate course of medical physics of a university. TCS-47 for diagnostic radiology (2010) and TCS-50 for nuclear medicine (2011) were also involved in the syllabus. These training courses had been developed by IAEA RCA RAS6038 project since 2002. In this paper, first, comparison with other training programs in the world was made in terms of (1) Degree of extent of subject or field, (2) Concreteness or specificity, (3) Degree of completion, (4) Method of certification and (5) Practicability. IAEA TCS series got the most points among ten programs such as EMERALD/EMIT, AAPM rpt.No.90 and CAMPEP accredited programs. Second, TCS-37, TCS47 and TCS50 were broken down to 6, 5 and 6 subjects of training course respectively. Third, each subject was further broken down to 15 times of training schedule where every time was composed by 3 hours of training. Totally 45 hours of a subject were assigned to one semester for getting one unit of credit. Seventeen units should be credited up to three years in graduate course to finish the whole program. PMID:26882699

  11. The U.S./IAEA Workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper S. E.; .; Worrall, L.; Pickett, C.; Bachner, K.; Queirolo, A.

    2014-08-08

    The U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, the U.S. Department of State, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized a a workshop on the subject of ”Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation.” The workshop was held at the Vienna International Centre in Vienna, Austria, May 6-8, 2014. The workshop participants included software and hardware experts from national laboratories, industry, government, and IAEA member states who were specially selected by the workshop organizers based on their experience with software that is developed for the control and operation of safeguards instrumentation. The workshop included presentations, to orient the participants to the IAEA Department of Safeguards software activities related to instrumentation data collection and processing, and case studies that were designed to inspire discussion of software development, use, maintenance, and upgrades in breakout sessions and to result in recommendations for effective software practices and management. This report summarizes the results of the workshop.

  12. Training of interventional cardiologists in radiation protection--the IAEA's initiatives.

    PubMed

    Rehani, Madan M

    2007-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has initiated a major international initiative to train interventional cardiologists in radiation protection as a part of its International Action Plan on the radiological protection of patients. A simple programme of two days' training has been developed, covering possible and observed radiation effects among patients and staff, international standards, dose management techniques, examples of good and bad practice and examples indicating prevention of possible injuries as a result of good practice of radiation protection. The training material is freely available on CD from the IAEA. The IAEA has conducted two events in 2004 and 2005 and number of events are planned in 2006. The survey conducted among the cardiologists participating in these programmes indicates that over 80% of them were attending such a structured programme on radiation protection for the first time. As the magnitude of X-ray usage in cardiology grows to match that in interventional radiology, the standards of training on radiation effects, radiation physics and radiation protection in interventional cardiology should also match those in interventional radiology. PMID:16624432

  13. Fostering applications of neutron scattering techniques in developing countries: IAEA's role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjpe, Shriniwas K.; Mank, G.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    2006-11-01

    Over the last 60 years research reactors have played an important role in technological and socio-economical development of mankind. Neutron scattering has been the workhorse for research and development in materials science. Developing countries with moderate flux research reactors have also been involved in using this technique. The reactors and the facilities around them have a large potential for applications, while their under-utilization has been a concern for many member states. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting its member states in the enhancement of utilization of their research reactors. Technical meetings focussing on the area of current interests with potential applications are organized under the project on “effective utilization of research reactors,” e.g. on residual stress measurement, neutron reflectometry. Coordinated research projects (CRPs) bring together scientists from developed and developing countries, build collaborations, and exchange expertise and technology. The CRPs on research reactor utilization include topics like development of small-angle neutron scattering applications and development of sources and imaging systems for neutron radiography. New CRPs on the measurement of residual stress and accelerator-driven neutron sources will be initiated soon. The results from these meetings of CRPs are published as technical documents of the IAEA that would act as guidelines for capacity building for research reactor managers. This paper will present some of the salient features of IAEA activities in promoting research reactor utilization.

  14. Preliminary considerations on developing IAEA technical safeguards for LMFBR power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P. J.

    1980-09-01

    Nuclear fuel cycles safeguards should be considered in the dynamic context of a world deployment of various reactor types and varying availability of fuel-cycle services. There will be a close interaction between thermal-reactor cycles and the future deployment of fast breeders. The quantitites of plutonium and the reprocessing, conversion, fabrication, and storage methods of the fuel for the fast breeders will have a significant impact on safeguards techniques. The approach to the fast breeder fuel cycle safeguards follows the general safeguards system approach proposed by the IAEA. Objective of IAEA safeguards is the detection of diversion of nuclear material and deterrence of such diversion. To achieve independent verification of material balance accountancy requires the capability to monitor inventory status and verify material flows and quantities of all nuclear materials subject to safeguards. Containment and surveillance measures are applied to monitor key measurement points, maintain integrity of material balance, and complement material accountancy. The safeguards study attempts to develop a generic reference IAEA Safeguards System and explores various system options using containment/surveillance and material accountancy instrumentation and integrated systems designs.

  15. Private sector involvement in the US program of technical assistance to IAEA safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, S.E.; Epel, L.; Maise, G.; Reisman, A.; Skalyo, J.

    1995-12-01

    The US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) relies on technical expertise found in the U. S private and public sectors. Since 1993, the international Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) has sought to increase the role of the private sector in POTAS. ISPO maintains and continues to develop a database of US companies interested in providing technical expertise to the IAEA. This database is used by ISPO to find appropriate contractors to respond to IAEA requests for technical assistance when the assistance can be provided by the private sector. The private sector is currently providing support in the development of equipment, training, and procedure preparation. POTAS also supports the work of private consultants. This paper discusses ISPO`s efforts to identify suitable vendors and discusses conditions that hinder more substantial involvement by the private sector. In addition, the paper will discuss selected projects that are currently in progress and identify common problems that impede the progress and success of tasks performed by the private sector.

  16. Evaluation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Analytical Laboratory quality assurance program

    SciTech Connect

    Pietri, C.E.; Bracey, J.T.

    1985-02-01

    Destructive analysis is used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through its Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL) to verify, in part, the inventory of nuclear materials at nuclear facilities. The reliability and quality of these meassurements must be assured in a systematic manner. The Division of Safeguards Evaluation, IAEA, required assistance in developing and implementing the quality assurance measures for the analytical procedures used in the destructive analysis of these safeguards samples. To meet these needs an ISPO POTAS Task D.53 was instituted in which consultants would review with IAEA staff the procedures used (or proposed) at SAL for the destructive analysis of safeguards samples and the statistical evaluation of the resulting measurement data at Headquarters. The procedures included analytical methods, qualtiy control measures, and the treatment of data from these activities. Based on this review, modifications to the system, if required, would be recommended which would provide routine assurance to management that these procedures are functioning properly to achieve safeguards objectives. In the course of this review, the sample handling procedures, measurement control activities, analytical methods, reference materials, calibration procedures, statistical analysis of data, and data management system were studied and evaluated. The degree to which SAL (as a total system) achieved laboratory quality assurance was assessed by comparison to accepted standards of quality assurance. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Technical results of Y-12/IAEA field trial of remote monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Corbell, B.H.; Whitaker, J.M.; Welch, J.

    1997-08-01

    A Remote Monitoring System (RMS) field trial has been conducted with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on highly enriched uranium materials in a vault at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The RMS included a variety of Sandia, Oak Ridge, and Aquila sensor technologies which provide containment seals, video monitoring, radiation asset measurements, and container identification data to the on-site DAS (Data Acquisition System) by way of radio-frequency and Echelon LonWorks networks. The accumulated safeguards information was transmitted to the IAEA via satellite (COMSAT/RSI) and international telephone lines. The technologies tested in the remote monitoring environment are the RadCouple, RadSiP, and SmartShelf sensors from the ORSENS (Oak Ridge Sensors for Enhancing Nuclear Safeguards) technologies; the AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System) motion sensor (AMS), AIMS fiber-optic seal (AFOS), ICAM (Image Compression and Authentication Module) video surveillance system, DAS (Data Acquisition System), and DIRS (Data and Image Review Station) from Sandia; and the AssetLAN identification tag, VACOSS-S seal, and Gemini digital surveillance system from Aquila. The field trial was conducted from October 1996 through May 1997. Tests were conducted during the monthly IAEA Interim Inventory Verification (IIV) inspections for evaluation of the equipment. Experience gained through the field trials will allow the technologies to be applied to various monitoring scenarios.

  18. IAEA Activities in the Area of Safety Analysis and Accident Management

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; El-Shanawany, M.

    2006-07-01

    Safety analysis is a means of demonstrating how critical safety functions, the integrity of barriers against the release of radioactive materials, and various other safety requirements are fulfilled for a broad range of operating conditions and initiating events. Accordingly, performing safety analysis for a nuclear power plant is one of the most important safety principles. Thermal-hydraulic computer codes are extensively used worldwide for safety analysis by utilities, regulatory authorities, power plant designers and vendors, nuclear fuel companies, research organizations, and technical support organizations. Safety analysis methodology and computer codes have seen a significant development over the last two decades. This fact is also reflected in the work of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) that aims at increasing the quality and international harmonization of the approaches used in safety analysis. The paper provides an overview of activities and of examples of results obtained recently or planned in the near future in the IAEA's Division of Nuclear Installation Safety in the field of safety analysis for both design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents as well as accident management. In this paper, specific technical guidance on the safety assessments in the IAEA Safety Standards such as safety analysis methodologies, probabilistic safety assessment, and development of accident management programmes are described. Future trends and related activities in safety analysis and accident management are also introduced. (authors)

  19. Characterization of fusion genes and the significantly expressed fusion isoforms in breast cancer by hybrid sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Weirather, Jason L.; Afshar, Pegah Tootoonchi; Clark, Tyson A.; Tseng, Elizabeth; Powers, Linda S.; Underwood, Jason G.; Zabner, Joseph; Korlach, Jonas; Wong, Wing Hung; Au, Kin Fai

    2015-01-01

    We developed an innovative hybrid sequencing approach, IDP-fusion, to detect fusion genes, determine fusion sites and identify and quantify fusion isoforms. IDP-fusion is the first method to study gene fusion events by integrating Third Generation Sequencing long reads and Second Generation Sequencing short reads. We applied IDP-fusion to PacBio data and Illumina data from the MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Compared with the existing tools, IDP-fusion detects fusion genes at higher precision and a very low false positive rate. The results show that IDP-fusion will be useful for unraveling the complexity of multiple fusion splices and fusion isoforms within tumorigenesis-relevant fusion genes. PMID:26040699

  20. Systematic analysis of advanced fusion fuel in inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, G.; Eliezer, S.; Henis, Z.; Piera, M.; Martinez-Val, J. M.

    1997-04-01

    Aneutronic fusion reactions can be considered as the cleanest way to exploit nuclear energy. However, these reactions present in general two main drawbacks.—very high temperatures are needed to reach relevant values of their cross sections—Moderate (and even low) energy yield per reaction. This value is still lower if measured in relation to the Z number of the reacting particles. It is already known that bremsstrahlung overruns the plasma reheating by fusion born charged-particles in most of the advanced fuels. This is for instance the case for proton-boron-11 fusion in a stoichiometric plasma and is also so in lithium isotopes fusion reactions. In this paper, the use of deuterium-tritium seeding is suggested to allow to reach higher burnup fractions of advanced fuels, starting at a lower ignition temperature. Of course, neutron production increases as DT contents does. Nevertheless, the ratio of neutron production to energy generation is much lower in DT-advanced fuel mixtures than in pure DT plasmas. One of the main findings of this work is that some natural resources (as D and Li-7) can be burned-up in a catalytic regime for tritium. In this case, neither external tritium breeding nor tritium storage are needed, because the tritium inventory after the fusion burst is the same as before it. The fusion reactor can thus operate on a pure recycling of a small tritium inventory.

  1. Enabling Technology in Support of Fusion Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Charles C.

    1999-03-01

    This paper summarizes remarks made at Fusion Power Associates annual meeting, July 17, 2000 in San Diego. It describes the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fusion Enegy Sciences programs in plasma and fusion technology in support of the U. S. fusion energy sciences program.

  2. Fission-suppressed fusion breeder on the thorium cycle and nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R. W.

    2012-06-19

    Fusion reactors could be designed to breed fissile material while suppressing fissioning thereby enhancing safety. The produced fuel could be used to startup and makeup fuel for fission reactors. Each fusion reaction can produce typically 0.6 fissile atoms and release about 1.6 times the 14 MeV neutron's energy in the blanket in the fission-suppressed design. This production rate is 2660 kg/1000 MW of fusion power for a year. The revenues would be doubled from such a plant by selling fuel at a price of 60/g and electricity at $0.05/kWh for Q=P{sub fusion}/P{sub input}=4. Fusion reactors could be designed to destroy fission wastes by transmutation and fissioning but this is not a natural use of fusion whereas it is a designed use of fission reactors. Fusion could supply makeup fuel to fission reactors that were dedicated to fissioning wastes with some of their neutrons. The design for safety and heat removal and other items is already accomplished with fission reactors. Whereas fusion reactors have geometry that compromises safety with a complex and thin wall separating the fusion zone from the blanket zone where wastes could be destroyed. Nonproliferation can be enhanced by mixing {sup 233}U with {sup 238}U. Also nonproliferation is enhanced in typical fission-suppressed designs by generating up to 0.05 {sup 232}U atoms for each {sup 233}U atom produced from thorium, about twice the IAEA standards of 'reduced protection' or 'self protection.' With 2.4%{sup 232}U, high explosive material is predicted to degrade owing to ionizing radiation after a little over 1/2 year and the heat rate is 77 W just after separation and climbs to over 600 W ten years later. The fissile material can be used to fuel most any fission reactor but is especially appropriate for molten salt reactors (MSR) also called liquid fluoride thorium reactors (LFTR) because of the molten fuel does not need hands on fabrication and handling.

  3. The Mailbox Computer System for the IAEA verification experiment on HEU downlending at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Aronson, A.L.; Gordon, D.M.

    2000-07-31

    IN APRIL 1996, THE UNITED STATES (US) ADDED THE PORTSMOUTH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT TO THE LIST OF FACILITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA) SAFEGUARDS. AT THAT TIME, THE US PROPOSED THAT THE IAEA CARRY OUT A ''VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT'' AT THE PLANT WITH RESPECT TO DOOWNBLENDING OF ABOUT 13 METRIC TONS OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) IN THE FORM OF URANIUM HEXAFLUROIDE (UF6). DURING THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1997 THROUGH JULY 1998, THE IAEA CARRIED OUT THE REQUESTED VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT. THE VERIFICATION APPROACH USED FOR THIS EXPERIMENT INCLUDED, AMONG OTHER MEASURES, THE ENTRY OF PROCESS-OPERATIONAL DATA BY THE FACILITY OPERATOR ON A NEAR-REAL-TIME BASIS INTO A ''MAILBOX'' COMPUTER LOCATED WITHIN A TAMPER-INDICATING ENCLOSURE SEALED BY THE IAEA.

  4. Sections prepared for inclusion in an IAEA technical document handbook on Designing and Implementing a Physical Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Mark K.

    2015-11-01

    Two major sections were drafted (each with several subsections) for the IAEA dealing with designing and implementing a Physical Protection System (PPS). Areas addressed were Search Systems and the evaluation of PPS effectiveness.

  5. Class II virus membrane fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kielian, Margaret . E-mail: kielian@aecom.yu.edu

    2006-01-05

    Enveloped animal viruses fuse their membrane with a host cell membrane, thus delivering the virus genetic material into the cytoplasm and initiating infection. This critical membrane fusion reaction is mediated by a virus transmembrane protein known as the fusion protein, which inserts its hydrophobic fusion peptide into the cell membrane and refolds to drive the fusion reaction. This review describes recent advances in our understanding of the structure and function of the class II fusion proteins of the alphaviruses and flaviviruses. Inhibition of the fusion protein refolding reaction confirms its importance in fusion and suggests new antiviral strategies for these medically important viruses.

  6. Fusion of the ear bones

    MedlinePlus

    Fusion of the ear bones is the joining of the bones of the inner ear. These are the incus, malleus, and stapes bones. Related topics include: Chronic ear infection Otosclerosis Middle ear malformations

  7. Fusion power and the environment.

    PubMed

    Flakus, F N

    1975-09-01

    Fusion reactor design concepts are being pursued in the research and development programme of various countries and studies are being undertaken on the possible environmental impact of fusion power reactors. The paper reviews and summarizes the results of such environmental impact studies. Attention is restricted to deuterium-tritium fusion reactor concepts and a preliminary environmental impact assessment is presented. The possible inventory tritium and radioactive materials in the neutron-activated blanket structure of fusion power reactors is described and potential hazards posed by this radioactive materials inventory are discussed. Non-radiological implications and accident considerations are outlined. In conclusion, various areas still awaiting further investigation and research work are identified. The paper contains 8 tables and 50 references. PMID:1212270

  8. Pulsed Power Driven Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.

    1999-11-22

    Pulsed power is a robust and inexpensive technology for obtaining high powers. Considerable progress has been made on developing light ion beams as a means of transporting this power to inertial fusion capsules. However, further progress is hampered by the lack of an adequate ion source. Alternatively, z-pinches can efficiently convert pulsed power into thermal radiation, which can be used to drive an inertial fusion capsule. However, a z-pinch driven fusion explosion will destroy a portion of the transmission line that delivers the electrical power to the z-pinch. They investigate several options for providing standoff for z-pinch driven fusion. Recyclable Transmission Lines (RTLs) appear to be the most promising approach.

  9. Distributed multi-sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffel, Peter; Fish, Robert; Knobler, Ron; Plummer, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    McQ has developed a broad based capability to fuse information in a geographic area from multiple sensors to build a better understanding of the situation. The paper will discuss the fusion architecture implemented by McQ to use many sensors and share their information. This multi sensor fusion architecture includes data sharing and analysis at the individual sensor, at communications nodes that connect many sensors together, at the system server/user interface, and across multi source information available through networked services. McQ will present a data fusion architecture that integrates a "Feature Information Base" (FIB) with McQ's well known Common Data Interchange Format (CDIF) data structure. The distributed multi sensor fusion provides enhanced situation awareness for the user.

  10. Membrane tension and membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Michael M; Chernomordik, Leonid V

    2015-08-01

    Diverse cell biological processes that involve shaping and remodeling of cell membranes are regulated by membrane lateral tension. Here we focus on the role of tension in driving membrane fusion. We discuss the physics of membrane tension, forces that can generate the tension in plasma membrane of a cell, and the hypothesis that tension powers expansion of membrane fusion pores in late stages of cell-to-cell and exocytotic fusion. We propose that fusion pore expansion can require unusually large membrane tensions or, alternatively, low line tensions of the pore resulting from accumulation in the pore rim of membrane-bending proteins. Increase of the inter-membrane distance facilitates the reaction. PMID:26282924

  11. Fusion - From science to engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenton, J.

    1981-12-01

    The principles and state of advancement in fusion energy devices are explored, along with the transition from theoretical problems to engineering difficulties. Tokamaks are noted to be the closest to actual break-even, the point where the energy extracted from the reactor is equal to the energy necessary to initiate the process, although linear, mirror fusion machines also show promise. Attention is also given to poloidal diverter systems and the ELMO bumpy torus, which has demonstrated continuous operation for the first time. The prospects for a U.S. fusion engineering facility are uncertain in the light of current budget cuts, with most funding being concentrated on military applications. Laser inertial fusion devices are reviewed, as well as particle and ion accelerators for fuel pellet implosions. Finally, the most complex engineering problem is asserted to be the development of the reactor blanket system.

  12. A comparison of the PARET/ANL and RELAP5/MOD3 codes for the analysis of IAEA benchmark transients

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, W.L.; Hanan, N.A.; Smith, R.S.; Matos, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    The PARET/ANL and RELAP5/MOD3 codes are used to analyze the series of benchmark transients specified for the IAEA Research Reactor Core Conversion Guidebook (IAEA-TECDOC-643, Vol. 3). The computed results for these loss-of-flow and reactivity insertion transients with scram are in excellent agreement and agree well with the earlier results reported in the guidebook. Attempts to also compare RELAP5/MOD3 with the SPERT series of experiments are in progress.

  13. Laser fusion monthly -- August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1980-08-01

    This report documents the monthly progress for the laser fusion research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. First it gives facilities report for both the Shiva and Argus projects. Topics discussed include; laser system for the Nova Project; the fusion experiments analysis facility; optical/x-ray streak camera; Shiva Dante System temporal response; 2{omega}{sub 0} experiment; and planning for an ICF engineering test facility.

  14. Simulation science for fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, S.; Škorić, M. M.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Todo, Y.; Ishizawa, A.; Miura, H.; Ishizaki, R.; Ito, A.; Ohtani, H.; Usami, S.; Nakamura, H.; Ito, Atsushi; Ishiguro, S.; Tomita, Y.; Takayama, A.; Sato, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Den, M.; Sakagami, H.; Horiuchi, R.; Okamura, S.; Nakajima, N.

    2008-10-01

    The world fusion effort has embarked into a new age with the construction of ITER in Cadarache, France, which will be the first magnetic confinement fusion plasma experiment dominated by the self-heating of fusion reactions. In order to operate and control burning plasmas and next generation demo fusion reactors, an advanced capability for comprehensive integrated computer simulations that are fully verified and validated against experimental data will be necessary. The ultimate goal is to predict reliably the behaviour of plasmas in toroidal magnetic confinement devices on all relevant scales, both in time and space. In addition to developing a sophisticated integrated simulation codes, directed advanced research in fusion physics, applied mathematics, computer science and software is envisaged. In this paper we review the basic strategy and main research efforts at the Department of Simulation Science of the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS)- which is the Inter University Institute and the coordinating Center of Excellence for academic fusion research in Japan. We overview a simulation research at NIFS, in particular relation to experiments in the Large Helical Device (LHD), the world's largest superconducting heliotron device, as a National Users' facility (see Motojima et al. [1]). Our main goal is understanding and systemizing the rich hierarchy of physical mechanisms in fusion plasmas, supported by exploring a basic science of complexity of plasma as a highly nonlinear, non-equilibrium, open system. The aim is to establish a simulation science as a new interdisciplinary field by fostering collaborative research in utilizing the large-scale supercomputer simulators. A concept of the hierarchy-renormalized simulation modelling will be invoked en route toward the LHD numerical test reactor.

  15. The last word on fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellberg, Manfred A.

    2009-03-01

    Letter writers Raoul Franklin and Nicholas Braithwaite (November 2008 p22; December 2008 p19) have commented on the suggestion - made by UK Atomic Energy Authority director Stephen Cowley in your October 2008 fusion supplement - that plasma science effectively started with the growth of fusion research. Braithwaite also raised the question of the origin of the name "plasma", suggesting two possible sources: neon discharges and blood plasma.

  16. Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

  17. IAEA Inspections for Undeclared and Declared Activities: Is a More Robust Approach Needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schanfein

    2009-07-01

    The United States has long supported a strong international safeguards system and for many years has served as the foremost supplier of technology, equipment, and training to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In doing so, it drew in many instances on DOE sponsored R&D and training that was directed towards domestic safeguards and then adapted for IAEA purposes. This was relatively straightforward because of the strong overlap between the development of nuclear material accountancy measures needed for both domestic and international purposes. Two factors have emerged that have made this strong reliance on domestic measures less and less able to be a source of support for the IAEA. One is the shift by the IAEA safeguards system towards detecting undeclared activities. The second is the shift of domestic attention away from nuclear material accountancy and towards physical protection. As a result, a gap in US sponsored R&D and training relevant to international safeguards has developed. The NNSA Next Generation Safeguards Initiative and the DOE NA-22 Safeguards R&D program are intended to help fill this gap and, thereby, permit the U.S. to remain as the pre-eminent supplier of technology for international safeguards purposes. In this context, IAEA challenges have been examined from the perspective of detecting the diversion of nuclear material from declared stocks; detecting undeclared production of nuclear material and activities at locations declared under INFCIRC/153; and detecting undeclared nuclear material and activities elsewhere in a state. Of these, the detection of undeclared nuclear material and activities is, perhaps, the IAEA’s most significant challenge. It is a challenge that even the international community finds difficult to meet because of the scope and the geographic scale of the problem, the technical constraints, the knowledge required, and the significant resources needed to deploy effective systems world-wide (e.g., satellite

  18. Successful anterior fusion following posterior cervical fusion for revision of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion pseudarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Elder, Benjamin D; Sankey, Eric W; Theodros, Debebe; Bydon, Mohamad; Rory Goodwin, C; Lo, Sheng-Fu; Kosztowski, Thomas A; Belzberg, Allen J; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Sciubba, Daniel M; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Bydon, Ali; Witham, Timothy F

    2016-02-01

    Pseudarthrosis occurs after approximately 2-20% of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) procedures; it is unclear if posterior or anterior revision should be pursued. In this study, we retrospectively evaluate the outcomes in 22 patients with pseudarthrosis following ACDF and revision via posterior cervical fusion (PCF). Baseline demographics, preoperative symptoms, operative data, time to fusion failure, symptoms of pseudarthrosis, and revision method were assessed. Fusion outcome and clinical outcome were determined at last follow-up (LFU). Thirteen females (59%) and 9 (41%) males experienced pseudarthrosis at a median of 11 (range: 3-151)months after ACDF. Median age at index surgery was 51 (range: 33-67)years. All patients with pseudarthrosis presented with progressive neck pain, with median visual analog scale (VAS) score of 8 (range: 0-10), and/or myeloradiculopathy. Patients with pseudarthrosis <12 months compared to >12 months after index surgery were older (p=0.013), had more frequent preoperative neurological deficits (p=0.064), and lower baseline VAS scores (p=0.006). Fusion was successful after PCF in all patients, with median time to fusion of 10 (range: 2-14)months. Eighteen patients fused both anteriorly and posteriorly, two patients fused anteriorly only, and two patients fused posteriorly only. Median VAS neck score at LFU significantly improved from the time of pseudarthrosis (p=0.012). While uncommon, pseudarthrosis may occur after ACDF. All patients achieved successful fusion after subsequent posterior cervical fusion, with 91% fusing a previous anterior pseudarthrosis after posterior stabilization. Neck pain significantly improved by LFU in the majority of patients in this study. PMID:26482460

  19. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  20. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Xiaoming

    2012-09-26

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  1. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoming

    2012-09-01

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  2. Fission-suppressed fusion breeder on the thorium cycle and nonproliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, R. W.

    2012-06-01

    Fusion reactors could be designed to breed fissile material while suppressing fissioning thereby enhancing safety. The produced fuel could be used to startup and makeup fuel for fission reactors. Each fusion reaction can produce typically 0.6 fissile atoms and release about 1.6 times the 14 MeV neutron's energy in the blanket in the fission-suppressed design. This production rate is 2660 kg/1000 MW of fusion power for a year. The revenues would be doubled from such a plant by selling fuel at a price of 60/g and electricity at 0.05/kWh for Q=Pfusion/Pinput=4. Fusion reactors could be designed to destroy fission wastes by transmutation and fissioning but this is not a natural use of fusion whereas it is a designed use of fission reactors. Fusion could supply makeup fuel to fission reactors that were dedicated to fissioning wastes with some of their neutrons. The design for safety and heat removal and other items is already accomplished with fission reactors. Whereas fusion reactors have geometry that compromises safety with a complex and thin wall separating the fusion zone from the blanket zone where wastes could be destroyed. Nonproliferation can be enhanced by mixing 233U with 238U. Also nonproliferation is enhanced in typical fission-suppressed designs by generating up to 0.05 232U atoms for each 233U atom produced from thorium, about twice the IAEA standards of "reduced protection" or "self protection." With 2.4% 232U, high explosive material is predicted to degrade owing to ionizing radiation after a little over 1/2 year and the heat rate is 77 W just after separation and climbs to over 600 W ten years later. The fissile material can be used to fuel most any fission reactor but is especially appropriate for molten salt reactors (MSR) also called liquid fluoride thorium reactors (LFTR) because of the molten fuel does not need hands on fabrication and handling.

  3. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes >1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa (“displacement-per-atom”, the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  4. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes > 1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa ("displacement-per-atom", the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  5. Comparison of the air kerma standards of the IAEA and the BIPM in mammography x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, C.; Burns, D. T.; Czap, L.; Csete, I.; Gomola, I.

    2013-01-01

    The Dosimetry Laboratory of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Seibersdorf, Austria, calibrates reference standards in mammography x-ray beams for IAEA/WHO SSDL Network members (more than 80 laboratories worldwide). As a signatory of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA), the IAEA laboratory maintains a Quality Management System (QMS) complying with ISO 17025 and requires updated 'supporting evidence' for its dosimetry calibration and measurement capabilities (CMC), first published in Appendix C of the CIPM MRA key comparison database in 2007. For this purpose, an indirect comparison has been made between the air kerma standards of the IAEA and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in the mammography x-ray range from 25 kV to 35 kV, using as transfer instruments two thin-window parallel-plate ionization chambers belonging to the IAEA. The IAEA and BIPM standards for mammography x-rays are shown to be in agreement within the standard uncertainty of the comparison of 5.5 parts in 103. This agreement can be used to support the calibration and measurements capabilities of the IAEA listed in Appendix C of the key comparison database. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. A Model for Membrane Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngatchou, Annita

    2010-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal gland which originates from chromaffin cells and is characterized by the secretion of excessive amounts of neurotransmitter which lead to high blood pressure and palpitations. Pheochromocytoma contain membrane bound granules that store neurotransmitter. The release of these stored molecules into the extracellular space occurs by fusion of the granule membrane with the cell plasma membrane, a process called exocytosis. The molecular mechanism of this membrane fusion is not well understood. It is proposed that the so called SNARE proteins [1] are the pillar of vesicle fusion as their cleavage by clostridial toxin notably, Botulinum neurotoxin and Tetanus toxin abrogate the secretion of neurotransmitter [2]. Here, I describe how physical principles are applied to a biological cell to explore the role of the vesicle SNARE protein synaptobrevin-2 in easing granule fusion. The data presented here suggest a paradigm according to which the movement of the C-terminal of synaptobrevin-2 disrupts the lipid bilayer to form a fusion pore through which molecules can exit.

  7. Fusion in Magnetically Compressed Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, V. N.

    2004-11-01

    A comparative analysis is presented of the positive and negative features of systems using magnetic compression of the thermonuclear fusion target (MAGO/MTF) aimed at solving the controlled thermonuclear fusion (CTF) problem. The niche for the MAGO/MTF system, among the other CTF systems, in the parameter space of the energy delivered to the target, and its input time to the target, is shown. This approach was investigated at RFNC-VNIIEF for more than 15 years using the unique technique of applying explosive magnetic generators (EMG) as the energy source to preheat fusion plasma, and accelerate a liner to compress the preheated fusion plasma to the parameters required for ignition. EMG based systems produce already fusion neutrons, and their relatively low cost and record energy yield enable full scale experiments to study the possibility of achieving ignition threshold without constructing expensive stationary installations. A short review of the milestone results on the road to solving the CTF problem in the MAGO/MTF system is given.

  8. Benchmarking image fusion algorithm performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Christopher L.

    2012-06-01

    Registering two images produced by two separate imaging sensors having different detector sizes and fields of view requires one of the images to undergo transformation operations that may cause its overall quality to degrade with regards to visual task performance. This possible change in image quality could add to an already existing difference in measured task performance. Ideally, a fusion algorithm would take as input unaltered outputs from each respective sensor used in the process. Therefore, quantifying how well an image fusion algorithm performs should be base lined to whether the fusion algorithm retained the performance benefit achievable by each independent spectral band being fused. This study investigates an identification perception experiment using a simple and intuitive process for discriminating between image fusion algorithm performances. The results from a classification experiment using information theory based image metrics is presented and compared to perception test results. The results show an effective performance benchmark for image fusion algorithms can be established using human perception test data. Additionally, image metrics have been identified that either agree with or surpass the performance benchmark established.

  9. Fusion neutronics experiments and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    UCLA has led the neutronics R D effort in the US for the past several years through the well-established USDOE/JAERI Collaborative Program on Fusion Neutronics. Significant contributions have been made in providing solid bases for advancing the neutronics testing capabilities in fusion reactors. This resulted from the hands-on experience gained from conducting several fusion integral experiments to quantify the prediction uncertainties of key blanket design parameters such as tritium production rate, activation, and nuclear heating, and when possible, to narrow the gap between calculational results and measurements through improving nuclear data base and codes capabilities. The current focus is to conduct the experiments in an annular configuration where the test assembly totally surrounds a simulated line source. The simulated line source is the first-of-a-kind in the scope of fusion integral experiments and presents a significant contribution to the world of fusion neutronics. The experiments proceeded through Phase IIIA to Phase IIIC in these line source simulation experiments started in 1989.

  10. The Path to Magnetic Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Prager, Stewart

    2011-05-04

    When the possibility of fusion as an energy source for electricity generation was realized in the 1950s, understanding of the plasma state was primitive. The fusion goal has been paced by, and has stimulated, the development of plasma physics. Our understanding of complex, nonlinear processes in plasmas is now mature. We can routinely produce and manipulate 100 million degree plasmas with remarkable finesse, and we can identify a path to commercial fusion power. The international experiment, ITER, will create a burning (self-sustained) plasma and produce 500 MW of thermal fusion power. This talk will summarize the progress in fusion research to date, and the remaining steps to fusion power.

  11. Department of Energy Efforts to Promote Universal Adherence to the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Hansen, Linda H.; Kovacic, Don N.; VanSickle, Matthew; Apt, Kenneth E.

    2009-10-06

    Entry-into-force of the U.S. Additional Protocol (AP) in January 2009 continues to demonstrate the ongoing commitment by the United States to promote universal adherence to the AP. The AP is a critical tool for improving the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) capabilities to detect undeclared activities that indicate a clandestine nuclear weapons program. This is because States Parties are required to provide information about, and access to, nuclear fuel cycle activities beyond their traditional safeguards reporting requirements. As part of the U.S. AP Implementation Act and Senate Resolution of Ratification, the Administration is required to report annually to Congress on measures taken to achieve the adoption of the AP in non-nuclear weapon states, as well as assistance to the IAEA to promote the effective implementation of APs in those states. A key U.S. effort in this area is being managed by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through new and existing bilateral cooperation agreements, INSEP has initiated technical assistance projects for AP implementation with selected non-weapon states. States with which INSEP is currently cooperating include Vietnam and Thailand, with Indonesia, Algeria, Morocco, and other countries as possible future collaborators in the area of AP implementation. The INSEP collaborative model begins with a joint assessment with our partners to identify specific needs they may have regarding entering the AP into force and any impediments to successful implementation. An action plan is then developed detailing and prioritizing the necessary joint activities. Such assistance may include: advice on developing legal frameworks and regulatory documents; workshops to promote understanding of AP requirements; training to determine possible declarable activities; assistance in developing a system to collect and submit declarations; performing industry outreach to

  12. Neutron activation analysis of NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and IAEA animal bone (H-5)

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.

    1984-03-01

    Instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA) were employed to measure about 37 major, minor, and trace elements in two standard reference materials: oyster tissue (SRM 1566) supplied by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and animal bone (H-5) supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Wherever the comparison exists, our data show excellent agreement with accepted values for each SRM. These SRM's are useful as reference standards for the analysis of biological materials. Additionally, the chondritic normalized rare earth element pattern of animal bone behaves as a smooth function of the ionic radii, as previously observed for biological materials.

  13. International contributions to IAEA-NEA heat transfer databases for supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, L. K. H.; Yamada, K.

    2012-07-01

    An IAEA Coordinated Research Project on 'Heat Transfer Behaviour and Thermohydraulics Code Testing for SCWRs' is being conducted to facilitate collaboration and interaction among participants from 15 organizations. While the project covers several key technology areas relevant to the development of SCWR concepts, it focuses mainly on the heat transfer aspect, which has been identified as the most challenging. Through the collaborating effort, large heat-transfer databases have been compiled for supercritical water and surrogate fluids in tubes, annuli, and bundle subassemblies of various orientations over a wide range of flow conditions. Assessments of several supercritical heat-transfer correlations were performed using the complied databases. The assessment results are presented. (authors)

  14. Implementation of the IAEA Additional Protocol in the Philippines: USDOE/PNRI Cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Sequis, Julietta E.; Cain, Ronald A.; Burbank, Roberta L.; Hansen, Linda H.; VanSickle, Matthew; Killinger, Mark H.; Elkhamri, Oksana O.

    2011-07-19

    The Philippines entered into force the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Additional Protocol (AP) in February 2010. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) is the government agency responsible for implementing the AP. In June 2010 the IAEA invited the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to help conduct a joint national training seminar on the AP. DOE presented to PNRI its AP international technical assistance program, administered by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP), which helps partner countries implement the AP. In coordination with the IAEA, DOE established this program in 2008 to complement IAEA AP seminars with long-term country-specific cooperation from the perspective of a Member State. The US version of the AP is the same version as that of non-nuclear weapon states except for the addition of a national security exclusion. Due to this, DOE cooperation with other countries enables the sharing of valuable lessons learned in implementing the AP. DOE/INSEP described to PNRI the various areas of cooperation it offers to interested countries, whether they are preparing for entry into force or already implementing the AP. Even countries that have entered the AP into force are sometimes not fully prepared to implement it well, and welcome cooperation to improve their implementation process. PNRI and DOE/INSEP subsequently agreed to cooperate in several areas to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the Philippines AP implementation. These areas include providing working-level training to PNRI staff and preparing an information document that details that training for future reference, assisting with the development of an outreach program and procedures for AP reporting and complementary access, and identifying Annex II equipment and non-nuclear materials whose export must be reported under the AP. DOE laboratory representatives, funded by INSEP, met again with PNRI in February 2011 to provide training for PNRI AP

  15. Bioenergetic roles of mitochondrial fusion.

    PubMed

    Silva Ramos, Eduardo; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Mourier, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are bioenergetic hotspots, producing the bulk of ATP by the oxidative phosphorylation process. Mitochondria are also structurally dynamic and undergo coordinated fusion and fission to maintain their function. Recent studies of the mitochondrial fusion machinery have provided new evidence in detailing their role in mitochondrial metabolism. Remarkably, mitofusin 2, in addition to its role in fusion, is important for maintaining coenzyme Q levels and may be an integral player in the mevalonate synthesis pathway. Here, we review the bioenergetic roles of mitochondrial dynamics and emphasize the importance of the in vitro growth conditions when evaluating mitochondrial respiration. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016,' edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:27060252

  16. Fusion Blanket Development in FDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. P. C.; Smith, J. P.; Stambaugh, R. D.

    2008-11-01

    To satisfy the electricity and tritium self-sufficiency missions of a Fusion Development Facility (FDF), suitable blanket designs will need to be evaluated, selected and developed. To demonstrate closure of the fusion fuel cycle, 2-3 main tritium breeding blankets will be used to cover most of the available chamber surface area in order to reach the project goal of achieving a tritium breeding ratio, TBR > 1. To demonstrate the feasibility of electricity and tritium production for subsequent devices such as the fusion demonstration power reactor (DEMO), several advanced test blankets will need to be selected and tested on the FDF to demonstrate high coolant outlet temperature necessary for efficient electricity production. Since the design goals for the main and test blankets are different, the design criteria of these blankets will also be different. The considerations in performing the evaluation of blanket and structural material options in concert with the maintenance approach for the FDF will be reported in this paper.

  17. (Meeting on fusion reactor materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H. ); Klueh, R.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Wiffen, F.W. ); Loomis, B.A. )

    1990-11-01

    During his visit to the KfK, Karlsruhe, F. W. Wiffen attended the IEA 12th Working Group Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. Plans were made for a low-activation materials workshop at Culham, UK, for April 1991, a data base workshop in Europe for June 1991, and a molecular dynamics workshop in the United States in 1991. At the 11th IEA Executive Committee on Fusion Materials, discussions centered on the recent FPAC and Colombo panel review in the United States and EC, respectively. The Committee also reviewed recent progress toward a neutron source in the United States (CWDD) and in Japan (ESNIT). A meeting with D. R. Harries (consultant to J. Darvas) yielded a useful overview of the EC technology program for fusion. Of particular interest to the US program is a strong effort on a conventional ferritic/martensitic steel for fist wall/blanket operation beyond NET/ITER.

  18. Cell fusion in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Stephanie; Schumann, Marcel R; Fleißner, André

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa has advanced as a model organism for studying eukaryotic cell-cell communication and fusion. Cell merger in this fungus employs an unusual mode of communication, in which the fusion partners appear to switch between signal sending and receiving. Many molecular factors mediating this intriguing mechanism and the subsequent membrane merger have been identified. It has become apparent that conserved factors, such as MAP kinases, NADPH oxidases and the STRIPAK complex, together with fungal specific proteins are wired into an intricate signaling network. Here, we will present an overview of recent findings on the molecular mechanism mediating fusion in N. crassa and will discuss the current working model. PMID:26340439

  19. Laser fusion experiments at LLL

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1980-06-16

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLL. Two other chapters, one authored by K.A. Brueckner and the other by C. Max, present the theoretical implosion physics and laser plasma interaction physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first is an introductory section which provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

  20. Superconducting magnets for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.

    1987-07-02

    Fusion magnet technology has made spectacular advances in the past decade; to wit, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility and the Large Coil Project. However, further advances are still required for advanced economical fusion reactors. Higher fields to 14 T and radiation-hardened superconductors and insulators will be necessary. Coupled with high rates of nuclear heating and pulsed losses, the next-generation magnets will need still higher current density, better stability and quench protection. Cable-in-conduit conductors coupled with polyimide insulations and better steels seem to be the appropriate path. Neutron fluences up to 10/sup 19/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/ in niobium tin are achievable. In the future, other amorphous superconductors could raise these limits further to extend reactor life or decrease the neutron shielding and corresponding reactor size.

  1. Tissue fusion over nonadhering surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Nier, Vincent; Deforet, Maxime; Duclos, Guillaume; Yevick, Hannah G.; Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Marcq, Philippe; Silberzan, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Tissue fusion eliminates physical voids in a tissue to form a continuous structure and is central to many processes in development and repair. Fusion events in vivo, particularly in embryonic development, often involve the purse-string contraction of a pluricellular actomyosin cable at the free edge. However, in vitro, adhesion of the cells to their substrate favors a closure mechanism mediated by lamellipodial protrusions, which has prevented a systematic study of the purse-string mechanism. Here, we show that monolayers can cover well-controlled mesoscopic nonadherent areas much larger than a cell size by purse-string closure and that active epithelial fluctuations are required for this process. We have formulated a simple stochastic model that includes purse-string contractility, tissue fluctuations, and effective friction to qualitatively and quantitatively account for the dynamics of closure. Our data suggest that, in vivo, tissue fusion adapts to the local environment by coordinating lamellipodial protrusions and purse-string contractions. PMID:26199417

  2. Fusion power for space propulsion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R.; Rayle, W.; Reinmann, J.

    1972-01-01

    Principles of operation, interplanetary orbit-to-orbit mission capabilities, technical problems, and environmental safeguards are examined for thermonuclear fusion propulsion systems. Two systems examined include (1) a fusion-electric concept in which kinetic energy of charged particles from the plasma is converted into electric power (for accelerating the propellant in an electrostatic thrustor) by the van de Graaf generator principle and (2) the direct fusion rocket in which energetic plasma lost from the reactor has a suitable amount of added propellant to obtain the optimum exhaust velocity. The deuterium-tritium and the deuterium/helium-3 reactions are considered as suitable candidates, and attention is given to problems of cryogenic refrigeration systems, magnet shielding, and high-energy particle extraction and guidance.

  3. Fusion - A potential power source

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, T.H. )

    1994-10-01

    Duplicating the fusion process of the sun and the stars for energy production on earth would present many difficulties. The state of matter at such temperatures--the plasma state--may be considered a gas of electrons and nuclei, so one problem is the need to confine a hot, reacting plasma. Because the plasma is an electric conductor, it is subject to magnetic forces. Thus, one approach is to confine the hot plasma by a magnetic field. Another approach is to heat the matter so rapidly that the fusion reactions take place before the matter has had time to fly apart, that is, to use inertial confinement. At the United Nations' Atoms for Peace Conference in 1958, a remarkably cooperative, international research effort began. In spite of many difficulties, substantial progress has been made. Initially, many tokamaks were built with circular cross sections. However, shaped plasmas were shown to have clear advantages. The cross sections of some of the larger ones are illustrated here. The two largest devices in the US are the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton and the Doublet III-D (DIII-D) at General Atomics in San Diego. The TFTR device is constructed with neutron shielding and equipped to handle the superheavy hydrogen isotope tritium, which is radioactive. This makes it possible to operate the device with the optimum fuel mixture: an equal mixture of deuterium and tritium. This mixture is optimal because the cross section for the DT reaction has by far the largest cross section of the fusion reactions mentioned above. A large effort is presently under way to design the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This is a joint effort by the European Community, Japan, Russia, and the US. Goals include the production of fusion power in excess of 1,000 MW for studying the physics of igniting plasmas, and the integrated demonstration of fusion-reactor technologies.

  4. Fusion bonding and alignment fixture

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2000-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  5. Method for vacuum fusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2001-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  6. Plasma physics goes beyond fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Raoul

    2008-11-01

    I was interested to read the fusion supplement published with the October issue of Physics World. However, in asserting that fusion created the need to recognize plasma physics as a separate branch of the subject, Stephen Cowley, the new director of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, was not quite correct. In fact, the word "plasma" was appropriated from the Greek by the chemical physicist (and later Nobel laureate) Irving Langmuir in 1928. It was used to describe the positive column of a gas discharge, which was then the subject of research into better lighting sources and advertising displays, as well as the underlying science.

  7. Percutaneous Hindfoot and Midfoot Fusion.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Hindfoot and midfoot fusions can be performed with percutaneous techniques. Preliminary results of these procedures are encouraging because they provide similar results than those obtained with open techniques with less morbidity and quick recovery. The best indications are probably fusions for mild-to-moderate reducible hindfoot and midfoot deformities in fragile patients with general or local bad conditions. The main limit is linked to the surgeon's experience in percutaneous foot surgery because a learning curve with the specific tools is necessary before doing these procedures. PMID:27524709

  8. Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Shorter trips are better for humans in the harmful radiation environment of deep space. Nuclear propulsion and power plants can enable high Ispand payload mass fractions because they require less fuel mass. Fusion energy research has characterized the Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method. (1) Lightning is form of pinched plasma electrical discharge phenomena. (2) Wire array Z-Pinch experiments are commonly studied and nuclear power plant configurations have been proposed. (3) Used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects (NWE) testing in the defense industry, nuclear weapon x-rays are simulated through Z-Pinch phenomena.

  9. Fusion Breeder Program interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.

    1982-06-11

    This interim report for the FY82 Fusion Breeder Program covers work performed during the scoping phase of the study, December, 1981-February 1982. The goals for the FY82 study are the identification and development of a reference blanket concept using the fission suppression concept and the definition of a development plan to further the fusion breeder application. The context of the study is the tandem mirror reactor, but emphasis is placed upon blanket engineering. A tokamak driver and blanket concept will be selected and studied in more detail during FY83.

  10. Calculation of fusion product angular correlation coefficients for fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    The angular correlation coefficients for fusion products are calculated in the cases of Maxwellian and beam-target plasmas. Measurement of these coefficients as a localized ion temperature or fast-ion diagnostic is discussed. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A Plan for the Development of Fusion Energy. Final Report to Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, Fusion Development Path Panel

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2003-03-05

    This report presents a plan for the deployment of a fusion demonstration power plant within 35 years, leading to commercial application of fusion energy by mid-century. The plan is derived from the necessary features of a demonstration fusion power plant and from the time scale defined by President Bush. It identifies critical milestones, key decision points, needed major facilities and required budgets.

  12. Special section containing papers presented at the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (Beijing, China, 17-20 September 2013) Special section containing papers presented at the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (Beijing, China, 17-20 September 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Z.

    2014-10-01

    In magnetic fusion plasmas, a significant fraction of the kinetic pressure is contributed by superthermal charged particles produced by auxiliary heating (fast ions and electrons) and fusion reactions (a-particles). Since these energetic particles are often far away from thermal equilibrium due to their non-Maxwellian distribution and steep pressure gradients, the free energy can excite electromagnetic instabilities to intensity levels well above the thermal fluctuations. The resultant electromagnetic turbulence could induce large transport of energetic particles, which could reduce heating efficiency, degrade overall plasma confinement, and damage fusion devices. Therefore, understanding and predicting energetic particle confinement properties are critical to the success of burning plasma experiments such as ITER since the ignition relies on plasma self-heating by a-particles. To promote international exchanges and collaborations on energetic particle physics, the biannual conference series under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were help in Kyiv (1989), Aspenas (1991), Trieste (1993), Princeton (1995), JET/Abingdon (1997), Naka (1999), Gothenburg (2001), San Diego (2003), Takayama (2005), Kloster Seeon (2007), Kyiv (2009), and Austin (2011). The papers in this special section were presented at the most recent meeting, the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems, which was hosted by the Fusion Simulation Center, Peking University, Beijing, China (17-20 September 2013). The program of the meeting consisted of 71 presentations, including 13 invited talks, 26 oral contributed talks, 30 posters, and 2 summary talks, which were selected by the International Advisory Committee (IAC). The IAC members include H. Berk, L.G. Eriksson, A. Fasoli, W. Heidbrink, Ya. Kolesnichenko, Ph. Lauber, Z. Lin, R. Nazikian, S. Pinches, S. Sharapov, K. Shinohara, K. Toi, G. Vlad, and X.T. Ding. The conference program

  13. Advanced Concepts: Aneutronic Fusion Power and Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Aneutronic Fusion for In-Space thrust, power. Clean energy & potential nuclear gains. Fusion plant concepts, potential to use advanced fuels. Methods to harness ionic momentum for high Isp thrust plus direct power conversion into electricity will be presented.

  14. Cold fusion catalyzed by muons and electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1990-10-01

    Two alternative methods have been suggested to produce fusion power at low temperature. The first, muon catalyzed fusion or MCF, uses muons to spontaneously catalyze fusion through the muon mesomolecule formation. Unfortunately, this method fails to generate enough fusion energy to supply the muons, by a factor of about ten. The physics of MCF is discussed, and a possible approach to increasing the number of MCF fusions generated by each muon is mentioned. The second method, which has become known as Cold Fusion,'' involves catalysis by electrons in electrolytic cells. The physics of this process, if it exists, is more mysterious than MCF. However, it now appears to be an artifact, the claims for its reality resting largely on experimental errors occurring in rather delicate experiments. However, a very low level of such fusion claimed by Jones may be real. Experiments in cold fusion will also be discussed.

  15. Collescipoli - An unusual fusion crust glass. [chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, S.

    1979-01-01

    An electron microprobe study was conducted on glass fragments taken from the fusion crust and an internal glass-lined vein in the H-5 chondrite Collescipoli. Microprobe analyses of the glasses revealed an unusual fusion crust composition, and analyses of glass from inside the meteorite showed compositions expected for a melt of an H-group chondrite. Studies of fusion crusts by previous workers, e.g., Krinov and Ramdohr, showed that fusion crusts contain large amounts of magnetite and other oxidized minerals. The Collescipoli fusion crusts do contain these minerals, but they also contain relatively large amounts of reduced metal, sulphide, and a sodium-rich glass. This study seems to indicate that Collescipoli preserved an early type of fusion crust. Oxidation was incomplete in the fusion crust melt that drained into a crack. From this study it is concluded that fusion crust formation does not invariably result in complete oxidation of metal and sulphide phases.

  16. Role of atomic collisions in fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Post, D.E.

    1982-04-01

    Atomic physics issues have played a large role in controlled fusion research. A general discussion of the present role of atomic processes in both magnetic and inertial controlled fusion work is presented.

  17. A Review of Data Fusion Techniques

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The integration of data and knowledge from several sources is known as data fusion. This paper summarizes the state of the data fusion field and describes the most relevant studies. We first enumerate and explain different classification schemes for data fusion. Then, the most common algorithms are reviewed. These methods and algorithms are presented using three different categories: (i) data association, (ii) state estimation, and (iii) decision fusion. PMID:24288502

  18. Exo-endo cellulase fusion protein

    DOEpatents

    Bower, Benjamin S.; Larenas, Edmund A.; Mitchinson, Colin

    2012-01-17

    The present invention relates to a heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct, which encodes a fusion protein having cellulolytic activity comprising a catalytic domain derived from a fungal exo-cellobiohydrolase and a catalytic domain derived from an endoglucanase. The invention also relates to vectors and fungal host cells comprising the heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct as well as methods for producing a cellulase fusion protein and enzymatic cellulase compositions.

  19. Dinuclear systems in complete fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Zubov, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    Formation and evolution of dinuclear systems in reactions of complete fusion are considered. Based on the dinuclear system concept, the process of compound nucleus formation is studied. Arguments confirming the validity of this concept are given. The main problems of describing the complete fusion in adiabatic approximation are listed. Calculations of evaporation residue cross sections in complete fusion reactions leading to formation of superheavy nuclei are shown. Isotopic trends of the cross sections of heavy nuclei formation in complete fusion reactions are considered.

  20. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    SPIELMAN,RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999.

  1. Fusion and Breakup of Weakly Bound Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Padron, I.; Crema, E.; Chamon, L. C.; Hussein, M. S.; Canto, L. F.

    2006-08-14

    We discuss the influence of the breakup process of weakly bound nuclei on the fusion cross section. The complete fusion for heavy targets is found to be suppressed due to the incomplete fusion following the breakup, whereas this effect is negligible for light targets. The total fusion cross sections for stable projectiles are not affected by the breakup process, whereas it is suppressed for halo projectiles. The non capture breakup is the dominant process at sub-barrier energies.

  2. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Projects on Structural Integrity of Reactor Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Server, W. L.; Nanstad, Randy K

    2009-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted a series of Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) that have focused on irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel fracture toughness properties and approaches for assuring structural integrity of RPVs throughout operating life. A series of nine CRPs have been sponsored by the IAEA, starting in the early 1970s, focused on neutron radiation effects on RPV steels. The purpose of the CRPs was to develop comparisons and correlations to test the uniformity of irradiated results through coordinated international research studies and data sharing. Consideration of dose rate effects, effects of alloying (nickel, manganese, silicon, etc.) and residual elements (eg., copper and phosphorus), and drop in upper shelf toughness are also important for assessing neutron embrittlement effects. The ultimate use of embrittlement understanding is assuring structural integrity of the RPV under current and future operation and accident conditions. Material fracture toughness is the key ingredient needed for this assessment, and many of the CRPs have focused on measurement and application of irradiated fracture toughness. This paper presents an overview of the progress made since the inception of the CRPs in the early 1970s. The chronology and importance of each CRP have been reviewed and put into context for continued and long-term safe operation of RPVs.

  3. Pantak Therapax SXT 150: performance assessment and dose determination using IAEA TRS-398 protocol.

    PubMed

    Jurado, D; Eudaldo, T; Carrasco, P; Jornet, N; Ruiz, A; Ribas, M

    2005-08-01

    The performance assessment and beam characteristics of the Therapax SXT 150 unit, which encompass both low and medium-energy beams, were evaluated. Dose determination was carried out by implementing the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) TRS-398 protocol and measuring all the dosimetric parameters in order to have a solid, consistent and reliable data set for the unit. Mechanical movements, interlocks and applicator characteristics agreed with specifications. The timer exhibited good accuracy and linearity. The output was very stable, with good repeatability, long-term reproducibility and no dependence on tube head orientation. The measured dosimetric parameters included beam first and second half-value layers (HVLs), absorbed dose rate to water under reference conditions, central axis depth dose distributions, output factors and beam profiles. Measured first HVLs agreed with comparable published data, but the homogeneity coefficients were low in comparison with typical values found in the literature. The timer error was significant for all filters and should be taken into consideration for the absorbed dose rate determination under reference conditions as well as for the calculation of treatment times. Percentage depth-dose (PDD) measurements are strongly recommended for each filter-applicator combination. The output factor definition of the IAEA TRS-398 protocol for medium-energy X-ray qualities involves the use of data that is difficult to measure. Beam profiles had small penumbras and good symmetry and flatness except for the lowest energy beam, for which a heel effect was observed. PMID:16046424

  4. Preparing the 1993--94 Safeguards Implementation Support Programme for IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Green, L.

    1993-08-01

    The 1993-94 Safeguards Implementation Support (IS) Program describes the Department of Safeguards` program of implementation support for the coming two years. The main body of the document describes the IS program for IAEA. A detailed description of the individual IS needs for 1993-1994 is contained in an annex that specifies the nee, assigns priorities and lists tasks and activities underway to address the need. Other annexes address policy and procedures for program planning and management, current Member State Support Programs (MSSP) tasks, and identification of MSSP resources required for implementation of developed technologies that could be provided. The primary responsibility for supporting the implementation of safeguards technology is with the support divisions of the Department of Safeguards. However, in this time of limited resources it is essential that, where possible, the Department receives assistance from MSSPs that have the needed resources. This document should serve as a guide for IAEA, in planning implementation support activities and for identifying tasks for MSSPs wishing to provide assistance.

  5. Stronger Efforts are Needed to Improve the Control of Radioactive Sources: An IAEA Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, R.; Friedrich, V.; Czarwinski, R.; Behan, C.

    2008-07-01

    High activity radioactive sources provide great benefit to humanity through their utilization in agriculture, industry, medicine, research and education, and the vast majority is used in well-controlled environments. None-the-less, control has been lost over a small fraction of those sources resulting in accidents of which some had serious - even fatal - consequences. In order to improve the existing situation, concerted national and international efforts are needed and, to some degree, are being implemented to strengthen the safety and security of sources in use, as well as to improve the control of disused sources located at numerous facilities throughout the world. More efforts must also be made to identify, recover, and bring into control vulnerable and orphan sources. The IAEA has been involved in efforts to bring about better control of radioactive sources for many years but since the events of September 2001 the amount of effort put into this area has increased considerably. This paper highlights IAEA work in this regard. This paper also discusses in some detail the overall nature of the problem with regards to disused sources and points out how there is still much to do in both improving the existing situation and ensuring the sustainability of control over radioactive sources for the future. (authors)

  6. Experiences using IAEA Code of practice for radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: Validation and routine control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmy, N.; Febrida, A.; Basril, A.

    2007-11-01

    Problems of tissue allografts in using International Standard (ISO) 11137 for validation of radiation sterilization dose (RSD) are limited and low numbers of uniform samples per production batch, those are products obtained from one donor. Allograft is a graft transplanted between two different individuals of the same species. The minimum number of uniform samples needed for verification dose (VD) experiment at the selected sterility assurance level (SAL) per production batch according to the IAEA Code is 20, i.e., 10 for bio-burden determination and the remaining 10 for sterilization test. Three methods of the IAEA Code have been used for validation of RSD, i.e., method A1 that is a modification of method 1 of ISO 11137:1995, method B (ISO 13409:1996), and method C (AAMI TIR 27:2001). This paper describes VD experiments using uniform products obtained from one cadaver donor, i.e., cancellous bones, demineralized bone powders and amnion grafts from one life donor. Results of the verification dose experiments show that RSD is 15.4 kGy for cancellous and demineralized bone grafts and 19.2 kGy for amnion grafts according to method A1 and 25 kGy according to methods B and C.

  7. IAEA coordinated research project on thermal-hydraulics of Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors (SCWRs)

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, K.; Aksan, S. N.

    2012-07-01

    The Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is an innovative water-cooled reactor concept, which uses supercritical pressure water as reactor coolant. It has been attracting interest of many researchers in various countries mainly due to its benefits of high thermal efficiency and simple primary systems, resulting in low capital cost. The IAEA started in 2008 a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Thermal-Hydraulics of SCWRs as a forum to foster the exchange of technical information and international collaboration in research and development. This paper summarizes the activities and current status of the CRP, as well as major progress achieved to date. At present, 15 institutions closely collaborate in several tasks. Some organizations have been conducting thermal-hydraulics experiments and analysing the data, and others have been participating in code-to-test and/or code-to-code benchmark exercises. The expected outputs of the CRP are also discussed. Finally, the paper introduces several IAEA activities relating to or arising from the CRP. (authors)

  8. International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO): Outcomes of an IAEA Meeting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The IAEA held the International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO) in Vienna on 27-29 April 2009. The Conference dealt with the issues and requirements posed by the transition from conventional radiotherapy to advanced modern technologies, including staffing, training, treatment planning and delivery, quality assurance (QA) and the optimal use of available resources. The current role of advanced technologies (defined as 3-dimensional and/or image guided treatment with photons or particles) in current clinical practice and future scenarios were discussed. ICARO was organized by the IAEA at the request of the Member States and co-sponsored and supported by other international organizations to assess advances in technologies in radiation oncology in the face of economic challenges that most countries confront. Participants submitted research contributions, which were reviewed by a scientific committee and presented via 46 lectures and 103 posters. There were 327 participants from 70 Member States as well as participants from industry and government. The ICARO meeting provided an independent forum for the interaction of participants from developed and developing countries on current and developing issues related to radiation oncology. PMID:21294881

  9. Feasibility of cluster-type controlled fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsep, A. S.; Okorokov, V. V.; Chuvilo, I. V.

    1991-10-01

    A method is proposed for generating high-temperature fusion plasma through the collision of accelerated clusters of heavy hydrogen inside a magnetic trap. It is noted that the physical feasibility of this method of fusion plasma generation can now be verified using the existing and functioning equipment. Some features of the controlled fusion method proposed here are examined.

  10. Seismic data fusion anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David

    2014-06-01

    Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.

  11. Microwave kinoform for magnetic fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, N.C. Jr.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1983-07-19

    A microwave kinoform that modifies both the phase and polarization of an incident wavefront has been designed. This kinoform for the TMX-U magnetic fusion experiment has been fabricated and tested. The design procedure, method of fabrication, and experimental test results are discussed.

  12. Membrane fusion during phage lysis.

    PubMed

    Rajaure, Manoj; Berry, Joel; Kongari, Rohit; Cahill, Jesse; Young, Ry

    2015-04-28

    In general, phages cause lysis of the bacterial host to effect release of the progeny virions. Until recently, it was thought that degradation of the peptidoglycan (PG) was necessary and sufficient for osmotic bursting of the cell. Recently, we have shown that in Gram-negative hosts, phage lysis also requires the disruption of the outer membrane (OM). This is accomplished by spanins, which are phage-encoded proteins that connect the cytoplasmic membrane (inner membrane, IM) and the OM. The mechanism by which the spanins destroy the OM is unknown. Here we show that the spanins of the paradigm coliphage lambda mediate efficient membrane fusion. This supports the notion that the last step of lysis is the fusion of the IM and OM. Moreover, data are provided indicating that spanin-mediated fusion is regulated by the meshwork of the PG, thus coupling fusion to murein degradation by the phage endolysin. Because endolysin function requires the formation of μm-scale holes by the phage holin, the lysis pathway is seen to require dramatic dynamics on the part of the OM and IM, as well as destruction of the PG. PMID:25870259

  13. Membrane fusion during phage lysis

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Joel; Kongari, Rohit; Cahill, Jesse; Young, Ry

    2015-01-01

    In general, phages cause lysis of the bacterial host to effect release of the progeny virions. Until recently, it was thought that degradation of the peptidoglycan (PG) was necessary and sufficient for osmotic bursting of the cell. Recently, we have shown that in Gram-negative hosts, phage lysis also requires the disruption of the outer membrane (OM). This is accomplished by spanins, which are phage-encoded proteins that connect the cytoplasmic membrane (inner membrane, IM) and the OM. The mechanism by which the spanins destroy the OM is unknown. Here we show that the spanins of the paradigm coliphage lambda mediate efficient membrane fusion. This supports the notion that the last step of lysis is the fusion of the IM and OM. Moreover, data are provided indicating that spanin-mediated fusion is regulated by the meshwork of the PG, thus coupling fusion to murein degradation by the phage endolysin. Because endolysin function requires the formation of μm-scale holes by the phage holin, the lysis pathway is seen to require dramatic dynamics on the part of the OM and IM, as well as destruction of the PG. PMID:25870259

  14. Progress in pulsed power fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Quintenz, J.P.; Adams, R.G.; Bailey, J.E.

    1996-07-01

    Pulsed power offers and efficient, high energy, economical source of x-rays for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. We are pursuing two main approaches to ICF driven with pulsed power accelerators: intense light ion beams and z-pinches. This paper describes recent progress in each approach and plans for future development.

  15. Proton Collimators for Fusion Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu

    2003-01-01

    Proton collimators have been proposed for incorporation into inertial-electrostatic-confinement (IEC) fusion reactors. Such reactors have been envisioned as thrusters and sources of electric power for spacecraft and as sources of energetic protons in commercial ion-beam applications.

  16. Fusion probability in heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Tathagata; Nath, S.; Pal, Santanu

    2015-03-01

    Background: Fusion between two massive nuclei is a very complex process and is characterized by three stages: (a) capture inside the potential barrier, (b) formation of an equilibrated compound nucleus (CN), and (c) statistical decay of the CN leading to a cold evaporation residue (ER) or fission. The second stage is the least understood of the three and is the most crucial in predicting yield of superheavy elements (SHE) formed in complete fusion reactions. Purpose: A systematic study of average fusion probability, , is undertaken to obtain a better understanding of its dependence on various reaction parameters. The study may also help to clearly demarcate onset of non-CN fission (NCNF), which causes fusion probability, PCN, to deviate from unity. Method: ER excitation functions for 52 reactions leading to CN in the mass region 170-220, which are available in the literature, have been compared with statistical model (SM) calculations. Capture cross sections have been obtained from a coupled-channels code. In the SM, shell corrections in both the level density and the fission barrier have been included. for these reactions has been extracted by comparing experimental and theoretical ER excitation functions in the energy range ˜5 %-35% above the potential barrier, where known effects of nuclear structure are insignificant. Results: has been shown to vary with entrance channel mass asymmetry, η (or charge product, ZpZt ), as well as with fissility of the CN, χCN. No parameter has been found to be adequate as a single scaling variable to determine . Approximate boundaries have been obtained from where starts deviating from unity. Conclusions: This study quite clearly reveals the limits of applicability of the SM in interpreting experimental observables from fusion reactions involving two massive nuclei. Deviation of from unity marks the beginning of the domain of dynamical models of fusion. Availability of precise ER cross

  17. EDITORIAL: Stochasticity in fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finken, K. H.

    2006-04-01

    In recent years the importance of externally imposed resonant magnetic fields on plasma has become more and more recognized. These fields will cause ergodization at well defined plasma layers and can induce large size islands at rational q-surfaces. A hope for future large scale tokamak devices is the development of a reliable method for mitigating the large ELMs of type 1 ELMy-H-modes by modifying the edge transport. Other topics of interest for fusion reactors are the option of distributing the heat to a large area and optimizing methods for heat and particle exhaust, or the understanding of the transport around tearing mode instabilities. The cluster of papers in this issue of Nuclear Fusion is a successor to the 2004 special issue (Nuclear Fusion 44 S1-122 ) intended to raise interest in the subject. The contents of this present issue are based on presentations at the Second Workshop on Stochasticity in Fusion Plasmas (SFP) held in Juelich, Germany, 15-17 March 2005. The SFP workshops have been stimulated by the installation of the Dynamic Ergodic Divertor (DED) in the TEXTOR tokamak. It has attracted colleagues working on various plasma configurations such as tokamaks, stellarators or reversed field pinches. The workshop was originally devoted to phenomena on the plasma edge but it has been broadened to transport questions over the whole plasma cross-section. It is a meeting place for experimental and theoretical working groups. The next workshop is planned for February/March 2007 in Juelich, Germany. For details see http://www.fz-juelich.de/sfp/. The content of the workshop is summarized in the following conference summary (K.H. Finken 2006 Nuclear Fusion 46 S107-112). At the workshop experimental results on the plasma transport resulting from ergodization in various devices were presented. Highlights were the results from DIII-D on the mitigation of ELMs (see also T.E. Evans et al 2005 Nuclear Fusion 45 595 ). Theoretical work was focused around the topics

  18. Magnetized Target Fusion: Prospects for Low-Cost Fusion Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter J.; Barnes, Daniel C.; Degnan, James; Parks, Paul; Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) has attracted renewed interest in recent years because it has the potential to resolve one of the major problems with conventional fusion energy research - the high cost of facilities to do experiments and in general develop practical fusion energy. The requirement for costly facilities can be traced to fundamental constraints. The Lawson condition implies large system size in the case of conventional magnetic confinement, or large heating power in the case of conventional inertial confinement. The MTF approach is to use much higher fuel density than with conventional magnetic confinement (corresponding to megabar pressures), which results in a much-reduced system size to achieve Lawson conditions. Intrinsically the system must be pulsed because the pressures exceed the strength of any known material. To facilitate heating the fuel (or "target") to thermonuclear conditions with a high-power high-intensity source of energy, magnetic fields are used to insulate the high-pressure fuel from material surroundings (thus "magnetized target"). Because of magnetic insulation, the required heating power intensity is reduced by many orders of magnitude compared to conventional inertial fusion, even with relatively poor energy confinement in the magnetic field, such as that characterized by Bohm diffusion. In this paper we show semi-quantitatively why MTF-should allow fusion energy production without costly facilities within the same generally accepted physical constraints used for conventional magnetic and inertial fusion. We also briefly discuss potential applications of this technology ranging from nuclear rockets for space propulsion to a practical commercial energy system. Finally, we report on the exploratory research underway, and the interesting physics issues that arise in the MTF regime of parameters. Experiments at Los Alamos are focused on formation of a suitable plasma target for compression, utilizing the knowledge base for compact

  19. Analysis of IAEA Environmental Samples for Plutonium and Uranium by ICP/MS in Support Of International Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Orville T.; Olsen, Khris B.; Thomas, May-Lin P.; Garofoli, Stephanie J.

    2008-05-01

    A method for the separation and determination of total and isotopic uranium and plutonium by ICP-MS was developed for IAEA samples on cellulose-based media. Preparation of the IAEA samples involved a series of redox chemistries and separations using TRU® resin (Eichrom). The sample introduction system, an APEX nebulizer (Elemental Scientific, Inc), provided enhanced nebulization for a several-fold increase in sensitivity and reduction in background. Application of mass bias (ALPHA) correction factors greatly improved the precision of the data. By combining the enhancements of chemical separation, instrumentation and data processing, detection levels for uranium and plutonium approached high attogram levels.

  20. 2013 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech 2013 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyte, D.

    2015-01-01

    I would like to express gratitude to the IAEA, the journal Nuclear Fusion and its board for this acknowledgement of work carried out at the MIT Alcator C-Mod tokamak. I must begin by making it clear that this is in no way an award to an individual. The experiments, data analysis and paper were a true collaborative effort from the C-Mod team. It is a honor to work with them and to accept the award on their behalf. I would also like to thank the US Department of Energy for their support in funding this research. The paper describes the exploration of the 'improved' confinement regime dubbed 'I-mode'. The distinguishing feature of this operational mode is a robust boundary pedestal in temperature with the somewhat surprising lack of any form of density pedestal. Thus the regime exhibits an enhanced energy confinement similar to H-mode, roughly double of L-mode at fixed input power, yet has global fuel and impurity particle transport of L-mode. These features are intriguing from a scientific and practical point of view. On the science side it is extremely useful to obtain such a clear demarcation between the energy and particle transport. For example, soon after its discovery, the I-mode was used to extract the observation that the edge T pedestal is the strongest determinant for intrinsic rotation in work by John Rice, Pat Diamond and colleagues. Recent results regarding core transport by Anne White, Nate Howard and colleagues show that I-mode has intriguing properties with respect to core response of fluctuations and profile stiffness. Mike Churchill's recent Ph. D study on C-Mod shows that I-mode exhibits no strong poloidal impurity asymmetry, unlike H-mode. The I-mode posed an interesting test for the peeling-ballooning-KBM model of the pedestal, the subject of the 2014 Nuclear Fusion award of Phil Snyder, and was examined by John Walk and Jerry Hughes showing that in fact the lack of the density pedestal pushed the I-mode far away from the P-B limit, and thus the

  1. Fusion reactor nucleonics: status and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.; Engholm, B.A.; Dudziak, D.J.; Haight, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The national fusion technology effort has made a good start at addressing the basic nucleonics issues, but only a start. No fundamental nucleonics issues are seen as insurmountable barriers to the development of commercial fusion power. To date the fusion nucleonics effort has relied almost exclusively on other programs for nuclear data and codes. But as we progress through and beyond ETF type design studies the fusion program will need to support a broad based nucleonics effort including code development, sensitivity studies, integral experiments, data acquisition etc. It is clear that nucleonics issues are extremely important to fusion development and that we have only scratched the surface.

  2. Fusion energy calorimeter for the tokamak fusion test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.; Imel, G.R.

    1981-04-01

    One and two-dimensional neutronic analyses treating the transport and scattering of neutrons and the production and transport of gamma rays in the TFTR demonstrate that the fusion energy production in a D-T pulse in the TFTR can be determined with an uncertainty of +- 15% or less, simply by integrating the measured profile of temperature increase along the central radial axis of a large hydrocarbon moderator that fills the bay between adjacent toroidal-field coils, just outside the vacuum vessel. Limitations in thermopile temperature measurements dictate a minimum fusion-neutron fluence at the vacuum vessel of the order of 10/sup 12/ n/cm/sup 2/ per pulse (a source strength of 10/sup 18/ n/pulse in TFTR), in order that this simple calorimeter can provide useful accuracy.

  3. EDITORIAL: Special issue: overview reports from the Fusion Energy Conference (FEC) (Daejeon, South Korea, 2010) Special issue: overview reports from the Fusion Energy Conference (FEC) (Daejeon, South Korea, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2011-09-01

    The group of 27 papers published in this special issue of Nuclear Fusion aims to monitor the worldwide progress made in the period 2008-2010 in the field of thermonuclear fusion. Of these papers, 22 are based on overview reports presented at the 23rd Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2010) and five are summary reports. The conference was hosted by the Republic of Korea and organized by the IAEA in cooperation with the National Fusion Research Institute and the Daejeon Metropolitan City. It took place in Daejeon on 11-16 October 2010. The overviews presented at the conference have been rewritten and extended for the purpose of this special issue and submitted to the standard double-referee peer-review of Nuclear Fusion. The articles are placed in the following sequence: Conference summaries of the sessions devoted to: Tokamak and stellarator experiments, experimental divertor physics and plasma wall interaction experiments, stability experiments and waves and fast particles; ITER activities, fusion technology, safety and economics; Magnetic confinement theory and modelling; Inertial confinement fusion; Innovative confinement concepts, operational scenarios and confinement. Overview articles, presented in programme order, are as follows: Tokamaks Overview of KSTAR initial experiments; Recent progress in RF heating and long-pulse experiments on EAST; Overview of JET results; DIII-D contributions toward the scientific basis for sustained burning plasmas; Overview of JT-60U results toward the resolution of key physics and engineering issues in ITER and JT-60SA; Overview of physics results from NSTX; Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results; Overview of physics results from MAST; Contribution of Tore Supra in preparation of ITER; Overview of FTU results; Overview of experimental results on the HL-2A tokamak; Progress and scientific results in the TCV tokamak; Overview of the JT-60SA project; Recent results of the T-10 tokamak; The reconstruction and research progress of the TEXT

  4. Fusion of Enveloped Viruses in Endosomes.

    PubMed

    White, Judith M; Whittaker, Gary R

    2016-06-01

    Ari Helenius launched the field of enveloped virus fusion in endosomes with a seminal paper in the Journal of Cell Biology in 1980. In the intervening years, a great deal has been learned about the structures and mechanisms of viral membrane fusion proteins as well as about the endosomes in which different enveloped viruses fuse and the endosomal cues that trigger fusion. We now recognize three classes of viral membrane fusion proteins based on structural criteria and four mechanisms of fusion triggering. After reviewing general features of viral membrane fusion proteins and viral fusion in endosomes, we delve into three characterized mechanisms for viral fusion triggering in endosomes: by low pH, by receptor binding plus low pH and by receptor binding plus the action of a protease. We end with a discussion of viruses that may employ novel endosomal fusion-triggering mechanisms. A key take-home message is that enveloped viruses that enter cells by fusing in endosomes traverse the endocytic pathway until they reach an endosome that has all of the environmental conditions (pH, proteases, ions, intracellular receptors and lipid composition) to (if needed) prime and (in all cases) trigger the fusion protein and to support membrane fusion. PMID:26935856

  5. Class III viral membrane fusion proteins

    PubMed Central

    Backovic, Marija

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Accumulating structural studies of viral fusion glycoproteins have revealed unanticipated structural relationships between unrelated virus families and allowed the grouping of these membrane fusogens into three distinct classes. Here we review the newly identified group of class III viral fusion proteins, whose members include fusion proteins from rhabdoviruses, herpesviruses and baculoviruses. While clearly related in structure, the class III viral fusion proteins exhibit distinct structural features in their architectures as well as in their membrane-interacting fusion loops, which are likely related to their virus-specific differences in cellular entry. Further study of the similarities and differences in the class III viral fusion glycoproteins may provide greater insights into protein:membrane interactions that are key to promoting efficient bilayer fusion during virus entry. PMID:19356922

  6. Controlled thermonuclear fusion, high temperature plasma physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-05-01

    The primary source of nuclear energy comes from the fission process of heavy nuclei. To utilize the energy released by a thermonuclear fusion process, methods of controlling the fusion reaction were studied. This is controlled thermonuclear fusion technology. The fuel used in a thermonuclear fusion process are isotopes of hydrogen: deuterium and tritium. They can be extracted from the almost unlimited seawater. Nuclear fusion also produces very little radioactive waste. Thermonuclear fusion is a promising energy source with an almost unlimited supply; it is economical, safe, and relatively clean. Ways to raise plasma temperature to a very high level and to maintain it to allow fusion reactions to take place are studied. The physical laws of high temperature plasma was studied to reach this goal which resulted in the development of high temperature plasma physics.

  7. Security on the US Fusion Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Burruss, Justin R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

    2005-06-01

    The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

  8. Data security on the national fusion grid

    SciTech Connect

    Burruss, Justine R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

    2005-06-01

    The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

  9. Fusion technologies for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, K. J.; Latkowski, J. F.; Abbott, R. P.; Anklam, T. P.; Dunne, A. M.; El-Dasher, B. S.; Flowers, D. L.; Fluss, M. J.; Lafuente, A.; Loosmore, G. A.; Morris, K. R.; Moses, E.; Reyes, S.

    2013-11-01

    The Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) engine design builds upon on going progress at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and offers a near-term pathway to commercial fusion. Fusion technologies that are critical to success are reflected in the design of the first wall, blanket and tritium separation subsystems. The present work describes the LIFE engine-related components and technologies. LIFE utilizes a thermally robust indirect-drive target and a chamber fill gas. Coolant selection and a large chamber solid-angle coverage provide ample tritium breeding margin and high blanket gain. Target material selection eliminates the need for aggressive chamber clearing, while enabling recycling. Demonstrated tritium separation and storage technologies limit the site tritium inventory to attractive levels. These key technologies, along with the maintenance and advanced materials qualification program have been integrated into the LIFE delivery plan. This describes the development of components and subsystems, through prototyping and integration into a First Of A Kind power plant. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, D. C.; Boris, D. R.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.; Piefer, G. R.

    2013-03-01

    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage (˜100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

  11. Studies on the fusion peptide of a paramyxovirus fusion glycoprotein: roles of conserved residues in cell fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, C M; Lamb, R A

    1992-01-01

    The role of residues in the conserved hydrophobic N-terminal fusion peptide of the paramyxovirus fusion (F) protein in causing cell-cell fusion was examined. Mutations were introduced into the cDNA encoding the simian virus 5 (SV5) F protein, the altered F proteins were expressed by using an eukaryotic vector, and their ability to mediate syncytium formation was determined. The mutant F proteins contained both single- and multiple-amino-acid substitutions, and they exhibited a variety of intracellular transport properties and fusion phenotypes. The data indicate that many substitutions in the conserved amino acids of the simian virus 5 F fusion peptide can be tolerated without loss of biological activity. Mutant F proteins which were not transported to the cell surface did not cause cell-cell fusion, but all of the mutants which were transported to the cell surface were fusion competent, exhibiting fusion properties similar to or better than those of the wild-type F protein. Mutant F proteins containing glycine-to-alanine substitutions had altered intracellular transport characteristics, yet they exhibited a great increase in fusion activity. The potential structural implications of this substitution and the possible importance of these glycine residues in maintaining appropriate levels of fusion activity are discussed. Images PMID:1548771

  12. Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, D. C.; Boris, D. R.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.; Piefer, G. R.

    2013-03-15

    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage ({approx}100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

  13. A new Certified Reference Material for radionuclides in Irish sea sediment (IAEA-385).

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A; Povinec, P P; Andor, K; Arnold, D; Benmansour, M; Bikit, I; Carvalho, F P; Dimitrova, K; Edrev, Z H; Engeler, C; Fouche, F J; Garcia-Orellana, J; Gascó, C; Gastaud, J; Gudelis, A; Hancock, G; Holm, E; Legarda, F; Ikäheimonen, T K; Ilchmann, C; Jenkinson, A V; Kanisch, G; Kis-Benedek, G; Kleinschmidt, R; Koukouliou, V; Kuhar, B; Larosa, J; Lee, S-H; Lepetit, G; Levy-Palomo, I; Liong Wee Kwong, L; Llauradó, M; Maringer, F J; Meyer, M; Michalik, B; Michel, H; Nies, H; Nour, S; Oh, J-S; Oregioni, B; Palomares, J; Pantelic, G; Pfitzner, J; Pilvio, R; Puskeiler, L; Satake, H; Schikowski, J; Vitorovic, G; Woodhead, D; Wyse, E

    2008-11-01

    A new Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in sediment (IAEA-385) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. Eleven radionuclides ((40)K, (137)Cs, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (230)Th, (232)Th, (234)U, (238)U, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am) have been certified and information mass activities with 95% confidence intervals are given for seven other radionuclides ((90)Sr, (210)Pb((210)Po), (235)U, (239)Pu, (240)Pu and (241)Pu). Results for less frequently reported radionuclides ((60)Co, (99)Tc, (134)Cs, (155)Eu, (224)Ra and (239)Np) and information on some activity and mass ratios are also reported. The CRM can be used for quality assurance/quality control of the analysis of radionuclides in sediment samples, for the development and validation of analytical methods and for training purposes. PMID:18513984

  14. IAEA CRP on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis: Benchmark Definition and Test Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard Strydom; Frederik Reitsma; Hans Gougar; Bismark Tyobeka; Kostadin Ivanov

    2012-11-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity studies are essential elements of the reactor simulation code verification and validation process. Although several international uncertainty quantification activities have been launched in recent years in the LWR, BWR and VVER domains (e.g. the OECD/NEA BEMUSE program [1], from which the current OECD/NEA LWR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM) benchmark [2] effort was derived), the systematic propagation of uncertainties in cross-section, manufacturing and model parameters for High Temperature Reactor (HTGR) designs has not been attempted yet. This paper summarises the scope, objectives and exercise definitions of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on HTGR UAM [3]. Note that no results will be included here, as the HTGR UAM benchmark was only launched formally in April 2012, and the specification is currently still under development.

  15. Nuclear data for radiotherapy: Presentation of a new ICRU report and IAEA initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Jones, D.T.L.; Barschall, H.H.

    1998-09-01

    An ICRU report entitled ''Nuclear Data for neutron and Proton Radiotherapy and for Radiation Protection'' is in preparation. The present paper presents an overview of this report, along with examples of some of the results obtained for evaluated nuclear cross sections and kerma coefficients. These cross sections are evaluated using a combination of measured data and the GNASH nuclear model code for elements of importance for biological, dosimetric, beam modification and shielding purposes. In the case of hydrogen both R-matrix and phase-shift scattering theories are used. In the report neutron cross sections and kerma coefficients will be presented up to 100 MeV and proton cross sections up to 250 MeV. An IAEA Consultants' Meeting was also convened to examine the ''Status of Nuclear Data needed for Radiation Therapy and Existing Data Development Activities in Member States''. Recommendations were made regarding future endeavors.

  16. Activities of the IAEA in the area of radioactive waste management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremenkov, V. M.

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) organizational structure and activities in the field of predisposal radioactive waste managemen are described. The present activities undertaken by the Agency’s Waste Technology Section and Waste Safety Section are outlined, with the emphasis to the technical assistance to the Member States and the technology development for safe waste management practices. The three main types of documents produced by the Agency for disseminating safety requirements and rules and the technical information to the Member States are listed. The Agency’s involvement in organizing/sponsoring conferences, coordinating research programmes, providing assistance on technical projects and training of staff on waste management subjects is detailed.

  17. Using the IAEA Safety Culture Model as a Basis for Security Culture

    SciTech Connect

    De Castro, Kara; Thurmond, Paul; de Boer, Gloria; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2008-08-01

    In the last ten years, the practice of nuclear material physical protection control and accounting (MPC&A) in Russia has significantly changed. Under the cooperative US-Russian MPC&A Program, the MPC&A Culture Project team has developed the fundamentals of a pilot program to strengthen MPC&A Culture at nuclear sites. The pilot program is based on the IAEA Safety Culture Principles and Model Characteristics. There has been some debate on how easily these are transferable to Security Culture. While there may be operational differences, culture characteristics remain the same. This paper will compare and contrast the two cultures of Safety and Security, taking into consideration the unique characteristics of each discipline.

  18. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed.

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; Benmansour, M; Carvalho, F P; Chamizo, E; Degering, D; Engeler, C; Gascó, C; Gwynn, J P; Harms, A V; Hrnecek, E; Ibanez, F L; Ilchmann, C; Ikaheimonen, T; Kanisch, G; Kloster, M; Llaurado, M; Mauring, A; Møller, B; Morimoto, T; Nielsen, S P; Nies, H; Norrlid, L D R; Pettersson, H B L; Povinec, P P; Rieth, U; Samuelsson, C; Schikowski, J; Silobritiene, B V; Smedley, P A; Suplinska, M; Vartti, V-P; Vasileva, E; Wong, J; Zalewska, T; Zhou, W

    2014-05-01

    A Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) from the Baltic Sea (IAEA-446) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. The (40)K, (137)Cs, (234)U and (239+240)Pu radionuclides were certified for this material, and information values for 12 other radionuclides ((90)Sr, (99)Tc, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (230)Th, (232)Th, (235)U, (238)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu) are presented. The CRM can be used for Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analysis of radionuclides in seaweed and other biota samples, as well as for development and validation of analytical methods, and for training purposes. PMID:24291528

  19. IAEA INTERCOMPARISON EXERCISES OF THYROID MEASUREMENT: PERFORMANCE OF LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN LABORATORIES.

    PubMed

    Dantas, B M; Dantas, A L A; Cruz-Suarez, R

    2016-09-01

    (131)I is widely used in Latin America and Caribbean Region in the field of nuclear medicine and has been recognised as one of the main sources of potential intake of radionuclides by the staff. The In Vivo Monitoring laboratory of the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD-CNEN-Brazil) organised three intercomparison exercises (2005, 2009 and 2013) in the scope of IAEA technical cooperation projects RLA9049 and RLA9066 aimed to disseminate and harmonise the technique for measuring (131)I in the human thyroid. The number of participants in Latin America increased from 9 to 20 institutions from 7 and 13 countries, respectively, over the last 10 y. The participants have improved significantly their ability on the in vivo measurement technique. In the 2013 round all laboratories which reported results presented performances in an acceptable range according to the ISO criteria indicating the benefit of such exercises in the region. PMID:26546253

  20. Interpreting inertial fusion neutron spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, David H.

    2016-03-01

    A burning laser fusion plasma produces a neutron spectrum first described by Brysk (1973 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 15 611). This and more recent work deals with the spectrum produced by a single fluid element. The distribution of temperatures and velocities in multiple fluid elements combine in any real spectrum; we derive formulas for how the neutron spectrum averages these contributions. The single element momentum spectrum is accurately Gaussian, but the multi-element spectrum exhibits higher moments. In particular, the skew and kurtosis are likely to be large enough to measure. Even the single fluid element spectrum may exhibit measurable directional anisotropy, so that instruments with different lines of sight should see different yields, mean velocities, mean temperatures, and higher moments. Finally, we briefly discuss how scattering in the imploded core modifies the neutron spectrum by changing the relative weighting of fuel regions with different temperatures and velocities.