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Sample records for 18-month period results

  1. Obesity Reduction Black Intervention Trial (ORBIT): 18-Month Results

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Schiffer, Linda; Sharp, Lisa K.; Singh, Vicky; Dyer, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition that is prevalent in black women. The Obesity Reduction Black Intervention Trial (ORBIT) was a randomized controlled weight loss and weight loss maintenance trial. Participants (N = 213) were randomized to the intervention or control groups in August 2005 and September 2006. Follow-up data were collected 6 and 18 months after randomization. The main outcome was change in weight and body mass index from baseline to 18 months. The mean weight at baseline was 104.9 kg and the mean weight loss in the intervention group at 6 months was 3.0 kg and a gain of 0.2 kg in the control group (mean difference between groups in weight change at 6 months, adjusting for baseline weight and cohort, -3.27 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.50 to -2.05 kg; P < .001). Both groups gained weight between 6 and 18 months (mean 1.0 kg in the intervention group and 0.1 kg in the control group). However, intervention participants lost significantly more weight than control participants during the 18 month intervention (adjusted mean difference between groups at 18 months, -2.83 kg; 95% CI, -4.71 to -0.95; P = .003). At 18 months, intervention participants were more likely than control participants to have lost at least 5% of baseline weight (24% vs. 12%, P< .04). Our results indicate that the ORBIT program did promote weight loss and weight loss maintenance. However, the results also clearly illustrate there is more to learn about what will contribute to meaningful weight loss and maintenance in this population. PMID:20300081

  2. The Stockholm Diabetes Intervention Study (SDIS): 18 months' results.

    PubMed

    Reichard, P; Britz, A; Cars, I; Nilsson, B Y; Sobocinsky-Olsson, B; Rosenqvist, U

    1988-01-01

    Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), non-proliferative retinopathy and unsatisfactory blood glucose control were randomized to intensified conventional treatment (ICT, 48 patients) or regular treatment (RT, 54 patients) for a 5-year study. After 18 months the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was reduced in both groups, but significantly more in the ICT group (p = 0.00005). Thirty of the RT patients and 16 from the ICT group deteriorated as to retinopathy (p = 0.024). Microalbuminuria appeared more often in the RT patients (p = 0.023), and nerve conduction velocities were significantly reduced only in the RT group (p between 0.0005 and 0.047). Serious hypoglycemia was more common in the ICT patients (p = 0.003). The progression of diabetic late complications was thus slowed down by intensified treatment, but at the price of an increased frequency of serious hypoglycemia.

  3. A Pilot Clinical Trial of Creatine and Minocycline in Early Parkinson Disease: 18-Month Results

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report an 18-month follow-up on creatine and minocycline futility study, the Neuroprotective Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease, Futility Study 1 (NET-PD FS-1). Background The NET-PD FS-1 futility study on creatine and minocycline found neither agent futile in slowing down the progression of disability in Parkinson disease (PD) at 12 months using the prespecified futility threshold. An additional 6 months of follow-up aimed to assess safety and potential interactions of the study interventions with anti-parkinsonian therapy. Methods Additional 6 months of follow-up in randomized, blinded phase II trial of creatine (dosage, 10 g/d) and minocycline (dosage, 200 mg/d) in subjects with early PD. Results By 18 months, symptomatic treatment of PD symptoms was required in 61% of creatine, 62% of minocycline, and 60% of placebo-treated subjects. Study treatment was prematurely discontinued in 9%, 23%, and 6% of subjects in the creatine, minocycline, and placebo arms, respectively. Creatine and minocycline did not seem to adversely influence the response to symptomatic therapy nor increase adverse events. Conclusions Data from this small, 18-month phase II trial of creatine and minocycline do not demonstrate safety concerns that would preclude a large, phase III efficacy trial, although the decreased tolerability of minocycline is a concern. PMID:18520981

  4. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy in Substance Misusing Schizophrenia: Results of an 18-Month Feasibility Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Litschge, Maralee Y.; McKnight, Summer A. F.; Bangalore, Srihari S.; Pogue-Geile, Michael F.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Cornelius, Jack R.

    2014-01-01

    Substance use is a frequent problem in schizophrenia, and although many substance misusing patients with the disorder also experience considerable cognitive impairments, such individuals have been routinely excluded from clinical trials of cognitive remediation that could support their functional and addiction recovery. This study conducted a small-scale feasibility trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) in substance misusing schizophrenia patients to assess the feasibility and efficacy of implementing comprehensive neurocognitive and social-cognitive remediation in this population. A total of 31 schizophrenia outpatients meeting addiction severity criteria for alcohol and/or cannabis use were randomized to 18 months of CET or usual care. Feasibility findings indicated high degrees of satisfaction with CET, but also presented significant challenges in the recruitment and retention of substance misusing patients, with high levels of attrition (50%) over the study period, primarily due to positive symptom exacerbation. Intent-to-treat efficacy analyses showed large and significant improvements in neurocognition (d = .86), social cognition (d = 1.13), and social adjustment (d = .92) favoring CET. Further, individuals treated with CET were more likely to reduce alcohol use (67% vs. 25%) during treatment (p = .021). These results suggest that once engaged and stabilized, CET is a feasible and potentially effective treatment for cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia who misuse alcohol and/or cannabis. Substance misusing patients who are able to engage in treatment may be able to benefit from cognitive remediation, and the treatment of cognitive impairments may help improve substance use outcomes among this underserved population. PMID:25510926

  5. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy in substance misusing schizophrenia: results of an 18-month feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Eack, Shaun M; Hogarty, Susan S; Greenwald, Deborah P; Litschge, Maralee Y; McKnight, Summer A F; Bangalore, Srihari S; Pogue-Geile, Michael F; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Cornelius, Jack R

    2015-02-01

    Substance use is a frequent problem in schizophrenia, and although many substance misusing patients with the disorder also experience considerable cognitive impairments, such individuals have been routinely excluded from clinical trials of cognitive remediation that could support their functional and addiction recoveries. This study conducted a small-scale feasibility trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) in substance misusing schizophrenia patients to assess the feasibility and efficacy of implementing comprehensive neurocognitive and social-cognitive remediation in this population. A total of 31 schizophrenia outpatients meeting addiction severity criteria for alcohol and/or cannabis use were randomized to 18months of CET or usual care. Feasibility findings indicated high degrees of satisfaction with CET, but also presented significant challenges in the recruitment and retention of substance misusing patients, with high levels of attrition (50%) over the study period, primarily due to positive symptom exacerbation. Intent-to-treat efficacy analyses showed large and significant improvements in neurocognition (d=.86), social cognition (d=1.13), and social adjustment (d=.92) favoring CET. Further, individuals treated with CET were more likely to reduce alcohol use (67% in CET vs. 25% in usual care) during treatment (p=.021). These results suggest that once engaged and stabilized, CET is a feasible and potentially effective treatment for cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia who misuse alcohol and/or cannabis. Substance misusing patients who are able to engage in treatment may be able to benefit from cognitive remediation, and the treatment of cognitive impairments may help improve substance use outcomes among this underserved population.

  6. 49 CFR 385.333 - What happens at the end of the 18-month safety monitoring period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.333 What happens at the end of the 18-month safety monitoring period? (a) If a safety audit has been performed within... the same basis as any other carrier. (d) If a safety audit or compliance review has not been...

  7. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results of an 18-Month Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Bahorik, Amber L.; Litschge, Maralee Y.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with autism experience significant impairments in social and non-social information processing for which few treatments have been developed. This study conducted an 18-month uncontrolled trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET), a comprehensive cognitive rehabilitation intervention, in 14 verbal adults with autism spectrum disorder to…

  8. Developmental milestones record - 18 months

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 18 months; Normal childhood growth milestones - 18 months; Childhood growth milestones - 18 months ... PHYSICAL AND MOTOR SKILL MARKERS The typical 18-month-old: Has a closed soft spot on the ...

  9. Comparison of 18 months of longwave radiation results from Nimbus-7 and the ERBE NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. D.; Smith, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data from ERBE wide-field-of-view (WFOV) and scanning sensor are compared with Nimbus-7 WFOV results. Monthly averaged OLR data from the ERBE WFOV instruments aboard the NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 polar orbiting satellites during the 3-year overlap period with Nimbus-7 are deconvolved using spherical harmonics. Results of a comparison of the data sets are presented on regional, zonal, and global scales in the spatial domain and on a monthly scale in the time domain.

  10. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy and Externalizing Behavior in 18-Month-Old Children: Results from a Population-Based Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Borge, Anne I. H.; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of the data on 22,545 smoking mothers and their 18-month-old children finds that maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk for externalizing behavior problem at the age of 18-months. The child's gender is found to have no moderating effects on the findings.

  11. Effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve child feeding practices and growth in rural China: updated results at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxu; Shi, Ling; Chen, Da-Fang; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate complementary feeding practices have led to, in part, significant disparities in growth and nutritional status between rural and urban children in China. A cluster-randomised, controlled trial was implemented in Laishui, China to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on caregivers' feeding practices and children's growth. Eight townships were randomly assigned to the intervention or control. Five hundred ninety-nine healthy infants were enrolled at 2-4 months old, and were followed up at ages 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. The intervention group received information on enhanced home-prepared recipes and food preparation and hygiene through group training, counselling and home visit. Key outcomes were children's physical growth, caregivers' knowledge and behaviours on complementary feeding, and the infant and child feeding index (ICFI). Analysis was by intention to treat. The intervention group achieved better knowledge and practices related to complementary feeding, and significantly higher ICFI scores at each follow-up point. Children in the intervention group achieved higher z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) than the control (0.18 vs. 0.01 and 0.49 vs. 0.19, respectively) at 18 months old, and were less likely to have stunted growth (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.53-0.94). Mixed model showed that the intervention group achieved significantly better linear growth over time, including WAZ (P = 0.016), WHZ (P = 0.030) and HAZ (P = 0.078). These results indicated that an educational intervention delivered through local health services can enhance caregivers' knowledge and practices of complementary feeding and ultimately improve children's growth.

  12. Assessing the Long-Term Effects of EMDR: Results from an 18-Month Follow-Up Study with Adult Female Survivors of CSA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmond, Tonya; Rubin, Allen

    2004-01-01

    This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence…

  13. 15-18 Months: Your Child's Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources & Services Parenting Resource 15–18 Months: Your Child’s Development Download Files Feb 10, 2016 Your toddler is ... Stages Back to top Explore more from Your Child's Development: Age-Based Tips From Birth to 36 Months ...

  14. Longitudinal Evaluation of Cognitive Functioning in Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes over 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Cato, M. Allison; Mauras, Nelly; Mazaika, Paul; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Aye, Tandy; Ambrosino, Jodie; Beck, Roy W.; Ruedy, Katrina J.; Reiss, Allan L.; Tansey, Michael; White, Neil H.; Hershey, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Objective Decrements in cognitive function may already be evident in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here we report prospectively acquired cognitive results over 18 months in a large cohort of young children with and without T1D. Methods 144 children with T1D (mean HbA1c: 7.9%) and 70 age-matched healthy controls (mean age both groups 8.5 years; median diabetes duration 3.9 yrs; mean age of onset 4.1 yrs) underwent neuropsychological testing at baseline and after 18-months of follow-up. We hypothesized that group differences observed at baseline would be more pronounced after 18 months, particularly in those T1D patients with greatest exposure to glycemic extremes. Results Cognitive domain scores did not differ between groups at the 18 month testing session and did not change differently between groups over the follow-up period. However, within the T1D group, a history of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was correlated with lower Verbal IQ and greater hyperglycemia exposure (HbA1c area under the curve) was inversely correlated to executive functions test performance. In addition, those with a history of both types of exposure performed most poorly on measures of executive function. Conclusions The subtle cognitive differences between T1D children and nondiabetic controls observed at baseline were not observed 18 months later. Within the T1D group, as at baseline, relationships between cognition (VIQ and executive functions) and glycemic variables (chronic hyperglycemia and DKA history) were evident. Continued longitudinal study of this T1D cohort and their carefully matched healthy comparison group is planned. PMID:26786245

  15. Lentiviral-mediated gene therapy results in sustained expression of β-glucuronidase for up to 12 months in the gus(mps/mps) and up to 18 months in the gus(tm(L175F)Sly) mouse models of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII.

    PubMed

    Derrick-Roberts, Ainslie L K; Pyragius, Carmen E; Kaidonis, Xenia M; Jackson, Matilda R; Anson, Donald S; Byers, Sharon

    2014-09-01

    A number of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) mouse models with different levels of residual enzyme activity have been created replicating the range of clinical phenotypes observed in human MPS VII patients. In this study, a lentivirus encoding murine β-glucuronidase was administered intravenously at birth to both the severe (Gus(mps/mps) strain) and attenuated (Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) strain) mouse models of MPS VII. Circulating enzyme levels were normalized in the Gus(mps/mps) mice and were 3.5-fold higher than normal in the Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) mouse 12 and 18 months after administration. Tissue β-glucuronidase activity increased over untreated levels in all tissues evaluated in both strains at 12 months, and the elevated level was maintained in Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) tissues at 18 months. These elevated enzyme levels reduced glycosaminoglycan storage in the liver, spleen, kidney, and heart in both models. Bone mineral volume decreased toward normal in both models after 12 months of therapy and after 18 months in the Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) mouse. Open-field exploration was improved in 18-month-old treated Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) mice, while spatial learning improved in both 12- and 18-month-old treated Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) mice. Overall, neonatal administration of lentiviral gene therapy resulted in sustained enzyme expression for up to 18 months in murine models of MPS VII. Significant improvements in biochemistry and enzymology as well as functional improvement of bone and behavior deficits in the Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) model were observed. Therapy significantly increased the lifespan of Gus(mps/mps) mice, with 12 months being the longest reported lentiviral treatment for this strain. It is important to assess the long-term outcome on enzyme levels and effect on pathology for lentiviral gene therapy to be a potential therapy for MPS patients.

  16. Language abilities of 18-month-old Zulu speakers.

    PubMed

    Bortz, M A

    1992-01-01

    The receptive, expressive and pragmatic language abilities of 18-month-old Zulu speakers were assessed in order to obtain preliminary norms. Twenty-five participants of the Birth to Ten cohort study were investigated using parent reports, mother-child and tester-child interactions. Data was transcribed and analysed using nonparametric statistics. Results demonstrated that receptively subjects understood two-part instructions. Expressively, the mean lexicon was 4.12 words and mean length of utterance 0.65. Pragmatically, subjects were functioning on a nonverbal level and exhibited culture-specific items. The results provided information which could enable speech, language and hearing therapists to engage in primary and secondary prevention. An appropriate test battery for these children is discussed.

  17. Trajectories of problem video gaming among adult regular gamers: an 18-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    A three-wave, longitudinal study examined the long-term trajectory of problem gaming symptoms among adult regular video gamers. Potential changes in problem gaming status were assessed at two intervals using an online survey over an 18-month period. Participants (N=117) were recruited by an advertisement posted on the public forums of multiple Australian video game-related websites. Inclusion criteria were being of adult age and having a video gaming history of at least 1 hour of gaming every week over the past 3 months. Two groups of adult video gamers were identified: those players who did (N=37) and those who did not (N=80) identify as having a serious gaming problem at the initial survey intake. The results showed that regular gamers who self-identified as having a video gaming problem at baseline reported more severe problem gaming symptoms than normal gamers, at all time points. However, both groups experienced a significant decline in problem gaming symptoms over an 18-month period, controlling for age, video gaming activity, and psychopathological symptoms.

  18. Your Child's Development: 1.5 Years (18 Months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 1.5 Years (18 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > ... parts ("Where is your nose?") Movement and Physical Development runs walks up stairs with hand held throws ...

  19. Bilateral sacrospinous fixation without hysterectomy: 18-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Mehmet Baki; Güraslan, Hakan; Çakmak, Yusuf; Ekin, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of bilateral sacrospinous fixation (SSF), which was performed with surgical mesh interposition and bilateral vaginal repair. Material and Methods Twenty-two patients underwent SSF between 2010 and 2012, and the results were evaluated retrospectively. The results at preoperative and postoperative 6th, 12th, and 18th months of the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system (POP-Q) and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire-12 (PISQ-12) were compared using Friedman and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests. Values of p<0.05 and <0.01 were considered statistically significant. Results According to the POP-Q, significant healing was observed on all vaginal vault points (p=0.001), and no prolapse was observed until the 18-month follow-up stage. There were also prominent patients who felt satisfactory with respect to their sexual life according to PISQ-12 (p=0.001). Conclusion This technique appears to provide an adequate clinical resolution, and it may be the primary surgical option for women with pelvic organ prolapse. PMID:26097393

  20. Long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids associate with development of premature infants up to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Strandvik, Birgitta; Ntoumani, Eleni; Lundqvist-Persson, Cristina; Sabel, Karl-Göran

    2016-04-01

    Myelination is important perinatally and highly dependent on long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, nowadays often supplemented, inhibit oleic acid synthesis. Using data from a premature cohort, we studied if nervonic, lignoceric and oleic acids correlated to growth and early development up to 18 months corrected age. Small for gestational age infants had lower concentrations than infants appropriate for gestational age. Only oleic acid was negatively correlated to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Oleic and lignoceric acids correlated to social interaction at one month, and nervonic acid to mental, psychomotor and behavioral development at 6, 10 and 18 months, also when adjusted for several confounders. Negative association between oleic acid and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids suggests inhibition of delta-9 desaturase, and nervonic acid´s divergent correlation to lignoceric and oleic acids suggests different metabolism in neonatal period. Our results may have implications for the supplementation of premature infants.

  1. Risk Assessment of BRONJ in Oncologic Patients Treated with Bisphosphonates: Follow-Up to 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Vitali, Lucia; Nori, Alessandra; Berlin, Ricarda Sara; Mazur, Marta; Orsini, Giovanna; Putignano, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Bisphosphonates related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a pathological condition characterized by bone exposure or latent infection in patients treated with the drug. The aim of the study is to monitor the BRONJ level of risk health in patients with cancer, according to a preventive clinical protocol, which is firstly aimed at reducing risk factors such as the periodontal infections. Materials and Methods. 10 patients participated in the protocol and were evaluated at baseline and after 3 and 18 months of treatment with bisphosphonates, through full mouth plaque and bleeding scores (FMPS and FMBS), clinical attachment level (CAL) measurement, and the occurrence of osteonecrosis. Results. The mean plaque and bleeding were reduced and the CAL has not shown significant changes and in no cases was there manifestation of BRONJ. Conclusion. The protocol proved crucial for the maintenance of good oral health conditions by eliminating the risk of BRONJ during the observation period. PMID:25258628

  2. Development of Vocal Protests from 3 to 18 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xin; Green, James A.; Gustafson, Gwen E.

    2009-01-01

    Infants often protest the activities of their caregivers, and this particular social interaction may provide an important window on early communication and its development. This study used naturalistic methods to investigate the development of vocal protests. Fifteen mother-infant dyads at each of 5 ages, from 3 to 18 months, were observed at…

  3. Hubble Space Telescope. Update: 18 months in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In April 1990, Space Shuttle Discovery launched the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). An 18 month in-orbit update of the operations and performance of the HST is presented. Numerous color photographs are shown of objects already observed, and mission plans are presented for future observations by the HST.

  4. Identification of Hearing Loss after Age 18 Months Is Not Early Enough.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Apuzzo, Mah-rya L.

    1998-01-01

    This study compared the development (at 40 months) of 40 deaf and hard-of-hearing infants whose hearing loss was identified either before 6 months or after 18 months. Infants whose hearing loss was identified earlier scored significantly on tests of expressive language and comprehension/concepts. Results support early hearing screening for…

  5. Intervention outcomes among HIV-affected families over 18 months.

    PubMed

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rice, Eric; Comulada, W Scott; Best, Karin; Elia, Carla; Peters, Katherine; Li, Li; Green, Sara; Valladares, Ena

    2012-07-01

    We evaluate the efficacy of a family-based intervention over time among HIV-affected families. Mothers living with HIV (MLH; n = 339) in Los Angeles and their school-aged children were randomized to either an intervention or control condition and followed for 18 months. MLH and their children in the intervention received 16 cognitive-behavioral, small-group sessions designed to help them maintain physical and mental health, parent while ill, address HIV-related stressors, and reduce HIV-transmission behaviors. At recruitment, MLH reported few problem behaviors related to physical health, mental health, or sexual or drug transmission acts. Compared to MLH in the control condition, intervention MLH were significantly more likely to monitor their own CD4 cell counts and their children were more likely to decrease alcohol and drug use. Most MLH and their children had relatively healthy family relationships. Family-based HIV interventions should be limited to MLH who are experiencing substantial problems.

  6. Exposure to an organochlorine pesticide (chlordecone) and development of 18-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Olivier; Simard, Marie-Noëlle; Muckle, Gina; Rouget, Florence; Kadhel, Philippe; Bataille, Henri; Chajès, Véronique; Dallaire, Renée; Monfort, Christine; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Multigner, Luc; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2013-03-01

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide that was used in the French West Indies until the early 1990s for banana weevil borer control. Human exposure to this chemical in this area still occurs nowadays due to consumption of contaminated food. Although adverse effects on neurodevelopment, including tremors and memory deficits, have been documented in experimental studies conducted with rodents exposed during the gestational and neonatal periods, no study has been conducted yet to determine if chlordecone alters child development. This study examines the relation of gestational and postnatal exposure to chlordecone to infant development at 18 months of age in a birth-cohort of Guadeloupean children. In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in Guadeloupe (Timoun mother-child cohort study), exposure to chlordecone was measured at birth from an umbilical cord blood sample (n=141) and from a breast milk sample collected at 3 months postpartum (n=75). Toddlers were assessed using an adapted version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Higher chlordecone concentrations in cord blood were associated with poorer fine motor scores. When analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls, this effect was only observed among boys. These results suggest that prenatal exposure to chlordecone is associated with specific impairments in fine motor function in boys, and add to the growing evidence that exposure to organochlorine pesticides early in life impairs child development.

  7. An Experimental Trial of Adaptive Programming in Drug Court: Outcomes at 6, 12 and 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Benasutti, Kathleen M.; Fox, Gloria; Harron, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Test whether an adaptive program improves outcomes in drug court by adjusting the schedule of court hearings and clinical case-management sessions pursuant to a priori performance criteria. Methods Consenting participants in a misdemeanor drug court were randomly assigned to the adaptive program (n = 62) or to a baseline-matching condition (n = 63) in which they attended court hearings based on the results of a criminal risk assessment. Outcome measures were re-arrest rates at 18 months post-entry to the drug court and urine drug test results and structured interview results at 6 and 12 months post-entry. Results Although previously published analyses revealed significantly fewer positive drug tests for participants in the adaptive condition during the first 18 weeks of drug court, current analyses indicate the effects converged during the ensuing year. Between-group differences in new arrest rates, urine drug test results and self-reported psychosocial problems were small and non-statistically significant at 6, 12 and 18 months post-entry. A non-significant trend (p = .10) suggests there may have been a small residual impact (Cramer's ν = .15) on new misdemeanor arrests after 18 months. Conclusions Adaptive programming shows promise for enhancing short-term outcomes in drug courts; however, additional efforts are needed to extend the effects beyond the first 4 to 6 months of enrollment. PMID:25346652

  8. Learning to count begins in infancy: evidence from 18 month olds' visual preferences.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Virginia; Itakura, Shoji; Kutsuki, Aya; Siegal, Michael

    2011-10-07

    We used a preferential looking paradigm to evaluate infants' preferences for correct versus incorrect counting. Infants viewed a video depicting six fish. In the correct counting sequence, a hand pointed to each fish in turn, accompanied by verbal counting up to six. In the incorrect counting sequence, the hand moved between two of the six fish while there was still verbal counting to six, thereby violating the one-to-one correspondence principle of correct counting. Experiment 1 showed that Australian 18 month olds, but not 15 month olds, significantly preferred to watch the correct counting sequence. In experiment 2, Australian infants' preference for correct counting disappeared when the count words were replaced by beeps or by Japanese count words. In experiment 3, Japanese 18 month olds significantly preferred the correct counting video only when counting was in Japanese. These results show that infants start to acquire the abstract principles governing correct counting prior to producing any counting behaviour.

  9. The impact of paraprofessional home visitors on infants' growth and health at 18 months.

    PubMed

    le Roux, Ingrid M; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Stein, Judith; Tomlinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Paraprofessional home visitors trained to improve multiple outcomes (HIV, alcohol, infant health, and malnutrition) have been shown to benefit mothers and children over 18 months in a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT). These longitudinal analyses examine the mechanisms which influence child outcomes at 18 months post-birth in Cape Town, South Africa. The results were evaluated using structural equation modelling, specifically examining the mediating effects of prior maternal behaviours and a home visiting intervention post-birth. Twelve matched pairs of neighbourhoods were randomised within pairs to: 1) the control condition, receiving comprehensive healthcare at community primary health care clinics (n=12 neighbourhoods; n=594 pregnant women), or 2) the Philani Intervention Program, which provided home visits by trained, paraprofessional community health workers, here called Mentor Mothers, in addition to clinic care (n=12 neighbourhoods; n=644 pregnant women). Recruitment of all pregnant neighbourhood women was high (98%) with 88% reassessed at six months and 84% at 18 months. Infants' growth and diarrhoea episodes were examined at 18 months in response to the intervention condition, breastfeeding, alcohol use, social support, and low birth weight, controlling for HIV status and previous history of risk. We found that randomisation to the intervention was associated with a significantly lower number of recent diarrhoea episodes and increased rates and duration of breastfeeding. Across both the intervention and control conditions, mothers who used alcohol during pregnancy and had low birth weight infants were significantly less likely to have infants with normal growth patterns, whereas social support was associated with better growth. HIV-infection was significantly associated with poor growth and less breastfeeding. Women with more risk factors had significantly smaller social support networks. The relationships among initial and sustained maternal risk

  10. Executive functions in preschool children with ADHD and DBD: an 18-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Deković, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the stability of the association between executive functions and externalizing behavior problems, and the developmental change of executive functions in a predominately clinically diagnosed preschool sample (N = 200). Inhibition and working memory performance were assessed three times in 18 months. Across time, poorer inhibition performance in young children was associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), and poorer working memory performance was associated with ADHD. Inhibition and working memory performance increased over time, especially in the early preschool period. The improvement of inhibition performance was more pronounced in the clinically diagnosed children compared to the TD children.

  11. Emotion labeling and socio-emotional outcomes 18 months after early childhood traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Tlustos, Sarah J; Chiu, C-Y Peter; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Wade, Shari L

    2011-11-01

    A growing body of literature has documented evidence for emotion labeling (EL) deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, long-term effects of TBI on EL abilities, particularly among young children, are unclear. We investigated EL abilities and socio-emotional outcomes in 32 children with moderate-severe TBI, 23 with complicated-mild TBI, and 82 children with orthopedic injuries (OI), shortly after injury and at 18 months post-injury. All children were between 3:0 and 6:11 years of age at the time of injury. Repeated measures analyses indicated that all groups showed improved EL performance between acute and 18-month assessments, but that the moderate-severe TBI group improved at a slower rate than the OI group, so that the two groups showed significantly different performance at 18 months. Emotion labeling ability did not significantly contribute to the prediction of socio-emotional outcomes after controlling for pre-injury functioning. These results provide preliminary evidence of emerging EL deficits after early childhood TBI that are related to injury severity but that do not predict social and behavioral outcomes.

  12. Pre-linguistic Vocal Trajectories at 6–18 Months of Age As Early Markers of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Chericoni, Natasha; de Brito Wanderley, Daniele; Costanzo, Valeria; Diniz-Gonçalves, Andréa; Leitgel Gille, Marluce; Parlato, Erika; Cohen, David; Apicella, Fabio; Calderoni, Sara; Muratori, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    This study explores pre-linguistic vocal trajectories in infants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during caregiver-infant interaction. Home videos were obtained from 10 infants with ASD and 10 typically developing infants (TD), covering three time periods: 0–6 months (T1, 47 video sequences), 6–12 months (T2, 47 video sequences), and 12–18 months (T3, 48 video sequences). In total 142 video sequences were analyzed. Vocalizations, long reduplicated babbling, 2-syllable babbling, and first words were investigated longitudinally. Face-gazing was also analyzed, to evaluate the social quality of vocal behaviors. Results show a lower rate of vocalizations in the ASD group at T2, and a lower rate of first words at T3, compared to the TD group. However, the prevalence of non-social babbling, appeared higher in the ASD group. The implications of these findings for screening programs are discussed. PMID:27807424

  13. Development of allocentric spatial memory abilities in children from 18 months to 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabès, Adeline; Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a fundamental component of episodic memory, in two versions of a real-world memory task requiring 18 month- to 5-year-old children to search for rewards hidden beneath cups distributed in an open-field arena. Whereas children 25-42-months-old were not capable of discriminating three reward locations among 18 possible locations in absence of local cues marking these locations, children older than 43 months found the reward locations reliably. These results support previous findings suggesting that allocentric spatial memory, if present, is only rudimentary in children under 3.5 years of age. However, when tested with only one reward location among four possible locations, children 25-39-months-old found the reward reliably in absence of local cues, whereas 18-23-month-olds did not. Our findings thus show that the ability to form a basic allocentric representation of the environment is present by 2 years of age, and its emergence coincides temporally with the offset of infantile amnesia. However, the ability of children to distinguish and remember closely related spatial locations improves from 2 to 3.5 years of age, a developmental period marked by persistent deficits in long-term episodic memory known as childhood amnesia. These findings support the hypothesis that the differential maturation of distinct hippocampal circuits contributes to the emergence of specific memory processes during early childhood.

  14. Implicit meaning in 18-month-old toddlers.

    PubMed

    Delle Luche, Claire; Durrant, Samantha; Floccia, Caroline; Plunkett, Kim

    2014-11-01

    A substantial body of evidence demonstrates that infants understand the meaning of spoken words from as early as 6 months. Yet little is known about their ability to do so in the absence of any visual referent, which would offer diagnostic evidence for an adult-like, symbolic interpretation of words and their use in language mediated thought. We used the head-turn preference procedure to examine whether infants can generate implicit meanings from word forms alone as early as 18 months of age, and whether they are sensitive to meaningful relationships between words. In one condition, toddlers were presented with lists of words taken from the same taxonomic category (e.g. animals or body parts). In a second condition, words taken from two other categories (e.g. clothes and food items) were interleaved within the same list. Listening times were found to be longer in the related-category condition than in the mixed-category condition, suggesting that infants extract the meaning of spoken words and are sensitive to the semantic relatedness between these words. Our results show that infants have begun to construct the rudiments of a semantic system based on taxonomic relations even before they enter a period of accelerated vocabulary growth.

  15. When a year takes 18 months: evidence for a strong circannual clock in a shorebird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piersma, Theunis

    2002-04-01

    During the last three of 20 years kept as a pet, a red knot (Calidris canutus) went through two complete 'circannual' cycles of body mass and plumage. With a record cycle length of 18 months, this individual shorebird provides evidence for an exceptionally strong circannual clock system. The absence of synchronisation to outdoor but visible periodic cues suggests that the constant, socially-induced, day-night environment was of overriding importance. So far, only for songbirds is there firm experimental evidence that annual cycles are orchestrated by an endogenous circannual clock system. In constant environments the circannual cycles of these passerines tend to have periods that are shorter, rather than longer, than a year.

  16. Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Offspring Development at 18 Months: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stinger, Amanda; DiGirolamo, Ann M.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Neufeld, Lynnette M.; Rivera, Juan A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Stein, Aryeh D.; Wang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effects of prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on offspring development at 18 months of age. Design Randomized placebo double-blind controlled trial. Settings Cuernavaca, Mexico. Participants and Methods We followed up offspring (n = 730; 75% of the birth cohort) of women in Mexico who participated in a trial of DHA supplementation during the latter half of pregnancy. We assessed the effect of the intervention on child development and the potential modifying effects of gravidity, gender, SES, and quality of the home environment. Interventions or Main Exposures 400 mg/day of algal DHA. Outcome Measures Child development at 18 months of age measured using the Spanish version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. We calculated standardized psychomotor and mental development indices, and behavior rating scale scores. Results Intent-to-treat differences (DHA-control) were: Psychomotor Developmental Index -0.90 (95% CI: -2.35, 0.56), Mental Developmental Index -0.26 (95% CI: -1.63, 1.10) and Behavior Rating Scale -0.01 (95% CI: -0.95, 0.94). Prenatal DHA intake attenuated the positive association between home environment and psychomotor development index observed in the control group (p for interaction = 0.03) suggesting potential benefits for children living in home environments characterized by reduced caregiver interactions and opportunities for early childhood stimulation. Conclusions Prenatal DHA supplementation in a population with low intakes of DHA had no effects on offspring development at 18 months of age although there may be some benefit for infants from poor quality home environments. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00646360 PMID:26262896

  17. Association between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and children's social cognition at 18 months.

    PubMed

    Wade, M; Hoffmann, T J; Wigg, K; Jenkins, J M

    2014-09-01

    At 18 months, children engage in a variety of social behaviors that reflect their nascent ability to understand the intentions of other people (e.g. joint attention, empathy, cooperation and self-recognition). Although numerous contextual factors have been shown to predict social cognition in young children, the genetic underpinnings of social-cognitive traits has been understudied in this age group. Owing to the known effects of oxytocin on adult social cognition and psychopathology, this study hypothesized that variability in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) would be associated with social cognition in children at 18 months. Participants consisted of 350 children (182 males; 168 females) who were part of an ongoing longitudinal study that aimed to assess environmental and genetic contributions to children's cognitive and socio-emotional functioning. At 18 months, social cognition was measured using previously validated and developmentally sensitive tasks assessing children's joint attention, empathy, cooperation and self-recognition. Five potentially functional OXTR variants were genotyped: rs1042778, rs2254298, rs11131149, rs237897 and rs237899. A family-based association design was used to control for population admixture and stratification, and additional non-genomic covariates were controlled. Results showed that variability in rs11131149 was significantly associated with social cognition (P=0.009), with more copies of the major allele related to higher social cognition, and more copies of the minor (risk) allele associated with lower social cognition. A haplotype consisting of rs11131149-rs2254298 was also associated with social cognition (P=0.020). Implications for normative and pathological development are discussed, and key areas for future research are proposed.

  18. Maternal Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides during Pregnancy and Infant Development at 18 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Hisada, Aya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Kato, Takahiko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Ariki, Nagako; Komine, Yoko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Noda, Yumiko; Kato, Nobumasa

    2017-01-08

    The possible association between maternal exposure to pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) during pregnancy and infant development was explored. Levels of exposure to PYRs was assessed by metabolite (3-phenoybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) concentration in maternal spot urine sampled in the first trimester of index pregnancy, and infant development was assessed at 18 months of age using the Kinder Infants Development Scale (KIDS), which is based on a questionnaire to the caretaker. The relationship between KIDS score and maternal urinary 3-PBA levels was examined by a stepwise multiple regression analysis using biological attributes of the mother and infant, breast feeding, and nursing environment as covariates. The analysis extracted 3-PBA and the nursing environment as significant to explain the KIDS score at 18 months of age with positive partial regression coefficients. Inclusion of fish consumption frequency of the mother during pregnancy as an independent variable resulted in the selection of fish consumption as significant, while the two variables were marginally insignificant but still with a positive coefficient with the KIDS score. The result suggested a positive effect of maternal PYR exposure on infant development, the reason for which is not clear, but an unknown confounding factor is suspected.

  19. Maternal Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides during Pregnancy and Infant Development at 18 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hisada, Aya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Katoh, Takahiko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Ariki, Nagako; Komine, Yoko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Noda, Yumiko; Kato, Nobumasa

    2017-01-01

    The possible association between maternal exposure to pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) during pregnancy and infant development was explored. Levels of exposure to PYRs was assessed by metabolite (3-phenoybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) concentration in maternal spot urine sampled in the first trimester of index pregnancy, and infant development was assessed at 18 months of age using the Kinder Infants Development Scale (KIDS), which is based on a questionnaire to the caretaker. The relationship between KIDS score and maternal urinary 3-PBA levels was examined by a stepwise multiple regression analysis using biological attributes of the mother and infant, breast feeding, and nursing environment as covariates. The analysis extracted 3-PBA and the nursing environment as significant to explain the KIDS score at 18 months of age with positive partial regression coefficients. Inclusion of fish consumption frequency of the mother during pregnancy as an independent variable resulted in the selection of fish consumption as significant, while the two variables were marginally insignificant but still with a positive coefficient with the KIDS score. The result suggested a positive effect of maternal PYR exposure on infant development, the reason for which is not clear, but an unknown confounding factor is suspected. PMID:28075338

  20. Attributing false beliefs about non-obvious properties at 18 months

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Rose M.; Baillargeon, Renée; Song, Hyun-joo; Leslie, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    Reports that infants in the second year of life can attribute false beliefs to others have all used a search paradigm in which an agent with a false belief about an object’s location searches for the object. The present research asked whether 18-month-olds would still demonstrate false-belief understanding when tested with a novel non-search paradigm. An experimenter shook an object, demonstrating that it rattled, and then asked an agent, “Can you do it?” In response to this prompt, the agent selected one of two test objects. Infants realized that the agent could be led through inference (Experiment 1) or memory (Experiment 2) to hold a false belief about which of the two test objects rattled. These results suggest that 18-month-olds can attribute false beliefs about non-obvious properties to others, and can do so in a non-search paradigm. These and additional results (Experiment 3) help address several alternative interpretations of false-belief findings with infants. PMID:21047625

  1. [An 18 month evaluation of MM-MTA pulpotomy on primary decayed molars].

    PubMed

    Abou Chedid, J C; Mchayleh, N; Khalil, I; Melki, B; Hardan, L S

    2015-12-01

    Pulpotomy is the most performed and controversial therapeutic in pediatric dentistry. Formocresol is known to have a toxic effect on living tissues, a mutagenic and carcinogenic potential with a systemic uptake of formocresol via pulpotomized teeth, other alternative products have been investigated. 40 molars were pulpotomized using Micro Mega Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MM-MTA), which eliminates the need for the use of formocresol. The effects of this material were evaluated both clinically and radiographically. Post-operative control examinations were performed at 1, 6, 12, and 18 months trying to detect spontaneous or stimulated pain, pathological tooth mobility, abscesses or fistulas, internal or external pathological tooth resorption, periapical bone destruction, or canal obliteration. Pain was absent at 18 months post operatively. Thirty six molar treated with the MM-MTA didn't show any mobility or pain, one molar presented a pathological resorption and one molar presented an abscess without a fistula at 12 month. The observations were compared to others related to formocresol, ferric sulfate, MTA, and laser pulpotomies, using the Chi-square test x2. The abundance of positive result strongly demonstrate that the MM-MTA pulpotomy on carious temporary molars is a promising technique.

  2. Prime time: 18-month violence outcomes of a clinic-linked intervention.

    PubMed

    Sieving, Renee E; McMorris, Barbara J; Secor-Turner, Molly; Garwick, Ann W; Shlafer, Rebecca; Beckman, Kara J; Pettingell, Sandra L; Oliphant, Jennifer A; Seppelt, Ann M

    2014-08-01

    Prime Time, a youth development intervention, aims to reduce multiple risk behaviors among adolescent girls seeking clinic services who are at high risk for pregnancy. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether Prime Time involvement produced changes in relational aggression, physical violence, and related psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Qualitative case exemplars illustrated social contexts of intervention participants with differing longitudinal patterns of relational aggression and physical violence. Data were from a randomized efficacy trial with 13-17 year-old girls (n = 253) meeting specified risk criteria. Intervention participants were involved in Prime Time and usual clinic services for 18 months, control participants received usual clinic services. Participants in the current study completed self-report surveys at baseline and 18 months following enrollment. Outcomes analyses revealed significantly lower levels of relational aggression perpetration in the intervention group versus controls. In contrast, Prime Time involvement did not result in significant reductions in physical violence. Exploratory dose-response analyses indicated that reductions in relational aggression may have been most pronounced among girls actively involved in Prime Time case management and peer leadership activities. Qualitative findings suggested that the intervention's emphasis on modeling and building supportive relationships contributed to reductions in relational aggression. This study contributes to what has been a very limited evidence base regarding effective approaches to preventing violence among high-risk adolescent girls. Findings suggest that offering youth development interventions through clinic settings hold promise in reducing violence risk among vulnerable youth.

  3. Creatin-kinase elevation after accidental ingestion of almotriptan in an 18-month-old girl.

    PubMed

    Castagno, E; Lupica, M; Viola, S; Savino, F; Miniero, R

    2014-02-01

    Few studies have been published to demonstrate tolerability and efficacy of almotriptan in adolescents and children with migraine, particularly in the first years of life, though preliminary results are favorable. We report the case of an 18-month-old infant with elevation of serum levels of creatin-kinase after the accidental ingestion of almotriptan. A previously healthy 18-month-old girl (weight: 13 kg) was admitted to our Department four hours after the accidental ingestion of 6.25 mg of almotriptan (0.48 mg/kg), without any specific symptom. The performed investigations showed high serum levels of creatin-kinase (CK) (527 IU/L; normal values: 24-170 IU/L). Transaminase, creatinine, aldolase, myoglobin and troponin T serum levels were normal. The electrocardiogram proved negative. Initial management consisted of parenteral rehydration with saline solution. CK levels lowered significantly at 12 hours (455 IU/L) and at 65 hours (188 IU/L) after the ingestion. No symptoms were observed before discharge and on follow-up.

  4. Phonological Specificity of Vowel Contrasts at 18-Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mani, Nivedita; Coleman, John; Plunkett, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that English infants are sensitive to mispronunciations of vowels in familiar words by as early as 15-months of age. These results suggest that not only are infants sensitive to large mispronunciations of the vowels in words, but also sensitive to smaller mispronunciations, involving changes to only one dimension of the…

  5. Evaluation of different treatment protocols for dentin hypersensitivity: an 18-month randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Anely Oliveira; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Aranha, Ana Cecília Correa

    2017-04-08

    This randomized and longitudinal in vivo study aimed to assess different protocols for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity with low-power laser (with different doses), high-power laser, and a desensitizing agent, for a period of 12 and 18 months. The lesions from 32 patients (117 lesions), who were submitted to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, were divided into nine groups (n = 13): G1: Gluma Desensitizer (Heraeus Kulzer), G2: low-power laser with low dose (three points of irradiation in vestibular portion and an apical point 30 mW, 10 J/cm(2), 9 s per point with the wavelength of 810 nm, with three sessions with an interval of 72 h), G3: low-power laser with high dose (one point in the cervical area, and one apical point 100 mW, 40 J/cm(2), 11 s per point with the wavelength of 810 nm in three sessions with an interval of 72 h), G4: low-power laser with low dose + Gluma Desensitizer, G5: low-power laser with high dose + Gluma Desensitizer, G6: Nd:YAG laser (Power Laser™ ST6, Research® in contact 1.0 W, 10 Hz and 100 mJ, ≈85 J/cm(2), with the wavelength of 1064 nm), G7: Nd:YAG laser + Gluma Desensitizer, G8: low-power laser with low dose + Nd:YAG laser, and G9: low-power laser with high dose + Nd:YAG laser. The level of sensitivity of each volunteer was assessed by visual analog scale of pain (VAS) with the aid of air from the triple syringe and exploration probe, 12 and 18 months after treatment. All analyses were performed separately for air and probe stimulus. The level of significance was considered for values of p < 0.05. After statistical analysis, all treatments were shown to be effective in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity, and the results were considered not statistically different from those at 12 months. Therefore, until the 18-month evaluation, it could be said that no statistical differences were observed in the sensitivity levels for all treatments.

  6. Clinical Assessment of Autism in High-Risk 18-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, J.; Bryson, S. E.; Garon, N.; Roberts, W.; Smith, I. M.; Szatmari, P.; Zwaigenbaum, L.

    2008-01-01

    Earlier intervention improves outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but existing identification tools are at the limits of standardization with 18-month-olds. We assessed potential behavioural markers of ASD at 18 months in a high-risk cohort of infant siblings of children with ASD. Prospective data were collected using the…

  7. 7 CFR 319.8-21 - Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage... Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-21 Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage. Cotton and covers, the entry of which has been authorized subject to vacuum fumigation or...

  8. 7 CFR 319.8-21 - Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage... Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-21 Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage. Cotton and covers, the entry of which has been authorized subject to vacuum fumigation or...

  9. 7 CFR 319.8-21 - Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage... Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-21 Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage. Cotton and covers, the entry of which has been authorized subject to vacuum fumigation or...

  10. 7 CFR 319.8-21 - Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage... Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-21 Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage. Cotton and covers, the entry of which has been authorized subject to vacuum fumigation or...

  11. 7 CFR 319.8-21 - Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage... Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-21 Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage. Cotton and covers, the entry of which has been authorized subject to vacuum fumigation or...

  12. Scheduling periodic jobs using imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jen-Yao; Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1987-01-01

    One approach to avoid timing faults in hard, real-time systems is to make available intermediate, imprecise results produced by real-time processes. When a result of the desired quality cannot be produced in time, an imprecise result of acceptable quality produced before the deadline can be used. The problem of scheduling periodic jobs to meet deadlines on a system that provides the necessary programming language primitives and run-time support for processes to return imprecise results is discussed. Since the scheduler may choose to terminate a task before it is completed, causing it to produce an acceptable but imprecise result, the amount of processor time assigned to any task in a valid schedule can be less than the amount of time required to complete the task. A meaningful formulation of the scheduling problem must take into account the overall quality of the results. Depending on the different types of undesirable effects caused by errors, jobs are classified as type N or type C. For type N jobs, the effects of errors in results produced in different periods are not cumulative. A reasonable performance measure is the average error over all jobs. Three heuristic algorithms that lead to feasible schedules with small average errors are described. For type C jobs, the undesirable effects of errors produced in different periods are cumulative. Schedulability criteria of type C jobs are discussed.

  13. Changes in the Optical Properties of Materials Are Observed After 18 Months in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    1999-01-01

    Materials located on the exterior of spacecraft in low Earth orbit are subjected to a number of environmental threats, including atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeroid and debris impact. Atomic oxygen attacks materials vulnerable to oxidation. Ultraviolet radiation can break chemical bonds and cause undesirable changes in optical properties. Thermal cycling can cause cracking, and micrometeroid and debris impacts can damage protective coatings. Another threat is contamination. The outgassing of volatile chemicals can contaminate nearby surfaces, changing their thermal control properties. Contaminated surfaces may undergo further change as a result of atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation exposure. The Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA) experiment was designed as a risk mitigation experiment for the International Space Station. Samples were characterized before launch, exposed for 18 months on the exterior of Mir, and characterized upon their return. Lessons learned from POSA about the durability of material properties can be applied to the space station and other long-duration missions.

  14. Factors predicting sensory profile of 4 to 18 month old infants

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Carina; Caçola, Priscila; Carvalhal, Maria Isabel Martins Mourão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify environment factors predicting sensory profile of infants between 4 and 18 months old. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated 97 infants (40 females e 57 males), with a mean age of 1.05±0.32 years with the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants (TSFI) and also asked 97 parents and 11 kindergarten teachers of seven daycare centers to answer the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS). The AHEMD-IS is a questionnaire that characterizes the opportunities in the home environment for infants between 3 and 18 months of age. We tested the association between affordances and the sensory profile of infants. Significant variables were entered into a regression model to determine predictors of sensory profile. RESULTS: The majority of infants (66%) had a normal sensory profile and 34% were at risk or deficit. Affordances in the home were classified as adequate and they were good in the studied daycare centers. The results of the regression revealed that only daily hours in daycare center and daycare outside space influenced the sensory profile of infants, in particular the Ocular-Motor Control component. CONCLUSIONS: The sensory profile of infants was between normal and at risk. While the family home offered adequate affordances for motor development, the daycare centers of the infants involved demonstrated a good quantity and quality of affordances. Overall, we conclude that daily hours in the daycare center and daycare outside space were predictors of the sensory profile, particular on Ocular-Motor Control component. PMID:25887929

  15. Language development at 18 months is related to multimodal communicative strategies at 12 months.

    PubMed

    Igualada, Alfonso; Bosch, Laura; Prieto, Pilar

    2015-05-01

    The present study investigated the degree to which an infants' use of simultaneous gesture-speech combinations during controlled social interactions predicts later language development. Nineteen infants participated in a declarative pointing task involving three different social conditions: two experimental conditions (a) available, when the adult was visually attending to the infant but did not attend to the object of reference jointly with the child, and (b) unavailable, when the adult was not visually attending to neither the infant nor the object; and (c) a baseline condition, when the adult jointly engaged with the infant's object of reference. At 12 months of age measures related to infants' speech-only productions, pointing-only gestures, and simultaneous pointing-speech combinations were obtained in each of the three social conditions. Each child's lexical and grammatical output was assessed at 18 months of age through parental report. Results revealed a significant interaction between social condition and type of communicative production. Specifically, only simultaneous pointing-speech combinations increased in frequency during the available condition compared to baseline, while no differences were found for speech-only and pointing-only productions. Moreover, simultaneous pointing-speech combinations in the available condition at 12 months positively correlated with lexical and grammatical development at 18 months of age. The ability to selectively use this multimodal communicative strategy to engage the adult in joint attention by drawing his attention toward an unseen event or object reveals 12-month-olds' clear understanding of referential cues that are relevant for language development. This strategy to successfully initiate and maintain joint attention is related to language development as it increases learning opportunities from social interactions.

  16. Scheduling periodic jobs that allow imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jen-Yao; Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1990-01-01

    The problem of scheduling periodic jobs in hard real-time systems that support imprecise computations is discussed. Two workload models of imprecise computations are presented. These models differ from traditional models in that a task may be terminated any time after it has produced an acceptable result. Each task is logically decomposed into a mandatory part followed by an optional part. In a feasible schedule, the mandatory part of every task is completed before the deadline of the task. The optional part refines the result produced by the mandatory part to reduce the error in the result. Applications are classified as type N and type C, according to undesirable effects of errors. The two workload models characterize the two types of applications. The optional parts of the tasks in an N job need not ever be completed. The resulting quality of each type-N job is measured in terms of the average error in the results over several consecutive periods. A class of preemptive, priority-driven algorithms that leads to feasible schedules with small average error is described and evaluated.

  17. Cranial ultrasound abnormalities in full term infants in a postnatal ward: outcome at 12 and 18 months

    PubMed Central

    Haataja, L.; Mercuri, E.; Cowan, F.; Dubowitz, L.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate whether cranial ultrasound abnormalities found in low risk full term infants had any influence on neurodevelopmental outcome.
METHODS—For 103 infants who had a neurological assessment, a cranial ultrasound examination, and for whom antenatal and perinatal data were collected within 48 hours of delivery, neurodevelopmental status was evaluated at 12 and 18 months. The results of a scored neurological examination and the Griffiths mental developmental scale were correlated with the presence and type of ultrasound abnormality found in the neonatal period.
RESULTS—None of the infants with ultrasound abnormalities showed any signs of cerebral palsy or severe developmental delay. There was also no significant difference between the overall neurological and neurodevelopmental scores of the infants with normal and abnormal ultrasound findings. However, when the individual subscales of the Griffiths test were analysed, all infants with bulky choroid or intraventricular haemorrhage had normal scores in all subscales, four of eight with periventricular white matter lesions had low scores on the locomotor subscale, and three of five with asymmetrical ventricles had low scores on the performance subscale. The presence of adverse antenatal and perinatal factors did not affect the outcome in this group.
CONCLUSION—Incidental ultrasound abnormality in full term neonates, in particular intraventricular haemorrhage, although common, appear to have a good prognosis. Longer follow up studies are needed to see whether some of these infants, in particular those with white matter lesions, develop dyspraxia or other minor neurological impairments at school age.
 PMID:10685986

  18. High-risk HPV testing in women 30 years or older with negative Papanicolaou tests: initial clinical experience with 18-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Thrall, Michael J; Russell, Donna K; Facik, Michael S; Yao, Jorge L; Warner, JulieAnn N; Bonfiglio, Thomas A; Giampoli, Ellen J

    2010-06-01

    Cervical screening with combined cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) detection has been approved for women 30 years or older. We investigated the clinical use of cotesting for women with negative Papanicolaou tests. Follow-up cytology, HR-HPV test, and biopsy findings were identified during an 18-month period. In 1 year, 2,719 cotests from 2,686 women were identified; 146 were positive for HR-HPV. Among women with positive HR-HPV testing, 120 had follow-up, including 70 with repeated cotesting, and 3 had high-grade dysplasia identified (2.5% of women with follow-up). In 1,334 women with initial double-negative cotest results who had repeated cytologic testing within 18 months, 2 high-grade dysplasias were found (0.1%). The vast majority of cotest results are double-negative. Among tests that show HR-HPV positivity, the prevalence of underlying high-grade dysplasia is low. About half of all women who undergo cotesting receive follow-up that is not in accord with published guidelines.

  19. Fertility in dairy cows managed for calving intervals of 12, 15 or 18 months.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, D R; Berglund, B; Bertilsson, J; Forsberg, M; Gustafsson, H

    1998-01-01

    Effects on reproduction in a total of 135 dairy cows managed for calving intervals of 12, 15 or 18 months (72, 38 and 25 cows respectively) were studied. The cows were of the Swedish Red and White Breed (SRB) and the Swedish Freisian Breed (SLB) and were housed in 2 different herds with 3 different management systems (tied, loose, and tied but milked in a milking parlour; mixed). The cows in one of the herds (48 cows) were assigned for milking either 2 times or 3 times a day. When comparing conception rate at 1st insemination (AI) and the percentage of cows finally pregnant, we found no significant differences between the 3 calving interval groups, however, a tendency for a higher conception rate with a 15 months' interval compared with a 12 months' interval was found in one of the herds (50% vs 41.5%). The percentage of finally pregnant animals varied between 81% and 100%, but this variation was mainly attributed to the herd rather than calving interval group. A significantly higher percentage of cows was treated for anoestrous in the 12-month group than in the 15-month group in one of the herds (28.6% vs. 5.3%). The frequency of ovulations with external heat signs increased with ovulation number up to the 4th ovulation and thereafter remained stable. No significant difference was found in number of AIs required per conception with respect to calving intervals, breeds, or milking frequency groups. However, cows milked 3 times a day had a significantly longer interval from the 1st AI to conception compared with cows milked 2 times a day (45.8 days vs 17.6 days, p < .01). Cows kept loose exhibited 1st ovulatory oestrous, approximately 2 weeks earlier (55.9 days vs 69.7 days, p < .05) than their herd mates kept tied. In conclusion, our study shows that lengthening the calving interval to 15 or 18 months may have a positive influence on reproduction in terms of less need for treatments of ovarian disorders and higher conception rates. Our results also indicate that

  20. Upper Airway Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Durability of the Treatment Effect at 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Strollo, Patrick J.; Gillespie, M. Boyd; Soose, Ryan J.; Maurer, Joachim T.; de Vries, Nico; Cornelius, Jason; Hanson, Ronald D.; Padhya, Tapan A.; Steward, David L.; Woodson, B. Tucker; Verbraecken, Johan; Vanderveken, Olivier M.; Goetting, Mark G.; Feldman, Neil; Chabolle, Frédéric; Badr, M. Safwan; Randerath, Winfried; Strohl, Kingman P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the stability of improvement in polysomnographic measures of sleep disordered breathing, patient reported outcomes, the durability of hypoglossal nerve recruitment and safety at 18 months in the Stimulation Treatment for Apnea Reduction (STAR) trial participants. Design: Prospective multicenter single group trial with participants serving as their own controls. Setting: Twenty-two community and academic sleep medicine and otolaryngology practices. Measurements: Primary outcome measures were the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the 4% oxygen desaturation index (ODI). Secondary outcome measures were the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), and oxygen saturation percent time < 90% during sleep. Stimulation level for each participant was collected at three predefined thresholds during awake testing. Procedure- and/or device-related adverse events were reviewed and coded by the Clinical Events Committee Results: The median AHI was reduced by 67.4% from the baseline of 29.3 to 9.7/h at 18 mo. The median ODI was reduced by 67.5% from 25.4 to 8.6/h at 18 mo. The FOSQ and ESS improved significantly at 18 mo compared to baseline values. The functional threshold was unchanged from baseline at 18 mo. Two participants experienced a serious device-related adverse event requiring neurostimulator repositioning and fixation. No tongue weakness reported at 18 mo. Conclusion: Upper airway stimulation via the hypoglossal nerve maintained a durable effect of improving airway stability during sleep and improved patient reported outcomes (Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire) without an increase of the stimulation thresholds or tongue injury at 18 mo of follow-up. Citation: Strollo PJ, Gillespie MB, Soose RJ, Maurer JT, de Vries N, Cornelius J, Hanson RD, Padhya TA, Steward DL, Woodson BT, Verbraecken J, Vanderveken OM, Goetting MG, Feldman N, Chabolle F, Badr MS, Randerath W

  1. Diagnosis of mycobacterial infections by nucleic acid amplification: 18-month prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Kirschner, P; Rosenau, J; Springer, B; Teschner, K; Feldmann, K; Böttger, E C

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the use of DNA amplification by PCR for the detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens, with the gene encoding the 16S rRNA as a target. Following generic amplification of mycobacterial nucleic acids, screening was done with genus-specific probe; this was followed by species differentiation by use of highly discriminating probes or nucleic acid sequencing. In a prospective 18-month evaluation, criteria to select specimens for PCR analysis were defined. Of a total of 8,272 specimens received, 729 samples satisfied the criteria and were subjected to DNA amplification. Clinical specimens included material from the respiratory tract (sputa and bronchial washings), aspirates, biopsies, and various body fluids (cerebrospinal, pleural, peritoneal, and gastric fluids). After resolution of discrepant results, the sensitivity of the PCR assay was 84.5%, the specificity was 99.5%, the positive predictive value was 97.6%, and the negative predictive value was 96.4%. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of culture (with a combination of broth and solid media) were 77.5 and 94.8%, respectively. In conclusion, this PCR assay provides an efficient strategy to detect and identify multiple mycobacterial species and performs well in comparison with culture. PMID:8789005

  2. Environmental impacts of the coal ash spill in Kingston, Tennessee: an 18-month survey.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, Laura; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary S; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Deonarine, Amrika

    2010-12-15

    An 18 month investigation of the environmental impacts of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) coal ash spill in Kingston, Tennessee combined with leaching experiments on the spilled TVA coal ash have revealed that leachable coal ash contaminants (LCACs), particularly arsenic, selenium, boron, strontium, and barium, have different effects on the quality of impacted environments. While LCACs levels in the downstream river water are relatively low and below the EPA drinking water and ecological thresholds, elevated levels were found in surface water with restricted water exchange and in pore water extracted from the river sediments downstream from the spill. The high concentration of arsenic (up to 2000 μg/L) is associated with some degree of anoxic conditions and predominance of the reduced arsenic species (arsenite) in the pore waters. Laboratory leaching simulations show that the pH and ash/water ratio control the LCACs' abundance and geochemical composition of the impacted water. These results have important implications for the prediction of the fate and migration of LCACs in the environment, particularly for the storage of coal combustion residues (CCRs) in holding ponds and landfills, and any potential CCRs effluents leakage into lakes, rivers, and other aquatic systems.

  3. REPORT OF WORK INJURIES TO MINORS UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE, A STUDY OF 18 MONTHS' EXPERIENCE REPORTED BY 28 STATES, 1964-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Standards (DOL), Washington, DC.

    THE BUREAU OF LABOR STANDARDS FURNISHED REPORT FORMS AND GUIDES FOR COMPLETING THEM TO THE 28 PARTICIPATING STATES. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY MAIL ON A VOLUNTARY REPORTING BASIS DURING THE 18-MONTH PERIOD, JANUARY 1964 THROUGH JUNE 1965. FINDINGS INCLUDED -- (1) A TOTAL OF 16,936 INJURIES TO EMPLOYED MINORS UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE WAS REPORTED, (2) OF…

  4. Early Reasoning about Desires: Evidence from 14- and 18-Month-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repacholi, Betty M.; Gopnik, Alison

    1997-01-01

    Observed infants' responses in a food-requested procedure to explore their understanding of other people's desires. Found that only the 18-month-olds were able to engage in some form of desire reasoning. Children not only inferred that another person held a desire, but also recognized how desires were related to emotions and understood something…

  5. Right from Birth: Building Your Child's Foundation for Life. Birth to 18 Months. Goddard Parenting Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Craig T.; Ramey, Sharon L.

    To help parents of infants understand the issues at the core of current advice and trends on parenting, this guide provides information about recent research on early learning, communication, social skills, and emotional growth from birth to 18 months. The guide also focuses on how growth, learning, social interactions, emotional development, and…

  6. Predicting Changes in Eating Disorder Symptoms among Adolescents in China: An 18-Month Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This 18-month prospective study investigated factors that contributed to changes in eating disorder symptoms among adolescents living in the People's Republic of China. Five hundred forty-one Chinese middle school and high school students (182 boys, 359 girls) completed measures of eating disorder symptoms; body dissatisfaction; appearance ideal…

  7. Psychological Morbidity in Children 18 Months after Kashmir Earthquake of 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayub, Muhammad; Poongan, Ishwari; Masood, Khadija; Gul, Huma; Ali, Mahwish; Farrukh, Ammara; Shaheen, Aisha; Chaudhry, Haroon Rasheed; Naeem, Farooq

    2012-01-01

    A severe earthquake occurred in Kashmir in 2005. The epicentre was close to Muzzafarabad. We collected data on over 1,100 children 18 months after the earthquake to look at symptoms of PTSD and behavioural and emotional problems using well established questionnaires. We found that 64.8% of children had significant symptoms of PTSD. Girls were more…

  8. Which Penguin Is This? Attributing False Beliefs about Object Identity at 18 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rose M.; Baillargeon, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shown that infants as young as 13 months can attribute false beliefs to agents, suggesting that the psychological-reasoning subsystem necessary for attributing reality-incongruent informational states (Subsystem-2, SS2) is operational in infancy. The present research asked whether 18-month-olds' false-belief reasoning extends…

  9. The Role of Context in the Categorization of Hybrid Toy Stimuli by 18-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mareschal, Denis; Tan, Seok Hui

    2008-01-01

    Using a sequential touching procedure, we examined whether 18-month-olds could use different categorization strategies adaptively as a function of context. Infants were presented with test toys of land animals (quadrupeds), cars, and hybrids made by recombining car parts with animal parts. Infants who experienced a context emphasizing a taxonomic…

  10. Fathers & Babies: How Babies Grow and What They Need from You, from Birth to 18 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzollo, Jean

    This book provides fathers with specific developmental theory and practical skills and advice concerning how babies grow and what they need from fathers from the time they are born until they turn 18 months. Each chapter provides information and theory on age appropriate play activities and specific information on a baby's growth and developmental…

  11. Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

  12. The stability of 'food addiction' as assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale in a non-clinical population over 18-months.

    PubMed

    Pursey, Kirrilly M; Collins, Clare E; Stanwell, Peter; Burrows, Tracy L

    2016-01-01

    The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) is a widely used tool to assess the behavioural indicators of addictive-like eating. No studies, however, have used a longitudinal design to determine whether these addictive-like eating behaviours are a stable or transient phenomenon in a community-based population. This study aimed to evaluate whether food addiction Diagnosis and Symptom scores as assessed by the YFAS remain stable over 18-months in a non-clinical population. Young adults aged 18-35 years were recruited from the community to a web-based survey in 2013. The survey included demographics, anthropometrics and the YFAS. Participants who volunteered to be recontacted for future research were invited to complete the same survey 18-months later. The YFAS scoring outputs Diagnosis and Symptom scores were tested for agreement and reliability between the two time points. Of the 303 participants who completed the original survey and agreed to be recontacted, 69 participants (22.8% of those recontacted, 94% female, 67% normal weight at baseline) completed the 18-month follow-up survey. At baseline, thirteen participants met the YFAS predefined criteria for Diagnosis, while eleven participants met these criteria at the 18-month follow-up. YFAS Diagnosis was found to have moderate agreement [K = .50, 95% CI (.23, .77)] between the two time points while Symptom scores had good agreement [K = .70, 95% CI (.54, .83)]. Intraclass correlation coefficients were interpreted as moderate over the 18-month period for both the Diagnosis [ICC = .71, 95% CI (.45, .88)] and Symptom scores [ICC = .72, 95% CI (.58, .82)]. YFAS assessed food addiction Diagnosis and Symptom scores were found to be relatively stable over 18-months in a non-clinical population of predominantly female, young adults. Future research is required to determine the impact of behavioural weight loss interventions on YFAS assessed addictive-like eating.

  13. Dental caries and prolonged breast-feeding in 18-month-old Swedish children.

    PubMed

    Hallonsten, A L; Wendt, L K; Mejàre, I; Birkhed, D; Håkansson, C; Lindvall, A M; Edwardsson, S; Koch, G

    1995-09-01

    Three thousand children aged 18 months were screened for dental caries and ongoing breast-feeding at 46 child welfare centres in different parts of Sweden. Of these, 200 children were selected for a more comprehensive examination, involving investigation of dietary, toothbrushing and sucking habits, use of fluoride, and determination of salivary levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. The children were divided into four groups: group 1: children with caries not being breast-fed; group 2: children with caries being breast-fed; group 3: caries-free children being breast-fed; group 4: caries-free gender- and age-matched reference children not being breast-fed. The results showed that 63 of the children (2.1%) had caries and 61 (2.0%) were still being breast-fed. Twelve (19.7%) of the 61 children still being breast-fed had caries compared with 51 (1.7%) of the 2939 children not being breast-fed; the difference was statistically significant. Children with caries and still being breast-fed had a mean defs of 5.3, and those with caries not being breast-fed 4.9; the difference was not statistically significant. Children with caries, irrespective of whether they were being breast-fed or not, had significantly higher numbers of cariogenic food intakes per day than caries-free children. Mutans streptococci were detected in 67% of the children and lactobacilli in 13%. Children with detectable mutans streptococci and lactobacilli had significantly more caries than those without. The results indicate that Swedish children with prolonged breast-feeding have a tendency to establish unsuitable dietary habits which constitutes a risk situation for developing caries at an early age.

  14. Correlation Between Mothers’ Depression and Developmental Delay in Infants Aged 6-18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Vameghi, Roshanak; Akbari, Sedigheh Amir Ali; Sajjadi, Homeira; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Alavimajd, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Regarding the importance of children’s developmental status and various factors that delay their development, this study was conducted to examine the correlation between mothers’ depression levels and the developmental delay in infants. Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 1053 mothers and their infants’ age 6 to18 month-old in medical centers affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2014-2015. The participants were selected through multi-stage random sampling. The following instruments were used in this study: A demographic and obstetric specification questionnaire, infant specification questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire to determine the status of the children’s development. The data were analyzed using SPSS19 software, Mann-Whitney; independent T-test and logistic-Regression tests were used. Results: The results showed that 491 mothers (46.7%) suffered mild to extremely severe depression. The delay in infant development was 11.8%. The Mann–Whitney test showed a correlation between mothers’ depression levels and developmental delay in infants (P=0.001). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between mothers’ depression and developmental delays in gross-motor and problem-solving skills (P<0/05). In logistic model age of infants showed significant correlation with developmental delay (P=0.004 OR=1.07), but unwanted pregnancy, gender of infants, type of delivery and socioeconomic status had no correlation with developmental delay. Conclusion: Given the correlation between mothers’ depression and infant development, it is recommended to screen mothers for depression in order to perform early interventions in developmental delay. PMID:26652078

  15. Quantity and Quality of Caregivers’ Linguistic Input to 18-month and 3-year-old Children who are Hard of Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Sophie E.; Walker, Elizabeth A.; Unflat-Berry, Lauren M.; Oleson, Jacob J.; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The primary objective of this study was to examine the quantity and quality of caregiver talk directed to children who are hard of hearing (CHH) as compared to children with normal hearing (CNH). For the CHH only, the study explored how caregiver input changed as a function of child age (18 months versus 3 years), which child and family factors contributed to variance in caregiver linguistic input at 18 months and 3 years, and how caregiver talk at 18 months related to child language outcomes at 3 years. Design Participants were 59 CNH and 156 children with bilateral, mild-to-severe hearing loss. When children were approximately 18-months and/or 3-years of age, caregivers and children participated in a 5-minute semi-structured, conversational interaction. Interactions were transcribed and coded for two features of caregiver input representing quantity (number of total utterances and number of total words) and four features representing quality (number of different words, mean length of utterance in morphemes, proportion of utterances that were high-level, and proportion of utterances that were directing). Additionally, at the 18-month visit, parents completed a standardized questionnaire regarding their child’s communication development. At the 3-year visit, a clinician administered a standardized language measure. Results At the 18-month visit, the CHH were exposed to a greater proportion of directing utterances than the CNH. At the 3-year visit, there were significant differences between the CNH and CHH for number of total words and all four of the quality variables, with the CHH being exposed to fewer words and lower quality input. Caregivers generally provided higher quality input to CHH at the 3-year visit, as compared to the 18-month visit. At the 18-month visit, quantity variables, but not quality variables, were related to several child and family factors. At the 3-year visit, the variable most strongly related to caregiver input was child

  16. Which penguin is this? Attributing false beliefs about object identity at 18 months.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rose M; Baillargeon, Renée

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shown that infants as young as 13 months can attribute false beliefs to agents, suggesting that the psychological-reasoning subsystem necessary for attributing reality-incongruent informational states (Subsystem-2, SS2) is operational in infancy. The present research asked whether 18-month-olds' false-belief reasoning extends to false beliefs about object identity. Infants watched events involving an agent and 2 toy penguins; 1 penguin could be disassembled (2-piece penguin) and 1 could not (1-piece penguin). Infants realized that outdated contextual information could lead the agent to falsely believe she was facing the 1-piece rather than the 2-piece penguin, suggesting that 18-month-olds can attribute false beliefs about the identity of objects and providing new evidence for SS2 reasoning in the 2nd year of life.

  17. First symbols in a girl with Down syndrome: a longitudinal study from 12 to 18 months.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Karina; Rodríguez, Cintia; Palacios, Pedro

    2014-08-01

    Symbolic uses of objects originate in communicative and triadic contexts (adult-child-object). In this longitudinal study we explore the emergence and development of the first symbolic uses in triadic interaction contexts in a girl with Down syndrome between 12 and 18-months of age. We conducted five sessions of video recording, at 12, 13½, 15, 16½, and 18 months chronological age. At each session we videotaped the girl and her mother interacting with different objects. Data were coded in semiotic categories used in previous studies (Rodríguez & Moro, 1999) and a microgenetic analysis was conducted for each session. The first symbolic uses by the girl appeared at 13½ months. Symbols were of different types and levels of complexity, and the adult had an important role in facilitating the production of these symbols.

  18. Proliferation potential of 18-month-old callus of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris.

    PubMed

    De Silva, A E; Kadir, M A; Aziz, M A; Kadzimin, S

    2006-02-17

    Differential effect of plant growth regulators and additives in proliferation of 18-month-old calli of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris were assessed in vitro. The proliferation of callus relied on the growth regulators and additives. Of the different auxins supplemented in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) media, 32.22 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) gave the highest mean fresh weight of callus (46.817 g). Medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was inferior to NAA, while b-naphthoxy acetic acid (BNOA) and p-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (4-CPA) were not effective in proliferating 18-months old callus. Addition of casein hydrolysate and coconut water to NAA supplemented medium showed better proliferation and production of callus. However, in terms of callus production, NAA at 32.22 microM was economically better.

  19. Ophthalmologic findings in an 18-month-old boy with focal dermal hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Young, Marielle P; Sawyer, Briana L; Hartnett, M Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia is a rare X-linked dominant disorder with in utero lethality in males. Affected patients have been reported to have several different mutations in the PORCN gene on chromosome Xp11.23. Dysplastic mesodermal and ectodermal tissue causes clinical findings in the skin, skeleton, teeth, central nervous system, and eyes of affected patients. We describe the ophthalmologic findings in an 18-month-old boy with mosaicism of a novel mutation in PORCN.

  20. Assessment of the 18-month permanence of onlay tip cartilage grafts following rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Persichetti, Paolo; Simone, Pierfranco; Carusi, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    Augmentation rhinoplasty requires addition of materials of various natures to reshape the nasal pyramid. Onlay tip grafts are single or multilayered grafts placed horizontally over the alar domes. The aim of the present study was to assess the 18-month permanence of onlay septal cartilage grafts. Twenty-eight patients underwent rhinoplasty with onlay tip cartilage graft, between June 2008 and November 2008 at the Campus Bio-Medico University in Rome, Italy. They were reviewed and photographed 6 months and 18 months postoperatively. Comparison of 6-month and 18-month postoperative pictures was performed with Adobe Photoshop CS. Measurements on pictures were taken with AutoCAD. Comparison of photographs showed no visible difference in nasal tip projection. Comparison of the measurements of tip projection showed a mean reduction of 0.06 mm (0.19%). Considerable stability of nasal tip projection after rhinoplasty with onlay tip grafts was observed postoperatively. Comparison of standardised digital photographs is a valid procedure to assess contour alterations of various anatomical structures after plastic surgery.

  1. Ontario and the enhanced 18-month well-baby visit: Trying new approaches

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Robin; Clinton, Jean; Biscaro, Anne

    2008-01-01

    In Ontario, the 18-month well-baby visit is the last scheduled primary care visit before school entry. Recognizing the importance of this visit and the role that primary care plays in developmental surveillance, an Ontario expert panel recommended enhancing the 18-month visit. Their recommendations are based on evidence from multiple disciplines, which underscore the reality that the quality of the early years experience establishes trajectories of health and well-being for children. An underlying premise of the recommendations is that when there are collaborations among parents, primary care, community health and child development services, the outcomes for children will be improved. The present article focuses on two Ontario pilot projects that were funded to discover how, in real life primary care settings, the recommendations could be implemented and outcomes measured. Findings and insights were significant, and future directions are clear, as the strategy for an enhanced 18-month well-baby visit is implemented in the future for Ontario. PMID:19436551

  2. Adaptive multimodal treatment for children with attention-deficit-/hyperactivity disorder: an 18 month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Döpfner, Manfred; Ise, Elena; Wolff Metternich-Kaizman, Tanja; Schürmann, Stephanie; Rademacher, Christiane; Breuer, Dieter

    2015-02-01

    The Cologne Adaptive Multimodal Treatment (CAMT) study demonstrated that adaptive and individually tailored multimodal treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [consisting of behavior therapy (BT) and/or stimulant medication] is highly effective. This study reports findings of the 18 month follow-up assessment. Parents and teachers completed broad range behavior scales (Child Behavior Checklist/Teacher Report Form) and standardized ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder symptom rating scales. Children that used medication to treat ADHD at follow-up (N = 32) and those that did not (N = 34) were analyzed separately. Parents did not report significant changes in child behavior from posttest to follow-up. Teacher ratings revealed some aggravation of ADHD symptoms in children that received medication, but this was not significant after Bonferroni correction. The initial advantage of combined treatment over BT was no longer evident. It can be concluded that treatment for ADHD that is tailored to the assessed needs of children results in large treatment effects that are maintained for at least 18 months.

  3. Patterns of Substance Use During Cognitive Enhancement Therapy: An 18-Month Randomized Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Bangalore, Srihari S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Cornelius, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Substance use problems are common among people with schizophrenia, as are significant cognitive impairments. Because of potential shared neurobiological pathways, it is possible that cognitive remediation interventions may be associated with improvements in both substance use and cognition. This study examined the impact of cognitive remediation on alcohol and cannabis use, and the cognitive correlates of changes in substance use among outpatients with schizophrenia. Methods Individuals with schizophrenia who were receiving outpatient services at a psychiatric clinic and had moderate or higher addiction severity scores (N = 31) were randomized to 18 months of cognitive enhancement therapy (n = 22) or usual care (n = 9). Cognitive enhancement therapy is a cognitive remediation approach that integrates computer-based training in attention, memory, and problem-solving with a group-based social cognition curriculum. Usual care was provided to all participants and consisted of routine psychiatric care. Primary outcomes included days of alcohol and cannabis use, assessed with the Timeline Follow-Back method every six months and modeled using penalized quasi-likelihood growth curves. Results Participants were on average 38.23 (SD = 13.44) years of age, had been ill for 14.19 (SD = 11.28) years, were mostly male (n = 22, 71%), and about half were Caucasian (n = 16, 52%). Temporal patterns of substance use days were highly variable and followed non-linear trajectories. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that, compared to patients only receiving usual care, those receiving cognitive enhancement therapy were significantly less likely to use alcohol (OR = .22, 95% CI [.05, .90], p = .036), but not cannabis (OR = 1.89, 95% CI [.02, 142.99], p = .774) over time, and they reduced their alcohol use at significantly accelerated rates (OR = 1.02, 95% CI [1.01, 1.03], p = .003) . Changes in cognition were variably associated with substance use outcomes, although

  4. Hand- and Object-Mouthing of Rural Bangladeshi Children 3–18 Months Old

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Laura H.; Ercumen, Ayse; Pickering, Amy J.; Unicomb, Leanne; Davis, Jennifer; Luby, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Children are exposed to environmental contaminants by placing contaminated hands or objects in their mouths. We quantified hand- and object-mouthing frequencies of Bangladeshi children and determined if they differ from those of U.S. children to evaluate the appropriateness of applying U.S. exposure models in other socio-cultural contexts. We conducted a five-hour structured observation of the mouthing behaviors of 148 rural Bangladeshi children aged 3–18 months. We modeled mouthing frequencies using 2-parameter Weibull distributions to compare the modeled medians with those of U.S. children. In Bangladesh the median frequency of hand-mouthing was 37.3 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 34.4 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 29.7 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. The median frequency of object-mouthing was 23.1 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 29.6 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 15.2 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. At all ages both hand- and object-mouthing frequencies were higher than those of U.S. children. Mouthing frequencies were not associated with child location (indoor/outdoor). Using hand- and object-mouthing exposure models from U.S. and other high-income countries might not accurately estimate children’s exposure to environmental contaminants via mouthing in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:27271651

  5. Rapid-growing juvenile xanthogranuloma on the scalp in 18-month-old girl.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Woo; Koh, Eun Jeong; Choi, Ha Young

    2011-09-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is an uncommon histiocytic cutaneous lesion. An 18-month-old girl visited our clinic due to rapid growing orange-yellowish lesion on scalp. Enlarging time from 1 mm to 12 mm was just 8 weeks. We excised the tumor and adjacent normal tissue. Histopathological study showed numerous eosinophils and Touton giant cells within the lesion. Immunohistochemical study revealed positive immunoreactivity for CD68 in most areas. No recurrence was seen during 12 months after resection. We report a case with rapidly growing JXG on scalp with peculiar histopathologic findings.

  6. 18-Month-Olds Predict Specific Action Mistakes through Attribution of False Belief, Not Ignorance, and Intervene Accordingly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudsen, Birgit; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This study employed a new "anticipatory intervening" paradigm to tease apart false belief and ignorance-based interpretations of 18-month-olds' helpful informing. We investigated in three experiments whether 18-month-old infants inform an adult selectively about one of the two locations depending on the adult's belief about which of the two…

  7. Epidemiology of Dengue Among Children Aged < 18 Months-Puerto Rico, 1999-2011.

    PubMed

    Hause, Anne M; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Han, George S; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Aiwazian, Jonathan; Margolis, Harold S; Tomashek, Kay M

    2016-02-01

    Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral illness caused by dengue virus types (DENV)-1 to DENV-4, is endemic in Puerto Rico. Severe dengue usually occurs in individuals previously infected with DENV or among infants born to previously infected mothers. To describe clinical features of dengue in infants, we retrospectively characterized dengue patients aged < 18 months reported to the Passive Dengue Surveillance System (PDSS) during 1999-2011. To determine frequency of signs, symptoms, and disease severity, case report forms and medical records were evaluated for patients who tested positive for dengue by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or anti-DENV immunoglobulin Menzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 4,178 reported patients aged < 18 months, 813 (19%) were laboratory positive. Of these, most had fever (92%), rash (53%), bleeding manifestations (52%), and thrombocytopenia (52%). Medical records were available for 145 (31%) of 472 hospitalized patients, of which 40% had dengue, 23% had dengue with warning signs, and 33% had severe dengue. Mean age of patients with severe dengue was 8 months. Anti-DENV immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were not statistically different in patients with (50%) and without (59%) severe dengue. In this study, one-third of DENV-infected infants met the severe dengue case definition. The role of maternal anti-DENV IgG in development of severe disease warrants further study in prospective cohorts of mother-infant pairs.

  8. The Magpie Trial: a randomised trial comparing magnesium sulphate with placebo for pre-eclampsia. Outcome for children at 18 months

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the long-term effects of in utero exposure to magnesium sulphate for children whose mothers had pre-eclampsia. Design Assessment at 18 months of age for children whose mothers were recruited to the Magpie Trial (recruitment 1998–2001 ISRCTN 86938761), which compared magnesium sulphate with placebo. Setting Follow-up of children born at 125 centres in 19 countries across five continents. Population A total of 6922 children were born to women randomised before delivery at follow-up centres. Of these, 2271 were not included for logistic reasons and 168 were excluded (101 at a centre where <20% were contacted, 40 whose death or disability was due to a problem at conception or embryogenesis and 27 whose parent/s opted out). Therefore, 4483 children were included in follow-up, of whom 3283 (73%) were contacted. Methods Assessment by questionnaire, with interview and neurodevelopmental testing of selected children. Main outcome measures Death or neurosensory disability at age of 18 months. Results Of those allocated magnesium sulphate, 245/1635 (15.0%) were dead or had neurosensory disability at 18 months compared with 233/1648 (14.1%) allocated placebo (relative risk [RR] 1.06, 95% CI 0.90–1.25), and of survivors, 19/1409 (1.3%) had neurosensory disability at 18 months compared with 27/1442 (1.9%) (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.40–1.29). There were no substantial differences in causes of death or in the risk of individual impairments or disabilities. Conclusions The lower risk of eclampsia following prophylaxis with magnesium sulphate was not associated with a clear difference in the risk of death or disability for children at 18 months. PMID:17166221

  9. 18-Month Predictors of Later Outcomes in Younger Siblings of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Baby Siblings Research Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Shic, Frederick; Macari, Suzanne; Campbell, Daniel J.; Brian, Jessica; Landa, Rebecca; Hutman, Ted; Nelson, Charles A.; Ozonoff, Sally; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Young, Gregory S.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Cohen, Ira L.; Charman, Tony; Messinger, Daniel S.; Klin, Ami; Johnson, Scott; Bryson, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk (HR) for developing ASD as well as features of the broader autism phenotype. While this complicates early diagnostic considerations in this cohort, it also provides an opportunity to examine patterns of behavior associated specifically with ASD compared to other developmental outcomes. Method We applied Classification and Regression Trees (CART) analysis to individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in 719 HR siblings to identify behavioral features at 18 months predictive of diagnostic outcomes (ASD, atypical development, and typical development) at 36 months. Results Three distinct combinations of features at 18 months were predictive of ASD outcome: 1) poor eye contact combined with lack of communicative gestures and giving; 2) poor eye contact combined with a lack of imaginative play; and 3) lack of giving and presence of repetitive behaviors, but with intact eye contact. These 18-month behavioral profiles predicted ASD versus non-ASD status at 36 months with 82.7% accuracy in an initial test sample and 77.3% accuracy in a validation sample. Clinical features at age 3 among children with ASD varied as a function of their 18-month symptom profiles. Children with ASD who were misclassified at 18 months were higher functioning, and their autism symptoms increased between 18 and 36 months. Conclusion These findings suggest the presence of different developmental pathways to ASD in HR siblings. Understanding such pathways will provide clearer targets for neural and genetic research and identification of developmentally specific treatments for ASD. PMID:25457930

  10. Brief Report: What Drives Parental Concerns About Their 18-Month-Olds at Familial Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    PubMed

    Karp, Elizabeth A; Ibañez, Lisa V; Warren, Zachary; Stone, Wendy L

    2017-02-24

    Parent-reported developmental concerns can be a first step toward further screening and intervention for children at risk for ASD. However, little is known about the extent to which parental well-being and child behavior contribute to parental concerns, especially in families who already have one child with ASD. This study included 54 parents and their 18-month-old high-risk toddlers to examine the extent to which parents' well-being (i.e., parenting stress and self-efficacy), and children's behavior (i.e., expressive language and social communication) contribute to parents' concerns regarding their toddler's development. Results revealed that parental concerns were predicted by their own well-being as well as their toddler's expressive language, highlighting the importance of addressing the needs of both parent and child in intervention settings.

  11. Discontinued Splenogonadal Fusion and Bilateral Empty Scrotum in an 18-Month-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Abokrecha, Ahmed; Almatrfi, Ameera

    2017-01-01

    Splenogonadal fusion is a rare benign congenital anomaly defined as the presence of splenic tissue adherent to gonads. It was first described in 1883 by Bostroem, a German pathologist. We present a case of an 18-month-old boy who was referred as a case of bilateral empty scrotum since birth. During routine laparoscopic exploration, right vas deferens and testicular vessels were entering the right internal inguinal ring so right inguinal exploration was done, which revealed blind ending vas deferens and testicular vessels and the left testis was found intra-abdominally near the left internal ring with a mass on its upper pole. Wedge biopsy was taken from the upper pole of the testicle (site of the mass) for tissue diagnosis followed by orchidopexy. Histology showed splenic tissue. Although splenogonadal fusion is a rare condition, surgeons should be aware of this rare disease entity to avoid unnecessary aggressive interventions such as orchiectomy. PMID:28265530

  12. The 18-month well-child visit in primary care: Clinical strategies for early intervention.

    PubMed

    Mousmanis, Patricia; Watson, William J

    2008-12-01

    Family physicians, paediatricians, nurse practitioners and all primary health care providers are well-positioned in the health care system to provide identification and intervention for developmental delay in early childhood. This can be accomplished through the promotion of healthy child development by supporting children and their parents, paying special attention to issues of attachment and parent-child interactions. Early recognition and intervention is critical for addressing all developmental, social and behavioural problems in young children. A familiarity with local community resources and services is crucial; it will assist primary health care providers in supporting families by providing extra assistance and assessment for families at risk. The present article reports on the evidence-based interventions at the 18-month visit including screening tools, resources and a case example. The importance of interdisciplinary coordination to provide a comprehensive approach to screening, assessment and intervention for developmental delays in infants and young children is highlighted.

  13. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in police staff 12-18 months after the Canterbury earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Surgenor, Lois J; Snell, Deborah L; Dorahy, Martin J

    2015-04-01

    Understanding posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in police first-responders is an underdeveloped field. Using a cross-sectional survey, this study investigated demographic and occupational characteristics, coping resources and processes, along with first-responder roles and consequences 18 months following a disaster. Hierarchical linear regression (N = 576) showed that greater symptom levels were significantly positively associated with negative emotional coping (β = .31), a communications role (β = .08) and distress following exposure to resource losses (β = .14), grotesque scenes (β = .21), personal harm (β = .14), and concern for significant others (β = .17). Optimism alone was negatively associated (β = -.15), with the overall model being a modest fit (adjusted R(2) = .39). The findings highlight variables for further study in police.

  14. Selective social learning of plant edibility in 6- and 18-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Wertz, Annie E; Wynn, Karen

    2014-04-01

    Recent research underscores the importance of social learning to the development of food preferences. Here, we explore whether social information about edibility--an adult placing something in his or her mouth--can be selectively tied to certain types of entities. Given that humans have relied on gathered plant resources across evolutionary time, and given the costs of trial-and-error learning, we predicted that human infants may possess selective social learning strategies that rapidly identify edible plants. Evidence from studies with 6- and 18-month-olds demonstrated that infants selectively identify plants, over artifacts, as food sources after seeing the same food-relevant social information applied to both object types. These findings are the first evidence for content-specific social learning mechanisms that facilitate the identification of edible plant resources. Evolved learning mechanisms such as these have enabled humans to survive and thrive in varied and changing environments.

  15. SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months.

    PubMed

    Fernald, Anne; Marchman, Virginia A; Weisleder, Adriana

    2013-03-01

    This research revealed both similarities and striking differences in early language proficiency among infants from a broad range of advantaged and disadvantaged families. English-learning infants (n = 48) were followed longitudinally from 18 to 24 months, using real-time measures of spoken language processing. The first goal was to track developmental changes in processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary learning in this diverse sample. The second goal was to examine differences in these crucial aspects of early language development in relation to family socioeconomic status (SES). The most important findings were that significant disparities in vocabulary and language processing efficiency were already evident at 18 months between infants from higher- and lower-SES families, and by 24 months there was a 6-month gap between SES groups in processing skills critical to language development.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of developmental screening in primary care at the 18-month health supervision visit: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    van den Heuvel, Meta; Borkhoff, Cornelia M.; Koroshegyi, Christine; Zabih, Weeda; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Maguire, Jonathon; Birken, Catherine; Parkin, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Communication delays are often the first presenting problem in infants with a range of developmental disabilities. Our objective was to assess the validity of the 18-month Nipissing District Developmental Screen compared with the Infant Toddler Checklist, a validated tool for detecting expressive language and other communication delays. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used. Children aged 18-20 months were recruited during scheduled health supervision visits. Parents completed both the 18-month Nipissing District Developmental Screen and the Infant Toddler Checklist. We assessed criterion validity (diagnostic test properties, overall agreement) for 1 or more "no" responses (1+NDDS flag) and 2 or more "no" responses (2+NDDS flag) using the Infant Toddler Checklist as a criterion measure. Results: The study included 348 children (mean age 18.6 ± 0.7 mo). The 1+NDDS flag had good sensitivity (94%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 70%-100%, and 86%, 95% CI 64%-96%), poor specificity (63%, 95% CI 58%-68%, and 63%, 95% CI 58%-69%), and fair agreement (0.26) to identify expressive speech and other communication delays, respectively. The 2+NDDS flag had low to fair sensitivity (50%, 95% CI 26%-74%, and 73%, 95% CI 50%-88%), good specificity (86%, 95% CI 82%-90%, and 88%, 95% CI 84%-92%) and moderate agreement (0.45) to identify expressive speech and other communication delays, respectively. Interpretation: The low specificity of the 1+NDDS flag may lead to overdiagnosis, and the low sensitivity of the 2+NDDS flag may lead to underdiagnosis, suggesting that infants who could benefit from early intervention may not be identified. The Nipissing District Developmental Screen does not have adequate characteristics to accurately identify children with a range of communication delays. PMID:28018875

  17. Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Marine and Botanical Oils: An 18-Month, Randomized, and Double-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    Reed, George W.; Leung, Katherine; Rossetti, Ronald G.; VanBuskirk, Susan; Sharp, John T.; Zurier, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether a combination of borage seed oil rich in gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is superior to either oil alone for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Patients were randomized into a double-blind, 18-month trial. Mixed effects models compared trends over time in disease activity measures. Results. No significant differences were observed in changes in disease activity among the three randomized groups. Each group exhibited significant reductions in disease activity (DAS28) at 9 months (fish: −1.56[−2.16, −0.96], borage: −1.33[−1.83, −0.84], combined: −1.18[−1.83, −0.54]) and in CDAI (fish: −16.95[−19.91, −13.98], borage: −11.20[−14.21, −8.19], and combined: −10.31[−13.61, −7.01]). There were no significant differences in change of RA medications among the three groups. Reduced disease activity in study patients was similar to matched patients from an RA registry, and reduction in DMARD use was greater (P < 0.03) in study patients. Conclusion. All 3 treatment groups exhibited similar meaningful clinical responses after 9 months, improvements which persisted for 18 months, and a response similar to matched patients from an RA registry. Study patients were able to reduce DMARD therapy given in combination with TNF antagonists to a greater extent than registry patients. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr. John T. Sharp, M.D., a pioneer and innovator in the field of musculoskeletal radiology PMID:24803948

  18. Free microvascular rotationplasty with nerve repair for rhabdomyosarcoma in a 18-month-old patient.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Alberto; Salom, Marta; Villaverde-Doménech, María Eloísa; Baixauli, Francisco; Simón-Sanz, Eduardo

    2017-02-15

    Rotationplasty is a limb-sparing surgical option in lower limb malignancies. Sciatic or tibial nerve encasement has been considered an absolute contraindication to this procedure. We report a case of an 18-month-old girl with a rhabdomyosarcoma that affected the leg and popliteal fossa, with neurovascular involvement. Knee and proximal leg intercalary resection was performed followed by reconstruction with free microvascular rotationplasty and neurorraphy from tibial division of sciatic nerve to sural and tibial nerves, and from saphenous nerve to superficial peroneal nerve. Postoperative course was uneventful and ambulation with a provisional prosthesis was restarted during the sixth week after surgery. Bone consolidation was observed after two months. Eighteen months later, the patient had a good gait pattern with a below-knee prosthesis and had recovered sensation in the whole foot and ankle area. This case shows that rotationplasty with nerve repair may provide a sensate stump, which is vital for successful prosthetic adaptation. We believe it may be considered as an alternative to above-knee amputation in tumors with sciatic involvement.

  19. Intersubjective Interaction Between Deaf Parents/Deaf Infants During the Infant's First 18 Months.

    PubMed

    Roos, Carin; Cramér-Wolrath, Emelie; Falkman, Kerstin W

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of a larger longitudinal project with the aim of focusing early social interaction and development of mentalizing ability in 12 deaf infants, including the interaction between the infants and their deaf parents. The aim of the present paper is to describe early social interaction and moments of intersubjectivity between the deaf infants and their deaf parents during the first 18 months of the infant's life. The study is focused on the dyadic interaction rather than on the behaviors of the infant and the caregiver separately. In the analysis, the Intersubjective Developmental Theory Model (Loots, Devisé, & Sermijn, 2003) and the definitions of moments of intersubjectivity (Loots, Devisé, & Jacquet, 2005) were used. The findings show that the participating infants follow a typical developmental trajectory of intersubjectivity, both with regard to developmental stages and age. This development is supported by a visual, simultaneous way of communicating by gaze rather than having constant eye contact. Parents use complex visual communication skills in maintaining joint attention and also expect the infant to grasp the meaning of the interaction by use of gaze contact.

  20. Socioeconomic status and the risk of suspected autism spectrum disorders among 18-month-old toddlers in Japan: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeo

    2014-06-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and the suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD) status of 18-month-old toddlers was investigated using a population-based sample in Japan, which has a universal healthcare system and a mandatory health checkup system for toddlers. Questionnaires including SES measurements and modified checklist for autism in toddlers were mailed to all families with 18-month-old toddlers in Chiba, a city near Tokyo (N = 6,061; response rate: 64%). The results of logistic regression analysis (which were adjusted for potential confounders) indicated that low maternal education, but not paternal education or family income, were associated with having suspected ASD offspring. Lower maternal education was associated with an increased risk of autistic traits in Japan.

  1. Use of technology in follow-up of HIV positive pregnant women and their babies till 18 months of age- an innovation by Maharashtra State AIDS Control Society (MSACS), India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Radhay Shyam; Yewale, Kiran; Hegde, Asha S.; Mulik, Tejas; Bamrotiya, Manish; Yadav, Surendra; Rane, Tushar; Pardeshi, Kushalsinh; Balakrishnan, Sudha; Reddy, D.C.S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of web-based mobile technology monitoring tool, for ensuring linkages, and tracking of HIV-exposed child until 18 months of age. Methods The ‘early infant diagnosis (EID) Follow-up System’ was designed as a tool for reminding the field level staff for follow-up of HIV-exposed babies. Using Java Swing Framework, software was developed which generates automatic advance SMS alerts regarding patient information to the Counsellor of the respective Integrated Counselling and Testing Center and district supervisor, 7 days prior to due dates. Simultaneously, system generated e-mail is sent to district program officer for monitoring and updating the line-list. Results Before the introduction of ‘EID Follow-up System’ in June 2013, only 55.9% (637/1139) of the HIV-exposed babies born were tested at 6 weeks for DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction during April 2011–March 2012. However, after its introduction, 68.4% (1117/1631) of them were tested during April 2012–March 2013. Correspondingly, the 18 months confirmatory HIV testing in eligible babies increased from 45.6% (934/2044) to 54.7%(1118/2044) during the same period. Conclusion The replicable technology driven initiative would help in strengthening the follow-up mechanisms and reach every HIV-exposed child for EID. PMID:26945142

  2. Prevalence of Active and Latent Yaws in the Solomon Islands 18 Months after Azithromycin Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma

    PubMed Central

    Sokana, Oliver; Nachamkin, Eli; Puiahi, Elliot; Kilua, Georgina; Pillay, Allan; Bottomley, Christian; Solomon, Anthony W.; Mabey, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Both yaws and trachoma are endemic in the Pacific. Mass treatment with azithromycin is the mainstay of the WHO strategy for both the eradication of yaws and the elimination of trachoma as a public health problem, but the dose recommended for trachoma is lower than that for yaws. In countries where both diseases are endemic, there is a potential for synergy between yaws and trachoma control programs if mass treatment with the lower dose of azithromycin was shown to be effective for the treatment of yaws. In an earlier study, we demonstrated a profound reduction in the clinical and serological prevalence of yaws following a single round of mass treatment with azithromycin 20 mg/kg undertaken for the purposes of trachoma elimination. Methods This survey was conducted 18 months following a single round of azithromycin mass treatment in the same communities in which we had conducted our previous six-month follow-up survey. We examined children aged 1–14 years and took blood and lesion samples for yaws diagnosis using the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) and the non-treponemal Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) test. Results A total of 1,284 children were enrolled in the study. Amongst children aged 5–14 years, 223 had a positive TPPA (27.5%, 95% CI 13.6–47.7%). The TPPA seroprevalence amongst this age group did not differ significantly from either our pre-mass treatment survey or our initial follow-up survey. Thirty-five children had positive TPPA and positive RPR (4.3%, 95% CI 2.1–8.7%), and this did not differ significantly from our initial post-mass drug administration (MDA) follow-up survey (4.3% versus 3.5%, p = 0.43) but remained significantly lower than our initial pre-MDA survey (4.3% vs 21.7%, p <0.0001). Village-level MDA coverage was strongly associated with dual-seropositivity (p = 0.005). Amongst children aged 1–4 years, 16 had a positive TPPA (3.5%, 95% CI 1.6–7.1%). This did not differ significantly from the

  3. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN EARLY MATERNAL DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOM TRAJECTORIES AND TODDLERS' FELT SECURITY AT 18 MONTHS: ARE BOYS AND GIRLS AT DIFFERENTIAL RISK?

    PubMed

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Partridge, Ty; Tronick, Ed; Muzik, Maria; Rahimian Mashhadi, Mahya; Boeve, Jordan L; Irwin, Jessica L

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate whether there are sex differences in children's vulnerability to caregiving risk, as indexed by trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms assessed from 2 to 18 months' postpartum, and children's rated attachment security in toddlerhood, adjusting for maternal social support and demographic risk. Analyses utilized longitudinal data collected for 182 African American mother-child dyads from economically diverse backgrounds. Participants were recruited at the time of the child's birth and followed to 18 months' postpartum. Results of conditional latent growth models indicated that an increasing rate of change in level of maternal depressive symptoms over time negatively predicted toddlers' felt attachment security. Higher social support was associated with decreasing levels of maternal depressive symptoms over time whereas higher demographic risk was associated with increasing levels of maternal depressive symptoms. A subsequent multigroup conditional latent growth model revealed that child sex moderated these associations. For male (but not female) children, a rapid increase in maternal depressive symptoms was associated with lower felt attachment security at 18 months. These findings suggest that boys, as compared to girls, may be more vulnerable to early caregiving risks such as maternal depression, with negative consequences for mother-child attachment security in toddlerhood.

  4. Periodic nonlinearity resulting from ghost reflections in heterodyne interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chien-ming

    2003-01-01

    Periodic nonlinearity is a systematic error limiting the accuracy of displacement measurements at the nanometer level. It results from many causes such as frequency mixing, polarization mixing, polarization-frequency mixing, and ghost reflections. The purpose of this paper is to study the periodic nonlinearity resulting from ghost reflections, which has not been investigated before. A generalized scheme of interferometer, which is free of frequency and polarization mixings, is used in the study. This ensures that the residual periodic nonlinearity is from the ghost reflections only. In this paper, a general form of periodic nonlinearity and a model including two kinds of ghost reflections, one with the same frequency and the other with two frequencies, are presented. The model is verified by experimental results.

  5. A Fatal Case of Coin Battery Ingestion in an 18-Month-Old Child: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Francesco; Candosin, Sara; Barranco, Rosario; Bonsignore, Alessandro; Andrello, Luisa; Tajana, Luca; Osculati, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    The ingestion of extraneous substances is quite common in clinical practice; it usually befalls in the pediatric age, mostly between 6 months and 6 years. In most cases, complications do not emerge, and the prognosis is considered favorable. However, when a case of battery ingestion occurs, serious adverse events may develop. The ingestion of these components is a potential life-threatening event for children.In this article, we report the case of an 18-month-old child who died from hemorrhagic shock due to an aortoesophageal fistula caused by a 20 mm lithium button battery lodged in the esophagus.The child presented vomiting blood, and laboratory results revealed a severe anemization, which later led to death.The autopsy showed a coin battery located in the middle third of the esophagus as well as a transmural erosion of the esophageal wall with fistulization into the aortic wall. The histological examination revealed a severe necrosis of the esophageal and aortic walls in line with the junction between the aortic arch and the descending part.

  6. Implementation of Routine Postpartum Depression Screening and Care Initiation Across a Multispecialty Health Care Organization: An 18-Month Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lind, April; Richter, Sara; Craft, Cheryl; Shapiro, Alice C

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 10-20% of all mothers after giving birth. Adequate screening and follow-up care for the postpartum mother with depression is an essential component of quality care in this population. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to evaluate the quality and quantity of a postnatal PPD screening program and the subsequent initiation of needed PPD treatment in an integrated health system. Methods After implementing a standardized PPD screening process, we conducted an 18-month retrospective study of patient visits that required a PPD screen. Data were abstracted from medical records and analyzed to determine if postnatal PPD screening occurred, what quality of the screening was, and what follow-up measures were taken. Results Within the study timeframe, 28,389 postpartum and well-child visits were eligible for PPD screening. PPD screening occurred at 88% of eligible visits for approximately 5000 unique women. PPD was identified in 8.1% of screened women. Conclusions Of women with PPD, at least 44.8% were prescribed an SSRI and 21.4% attended a visit with a mental health professional, which is consistent with other studies. Screening can be successful through collaboration, although ongoing evaluation and process modification are necessary.

  7. The duration of diarrhea and fever is associated with growth faltering in rural Malawian children aged 6-18 months.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Ariana; Meuli, Gus; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Trehan, Indi; Maleta, Kenneth; Manary, Mark

    2011-03-20

    Nutrition support programs that only focus upon better complementary feeding remain an insufficient means of limiting growth faltering in vulnerable populations of children. To determine if symptoms of acute infections correlate with the incidence of growth faltering in rural Malawian children, the associations between fever, diarrhea, and cough with anthropometric measures of stunting, wasting, and underweight were investigated. Data were analyzed from a trial where 209 children were provided with adequate complementary food and followed fortnightly from 6-18 months of age. Linear mixed model analysis was used to test for associations. Diarrheal disease was inversely associated with changes in height-for-age Z-score (HAZ), mid-upper arm circumference Z-score (MUACZ), and weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ). Fever was also inversely associated with changes in MUACZ and WAZ. These results suggest that initiatives to reduce febrile and diarrheal diseases are needed in conjunction with improved complementary feeding to limit growth faltering in rural Malawi.

  8. Individual Differences in Lexical Processing at 18 Months Predict Vocabulary Growth in Typically Developing and Late-Talking Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Anne; Marchman, Virginia A.

    2012-01-01

    Using online measures of familiar word recognition in the looking-while-listening procedure, this prospective longitudinal study revealed robust links between processing efficiency and vocabulary growth from 18 to 30 months in children classified as typically developing (n = 46) and as "late talkers" (n = 36) at 18 months. Those late talkers who…

  9. The Goteborg Discotheque Fire: Posttraumatic Stress, and School Adjustment as Reported by the Primary Victims 18 Months Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broberg, Anders G.; Dyregrov, Atle; Lilled, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Background: On October 29, 1998, around 400 young people were gathered in an old warehouse in Goteborg, Sweden, for a discotheque party. A fire erupted and spread explosively. Adolescents were exposed to dreadful scenes inside and outside the building. In all, 63 young people were killed and 213 physically injured. An 18-month follow-up with 275…

  10. Alcoholics Anonymous and Relapse Prevention as Maintenance Strategies After Conjoint Behavioral Alcohol Treatment for Men: 18-Month Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety men with alcohol problems and their female partners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient conjoint treatments: alcohol behavioral couples therapy (ABCT), ABCT with relapse prevention techniques (RP/ABCT), or ABCT with interventions encouraging Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement (AA/ABCT). Couples were followed for 18 months after…

  11. CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICLES IN A RESIDENCE FOR 18 MONTHS IN 1999-2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous monitors were employed for 18 months in an occupied townhouse to measure ultrafine, fine, and coarse particles; air change rates; wind speed and direction; temperature; and relative humidity (RH). A main objective was to document short-term and long-term variation in...

  12. You Must Remember This: Effects of Video and Photograph Reminders on 18-Month-Olds' Event Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Ellyn G.; Hudson, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of video and photograph reinstatement on 18-month-olds' recall was assessed in 3 experiments. In Experiment 1, children learned to produce novel actions in a laboratory playroom, then returned 2 weeks later to either reenact the activities or watch a videotape of the actions. They were tested 10 weeks after reinstatement. Although…

  13. Function Words Constrain On-Line Recognition of Verbs and Nouns in French 18-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauvet, Elodie; Limissuri, Rita; Millotte, Severine; Skoruppa, Katrin; Cabrol, Dominique; Christophe, Anne

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment using the conditioned head-turn procedure, 18-month-old French-learning toddlers were trained to respond to either a target noun ("la balle"/"the ball") or a target verb ("je mange"/"I ea"t). They were then tested on target word recognition in two syntactic contexts: the target word was…

  14. Anaemia during pregnancy: impact on birth outcome and infant haemoglobin level during the first 18 months of life.

    PubMed

    Koura, Ghislain K; Ouedraogo, Smaïla; Le Port, Agnès; Watier, Laurence; Cottrell, Gilles; Guerra, José; Choudat, Isabelle; Rachas, Antoine; Bouscaillou, Julie; Massougbodji, Achille; Garcia, André

    2012-03-01

    To determine the effect of maternal anaemia on pregnancy outcome and describe its impact on infant haemoglobin level in the first 18 months of life, we conducted a prospective study of 617 pregnant women and their children in Benin. Prevalence of maternal anaemia at delivery was 39.5%, and 61.1% of newborns were anaemic at birth. Maternal anaemia was not associated with low birth weight [OR = 1.2 (0.6-2.2)] or preterm birth [OR = 1.3 (0.7-2.4)], whereas the newborn's anaemia was related to maternal anaemia [OR = 1.8 (1.2-2.5)]. There was no association between an infant's haemoglobin level until 18 months and maternal anaemia. However, malaria attacks during follow-up, male gender and sickle cell trait were all associated with a lower infant haemoglobin level until 18 months, whereas good infant feeding practices and a polygamous family were positively associated with a higher haemoglobin level during the first 18 months of life.

  15. Television Viewing Patterns in 6- to 18-Month-Olds: The Role of Caregiver-Infant Interactional Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Ashley E.; Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines coviewing of "Baby Mozart" by 6- to 18-month-old infants and their caregivers under naturalistic conditions. We had two questions. First, extending the method of Barr, Zack, Garcia, and Muentener (Infancy, 13 [2008], 30-56) to a younger population, we asked if age, prior exposure, and caregiver verbal input would predict…

  16. ACT Internet-based vs face-to-face? A randomized controlled trial of two ways to deliver Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for depressive symptoms: an 18-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, Päivi; Granlund, Anna; Siltanen, Sari; Ahonen, Suvi; Vitikainen, Minna; Tolvanen, Asko; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate two interventions based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for depressive symptoms: A face-to-face treatment (ACT group) was compared to a guided self-help treatment delivered via the Internet consisting of two assessment sessions (pre and post) and an ACT-based Internet program (iACT). Outpatients experiencing at least mild depressive symptoms were randomized to either approach. The iACT treatment group received access to an ACT-based Internet program and supportive web-based contact over a period of 6 weeks. The face-to-face group received ACT-based treatment once a week over the same period of time. In both groups, the results showed a significant effect on depression symptomatology, and general wellbeing after treatment and at the 18-month follow-up. However, the data indicated that the iACT group changed differently regarding depressive symptoms and wellbeing as compared to the face-to face ACT group. Results showed large pre-treatment to 18-month follow-up within-group effect sizes for all symptom measures in the iACT treatment group (1.59-2.08), and for most outcome measures in the face-to-face ACT group (1.12-1.37). This non-inferiority study provides evidence that guided Internet-delivered ACT intervention can be as effective as ACT-based face-to-face treatment for outpatients reporting depressive symptoms, and it may offer some advantages over a face-to-face intervention.

  17. Scheduling real-time, periodic jobs using imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay; Natarajan, Swaminathan

    1987-01-01

    A process is called a monotone process if the accuracy of its intermediate results is non-decreasing as more time is spent to obtain the result. The result produced by a monotone process upon its normal termination is the desired result; the error in this result is zero. External events such as timeouts or crashes may cause the process to terminate prematurely. If the intermediate result produced by the process upon its premature termination is saved and made available, the application may still find the result unusable and, hence, acceptable; such a result is said to be an imprecise one. The error in an imprecise result is nonzero. The problem of scheduling periodic jobs to meet deadlines on a system that provides the necessary programming language primitives and run-time support for processes to return imprecise results is discussed. This problem differs from the traditional scheduling problems since the scheduler may choose to terminate a task before it is completed, causing it to produce an acceptable but imprecise result. Consequently, the amounts of processor time assigned to tasks in a valid schedule can be less than the amounts of time required to complete the tasks. A meaningful formulation of this problem taking into account the quality of the overall result is discussed. Three algorithms for scheduling jobs for which the effects of errors in results produced in different periods are not cumulative are described, and their relative merits are evaluated.

  18. The sleeping chironomid: an insect survived 18 months of exposure to outer space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Oleg; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Sychev, Vladimir; Novikova, Nataliya; Sugimoto, Manabu; Malyutina, Ludmila; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    Anhydrobiosis is an ametabolic state of life entered by an organism in response to desiccation. There are only few groups of higher invertebrates capable to survival complete water loss. An African chironomid Polypedilum vanderpalnki is the only anhydrobiotic insect. Larvae of this sleeping chironomid living in temporary pools in semi-arid areas on the African continent become completely desiccated upon drought, but can revive after water becomes available upon the next rain. Dry larvae can revive after several decades of anhydrobiosis and show cross-resistance to different environmental stresses, including temperature fluctuation, high doses of ionizing radiation and organic solvents. This enormous resistance of the sleeping chironomid to extreme environments points to the high probability of their survival and transfer across outer space and makes this species promising model organism for astrobiological studies. In period from 2005 to 2010 the sleeping chironomid was utilized as a model organism in experiments on resistance of resting stages of invertebrates to space environment both inside of ISS ("Aquarium" research program) and on the outer side of ISS ("Biorisk-2" and "EXPOSE-R" experiments) . In the present report we mainly focus on results of "Biorisk-2" experiment where there containers with anhydrobiotic larvae were continuously exposed to outer space environment. Container 1 (FC1) remained exposed to outer space for 405 days (from June 6, 2007 to July 15, 2008), Container 2 (FC2) for 566 days (from June 6, 2007 to December 23, 2008), and Container 3 (FC3) is expected to be returning to the Earth later this year. First analysis of the larvae from the first two containers FC1 and FC2 showed that the sleeping chironomid have succesfully survived the continous space exposure comparable with duration of interpanetary spaceflight and recovered both biomolecules and cells complexes upon rehydration

  19. Overnight Polysomnographic Characteristics and Oxygen Saturation of Healthy Infants, 1 to 18 Months of Age, Born and Residing At High Altitude (2,640 Meters)

    PubMed Central

    Bazurto-Zapata, María A.; Gozal, David; González-García, Mauricio; Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 8% of the world population resides above 1,600 m, with about 10 million people living above 2,500 m in Colombia. However, reference values for polysomnography (PSG) and oxygen saturation (Spo2) of children < 2 years old residing at high altitude are currently unavailable. METHODS: Healthy infants aged 1 to 18 months born and residing at high altitude (Bogotá: 2,640 m) underwent overnight PSG. Four age groups were defined: group 1, < 45 days; group 2, 3 to 4 months; group 3, 6 to 7 months; and group 4, 10 to 18 months. Of 122 children enrolled, 50 had three consecutive PSG tests and were analyzed as a longitudinal subcohort. RESULTS: A total of 281 PSG tests were performed in 122 infants (56% girls): group 1, 106 PSG tests; group 2, 89 PSG tests; group 3, 61 PSG tests; and group 4, 25 PSG tests. Active sleep diminished and quiet sleep increased with maturation. Apnea-hypopnea indexes (total, central, and obstructive) were highest in group 1 (21.4, 12.4, and 6.8/h total sleep time, respectively) and diminished with age (P < .001). Mean Spo2 during waking and sleep increased with age (P < .001). Nadir Spo2 values during respiratory events were lower in younger infants. Longitudinal assessments of 50 infants confirmed the temporal trends described for the cross-sectional dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy infants (≤ 18 months old) born and residing at high altitude show preserved sleep architecture but higher apnea-hypopnea indexes and more prominent desaturation with respiratory events than do those living at low altitude. The current study findings can be used as reference values for infants at high altitude. PMID:25811138

  20. Speech preference is associated with autistic-like behavior in 18-months-olds at risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-09-01

    We examined whether infants' preference for speech at 12 months is associated with autistic-like behaviors at 18 months in infants who are at increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have an older sibling diagnosed with ASD and in low-risk infants. Only low-risk infants listened significantly longer to speech than to nonspeech at 12 months. In both groups, relative preference for speech correlated positively with general cognitive ability at 12 months. However, in high-risk infants only, preference for speech was associated with autistic-like behavior at 18 months, while in low-risk infants, preference for speech correlated with language abilities. This suggests that in children at risk for ASD an atypical species-specific bias for speech may underlie atypical social development.

  1. Predicting Elements of Early Maternal Elaborative Discourse from 12 to 18 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontai, Lenna L.; Virmani, Elita Amini

    2010-01-01

    To date, much of the research investigating maternal-child discourse has focused on the preschool period of children's development, with little attention paid to how these styles develop. The current study aimed to assess whether maternal elaborative discourse elements seen in preschool are also evident during the toddler years, and whether the…

  2. Significance of indoor environment for the development of allergic symptoms in children followed up to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, D; Andersson, K; Fagerlund, I; Kjellman, N I

    1996-11-01

    The development of symptoms possibly related to allergy or other forms of hypersensitivity was studied in a group of 638 children on two occasions: when the children were 3 and 18 months of age. Standardized questions were used to collect basic information about the child, technical characteristics of the home, and the mother's perception of the indoor climate. All reported exposure factors were analyzed in relation to the child's symptoms at 18 months of age, by logistic regression techniques. A family history of atopy was associated with a high incidence of most of the investigated symptoms. Attendance at a day nursery before 18 months of age increased the risk of recurrent colds and the need for several courses of treatment with antibiotics. If the mother smoked, the children more often suffered from protracted coughing episodes. If the child has a sibling, the risk of developing a wheeze, repeated colds, and the need for antibiotic treatment increased. No building factors, such as size of the home, heating and ventilation system, type of foundation, dampness, or presence of wall-to-wall carpets, showed a significant correlation to symptoms reported in the children. However, if the mothers reported symptoms that are often connected with "sick buildings", the children more often had eczema, dry skin, or reactions to food. The mothers' complaints about indoor air quality and climate and mucous membrane symptoms were significantly related to the type of building and presence of condensation on the windows in winter, a finding which may indicate that indoor climate factors also have some effect on the health of the children. This study reports the prevalences of symptoms until the age of 18 months. At this age, the allergic manifestations are usually nonspecific, and follow-up examinations to 4-5 years of age are needed before any definite conclusions can be drawn about the development of atopic diseases due to indoor climate factors.

  3. Expectancies of success as a predictor of negative symptoms reduction over 18 months in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Luther, Lauren; Fukui, Sadaaki; Firmin, Ruth L; McGuire, Alan B; White, Dominique A; Minor, Kyle S; Salyers, Michelle P

    2015-09-30

    Negative symptoms are often enduring and lead to poor functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia. The cognitive model of negative symptoms proposes that low expectancies of success contribute to the development and maintenance of negative symptoms; however, longitudinal investigations assessing these beliefs and negative symptoms are needed. The current study examined whether an individual's baseline expectancies of success - one's beliefs about future success and goal attainment - predicted negative symptoms reduction over 18 months in individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n=118). Data were collected at baseline, 9 months, and 18 months as part of a randomized controlled trial of Illness Management and Recovery. A mixed effects regression analysis revealed a significant reduction in negative symptoms over time, with a significant interaction effect between time and baseline expectancies of success. After controlling for baseline negative symptoms, demographic variables, and treatment conditions, those with high and moderate baseline expectancies of success evidenced a significant reduction in negative symptoms at 18 months, while those with low baseline expectancies of success did not evidence reduced negative symptoms. Findings support the cognitive model of negative symptoms and suggest that expectancies of success may be a useful treatment target for interventions aimed at reducing negative symptoms.

  4. MEDiterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project: state of the art and main achievements after the first 18 months

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spampinato, Letizia; Allard, Patrick; Baills, Audrey; Briole, Pierre; D'Auria, Luca; Dingwell, Donald; Martini, Marcello; Kueppers, Ulrich; Marzocchi, Warner; Minet, Christian; Vagner, Amélie

    2015-04-01

    Taking account of the valuable resources and information available for Mt. Etna, Campi Flegrei, and Vesuvius Supersites, MED-SUV aims at exploiting the huge record of geophysical, geochemical and volcanological data available for the three Supersite volcanoes and carry out experiments to fill gaps in the knowledge of the structure of these volcanoes and of the processes driving their activity. The project's activities have focused on (1) gaining new insights into the inner structure of these volcanoes; (2) evaluating the suitability of the current EO and in-situ observations to track the dynamics of the volcano supply system and/or the eruptive phenomena, (3) making the access to observations easy; (4) defining the effects of magma ascent on the stress/strain field (and vice versa); (5) assessing the capability of the Earth science community to forecast the occurrence of eruptions in terms of both location and time of an eruption; (6) optimizing the chain from observations to end-users during an eruptive event; and (7) making the project outcomes "exportable" to other European volcanic areas and elsewhere. Indeed, the overall goal of the project is to apply the rationale of the Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories GEO-GEOSS initiative to the three volcanoes, in order to better assess the volcanic hazards they posed. In the first 18 months, MED-SUV consortium carried out activities relating to coordination, scientific/technological development, and dissemination. Coordination included mainly meetings organised in order to start the project and consortium activity and to strengthen the synergy with EC and international initiatives, such as geohazard activities of GEO-GEOSS, EPOS-PP and the other two FP7 Supersite projects, MARsite and FUTUREVOLC. The main scientific/technological results included the design and development of a prototype (NETVIS) for the optimization and implementation of processing tools for the analysis of Mt. Etna's camera network, design

  5. Association between feeding methods and sucking habits: a cross-sectional study of infants in their first 18 months of life.

    PubMed

    Yonezu, Takuro; Arano-Kojima, Taiko; Kumazawa, Kaido; Shintani, Seikou

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate infant feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding methods on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Japanese infants. A random sample of 353 mothers of infants of 18 months of age was interviewed at a public health facility in "K" city. The prevalence and duration of infant feeding patterns categorized as breast-feeding, partial breast-feeding, and bottle-feeding, were determined. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits (pacifier use and finger sucking). The data were analyzed using the Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons to assess possible association between feeding method and non-nutritive sucking behavior. The infants were categorized into the following groups depending on feeding method: breast-feeding (27.2%), partial breast-feeding (32.0%), or bottle-feeding (40.8%). Among all infants, 13.9% used a pacifier, 18.4% sucked their fingers, and 0.3% had both habits at 18 months of age. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and finger sucking. In contrast, bottle-feeding was strongly associated with pacifier use and finger sucking. These results suggest that breast-feeding provides benefits to infants, and that non-nutritive sucking habits may be avoided by promoting correct breast-feeding practices.

  6. Estrogen secreting adrenal adenocarcinoma in an 18-month-old boy: aromatase activity, protein expression, mRNA and utilization of gonadal type promoter.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Yasuda, T; Noda, H; Wada, K; Kazukawa, I; Someya, T; Minamitani, K; Minagawa, M; Wataki, K; Matsunaga, T; Ohnuma, N; Kohno, Y; Harada, N

    2000-12-01

    We examined clinical, endocrinological and molecular biological aspects of an estrogen-secreting adrenal carcinoma in an 18-month-old male to clarify the pathogenesis of this condition. An 18-month-old boy was referred for evaluation of progressive bilateral gynecomastia and appearance of pubic hair. The patient had elevated plasma estradiol (349 pg/ml) and testosterone (260 ng/dl) levels that completely suppressed FSH and LH levels, and was subsequently diagnosed with an adrenal tumor on the right side. After removal of a 300-g adenocarcinoma, gynecomastia regressed and essentially normal hormone levels were restored. Aromatase activity in the tumor tissue determined by the 3H-water method was 71.0-104.4 pmol/min/mg protein. High levels of aromatase protein and mRNA in the tumor tissue were also demonstrated, while neither aromatase activity nor protein was detected in normal adrenal glands. To investigate the regulation of aromatase expression in the adrenal carcinoma, we examined the usage of alternate promoters responsible for aromatase gene transcription. In the present case, the amounts of aromatase mRNA utilizing gonadal types of exon 1c (1.3) and 1d (II) were significantly higher than those that using other exon 1s. This result suggested that the utilization of a gonadal-type exon 1 might be involved in the over-production of aromatase in estrogen-secreting adrenal carcinoma.

  7. Amyloid-Related Memory Decline in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease Is Dependent on APOE ε4 and Is Detectable over 18-Months.

    PubMed

    Thai, Christine; Lim, Yen Ying; Villemagne, Victor L; Laws, Simon M; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Maruff, Paul

    2015-01-01

    High levels of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain and carriage of the APOE ε4 allele have each been linked to cognitive impairment in cognitively normal (CN) older adults. However, the relationship between these two biomarkers and cognitive decline is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cerebral Aβ level, APOE ε4 carrier status, and cognitive decline over 18 months, in 317 cognitively healthy (CN) older adults (47.6% males, 52.4% females) aged between 60 and 89 years (Mean = 69.9, SD = 6.8). Cognition was assessed using the Cogstate Brief Battery (CBB) and the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II). Planned comparisons indicated that CN older adults with high Aβ who were also APOE ε4 carriers demonstrated the most pronounced decline in learning and working memory. In CN older adults who were APOE ε4 non-carriers, high Aβ was unrelated to cognitive decline in learning and working memory. Carriage of APOE ε4 in CN older adults with low Aβ was associated with a significantly increased rate of decline in learning and unexpectedly, improved cognitive performance on measures of verbal episodic memory over 18 months. These results suggest that Aβ and APOE ε4 interact to increase the rate of cognitive decline in CN older adults and provide further support for the use of Aβ and APOE ε4 as biomarkers of early Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Clinical Evaluation of an Acrylic Pontic ’Adhesively’ Bonded to Uncut Abutment Teeth: 18 Month Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-23

    prosthesis is as esthetieally pleasing, as effective, and as durable as the muco-adhesive partial denture it would presumably supplant. FINDINGS...temporary) partial dentures were previously constructed. ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION This investigation was conducted as part of Bureau of Medi- cine...chairside without laboratory support, is suggested for use in place of muco- adhesion partial dentures (flippers). The durability of these

  9. Effect of omega-3 fatty acid concentrations in plasma on symptoms of asthma at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Mihrshahi, Seema; Peat, Jennifer K; Webb, Karen; Oddy, Wendy; Marks, Guy B; Mellis, Craig M

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relation between observed levels of omega-3 fatty acids in plasma and symptoms of asthma and atopy in children at 18 months of age. A total of 616 women at risk of having a child who would develop asthma because of a family history were recruited from the antenatal clinics of six hospitals in Sydney, Australia. Families were randomized to either active omega-3 supplemented or control group. The active group received a daily tuna fish oil supplement and omega-3-rich margarines and cooking oils and the control group received a placebo supplement with polyunsaturated margarines and cooking oils. When the children were 18 months of age an assessment of symptoms was carried out by a research nurse blinded to treatment group allocation. Atopy was measured by skin prick tests, blood was collected to determine serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), and plasma fatty acid concentrations. A total of 376 children (61.0% of total recruited) completed an assessment at 18 months and had blood taken to determine plasma fatty acid concentrations. Omega-3 fatty acid levels were expressed in quintiles of exposure 'as treated' without reference to treatment group allocation. Wheeze ever, doctor visits for wheeze, bronchodilator use and nocturnal coughing were significantly reduced in children in the higher exposure quintiles. Serum IgE was reduced in the highest quintile but not significantly so. There was no difference in diagnosed asthma or atopy between the exposure quintiles. Although wheeze at this age may not be a good indicator of asthma in later childhood, it is encouraging that some symptoms have been reduced in children with high omega-3 fatty acid concentrations in plasma.

  10. Revised surveillance case definitions for HIV infection among adults, adolescents, and children aged <18 months and for HIV infection and AIDS among children aged 18 months to <13 years--United States, 2008.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Eileen; Whitmore, Suzanne; Glynn, Kathleen M; Dominguez, Kenneth; Mitsch, Andrew; McKenna, Matthew T

    2008-12-05

    For adults and adolescents (i.e., persons aged >/=13 years), the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection classification system and the surveillance case definitions for HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been revised and combined into a single case definition for HIV infection. In addition, the HIV infection case definition for children aged <13 years and the AIDS case definition for children aged 18 months to <13 years have been revised. No changes have been made to the HIV infection classification system, the 24 AIDS-defining conditions for children aged <13 years, or the AIDS case definition for children aged <18 months. These case definitions are intended for public health surveillance only and not as a guide for clinical diagnosis. Public health surveillance data are used primarily for monitoring the HIV epidemic and for planning on a population level, not for making clinical decisions for individual patients. CDC and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists recommend that all states and territories conduct case surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS using the 2008 surveillance case definitions, effective immediately.

  11. Psoriasiform Diaper Rash Possibly Induced by Oral Propranolol in an 18-Month-Old Girl with Infantile Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Baggio, Raphaëlle; Le Treut, Claire; Darrieux, Laure; Vareliette, Amélie; Safa, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Propranolol, a nonselective blocker of β-adrenergic receptors, has become the first-line treatment for complicated infantile hemangiomas. Therefore, its use in the pediatric population has expanded in recent years. In adults, β-blockers have been reported to be the most common causative agents for drug-induced psoriasis. In infants treated with propranolol for infantile hemangioma, the onset of psoriasiform diaper rash has not yet been reported. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of psoriasiform diaper rash possibly induced by oral propranolol in an 18-month-old girl with no family history of psoriasis.

  12. Psoriasiform Diaper Rash Possibly Induced by Oral Propranolol in an 18-Month-Old Girl with Infantile Hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Raphaëlle; Le Treut, Claire; Darrieux, Laure; Vareliette, Amélie; Safa, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Propranolol, a nonselective blocker of β-adrenergic receptors, has become the first-line treatment for complicated infantile hemangiomas. Therefore, its use in the pediatric population has expanded in recent years. In adults, β-blockers have been reported to be the most common causative agents for drug-induced psoriasis. In infants treated with propranolol for infantile hemangioma, the onset of psoriasiform diaper rash has not yet been reported. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of psoriasiform diaper rash possibly induced by oral propranolol in an 18-month-old girl with no family history of psoriasis.

  13. European collaboration for improved monitoring of Icelandic volcanoes: Status of the FUTUREVOLC project after the initial 18 months

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Stéphanie; Parks, Michelle; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Vogfjörð, Kristín; Einarsdóttir, Heiðveig Maria; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnús; Kristinsson, Ingvar; Loughlin, Sue; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Hooper, Andrew; Kylling, Arve; Witham, Claire; Bean, Chris; Braiden, Aoife; Ripepe, Maurizio; Prata, Fred; Pétur Heiðarsson, Einar; Other Members Of The Futurevolc Team

    2014-05-01

    The FUTUREVOLC project funded by the European Union (FP7) is devoted to volcanic hazard assessment and establishing an integrated volcanological monitoring procedure through a European collaboration. To reach these objectives the project combines broad expertise from 26 partners from 10 countries, focusing on the four most active volcanoes of Iceland: Grímsvötn, Katla, Hekla and Bárdarbunga. The geological setting of Iceland, the high rate of eruptions and the various eruption styles make this country an optimal natural laboratory to study volcanic processes from crustal depths to the atmosphere. The project, which began on 1 October 2012, integrates advanced monitoring and analytical techniques in an innovative way, focusing on (i) detailed monitoring to improve our understanding of the seismic/magmatic unrest, in order to estimate the amount of magma available for an eruption and to provide early warnings (ii) the dynamics of magma in the conduit and a near real time estimation of the mass eruption rate and (iii) observing and modelling the plume dynamics. The project design considers effective collaboration between partners and aims for efficient cross-disciplinary workflows. A major step during the first 18 months of the project was the installation of additional equipment in the volcanic regions of Iceland to reinforce and complement the existing monitoring. The instruments include: seismometers, GPS stations, MultigGAS detectors, DOAS, infrasonic arrays, electric field sensors, radars, and optical particle sizers. Data streaming is designed to withstand extreme weather conditions. The FUTUREVOLC project has an open data policy for real and near-time data. Implementation of a data hub is currently under way, based on open access to data from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Access to volcano monitoring data through a common interface will allow timely information on magma movements facilitated through combined analysis. A key part of the project is to

  14. Can Severely Language Delayed 3-Year-Olds Be Identified at 18 Months? Evaluation of a Screening Version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerlund, Monica; Berglund, Eva; Eriksson, Marten

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a screening instrument (the Swedish Communication Screening at 18 months of age; SCS18), derived from the Swedish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, in identification of 18-month-old children who will be severely language disabled by 3 years of age, the authors (a) analyzed which SCS18's…

  15. Teacher autonomy support reduces adolescent anxiety and depression: An 18-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chengfu; Li, Xian; Wang, Shujun; Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Grounded in stage-environment fit theory, this study adopts a longitudinal design to examine the contribution of autonomy support from teachers to reducing adolescent anxiety and depression. A total of 236 Chinese adolescents (57.38% females, Mage = 14.34) completed questionnaires on teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, school engagement, anxiety, and depression in the fall and spring semesters of their 7th and 8th grade years. The results showed that teacher autonomy support in the fall of 7th grade boosted basic psychological needs satisfaction in the spring of 7th grade; this, in turn, increased school engagement in the fall of 8th grade, which subsequently decreased anxiety and depression in the spring of 8th grade. These findings demonstrated the significant effect of teacher autonomy support on reducing adolescent anxiety and depression; furthermore, it highlighted the mediating roles of basic psychological needs satisfaction and school engagement in this relationship.

  16. Marfan and cri du chat syndromes in an 18-month-old child: evidence of phenotype interaction.

    PubMed

    McClellan, M W; Golden, W L; Wilson, W G

    1994-10-01

    We report on an 18-month-old girl who has both the cri du chat and Marfan syndromes. She was born at term to a 29-year-old woman with the clinical diagnosis of Marfan syndrome. An evaluation for developmental delay at 2 months of age showed a karyotype of 46,XX,del(5)(15.1), consistent with cri du chat syndrome. At age 18 months she was tall (90 cm, > 95th centile), with an decreased upper segment:lower segment ratio (1.0), and microcephalic (OFC 42.5 cm, < 5th centile). Facial features were typical of cri du chat syndrome. The palm, middle finger and foot lengths were at or above the 95th centile for age. She was hypotonic, and her developmental level was approximately 8-10 months. Echocardiography showed redundant mitral valve tissue, mild mitral insufficiency, dilated aortic sinuses, and a small muscular VSD. We would have anticipated that a patient with an autosomal deletion who also had Marfan syndrome would have had growth failure. However, in this patient the skeletal features of Marfan syndrome (increased body length, decreased upper segment:lower segment ratio, and increased palm, finger, and foot length) predominate.

  17. Colour of muscle from 18-month-old steers given long-term daily exercise.

    PubMed

    Dunne, P G; O'Mara, F P; Monahan, F J; French, P; Moloney, A P

    2005-10-01

    Darker beef from pasture-fed compared with grain-fed cattle may result from differences in physical activity rather than differences in nutrition. The objective was to determine if steers that were exercised produced darker meat than non-exercised steers and whether any effect was muscle-related. Exercised steers were walked 4.41 km daily in a single bout, six days per week for 18 weeks at an average speed of 5.2 kmh(-1). All steers were fed grass silage on an ad libitum basis plus 6 kg concentrates. Following slaughter, muscle colour coordinates ('L' (lightness), 'a' (redness) and 'b' (yellowness) values) of M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM) and M. extensor carpi radialis (ECR) were recorded at 48 h postmortem and redness and yellowness were used to calculate muscle hue ('H') and colour intensity/saturation ('C'). The pH of all muscles was measured at 1.5, 3, 6, 22 and 48 h postmortem and LD samples were recovered (90 min postmortem) for glycolytic potential (GP) assessment. Exercise did not affect muscle lightness, yellowness, hue or colour intensity. However, LD was the darkest (P<0.001) and SM the most saturated (P<0.001) muscle. Exercise affected muscle redness in a muscle-dependent manner (muscle×exercise, P=0.038) whereby ECR became more red with exercise but LD and SM were unaffected. There were muscle×time (P<0.001) and time×exercise (P=0.045) interactions for muscle pH. The ECR muscle had the highest pH at all times. The exercised steers had higher (P<0.05) LD muscle pH than control steers at 3 and 6 h postmortem. Exercise did not affect myoglobin concentration, which was muscle dependent, decreasing in the order: SM (6.72 mg/g)>ECR (6.33 mg/g)>LD (5.48 mg/g), which were all different (P<0.001). Exercise had no effect on GP in LD muscle (111 vs. 99 μmol/g for control and exercised steers, respectively; SED=6.6 μmol/g). It was concluded that although application of exercise did not affect muscle lightness and thus, did not cause

  18. Increased Prevalence of Human Polyomavirus JC Viruria in Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases Patients in Treatment with Anti-TNF α: A 18 Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodio, Donatella Maria; Anzivino, Elena; Mischitelli, Monica; Bellizzi, Anna; Scrivo, Rossana; Scribano, Daniela; Conte, Gianlorenzo; Prezioso, Carla; Trancassini, Maria; Valesini, Guido; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Pietropaolo, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRDs) are immune-mediated pathologies involving joints. To date, TNFα-blocking agents administration is the most promising therapy, although these treatments are associated with an increased Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) reactivation, the etiological agent of the Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). The aim of this study was the recruitment and the analysis of a CIRDs cohort in order to investigate a possible correlation between JCPyV presence and the influence of anti-TNF-α agents on viral loads. Blood and urine samples were collected from 34 CIRDs subjects prior the first anti-TNF-α infusion (T0) and after 3 (T3), 6 (T6), 12 (T12), and 18 (T18) months. Results showed persistent JC viruria significantly higher than JC viremia throughout the 18 month follow-up study (p = 0.002). In JCPyV positive samples, the non-coding control region (NCCR) was analyzed. Results evidenced archetypal structures (type II-S) in all isolates with the exception of a sequence isolated from a plasma sample, that corresponds to the type II-R found in PML subjects. Finally, the viral protein 1 (VP1) genotyping was performed and results showed the prevalence of the European genotypes 1A, 1B, and 4. Since only few studies have been carried out to understand whether there is a PML risk in CIRDs population infected by JCPyV, this study contributes to enrich literature insight on JCPyV biology in this cluster. Further investigations are necessary in order to recognize the real impact of biologics on JCPyV life cycle and to identify possible and specific viral variants related to increased virulence in CIRDs patients. PMID:27242700

  19. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  20. Disruption of Memory Reconsolidation Erases a Fear Memory Trace in the Human Amygdala: An 18-Month Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Björkstrand, Johannes; Agren, Thomas; Frick, Andreas; Engman, Jonas; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Furmark, Tomas; Fredrikson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Fear memories can be attenuated by reactivation followed by disrupted reconsolidation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we recently showed that reactivation and reconsolidation of a conditioned fear memory trace in the basolateral amygdala predicts subsequent fear expression over two days, while reactivation followed by disrupted reconsolidation abolishes the memory trace and suppresses fear. In this follow-up study we demonstrate that the behavioral effect persists over 18 months reflected in superior reacquisition after undisrupted, as compared to disrupted reconsolidation, and that neural activity in the basolateral amygdala representing the initial fear memory predicts return of fear. We conclude that disrupting reconsolidation have long lasting behavioral effects and may permanently erase the fear component of an amygdala-dependent memory.

  1. Oral mucormycosis in an 18-month-old child: a rare case report with a literature review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oral mucormycosis is a fungal infection observed mainly in elderly immunocompromised patients. In rare instances, the disease occurs in healthy individuals and those patients that are below preschool age. Although this condition mainly involves the maxilla, it may also manifest in any part of the oral cavity based on the source of infection. Mucormycosis of the maxilla spreads rapidly, leading to necrosis of the palatal bone and palatal perforation. Such patients are usually rehabilitated using bone grafting or free flap surgeries. However, when surgeries are delayed, palatal prosthesis is an interim treatment modality that can prevent nasal regurgitation and aspiration of food or fluids. Palatal prostheses also help with mastication, speech, and swallowing. The present case describes a rare case of oral mucormycosis in an 18-month-old male involving the maxilla that was managed by palatal prosthesis. PMID:27162751

  2. Development assessment of HIV exposed children aged 6-18 months: a cohort study from North India.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Remya; Seth, Anju; Mukherjee, Sharmila B; Chandra, Jagdish

    2017-03-05

    HIV exposed children are vulnerable to developmental delay irrespective of their HIV status due to combined effect of risk factors like poverty, prenatal drug exposure, stress and chronic illness in family and malnutrition. This cohort study assessed the development of 50 HIV exposed children aged 6-18 months at a Pediatric Centre of Excellence in HIV care in India. The development was assessed using Development Assessment Scale for Indian Infants (DASII) at enrolment, 3 and 6 months later. The development quotient (DQ) scores and proportion of children with developmental delay (DQ ≤ 70) were compared among two sub-groups, HIV infected (HI) and HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) children. The various social and clinical factors affecting development were studied by univariate and multivariate analysis. Prevalence of developmental delay was 2.4% in the HEU (n = 41), and 33.3% in HI (n = 9). The DQ of HI was significantly lower than that of HEU at all three assessments. The DQ of HI were also significantly lower compared to the HEU at ages 12.1-18 months (83.37 ± 20.73 vs 94.68 ± 5.13, p = 0.005) and 18.1-24 months (84.55 ± 15.35 vs 94.63 ± 5.86, p = 0.006) respectively. The development of HEU was adversely affected by lower socioeconomic status and presence of wasting. In addition, development of HI was also adversely influenced by presence of stunting and opportunistic infections, advanced disease stage and shorter ART duration. We conclude that with optimum care, HEU can have a normal development, while a considerable proportion of HI may continue to have delayed development.

  3. Rigorous KAM results around arbitrary periodic orbits for Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapela, Tomasz; Simó, Carles

    2017-03-01

    We set up a methodology for computer assisted proofs of the existence and the KAM stability of an arbitrary periodic orbit for Hamiltonian systems. We give two examples of application for systems with two and three degrees of freedom. The first example verifies the existence of tiny elliptic islands inside large chaotic domains for a quartic potential. In the 3-body problem we prove the KAM stability of the well-known figure eight orbit and two selected orbits of the so called family of rotating eights. Some additional theoretical and numerical information is also given for the dynamics of both examples.

  4. Child-directed teaching and social learning at 18 months of age: evidence from Yucatec Mayan and US infants.

    PubMed

    Shneidman, Laura; Gaskins, Suzanne; Woodward, Amanda

    2016-05-01

    In several previous studies, 18-month-old infants who were directly addressed demonstrated more robust imitative behaviors than infants who simply observed another's actions, leading theorists to suggest that child-directed interactions carried unique informational value. However, these data came exclusively from cultural communities where direct teaching is commonplace, raising the possibility that the findings reflect regularities in infants' social experiences rather than responses to innate or a priori learning mechanisms. The current studies consider infants' imitative learning from child-directed teaching and observed interaction in two cultural communities, a Yucatec Mayan village where infants have been described as experiencing relatively limited direct instruction (Study 1) and a US city where infants are regularly directly engaged (Study 2). Eighteen-month-old infants from each community participated in a within-subjects study design where they were directly taught to use novel objects on one day and observed actors using different objects on another day. Mayan infants showed relative increases in imitative behaviors on their second visit to the lab as compared to their first visit, but there was no effect of condition. US infants showed no difference in imitative behavior in the child-directed vs. observed conditions; however, infants who were directly addressed on their first visit showed significantly higher overall imitation rates than infants who observed on their first visit. Together, these findings call into question the idea that child-directed teaching holds automatic or universal informational value.

  5. Maternal employment, child care, and nutritional status of 12-18-month-old children in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Lamontagne, J F; Engle, P L; Zeitlin, M F

    1998-02-01

    Relationships among women's employment, child care strategies, and nutritional status of children 12-18 months of age were examined in 80 Nicaraguan households sampled by randomized block design in 10 low income urban communities. Multiple regression analyses showed that children of employed mothers (56%) fared better in weight/height than those whose mothers were not employed, with and without controlling for socioeconomic status and maternal education, paternal financial support, child care adequacy, and sex and age of the child. Children with inadequate alternate child care (care by a preteen or care at the work place) had lower height for age, even controlling for the same variables and for maternal employment. Differences in 10 caregiving behaviors between families as a function of work status of the mother and adequacy of child care were examined. In families with working mothers, caregivers were less likely to be observed washing their hands, suggesting that the positive associations of work for earnings might be due to income rather than improved care. Inadequate care was associated with less food variety, less use of health care, and marginally less hand-washing. Inadequate child care, which tends to be associated with informal work, nuclear families and poverty, should be a concern for child welfare.

  6. A virtual reality intervention (Second Life) to improve weight maintenance: Rationale and design for an 18-month randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, D K; Goetz, J R; Gibson, C A; Mayo, M S; Washburn, R A; Lee, Y; Ptomey, L T; Donnelly, J E

    2016-01-01

    Despite the plethora of weight loss programs available in the US, the prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI≥25kg/m(2)) among US adults continues to rise at least, in part, due to the high probability of weight regain following weight loss. Thus, the development and evaluation of novel interventions designed to improve weight maintenance are clearly needed. Virtual reality environments offer a promising platform for delivering weight maintenance interventions as they provide rapid feedback, learner experimentation, real-time personalized task selection and exploration. Utilizing virtual reality during weight maintenance allows individuals to engage in repeated experiential learning, practice skills, and participate in real-life scenarios without real-life repercussions, which may diminish weight regain. We will conduct an 18-month effectiveness trial (6 months weight loss, 12 months weight maintenance) in 202 overweight/obese adults (BMI 25-44.9kg/m(2)). Participants who achieve ≥5% weight loss following a 6month weight loss intervention delivered by phone conference call will be randomized to weight maintenance interventions delivered by conference call or conducted in a virtual environment (Second Life®). The primary aim of the study is to compare weight change during maintenance between the phone conference call and virtual groups. Secondarily, potential mediators of weight change including energy and macronutrient intake, physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables, self-efficacy for both physical activity and diet, and attendance and completion of experiential learning assignments will also be assessed.

  7. AN EVALUATION OF CEREBRAL AND SYSTEMIC PREDICTORS OF 18 MONTH OUTCOMES FOR NEONATES WITH HYPOXIC ISCHEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Shellhaas, Renée A.; Kushwaha, Juhi S.; Plegue, Melissa A.; Selewski, David T.; DE Barks, John

    2015-01-01

    Amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) is a commonly-used predictor of outcome after hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Cerebral and systemic near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and acute kidney injury (AKI) might also have prognostic value. We monitored neonates with aEEG, cerebral and systemic NIRS during therapeutic hypothermia, assigned an AKI stage, and measured neurodevelopmental outcome. For 18 infants, cerebral NIRS variables did not differentiate between those with favorable (N=13) versus adverse (death or moderate-severe disability; N=5) 18-month outcomes. However, systemic rSO2 variability was higher during hours 48–72 of cooling among those with favorable outcomes (0.020.05). aEEG is a useful prognostic tool for outcomes after neonatal HIE, but the role of NIRS in the hypothermia-treated population remains uncertain. PMID:25724376

  8. A virtual reality intervention (second life) to improve weight maintenance: Rationale and design for an 18 month randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, DK; Goetz, JR; Gibson, CA; Mayo, MS; Washburn, RA; Lee, Y; Ptomey, LT; Donnelly, JE

    2015-01-01

    Despite the plethora of weight loss programs available in the US, the prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) among US adults continues to rise at least, in part, due to the high probability of weight regain following weight loss. Thus, the development and evaluation of novel interventions designed to improve weight maintenance is clearly needed. Virtual reality environments offer a promising platform for delivering weight maintenance interventions as they provide rapid feedback, learner experimentation, real-time personalized task selection and exploration. Utilizing virtual reality during weight maintenance allows individuals to engage in repeated experiential learning, practice skills, and participate in real-life scenarios without reallife repercussions, which may diminish weight regain. We will conduct an 18-month effectiveness trial (6 months weight loss, 12 months weight maintenance) in 202 overweight/obese adults (BMI 25–44.9 kg/m2). Participants who achieve ≥ 5% weight loss following a 6 month weight loss intervention delivered by phone conference call will be randomized to weight maintenance interventions delivered by conference call or conducted in a virtual environment (Second Life®). The primary aim of the study is to compare weight change during maintenance between the phone conference call and virtual groups. Secondarily, potential mediators of weight change including energy and macronutrient intake, physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables, self-efficacy for both physical activity and diet, and attendance and completion of experiential learning assignments will also be assessed. PMID:26616535

  9. Update to SAND2007-0095, SAND2007-1789P, and SAND2007-7165P: 18-Month 70°C Aging Study of HiTop Hydrogen Getter for WSRC

    SciTech Connect

    Buffleben, George M.; Nissen, April; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2008-05-01

    Hydrogen getters were tested for use in storage of plutonium-bearing materials in accordance with DOE's Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium Bearing Materials. The original studies, documented in Sandia Report SAND2007-0095, included HiTop getter material aged for 3 months at 70°C. This material was aged for an additional 3 months for a total of 6 months at 70°C, and the performance of the getter was evaluated again and documented in Sandia Report SAND2007-1789P. This material was then aged for an additional 7 months for a total of 13 months at 70°C, and the performance of the getter under recombination and gettering conditions was evaluated. A sample of the 13 months aged getter was exposed to radiation at SRNL, and the performance of this sample was also evaluated. The results of the 13 months study is reported in SAND2007-7165P. The HiTop material was aged for an additional 5 months for a total of 18 months. This material was split into two samples with the second sample being exposed to radiation at SRNL. The performance of the 18 month aged HiTop material is covered in this report. The 18-month aged material showed similar performance under gettering conditions to the previously aged material: the recombination rate is well above the required rate of 45 std. cc H2/h, and the gettering reaction occurs in the absence of oxygen at a slower rate. Both pressure drop measurements and 1H NMR analyses support these conclusions. 1H NMR analyses show extremely minor changes in the 18-month aged material, which can be possibly attributed to slight decomposition of the HiTop material or absorption of contaminants during the aging process.

  10. Safety and immunogenicity of two doses of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine or one dose of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine, both administered concomitantly with routine immunization to 12- to 18-month-old children

    PubMed Central

    Noya, Francisco; McCormack, Deirdre; Reynolds, Donna L; Neame, Dion; Oster, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the immunogenicity and safety of a two-dose series of a quadrivalent meningococcal (serogroups A, C, Y and W) polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACYW-D) administered to toddlers. METHODS: Children were randomly assigned (1:1) at study entry to receive MenACYW-D at 12 and 18 months of age (group 1; n=61) or meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine (MCC) at 12 months of age (group 2; n=62). All received routine childhood immunizations. A, C, Y and W antibody titres were measured in group 1 before and one month after the 18-month MenACYW-D vaccination and were measured in group 2 at one and seven months post-MCC vaccination. Antibodies elicited by diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed combined with inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine coadministered at the 18-month vaccination were measured one month later. Safety data were collected. RESULTS: At 19 months of age, ≥96% in group 1 achieved protective titres for the four meningococcal serogroups after dose 2; 67% in group 2 exhibited protective titres against serogroup C 28 days after MCC vaccination at 12 months of age, declining to 27% seven months later. DTaP-IPV-Hib elicited high antibody concentrations/titres in groups 1 and 2, consistent with historical values. The safety profiles after each dose generated no unexpected safety signals; no serious adverse events were related to vaccination. DISCUSSION: A two-dose series of MenACYW-D given concomitantly with a DTaP-IPV-Hib booster dose at 18 months of age demonstrated a good immunogenicity and safety profile. A two-dose series of MenACYW-D can be used as an alternative to one dose of MCC and provides protection against additional serogroups (NCT ID: NCT01359449). PMID:25285126

  11. Weight management for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities: rationale and design for an 18 month randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, J E; Saunders, R R; Saunders, M; Washburn, R A; Sullivan, D K; Gibson, C A; Ptomey, L T; Goetz, J R; Honas, J J; Betts, J L; Rondon, M R; Smith, B K; Mayo, M S

    2013-09-01

    Weight management for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) has received limited attention. Studies on weight management in this population have been conducted over short time frames, in small samples with inadequate statistical power, infrequently used a randomized design, and have not evaluated the use of emerging effective dietary strategies such as pre-packaged meals (PMs). Low energy/fat PMs may be useful in individuals with IDD as they simplify meal planning, limit undesirable food choices, teach appropriate portion sizes, are convenient and easy to prepare, and when combined with fruits and vegetables provide a high volume, low energy dense meal. A randomized effectiveness trial will be conducted in 150 overweight/obese adults with mild to moderate IDD, and their study partners to compare weight loss (6 months) and weight maintenance (12 months) between 2 weight management approaches: 1. A Stop Light Diet enhanced with reduced energy/fat PMs (eSLD); and 2. A recommended care reduced energy/fat meal plan diet (RC). The primary aim is to compare weight loss (0-6 months) and weight maintenance (7-18 months) between the eSLD and RC diets. Secondarily, changes in chronic disease risk factors between the eSLD and RC diets including blood pressure, glucose, insulin, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol will be compared during both weight loss and weight maintenance. Finally, potential mediators of weight loss including energy intake, physical activity, data recording, adherence to the diet, study partner self-efficacy and daily stress related to dietary change will be explored.

  12. The Effect of Fibromyalgia and Widespread Pain on the Clinically Significant Temporomandibular Muscle and Joint Pain Disorders - A Prospective 18-Month Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Velly, Ana Miriam; Look, John O.; Schiffman, Eric; Lenton, Patricia A.; Kang, Wenjun; Messner, Ronald P.; Holcroft, Christina A.; Fricton, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Although most cases of Temporomandibular Muscle and Joint Disorders (TMJD) are mild and self-limiting, about 10% of TMJD patients develop severe disorders associated with chronic pain and disability. It has been suggested that fibromyalgia and widespread pain play a significant role in the Temporomandibular Muscle and Joint Disorders (TMJD) chronicity. This paper assessed the effects of fibromyalgia and widespread pain on clinically significant TMJD pain (GCPS II-IV). Four hundred eighty-five participants recruited from the Minneapolis/St. Paul area through media advertisements and local dentists received examinations and completed the Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS) at baseline and at 18th months. Baseline widespread pain (OR: 2.53, P=0.04) and depression (OR: 5.30, P=0.005) were associated with onset of clinically significant pain (GCPS II-IV) within 18 months after baseline. The risk associated with baseline fibromyalgia was moderate, but not significant (OR: 2.74, P=0.09). Persistence of clinically significant pain was related to fibromyalgia (OR: 2.48, P=0.02) and with depression (OR: 2.48, P=0.02). These results indicate that these centrally generated pain conditions play a role in the onset and persistence of clinically significant TMJD. PMID:20466595

  13. An open cluster-randomized, 18-month trial to compare the effectiveness of educational outreach visits with usual guideline dissemination to improve family physician prescribing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Portuguese National Health Directorate has issued clinical practice guidelines on prescription of anti-inflammatory drugs, acid suppressive therapy, and antiplatelets. However, their effectiveness in changing actual practice is unknown. Methods The study will compare the effectiveness of educational outreach visits regarding the improvement of compliance with clinical guidelines in primary care against usual dissemination strategies. A cost-benefit analysis will also be conducted. We will carry out a parallel, open, superiority, randomized trial directed to primary care physicians. Physicians will be recruited and allocated at a cluster-level (primary care unit) by minimization. Data will be analyzed at the physician level. Primary care units will be eligible if they use electronic prescribing and have at least four physicians willing to participate. Physicians in intervention units will be offered individual educational outreach visits (one for each guideline) at their workplace during a six-month period. Physicians in the control group will be offered a single unrelated group training session. Primary outcomes will be the proportion of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors prescribed in the anti-inflammatory class, and the proportion of omeprazole in the proton pump inhibitors class at 18 months post-intervention. Prescription data will be collected from the regional pharmacy claims database. We estimated a sample size of 110 physicians in each group, corresponding to 19 clusters with a mean size of 6 physicians. Outcome collection and data analysis will be blinded to allocation, but due to the nature of the intervention, physicians and detailers cannot be blinded. Discussion This trial will attempt to address unresolved issues in the literature, namely, long term persistence of effect, the importance of sequential visits in an outreach program, and cost issues. If successful, this trial may be the cornerstone for deploying large scale educational outreach

  14. Body composition, physical work capacity and physical activity habits at 18-month follow-up of middle-aged women participating in an exercise intervention program.

    PubMed

    MacKeen, P C; Franklin, B A; Nicholas, W C; Buskirk, E R

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-six sedentary women (29-47 yr) participated in a 12-week, 4-d/week physical conditioning program (CP) involving 15-25 min/d of walking/jogging at a heart rate corresponding to 75 percent of aerobic capacity (VO2max). Twenty-three were classified obese (O, greater than 30 percent body fat, mean = 38 percent) and 13 normal (N, less than 30 percent body fat, mean = 25 percent). Significant post-CP changes included increased VO2max and decreased body fat. At 18 months post-CP a volunteer subgroup of the original 36 subjects (Ss) were re-evaluated, 19 being hydrostatically weighed, 21 exercise-tested and 28 interviewed to assess physical activity over the preceding eight quarterly periods. At CP termination 80 percent of N and 78 percent of O had intended to continue jogging, but by follow-up only 40 percent of N and 33 percent of O were so engaged, none at CP frequency, many at reduced duration and intensity. There was no significant difference between follow-up and pre-CP mean h/week of jogging for the entire follow-up group, even though eight of them (28 percent) increased their jogging over pre-CP levels. Follow-up VO2max and percent body fat means were also not significantly different from pre-CP values. It is suggested that the majority of middle-aged women participating in supervised walk-jog conditioning interventions may regress to pre-program physiologic status when left to exercise ad libitum.

  15. The Organization of Words and Symbolic Gestures in 18-Month-Olds' Lexicons: Evidence from a Disambiguation Task.

    PubMed

    Suanda, Sumarga H; Namy, Laura L

    2013-03-01

    Infants' early communicative repertoires include both words and symbolic gestures. The current study examined the extent to which infants organize words and gestures in a single unified lexicon. As a window into lexical organization, eighteen-month-olds' (N = 32) avoidance of word-gesture overlap was examined and compared to avoidance of word-word overlap. The current study revealed that when presented with novel words, infants avoided lexical overlap, mapping novel words onto novel objects. In contrast, when presented with novel gestures, infants sought overlap, mapping novel gestures onto familiar objects. The results suggest that infants do not treat words and gestures as equivalent lexical items and that during a period of development when word and symbolic gesture processing share many similarities, important differences also exist between these two symbolic forms.

  16. Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) Screening at 18 Months of Age Predicts Concurrent Understanding of Desires, Word Learning and Expressive Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Kristyn; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2012-01-01

    The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) is a 23-item questionnaire used in primary screening of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current studies examine the concurrent validity of the M-CHAT in its ability to predict 18-month-olds' performance on theory of mind and word learning tasks. In Experiment 1, infants' understanding of…

  17. Socioeconomic Status and the Risk of Suspected Autism Spectrum Disorders among 18-Month-Old Toddlers in Japan: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiwara, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and the suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD) status of 18-month-old toddlers was investigated using a population-based sample in Japan, which has a universal healthcare system and a mandatory health checkup system for toddlers. Questionnaires including SES measurements and modified…

  18. Developmental outcomes among 18-month-old Malawians after a year of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements or corn-soy flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major aim of this trial was to compare the development of 18-month-old infants who received complementary feeding for 1 year with either lipid-based nutrient supplements or micronutrient-fortified corn-soy porridge. Our secondary aim was to determine the socio-economic factors associated with de...

  19. Macracanthorhynchus ingens Infection in an 18-Month-Old Child in Florida: A Case Report and Review of Acanthocephaliasis in Humans.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Blaine A; Bishop, Henry S; Sanborn, Chad R; Dos Santos Souza, Samaly; Bradbury, Richard

    2016-11-15

    A case of acanthocephaliasis in an 18-month-old child caused by Macracanthorhynchus ingens is reported from Florida. This represents only the third documented case of this species in a human host. An overview of human cases of acanthocephaliasis in the literature is presented, along with a review of the biology, clinical manifestations and pathology in the human host, morphology, and diagnosis.

  20. Effects of Gesture and Target on 12- and 18-Month-Olds' Joint Visual Attention to Objects in Front of or Behind Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deak, Gedeon O.; Flom, Ross A.; Pick, Anne D.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments investigated factors affecting joint visual attention in 12- and 18-month-olds. Findings indicated that parental pointing at objects elicited more episodes of joint visual attention than looking alone. Although infants most reliably followed gestures to targets in front of them, even 12-month-olds followed gestures to targets…

  1. Bimanual Behaviours in Children Aged 8-18 Months: A Literature Review to Select Toys that Elicit the Use of Two Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves, Susan; Imms, Christine; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Dodd, Karen; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Toys that provoke the use of both hands are required to develop a test of bimanual performance in children 8-18 months with unilateral cerebral palsy (Mini-AHA). To choose the toys, a conceptual model based on perception-action theory and object use was used to guide a literature review. Evidence was sought for three critical relationships…

  2. Dopamine Receptor Gene DRD4 7-Repeat Allele X Maternal Sensitivity Interaction on Child Externalizing Behavior Problems: Independent Replication of Effects at 18 Months.

    PubMed

    King, Anthony P; Muzik, Maria; Hamilton, Lindsay; Taylor, Alexander B; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    The DRD4 VNTR has been associated with child behavior problems in interaction with maternal insensitivity in European and American cohorts of preschoolers, with the 7-repeat (7R) allele associated with greater problems. We sought to replicate and expand these findings by examining effects on reports of child behavior problems at 18 months. A 63 family sample with data for observed maternal sensitivity ratings, DRD4 VNTR genotype, and maternal report of child behavior problems at 18-months was used in this preliminary analysis. Maternal sensitivity was measured at 6-months of age using laboratory observational measures (free-play and a teaching task). Maternal report of toddler behavior was obtained at 18-months via the standard Child Behavior Checklist, and infant genotype on the DRD4 VNTR was obtained using PCR. Infants carrying the DRD4 7R allele showed greater effects of maternal insensitivity than non-carriers for behavioral problems at 18-months. We replicated previous findings of association of infant DRD4 x maternal sensitivity interactions with child Externalizing problems in the European-ancestry sample (N = 42) in a median split of maternal sensitivity (p = .00011, eta2 = .329) and in regression analyses controlling for maternal age, maternal depression, and child gender in European ancestry (B = -3.4, SE 1.33, p = .01) and the total sample (B = -2.2, SE 1.02, p = .02). Exploratory analyses also found evidence of DRD4 x maternal sensitivity interaction with the CBCL ADHD scale. These findings replicate in an independent cohort DRD4 x maternal insensitivity interaction effect on child externalizing behavior problems at 18 months, further supporting the role of the DRD4 genotype in differential sensitivity to parenting.

  3. Dopamine Receptor Gene DRD4 7-Repeat Allele X Maternal Sensitivity Interaction on Child Externalizing Behavior Problems: Independent Replication of Effects at 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    King, Anthony P.; Muzik, Maria; Hamilton, Lindsay; Taylor, Alexander B.; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    The DRD4 VNTR has been associated with child behavior problems in interaction with maternal insensitivity in European and American cohorts of preschoolers, with the 7-repeat (7R) allele associated with greater problems. We sought to replicate and expand these findings by examining effects on reports of child behavior problems at 18 months. A 63 family sample with data for observed maternal sensitivity ratings, DRD4 VNTR genotype, and maternal report of child behavior problems at 18-months was used in this preliminary analysis. Maternal sensitivity was measured at 6-months of age using laboratory observational measures (free-play and a teaching task). Maternal report of toddler behavior was obtained at 18-months via the standard Child Behavior Checklist, and infant genotype on the DRD4 VNTR was obtained using PCR. Infants carrying the DRD4 7R allele showed greater effects of maternal insensitivity than non-carriers for behavioral problems at 18-months. We replicated previous findings of association of infant DRD4 x maternal sensitivity interactions with child Externalizing problems in the European-ancestry sample (N = 42) in a median split of maternal sensitivity (p = .00011, eta2 = .329) and in regression analyses controlling for maternal age, maternal depression, and child gender in European ancestry (B = -3.4, SE 1.33, p = .01) and the total sample (B = -2.2, SE 1.02, p = .02). Exploratory analyses also found evidence of DRD4 x maternal sensitivity interaction with the CBCL ADHD scale. These findings replicate in an independent cohort DRD4 x maternal insensitivity interaction effect on child externalizing behavior problems at 18 months, further supporting the role of the DRD4 genotype in differential sensitivity to parenting. PMID:27494520

  4. Immunogenicity and safety of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine as a booster dose in 12- to 18-month-old children primed with 3 doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Thisyakorn, Usa; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Chuenkitmongkol, Sunate

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the safety and immunogenicity of 23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumo23(®) [PPV23], Sanofi Pasteur) as a booster dose in 12- to 18-month-old children primed with heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7; Prevnar(®), Pfizer). This was a randomized, observer-blinded, 2-arm, controlled, multicenter phase III study performed in Thailand to assess and describe the immunogenicity and safety of PPV23 as a booster dose in children who had received the 3 primary doses of PCV7, the pneumococcal vaccine available during the study period. Children primed with 3 doses of PCV7 were randomized 1:1 to receive a booster immunization with PPV23 or PCV7. Pneumococcal antibody concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and functional antibody levels by multiplex opsonophagocytosis assay on day 30. A total of 339 children were enrolled. Geometric mean serum antibody concentrations against serotypes common to PCV7 and PPV23 (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) increased in both groups but they were higher for serotypes 4, 9V, 18C, and 19F in the PPV23 group. Opsonization indices increased in both groups for all measured serotypes (1, 6B, 14, 19A, and 23F) and were higher for serotypes 6B, 14, and 23F in the PCV7 group and for serotypes 1 and 19A in PPV23 group. Solicited reactions and unsolicited adverse events were similar in the 2 groups and generally mild and transient. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. These results confirm that boosting with PPV23 is immunogenic and well tolerated in healthy toddlers primed with PCV7.

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine as a booster dose in 12- to 18-month-old children primed with 3 doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Thisyakorn, Usa; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Chuenkitmongkol, Sunate

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the safety and immunogenicity of 23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumo23® [PPV23], Sanofi Pasteur) as a booster dose in 12- to 18-month-old children primed with heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7; Prevnar®, Pfizer). This was a randomized, observer-blinded, 2-arm, controlled, multicenter phase III study performed in Thailand to assess and describe the immunogenicity and safety of PPV23 as a booster dose in children who had received the 3 primary doses of PCV7, the pneumococcal vaccine available during the study period. Children primed with 3 doses of PCV7 were randomized 1:1 to receive a booster immunization with PPV23 or PCV7. Pneumococcal antibody concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and functional antibody levels by multiplex opsonophagocytosis assay on day 30. A total of 339 children were enrolled. Geometric mean serum antibody concentrations against serotypes common to PCV7 and PPV23 (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) increased in both groups but they were higher for serotypes 4, 9V, 18C, and 19F in the PPV23 group. Opsonization indices increased in both groups for all measured serotypes (1, 6B, 14, 19A, and 23F) and were higher for serotypes 6B, 14, and 23F in the PCV7 group and for serotypes 1 and 19A in PPV23 group. Solicited reactions and unsolicited adverse events were similar in the 2 groups and generally mild and transient. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. These results confirm that boosting with PPV23 is immunogenic and well tolerated in healthy toddlers primed with PCV7. PMID:25424793

  6. The effect of livestock production system and concentrate level on carcass traits and meat quality of foals slaughtered at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, J M; Crecente, S; Franco, D; Sarriés, M V; Gómez, M

    2014-03-01

    This trial was conducted to study the effect of livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) v. semi extensive system (SES)) and amount of finishing feed (1.5 v. 3.0 kg of commercial feed) in SES on carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of meat foal slaughtered at 18 months of age. For this study, a total of 49 foals (21 from FES and 28 from SES) were used. The obtained results showed that SES had a positive influence on carcass characteristic because these foals showed the best values for live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, perimeter of leg (PL) and carcass compactness index. On the other hand, finishing feeding also had a significant (P<0.05) effect on PL and lean thickness, as the highest values were obtained in foals finished with 3 kg of commercial fodder. The physico-chemical properties were significantly affected by the livestock production system with the exception of ashes content (P>0.05). Foals finished in SES increased in 408% the intramuscular fat content (0.23 v. 1.17%, for foals reared in FES and SES, respectively). On the other hand, L*-value and a*-value were significantly (P<0.01) affected by livestock production system, as foals from the FES group had a more intense redder color (higher CIE a*-value) and higher lightness (higher CIE L*-value) compared with those from the SES group. Finally, meat nutritional value was significantly affected by livestock production system, as foals from an extensive production system on wood pasture could be considered as healthier in relation to their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio) as a result of the beneficial grass intake on meat fatty acid profile.

  7. Eating behaviour patterns in Chinese children aged 12-18 months and association with relative weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eating behaviours have been suggested relating to obesity development. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a parent-report measure constructed to assess multiple dimensions of eating behavior for children. This study aimed to test the validity of the Chinese version of Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) in Chinese children aged 12-18 months. We examined factor structure and the reliability of the Chinese version of the CEBQ, the associations between children's eating behaviours and children's weight (BMI SDS) were assessed. Methods 219 questionnaires were filled out by the caregivers, approached in community health care centers in two cities in China. BMI of each child was calculated and converted to BMI SDS. Factor validation (Principal Component Analysis, exploratory factor analysis) on all CEBQ items was performed and gender difference in eating behaviours was examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analyzed by linear regression analysis controlling for gender, parental combined weight, and education. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven-factor solution, with factor 'food responsiveness' (FR) split into two. 'Satiety responsiveness' (SR) and 'Enjoyment of food' (EF) factors were not detected. Interestingly, boys scored higher than girls in the FR scales, whereas girls had a higher score in 'food fussiness' (FF) scale. Conclusions We conclude that although a valuable psychometric instrument, CEBQ might be affected by age and cultural differences. Therefore, adjusting it in order to fit the Chinese population was suggested. We did not find an association between eating behaviours and children's BMI SDS, when it was controlled for gender and parental weight. PMID:22272572

  8. The First 18 Months Following Food and Drug Administration Approval of Lumbar Total Disc Replacement in the United States: Reported Adverse Events Outside an Investigational Device Exemption Study Environment

    PubMed Central

    Guyer, Richard D.; Geisler, Fred H.; McAfee, Paul C.; Regan, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Introduction of a new surgical technology may result in higher rates of adverse events compared with rates reported in the study performed to gain regulatory approval. The purpose of our study was to describe the incidence of reported adverse events during the first 18 months following US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the first lumbar arthroplasty device available in the United States and to discern data trends. Methods Reports of adverse events submitted to the FDA in patients receiving the Charité artificial disc were reviewed and pooled by similarity. We analyzed 135 medical device reports filed with the FDA regarding the Charité artificial disc between October 26, 2004, and April 26, 2006. Sixteen reports were excluded for lack of information regarding cause or because described events were vague or unrelated to the procedure. Results Rate of adverse events reported to the FDA as a percentage of devices of which the device manufacturer was aware had been dispensed at 6, 12, and 18 months following approval was 0.58%, 2.34%, and 2.13%, respectively. The adverse event reported most frequently through 18 months was anterior migration with reoperation (0.65%); other reported adverse events were, in decreasing order, sizing and malposition errors resulting in reoperation (0.36%), posterior element fracture resulting in reoperation (0.30%), major vascular injury requiring a blood transfusion (0.23%), and subsidence requiring reoperation (0.20%). Three non–device-related patient deaths were reported following FDA approval. The reported rate of sizing/malposition errors leading to reoperation of 0.36% was the same rate as that seen in the investigational device exemption (IDE) study of the Charité artificial disc. All other reported rates were lower than rates of the same events reported in the study. Conclusions Medical device reporting is an important yet highly anecdotal and incomplete event-tracking process. However, it is the

  9. Predictors of compliance with a home-based exercise program added to usual medical care in preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis: an 18-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Mayoux-Benhamou, M A; Roux, C; Perraud, A; Fermanian, J; Rahali-Kachlouf, H; Revel, M

    2005-03-01

    This prospective 18-month study was designed to assess long-term compliance with a program of exercise aimed to prevent osteoporosis after an educational intervention and to uncover determinants of compliance. A total of 135 postmenopausal women were recruited by flyers or instructed by their physicians to participate in an educational session added to usual medical care. After a baseline visit and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, volunteers participated in a 1-day educational session consisting of a lecture and discussion on guidelines for appropriate physical activity and training in a home-based exercise program taught by a physical therapist. Scheduled follow-up visits were 1, 6, and 18 months after the educational session. Compliance with the exercise program was defined as an exercise practice rate 50% or greater than the prescribed training. The 18-month compliance rate was 17.8% (24/135). The main reason for withdrawal from the program was lack of motivation. Two variables predicted compliance: contraindication for hormone replacement therapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.13; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.04 to 0.46) and general physical function scores from an SF-36 questionnaire (OR=1.26; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.5). To a lesser extent, osteoporosis risk, defined as a femoral T-score < or =-2.5, predicted compliance (OR=0.34; 95% CI, 0.10 to 1.16). Despite the addition of an educational session to usual medical care to inform participants about the benefits of exercise, only a minority of postmenopausal women adhered to a home-based exercise program after 18 months.

  10. Neonatal pain, parenting stress and interaction, in relation to cognitive and motor development at 8 and 18 months in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Grunau, Ruth E; Whitfield, Michael F; Petrie-Thomas, Julianne; Synnes, Anne R; Cepeda, Ivan L; Keidar, Adi; Rogers, Marilyn; Mackay, Margot; Hubber-Richard, Philippa; Johannesen, Debra

    2009-05-01

    Procedural pain in the neonatal intensive care unit triggers a cascade of physiological, behavioral and hormonal disruptions which may contribute to altered neurodevelopment in infants born very preterm, who undergo prolonged hospitalization at a time of physiological immaturity and rapid brain development. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between cumulative procedural pain (number of skin-breaking procedures from birth to term, adjusted for early illness severity and overall intravenous morphine exposure), and later cognitive, motor abilities and behavior in very preterm infants at 8 and 18 months corrected chronological age (CCA), and further, to evaluate the extent to which parenting factors modulate these relationships over time. Participants were N=211 infants (n=137 born preterm 32 weeks gestational age [GA] and n=74 full-term controls) followed prospectively since birth. Infants with significant neonatal brain injury (periventricular leucomalacia, grade 3 or 4 intraventricular hemorrhage) and/or major sensori-neural impairments, were excluded. Poorer cognition and motor function were associated with higher number of skin-breaking procedures, independent of early illness severity, overall intravenous morphine, and exposure to postnatal steroids. The number of skin-breaking procedures as a marker of neonatal pain was closely related to days on mechanical ventilation. In general, greater overall exposure to intravenous morphine was associated with poorer motor development at 8 months, but not at 18 months CCA, however, specific protocols for morphine administration were not evaluated. Lower parenting stress modulated effects of neonatal pain, only on cognitive outcome at 18 months.

  11. Comparison of high-fluence, single-pass diode laser to low-fluence, multiple-pass diode laser for laser hair reduction with 18 months of follow up.

    PubMed

    Braun, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Laser hair removal is the most popular laser procedure in the United States (U.S.), yet there has not been a prospective study demonstrating long-term efficacy of diode laser hair removal beyond six months. A prospective, single-center, bilaterally paired, blinded, randomized comparison split leg study was carried out with 22 patients comparing high-fluence, single-pass diode laser to low-fluence, multiple-pass diode laser. Hair counts were done six and 18 months following five treatment sessions and were found to be comparable t90-94 percent hair reduction. Hair counts at six months following the fifth treatment were comparable to hair counts at 18 months, indicating that sixth-month hair counts can be considered indicative of long-term results. The low-fluence, multiple-pass in-motion technique was associated with significantly less pain compared to the high-fluence, single-pass technique. Multiple passes of a diode laser at low fluences but with high average power results in permanent hair removal with less discomfort and fewer adverse effects, especially in darker skin.

  12. Slower postnatal motor development in infants of mothers with latent toxoplasmosis during the first 18 months of life.

    PubMed

    Kaňková, Sárka; Sulc, Jan; Křivohlavá, Romana; Kuběna, Aleš; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2012-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a zoonosis caused by a protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, is probably the most widespread human parasitosis in developed countries. Pregnant women with latent toxoplasmosis have seemingly younger fetuses especially in the 16th week of gestation, which suggests that fetuses of Toxoplasma-infected mothers have slower rates of development in the first trimester of pregnancy. In the present retrospective cohort study, we analyzed data on postnatal motor development of infants from 331 questionnaire respondents including 53 Toxoplasma-infected mothers to search for signs of early postnatal development disorders. During the first year of life, a slower postnatal motor development was observed in infants of mothers with latent toxoplasmosis. These infants significantly later developed the ability to control the head position (p=0.039), to roll from supine to prone position (p=0.022) and were slightly later to begin crawling (p=0.059). Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that the difference in the rates of prenatal and early postnatal development between children of Toxoplasma-negative and Toxoplasma-positive mothers might be caused by a decreased stringency of embryo quality control in partly immunosuppressed Toxoplasma-positive mothers resulting in a higher proportion of infants with genetic or developmental disorders in offspring. However, because of relatively low return rate of questionnaires and an associated risk of a sieve effect, our results should be considered as preliminary and performing a large scale prospective study in the future is critically needed.

  13. The Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite: Mission status and CCD evolution after 18 months on-orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, B.; Scott, R.; Sale, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat) is a small telescope equipped microsatellite designed to perform both Space Situational Awareness (SSA) experiments and asteroid detection. NEOSSat was launched on 25 February 2013, however, due to time pressures, NEOSSat was launched with only the minimal software required to keep the spacecraft safe. The time pressure also resulted in the spacecraft undergoing reduced system and environmental testing on the ground. The full software suite, required to obtain imagery and maintain stable pointing, has since been uploaded to the spacecraft. NEOSSat has obtained imagery since June 2013, with the shutter both open and closed, but as of March 2014 has not achieved the fine pointing required to obtain scientifically useful data. The collected imagery is being used to characterize the on-board CCD camera. While gain and dark current values agree with pre-launch values, unexpected artefacts have appeared in the images. Methods for mitigating the artefacts through image processing have been developed, and spacecraft-level fixes are currently being investigated. In addition, damage from high energy particles impacting the CCD has produced hot pixels in imagery. We have been able to measure the evolution of these hot pixels over several months, both in terms of numbers and characteristics; these results will be presented. In addition, early results from the mission (image quality issues and evolution, early imagery examples), as well as the mission status (including fine pointing), will be discussed.

  14. Organic production enhances milk nutritional quality by shifting fatty acid composition: a United States-wide, 18-month study.

    PubMed

    Benbrook, Charles M; Butler, Gillian; Latif, Maged A; Leifert, Carlo; Davis, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    Over the last century, intakes of omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids in Western diets have dramatically increased, while omega-3 (ω-3) intakes have fallen. Resulting ω-6/ω-3 intake ratios have risen to nutritionally undesirable levels, generally 10 to 15, compared to a possible optimal ratio near 2.3. We report results of the first large-scale, nationwide study of fatty acids in U.S. organic and conventional milk. Averaged over 12 months, organic milk contained 25% less ω-6 fatty acids and 62% more ω-3 fatty acids than conventional milk, yielding a 2.5-fold higher ω-6/ω-3 ratio in conventional compared to organic milk (5.77 vs. 2.28). All individual ω-3 fatty acid concentrations were higher in organic milk--α-linolenic acid (by 60%), eicosapentaenoic acid (32%), and docosapentaenoic acid (19%)--as was the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (18%). We report mostly moderate regional and seasonal variability in milk fatty acid profiles. Hypothetical diets of adult women were modeled to assess milk fatty-acid-driven differences in overall dietary ω-6/ω-3 ratios. Diets varied according to three choices: high instead of moderate dairy consumption; organic vs. conventional dairy products; and reduced vs. typical consumption of ω-6 fatty acids. The three choices together would decrease the ω-6/ω-3 ratio among adult women by ∼80% of the total decrease needed to reach a target ratio of 2.3, with relative impact "switch to low ω-6 foods" > "switch to organic dairy products" ≈ "increase consumption of conventional dairy products." Based on recommended servings of dairy products and seafoods, dairy products supply far more α-linolenic acid than seafoods, about one-third as much eicosapentaenoic acid, and slightly more docosapentaenoic acid, but negligible docosahexaenoic acid. We conclude that consumers have viable options to reduce average ω-6/ω-3 intake ratios, thereby reducing or eliminating probable risk factors for a wide range of developmental and

  15. Enriched environment increases myelinated fiber volume and length in brain white matter of 18-month female rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu; Lu, Wei; Zhou, De-shan; Tang, Yong

    2015-04-23

    Cognition and memory decline with normal aging, which could be partly attributed to the degeneration of brain white matter. Previous studies demonstrated that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) could protect cognition and memory from aging. However, if or how EE might affect the brain white matter has not been thoroughly investigated. In the current study, 24 middle-aged (14-month-old) female Sprague -Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to EE or standard environment (SE) for 4 months. At the end of the environment intervention, the Morris water maze tests were performed. Then, 5 rats were randomly selected from each group for stereological assessment of the brain white matter and its myelinated fibers. The results revealed that middle-aged rats living in EE displayed better spatial learning than SE controls. The white matter volume was 124.6 ± 7.8mm(3) in EE rats, which was significantly enlarged compared with 84.8 ± 3.4mm(3) in SE rats. Likewise, the myelinated fiber volume was markedly increased from 56.6 ± 1.7 mm(3) in SE rats to 87.2 ± 9.0mm(3) in EE rats; so was the myelinated fiber length from 83.5 ± 6.6 km in SE rats to 119.0 ± 10.0 km in EE rats. Our data suggested that EE could protect brain white matter and its myelinated fibers of female rats at middle age.

  16. Changes in the total effective xenoestrogen burden (TEXB) of breast cancer patients during an 18-month post-surgical follow-up.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Mariana F; Pumarega, Jose; Porta, Miquel; Molina-Molina, Jose Manuel; Arrebola, Juan P; Olea, Nicolas

    2017-03-10

    We aimed to assess changes in the total effective xenoestrogen burden (TEXB) -a biomarker of combined effect of mixtures of xenoestrogens- in breast cancer patients at surgery (breast adipose tissue) and at different time points during an 18-month follow-up (abdominal adipose tissue), and to analyze the potential influence of socio-demographic, reproductive, tumor, and treatment characteristics on TEXB levels. TEXB-alpha (due to persistent organohalogenated chemicals) and TEXB-beta (due mainly to endogenous estrogens) were quantified in 44 women. TEXB values significantly increased over follow-up (p <0.001); the largest difference was observed at 6-12 months post-surgery (p <0.001); then decreased over time. TEXB-alpha at 6-18 months was significantly higher in younger patients with estrogen receptor positivity (p=0.034) and in those receiving anti-neoplasm chemotherapy. Cancer treatment may be responsible for the increase in TEXB-alpha observed in patients with hormone-dependent tumors, which may confer to xenoestrogens a role in the progression of the disease.

  17. Ultra-Short-Period Planets in K2: New Results From SuPerPiG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elisabeth; Jackson, Brian; Endl, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Ultra-short-period planets, with orbital periods of less than 1 day, are a challenge to theories of planet formation. The SuPerPiG collaboration (Short-Period Planet Group) reports on 19 candidates identified in Campaigns 0-5 of the K2 mission. Planet candidates range in size from 0.7-16 Earth radii and in orbital period from 4.2 to 23.5 hours. One candidate (EPIC 203533312, Kp=12.5) is among the shortest-period planet candidates discovered to date (P=4.2 hours), and, if confirmed as a planet, must have a density of at least rho=8.9 g/cm^3 in order to not be tidally disrupted. Five candidates have nominal radius values in the sub-Jovian desert (R_P=3-11 R_E and P<=1.5 days) where theoretical models do not favor their long-term stability; the only confirmed planet in this range is thought to be disintegrating (EPIC 201637175). Based on an assessment of our survey's completeness, we estimate an occurrence rate for ultra-short-period planets among K2 target stars that is about half that estimated from the Kepler sample, raising questions as to whether K2 systems are intrinsically different from Kepler systems, possibly as a result of their different galactic location.

  18. Health-Related Quality-of-Life and Functional Outcomes in Short-Stem Versus Standard-Stem Total Hip Arthroplasty: An 18-Month Follow-Up Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Brandon Michael; Wrażeń, Waldemar; Hynnekleiv, Leif; Kłosiński, Michał; Pękala, Przemysław A.; Kucharska, Ewa; Golec, Edward B.; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A.; Pąchalska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) progressively produces symptoms and disability that may significantly reduce health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an important treatment for symptomatic OA. An alternative to standard-stem THA for younger patients is short-stem THA. The aim of this study was to investigate potential HRQoL and functional outcome differences between these patient groups to provide additional data that will be clinically useful in the decision making between the types of prosthesis. Material/Methods In an 18-month follow-up longitudinal cohort study, we conducted Harris Hip Score (HHS) evaluations and SF-36 questionnaires in a study group and a control group undergoing short-stem and standard-stem THA preoperatively and during follow-up at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Effect size was calculated to estimate the size of changes in scores during follow-up between chosen time intervals. Results A total of 168 patients were included in the study. The total HHS score was significantly increased postoperatively from 46.9 to 87.0 in the standard-stem group, and from 42.7 to 85.1 in the short-stem group. All SF-36 scores improved after THA in both groups. No HRQoL or functional differences were found in the use of either surgical option in the HHS or SF-36 score results (all p>0.05). Conclusions As there were no differences in HRQoL in the two groups, we strongly recommend considering short-stem THA, especially in younger patients, due to the benefit of future revision options and a minimally invasive approach. PMID:27853130

  19. Bimanual behaviours in children aged 8-18 months: a literature review to select toys that elicit the use of two hands.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Susan; Imms, Christine; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Dodd, Karen; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Toys that provoke the use of both hands are required to develop a test of bimanual performance in children 8-18 months with unilateral cerebral palsy (Mini-AHA). To choose the toys, a conceptual model based on perception-action theory and object use was used to guide a literature review. Evidence was sought for three critical relationships identified in the model which help determine bimanual performance: (1) the child-toy relationship, (2) the child-task relationship, and (3) the toy-task relationship. Evidence for both typically developing children and children with unilateral CP in this age range was sought. Thirty-five papers provided information about one or more of the relationships in typically developing children. No evidence was found for children with unilateral CP. Synthesis of the evidence from these three relationships informed toy selection for this new assessment.

  20. Replacement of Anterior Composite Resin Restorations Using Conservative Ceramics for Occlusal and Periodontal Rehabilitation: An 18-Month Clinical Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Prochnow, Rayane Alexandra; Costacurta, Adriana Osten; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a patient with discolored and fractured composite resin restorations on the anterior teeth in whom substitution was indicated. After wax-up and mock-up, the composite was removed and replaced with minimally invasive ceramic laminates. An established and predictable protocol was performed using resin cement. Minimally invasive ceramic restorations are increasingly being used to replace composite restorations. This treatment improves the occlusal and periodontal aspects during the planning and restorative phases, such as anterior guides, and laterality can be restored easily with ceramic laminates. In addition, the surface smoothness and contour of ceramic restorations do not affect the health of the surrounding periodontal tissues. Here we present the outcome after 18 months of clinical follow-up in a patient in whom composite resin restorations in the anterior teeth were replaced with minimally invasive ceramic laminates. PMID:27555970

  1. Effects of a Smokers' Hotline: Results of a 10-County Self-Help Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossip-Klein, Deborah J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Evaluated effect of smokers' hotline as adjunct to self-help manuals. Subjects (n=1,813), assigned to manual only or manual plus hotline condition, were followed over 18 months. Results showed consistent, significant hotline effect across outcome measures and follow-up periods. Findings suggest effectiveness of hotline in enhancing self-help quit…

  2. Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely

    PubMed Central

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P.; Synnes, Anne R.; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    Children born very preterm (≤32 weeks gestation) show greater internalizing (anxious/depressed) behaviors compared to term-born peers as early as 2 years corrected age (CA), however, the role of early stress in the etiology of internalizing problems in preterm children remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behavior at 18 months CA in children born very preterm, and examined whether parent behavior and stress moderated this relationship. Participants were 145 children (96 very preterm, 49 full-term) seen at 18 months CA. Neonatal data were obtained from medical and nursing chart review. Neonatal pain was defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures. Cognitive ability was measured using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index-III, Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5, and participated in a videotaped play session with their child, which was coded using the Emotional Availability Scale-IV. Very preterm children displayed greater Internalizing behaviors compared to full-term controls (P =0.02). Parent Sensitivity and Nonhostility moderated the relationship between neonatal pain and Internalizing behavior (all P <0.05); higher parent education (P <0.03), lower Parenting Stress (P =0.001), and fewer children in the home (P <0.01) were associated with lower Internalizing behavior in very preterm children, after adjusting for neonatal medical confounders, gender and child cognitive ability (all P >0.05). Parent Emotional Availability and stress were not associated with Internalizing behaviors in full-term controls. Positive parent interaction and lower stress appears to ameliorate negative effects of neonatal pain on stress-sensitive behaviors in this vulnerable population. PMID:23748079

  3. Multivariate analysis of risk factors for patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma who were older than 18 months at diagnosis: a report from a single institute in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jiaoyang; Pan, Ci; Tang, Yanjing; Chen, Jing; Zhou, Min; Li, Benshang; Xue, Huiliang; Shen, Shuhong; Gao, Yijin; Zhang, AnAn; Tang, Jingyan

    2017-03-11

    This retrospective study evaluated the long-term outcomes and prognostic indicators of patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma who were older than 18 months at diagnosis. The medical records of 118 such children who were treated at Shanghai Children's Medical Center, China, from June 1998-December 2013 were reviewed. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by log-rank tests. Of the 118 patients, 14 improving patients did not complete treatment because of parental decisions, and 1 patient died during surgery. Of the 103 patients who completed the comprehensive protocols, 60 (58.3%) achieved very good partial remission (VGPR), 26 (25.2%) achieved partial remission (PR) after four courses of chemotherapy, and 17 (16.5%) progressed during treatment. The response to induction (including VGPR + PR) was 83.5%. After a median follow-up of 105 months (range 36-160 months), the 5- and 10-year OS were 21 and 18%, and the EFS was 19 and 13%, respectively. EFS was significantly better for patients with normal levels of urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) at diagnosis, who had complete resection of the primary tumor, who were minimal residual disease- (MRD-) negative in their bone marrow after four courses of chemotherapy, and who achieved VGPR at the end of treatment (P < 0.05). The prognosis remains poor for patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma who are older than 18 months at diagnosis. Elevated VMA level, incomplete tumor resection, persistent MRD in bone marrow, and poor curative effect are associated with worse prognosis.

  4. Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely.

    PubMed

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-09-01

    Children born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks gestation) exhibit greater internalizing (anxious/depressed) behaviors compared to term-born peers as early as 2 years corrected age (CA); however, the role of early stress in the etiology of internalizing problems in preterm children remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behavior at 18 months CA in children born very preterm and examined whether parent behavior and stress moderated this relationship. Participants were 145 children (96 very preterm, 49 full term) assessed at 18 months CA. Neonatal data were obtained from medical and nursing chart review. Neonatal pain was defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures. Cognitive ability was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index III, Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5, and participated in a videotaped play session with their child, which was coded using the Emotional Availability Scale IV. Very preterm children displayed greater Internalizing behaviors compared to full-term control children (P=.02). Parent Sensitivity and Nonhostility moderated the relationship between neonatal pain and Internalizing behavior (all P<.05); higher parent education (P<.03), lower Parenting Stress (P=.001), and fewer children in the home (P<.01) were associated with lower Internalizing behavior in very preterm children, after adjusting for neonatal medical confounders, gender, and child cognitive ability (all P>.05). Parent Emotional Availability and stress were not associated with Internalizing behaviors in full-term control children. Positive parent interaction and lower stress appears to ameliorate negative effects of neonatal pain on stress-sensitive behaviors in this vulnerable population.

  5. Results of Laboratory and Industrial Tests of Periodic-Type Gas Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, I. N.; P‧yanykh, K. E.; Antoshchuk, T. A.; Lysenko, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Results of laboratory and industrial tests of periodic-type gas generators burning various solid biofuels have been presented. The tests were carried out with the aim of obtaining producer gas which could totally or partly replace natural gas in power equipment burning gaseous fuel. The energy and environmental characteristics of a boiler unit burning a mixture of producer gas and natural gas have been assessed.

  6. Reproductive performance of pubertal red deer (Cervus elaphus) hinds: effects of genetic introgression of wapiti subspecies on pregnancy rates at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Asher, G W; Archer, J A; Scott, I C; O'Neill, K T; Ward, J; Littlejohn, R P

    2005-12-01

    Low reproductive productivity of young red deer (Cervus elaphus) hinds on New Zealand deer farms appears to reflect high incidences of puberty failure at 16 months of age. This is despite the general attainment of average liveweights 15-25 kg in excess of the accepted minimum threshold for puberty in subspecies of western European origin (scoticus, elaphus and hippelaphus) that form the basis of the national herd. The present study tests the hypotheses that introgression of the larger North American wapiti subspecies (nelsoni, manitobensis and roosevelti) into breeding herds (1) can be assessed from morphological features of individuals, (2) that there is a relationship between the level of wapiti parentage and non-pregnancy rate at 18 months of age (a proxy for puberty failure) and (3) that minimum liveweight thresholds for puberty increase with increasing levels of wapiti parentage. A total of 4329 18-month-old hinds across four "red" deer farms in southern New Zealand were scanned for pregnancy status. Each hind was assigned a wapiti score (WS) as a subjective assessment of the obviousness of wapiti features. Various body measurements were additionally recorded for each hind. A hair sample was collected for DNA analysis (14 markers) to objectively assign subspecies pedigree (i.e. "Elkmeter") on a subset of 1258 individuals. A total of 506 (11.7%) hinds were not pregnant at 18 months of age with rates varying between 4.1 and 37.3% between farms and years. Mean WS differed significantly between farms and reflected the genetic management policy of each farm. WS was positively correlated to Elkmeter for each farm/year (<0.05) although regression slopes varied significantly. WS was able to be adjusted for these differences to assign a corrected WS (CWS) for all 4329 individuals that estimated the proportion wapiti parentage. Discriminant analysis of morphological variables relative to Elkmeter supported the first hypothesis and showed that shoulder height and body

  7. Periodic inspection on crop sprayers: results according to age of sprayers.

    PubMed

    Antuniassi, Ulisses R; Gandolfo, Marco A

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the IPP Project--Periodic Inspection on Crop Sprayers--are to develop methods for sprayer certification, analyze quality on spray operation, propose an inspection system for crop sprayers in Brazil, improve environmental quality on spray operation, and reduce costs on chemical control for plant protection systems. Periodic inspections on crop sprayers are performed in several countries and are compulsory in most of them, and it is becoming an important tool for improvement and optimization of use of chemicals. The IPP Project in Brazil is funded by FAPESP--Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo. The results so far showed that all the sprayers presented failures. However, most of them could be approved with minor services. As an example, 56.6% of the sprayers with more than 2 years of use presented leaks, 47% of them had damaged hoses and 80.5% presented bad tips (nozzles). These results indicate the need for better procedures of use and maintenance of sprayers, justifying the periodic inspection system.

  8. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was −4.727% (95% CI: −4.821% to −4.634%) per year for men and −6.633% (95% CI: −6.751% to −6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994–2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20–24 years old and 15–24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  9. ESAT and M-CHAT as screening instruments for autism spectrum disorders at 18 months in the general population: issues of overlap and association with clinical referrals.

    PubMed

    Beuker, Karin T; Schjølberg, Synnve; Lie, Kari Kveim; Swinkels, Sophie; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2014-11-01

    The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) and the Early Screening of Autistic Traits (ESAT) were designed to screen for autism spectrum disorders in very young children. The aim of this study was to explore proportions of children that screened positive on the ESAT or the M-CHAT and to investigate if screening positive on the ESAT and M-CHAT is associated with clinical referral by 18 months and other aspects of children's development, health, and behavior. In this study, the mothers of 12,948 18-month-old children returned a questionnaire consisting of items from the ESAT and M-CHAT, plus questions about clinical and developmental characteristics. The M-CHAT identified more screen-positive children than the ESAT, but the ESAT was associated with more clinical referrals and tended to identify more children with medical, language, and behavioral problems. A post hoc analysis of combining the two instruments found this to be more effective than the individual instruments alone in identifying children referred to clinical services at 18 months. Further analysis at the level of single items is warranted to improve these screening instruments.

  10. DETECTION OF LACTOBACILLI IN MONTHLY MAIL-IN STOOL SAMPLES FROM 3-18 MONTHS OLD INFANTS AT GENETIC RISK FOR TYPE 1 DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Salami, F; Abels, M; Hyöty, H; Vaziri-Sani, F; Aronsson, CA; Vehik, K; Delli, A; Hagopian, WA; Rewers, M; Ziegler, AG; Simell, O; Akolkar, B; Krischer, J; She, J; Lernmark, Å

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility to detect lactobacilli in mail-in infant stools collected monthly from 3-18 months old children was investigated. The aim was to determine total lactobacilli and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) content (ng/g feces) in 50 infants each from Colorado (648 samples), Finland (624 samples) and Sweden (685 samples) who participated in the TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study. Total lactobacilli content varied markedly between 5 and 16,800 ng/g feces in the three clinical sites within and between individuals especially in infants. L.plantarum also varied markedly intra- and inter-individually from <0.5 - 736 ng/g feces. A higher variability of total lactobacilli was found before 10 months of age than after in the three different clinical sites. Sweden had the lowest total lactobacilli content compared to Colorado and Finland while the L.plantarum content was higher in Sweden. Mail-in stool samples from infants should prove useful in analyzing probiotics in childhood. PMID:25045339

  11. Impact of food craving and calorie intake on body mass index (BMI) changes during an 18-month behavioral weight loss trial.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Joanna; Rybak, Tiffany M; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Murphy, James G; Raynor, Hollie A

    2017-01-12

    The purpose of this study was to explore relations between food craving, caloric intake, and body mass index (BMI) changes over the course of an 18-month weight loss trial. Two-hundred two obese adults (mean BMI = 34.9 kg/m(2); mean age = 51.30 years, 92.2% White; 57.8% female) who participated in a behavioral weight loss trial completed measures of food craving, caloric intake, and BMI at baseline, 6 and 18 months. From baseline to 6 months, higher initial food cravings were associated with more gradual and less steep reductions in BMI. Additionally, the relation between changes in food craving and BMI changes varied by levels of change in caloric intake, such that BMI change and change in food cravings were positively associated at low levels of change in caloric intake, but were unrelated at average and high levels of change in caloric intake. Similarly, from baseline to 6 months and from 6 to 18 months, the relation between changes in food craving and BMI changes also varied by initial levels of caloric intake. Explicit clinical targeting of food craving management may be beneficial for individuals beginning weight loss programs, especially for those who report higher levels of food craving at baseline. Baseline caloric intake and change in calorie intake over time may serve as moderators of the relation between food cravings and BMI.

  12. Family characteristics predicting favourable changes in 10 and 11-year-old children's lifestyle-related health behaviours during an 18-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ray, Carola; Roos, Eva

    2012-02-01

    Lifestyle-related health behaviours such as screen time, physical activity, sleep duration, and food intake tend to change into non-favourable directions when children become young adolescents. Cross-sectional studies show that family characteristics are important determinants for children's health behaviours. This study examined whether family characteristics such as parenting practices at meals and family involvement predict a more favourable change in children's lifestyle-related health behaviours during an 18-month follow-up. 745 children in school grades 4 and 5 (response rate 65%) filled in a baseline questionnaire in the autumn of 2006. A follow-up was conducted in the spring of 2008 (91%). Several health behaviours had changed in a non-favourable direction. Baseline parenting practices at meals and family involvement predicted some of the changes in the lifestyle-related health behaviours in 2008. Parenting practices at meals predicted a smaller increase in TV, DVD viewing time, and a smaller decrease in fruit intake. Amongst family involvement determinants, less time alone at home after school predicted a smaller increase in screen time, a smaller decrease in sleep duration, and a smaller increase in soft drink intake. For conclusion several family characteristics predicted favourable changes in children's lifestyle-related health behaviours.

  13. Deferred imitation in 18-month-olds from two cultural contexts: the case of Cameroonian Nso farmer and German-middle class infants.

    PubMed

    Borchert, Sonja; Lamm, Bettina; Graf, Frauke; Knopf, Monika

    2013-12-01

    Imitative learning has been described in naturalistic studies for different cultures, but lab-based research studying imitative learning across different cultural contexts is almost missing. Therefore, imitative learning was assessed with 18-month-old German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer infants - representing two highly different eco-cultural contexts associated with different cultural models, the psychological autonomy and the hierarchical relatedness - by using the deferred imitation paradigm. Study 1 revealed that the infants from both cultural contexts performed a higher number of target actions in the deferred imitation than in the baseline phase. Moreover, it was found that German middle-class infants showed a higher mean imitation rate as they performed more target actions in the deferred imitation phase compared with Cameroonian Nso farmer infants. It was speculated that the opportunity to manipulate the test objects directly after the demonstration of the target actions could enhance the mean deferred imitation rate of the Cameroonian Nso farmer infants which was confirmed in Study 2. Possible explanations for the differences in the amount of imitated target actions of German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer infants are discussed considering the object-related, dyadic setting of the imitation paradigm with respect to the different learning contexts underlying the different cultural models of learning.

  14. Epidermal exfoliation of over 95% after a burn in an 18-month-old boy: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Horna Strand, A; Rubertsson, S; Huss, F; Mani, M

    2016-03-01

    This report concerns an 18-month-old boy who presented with a 6% total body surface area scald. The subject of this report is unique in that he developed the largest exfoliation described in literature. After 3 days an epidermal exfoliation with the appearance of a deliberately inflicted scald developed. As the exfoliation progressed to over 95% total body surface area the suspicion of child abuse or neglect could be abandoned. The diagnosis Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome was set, due to the finding of Staphylococcus aureus on swabs, the lack of mucosal engagement, and the patient's age. The boy's skin healed within 3 weeks. The few reports published are all case reports and most frequently described visually infected burns with smaller epidermal exfoliations, and clinically based exfoliation diagnosis. S. aureus often cause burn wound infections that can lead to complications caused by cross-infection. It is important for burn surgeons and intensive care specialists to be aware of the increased possibility of Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome occurring in patients who have a reduced barrier to infection such as burn patients and also, that the diagnosis can be difficult to make.

  15. Stability of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds during Long-Term Storage (18 Months) at Temperatures of 5-50 °C.

    PubMed

    Krichene, Dhouha; Salvador, María Desamparados; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2015-08-05

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) phenolic compounds have high nutritional and biological properties. The purpose of this research was to study the stability of VOO phenolic compounds during long-term storage (18 months) at different temperatures (5, 15, 25, and 50 °C) and to verify the advantage of storing VOO at a temperature lower than the usual commercial conditions (20-25 °C). Four monovarietal VOOs that differed in their fatty acid profile and content of natural antioxidants were used in this study. The degradation of secoiridoid phenolics during storage displayed pseudo-first-order kinetics and depended on the initial content of phenolics related to olive oil variety. The initial degradation rate was similar at 5 and 15 °C but increased considerably at 25 °C and was even faster at 50 °C. Tyrosol derivatives were more stable than hydroxytyrosol compounds, especially in closed bottles with limited oxygen availability. The increase in the content of simple phenolics, the decrease of their secoiridoid derivatives, or the ratio of simple to secoiridoid phenolics could be used as indices of the oxidative and hydrolytic degradation of VOO phenolics. The shelf life of the studied VOO was considerably extended at reduced storage temperature (15 vs 25 °C). Moreover, storage conditions affected VOO phenolic content and therefore the expiration date of the health claim that olive oil polyphenols contribute to the protection of blood lipids from oxidative stress.

  16. Assesment of perinatal mortality in two different periods: results of a single center

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Serdar Sadık; Kavuncuoğlu, Sultan; Sarı, Ferhat; Aldemir, Esin Yıldız; Kavçık, Nazlı; Demir, Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to investigate the perinatal mortality rate with 37 864 deliveries which occured in two different periods in a single center, to compare the components of perinatal mortality and affecting factors with the results of the study related with perinatal mortality which we conducted in 1999 and to emphasize the precautions directed to reduce mortality rates. Material and Methods: All live births and stillbirths which occurred in Bakırköy Obstetrics and Pediatrics Training and Research Hospital between January 2007 and December 2007 were evaluated. The results were compared with the results of the study conducted in 1999. Newborns with a weight above five hundred grams and a gestational age above 22 weeks were enrolled in the study. The stillbirth rate, early neonatal mortality rate, late neonatal mortality rate, perinatal mortality rate and corrected perinatal mortality rate were calculated. Modified Wigglesworth Classification was used for evaluating the perinatal mortality and the subjects were examined in 7 groups. The characteristics belonging to the years of 2007 and 1999 were examined, the differences were recorded and the results were discussed. When the two periods were compared, it was observed that the perinatal mortality rate increased from 23.5‰ to 26‰. Result: When the causes were investigated, it was observed that the stillbirth rate was increased in 2007 (84%) and especially congenital anomalies had an important role in this increment. The early neonatal mortality rate declined from 0.8% in 1999 to 0.4% in 2007. It was found that especially the premature mortality rate (Group 3) and the mortality rate related with perinatal asphyxia (Group 4) were significantly decreased. Conclusion: The decrease in early neonatal mortality rate could be best explained by productive operation of the new neonatal intensive care unit which had been established after 2002. PMID:27738396

  17. 42 CFR 412.76 - Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recovery of excess transition period payment... INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Determination of Transition Period Payment Rates for the Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.76 Recovery of excess transition period payment...

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with parental concerns about development detected by the Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) at 6-month, 12-month and 18-month well-child checks in a birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Woolfenden, Susan; Eapen, Valsamma; Jalaludin, Bin; Hayen, Andrew; Kemp, Lynn; Dissanyake, Cheryl; Hendry, Alexandra; Axelsson, Emma; Overs, Bronwyn; Eastwood, John; Črnčec, Rudi; McKenzie, Anne; Beasley, Deborah; Murphy, Elisabeth; Williams, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Early identification of developmental vulnerability is vital. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of moderate or high developmental risk on the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) at 6-month, 12-month and 18-month well-child checks; identify associated risk factors; and examine documentation of the PEDS at well-child checks. Design, participants A prospective birth cohort of 2025 children with 50% of those approached agreeing to participate. Demographic data were obtained via questionnaires and linked electronic medical records. Telephone interviews were conducted with parents to collect PEDS data. Primary and secondary outcomes Multiple logistic regression analyses identified risk factors for moderate or high developmental risk on the PEDS. A Cumulative Risk Index examined the impact of multiple risk factors on developmental risk and documentation of the PEDS at the well-child checks. Results Of the original cohort, 792 (39%) had 6-month, 649 (32%) had 12-month and 565 (28%) had 18-month PEDS data. Parental concerns indicating moderate or high developmental risk on the PEDS were 27% (95% CI 24 to 30) at 6 months, 27% (95% CI 24 to 30) at 12 months and 33% (95% CI 29 to 37) at 18 months. Factors associated with moderate or high developmental risk were perinatal risk (OR 12 months: 1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7)); maternal Middle Eastern or Asian nationality (OR 6 months: 1.6 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.4)), (OR 12 months: 1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7)); and household disadvantage (OR 6 months: 1.5 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.2). As the number of risk factors increased the odds increased for high or moderate developmental risk and no documentation of the PEDS at well-child checks. Conclusions Children with multiple risk factors are more likely to have parental concerns indicating developmental vulnerability using the PEDS and for these concerns to not be documented. PMID:27609853

  19. Evaporation over land surfaces - First results from HAPEX-MOBILHY Special Observing Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Jean-Claude; Goutorbe, Jean-Paul; Bessemoulin, Pierre; Perrier, Alain; Becker, Francois

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from the May 7-July 15, 1986 Special Observing Period (SOP) of the HAPEX-MOBILHY program, which examines the hydrological budget and evaporation flux at the scale of a 10,000 sq km GCM grid square to determine soil moisture, surface-energy budgets, and surface hydrology. The SOP used two highly instrumented remote sensing aircraft to obtain detailed measurements of atmospheric fluxes and surface properties. It is noted that the measurements are reliable at spatially local and short time scales, as well as on the monthly time scale. The data base obtained may be used in parametrization schemes against which land-surface water budgets can be tested.

  20. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  1. Periodic Lateralized Epileptiform Discharges can Survive Anesthesia and Result in Asymmetric Drug-induced Burst Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Mader, Edward C.; Cannizzaro, Louis A.; Williams, Frank J.; Lalan, Saurabh; Olejniczak, Piotr W.

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced burst suppression (DIBS) is bihemispheric and bisymmetric in adults and older children. However, asymmetric DIBS may occur if a pathological process is affecting one hemisphere only or both hemispheres disproportionately. The usual suspect is a destructive lesion; an irritative or epileptogenic lesion is usually not invoked to explain DIBS asymmetry. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman with new-onset seizures who was found to have a hemorrhagic cavernoma and periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs) in the right temporal region. After levetiracetam and before anesthetic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were administered, the electroencephalogram (EEG) showed continuous PLEDs over the right hemisphere with maximum voltage in the posterior temporal region. Focal electrographic seizures also occurred occasionally in the same location. Propofol resulted in bihemispheric, but not in bisymmetric, DIBS. Remnants or fragments of PLEDs that survived anesthesia increased the amplitude and complexity of the bursts in the right hemisphere leading to asymmetric DIBS. Phenytoin, lacosamide, ketamine, midazolam, and topiramate were administered at various times in the course of EEG monitoring, resulting in suppression of seizures but not of PLEDs. Ketamine and midazolam reduced the rate, amplitude, and complexity of PLEDs but only after producing substantial attenuation of all burst components. When all anesthetics were discontinued, the EEG reverted to the original preanesthesia pattern with continuous non-fragmented PLEDs. The fact that PLEDs can survive anesthesia and affect DIBS symmetry is a testament to the robustness of the neurodynamic processes underlying PLEDs. PMID:28286626

  2. Latitudinal variation of perturbation electric fields during magnetically disturbed periods - 1986 Sundial observations and model results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fejer, B. G.; Spiro, R. W.; Wolf, R. A.; Foster, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    F-region incoherent scatter radar drift observations from Millstone Hill and Jicamarca, h-prime F observations from Huancayo, and high latitude ground-magnetometer measurements taken during the Sundial 1986 campaign are used to study the relationship between plasmaspheric electric field perturbations and high latitude currents during disturbed periods. The observations are in good agreement with numerical results from a Rice Covection Model run that involved a sharp increase in the polar cap potential drop followed by a subsequent decrease. The zonal disturbance electric field pattern is latitude independent, and the corresponding amplitudes change approximately as L exp n (where n is about 1.5). The meridional electric field patterns and amplitudes have larger latitudinal variations. The mid-, low, and equatorial electric fields from the Rice Convection Model are in good agreement with previous results from the semianalytic, Senior-Blanc (1987) model. Also discussed are three physical mechanisms (over-shielding, fossil winds, and magnetic reconfiguration) that contribute to the long lasting (1-2 h) equatorial zonal electric field perturbations associated with a sudden northward turning of the IMF. It is predicted that the penetration of high latitude electric fields to low latitudes should, in general, be closely related to the rate of motion of the shielding layer and the equatorward edge of the diffuse aurora.

  3. Early diagnosis of HIV in children below 18 months using DNA PCR test--assessment of the effectiveness of PMTCT interventions and challenges in early initiation of ART in a resource-limited setting.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anil; Singh, Girraj; Kaushik, Pratap; Joshi, Bipin; Kalra, Kamlesh; Chakraborty, Sabyasachi

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess efficacy of the current Indian Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) protocol in 217 HIV-exposed infants, and to assess challenges in the early initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in 18 (8.3%) infants with HIV, as determined by the HIV-1 DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test at ≥ 6 weeks to <18 months of age. The mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate in 154 mother-baby pairs fully compliant with the PMTCT protocol was 5.2%. However, if 25 pairs who were positive using dried blood spot (DBS) DNA PCR and who did not undergo whole blood testing are included in the analysis, then the overall MTCT rate would be 19.8%. The current protocol is 50% effective considering an MTCT rate of 35-40% without any intervention. ART was initiated in 10 (55.6%) HIV-infected children at a mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of 10.45 ± 4.9 (range: 4-17.5) months; delay resulted in opportunistic infections in one-third of the children. A single-dose nevirapine PMTCT regimen should be replaced by a triple antiretroviral regimen; DBS DNA PCR-positive infants may be given ART, and simultaneously a whole blood specimen should be taken to determine whether ART should be continued.

  4. [Validation of food security and social support scales in an Afro-Colombian community: application on a prevalence study of nutritional status in children aged 6 to 18 months].

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Beatriz Eugenia; Zunzunegui, María Victoria; Delisle, Helene

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study on 193 mothers of children 6 to 18 months of age in an African-Colombian community, with the objectives: (1) to adapt and validate the Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project scale, the DUKE-UNC-11 social support scale, and the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD) partner support scale, and (2) to identify any existent relationship between nutritional status in infancy and both food insecurity and social support. We determined construct validity using factor analysis and theoretical models-based non-parametric correlations. Length-for-age and weight-for-length Z-results were calculated. Factor analyses reduced the hunger scale to one factor, the DUKE-UNC-11 scale to two factors, and the QLSCD scale to one factor. The Cronbach's alpha test ranged between 0.70 and 0.90. Both food insecurity and social support scales were correlated with mother's social conditions, and social support was positively associated with social networks and mother's self-perceived health status. Food insecurity, emotional-social support, and partner's negative support were associated with lower height-to-age and therefore a higher ratio of chronic malnutrition. The study supports the appropriateness of the instruments to measure the expressed concepts.

  5. (1)H-NMR analysis of the human urinary metabolome in response to an 18-month multi-component exercise program and calcium-vitamin-D3 supplementation in older men.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, John R; Gooley, Paul R; Nahid, Amsha; Tull, Dedreia L; McConville, Malcolm J; Kukuljan, Sonja; Nowson, Caryl A; Daly, Robin M; Ebeling, Peter R

    2014-11-01

    The musculoskeletal benefits of calcium and vitamin-D3 supplementation and exercise have been extensively studied, but the effect on metabolism remains contentious. Urine samples were analyzed by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy from participants recruited for an 18-month, randomized controlled trial of a multi-component exercise program and calcium and vitamin-D3 fortified milk consumption. It was shown previously that no increase in musculoskeletal composition was observed for participants assigned to the calcium and vitamin-D3 intervention, but exercise resulted in increased bone mineral density, total lean body mass, and muscle strength. Retrospective metabolomics analysis of urine samples from patients involved in this study revealed no distinct changes in the urinary metabolome in response to the calcium and vitamin-D3 intervention, but significant changes followed the exercise intervention, notably a reduction in creatinine and an increase in choline, guanidinoacetate, and hypoxanthine (p < 0.001, fold change > 1.5). These metabolites are intrinsically involved in anaerobic ATP synthesis, intracellular buffering, and methyl-balance regulation. The exercise intervention had a marked effect on the urine metabolome and markers of muscle turnover but none of these metabolites were obvious markers of bone turnover. Measurement of specific urinary exercise biomarkers may provide a basis for monitoring performance and metabolic response to exercise regimes.

  6. STS-40 orbital acceleration research experiment flight results during a typical sleep period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Nicholson, J. Y.; Ritter, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), an electrostatic accelerometer package with complete on-orbit calibration capabilities, was flown for the first time aboard the Space Shuttle on STS-40. This is also the first time an accelerometer package with nano-g sensitivity and a calibration facility has flown aboard the Space Shuttle. The instrument is designed to measure and record the Space Shuttle aerodynamic acceleration environment from the free molecule flow regime through the rarified flow transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Because of its sensitivity, the OARE instrument defects aerodynamic behavior of the Space Shuttle while in low-earth orbit. A 2-hour orbital time period on day seven of the mission, when the crew was asleep and other spacecraft activities were at a minimum, was examined. During the flight, a 'trimmed-mean' filter was used to produce high quality, low frequency data which was successfully stored aboard the Space Shuttle in the OARE data storage system. Initial review of the data indicated that, although the expected precision was achieved, some equipment problems occurred resulting in uncertain accuracy. An acceleration model which includes aerodynamic, gravity-gradient, and rotational effects was constructed and compared with flight data. Examination of the model with the flight data shows the instrument to be sensitive to all major expected low frequency acceleration phenomena; however, some erratic instrument bias behavior persists in two axes. In these axes, the OARE data can be made to match a comprehensive atmospheric-aerodynamic model by making bias adjustments and slight linear corrections for drift. The other axis does not exhibit these difficulties and gives good agreement with the acceleration model.

  7. Recent improvement in lung cancer screening: a comparison of the results carried out in two different time periods.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Takuji; Nishii, Kenji; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Shibayama, Takuo; Gemba, Kenichi; Kodani, Tsuyoshi; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tabata, Masahiro; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate recent improvements in lung cancer screening, we compared the results of recently conducted lung cancer screening with those of a previous screening. This study compared the survival of lung cancer patients detected by lung cancer screening conducted between 1976 and 1984 (early period) with that conducted between 1989 and 1997 (late period). Two hundred seventy-six patients with lung cancer were detected in the early period and 541 patients with lung cancer were detected in the late period. The median survival time (late : 49.8 vs. early : 27.8 months) and the 5-year survival rate (late : 47.8 vs. early : 34.8%) of the patients with lung cancer detected in the late period were significantly better than those in the early period (p = 0.0054). Among patients undergoing resection, the proportion of pathological stage I patients in the late period was significantly higher than that in the early period (late : 60.8 vs. early : 54.9%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that the screening time period was a significant prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 0.685, 95% confidence interval : 0.563-0.832, p = 0.0002). These results were consistent with the findings of case-control studies of lung cancer screening programs in the late period recently conducted in Japan, which also showed a greater efficacy for screening than for previous case-control studies in the early period.

  8. Impact of lipid-based nutrient supplements and corn-soy blend on energy and nutrient intake among moderately underweight 8-18-month-old children participating in a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M; Ashorn, Per; Phuka, John C; Cheung, Yin Bun; Briend, André; Maleta, Kenneth M

    2015-12-01

    Nutrition interventions have an effect on growth, energy and nutrient intake, and development, but there are mixed reports on the effect of supplementation of energy-dense foods on dietary intake. This substudy aimed at assessing the effect of supplementation with corn-soy blend (CSB) or lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) on energy and nutrient intake in moderately underweight children participating in a clinical trial. A total of 188 children aged 8-18 months participated and received daily either 284 kcal from CSB or 220 kcal from LNS and no supplements (control). An interactive 24-h recall method was used to estimate energy and nutrient intakes in the groups. Total mean energy intake was 548 kcal, 551 kcal and 692 kcal in the control, CSB and LNS groups, respectively (P = 0.011). The mean (95% confidence interval) intake of energy and protein were 144 (37-250; P < 0.001) and 46 (1.5-7.6; P < 0.001) larger, respectively, in the LNS group than among the controls. No significant differences were observed between the control and CSB groups. Energy intake from non-supplement foods was significantly lower in the CSB group compared with the control group, but not in the LNS group, suggesting a lower displacement of non-supplement foods with LNS. Both CSB and LNS supplementation resulted in higher intakes of calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin C compared with controls (all P ≤ 0.001). This study indicates that LNS might be superior to CSB to supplement underweight children as it results in higher energy intake, but this requires confirmation in other settings.

  9. Quasi-periodic Pulsations in Solar and Stellar Flares: An Overview of Recent Results (Invited Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Doorsselaere, Tom; Kupriyanova, Elena G.; Yuan, Ding

    2016-11-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (or QPPs) are periodic intensity variations in the flare emission that occur across all wavelength bands. In this article, we review the observational and modelling achievements since the previous review on this topic by Nakariakov and Melnikov ( Space Sci. Rev. 149, 119, 2009). In recent years, it has become clear that QPPs are an inherent feature of solar flares because almost all flares exhibit QPPs. Moreover, it is now firmly established that QPPs often show multiple periods. We also review possible mechanisms for generating QPPs. Up to now, it has not been possible to conclusively identify the triggering mechanism or cause of QPPs. The lack of this identification currently hampers possible seismological inferences of flare plasma parameters. QPPs in stellar flares have been detected for a long time, and the high-quality data of the Kepler mission allows studying the QPP more systematically. However, it has not been conclusively shown whether the timescales of stellar QPPs are different or the same as those in solar flares.

  10. Effectiveness of long-acting antipsychotics in clinical practice : 1. A retrospective, 18-month follow up and comparison between paliperidone palmitate, risperidone long-acting injection and zuclopenthixol decanoate

    PubMed Central

    Cordiner, Matthew; Shajahan, Polash; McAvoy, Sarah; Bashir, Muhammad; Taylor, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In the UK, nine different compounds are available as long-acting antipsychotic injections (LAIs). There are few clinical guidelines for determining which LAIs are most effective in specific patient groups. To measure the clinical effectiveness of LAIs we aimed to determine the now-established concept of antipsychotic discontinuation rates and measure Clinical Global Impression (CGI) outcomes. Method: The population (n was approximately 560,000) was a secondary care NHS adult mental health service in Lanarkshire, Scotland, UK. This was a retrospective, electronic case note search of LAI-naïve patients commenced on paliperidone palmitate (n = 31), risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) (n = 102) or zuclopenthixol decanoate (n = 105), with an 18-month follow up. Kaplan–Meier survival statistics for discontinuation rates and hospital admission were calculated. CGI severity and improvement scores were retrospectively assigned by the investigating team. Results: Paliperidone palmitate performed less favourably than risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) or zuclopenthixol decanoate. Paliperidone palmitate had higher discontinuation rates due to any cause, inefficacy and increased hospitalization risk. Paliperidone palmitate had the smallest proportion of patients assigned a clinically desirable CGI-I score of 1 (very much improved) or 2 (much improved). Conclusions: Paliperidone palmitate had less favourable discontinuation and CGI outcomes compared with RLAI and zuclopenthixol decanoate. This could not be adequately explained by patients in the paliperidone group being more chronically or severely unwell, nor by the presence of comorbidities such as alcohol or substance misuse, or by the use of lower mean dosages compared with RLAI or zuclopenthixol decanoate. We considered that prescribers are familiarizing themselves with paliperidone and outcomes may improve over time. PMID:26913175

  11. Experimental results of antigliadin antibodies detection using long period fiber grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corres, J. M.; Matias, I. R.; Goicoechea, J.; Arregui, F. J.; Viegas, D.; Araújo, F. M.; Santos, J. L.

    2008-04-01

    In this work a new nano-biofilm is proposed for the detection of celiac disease (CD). A long-period fiber grating (LPFG) is used as a transducer and the surface of the fiber is coated with a precursor layer of SiO2-nanospheres using the electrostatic self-assembly technique (ESA). This layer has been designed in order to create a substrate of high porosity where the gliadins could be deposited. Under the presence of specific antibodies antigliadin antibodies (AGA) the refractive index of the overlay changes giving a detectable shift in the resonance wavelength of the LPFG. Concentrations as low as 5 ppm were detected.

  12. STS-40 orbital acceleration research experiment flight results during a typical sleep period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.

    1992-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), an electrostatic accelerometer package with complete on-orbit calibration capabilities was flown aboard Shuttle on STS-40. The instrument is designed to measure and record the Shuttle aerodynamic acceleration environment from the free molecule flow regime through the rarefied flow transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Because of its sensitivity, the OARE instrument detects aerodynamic behavior of the Shuttle while in low-earth orbit. A 2-h orbital time period on day seven of the mission, when the crew was asleep and other spacecraft activities were at a minimum, was examined. Examination of the model with the flight data shows the instrument to be sensitive to all major expected low-frequency acceleration phenomena; however, some erratic instrument bias behavior persists in two axes. In these axes, the OARE data can be made to match a comprehensive atmospheric-aerodynamic model by making bias adjustments and slight liner corrections for drift.

  13. Effectiveness of Using the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers in Two-Stage Screening of Autism Spectrum Disorder at the 18-Month Health Check-Up in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Koyama, Tomonori; Inokuchi, Eiko; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Kuroda, Miho

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) in conjunction with the routine 18-month health check-up identifies Japanese toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Two-stage screening using the M-CHAT was conducted with 1,851 children attending the check-up. Final ASD diagnosis was confirmed at age =3 years.…

  14. Results of magnetic measurements of ELF fields in Tomsk for the period 2013-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmakov, A. A.; Kolesnik, S. A.; Nedosekov, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes a method of magnetic measurements of natural electromagnetic fields ELF range. The results of the analysis of the frequency characteristics of fashion Schumann resonances in a suburban area in the seasonally-daily cycle of observations.

  15. [Influenza surveillance in five consecutive seasons during post pandemic period: results from National Influenza Center, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Altaş, Ayşe Başak; Bayrakdar, Fatma; Korukluoğlu, Gülay

    2016-07-01

    Influenza surveillance provides data about the characteristics of influenza activity, types, sub-types and antigenic properties of the influenza viruses in circulation in a region. Surveillance also provides for the preparation against potential influenza pandemics with the identification of the genetic properties of viruses and the mutant strains that could pose a threat. In this study, data in the scope of national influenza surveillance carried out by National Influenza Center, Turkey for five consecutive influenza seasons between 2010-2015, following the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus pandemic, have been presented and evaluated. A total of 15.149 respiratory samples, including 8.894 sentinel and 6.255 non-sentinel specimens, during 2010-2015 influenza seasons, within the periods between September and May, were evaluated in our center. All samples were tested using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) for the presence of influenza virus types and subtypes. Within the sentinel influenza surveillance, the samples that were detected negative for influenza viruses, have also been tested for the other respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, rhinoviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses) using the same technique. Further analysis, including virus isolation by cell culture inoculation and antigenic characterization by hemagglutination inhibiton test were performed for the samples found positive for influenza A and B viruses. Selected representative virus isolates have been sent to WHO reference laboratory for the sequence analysis. In the study, influenza virus positivity rates detected for all of the samples (sentinel+non-sentinel) were as follows; 34% (779/2316) in 2010-11 season; 25% (388/1554) in 2011-12; 20% (696/3541) in 2012-13; 23% (615/2678) in 2013-14; and 26% (1332/5060) in 2014-15. When all the samples were considered for influenza A and B viruses, the positivity rates for the seasons of 2010-11; 2011-12; 2012-13; 2013-14; 2014-15 were determined as

  16. Amphetamines and cannabinoids testing in hair: Evaluation of results from a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Burgueño, María José; Alonso, Amaya; Sánchez, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of a set of amphetamines and cannabinoids tests performed on head hair samples from the Medico-Legal sector at the Madrid Department of the Spanish National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences during the years 2013 and 2014. The hair samples were tested for five stimulant phenylalkylamine derivatives -amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA)- and/or two cannabinoids-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBN)- by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry detection in selected-ion monitoring mode, applying a method accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The test results were interpreted according to the confirmation cut-offs proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) to identify chronic drug use. The ratios of positive results were studied in relation to gender, age, hair colour, dyeing and length of the tested samples to assess the independence from these variables or the association with them. Low, medium and high ranges of concentration were also estimated for each drug. 21.94% of the 2954 hair samples tested for phenylalkylamine derivatives were positive for one or more substances. 16.38% of the samples were positive for AP, 12.09% for MDMA and only 0.44% for MA. 6.60% of the tested samples were positive for AP/MDMA combination. A total of 3178 samples were tested for cannabinoids, resulting in 53.40% positive for THC and CBN. Simultaneous tests for phenylalkylamine derivatives and cannabinoids were performed in 2931 of the samples; 14.94% of them were positive for THC, CBN, and one or more amphetamines. According to the results from the statistical analysis, the use of THC and MDMA vary with age and gender among the Medico-Legal sector in an extended area of Spain, while the use of AP appears to be independent of these variables. On the other hand, the results of THC in

  17. Design and Experimental Results for the S825 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1998-1999

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 17%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S825, for the 75% blade radial station of 20- to 40-meter, variable-speed and variable-pitch (toward feather), horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, relatively insensitive to roughness and low-profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil exhibits a rapid, trailing-edge stall, which does not meet the design goal of a docile stall. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement.

  18. Long-term quasi-periodicity of 4U 1636-536 resulting from accretion disc instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewicz, Mateusz; Zdziarski, Andrzej; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Rosinska, Dorota; Slowikowska, Agnieszka

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of a study of the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-536. We have performed temporal analysis of all available RXTE/ASM, RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT and MAXI data. We have confirmed the previously discovered quasi-periodicity of ˜45 d present during ˜2004, however we found it continued to 2006. At other epochs, the quasi-periodicity is only transient, and the quasi-period, if present, drifts. We have then applied a time-dependent accretion disc model to the interval with the significant X-ray quasi-periodicity. For our best model, the period and the amplitude of the theoretical light curve agree well with that observed. The modelled quasi-periodicity is due to the hydrogen thermal-ionization instability occurring in outer regions of the accretion disc. The model parameters are the average mass accretion rate (estimated from the light curves), and the accretion disc viscosity parameters, α_{cold} and α_{hot}, for the hot and cold phases, respectively. Our best model gives relatively low values of α_{cold} and α_{hot}.

  19. Simulation results of few-mode signal propagation over graded multimode optical fibers with periodical slowly varying core diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdine, Anton V.

    2008-12-01

    Simulation results of few-mode signal propagation over silica graded multimode optical fibers with periodical slowly varying core diameter, excited by laser source, are represented. Weakly-guiding irregular multimode fibers with axialsymmetric graded index profile under central defect, local fluctuations and single outer cladding are considered. It is supposed, the core diameter varies slowly along fiber length according to sine function. The period of sine function is more then 106 times greater then fiber core diameter. Solution is based on proposed time domain model of piece-wise regular multimode fiber link under few-mode signal propagation under laser source exciting. Model takes into account differential mode delay, higher-order mode chromatic dispersion, mode mixing and power diffusion. Some results of pulse dynamics calculation during propagation over described fiber with periodical slowly varying core diameter are represented.

  20. The OmegaWhite Survey for short period variable stars - II. An overview of results from the first four years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, R.; Ramsay, G.; Macfarlane, S.; Groot, P. J.; Woudt, P. A.; Dhillon, V.; Jeffery, C. S.; Marsh, T.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.

    2016-11-01

    OmegaWhite is a wide-field, high cadence, synoptic survey targeting fields in the southern Galactic plane, with the aim of discovering short period variable stars. Our strategy is to take a series of 39 s exposures in the g band of a 1 deg2 of sky lasting 2 h using the OmegaCAM wide field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). We give an overview of the initial 4 yr of data which covers 134 deg2 and includes 12.3 million light curves. As the fields overlap with the VLT Survey Telescope Hα Photometric Survey of the Galactic plane and Bulge (VPHAS+), we currently have ugriHα photometry for ˜1/3 of our fields. We find that a significant fraction of the light curves have been affected by the diffraction spikes of bright stars sweeping across stars within a few dozen of pixels over the two hour observing time interval due to the alt-az nature of the VST. We select candidate variable stars using a variety of variability statistics, followed by a manual verification stage. We present samples of several classes of short period variables, including: an ultra compact binary, a DQ white dwarf, a compact object with evidence of a 100 min rotation period, three CVs, one eclipsing binary with an 85 min period, a symbiotic binary which shows evidence of a 31 min photometric period, and a large sample of candidate δ Sct type stars including one with a 9.3 min period. Our overall goal is to cover 400 deg2, and this study indicates we will find many more interesting short period variable stars as a result.

  1. Viability of the lichen Xanthoria elegans and its symbionts after 18 months of space exposure and simulated Mars conditions on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Annette; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Onofri, Silvano; Ott, Sieglinde

    2015-07-01

    The lichen Xanthoria elegans has been exposed to space conditions and simulated Mars-analogue conditions in the lichen and fungi experiment (LIFE) on the International Space Station (ISS). After several simulations and short space exposure experiments such as BIOPAN, this was the first long-term exposure of eukaryotic organisms to the hostile space conditions of the low Earth orbit (LEO). The biological samples were integrated in the EXPOSE-E facility and exposed for 1.5 years outside the ISS to the combined impact of insolation, ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation, cosmic radiation, temperatures and vacuum conditions of LEO space. Additionally, a subset of X. elegans samples was exposed to simulated Martian environmental conditions by applying Mars-analogue atmosphere and suitable solar radiation filters. After their return to Earth the viability of the lichen samples was ascertained by viability analysis of LIVE/DEAD staining and confocal laser-scanning microscopy, but also by analyses of chlorophyll a fluorescence. According to the LIVE/DEAD staining results, the lichen photobiont showed an average viability rate of 71%, whereas the even more resistant lichen mycobiont showed a rate of 84%. Post-exposure viability rates did not significantly vary among the applied exposure conditions. This remarkable viability is discussed in the context of particular protective mechanisms of lichens such as anhydrobiosis and UV-screening pigments.

  2. Development of food photographs for use with children aged 18 months to 16 years: Comparison against weighed food diaries – The Young Person’s Food Atlas (UK)

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Adrian; Barton, Karen L.; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N. S.; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional dietary assessment methods, used in the UK, such as weighed food diaries impose a large participant burden, often resulting in difficulty recruiting representative samples and underreporting of energy intakes. One approach to reducing the burden placed on the participant is to use portion size assessment tools to obtain an estimate of the amount of food consumed, removing the need to weigh all foods. An age range specific food atlas was developed for use in assessing children’s dietary intakes. The foods selected and portion sizes depicted were derived from intakes recorded during the UK National Diet and Nutrition Surveys of children aged 1.5 to 16 years. Estimates of food portion sizes using the food atlas were compared against 4-day weighed intakes along with in-school / nursery observations, by the research team. Interviews were conducted with parents the day after completion of the diary, and for children aged 4 to 16 years, also with the child. Mean estimates of portion size consumed were within 7% of the weight of food recorded in the weighed food diary. The limits of agreement were wide indicating high variability of estimates at the individual level but the precision increased with increasing age. For children 11 years and over, agreement with weighed food diaries, was as good as that of their parents in terms of total weight of food consumed and of intake of energy and key nutrients. The age appropriate food photographs offer an alternative to weighed intakes for dietary assessment with children. PMID:28199319

  3. Changes of gait pattern in children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A: a 18 months follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In a previous study we identified 3 different gait patterns in a group of children with CMT1A disease: Normal-like (NL), Foot-drop (FD), Foot-drop and Push-off Deficit (FD&POD). Goal of the present study was to perform a follow-up evaluation of the same group of patients to analyze possible changes of gait features in relation to disease progression or specific therapy. Methods Nineteen children with CMT1A were evaluated clinically (CMT-Examination Score and Overall Neuropathy Limitation Scale) and through gait analysis 18.2±1.5 months after a baseline evaluation. Meanwhile, 3 of them had foot surgery. Results Fifteen out of the 16 non-operated patients significantly changed at least one of the two parameters associated to primary signs (FD and/or POD). Eleven participants worsened at least one parameter and 9 improved one parameter. CMTES significantly worsened for the group of non-operated patients. However, there was no change in CMTES score in 4 patients and in ONLS score in 11. At subgroup level, participants originally belonging to NL group showed a trend towards a foot-drop deficit (−15%, ns); FD and FD&POD subgroups did not change their primary signs, although significant changes were identified individually. All 3 patients operated have improved push-off and proximal joint patterns during walking. Clinical scores did not change within any sub-group. Conclusions Subtle changes occurring in 1.5 year in gait features of CMT1A children can be instrumentally identified. Such changes show a large inter-subject variability, with some patients even improving their walking pattern. There is anecdotal evidence that foot surgery may improve the push-off phase of gait. PMID:23819439

  4. Analysis and Prediction of Claustrophobia during MR Imaging with the Claustrophobia Questionnaire: An Observational Prospective 18-month Single-Center Study of 6500 Patients.

    PubMed

    Napp, Adriane E; Enders, Judith; Roehle, Robert; Diederichs, Gerd; Rief, Matthias; Zimmermann, Elke; Martus, Peter; Dewey, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To analyze claustrophobia during magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and to explore the potential of the 26-item claustrophobia questionnaire (CLQ) (range, 0-4) as a screening tool in patients scheduled for MR imaging. Materials and Methods The study received institutional review board approval, and patients in the CLQ cohort provided informed consent. A total of 6520 consecutive patients were included. Overall, 4288 patients completed the CLQ before MR imaging (CLQ cohort), and 2232 patients underwent MR imaging without having completed the CLQ (non-CLQ cohort). Claustrophobic events were recorded by the staff. Results The CLQ mean score in patients with claustrophobic events (1.48 ± 0.93) was significantly higher (P < .01) than in the group without claustrophobic events (0.60 ± 0.5). The CLQ cutoff value was 0.16 for men and 0.56 for women. Because of the low prevalence, negative predictive values of CLQ cutoff values (men, 0.99 [573 of 582]; women, 0.97 [745 of 766]) were higher than positive predictive values (men, 0.01 [88 of 582]; women, 0.16 [192 of 1186]). The overall claustrophobic event rate was 9.8% (640 of 6520; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.1, 10.6). The CLQ did not induce claustrophobic events because the event rate in the CLQ cohort was significantly lower than that in the non-CLQ cohort, as shown by the adjusted odds ratio of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.96). Conclusion The CLQ is a suitable screening tool for the absence of a subsequent claustrophobic event. Furthermore, while it is possible to identify patients with a considerable risk of claustrophobia, prediction in individual patients is not possible. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  5. COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING WITH FORTIFIED SPREAD IS LIKELY TO REDUCE THE INCIDENCE OF SEVERE STUNTING AMONG 6–18 MONTH OLD RURAL MALAWIAN INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    Phuka, John C.; Maleta, Kenneth; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Cheung, Yin Bun; Briend, André; Manary, Mark J.; Ashorn, Per

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare growth and incidence of malnutrition among infants receiving long-term dietary complementation with ready-to-use fortified spread (FS) or micronutrient fortified maize-soy flour (LP). Design Randomized, controlled, single-blind trial Setting Rural Malawian population with high incidence of malnutrition Participants 182 six-month-old infants. Intervention Participants were randomized to receive 1-year-long daily supplementation with either 71g of LP (282 kcal energy / day), 50g FS50 (256 kcal), or 25g FS25 (127 kcal). Main outcome measures Weight and length gain, incidence of severe stunting, underweight, and wasting. Results The mean weight and length gains in LP, FS50 and FS25 groups were 2.37, 2.47, and 2.37 kg (p= 0.658) and 12.7, 13.5, and 13.2 cm (p=0.234), respectively. In the same groups, cumulative 12-month incidence of severe stunting was 14.0%, 0.0% and 4.0% (p=0.011), severe underweight 15.0%, 22.5% and 16.9% (p=0.706), and severe wasting 1.8%, 1.9% and 1.8% (p=0.999). Compared to LP-supplemented infants, those given FS50 gained on average (95%CI;p) 100 g (−143 to 343; p=0.419) more weight and 0.8 cm (−0.1 to 1.7; p=0.091) more length. There was a significant interaction between baseline length and intervention (p=0.042); among children with below-median length at enrolment, those given FS50 gained on average 1.9 cm (0.3 to 3.5; p=0.020) more than individuals receiving LP. Conclusions One-year-long complementary feeding with FS does not have significantly larger effect than maize-soy flour on the average weight gain of all infants, but it seems to boost linear growth in the disadvantaged individuals and hence decrease the incidence of severe stunting. PMID:18606932

  6. Ultra-short-period Planets in K2 SuPerPiG Results for Campaigns 0-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elisabeth R.; Jackson, Brian; Endl, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed data from Campaigns 0-5 of the K2 mission and report 19 ultra-short-period candidate planets with orbital periods of less than one day (nine of which have not been previously reported). Planet candidates range in size from 0.7 to 16 Earth radii and in orbital period from 4.2 to 23.5 hr. One candidate (EPIC 203533312, Kp = 12.5) is among the shortest-period planet candidates discovered to date (P=4.2 hr), and, if confirmed as a planet, must have a density of at least ρ =8.9 {{g}} {{cm}}-3 to not be tidally disrupted. Five candidates have nominal radius values in the sub-Jovian desert ({R}P=3{--}11 {R}\\oplus and P≤slant 1.5 days) where theoretical models do not favor their long-term stability; the only confirmed planet in this range is thought to be disintegrating (EPIC 201637175). In addition to the planet candidates, we report on four objects that may not be planetary, including one with intermittent transits (EPIC 211152484) and three initially promising candidates that are likely false positives based on characteristics of their light curves and on radial velocity follow-up. A list of 91 suspected eclipsing binaries identified at various stages in our vetting process is also provided. Based on an assessment of our survey's completeness, we estimate an occurrence rate for ultra-short-period planets among K2 target stars that is about half that estimated from the Kepler sample, raising questions as to whether K2 systems are intrinsically different from Kepler systems, possibly as a result of their different galactic location.

  7. Supernova 1987A: 18 Months later

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the significance for physics of the closest visual supernova in almost 400 years is presented. The supernova occurred in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), /approximately/50 kpc away. The supernova star was a massive star of /approximately/15--20M. Observations now show that it was once a red-giant but lost its outer envelope. The lower than standard luminosity and higher observed velocities are a natural consequence of the pre-supernova star being a blue rather than a red (supergiant). Of particular importance to physicists is the detection of neutrinos from the event by detectors in the United States and Japan. Not only did this establish extra-solar system neutrino astronomy, but it also constrained the properties of neutrino. It is shown that the well established Kamioka-IMB neutrino burst experimentally implies an event with about 2--4 /times/ 10/sup 53/ergs emitted in neutrinos and a temperature, T/sub /bar /nu/e//, of between 4 and 4.5 MeV. This event is in excellent agreement with what one would expect from the gravitational core collapse of a massive star. A neutrino detection, such as that reported earlier in Mt. Blanc, would require more than the rest mass energy of a neutron star to be converted to neutrinos, if it were to have its origin in the LMC. Thus it is probably unrelated to the supernova. The anticipated frequency of collapse events in our Galaxy, will also be discussed with a rate as high as 1/10 year shown to be not unreasonable. 61 refs.

  8. Supernova 1987A: 18 months later

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the significance for physics of the closest visual supernova in almost 400 years is presented. The supernova occurred in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), approx. 50 kpc away. The supernova star was a massive star of approx. 15 to 20 solar mass. Observations now show that it was once a red giant but lost its outer envelope. The lower than standard luminosity and higher observed velocities are a natural consequence of the pre-supernova star being a blue rather than a red (supergiant). Of particular importance to physicsts is the detection of neutrinos from the event by detectors in the United States and Japan. Not only did this establish extra-solar system neutrino astronomy, but it also constrained the properties of neutrino. It is shown that the well established Kamioka-IMB neutrino burst experimentally implies an event with about 2 to 4 x 10 to the 53rd power ergs emitted in neutrinos and a temperature, T sub nu e, of between 4 and 4.5 MeV. This event is in excellent agreement with what one would expect from the gravitational core collapse of a massive star. The anticipated frequency of collapse events in our Galaxy is discussed.

  9. The Explorer XVI Micrometeoroid Satellite Description and Preliminary Results for the Period December 16, 1962 Through January 13, 1963

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, E. C., Jr.

    1963-01-01

    Explorer XVI (1962 Beta Chi l) data that have been analyzed for the period between December 16, 1962 (launch date), and January 13, 1963, indicate that the orbit achieved was close to the predicted orbit. Ten punctures of annealed 0.001-inch-thick beryllium-copper have been used to determine a puncture rate of 0.035 per square foot per day in this material. One puncture of a 0.002-inch-thick sample has also occurred in this period. A tentative evaluation of the puncture rate for the 0.001-inch beryllium-copper in terms of the rate for an equivalent thickness of aluminum has been attempted, and the result has been compared with two different puncture rate estimates. The three micrometeoroid impact detecting systems are operating. Counting rates for the high- and low-sensitivity systems were close to anticipated values near the end of one week. Two of the 0.001-inch-steel-covered grid detectors have been punctured, but none of the 0.003- or 0.006-inch-steel-covered grid detectors have indicated punctures. One of the cadmium sulfide cells indicates three punctures of the 0.00025-inch Mylar cover. None of the 0.002- or 0.003-inch-copper-wire cards have indicated a break in the period covered. Telemetry temperatures were initially higher than expected although they remained well within operating limits. Sensor temperatures have remained within the expected bounds.

  10. [Spasmodic torticollis, substantiating Manto syndrome, of possible toxic aethiology, with alterations of brainstem acoustic evoked potentials (BAEPs). Treatment with L-5-hydroxytryptophan. Follow up of 18 months, during which high degree resolution of symptoms and normalization of BAEPs took place].

    PubMed

    Disertori, B; Ducati, A; Piazza, M

    1982-01-01

    A case of very severe spasmodic torticollis observed for 18 months is presented and discussed. Head was so rotated that permitted only backward seeing and compressed brachial plexus between scaleni muscles with sensory, motor and trophic troubles in the hand. A toxic aethiology from parathion is likely. Brainstem Acoustic Evoked Potentials (BAEPs) showed in the beginning abnormal responses, especially as refers to waves originating in the mesencephalon. Therapy with L-5-hydroxytryptophan subdued neurological symptoms; a parallel normalization of BAEPs recording was observed. The Authors propose to call this syndrome (spasmodic torticollis with thoracic outlet syndrome) after the mythical diviner Manto, which Dante Alighieri refers to in his "Divina Commedia" (Inferno, XX, 55 e segg.).

  11. Results of dose sensors measurements in the middle-Earth orbit for the period of 2009-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopopov, Grigory; Shatov, Pavel; Tasenko, Sergey; Lyakhov, Igor; Makarova, Nina; Balashov, Sergey; Sitnikova, Ninel

    2016-07-01

    The measurements results of space radiation exposure on electronic components carried out by dose sensors are presented in the paper. Dose sensors operate on metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor dosimetry pricniple. The flight data have been receiving for more than 6 years. The measurements results are compared with others flight data on different orbits. The analysis of the received data from 2009 to 2015 allows us to find out the periods with sharp increase of dose rate and to define values of such increases. We had analyzed space radiation characteristics data from other monitoring systems (such as GOES, Electro-L) in dates of dose rate sharp increase. Results of the analysis of dose rate increase, which had been fixed by TID sensors in 2015, will be presented in full paper. We had calculated average dose rates for different space models in the middle-Earth orbit (AE8, AE9 and others) and determined the most relevant models to the experimental data (with account for relaxation effect of dose sensor outputs). The comparison results for different models will be presented in the full paper. We had used different approaches for simulating of dose sensors shielding geometry, such as semi-sphere, semi-infinite plate, sector analysis, with taking account of different shielding elements. The analysis results of shielding configuration influence on calculated values of dose rate will be presented in the full paper.

  12. Reliability of Fitness Tests Using Methods and Time Periods Common in Sport and Occupational Management

    PubMed Central

    Burnstein, Bryan D.; Steele, Russell J.; Shrier, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Context: Fitness testing is used frequently in many areas of physical activity, but the reliability of these measurements under real-world, practical conditions is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the reliability of specific fitness tests using the methods and time periods used in the context of real-world sport and occupational management. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Eighteen different Cirque du Soleil shows. Patients or Other Participants: Cirque du Soleil physical performers who completed 4 consecutive tests (6-month intervals) and were free of injury or illness at each session (n = 238 of 701 physical performers). Intervention(s): Performers completed 6 fitness tests on each assessment date: dynamic balance, Harvard step test, handgrip, vertical jump, pull-ups, and 60-second jump test. Main Outcome Measure(s): We calculated the intraclass coefficient (ICC) and limits of agreement between baseline and each time point and the ICC over all 4 time points combined. Results: Reliability was acceptable (ICC > 0.6) over an 18-month time period for all pairwise comparisons and all time points together for the handgrip, vertical jump, and pull-up assessments. The Harvard step test and 60-second jump test had poor reliability (ICC < 0.6) between baseline and other time points. When we excluded the baseline data and calculated the ICC for 6-month, 12-month, and 18-month time points, both the Harvard step test and 60-second jump test demonstrated acceptable reliability. Dynamic balance was unreliable in all contexts. Limit-of-agreement analysis demonstrated considerable intraindividual variability for some tests and a learning effect by administrators on others. Conclusions: Five of the 6 tests in this battery had acceptable reliability over an 18-month time frame, but the values for certain individuals may vary considerably from time to time for some tests. Specific tests may require a learning period for administrators. PMID:22488138

  13. UV/Visible Aerosol Extinction Measurements performed by GOMOS onboard ENVISAT: results for the period August 2002 to March 2005.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhellemont, F.; Fussen, D.; Dodion, J.; Bingen, C.; Mateshvili, N.; Gomos Team

    Launched in March 2002 the GOMOS Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars instrument onboard the European Envisat satellite has already provided a wealth of information on the geographical and temporal distribution of several atmospheric species Vertical profiles for these species are numerically retrieved from measurements of starlight that is transmitted through the atmosphere at different tangent altitudes The actual spectrum at each tangent altitude is measured within the UV Visible wavelength range Typically within the useful range from 248 nm to 690 nm gas concentration profiles for O 3 NO 2 H 2 O neutral air and aerosol extinction profiles can be retrieved Although stars are relatively weak light sources the advantage of the star occultation lies in the fact that useful stars are available at all times during orbit As a consequence GOMOS has measured more than 300 000 occultations in the considered period from August 2002 to March 2005 In this work we present results for the aerosol extinction retrievals Using selection criteria for different occultation properties such as the star magnitude and the illumination conditions a subset of reliable occultations were picked Subsequently a spatial and temporal binning was performed and data were averaged The resulting climatology provides a good view on the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of aerosols in the stratosphere Special attention is given to the presence of PSCs in the Antarctic polar vortex and equatorial cirrus clouds First results on particle sizes

  14. Searches for periodic gravitational waves from unknown isolated sources and Scorpius X-1: Results from the second LIGO science run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Bantilan, H.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Belczynski, K.; Berukoff, S. J.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, B.; Bland, B.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Busby, D.; Butler, W. E.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Carter, K.; Casey, M. M.; Castaldi, G.; Cepeda, C.; Chalkey, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chiadini, F.; Chin, D.; Chin, E.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Clark, J.; Cochrane, . P.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C. N.; Coldwell, R.; Coles, M.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Croce, R. P.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Cruise, A. M.; Csatorday, P.; Cumming, A.; Cutler, C.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; Daw, E.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Degree, M.; Delker, T.; Demma, T.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; di Credico, A.; Diederichs, G.; Dietz, A.; Ding, H.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Dwyer, J. G.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, L. S.; Fiumara, V.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Franzen, K. Y.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Ganezer, K. S.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, J.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hammer, D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heinzel, G.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D.; Innerhofer, E.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jackrel, D.; Jennrich, O.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnston, W. R.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Killow, C. J.; Kim, C.; King, P.; Kissell, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lee, B.; Lei, M.; Leiner, J.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logan, J.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Marano, S.; Márka, S.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matone, L.; Matta, V.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McKenzie, K.; McNabb, J. W. C.; McWilliams, S.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Mikhailov, E.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C.; Moylan, A.; Mudge, D.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nagano, S.; Nash, T.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Nocera, F.; Numata, K.; Nutzman, P.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Parameswariah, C.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramsunder, M.; Rawlins, K.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ribichini, L.; Richman, S.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robison, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Rong, H.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; Sancho de La Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, G. H.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Savov, P.; Sazonov, A.; Schediwy, S.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Sidles, J. A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Sinha, S.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Somiya, K.; Strain, K. A.; Strand, N. E.; Strom, D. M.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, K.-X.; Sung, M.; Sutton, P. J.; Sylvestre, J.; Takahashi, H.; Takamori, A.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarallo, M.; Taylor, R.; Taylor, R.; Thacker, J.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thüring, A.; Tinto, M.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Ungarelli, C.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Broeck, C.; van Putten, M.; Varvella, M.; Vass, S.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.; Villar, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Ward, H.; Ward, R.; Watts, K.; Webber, D.; Weidner, A.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wen, S.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitbeck, D.. M.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiley, S.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Wilmut, I.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wise, S.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Woods, D.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Wu, W.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yan, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Yunes, N.; Zaleski, K. D.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M.; Zur Mühlen, H.; Zweizig, J.

    2007-10-01

    We carry out two searches for periodic gravitational waves using the most sensitive few hours of data from the second LIGO science run. Both searches exploit fully coherent matched filtering and cover wide areas of parameter space, an innovation over previous analyses which requires considerable algorithm development and computational power. The first search is targeted at isolated, previously unknown neutron stars, covers the entire sky in the frequency band 160 728.8 Hz, and assumes a frequency derivative of less than 4×10-10Hz/s. The second search targets the accreting neutron star in the low-mass x-ray binary Scorpius X-1 and covers the frequency bands 464 484 Hz and 604 624 Hz as well as the two relevant binary orbit parameters. Because of the high computational cost of these searches we limit the analyses to the most sensitive 10 hours and 6 hours of data, respectively. Given the limited sensitivity and duration of the analyzed data set, we do not attempt deep follow-up studies. Rather we concentrate on demonstrating the data analysis method on a real data set and present our results as upper limits over large volumes of the parameter space. In order to achieve this, we look for coincidences in parameter space between the Livingston and Hanford 4-km interferometers. For isolated neutron stars our 95% confidence level upper limits on the gravitational wave strain amplitude range from 6.6×10-23 to 1×10-21 across the frequency band; for Scorpius X-1 they range from 1.7×10-22 to 1.3×10-21 across the two 20-Hz frequency bands. The upper limits presented in this paper are the first broadband wide parameter space upper limits on periodic gravitational waves from coherent search techniques. The methods developed here lay the foundations for upcoming hierarchical searches of more sensitive data which may detect astrophysical signals.

  15. New constraints on the variation of the geomagnetic field during the late Neolithic period: Archaeointensity results from Sichuan, southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Wei; Tauxe, Lisa; Deng, Chenglong; Qin, Huafeng; Pan, Yongxin; Yi, Liang; Zhu, Rixiang

    2015-04-01

    We have carried out an archaeomagnetic study on a late Neolithic locality (Liujiazhai) in Sichuan, southwestern China. We pull together various dating techniques, including radiocarbon analysis, optically stimulated luminescence dating, stratigraphic information as well as archaeological and archaeomagnetic estimations, to constrain the age of the studied samples. Rock magnetic results indicate thermally stable fine-grained magnetite or titanomagnetite as the dominant magnetic carriers. More than half of the specimens (141/246) in the paleointensity experiment pass the selection criteria and are considered to record robust intensity values. The virtual axial dipole moments range from approximately (2.8 to 7.8) × 1022 Am2 with an average of 5.9 × 1022 Am2, indicating that the geomagnetic intensity around 3000 before the Common Era (B.C.E.) is overall lower than the present field intensity (9.8 × 1022 Am2) of this area. The new results from Liujiazhai are generally consistent with the published data of similar age but deviate from the only available model of CALS10k.1b at certain time periods, making them important for future improvements of the model. Those data are significant for constraining the variation of geomagnetic field intensity between ~3100 and 2600 B.C.E. and improving the regional model of eastern Asia.

  16. [Tenth anniversary of smallpox eradication: Results of epidemiological and virological surveillance and studies in the post-eradication period].

    PubMed

    Marennikova, S S

    1989-06-01

    In accordance with recommendations of the Global Commission on the certification of smallpox eradication for the 10-year period after the eradication of this infection, all suspected cases of smallpox have been thoroughly checked up, and in none of them the diagnosis of smallpox has been confirmed. The study of monkeypox in humans has revealed that this zoonosis is spread over a wider area than supposed earlier and covers 7 countries of Equatorial Africa, occurring most frequently in Zaire. In about 70% of cases of monkeypox in human the disease is contracted from animals serving as natural virus carriers and in about one-third of such cases, from humans having monkeypox. The infectivity of humans with monkeypox for persons having close contacts with them is somewhat lower (12.3%) than in smallpox when this characteristic varies from 37% to 88%. Monkeypox in humans may take an asymptomatic course. Some species of tropical squirrels serve as natural virus carriers. These investigations have also resulted in essential corrections being made in understanding the ecology of cowpox virus, another orthopoxvirus pathogenic for man. At least 5 species of rodents have proved to be of interest as natural carriers of cowpox virus.

  17. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided.

  18. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Utilization and Quality Control Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs) Qio Review Functions § 476.96 Review period and reopening...

  19. Clinical Significance of Cerebrovascular Biomarkers and White Matter Tract Integrity in Alzheimer Disease: Clinical correlations With Neurobehavioral Data in Cross-Sectional and After 18 Months Follow-ups.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Kung; Lu, Yan-Ting; Huang, Chi-Wei; Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Nai-Ching; Lui, Chun-Chung; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lee, Chen-Chang; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chen, Sz-Fan; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2015-07-01

    Cerebrovascular risk factors and white matter (WM) damage lead to worse cognitive performance in Alzheimer dementia (AD). This study investigated WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging in patients with mild to moderate AD and investigated specific fiber tract involvement with respect to predefined cerebrovascular risk factors and neurobehavioral data prediction cross-sectionally and after 18 months. To identify the primary pathoanatomic relationships of risk biomarkers to fiber tract integrity, we predefined 11 major association tracts and calculated tract specific fractional anisotropy (FA) values. Eighty-five patients with AD underwent neurobehavioral assessments including the minimental state examination (MMSE) and 12-item neuropsychiatric inventory twice with a 1.5-year interval to represent major outcome factors. In the cross-sectional data, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels correlated variably with WM FA values. After entering the biomarkers and WM FA into a regression model to predict neurobehavioral outcomes, only fiber tract FA or homocysteine level predicted the MMSE score, and fiber tract FA or age predicted the neuropsychiatric inventory total scores and subdomains of apathy, disinhibition, and aberrant motor behavior. In the follow-up neurobehavioral data, the mean global FA value predicted the MMSE and aberrant motor behavior subdomain, while age predicted the anxiety and elation subdomains. Cerebrovascular risk biomarkers may modify WM microstructural organization, while the association with fiber integrity showed greater clinical significance to the prediction of neurobehavioral outcomes both cross-sectionally and longitudinally.

  20. Multiple Gastric Erosion Early after a 3 V Lithium Battery (CR2025) Ingestion in an 18-Month-Old Male Patient: Consideration about the Proper Time of Intervention.

    PubMed

    Patoulias, Ioannis; Kaselas, Christos; Patoulias, Dimitrios; Farmakis, Konstantinos; Papacrivou, Eleni; Kalogirou, Maria; Feidantsis, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Button battery ingestion is considered an emergency situation in pediatric patients that needs to be managed promptly; otherwise, it may lead to serious and potentially lethal complications, especially when it is impacted in the esophagus. Less attention has been given in cases where the battery passes into the stomach, with guidelines for emergency intervention being based on the presence of symptoms. Case Report. We present a case of an 18-month-old male patient who presented to our emergency department after button battery ingestion. He did not have any symptoms and no pathological findings were encountered during clinical examination. X-ray investigation revealed the presence of the battery in the stomach. The patient was admitted for observation and two hours later he had two episodes of vomiting. He underwent urgent endoscopic removal of the battery where multiple acute gastric mucosal erosion in place of direct contact of the battery's negative pole with the mucosa of the gastric antrum was found. Conclusion. In specific cases the urgent endoscopic intervention for removal of an ingested button battery that is located in the stomach even in asymptomatic patients should be suggested.

  1. Multiple Gastric Erosion Early after a 3 V Lithium Battery (CR2025) Ingestion in an 18-Month-Old Male Patient: Consideration about the Proper Time of Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kaselas, Christos; Farmakis, Konstantinos; Papacrivou, Eleni; Kalogirou, Maria; Feidantsis, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Button battery ingestion is considered an emergency situation in pediatric patients that needs to be managed promptly; otherwise, it may lead to serious and potentially lethal complications, especially when it is impacted in the esophagus. Less attention has been given in cases where the battery passes into the stomach, with guidelines for emergency intervention being based on the presence of symptoms. Case Report. We present a case of an 18-month-old male patient who presented to our emergency department after button battery ingestion. He did not have any symptoms and no pathological findings were encountered during clinical examination. X-ray investigation revealed the presence of the battery in the stomach. The patient was admitted for observation and two hours later he had two episodes of vomiting. He underwent urgent endoscopic removal of the battery where multiple acute gastric mucosal erosion in place of direct contact of the battery's negative pole with the mucosa of the gastric antrum was found. Conclusion. In specific cases the urgent endoscopic intervention for removal of an ingested button battery that is located in the stomach even in asymptomatic patients should be suggested. PMID:27891279

  2. Impact of Masked Replacement of Sugar-Sweetened with Sugar-Free Beverages on Body Weight Increases with Initial BMI: Secondary Analysis of Data from an 18 Month Double–Blind Trial in Children

    PubMed Central

    Katan, Martijn B.; de Ruyter, Janne C.; Kuijper, Lothar D. J.; Chow, Carson C.; Hall, Kevin D.; Olthof, Margreet R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. This effect may be more pronounced in children with a high body mass index (BMI) because their sensing of kilocalories might be compromised. We investigated the impact of sugar-free versus sugary drinks separately in children with a higher and a lower initial BMI z score, and predicted caloric intakes and degree of compensation in the two groups. Methods and Findings This is a secondary, explorative analysis of our double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) which showed that replacement of one 250-mL sugary drink per day by a sugar—free drink for 18 months significantly reduced weight gain. In the 477 children who completed the trial, mean initial weights were close to the Dutch average. Only 16% were overweight and 3% obese. Weight changes were expressed as BMI z-score, i.e. as standard deviations of the BMI distribution per age and sex group. We designated the 239 children with an initial BMI z-score below the median as ‘lower BMI’ and the 238 children above the median as ‘higher BMI’. The difference in caloric intake from experimental beverages between treatments was 86 kcal/day both in the lower and in the higher BMI group. We used a multiple linear regression and the coefficient of the interaction term (initial BMI group times treatment), indicated whether children with a lower BMI responded differently from children with a higher BMI. Statistical significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Relative to the sugar sweetened beverage, consumption of the sugar—free beverage for 18 months reduced the BMI z-score by 0.05 SD units within the lower BMI group and by 0.21 SD within the higher BMI group. Body weight gain was reduced by 0.62 kg in the lower BMI group and by 1.53 kg in the higher BMI group. Thus the treatment reduced the BMI z-score by 0.16 SD units more in the higher BMI group than in the lower BMI group (p = 0.04; 95% CI -0.31 to -0.01). The impact of the

  3. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. (a) General timeframe. A QIO or... initial denial determination or a change as a result of a DRG validation. (b) Extended timeframes. (1)...

  4. A new result on the existence of periodic solutions for Liénard equations with a singularity of repulsive type.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shiping

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of the existence of a periodic solution is studied for the second order differential equation with a singularity of repulsive type [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is singular at [Formula: see text], φ and h are T-periodic functions. By using the continuation theorem of Manásevich and Mawhin, a new result on the existence of positive periodic solution is obtained. It is interesting that the sign of the function [Formula: see text] is allowed to change for [Formula: see text].

  5. The HyMeX Special Observation Period in Central Italy: Precipitation Measurements, Retrieval Techniques and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Patrick; Wingo, Matt; Petersen, Walt; Marzano, Frank Silvio; Baldini, Luca; Picciotti, Errico; Colantonio, Matteo; Barbieri, Stefano; Di Fabio, Saverio; Montopoli, Mario; Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Anagnostou, Emmanoil N..; Ferretti, Rossella

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean area concentrates the major natural risks related to the water cycle, including heavy precipitation and flash-flooding during the fall season. The capability to predict such high-impact events remains weak because of the contribution of very fine-scale processes and their non-linear interactions with the larger scale processes. These societal and science issues motivate the HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment, http://www.hymex.orgl) experimental programme. HyMeX aims at a better quantification and understanding of the water cycle in the Mediterranean with emphasis on intense events. The observation strategy of HyMEX is organized in a long-term (4 years) Enhanced Observation Periods (EOP) and short-term (2 months) Special Observation Periods (SOP). HyMEX has identified 3 main Mediterranean target areas: North-West (NW), Adriatic (A) and South-East (SE). Within each target area several hydrometeorological sites for heavy rainfall and flash flooding have been set up. The hydrometeorological sire in Central Italy (CI) is interested by both western and eastern fronts coming from the Atlantic Ocean and Siberia, respectively. Orographic precipitations play an important role due to the central Apennine range, which reaches nearly 3000 m (Gran Sasso peak). Moreover, convective systems commonly develop in CI during late summer and beginning of autumn, often causing localized hailstorms with cluster organized cells. Western fronts may heavily hit the Tiber basin crossing large urban areas (Rome), whereas eastern fronts can cause flash floods along the Adriatic coastline. Two major basins are involved within Cl region: Tiber basin (1000 km long) and its tributary Aniene and the Aterno-Pescara basin (300 km long). The first HyMeX SOP1.1 was carried out from Sept. till Nov. 2012 in the NW target area The Italian SOP1.1 was coordinated by the Centre of Excellence CETEMPS, University of L'Aquila, a city located in the CI heart. The CI area

  6. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  7. Periodic ordering of clusters and stripes in a two-dimensional lattice model. II. Results of Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almarza, N. G.; PÈ©kalski, J.; Ciach, A.

    2014-04-01

    The triangular lattice model with nearest-neighbor attraction and third-neighbor repulsion, introduced by Pȩkalski, Ciach, and Almarza [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 114701 (2014)] is studied by Monte Carlo simulation. Introduction of appropriate order parameters allowed us to construct a phase diagram, where different phases with patterns made of clusters, bubbles or stripes are thermodynamically stable. We observe, in particular, two distinct lamellar phases—the less ordered one with global orientational order and the more ordered one with both orientational and translational order. Our results concern spontaneous pattern formation on solid surfaces, fluid interfaces or membranes that is driven by competing interactions between adsorbing particles or molecules.

  8. Implementation of basic quality control tests for malaria medicines in Amazon Basin countries: results for the 2005–2010 period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ensuring the quality of malaria medicines is crucial in working toward malaria control and eventual elimination. Unlike other validated tests that can assess all critical quality attributes, which is the standard for determining the quality of medicines, basic tests are significantly less expensive, faster, and require less skilled labour; yet, these tests provide reproducible data and information on several critical quality attributes, such as identity, purity, content, and disintegration. Visual and physical inspection also provides valuable information about the manufacturing and the labelling of medicines, and in many cases this inspection is sufficient to detect counterfeit medicines. The Promoting the Quality of Medicines (PQM) programme has provided technical assistance to Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI) countries to implement the use of basic tests as a key screening mechanism to assess the quality of malaria medicines available to patients in decentralized regions. Methods Trained personnel from the National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs), often in collaboration with country’s Official Medicine Control Laboratory (OMCL), developed country- specific protocols that encompassed sampling methods, sample analysis, and data reporting. Sampling sites were selected based on malaria burden, accessibility, and geographical location. Convenience sampling was performed and countries were recommended to store the sampled medicines under conditions that did not compromise their quality. Basic analytical tests, such as disintegration and thin layer chromatography (TLC), were performed utilizing a portable mini-laboratory. Results Results were originally presented at regional meetings in a non-standardized format that lacked relevant medicines information. However, since 2008 information has been submitted utilizing a template specifically developed by PQM for that purpose. From 2005 to 2010, the quality of 1,663 malaria medicines from seven AMI countries

  9. Incidence of Mastitis in the Neonatal Period in a Traditional Breastfeeding Society: Results of a Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jane A.; Lee, Andy H.; Binns, Colin W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Mastitis is a painful problem experienced by breastfeeding women, especially in the first few weeks postpartum. There have been limited studies of the incidence of mastitis from traditionally breastfeeding societies in South Asia. This study investigated the incidence, determinants, and management of mastitis in the first month postpartum, as well as its association with breastfeeding outcomes at 4 and 6 months postpartum, in western Nepal. Subjects and Methods: Subjects were a subsample of 338 mothers participating in a larger prospective cohort study conducted in 2014 in western Nepal. Mothers were interviewed during the first month postpartum and again at 4 and 6 months to obtain information on breastfeeding practices. The association of mastitis and determinant variables was investigated using multivariable logistic regression, and the association with breastfeeding duration was examined using Kaplan–Meier estimation. Results: The incidence of mastitis was 8.0% (95% confidence interval, 5.1%, 10.8%) in the first month postpartum. Prelacteal feeding (adjusted odds ratio = 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.03, 7.40) and cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio = 3.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.09, 11.42) were associated with a higher likelihood of mastitis. Kaplan–Meier estimation showed no significant difference in the duration of exclusive breastfeeding among the mothers who experienced an episode of mastitis and those who did not. Conclusions: Roughly one in 10 (8.0%) women experienced mastitis in the first month postpartum, and there appeared to be little effect of mastitis on breastfeeding outcomes. Traditional breastfeeding practices should be encouraged, and the management of mastitis should be included as a part of lactation promotion. PMID:26488802

  10. Groundwater-quality data in 12 GAMA study units: Results from the 2006–10 initial sampling period and the 2008–13 trend sampling period, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.

    2017-03-09

    constituents (volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), and natural inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements). Isotopic tracers (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water) also were measured to help identify processes affecting groundwater quality and the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. More than 200 constituents and water-quality indicators were measured during the trend sampling period.Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, matrix-spikes, and surrogate compounds) were collected at about one-third of the trend sites, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. On the basis of detections in laboratory and field blank samples collected by GAMA-PBP study units, including the 12 study units presented here, reporting levels for some groundwater results were adjusted in this report. Differences between replicate samples were mostly within acceptable ranges, indicating low variability in analytical results. Matrix-spike recoveries were largely within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent).This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers. After withdrawal, groundwater used for drinking water typically is treated, disinfected, and blended with other waters to achieve acceptable water quality. The comparison benchmarks used in this report apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. To provide some context for the results, however, concentrations of constituents measured in these groundwater samples were compared with benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of California. Comparisons between data collected for this study and benchmarks for drinking water are for illustrative purposes only and are not indicative of compliance

  11. Predictions of mortality from pleural mesothelioma in Italy: a model based on asbestos consumption figures supports results from age-period-cohort models.

    PubMed

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Montanaro, Fabio; Mastrantonio, Marina; Uccelli, Raffaella; Altavista, Pierluigi; Nesti, Massimo; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2005-05-20

    Italy was the second main asbestos producer in Europe, after the Soviet Union, until the end of the 1980s, and raw asbestos was imported on a large scale until 1992. The Italian pattern of asbestos consumption lags on average about 10 years behind the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom and the Nordic countries. Measures to reduce exposure were introduced in the mid-1970s in some workplaces. In 1986, limitations were imposed on the use of crocidolite and in 1992 asbestos was definitively banned. We have used primary pleural cancer mortality figures (1970-1999) to predict mortality from mesothelioma among Italian men in the next 30 years by age-cohort-period models and by a model based on asbestos consumption figures. The pleural cancer/mesothelioma ratio and mesothelioma misdiagnosis in the past were taken into account in the analysis. Estimated risks of birth cohorts born after 1945 decrease less quickly in Italy than in other Western countries. The findings predict a peak with about 800 mesothelioma annual deaths in the period 2012-2024. Results estimated using age-period-cohort models were similar to those obtained from the asbestos consumption model.

  12. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations and Frequencies in AN Accretion Disk and Comparison with the Numerical Results from Non-Rotating Black Hole Computed by the Grh Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donmez, Orhan

    The shocked wave created on the accretion disk after different physical phenomena (accretion flows with pressure gradients, star-disk interaction etc.) may be responsible observed Quasi Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in X-ray binaries. We present the set of characteristics frequencies associated with accretion disk around the rotating and non-rotating black holes for one particle case. These persistent frequencies are results of the rotating pattern in an accretion disk. We compare the frequency's from two different numerical results for fluid flow around the non-rotating black hole with one particle case. The numerical results are taken from Refs. 1 and 2 using fully general relativistic hydrodynamical code with non-selfgravitating disk. While the first numerical result has a relativistic tori around the black hole, the second one includes one-armed spiral shock wave produced from star-disk interaction. Some physical modes presented in the QPOs can be excited in numerical simulation of relativistic tori and spiral waves on the accretion disk. The results of these different dynamical structures on the accretion disk responsible for QPOs are discussed in detail.

  13. Effect of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements and corn-soy blend on the incidence of stunting and linear growth among 6- to 18-month-old infants and children in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mangani, Charles; Maleta, Kenneth; Phuka, John; Cheung, Yin Bun; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Dewey, Kathryn; Manary, Mark; Puumalainen, Taneli; Ashorn, Per

    2015-12-01

    Low nutritional value of complementary foods is associated with high incidence of childhood growth stunting in low-income countries. This study was done to test a hypothesis that dietary complementation with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) promotes linear growth and reduces the incidence of severe stunting among at-risk infants. A total of 840 6-month-old healthy infants in rural Malawi were enrolled to a randomised assessor-blinded trial. The participants received 12-month supplementation with nothing, milk-LNS, soy-LNS, or corn-soy blend (CSB). Supplements provided micronutrients and approximately 280 kcal energy per day. Outcomes were incidence of severe and very severe stunting [length-for-age z-score, (LAZ) < -3.00 and <-3.50, respectively], and change in LAZ. The incidence of severe stunting was 11.8%, 8.2%, 9.1% and 15.5% (P = 0.098) and that of very severe stunting 7.4%, 2.9%, 8.0% and 6.4% (P = 0.138) in control, milk-LNS, soy-LNS and CSB groups, respectively. Between 9 and 12 months of age, the mean change in LAZ was -0.15, -0.02, -0.12 and -0.18 (P = 0.045) for control, milk-LNS, soy-LNS and CSB groups, respectively. There was no significant between-group difference in linear growth during other age-intervals. Although participants who received milk-LNS had the lowest incidence of severe and very severe stunting, the differences between the groups were smaller than expected. Thus, the results do not provide conclusive evidence on a causal association between the LNS supplementation and the lower incidence of stunting. Exploratory analyses suggest that provision of milk-LNS, but not soy-LNS promotes linear growth among at-risk infants mainly between 9 and 12 months of age.

  14. An experimental investigation of gapwise periodicity and unsteady aerodynamic response in an oscillating cascade. 1: Experimental and theoretical results. [turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carta, F. O.

    1982-01-01

    Tests were conducted on a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blades along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge. The pressure data were reduced to Fourier coefficient form for direct comparison, and were also processed to yield integrated loads and, particularly, the aerodynamic damping coefficient. Results from the unsteady Verdon/Caspar theory for cascaded blades with nonzero thickness and camber were compared with the experimental measurements. The three primary results are: (1) from the leading edge plane blade data, the cascade was judged to be periodic in unsteady flow over the range of parameters tested; (2) the interblade phase angle was found to be the single most important parameter affecting the stability of the oscillating cascade blades; and (3) the real blade theory and the experiment were in excellent agreement for the several cases chosen for comparison.

  15. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or "social threats" across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, "social threat", or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, "social threat", or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not "social threats") significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and "social threat" groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the "social threat" group. Collectively, our findings indicate that repeated

  16. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or “social threats” across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not “social threats”) significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and “social threat” groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the “social threat” group. Collectively, our

  17. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal. III. Results for the 2002-2007 data-taking period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurashitov, J. N.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Gurkina, P. P.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Khairnasov, N. G.; Knodel, T. V.; Mirmov, I. N.; Shikhin, A. A.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Yants, V. E.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Bowles, T. J.; Elliott, S. R.; Teasdale, W. A.; Nico, J. S.; Cleveland, B. T.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2009-07-01

    The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in December 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. In this article we present the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in December 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through December 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keV of 65.4-3.0+3.1 (stat) -2.8+2.6 (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neutrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1±3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced Ar37 neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior Cr51 neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.87±0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in Ge71 has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63 SNU to 66 SNU with an uncertainty of about 4%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the neutrino flux produced in the Sun by the proton-proton fusion reaction to be ϕpp⊙=(6.0±0.8)×1010/(cm2s), which agrees well with the pp flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we make several tests and show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

  18. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal. III. Results for the 2002-2007 data-taking period

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurashitov, J. N.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Gurkina, P. P.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Khairnasov, N. G.; Knodel, T. V.; Mirmov, I. N.; Shikhin, A. A.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Yants, V. E.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Bowles, T. J.; Elliott, S. R.; Teasdale, W. A.; Nico, J. S.; Cleveland, B. T.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2009-07-15

    The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in December 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. In this article we present the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in December 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through December 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keV of 65.4{sub -3.0}{sup +3.1} (stat) {sub -2.8}{sup +2.6} (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neutrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1{+-}3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced {sup 37}Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior {sup 51}Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.87{+-}0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in {sup 71}Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63 SNU to 66 SNU with an uncertainty of about 4%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the neutrino flux produced in the Sun by the proton-proton fusion reaction to be {phi}{sub pp}{sup {center_dot}}=(6.0{+-}0.8)x10{sup 10}/(cm{sup 2} s), which agrees well with the pp flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we make several tests and show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

  19. Sexually Abstinent Adolescents: An 18-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Berger, Thomas J.; Hewett, John; Oleson, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    This study was a longitudinal follow-up of 697 early adolescents from 20 schools in Missouri, investigating students who, in 1997, indicated on a survey of sexual attitudes and behaviors that they had not had sexual intercourse. They completed the Reasons for Abstinence Scale (RAS) by identifying those items that were reasons why they had not had…

  20. Implicit Meaning in 18-Month-Old Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delle Luche, Claire; Durrant, Samantha; Floccia, Caroline; Plunkett, Kim

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence demonstrates that infants understand the meaning of spoken words from as early as 6 months. Yet little is known about their ability to do so in the absence of any visual referent, which would offer diagnostic evidence for an adult-like, symbolic interpretation of words and their use in language mediated thought. We…

  1. Your Child's Development: 1.5 Years (18 Months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... herself verbally or through angry tantrums Cognitive Skills (Thinking and Learning) knows the name of favorite toys ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  2. Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative: 18 Month Interim Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Eva; Norton, Michael H.; Good, Deborah; Levin, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This report presents Year One (2010-11) school level achievement and attendance outcomes and case study findings from fall 2011 that focused on school leadership and instruction. Thirteen schools were included in the first year of Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative (2010-11). Of these schools: (1) Four K-8 schools were…

  3. Implementation of an Aerosol-Cloud Microphysics-Radiation Coupling into the NASA Unified WRF: Simulation Results for the 6-7 August 2006 AMMA Special Observing Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, J. J.; Matsui, T.; Tao, W.-K.; Tan, Q.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Chin, M.; Pickering, K.; Guy, N.; Lang, S.; Kemp, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aerosols affect the Earth's radiation balance directly and cloud microphysical processes indirectly via the activation of cloud condensation and ice nuclei. These two effects have often been considered separately and independently, hence the need to assess their combined impact given the differing nature of their effects on convective clouds. To study both effects, an aerosol-microphysics-radiation coupling, including Goddard microphysics and radiation schemes, was implemented into the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting model (NU-WRF). Fully coupled NU-WRF simulations were conducted for a mesoscale convective system (MCS) that passed through the Niamey, Niger area on 6-7 August 2006 during an African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) special observing period. The results suggest that rainfall is reduced when aerosol indirect effects are included, regardless of the aerosol direct effect. Daily mean radiation heating profiles in the area traversed by the MCS showed the aerosol (mainly mineral dust) direct effect had the largest impact near cloud tops just above 200 hectopascals where short-wave heating increased by about 0.8 Kelvin per day; the weakest long-wave cooling was at around 250 hectopascals. It was also found that more condensation and ice nuclei as a result of higher aerosol/dust concentrations led to increased amounts of all cloud hydrometeors because of the microphysical indirect effect, and the radiation direct effect acts to reduce precipitating cloud particles (rain, snow and graupel) in the middle and lower cloud layers while increasing the non-precipitating particles (ice) in the cirrus anvil. However, when the aerosol direct effect was activated, regardless of the indirect effect, the onset of MCS precipitation was delayed about 2 hours, in conjunction with the delay in the activation of cloud condensation and ice nuclei. Overall, for this particular environment, model set-up and physics configuration, the effect of aerosol

  4. CONSTRAINTS ON LONG-PERIOD PLANETS FROM AN L'- AND M-BAND SURVEY OF NEARBY SUN-LIKE STARS: MODELING RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Heinze, A. N.; Hinz, Philip M.; Kenworthy, Matthew; Sivanandam, Suresh; Miller, Douglas; Meyer, Michael E-mail: phinz@as.arizona.ed E-mail: suresh@as.arizona.ed E-mail: mmeyer@phys.ethz.c

    2010-05-10

    We have carried out an L'- and M-band adaptive optics (AO) extrasolar planet imaging survey of 54 nearby, Sun-like stars using the Clio camera at the MMT. Our survey concentrates more strongly than all others to date on very nearby F, G, and K stars, in that we have prioritized proximity higher than youth. Our survey is also the first to include extensive observations in the M band, which supplemented the primary L' observations. These longer-wavelength bands are most useful for very nearby systems in which low-temperature planets with red IR colors (i.e., H - L', H - M) could be detected. The survey detected no planets, but set interesting limits on planets and brown dwarfs in the star systems we investigated. We have interpreted our null result by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations and constrained the distributions of extrasolar planets in mass M and semimajor axis a. If planets are distributed according to a power law with dN {proportional_to} M {sup {alpha}} a {sup {beta}} dMda, normalized to be consistent with radial velocity (RV) statistics, we find that a distribution with {alpha} = -1.1 and {beta} = -0.46, truncated at 110 AU, is ruled out at the 90% confidence level. These particular values of {alpha} and {beta} are significant because they represent the most planet-rich case consistent with current statistics from RV observations. With 90% confidence no more than 8.1% of stars like those in our survey have systems with three widely spaced, massive planets like the A star HR 8799. Our observations show that giant planets in long-period orbits around Sun-like stars are rare, confirming the results of shorter-wavelength surveys and increasing the robustness of the conclusion.

  5. Changes in Maternal Plasma Adiponectin from Late Pregnancy to the Postpartum Period According to the Mode of Delivery: Results from a Prospective Cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Franco-Sena, Ana Beatriz; Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Kac, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Maternal plasma adiponectin is inversely related to insulin resistance, atherosclerosis and child health. However, little is known about its concentrations in the perinatal period, especially according to mode of delivery. Our aim is to evaluate the association between mode of delivery and changes in maternal plasma adiponectin from 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 30–45 days postpartum. Methods A cohort was recruited in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with four waves of follow-up: 5-13th, 22-26th, 30-36th gestational weeks and 30–45 days postpartum. Eligible subjects should be between 20–40 years of age, be free of chronic and infectious diseases and presenting with a singleton pregnancy. The mode of delivery was classified as vaginal (VD) or cesarean (CS). Plasma adiponectin concentration (μg/mL) was measured using commercial ELISA kits. Statistical analyses included the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the multiple linear mixed effects model. Results A total of 159 participated in the study. Median adiponectin concentrations were higher for the VD group (n = 99; 8.25, IQR: 5.85–11.90) than for the CS group (n = 60; 7.34, IQR: 4.36–9.76; p = 0.040) in the postpartum samples but were not different between the two groups in the 3rd trimester. Women who underwent CS had a lower rate of increase in adiponectin concentration from the 3rd trimester to 30–45 days postpartum compared to those who underwent VD (β = -.15, 95% CI: -.28-.02, p = 0.030). Conclusion The CS procedure was associated with lower maternal circulating concentrations of adiponectin at 30–45 days postpartum, compared to the VD. PMID:27391647

  6. Safety and immunogenicity of fully liquid DTaP₅-IPV-Hib pediatric combination vaccine (Pediacel®) compared to DTaP₃-HBV-IPV/Hib (Infanrix® Hexa) when coadministered with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) as a booster at 11-18 months of age: a phase III, modified double-blind, randomized, controlled, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Berner, Reinhard; Boisnard, Florence; Thomas, Stéphane; Mwawasi, Grace; Reynolds, Donna

    2012-07-27

    This study compared the safety and immunogenicity of DTaP₅-IPV-Hib vaccine (followed by monovalent hepatitis B vaccine [HBV]) and DTaP₃-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccines, both coadministered with PCV7, as a fourth-dose booster in toddlers 11-18 months who had a hexavalent vaccine primary series. The fever rate within 4 days of DTaP₅-IPV-Hib was noninferior to DTaP₃-HBV-IPV/Hib. DTaP₅-IPV-Hib induced a marked immune response and had a similar safety and immunogenicity profile compared with DTaP₃-HBV-IPV/Hib. Fully liquid DTaP₅-IPV-Hib can be used as a booster after a hexavalent vaccine primary series; where required, a fourth dose of monovalent HBV can be administered after DTaP₅-IPV-Hib (NCT ID: NCT00355654).

  7. New results to discuss possibility of irrigation in Bat (Wadi Sharsah, northwestern Oman) before Hafit period (ca. 3100-2700 BCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouache, Eric; Desruelles, Stéphane; Eddargach, Wassel; Cammas, Cecilia; Wattez, Julia; Martin, Chloé; Tengberg, Margareta; Beuzen-Waller, Tara; Cable, Charlotte; Thornton, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Registered as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1989, the extensive archaeological site of Bat is situated within the Wadi Sharsah and around the modern village and palm grove of Bat, 24 km from the modern city of Ibri in northwestern Oman. The archaeological remains from the Bronze Age excavated by the Bat Archaeological Project are located in two mains areas. The northern area consists of a chain of low limestone hills cut by wadi tributaries leading to the main Wadi Sharsah. It is characterised by an exceptionnally high density of graves from two successive Bronze Age periods : Hafit (ca. 3100-2700 BCE) and Umm an-Nar (ca. 2700-2000 BCE). South of the Bat cemetery, in the flat part of the valley, there are several large circular structures (known historically as « towers ») and remains from both Hafit and Umm an-Nar periods, as well as later periods. Geomorphological mapping of the floodplain, associated with archaeological survey, have identified walls suggesting that during the Umm an-Nar period there was a system of irrigation which controlled flood water. Sedimentological, malacological, C14 dating and micromorphological studies of a 10 m long and 2.5 m high section located 143 m northeast of the Tower 1146 on the left bank of a small tributary of the Wadi Sharsah provide strong argument for the presence of an irrigation system that began before the Hafit period. New C14 datings confirm this hypothesis. Botanical macro-remains collected during the excavation of early Bronze Age structures at Bat further indicate the presence of date palm gardens since the 3rd millenium BCE allowing the cultivation of several crop species, in particular cereals. Most generally the global palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from our data supports a model of a general trend of aridification from Bronze Age to iron Age. Key words : Bronze Age, Holocene, Geomoephology, Micromorphology, Irrigation, Oman.

  8. [Cessation of fluoridation of drinking water; results of caries research in Tiel and Culemborg in the period of 1968-1988].

    PubMed

    Kalsbeek, H; Kwant, G W; Groeneveld, A; Backer Dirks, O; van Eck, A A; Theuns, H M

    1992-01-01

    In December 1973 water fluoridation was discontinued in Tiel, the Netherlands. Six years later an epidemiological study was started, with the aim to investigate the consequences. In the period from 1979 to 1988 a yearly caries investigation was carried out in 15 year old children born and living in Tiel and children living in the control town of Culemborg, where the drinking water had never been fluoridated. The 15 year old children in 1979-1980 in Tiel had a 18% higher caries experience than the same age group in 1968-1969, to whom fluoridated water had been available from birth onward. In the same period a 28% decrease of the caries was found in Culemborg. In 1979-1980 the DMFS-index in Tiel was still 36% lower than in Culemborg. Between 1979-1980 and 1987-1988 the caries experience decreased in both towns.

  9. Bootstrapping Results of Exercise Therapy and Education for Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witta, E. Lea; Brubaker, Craig

    2003-01-01

    When studies are conducted over a period of time, the sample size typically decreases. In a study of the effects of exercise therapy and education with recovering congestive heart failure (CHF) patients (Brubaker, Witta, & Angelopoulus, 2003), the sample size decreased from over 40 to 9 participants after an 18-month time span. Although the…

  10. Periodic parallel array of nanopillars and nanoholes resulting from colloidal stripes patterned by geometrically confined evaporative self-assembly for unique anisotropic wetting.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangmeng; Wang, Chunhui; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; Tian, Hongmiao; Li, Xiangming; Wang, Li

    2014-11-26

    In this paper we present an economical process to create anisotropic microtextures based on periodic parallel stripes of monolayer silica nanoparticles (NPs) patterned by geometrically confined evaporative self-assembly (GCESA). In the GCESA process, a straight meniscus of a colloidal dispersion is initially formed in an opened enclosure, which is composed of two parallel plates bounded by a U-shaped spacer sidewall on three sides with an evaporating outlet on the fourth side. Lateral evaporation of the colloidal dispersion leads to periodic "stick-slip" receding of the meniscus (evaporative front), as triggered by the "coffee-ring" effect, promoting the assembly of silica NPs into periodic parallel stripes. The morphology of stripes can be well controlled by tailoring process variables such as substrate wettability, NP concentration, temperature, and gap height, etc. Furthermore, arrayed patterns of nanopillars or nanoholes are generated on a silicon wafer using the as-prepared colloidal stripes as an etching mask or template. Such arrayed patterns can reveal unique anisotropic wetting properties, which have a large contact angle hysteresis viewing from both the parallel and perpendicular directions in addition to a large wetting anisotropy.

  11. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  12. Organic micro-pollutants in a karst system during low and high flow periods, results of a two-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, Roland; Licha, Tobias; Geyer, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Sauter, Martin

    2013-04-01

    and desethylatrazine, indicates limited aquifer connections and demonstrates a residence time of several years for vertical transport into the deep aquifer. Phenazone originates also from a disused waste disposal and is showing a persistency for more than three decades under the observed redox conditions. References Nödler K, Licha T, Bester K, Sauter M. Development of a multi-residue analytical method, based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, for the simultaneous determination of 46 micro-contaminants in aqueous samples. Journal of Chromatography A 2010;1217(42), 6511-6521. Reh R, Licha T, Geyer T, Nödler, K.,Sauter M. Occurrence and spatial distribution of organic micro-pollutants in a complex hydrogeological karst system during low flow and high flow periods, results of a two-year study. Science of The Total Environment 2013, 443,438-445, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.005.

  13. Trends in net survival from colon cancer in six European Latin countries: results from the SUDCAN population-based study.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Jean; Bossard, Nadine; Jooste, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Colon cancer represents a major public health issue. The aim of the SUDCAN collaborative study was to compare the net survival from colon cancer between six European Latin countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and Switzerland) and provide trends in net survival and dynamics of the excess mortality rates up to 5 years after diagnosis. The data were extracted from the EUROCARE-5 database. First, net survival was studied over the 2000-2004 period using the Pohar-Perme estimator. For trend analyses, the study period was specific to each country. Results were reported from 1992 to 2004 in France, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland and from 2000 to 2004 in Belgium and Portugal. These analyses were carried out using a flexible excess rate modeling strategy. There were few differences between countries in age-standardized net survivals (2000-2004). During the 2000-2004 period, the 5-year net survival ranged between 57 (Spain and Portugal) and 61% (Belgium and Switzerland). The age-standardized survival at 1 and 5 years after diagnosis increased between 1992 and 2004. This increase was observed at ages 60 and 70, but was less marked at 80. This increase was linked to a marked decrease in the excess mortality rate between 1992 and 2004 until 18 months after diagnosis. Beyond this period, the decrease in the excess mortality rates among countries was modest and nearly the same whatever the year of diagnosis. There were minor differences in survival after colon cancer between European Latin countries. A considerable improvement in the 5-year net survival was observed in all countries, but the gain was mainly limited to the first 18 months after diagnosis. Further improvements are expected through the implementation of mass screening programs.

  14. Masses of long-period comets derived from non-gravitational effects - analysis of the computed results and the consistency and reliability of the non-gravitational parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa, Andrea; Fernández, Julio A.

    2011-09-01

    We estimate masses for a selected sample of long-period comets (LPCs) (with orbital periods P > 1000 yr and perihelion distances q < 2 au), with good photometric visual light curves and known non-gravitational parameters. We follow a procedure similar to that developed by Szutowicz et al. to estimate the masses of comets C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake). The method also requires the knowledge of the water production rates Q, for which we find a new correlation between Q and the visual total heliocentric magnitude mh of LPCs, which can be expressed as log10Q= 30.53 - 0.234mh. The computed masses are in the range [0.5, 10]× 1012 kg. From these masses, and by assuming a cometary bulk density ρ of 0.4 g cm-3, we estimate the effective nuclear radii RN for the studied LPCs to be in the range [0.7, 1.8] km. From the computed values of RN, we find that the active surface areas are (in most cases) greater than the geometric ones (fractions f ranging from 0.8 to 2.4). We argue that this could be understood as a state of hyperactivity, which can be explained if a significant fraction of the sublimated water molecules come from the sublimation of icy grains in the coma. Hyperactivity would make LPC nuclei smaller (i.e. less massive) than expected from their coma brightness. Other effects, like extremely low densities or overestimated non-gravitational parameters, might also contribute to the rather high computed value of f. For comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), we find a seeming inconsistency between some size estimates and some computed non-gravitational parameters. We analyse some alternatives to this apparent paradox. We also compute absolute total magnitudes and photometric indices for the studied sample of LPCs and find a new correlation between masses and absolute total visual magnitudes H. By assuming ρ= 0.4 g cm-3, we can convert masses to diameters D, leading to a relation log10D(km) = 1.5 - 0.13H.

  15. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) for treatment of uterine leiomyomas: 750 myomas were treated by LITT and the results over a five-year period are analyzed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Roxana

    1997-05-01

    Approximately 750 leiomyomas of 250 symptomatic patients were treated by LITT over a five-year period. Only 12% were lost to follow-up. Most were treated by a combination of the KTP/YAG laser, rarely by one or the other alone, and a few with the diode laser. The fiber optic was inserted 2 cm apart and, depending on the size of the tumor, 480 - 20,000 Joules were required. Most were treated laparoscopically but very large myomas were treated percutaneously under ultrasound control. Symptoms were nearly always relieved and the six failures were found to be due to unrecognized adenomyosis and other associated pathology. Half the patients complaining of infertility became pregnant and, in those whose only pathology had been leiomyomas it approached 90%. Vaginal delivery was not found to be contraindicated. Finally, oestrogen receptors and epidermal growth factor were found to be destroyed. It is concluded that LITT enables leiomyomas of all sizes and locations to be treated by a minimally invasive method with preservation of the uterus.

  16. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  17. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  18. Utilization of Research Results in the Building Industry. A State of the Art Survey. Final Report for Period October 1972-June 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Duncan M.

    A problem in the building industry is the lack of coordination of research efforts and the time lag between the completion of research and the incorporation of the results in practice. A partial solution is attempted in this survey of current and past research dealing with innovation and other problems in the building industry and related…

  19. Period Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  20. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  1. How do long-term development and periodical changes of river-floodplain systems affect the fate of contaminants? Results from European rivers.

    PubMed

    Lair, G J; Zehetner, F; Fiebig, M; Gerzabek, M H; van Gestel, C A M; Hein, T; Hohensinner, S; Hsu, P; Jones, K C; Jordan, G; Koelmans, A A; Poot, A; Slijkerman, D M E; Totsche, K U; Bondar-Kunze, E; Barth, J A C

    2009-12-01

    In many densely populated areas, riverine floodplains have been strongly impacted and degraded by river channelization and flood protection dikes. Floodplains act as buffers for flood water and as filters for nutrients and pollutants carried with river water and sediment from upstream source areas. Based on results of the EU-funded "AquaTerra" project (2004-2009), we analyze changes in the dynamics of European river-floodplain systems over different temporal scales and assess their effects on contaminant behaviour and ecosystem functioning. We find that human-induced changes in the hydrologic regime of rivers have direct and severe consequences on nutrient cycling and contaminant retention in adjacent floodplains. We point out the complex interactions of contaminants with nutrient availability and other physico-chemical characteristics (pH, organic matter) in determining ecotoxicity and habitat quality, and draw conclusions for improved floodplain management.

  2. Results of a search for daily and annual variations of the 214Po half-life at the two year observation period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeyev, E. N.; Gavrilyuk, Yu. M.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Panasenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.

    2016-11-01

    The brief description of installation TAU-2 intended for long-term monitoring of the half-life value τ( T 1/2) of the 214Po is presented. The methods of measurement and processing of collected data are reported. The results of analysis of time series values of τ with different time step are presented. Total measurement time was equal to 590 days. Averaged value of the 214Po half-life was obtained τ = 163.46 ± 0.04 μs. The annual variation with an amplitude A = (8.9 ± 2.3) × 10-4, solar-daily variation with an amplitude A So = (7.5 ± 1.2) × 10-4, lunar-daily variation with an amplitude A L = (6.9 ± 2.0) × 10-4 sidereal-daily variation with an amplitude A S = (7.2 ± 1.2) × 10-4 were found in a series of τ values. The maximal values of amplitude are observed at the moments when the projections of the installation Earth location velocity vectors toward the source of possible variation achieve its maximal magnitudes.

  3. Financial Results during Periods of Inflation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James W.; Anderson, Richard E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of inflation on the operations of 10 northeastern colleges and universities and the effect of using current cost accounting are considered. The focus is on adjustments to assets in the plant fund by restating the surplus and deficit calculations of four state and six private institutions. The 10 institutions had plant assets with an…

  4. Temporal changes in the outcomes of HIV-exposed infants in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo during a period of rapidly evolving guidelines for care (2007–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Feinstein, Lydia; Edmonds, Andrew; Chalachala, Jean Lambert; Okitolonda, Vitus; Lusiama, Jean; Van Rie, Annelies; Chi, Benjamin H.; Cole, Stephen R.; Behets, Frieda

    2015-01-01

    Objective Guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV have developed rapidly, yet little is known about how outcomes of HIV-exposed infants have changed over time. We describe HIV-exposed infant outcomes in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, between 2007 and 2013. Design Cohort study of mother–infant pairs enrolled in family-centered comprehensive HIV care. Methods Accounting for competing risks, we estimated the cumulative incidences of early infant diagnosis, HIV transmission, death, loss to follow-up, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation for infants enrolled in three periods (2007–2008, 2009–2010, and 2011–2012). Results 1707 HIV-exposed infants enrolled at a median age of 2.6 weeks. Among infants whose mothers had recently enrolled into HIV care (N = 1411), access to EID by age two months increased from 28% (95% confidence limits [CL]: 24,34%) among infants enrolled in 2007-2008 to 63% (95% CL: 59,68%) among infants enrolled in 2011–2012 (Gray's p-value <0.01). The 18-month cumulative incidence of HIV declined from 16% (95% CL: 11,22%) for infants enrolled in 2007–2008 to 11% (95% CL: 8,16%) for infants enrolled in 2011–2012 (Gray's p-value = 0.19). The 18-month cumulative incidence of death also declined, from 8% (95% CL: 5,12%) to 3% (95% CL: 2,5%) (Gray's p-value = 0.02). LTFU did not improve, with 18-month cumulative incidences of 19% (95% CL: 15,23%) for infants enrolled in 2007-2008 and 22% (95% CL: 18,26%) for infants enrolled in 2011–2012 (Gray's p-value = 0.06). Among HIV-infected infants, the 24-month cumulative incidence of cART increased from 61% (95% CL: 43,75%) to 97% (95% CL: 82,100%) (Gray's p-value < 0.01); the median age at cART decreased from 17.9 to 9.3 months. Outcomes were better for infants whose mothers enrolled before pregnancy. Conclusions We observed encouraging improvements, but continued efforts are needed. PMID:24991903

  5. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  6. "It's Not All about Grades": Accounting for Gendered Degree Results in Geography at Brunel University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the results of an 18-month study at Brunel University that aimed to explain the significant gendered differences in academic performance amongst geography students. Male students are doing considerably less well than their female peers, being awarded far fewer first class and upper second class degrees, a phenomenon that cannot…

  7. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... may develop problems as a result of a hormone imbalance. For example, disorders of the thyroid gland can cause menstrual irregularities if the levels of thyroid hormone in the blood become too low or too ...

  8. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  9. Comparison of breast cancer patient satisfaction with follow-up in primary care versus specialist care: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Grunfeld, E; Fitzpatrick, R; Mant, D; Yudkin, P; Adewuyi-Dalton, R; Stewart, J; Cole, D; Vessey, M

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Routine follow-up of breast cancer patients in specialist clinics is standard practice in most countries. Follow-up involves regularly scheduled breast cancer check-ups during the disease-free period. The aims of follow-up are to detect breast cancer recurrence and to provide psychosocial support to the patient; however, little is known about patients' views on breast cancer follow-up. AIM: To assess the effect on patient satisfaction of transferring primary responsibility for follow-up of women with breast cancer in remission from hospital outpatient clinics to general practice. METHOD: Randomized controlled trial with 18 months' follow-up in which women received routine follow-up either in hospital outpatient clinics or from their own general practitioner. Two hundred and ninety-six women with breast cancer in remission receiving regular follow-up care at two district general hospitals in England were included in the study. Patient satisfaction was measured by means of a self-administered questionnaire supplied three times during the 18-month study period. RESULTS: The general practice group selected responses indicating greater satisfaction than did the hospital group on virtually every question. Furthermore, in the general practice group there was a significant increase in satisfaction over baseline; a similar significant increase in satisfaction over baseline was not found in the hospital group. CONCLUSION: Patients with breast cancer were more satisfied with follow-up in general practice than in hospital outpatient departments. When discussing follow-up with breast cancer patients, they should be provided with complete and accurate information about the goals, expectations, and limitations of the follow-up programme so that they can make an informed choice. PMID:10756611

  10. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  11. Influence of social support on cognitive change and mortality in old age: results from the prospective multicentre cohort study AgeCoDe

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support has been suggested to positively influence cognition and mortality in old age. However, this suggestion has been questioned due to inconsistent operationalisations of social support among studies and the small number of longitudinal studies available. This study aims to investigate the influence of perceived social support, understood as the emotional component of social support, on cognition and mortality in old age as part of a prospective longitudinal multicentre study in Germany. Methods A national subsample of 2,367 primary care patients was assessed twice over an observation period of 18 months regarding the influence of social support on cognitive function and mortality. Perceived social support was assessed using the 14-item version of the FSozU, which is a standardised and validated questionnaire of social support. Cognition was tested by the neuropsychological test battery of the Structured Interview for the Diagnosis of Dementia (SIDAM). The influence of perceived support on cognitive change was analysed by multivariate ANCOVA; mortality was analysed by multivariate logistic and cox regression. Results Sample cognitive change (N = 1,869): Mean age was 82.4 years (SD 3.3) at the beginning of the observation period, 65.9% were female, mean cognition was 49 (SD 4.4) in the SIDAM. Over the observation period cognitive function declined in 47.2% by a mean of 3.4 points. Sample mortality (N = 2,367): Mean age was 82.5 years (SD 3.4), 65.7% were female and 185 patients died during the observation period. Perceived social support showed no longitudinal association with cognitive change (F = 2.235; p = 0.135) and mortality (p = 0.332; CI 0.829-1.743). Conclusions Perceived social support did not influence cognition and mortality over an 18 months observation period. However, previous studies using different operationalisations of social support and longer observation periods indicate that such an influence may exist. This influence is

  12. Calculation of the first static hyperpolarizability tensor of three-dimensional periodic compounds with a local basis set: A comparison of LDA, PBE, PBE0, B3LYP, and HF results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Roberto; Lacivita, Valentina; Bast, Radovan; Ruud, Kenneth

    2010-06-01

    The computational scheme for the evaluation of the second-order electric susceptibility tensor in periodic systems, recently implemented in the CRYSTAL code within the coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock (HF) scheme, has been extended to local-density, gradient-corrected, and hybrid density functionals (coupled-perturbed Kohn-Sham) and applied to a set of cubic and hexagonal semiconductors. The method is based on the use of local basis sets and analytical calculation of derivatives. The high-frequency dielectric tensor (ɛ∞) and second-harmonic generation susceptibility (d) have been calculated with hybrid functionals (PBE0 and B3LYP) and the HF approximation. Results are compared with the values of ɛ∞ and d obtained from previous plane-wave local density approximation or generalized gradient approximation calculations and from experiment. The agreement is in general good, although comparison with experiment is affected by a certain degree of uncertainty implicit in the experimental techniques.

  13. Thermal injuries as a result of CO2 laser resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Grossman, A R; Majidian, A M; Grossman, P H

    1998-09-01

    CO2 laser resurfacing of the face for fine wrinkles has gained great popularity over a short period of time. The use of the CO2 laser has proven to be effective in reducing or eliminating fine wrinkles. This tool in the surgeon's armamentarium has been added to those of dermabrasion and chemical peel. The theoretical advantage of the use of the CO2 laser for resurfacing has been better accuracy and reportedly more control of the depth of penetration. The use of the CO2 laser has been welcomed by many cosmetic surgeons. Until now, there have been few reported cases of complications with the use of the CO2 laser. To many, this would sound too good to be true; unfortunately, that is the case. The CO2 laser is a high-energy machine that can indeed cause thermal injury. This thermal injury can result in deep burns to the skin and hypertrophic scarring. We feel this is more common than is currently being reported, and we share our experience as a burn and wound care referral service. During an 18-month period, 20 consecutive patients were referred to our practice who had received injuries from the CO2 laser resurfacing laser. We present here in this review a summary of those injuries. The CO2 resurfacing laser is a very effective tool for the treatment of fine wrinkles, but it is not without the potential for serious complications. We urge caution with the use of the laser and prompt recognition and treatment of thermal injury to the skin.

  14. Long-lasting changes in morphine-induced locomotor sensitization and tolerance in Long-Evans mother rats as a result of periodic postpartum separation from the litter: a novel model of increased vulnerability to drug abuse?

    PubMed

    Kalinichev, Mikhail; Easterling, Keith W; Holtzman, Stephen G

    2003-02-01

    Daily postpartum separations from the litter produce enduring changes in anxiety and sensitivity to the antinociceptive effects of morphine in Long-Evans dams. We tested whether postpartum experience alters sensitivity to the effects of morphine on locomotor activity. Dams were tested 4-6 weeks after their pups were weaned, and had one of the following backgrounds: daily separation from the litter on postpartum days 2-14 for either 3 h (prolonged separation-LS) or 15 min (brief separation-BS), or no separation (nonhandled control-NH). After 2 consecutive days (B1-2) of baseline activity measurements, subjects were tested daily after s.c. injections of either morphine (10 mg/kg) or saline for 7 days and again on day 10. Beginning 5 days later, saline and 1.0-10 mg/kg of morphine were tested in all dams. On B1, LS and BS dams habituated slower than NH controls, yielding higher horizontal counts. LS dams failed to habituate across baseline days and were more active than other dams on B2. Sensitization, a progressive increase in horizontal activity, was more rapid and robust in LS and BS dams compared to NH animals. LS was the only group that developed tolerance to morphine-induced decreases in vertical activity. In LS dams with the history of morphine treatment, injection of saline resulted in higher horizontal activity and center time compared to saline-treated counterparts, indicative of conditioning. Among animals with a history of saline treatment, LS dams were more sensitive to morphine challenges than BS and NH dams. As a result of the robust and long-lasting increases in the ability of morphine to induce behavioral sensitization in litter-separated dams, periodic postpartum separation may represent a new animal model of increased vulnerability to substance abuse.

  15. Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy: Results of first 100 cases

    PubMed Central

    Mahesha, Kanthila

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lumbar disc herniation is a major cause of back pain and sciatica. The surgical management of lumbar disc prolapse has evolved from exploratory laminectomy to percutaneous endoscopic discectomy. Percutaneous endoscopic discectomy is the least invasive procedure for lumbar disc prolapse. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical outcome, quality of life, neurologic function, and complications. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with lumbar disc prolapse who were treated with percutaneous endoscopic discectomy from May 2012 to January 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical followup was done at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and at yearly interval thereafter. The outcome was assessed using modified Macnab's criteria, visual analog scale, and Oswestry Disability Index. Results: The mean followup period was 2 years (range 18 months - 3 years). Transforaminal approach was used in 84 patients, interlaminar approach in seven patients, and combined approach in nine patients. An excellent outcome was noted in ninety patients, good outcome in six patients, fair result in two patients, and poor result in two patients. Minor complications were seen in three patients, and two patients had recurrent disc prolapse. Mean hospital stay was 1.6 days. Conclusions: Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy is a safe and effective procedure in lumbar disc prolapse. It has the advantage that it can be performed on a day care basis under local anesthesia with shorter length of hospitalization and early return to work thus improving the quality of life earlier. The low complication rate makes it the future of disc surgery. Transforaminal approach alone is sufficient in majority of cases, although 16% of cases required either percutaneous interlaminar approach or combined approach. The procedure definitely has a learning curve, but it is acceptable with adequate preparations. PMID:28216749

  16. Trends in net survival from pancreatic cancer in six European Latin countries: results from the SUDCAN population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Bossard, Nadine; Colonna, Marc; Garcia-Velasco, Adelaida; Carulla, Maria; Manfredi, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer represents a real clinical challenge. The aim of the SUDCAN collaborative study was to compare the net survival from pancreatic cancer between six European Latin countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland) and provide trends in net survival and dynamics of excess mortality rates up to 5 years after diagnosis. The data were extracted from the EUROCARE-5 database. First, net survival was studied over the period 2000-2004 using the Pohar-Perme estimator. For trend analyses, the study period was specific to each country. Results were reported from 1992 to 2004 in France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland and from 2000 to 2004 in Belgium and Portugal. These analyses were carried out using a flexible excess rate modelling strategy. There were little differences between countries in age-standardized net survivals (2000-2004). The 5-year net survival was poor (range: 6-10%). The changes in net survival from 1992 to 2004 were mostly related to early survival and patients aged 60 years. A slight decrease in the excess mortality rate between 1992 and 2004 was observed, limited to the 18 months after diagnosis. This study confirmed that, despite some improvement, survival from pancreatic cancer is still poor throughout European Latin countries. The major improvements in clinical imaging did not result in improvements in prognosis. Development of truly innovative treatments is highly needed to improve prognosis.

  17. Electrocardiograhic findings resulting in inappropriate cardiac catheterization laboratory activation for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Shariq; McCrary, Justin; Wayne, Lori; Gratton, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Background Prompt reperfusion has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with a goal of culprit vessel patency in <90 minutes. This requires a coordinated approach between the emergency medical services (EMS), emergency department (ED) and interventional cardiology. The urgency of this process can contribute to inappropriate cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) activations. Objectives One of the major determinants of inappropriate activations has been misinterpretation of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in the patient with acute chest pain. Methods We report the ECG findings for all CCL activations over an 18-month period after the inception of a STEMI program at our institution. Results There were a total of 139 activations with 77 having a STEMI diagnosis confirmed and 62 activations where there was no STEMI. The inappropriate activations resulted from a combination of atypical symptoms and misinterpretation of the ECG (45% due to anterior ST-segment elevation) on patient presentation. The electrocardiographic abnormalities were particularly problematic in African-Americans with left ventricular hypertrophy. Conclusions In this single-center, prospective observational study, nearly half of the inappropriate STEMI activations were due to the misinterpretation of anterior ST-segment elevation and this finding was commonly seen in African-Americans with left ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:25009790

  18. Trends in paediatric rheumatology referral times and disease activity indices over a ten-year period among children and young people with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: results from the childhood arthritis prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    McErlane, Flora; Foster, Helen E.; Carrasco, Roberto; Baildam, Eileen M.; Chieng, S. E. Alice; Davidson, Joyce E.; Ioannou, Yiannis; Wedderburn, Lucy R.; Thomson, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The medical management of JIA has advanced significantly over the past 10 years. It is not known whether these changes have impacted on outcomes. The aim of this analysis was to identify and describe trends in referral times, treatment times and 1-year outcomes over a 10-year period among children with JIA enrolled in the Childhood Arthritis Prospective Study. Methods. The Childhood Arthritis Prospective Study is a prospective inception cohort of children with new-onset inflammatory arthritis. Analysis included all children recruited in 2001–11 with at least 1 year of follow-up, divided into four groups by year of diagnosis. Median referral time, baseline disease pattern (oligoarticular, polyarticular or systemic onset) and time to first definitive treatment were compared between groups. Where possible, clinical juvenile arthritis disease activity score (cJADAS) cut-offs were applied at 1 year. Results. One thousand and sixty-six children were included in the analysis. The median time from symptom onset and referral to first paediatric rheumatology appointment (22.7–24.7 and 3.4–4.7 weeks, respectively) did not vary significantly (∼20% seen within 10 weeks of onset and ∼50% within 4 weeks of referral). For oligoarticular and polyarticular disease, 33.8–47 and 25.4–34.9%, respectively, achieved inactive disease by 1 year, with ∼30% in high disease activity at 1 year. A positive trend towards earlier definitive treatment reached significance in oligoarticular and polyarticular pattern disease. Conclusion. Children with new-onset JIA have a persistent delay in access to paediatric rheumatology care, with one-third in high disease activity at 1 year and no significant improvement over the past 10 years. Contributing factors may include service pressures and poor awareness. Further research is necessary to gain a better understanding and improve important clinical outcomes. PMID:27016664

  19. Radiation-induced dural fibrosarcoma with unusually short latent period

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatak, N.R.; Aydin, F.; Leshner, R.T. Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA )

    1993-05-01

    Although rare, the occurrence of radiation-induced intracranial neoplasms of various types is well known. Among these tumors, fibrosarcomas, especially in the region of seila turcica, seem to be the most common type. These tumors characteristically occur after a long latent period, usually several years, following radiation therapy. The authors now report a case of apparently radiation-induced fibrosarcoma with some unusual features in a 10-year-old boy who was treated with radiation for medulloblastoma. He received a total dose of 53.2 Gy radiation delivered at 1.8 per fraction with 6 MV acceleration using the standard craniospinal technique. An MRI at 15 months after the completion of radiotherapy showed a mass over the cerebral convexity, which increased two-fold in size within a period of 4 months. A well circumscribed tumor was removed from the fronto-parietal convexity. The tumor measured 5x4.5x1.5 cm and was attached to the dura with invasion of the overlying bone. Histologically, it displayed the characteristic features of a low-grade fibrosarcoma. The patient remains free of tumor 18 months after the surgery. This case emphasizes the potential risk for the development of a second neoplasm following therapeutic radiation and also documents, to the authors' knowledge, the shortest latent period reported so far between administration of radiotherapy and development of an intracranial tumor.

  20. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  1. Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

  2. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  3. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Periodic paralysis - hypokalemic; Familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis; HOKPP; HypoKPP; HypoPP ... is not inherited. Unlike other forms of periodic paralysis, people with hypoPP have normal thyroid function. But ...

  4. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Periodic paralysis - hyperkalemic; Familial hyperkalemic periodic paralysis; HyperKPP; HyperPP; Gamstorp disease ... factors include having other family members with periodic paralysis. It affects men more often than women.

  5. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  6. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... periods; Intermenstrual bleeding; Spotting; Metrorrhagia Images Female reproductive anatomy Bleeding between periods Uterus References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  7. Effect of biostimulation on the microbial community in PCB-contaminated sediments through periodic amendment of sediment with iron.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa Varadhan, A; Khodadoust, Amid P; Brenner, Richard C

    2011-10-01

    Reductive dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by indigenous dehalorespiring microorganisms in contaminated sediments may be enhanced via biostimulation by supplying hydrogen generated through the anaerobic corrosion of elemental iron added to the sediment. In this study, the effect of periodic amendment of sediment with various dosages of iron on the microbial community present in sediment was investigated using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) over a period of 18 months. Three PCB-contaminated sediments (two freshwater lake sediments and one marine sediment) were used. Signature biomarker analysis of the microbial community present in all three sediments revealed the enrichment of Dehalococcoides species, the population of which was sustained for a longer period of time when the sediment microcosms were amended with the lower dosage of iron (0.01 g iron per g dry sediment) every 6 months as compared to the blank system (without iron). Lower microbial stress levels were reported for the system periodically amended with 0.01 g of iron per g dry sediment every 6 months, thus reducing the competition from other hydrogen-utilizing microorganisms like methanogens, iron reducers, and sulfate reducers. The concentration of hydrogen in the system was found to be an important factor influencing the shift in microbial communities in all sediments with time. Periodic amendment of sediment with larger dosages of iron every 3 months resulted in the early prevalence of Geobacteraceae and sulfate-reducing bacteria followed by methanogens. An average pH of 8.4 (range of 8.2-8.6) and an average hydrogen concentration of 0.75% (range of 0.3-1.2%) observed between 6 and 15 months of the study were found to be conducive to sustaining the population of Dehalococcoides species in the three sediments amended with 0.01 g iron per g dry sediment. Biostimulation of indigenous PCB dechlorinators by the periodic amendment of contaminated sediments with low dosages of

  8. Results of International Space Station Vehicle Materials Exposed on MISSE-7B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Golden, Johnny L.; O'Rourke, Mary Jane E.; Kravchenko, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Materials samples were exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment as part of the MISSE-7B flight experiment for 18 months. Optical properties, thickness/mass loss, surface elemental analysis, visual and microscopic analysis for surface change are some of the techniques employed in this investigation. Where possible, the MISSE-7B results are compared to analyses from other LEO experiments. ISS materials currently flying on MISSE-8 are also discussed.

  9. Evidence of past climate change in the Little Ice Age and of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation periodicity in Africa: comparison between two neighbor stalagmites from Namibia and Botswana (preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voarintsoa, N. G.; Railsback, L. B.; Liang, F.; Brook, G. A.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.

    2013-12-01

    Stalagmites are potential sources of paleoenvironmental records because their characteristics respond to climate change. In this preliminary study we compare isotopic values resolvable at annual to bi-annual scale from two stalagmites from caves in Proterozoic dolomitic marbles, as a proxy for the past climate variability in Southern Africa. Stalagmite DP1 is from Dante Cave in the Otjozondjupa region of Namibia, and Stalagmite BC97-14 is from Bone Cave, in the Koanaka Hills of Northwest Botswana, ~125km west of the Okavango Delta. Dante and Bone Cave receive respectively ~532 and ~475mm annual rainfall with an annual average temperature of 21.0°C and 22.6°C. Both caves are in semi-arid areas with highly seasonal rainfall. Vegetation is distinctive for each location: deciduous woodland savanna with a relatively high diversity of scattered tall trees on the hill in which Dante is located and a sparser tree cover on the hillsite of Bone Cave area. The data from the two stalagmites are very different, reflecting the distinctive hydrological and vegetation settings of the caves where they formed. δ18O in BC97-14 is highly variable, ranging from -11.6 to -5.8 ‰, while δ13C is nearly constant (-10.5 to -8.5 ‰). In contrast, δ13C and δ18O are covariant in DP1, with much higher δ13C values (-10.8 to -5.1‰) and much lower δ18O (-11.7 to -6.5 ‰) compared to that of Bone Cave. The distance from the water vapor source (Indian Ocean) might explain the generally lower δ18O values from the Namibian stalagmite compared to that of Botswana; while the difference in vegetation cover reflects the difference between δ13C for the two areas. Regardless of this isotopic difference, the stalagmite data for Bone Cave show a marked 15- to 22-year periodicity that is much more subdued in the Namibia speleothem. This cycle matches with the 17- or 18-year periodicity in the Botswana historical rainfall record. The periodicity is very well pronounced between AD 1825 to 1925

  10. The postanesthetic period. Complications.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F

    1987-01-01

    Postanesthetic complications can occur even in the best of circumstances. Proper preparation of the staff, aggressive monitoring of the recovering patient, and early recognition and management of the complications are essential if the outcome is to be successful. In reviewing postanesthetic complications, two factors are present in the overwhelming majority of situations--hypoxia and hypercarbia--often the direct result of inadequate monitoring during the postanesthetic period. The anesthetic procedure is not over once the anesthetic agents are discontinued. The skillful anesthetist is aware of the possibilities of postoperative complications and prevents problems by employing enhanced monitoring techniques during the recovery phase.

  11. Surgical and Functional Results of Hybrid 25-27-Gauge Vitrectomy Combined with Coaxial 2.2 mm Small Incision Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Höhn, Fabian; Kretz, Florian; Pavlidis, Mitrofanis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate outcomes after coaxial 2.2 mm small incision cataract surgery combined with hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy in eyes with vitreoretinal disease and age-related cataract. Methods. A single-center, retrospective case series study of 55 subjects (55 eyes) with a mean age of 70 years who underwent combined small incision phacoemulsification, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy during the 12-month period to December 2014. Intraoperative and postoperative complications and visual results were the main outcome measures. Results. The mean follow-up period was 6 months (range: 2–18 months). Intraoperative findings were 3 retinal breaks (5.5%). No cases required corneal or scleral suture or conversion to larger-gauge vitrectomy. Postoperative complications consisted of posterior capsule opacification (12.7%), elevated intraocular pressure >30 mmHg (1.8%), and fibrin reaction (5.5%). There were no cases of hypotony (<7 mmHg), IOL decentration, or postoperative endophthalmitis. Visual acuity (mean ± SD) improved from 0.52 ± 0.6 logMAR preoperatively to 0.22 ± 0.46 logMAR at final postoperative visit (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. Surgical and visual outcomes suggest hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy combined with small incision phacoemulsification and IOL implantation is feasible, safe, and effective as a one-step surgical procedure for the management of vitreoretinal pathologies and concurrent cataract. PMID:26966558

  12. [The effects of the GH, IGF-I and IGF-IBP3 gene on growth and development traits of Nanyang cattle in different growth period].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue; Xu, Xiu-Rong; Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Ying-Han; Xu, Shang-Zhong

    2006-08-01

    This study was conducted to identify polymorphisms of the Nangyang cattle's growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-I binding protein 3(IGF-IBP3) gene by the single nucleotide Polymorphisms and Polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism and to study association of polymorphisms identified in these genes with growth traits of the birth, 6 months, 12 months, 18 months, 24 months and 36 months. Results from the analysis showed a significant association of the BB genotype in the promoter of GH gene (GH-P5) with higher body length and body height during from 6 month to 18 month. From 24 month to 36 month, the IGF-IBP3 locus has a dominance modulation and control effect on backbody in Nanyang Cattle, and the BB genotype with higher Rump width than AA.

  13. Gaining weight after taking orlistat: A qualitative study of patients at 18-months follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane

    2016-05-01

    Orlistat is currently the only prescribed form of pharmacological management for obesity and functions by reducing the amount of fat absorbed from food eaten. Although frequently prescribed, there is marked variability in outcomes. A total of 10 participants' experiences of gaining weight after taking orlistat were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants attributed their failed weight loss to mechanisms of the medication, emphasised a medical model of obesity with barriers to their weight loss and other weight-loss methods which had also failed. Overall, their weight gain was considered an inevitable part of their self-identity, reflecting their self-fulfilling prophecy of being a perpetual dieter.

  14. 12- and 18-Month-Old Infants Follow Gaze to Spaces behind Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Henrike; Tomasello, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Infants follow the gaze direction of others from the middle of the first year of life. In attempting to determine how infants understand the looking behavior of adults, a number of recent studies have blocked the adult's line of sight in some way (e.g. with a blindfold or with a barrier). In contrast, in the current studies an adult looked behind…

  15. The First 18 Months; A Financial Report of the Gresham Chair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Robert

    In April 1972, the New England Program in Teacher Education (NEPTE) announced the granting of a "Chair" for a New England teacher. The Mary Gresham Chair carried with it a grant of $100,000 to provide the richest possible learning resources for children. The award was made to Robert Gillette, an English teacher from Fairfield, Connecticut. It…

  16. The first 18 months in practice: a developmental transition model for the newly graduated nurse.

    PubMed

    Schoessler, Mary; Waldo, Mary

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a process model of the development of a newly graduated nurse. The model is useful in helping new graduates interpret their experience during their first crucial months in practice and can be used by organizations to design developmentally appropriate support strategies. The model integrates novice to expert skill acquisition, adult learning, and transition theory.

  17. Double-Blind 18-Month Trial of Lithium Versus Divalproex Maintenance Treatment in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; McNamara, Nora K.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Stansbrey, Robert; Gracious, Barbara L.; Reed, Michael D.; Calabrese, Joseph R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether divalproex sodium (DVPX) was superior to lithium carbonate ([Li.sup.+]) in the maintenance monotherapy treatment of youths diagnosed with bipolar disorder who had been previously stabilized on combination [Li.sup.+] and DVPX ([Li.sup.+]/DVPX) pharmacotherapy. Method: Youths ages 5-17 years with bipolar I or II…

  18. Memory Load Affects Object Individuation in 18-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosh, Jennifer M.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Accurate representation of a changing environment requires individuation--the ability to determine how many numerically distinct objects are present in a scene. Much research has characterized early individuation abilities by identifying which object features infants can use to individuate throughout development. However, despite the fact that…

  19. Being Mimicked Increases Prosocial Behavior in 18-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Malinda; Uebel, Johanna; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Most previous research on imitation in infancy has focused on infants' learning of instrumental actions on objects. This study focused instead on the more social side of imitation, testing whether being mimicked increases prosocial behavior in infants, as it does in adults (van Baaren, Holland, Kawakami, & van Knippenberg, 2004).…

  20. Assessment of radiocesium contamination in frogs 18 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Noe; Ihara, Sadao; Takase, Minoru; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the accumulation of radionuclides in frogs inhabiting radioactively contaminated areas around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) to search for possible adverse effects due to radionuclides. We collected 5 frog species and soil samples in areas within and outside a 20-km radius from FDNPP in August and September 2012 and determined their radiocesium concentrations (134Cs and 137Cs). There was a positive correlation between radiocesium concentrations in the soil samples and frogs, and the highest concentration in frogs was 47,278.53 Bq/kg-wet. Although we conducted a histological examination of frog ovaries and testes by light microscopy to detect possible effects of radionuclides on the morphology of germ cells, there were no clear abnormalities in the gonadal tissues of frogs collected from sites with different contamination levels. PMID:25857262

  1. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2: first 18 months of science data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldering, Annmarie; O'Dell, Chris W.; Wennberg, Paul O.; Crisp, David; Gunson, Michael R.; Viatte, Camille; Avis, Charles; Braverman, Amy; Castano, Rebecca; Chang, Albert; Chapsky, Lars; Cheng, Cecilia; Connor, Brian; Dang, Lan; Doran, Gary; Fisher, Brendan; Frankenberg, Christian; Fu, Dejian; Granat, Robert; Hobbs, Jonathan; Lee, Richard A. M.; Mandrake, Lukas; McDuffie, James; Miller, Charles E.; Myers, Vicky; Natraj, Vijay; O'Brien, Denis; Osterman, Gregory B.; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Payne, Vivienne H.; Pollock, Harold R.; Polonsky, Igor; Roehl, Coleen M.; Rosenberg, Robert; Schwandner, Florian; Smyth, Mike; Tang, Vivian; Taylor, Thomas E.; To, Cathy; Wunch, Debra; Yoshimizu, Jan

    2017-02-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) is the first National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellite designed to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with the accuracy, resolution, and coverage needed to quantify CO2 fluxes (sources and sinks) on regional scales. OCO-2 was successfully launched on 2 July 2014 and has gathered more than 2 years of observations. The v7/v7r operational data products from September 2014 to January 2016 are discussed here. On monthly timescales, 7 to 12 % of these measurements are sufficiently cloud and aerosol free to yield estimates of the column-averaged atmospheric CO2 dry air mole fraction, XCO2, that pass all quality tests. During the first year of operations, the observing strategy, instrument calibration, and retrieval algorithm were optimized to improve both the data yield and the accuracy of the products. With these changes, global maps of XCO2 derived from the OCO-2 data are revealing some of the most robust features of the atmospheric carbon cycle. This includes XCO2 enhancements co-located with intense fossil fuel emissions in eastern US and eastern China, which are most obvious between October and December, when the north-south XCO2 gradient is small. Enhanced XCO2 coincident with biomass burning in the Amazon, central Africa, and Indonesia is also evident in this season. In May and June, when the north-south XCO2 gradient is largest, these sources are less apparent in global maps. During this part of the year, OCO-2 maps show a more than 10 ppm reduction in XCO2 across the Northern Hemisphere, as photosynthesis by the land biosphere rapidly absorbs CO2. As the carbon cycle science community continues to analyze these OCO-2 data, information on regional-scale sources (emitters) and sinks (absorbers) which impart XCO2 changes on the order of 1 ppm, as well as far more subtle features, will emerge from this high-resolution global dataset.

  2. Mother-Infant Hearing Status and Intuitive Parenting Behaviors during the First 18 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koester, Lynne Sanford; Lahti-Harper, Eve

    2010-01-01

    Infants enter the world prepared to learn about their environments and to become effective social partners, while most parents are equally prepared to support these early emergent skills. Through subtle, non-conscious behaviors, parents guide their infants in the regulation of emotions, language acquisition, and participation in social exchanges.…

  3. Reactive attachment disorder in maltreated twins follow-up: from 18 months to 8 years.

    PubMed

    Heller, Sherryl Scott; Boris, Neil W; Fuselier, Sarah-Hinshaw; Page, Timothy; Koren-Karie, Nina; Miron, Devi

    2006-03-01

    The best means for the diagnosis and treatment of reactive attachment disorder of infancy and early childhood have not been established. Though some longitudinal data on institutionalized children is available, reports of maltreated young children who are followed over time and assessed with measures of attachment are lacking. This paper presents the clinical course of a set of maltreated fraternal twins who were assessed and treated from 19 months to 30 months of age and then seen in follow-up at 3 and 8 years of age. A summary of the early assessment and course is provided and findings from follow-up assessments of the cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal functioning of each child is analysed. Follow-up measures, chosen to capture social-cognitive processing of these children from an attachment perspective, are highlighted. Finally, findings from the case are discussed from nosological and theoretical perspectives.

  4. Intersubjective Interaction between Deaf Parents/Deaf Infants during the Infant's First 18 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, Carin; Cramér-Wolrath, Emelie; Falkman, Kerstin W.

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of a larger longitudinal project with the aim of focusing early social interaction and development of mentalizing ability in 12 deaf infants, including the interaction between the infants and their deaf parents. The aim of the present paper is to describe early social interaction and moments of intersubjectivity between the deaf…

  5. 18-Month study of intravenous immunoglobulin for treatment of mild Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Relkin, Norman R; Szabo, Paul; Adamiak, Basia; Burgut, Tuna; Monthe, Carmen; Lent, Richard W; Younkin, Steven; Younkin, Linda; Schiff, Richard; Weksler, Marc E

    2009-11-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been proposed as a potential agent for Alzheimer's disease (AD) immunotherapy because it contains antibodies against beta-amyloid (Abeta). We carried out an open label dose-ranging study in 8 mild AD patients in which IVIg was added to approved AD therapies for 6 months, discontinued, and then resumed for another 9 months. Infusions were generally well-tolerated. Anti-Abeta antibodies in the serum from AD patients increased in proportion to IVIg dose and had a shorter half-life than anti-hepatitis antibodies and total IgG. Plasma Abeta levels increased transiently after each infusion. Cerebrospinal fluid Abeta decreased significantly at 6 months, returned to baseline after washout and decreased again after IVIg was re-administered for an additional 9 months. Mini-mental state scores increased an average of 2.5 points after 6 months, returned to baseline during washout and remained stable during subsequent IVIg treatment. Our findings confirm and extend those obtained by Dodel et al. [Dodel, R.C., Du, Y., Depboylu, C., Hampel, H., Frolich, L., Haag, A., Hemmeter, U., Paulsen, S., Teipel, S.J., Brettschneider, S., Spottke, A., Nolker, C., Moller, H.J., Wei, X., Farlow, M., Sommer, N., Oertel, W.H., 2004. Intravenous immunoglobulins containing antibodies against beta-amyloid for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 75, 1472-1474] from a 6-month trial of IVIg in 5 AD patients and justify further studies of IVIg for treatment of AD.

  6. WWC Review of the Report "Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative: 18 Month Interim Report"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study reviewed in this report examined the effects of Philadelphia's "Renaissance Schools Initiative" on students in K-8 schools after one year of implementation. Schools were selected for participation based on their School Performance Index (SPI) at the start of the 2010-11 school year. The SPI rates every school in Philadelphia…

  7. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative: 18 Month Interim Report"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative after one year of implementation. The Renaissance Schools Initiative, which began in the 2010-11 school year, aimed at improving low-performing schools by providing new management, additional resources, and new educational strategies. The study reported that…

  8. [18 months law for the modernisation of the SHI--review and prospects].

    PubMed

    Steinbronn, R

    2005-01-01

    Balance of the law for the modernisation of the statutory health insurance (SHI) (GKV-Modernisierungsgesetz-GMG) is contradictory as measured by the original objectives. Although the legislators curtailed benefits and raised the co-payments, those insured could not profit from lower contributions. The anticipated lowering of the ancillary wage costs was missing thereby. However, many SHI funds could settle debts, but the expenditures rose again in 2005. The financial situation of most SHI funds is still strained. The new federal government will have to tackle a further and sustainable reform of the statutory health insurance soon.

  9. Perception of Benefits and Costs during SARS Outbreak: An 18-Month Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Cecilia; Wong, Wai-man; Tsang, Kenneth W.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined perceived benefits and costs of the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Mixed accounts of benefits and costs, rather than exclusive accounts of only benefits or costs, were proposed to be characterized by nondefensiveness and enduring changes in psychosocial resources. Participants were 70 SARS…

  10. Assessment of radiocesium contamination in frogs 18 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Noe; Ihara, Sadao; Takase, Minoru; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2015-04-10

    We investigated the accumulation of radionuclides in frogs inhabiting radioactively contaminated areas around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) to search for possible adverse effects due to radionuclides. We collected 5 frog species and soil samples in areas within and outside a 20-km radius from FDNPP in August and September 2012 and determined their radiocesium concentrations ((134)Cs and (137)Cs). There was a positive correlation between radiocesium concentrations in the soil samples and frogs, and the highest concentration in frogs was 47,278.53 Bq/kg-wet. Although we conducted a histological examination of frog ovaries and testes by light microscopy to detect possible effects of radionuclides on the morphology of germ cells, there were no clear abnormalities in the gonadal tissues of frogs collected from sites with different contamination levels.

  11. Pancreatic Panniculitis in an 18-Month-Old with Complete DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aivaz, Ohara; Radfar, Arash; Kirkorian, Anna Yasmine

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic panniculitis, characterized by tender, erythematous subcutaneous nodules occurring most commonly on the lower extremities, occurs in 2% of cases of pancreatic disease. We present a rare case of pancreatic panniculitis in a child with complete DiGeorge syndrome.

  12. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  13. Assessment of radiocesium contamination in frogs 18 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Noe; Ihara, Sadao; Takase, Minoru; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the accumulation of radionuclides in frogs inhabiting radioactively contaminated areas around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) to search for possible adverse effects due to radionuclides. We collected 5 frog species and soil samples in areas within and outside a 20-km radius from FDNPP in August and September 2012 and determined their radiocesium concentrations (134Cs and 137Cs). There was a positive correlation between radiocesium concentrations in the soil samples and frogs, and the highest concentration in frogs was 47,278.53 Bq/kg-wet. Although we conducted a histological examination of frog ovaries and testes by light microscopy to detect possible effects of radionuclides on the morphology of germ cells, there were no clear abnormalities in the gonadal tissues of frogs collected from sites with different contamination levels.

  14. Infant Nutrition and 12 and 18 Months Secure Base Behavior: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Theodore D.; Posada, German; Carbonell, Olga A.; Creed-Kanashiro, Hillary; Gurkas, Pinar

    2011-01-01

    A notable omission in studies of developmental links to early nutritional deficiencies is infant attachment. In those few studies investigating associations between infant nutrition and attachment, nutrition was defined solely by physical growth, and infants had moderate-severe growth retardation. In this study, we utilized multiple markers of…

  15. Development of Communicative Gestures in Normally Developing Children between 8 and 18 Months: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veena, Kadiyali D; Bellur, Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Children who have not developed speech tend to use gestures to communicate. Since gestures are not encouraged and suppressed in the Indian traditional context while speaking, this study focused on profiling the developing gestures in children to explore whether they use the gestures before development of speech. Eight normally developing…

  16. Intervention for infants with brain injury: Results of a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Garg, Meena; Kamath, Meghna

    2009-01-01

    A randomized clinical trail (RCT) employed a 12-month individualized cognitive/sensorimotor stimulation program to look at the efficacy of the intervention on 62 infants with suspected brain injury. The control group infants received the State-funded follow-up program provided by the Los Angeles (LA) Regional Centers while the intervention group received intensive stimulation using the Curriculum and Monitoring System (CAMS) taught by public health nurses (PHNs). The developmental assessments and outcome measures were performed at 6, 12 and 18 months corrected age and included the Bayley motor and mental development, the Home, mother–infant interaction (Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS) and Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS)), parental stress and social support. At 18 months, 43 infants remained in the study. The results indicate that the intervention had minimal positive effects on the Bayley mental and motor development scores of infants in the intervention group. Likewise, the intervention did not contribute to less stress or better mother–infant interaction at 12 or 18 months although there were significant differences in the NCAFS scores favoring the intervention group at 6 months. There was a significant trend, however, for the control group to have a significant decrease over time on the Bayley mental scores. Although the sample was not large and attrition was at 31%, this study provides further support to the minimal effects of stimulation and home intervention for infants with brain injury and who may have more significant factors contributing to their developmental outcome. PMID:17138264

  17. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  18. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  19. Community College Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Eldor O.

    Drawing from an examination of community college periodicals, their availability and characteristics, the academic affiliations of contributing authors, and the topics of their articles, this paper discusses the minor role which community college periodicals appear to play. A list of 35 periodicals dealing primary with community college education…

  20. The Relation of Exposure to Traumatic Events and Longitudinal Mental Health Outcomes for Children Enrolled in Systems of Care: Results from a National System of Care Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Whitson, Melissa L; Connell, Christian M

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the relation between children's history of exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and clinical and functional mental health trajectories over a 18-month period among a national sample of youth referred for services in children's behavioral health systems of care (SOCs). Using data from the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services program for communities funded from 1997 to 2000, the study sample included 9556 children and their families. Latent growth modeling was used to assess the effect of history of exposure to PTEs on trajectories in a number of behavioral health outcomes during the 3-year period following referral to services, controlling for child demographic characteristics (gender, race, and age). Results revealed that, on average, children in SOCs exhibited significant improvements over time on all four outcome measures. Children with a history of exposure to PTEs had higher rates of internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors and functional impairments and fewer behavioral and emotional strengths at baseline, but experienced improvements in these outcomes at the same rates as children without exposure to a traumatic event. Finally, child race, gender, and age also were associated with differences in behavioral health trajectories among service recipients. Implications for SOCs, including approaches to make them more trauma-informed, are discussed.

  1. Effect on treadmill exercise capacity, myocardial ischemia, and left ventricular function as a result of repeated whole-body periodic acceleration with heparin pretreatment in patients with angina pectoris and mild left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Shoichi; Fujita, Masatoshi; Inoko, Moriaki; Oba, Muneo; Hosokawa, Ryohei; Haruna, Tetsuya; Izumi, Toshiaki; Saji, Yoshiaki; Nakane, Eisaku; Abe, Tomomi; Ueyama, Koji; Nohara, Ryuji

    2011-01-15

    Whole-body periodic acceleration (WBPA) has been developed as a passive exercise device capable of improving endothelial function by applying pulsatile shear stress to vascular endothelium. We hypothesized that treatment with WBPA improves exercise capacity, myocardial ischemia, and left ventricular (LV) function because of increased coronary and peripheral vasodilatory reserves in patients with angina. Twenty-six patients with angina who were not indicated for percutaneous coronary intervention and/or coronary artery bypass grafting were randomly assigned to remain sedentary (sedentary group) or undergo 20 sessions of WBPA with the motion platform for 4 weeks (WBPA group) in addition to conventional medical treatment. WBPA was applied at 2 to 3 Hz and approximately ±2.2 m/s² for 45 minutes. We repeated the symptom-limited treadmill exercise test and adenosine sestamibi myocardial scintigraphy. In the WBPA group, the exercise time until 0.1-mV ST-segment depression increased by 53% (p <0.01) and the double product at 0.1-mV ST-segment depression by 23% (p <0.001). Severity score of myocardial scintigraphy during adenosine infusion decreased from 20 ± 10 to 14 ± 8 (p <0.001) and severity score at rest also decreased from 13 ± 10 to 8 ± 10 (p <0.01). On scintigraphic images at rest, LV end-diastolic volume index decreased by 18% (p <0.01) with an augmentation of LV ejection fraction from 50 ± 16% to 55 ± 16% (p <0.01). In contrast, all studied parameters remained unchanged in the sedentary group. In conclusion, treatment with WBPA for patients with angina ameliorates exercise capacity, myocardial ischemia, and LV function.

  2. Forward Period Analysis Method of the Periodic Hamiltonian System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Using the forward period analysis (FPA), we obtain the period of a Morse oscillator and mathematical pendulum system, with the accuracy of 100 significant digits. From these results, the long-term [0, 1060] (time unit) solutions, ranging from the Planck time to the age of the universe, are computed reliably and quickly with a parallel multiple-precision Taylor series (PMT) scheme. The application of FPA to periodic systems can greatly reduce the computation time of long-term reliable simulations. This scheme provides an efficient way to generate reference solutions, against which long-term simulations using other schemes can be tested. PMID:27727295

  3. Congenital cataract surgery during the early enlightenment period and the Stepkins oculists.

    PubMed

    Leffler, Christopher T; Schwartz, Stephen G; Davenport, Byrd

    2014-07-01

    From antiquity through the Renaissance, congenital blindness was generally regarded as incurable, as noted in both medical and lay publications. The earliest reference to congenital cataract surgery that we identified, reported in 1663, referred to an 18-year-old female treated by English oculist John Stepkins (d. 1652). An examination of the literature related to the Stepkins family reveals the presence of male and female oculists during that period, including his daughter, Lady Theodosia Ivy. Eye waters attributed to Stepkins contained tutty (an oxide of zinc), roses, sugar candy, and other ingredients. Interestingly, John Thomas Woolhouse, the author of the next identified report of congenital cataract surgery in 1706, stated that he was related to Stepkins. Woolhouse reported by 1721 that he had performed 36 congenital cataract surgeries, with the youngest patient being 18 months of age.

  4. Experimental study and theoretical modeling of the long period variations of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alania, Michael; Siluszyk, Marek; Wawrzynczak-Szaban, Anna

    2012-07-01

    We analyze experimental data of neutron monitors and solar wind parameters during #21 solar cycle (1976-1987). In galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity is well established a step like changes in both ascending and descending periods of solar activity. We compose two-dimensional (2-D) time dependent model of GCR modulation based on Parker's transport equation to explain a general 11-year wave of the GCR intensity with the step-like changes, and each step-like changes individually, i.e. time scale of investigations is carried out by means of daily and monthly data. An innovation in proposed model is that besides the well known fundamental processes responsible for modulation of the GCR intensity, we implement in the model the parameters characterizing temporal changes of the exponent n of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) turbulence, module B of the IMF, tilt angle δ of the Heliospheric Neutral Sheet, and changes of drift effect of the GCR particles upon solar activity assuming that drift effect of the GCR particles is maximal in the minimum epoch, when drift dominates, and is neglected in the maximum epoch, when diffusion dominates. We show that an acceptable compatibility is kept for the investigated period of 1976-1987 (solar cycle #21), when the expected temporal changes of the GCR particles density (11-year wave) is shifted for 18 months with respect to the temporal changes of the smoothed experimental data of the GCR intensity. We consider, that a delay time ˜18 months can be considered as an effective delay time caused by the combined influence of all parameters implemented in the 2-D model.

  5. Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Orbitsfor the Standard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berretti, Alberto; Gentile, Guido

    We consider both periodic and quasi-periodic solutions for the standard map, and we study the corresponding conjugating functions, i.e. the functions conjugating the motions to trivial rotations. We compare the invariant curves with rotation numbers ω satisfying the Bryuno condition and the sequences of periodic orbits with rotation numbers given by their convergents ωN = pN/qN. We prove the following results for N--> ∞: (1) for rotation numbers ωNN we study the radius of convergence of the conjugating functions and we find lower bounds on them, which tend to a limit which is a lower bound on the corresponding quantity for ω (2) the periodic orbits consist of points which are more and more close to the invariant curve with rotation number ω (3) such orbits lie on analytical curves which tend uniformly to the invariant curve.

  6. Periodic chiral structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, Dwight L.; Engheta, Nader; Pelet, Philippe; Liu, John C.; Kowarz, Marek W.; Kim, Yunjin

    1989-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of a structure that is both chiral and periodic are investigated using coupled-mode equations. The periodicity is described by a sinusoidal perturbation of the permittivity, permeability, and chiral admittance. The coupled-mode equations are derived from physical considerations and used to examine bandgap structure and reflected and transmitted fields. Chirality is observed predominantly in transmission, whereas periodicity is present in both reflection and transmission.

  7. The dependence of honey-bee behaviour on weather — Shown by the results of weighing bee-hives in the period of 1969 to 1978 in the region of the Beekeepers Association of Hannover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Jutta

    1985-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of honey bee behaviour and their dependence on weather conditions. The main interest of the data evaluation was the rentability of beekeeping, especially the amount of honey produced, meteorological parameters were used to analyse the measurements. So-called “hive scale” measurements, a method used to judge the annual development of honey bees, were carried out in the region of the “Landesverband Hannoverscher Imker e. V.” by 30 to 35 observers from 1969 to 1978 under the direction of Wagener. Number of flight and forage days were collected in addition to climatic data and evaluated.

  8. Periodic Solutions of Spatially Periodic Hamiltonian Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-10

    Theorem 0.2 generalizes Theorem 1.5 of Rabinowitz in [201. 3 Equation (0.1), under spatially periodic assumptions has been studied by several au...n x n symmetric matrix, H satisfying (HO), (H1) and (H2), and f = (0, fq) satisfying (fM), (fl) and (f2), Rabinowitz in [201 showed the existence of... Rabinowitz [17]. We consider a functional I : E x M ) R of class C’, where E is a Hilbert space and M is a compact manifold. Assuming that I satisfies a

  9. Screening results of anaemia among infants in a village in Okinawa, Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Quek, K F; Hokama, T; Yogi, C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to highlight the baseline characteristics of the results of a screening test for anaemia among infants in a village in Okinawa, Japan. The groups were classified into two; infants with and without anaemia. A total of 201 infants were screened at 3-4 months, 9-10 months and 18 months. The study showed that gestational age and BMI were predictive of anaemia at 3-4 months of age. At 9-10 months, types of feeding and weight ratio were the only factors that were found to be significantly predictive of anaemia. However, no factor was found to be predictive of anaemia at 18 months. Anaemia cases were found to occur at 3-4 months and 9-10 months. Most of the anaemia cases have successfully undergone treatment.

  10. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  11. Multidimensional period doubling structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yup; Flom, Dvir; Ben-Abraham, Shelomo I

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops the formalism necessary to generalize the period doubling sequence to arbitrary dimension by straightforward extension of the substitution and recursion rules. It is shown that the period doubling structures of arbitrary dimension are pure point diffractive. The symmetries of the structures are pointed out.

  12. Latent Period of Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Irisawa, H

    1961-10-27

    The latent period of relaxation of molluscan myocardium due to anodal current is much longer than that of contraction. Although the rate and the grade of relaxation are intimately related to both the stimulus condition and the muscle tension, the latent period of relaxation remains constant, except when the temperature of the bathing fluid is changed.

  13. Bragg interactions in periodic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic waves of wavelength lambda with periodic structures of spatial period lambda are studied. The emphasis of the work is on Bragg interactions where lambda approximately equal to 2 lambda/N and the Bragg order N takes on the values 1, 2,.... An extended coupled waves (ECW) theory is developed for the case N greater or equal to 2 and the results of the theory are found to compare favorably with the exact results of Floquet theory. Numerous numerical results are displayed as Brillouin diagrams for the first few Bragg orders. Moreover, explicit expressions for coupling coefficients, bandgap shifts and bandgap widths are derived for singly periodic media. Particular note is taken of phase speeding effects.

  14. Total enbloc spondylectomy for metastatic high grade spinal tumors: Early results

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sanganagouda S; Nene, Abhay M

    2016-01-01

    Background: High grade metastatic spinal tumors are most common and are invasive. These patients can succumb to disease progression if not treated timely. Although considered as invasive and morbid, total enbloc spondylectomy (TES) in selected cases has better survival rates. The authors describe the results of TES for high grade metastatic spinal tumors. Materials and Methods: Five patients (four females and one male) underwent TES for solitary metastatic vertebral lesion between November 2012 and January 2014. These patients presented to us with spinal instability, unrelenting severe spinal pain and/or with severe progressive radiculopathy. Average age was 46.2 years (range 39–62 years). After complete investigations, computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging scan and positron emission tomography (PET) scan, it was confirmed that these patients had high grade solitary vertebral metastatic tumor. Results: Average duration of followup was 18 months (range 16–20 months). The average preoperative visual analog scale score of 9.4 (range 9–10) improved to 2 (range 1–4) at last followup. Average blood loss was 1440 mL (range 1000–2000 mL). Average duration of surgery was 198 min (range 180–240 min). Significant pain relief was noticed in each patient in the immediate postoperative period and during followups. These patients attained complete functional activities of daily living with in a month. The imaging showed implants in situ, no recurrence of tumor, and no activity on PET scan at the final followup. Conclusion: The present series shows favorable short term results of TES for solitary, metastatic, high grade vertebral body tumors by a team approach. PMID:27512215

  15. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Jalali, Bahram

    2009-03-01

    We propose a new class of photonic devices based on periodic stress fields in silicon that enable second-order nonlinearity as well as quasi-phase matching. Periodically poled silicon (PePSi) adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on second-order nonlinear effects. As an example of the utility of the PePSi technology, we present simulations showing that midwave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50%.

  16. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  17. Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis and Cervical Adenitis (PFAPA) Syndrome in Iranian Children First Report of Iranian Periodic Fever and Autoinflammatory Registry (IPFAIR)

    PubMed Central

    Mehregan, Fatemeh Fereshteh; Ziaee, Vahid; Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Tahghighi, Fatemeh; Sabouni, Farah; Moradinejad, Mohamad-Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is a nonhereditary idiopathic febrile syndrome belonging to the group of autoinflammatory diseases. No longtime sequel was reported in this disease. Early diagnosis can lead physicians to treatment of this disorder with a short course steroid application and provide satisfaction of the patient’s family. Methods: This study is a prospective review of patients diagnosed with PFAPA syndrome who were registered in Iranian Periodic Fever and Autoinflammatory Registry (IPFAIR) through periodic fever clinic in the Children's Medical Center, Pediatric Center of Excellence in Tehran, Iran from January 2013 to March 2014. Findings: One hundred thirty patients were registered in our databases. Twenty-one (16.1%) patients including 15 males and 6 females had PFAPA. Normal growth was seen in all patients. The median age at onset was 18 months. The mean duration of fever was 4 days and the mean duration of intervals between fever episodes 21 days. Along with fever, all patients had characteristic symptoms. All patients were asymptomatic between fever episodes. Steroid was used in all patients and causing immediate reduction by 84.61%. Two patients received both steroid and colchicine because of their clinical feature and positive laboratory tests for PFAPA and familial Mediterranean fever. No patient received biological therapy or a tonsillectomy. Conclusion: The long diagnostic delay of PFAPA gives cause to concern indicating a need for greater awareness of the disease so that the diagnosis may be made timely. PMID:25793068

  18. Fast excitation variable period wiggler

    SciTech Connect

    van Steenbergen, A.; Gallardo, J.; Romano, T.; Woodle, M.

    1991-01-01

    The design of an easily stackable, variable period length, fast excitation driven wiggler, making use of geometrically alternating substacks of Vanadium Permandur ferromagnetic laminations, interspaced with conductive, non magnetic, laminations which act as eddy current induced field reflectors,'' is discussed and experimental results obtained with short wiggler models are presented.

  19. Fast excitation variable period wiggler

    SciTech Connect

    van Steenbergen, A.; Gallardo, J.; Romano, T.; Woodle, M.

    1991-12-31

    The design of an easily stackable, variable period length, fast excitation driven wiggler, making use of geometrically alternating substacks of Vanadium Permandur ferromagnetic laminations, interspaced with conductive, non magnetic, laminations which act as eddy current induced ``field reflectors,`` is discussed and experimental results obtained with short wiggler models are presented.

  20. Results from a National Central Auditory Processing Disorder Service: A Real-World Assessment of Diagnostic Practices and Remediation for Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Sharon; Glyde, Helen; Dillon, Harvey; King, Alison; Gillies, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of a national service to diagnose and remediate central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). Data were gathered from 38 participating Australian Hearing centers over an 18-month period from 666 individuals age 6, 0 (years, months) to 24, 8 (median 9, 0). A total of 408 clients were diagnosed with either a spatial processing disorder (n = 130), a verbal memory deficit (n = 174), or a binaural integration deficit (n = 104). A hierarchical test protocol was used so not all children were assessed on all tests in the battery. One hundred fifty clients decided to proceed with deficit-specific training (LiSN & Learn or Memory Booster) and/or be fitted with a frequency modulation system. Families were provided with communication strategies targeted to a child's specific listening difficulties and goals. Outcomes were measured using repeat assessment of the relevant diagnostic test, as well as the Client Oriented Scale of Improvement measure and Listening Inventories for Education teacher questionnaire. Group analyses revealed significant improvements postremediation for all training/management options. Individual posttraining performance and results of outcome measures also are discussed. PMID:27587910

  1. Stability of underwater periodic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Fangxu; Kanso, Eva

    2013-07-01

    Most aquatic vertebrates swim by lateral flapping of their bodies and caudal fins. While much effort has been devoted to understanding the flapping kinematics and its influence on the swimming efficiency, little is known about the stability (or lack of) of periodic swimming. It is believed that stability limits maneuverability and body designs/flapping motions that are adapted for stable swimming are not suitable for high maneuverability and vice versa. In this paper, we consider a simplified model of a planar elliptic body undergoing prescribed periodic heaving and pitching in potential flow. We show that periodic locomotion can be achieved due to the resulting hydrodynamic forces, and its value depends on several parameters including the aspect ratio of the body, the amplitudes and phases of the prescribed flapping.We obtain closedform solutions for the locomotion and efficiency for small flapping amplitudes, and numerical results for finite flapping amplitudes. This efficiency analysis results in optimal parameter values that are in agreement with values reported for some carangiform fish. We then study the stability of the (finite amplitude flapping) periodic locomotion using Floquet theory. We find that stability depends nonlinearly on all parameters. Interesting trends of switching between stable and unstable motions emerge and evolve as we continuously vary the parameter values. This suggests that, for live organisms that control their flapping motion, maneuverability and stability need not be thought of as disjoint properties, rather the organism may manipulate its motion in favor of one or the other depending on the task at hand.

  2. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Neki, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level. PMID:27648066

  3. Novel features of 3q29 deletion syndrome: Results from the 3q29 registry

    PubMed Central

    Glassford, Megan R.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Freedman, Alexa A.; Zwick, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    3q29 deletion syndrome is caused by a recurrent, typically de novo heterozygous 1.6 Mb deletion, but because incidence of the deletion is rare (1 in 30,000 births) the phenotype is not well described. To characterize the range of phenotypic manifestations associated with 3q29 deletion syndrome, we have developed an online registry (3q29deletion.org) for ascertainment of study subjects and phenotypic data collection via Internet‐based survey instruments. We report here on data collected during the first 18 months of registry operation, from 44 patients. This is the largest cohort of 3q29 deletion carriers ever assembled and surveyed in a systematic way. Our data reveal that 28% of registry participants report neuropsychiatric phenotypes, including anxiety disorder, panic attacks, depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Other novel findings include a high prevalence (64%) of feeding problems in infancy and reduced weight at birth for 3q29 deletion carriers (average reduction 13.9 oz (394 g), adjusted for gestational age and sex, P = 6.5e‐07). We further report on the frequency of heart defects, autism, recurrent ear infections, gastrointestinal phenotypes, and dental phenotypes, among others. We also report on the expected timing of delayed developmental milestones. This is the most comprehensive description of the 3q29 deletion phenotype to date. These results are clinically actionable toward improving patient care for 3q29 deletion carriers, and can guide the expectations of physicians and parents. These data also demonstrate the value of patient‐reported outcomes to reveal the full phenotypic spectrum of rare genomic disorders. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26738761

  4. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  5. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  6. Periodically structured plasmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saj, W. M.; Foteinopoulou, S.; Kafesaki, M.; Soukoulis, C. M.; Economou, E. N.

    2008-04-01

    We study surface plasmon polariton (SPP) guiding structures, which are a modification of the Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) waveguide. The designs are constructed by introducing a periodic modulation in a MIM waveguide, with a glass core and silver claddings. This periodic modulation is created either by causing periodic indentations in the silver slabs encompassing the glass core, or by increasing the glass spacer material in certain periodic locations. Our objective is to achieve long range sub-wavelength waveguiding with vast dispersion engineering capabilities. We employ the Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD) with the Auxiliary Differential Equation method (ADE) for the calculation of the dispersion relation of the guided modes, as well as the real time propagation suggests that the guiding mechnism in the examined structures is based on the electromagnetic (EM) couping between the slit plasmon modes. These - depending on the design - exist in the grooves between the silver plates or in the larger areas of the glass core spacer. Put it different, the guiding mechanism in the examined SPP waveguide designs is analogous to the EM energy transfer along metallic nanoparticle chains.

  7. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  8. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  9. Long period coupling terms for Lagrange's equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A generalization of that portion of the work of Berger, which deals with the long period coupling effect of certain pairs of zonal harmonics. Long period terms arising from the short short period coupling of zonal harmonics are derived for Lagrange's equations. The formulation is general so that the results are valid for any pairs of zonal harmonics. Formulas are given to generate the various functions and integrals needed for the results given. Checks have been made against the work of Kozai.

  10. 34 CFR 668.150 - Agreement between the Secretary and a test publisher or a State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regard to the test for a period of three years from the date the analysis of the tests results, described... copy of this analysis within 18 months after the test was approved and every 18 months thereafter... information indicating that a test administrator or institution may have engaged in civil or criminal...

  11. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-05

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  12. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  13. Maternal Dietary Restriction During the Periconceptional Period in Normal-Weight or Obese Ewes Results in Adrenocortical Hypertrophy, an Up-Regulation of the JAK/STAT and Down-Regulation of the IGF1R Signaling Pathways in the Adrenal of the Postnatal Lamb

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Song; Morrison, Janna L.; Gill, Amreet; Rattanatray, Leewen; MacLaughlin, Severence M.; Kleemann, David; Walker, Simon K.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal dietary restriction during the periconceptional period results in an increase in adrenal growth and in the cortisol stress response in the offspring. The intraadrenal mechanisms that result in the programming of these changes are not clear. Activation of the IGF and the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)/suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) pathways regulate adrenal growth. We have used an embryo transfer model in sheep to investigate the impact of exposure to either dietary restriction in normal or obese mothers or to maternal obesity during the periconceptional period on adrenal growth and function in the offspring. We assessed the adrenal abundance of key signaling molecules in the IGF-I and Janus kinase/STAT/SOCS pathways including IGF-I receptor, IGF-II receptor, Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin, ribosomal protein S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, SOCS1, and SOCS3 in female and male postnatal lambs. Maternal dietary restriction in the periconceptional period resulted in the hypertrophy of the adrenocortical cells in the zona fasciculata-reticularis and an up-regulation in STAT1, phospho-STAT1, and phospho-STAT3 (Ser727) abundance and a down-regulation in IGF-I receptor, Akt, and phospho-Akt abundance in the adrenal cortex of the postnatal lamb. These studies highlight that weight loss around the time of conception, independent of the starting maternal body weight, results in the activation of the adrenal Janus kinase/STAT pathway and adrenocortical hypertrophy. Thus, signals of adversity around the time of conception have a long-term impact on the mechanisms that regulate adrenocortical growth. PMID:24108072

  14. Multifunctional periodic cellular metals.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Haydn N G

    2006-01-15

    Periodic cellular metals with honeycomb and corrugated topologies are widely used for the cores of light weight sandwich panel structures. Honeycombs have closed cell pores and are well suited for thermal protection while also providing efficient load support. Corrugated core structures provide less efficient and highly anisotropic load support, but enable cross flow heat exchange opportunities because their pores are continuous in one direction. Recent advances in topology design and fabrication have led to the emergence of lattice truss structures with open cell structures. These three classes of periodic cellular metals can now be fabricated from a wide variety of structural alloys. Many topologies are found to provide adequate stiffness and strength for structural load support when configured as the cores of sandwich panels. Sandwich panels with core relative densities of 2-10% and cell sizes in the millimetre range are being assessed for use as multifunctional structures. The open, three-dimensional interconnected pore networks of lattice truss topologies provide opportunities for simultaneously supporting high stresses while also enabling cross flow heat exchange. These highly compressible structures also provide opportunities for the mitigation of high intensity dynamic loads created by impacts and shock waves in air or water. By filling the voids with polymers and hard ceramics, these structures have also been found to offer significant resistance to penetration by projectiles.

  15. Periodic truss structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zok, Frank W.; Latture, Ryan M.; Begley, Matthew R.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the recognition of the enormous potential of periodic trusses for use in a broad range of technologies, there are no widely-accepted descriptors of their structure. The terminology has been based loosely either on geometry of polyhedra or of point lattices: neither of which, on its own, has an appropriate structure to fully define periodic trusses. The present article lays out a system for classification of truss structure types. The system employs concepts from crystallography and geometry to describe nodal locations and connectivity of struts. Through a series of illustrative examples of progressively increasing complexity, a rational taxonomy of truss structure is developed. Its conceptual evolution begins with elementary cubic trusses, increasing in complexity with non-cubic and compound trusses as well as supertrusses, and, finally, with complex trusses. The conventions and terminology adopted to define truss structure yield concise yet unambiguous descriptions of structure types and of specific (finite) trusses. The utility of the taxonomy is demonstrated by bringing into alignment a disparate set of ad hoc and incomplete truss designations previously employed in a broad range of science and engineering fields. Additionally, the merits of a particular compound truss (comprising two interpenetrating elementary trusses) is shown to be superior to the octet truss for applications requiring high stiffness and elastic isotropy. By systematically stepping through and analyzing the finite number of structure types identified through the present classification system, optimal structures for prescribed mechanical and functional requirements are expected to be ascertained in an expeditious manner.

  16. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-07-28

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  17. Impact of a Videoconference Educational Intervention on Physical Restraint and Antipsychotic Use in Nursing Homes: Results From the ECHO-AGE Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Stephen E.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Monti, Sara M.; Mattison, Melissa L.P.; Catic, Angela G.; Thomas, Cindy P.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives US nursing homes care for increasing numbers of residents with dementia and associated behavioral problems. They often lack access to specialized clinical expertise relevant to managing these problems. Project ECHO-AGE provides this expertise through videoconference sessions between frontline nursing home staff and clinical experts at an academic medical center. We hypothesized that ECHO-AGE would result in less use of physical and chemical restraints and other quality improvements in participating facilities. Design A 2:1 matched-cohort study comparing quality of care outcomes between ECHO-AGE facilities and matched controls for the period July 2012 to December 2013. Setting Eleven nursing homes in Massachusetts and Maine. Participants Nursing home staff and a hospital-based team of geriatrician, geropsychiatrist, and neurologist discussed anonymized residents with dementia. Intervention Biweekly online video case discussions and brief didactic sessions focused on the management of dementia and behavior disorders. Measurements The primary outcome variables were percentage of residents receiving antipsychotic medications and the percentage of residents who were physically restrained. Secondary outcomes included 9 other quality of care metrics from MDS 3.0. Results Residents in ECHO-AGE facilities were 75% less likely to be physically restrained compared with residents in control facilities over the 18-month intervention period (OR = 0.25, P = .05). Residents in ECHO-AGE facilities were 17% less likely to be prescribed antipsychotic medication compared with residents in control facilities (OR = 0.83, P = .07). Other outcomes were not significantly different. Conclusion Preliminary evidence suggests that participation in Project ECHO-AGE reduces rates of physical restraint use and may reduce rates of antipsychotic use among long-term nursing home residents. PMID:27161317

  18. LOG PERIODIC DIPOLE ARRAY WITH PARASITIC ELEMENTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The design and measured characteristics of dipole and monopole versions of a log periodic array with parasitic elements are discussed. In a dipole...for the elements to obtain log periodic performance of the anntenna. This design with parasitic elements lends itself to a monopole version of the...antenna which has a simplified feeding configuration. The result is a log periodic antenna design that can be used from high frequencies through microwave frequencies.

  19. Model Valid Prediction Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, P. C.

    2002-12-01

    A new concept, valid prediction period (VPP), is presented here to evaluate model predictability. VPP is defined as the time period when the prediction error first exceeds a pre-determined criterion (i.e., the tolerance level). It depends not only on the instantaneous error growth, but also on the noise level, the initial error, and tolerance level. The model predictability skill is then represented by a single scalar, VPP. The longer the VPP, the higher the model predictability skill is. A theoretical framework on the base of the backward Fokker-Planck equation is developed to determine the probability density function (pdf) of VPP. Verification of a Gulf of Mexico nowcast/forecast model is used as an example to demonstrate the usefulness of VPP. Power law scaling is found in the mean square error of displacement between drifting buoy and model trajectories (both at 50 m depth). The pdf of VPP is asymmetric with a long and broad tail on the higher value side, which suggests long-term predictability. The calculations demonstrate that the long-term (extreme long such as 50-60 day) predictability is not an "outlier" and shares the same statistical properties as the short-term predictions. References Chu P. C., L. M. Ivanov, and C.W. Fan, Backward Fokker-Plank equation for determining model predictability with unknown initial error distribution. J. Geophys. Res., in press, 2002. Chu P.C., L.M.Ivanov, T.M. Margolina, and O.V.Melnichenko, 2002b: On probabilistic stability of an atmospheric model to various amplitude perturbations. J. Atmos. Sci., in press Chu P.C., L.M. Ivanov, L. Kantha, O.V. Melnichenko and Y.A. Poberezhny, 2002c: The long-term correlations and power decay law in model prediction skill. Geophys. Res. Let., in press.

  20. Matter-wave exact periodic solutions in optical lattices with periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changfu; Zhu, Aijun

    2013-10-01

    Some special matter-wave periodic solutions for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with periodic potential in the multidimensional optical lattices, are obtained through restricting parameters and some balance conditions between the optical potentials and interaction energies. The results show that the same type of periodic solutions in the same dimension possesses the same norm but different phases and they are all bounded. Especially, the numerics shows that two class (2+1)-dimensional periodic solutions are stable.

  1. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  2. Selecting Full-Text Undergraduate Periodicals Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Julie M.; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1999-01-01

    Examines how libraries and librarians can compare full-text general periodical indices, using ProQuest Direct, Periodical Abstracts (via Ovid), and EBSCOhost as examples. Explores breadth and depth of coverage; manipulation of results (email/download/print); ease of use (searching); and indexing quirks. (AEF)

  3. NONPARAMETRIC BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF PERIODIC LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuyang; Khardon, Roni; Protopapas, Pavlos

    2012-09-01

    Many astronomical phenomena exhibit patterns that have periodic behavior. An important step when analyzing data from such processes is the problem of identifying the period: estimating the period of a periodic function based on noisy observations made at irregularly spaced time points. This problem is still a difficult challenge despite extensive study in different disciplines. This paper makes several contributions toward solving this problem. First, we present a nonparametric Bayesian model for period finding, based on Gaussian Processes (GPs), that does not make assumptions on the shape of the periodic function. As our experiments demonstrate, the new model leads to significantly better results in period estimation especially when the light curve does not exhibit sinusoidal shape. Second, we develop a new algorithm for parameter optimization for GP which is useful when the likelihood function is very sensitive to the parameters with numerous local minima, as in the case of period estimation. The algorithm combines gradient optimization with grid search and incorporates several mechanisms to overcome the high computational complexity of GP. Third, we develop a novel approach for using domain knowledge, in the form of a probabilistic generative model, and incorporate it into the period estimation algorithm. Experimental results validate our approach showing significant improvement over existing methods.

  4. Nonlinear growth of periodic patterns.

    PubMed

    Villain-Guillot, Simon; Josserand, Christophe

    2002-09-01

    We study the growth of a periodic pattern in one dimension for a model of spinodal decomposition, the Cahn-Hilliard equation. We particularly focus on the intermediate region, where the nonlinearity cannot be neglected anymore, and before the coalescence dominates. The dynamics is captured through the standard technique of a solubility condition performed over a particular family of quasistatic solutions. The main result is that the dynamics along this particular class of solutions can be expressed in terms of a simple ordinary differential equation. The density profile of the stationary regime found at the end of the nonlinear growth is also well characterized. Numerical simulations correspond satisfactorily to the analytical results through three different methods and asymptotic dynamics are well recovered, even far from the region where the approximations hold.

  5. Rotational period of GQ Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeg, C.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Guenther, E.; Gaedke, A.; Bedalov, A.; Neuhäuser, R.; Walter, F. M.

    2007-06-01

    Aims: We wanted to determine the rotation parameters of GQ Lup A, thereby constraining the evolutionary history of the GQ Lup system. Methods: We have undertaken a photometric monitoring campaign on GQ Lup A consisting of two epochs spaced one year apart. We also searched the photometric archives to enlarge the data set. Results: We were able to determine the photometric period (8.45±0.2 days) in both epochs in several photometric bands. This periodicity could also be found in some of the archival data. The combined false-alarm probability is 0.015. The variation is most likely caused by hot spots on the surface of GQ Lup A. This, combined with high-resolution spectra (v sin i) allows calculation of GQ Lup A's inclination (i=27±5°). Radial velocity data also contains this period but is inconclusive. Nevertheless, the RV data supports the interpretation that hot spots cause the photometric variation. We use the known K-band variability, amplitude, and phase of GQ Lup A together with a new image of GQ Lup A+b, taken quasi-simultaneously with our monitoring of the star, to confirm the magnitude and, hence, luminosity of the companion. Based on observations obtained on Cerro Paranal, Chile, in ESO program 075.C-0710(C) and on La Silla, Chile, in ESO programs 074.C-0034(A),075.C-0710(E), 075.C-0710(F), 075.C-0202(A), 076.C-0010(A) as well as with ANDICAM of the SMARTS consortium. Photometry data of epochs I and II are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/468/1039

  6. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  7. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity – very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions. PMID:26853945

  8. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure.

    PubMed

    Alagappan, G; Png, C E

    2016-02-08

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity--very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions.

  9. 76 FR 297 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\...

  10. 75 FR 1301 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Docket No. RM2009-10, Order on Analytical Principles Used in Periodic Reporting (Proposals Three...

  11. Numerical Continuation of Hamiltonian Relative Periodic Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulff, Claudia; Schebesch, Andreas

    2008-08-01

    The bifurcation theory and numerics of periodic orbits of general dynamical systems is well developed, and in recent years, there has been rapid progress in the development of a bifurcation theory for dynamical systems with structure, such as symmetry or symplecticity. But as yet, there are few results on the numerical computation of those bifurcations. The methods we present in this paper are a first step toward a systematic numerical analysis of generic bifurcations of Hamiltonian symmetric periodic orbits and relative periodic orbits (RPOs). First, we show how to numerically exploit spatio-temporal symmetries of Hamiltonian periodic orbits. Then we describe a general method for the numerical computation of RPOs persisting from periodic orbits in a symmetry breaking bifurcation. Finally, we present an algorithm for the numerical continuation of non-degenerate Hamiltonian relative periodic orbits with regular drift-momentum pair. Our path following algorithm is based on a multiple shooting algorithm for the numerical computation of periodic orbits via an adaptive Poincaré section and a tangential continuation method with implicit reparametrization. We apply our methods to continue the famous figure eight choreography of the three-body system. We find a relative period doubling bifurcation of the planar rotating eight family and compute the rotating choreographies bifurcating from it.

  12. Periodic Wake Effects on Turbulent Juncture Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatino, Daniel; Smith, Charles

    2000-11-01

    The horseshoe vortex (HV) that develops in juncture geometries with a turbulent approach flow has been shown to exhibit a periodic behavior that correlates with the bursting frequency of the impinging turbulent boundary layer. To examine the additional complication of impinging blade wakes on such juncture flows, as encountered in turbomachinery environments, periodic wakes were systematically introduced upstream of a simple turbulent endwall juncture flow. The influence of the wakes was examined via a study of the instantaneous endwall surface heat transfer behavior, established using an experimental liquid crystal technique in a water channel. Although it is possible to eliminate the periodic HV behavior using periodic wakes of high frequency (relative to the HV frequency) or strong turbulence intensity, the periodic character of the undisturbed HV remains evident at or below moderate wake frequency and turbulence levels. A parametric assessment of the results suggests that the periodic wake effects encountered for a real gas turbine cascade would not eliminate the HV periodicity. The significance of this residual HV periodicity on the endwall surface heat transfer will be discussed.

  13. A periodic table for cancer.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Cancers exhibit differences in metastatic behavior and drug sensitivity that correlate with certain tumor-specific variables such as differentiation grade, growth rate/extent and molecular regulatory aberrations. In practice, patient management is based on the past results of clinical trials adjusted for these biomarkers. Here, it is proposed that treatment strategies could be fine-tuned upfront simply by quantifying tumorigenic spatial (cell growth) and temporal (genetic stability) control losses, as predicted by genetic defects of cell-cycle-regulatory gatekeeper and genome-stabilizing caretaker tumor suppressor genes, respectively. These differential quantifications of tumor dysfunction may in turn be used to create a tumor-specific 'periodic table' that guides rational formulation of survival-enhancing anticancer treatment strategies.

  14. Periodic power spectrum with applications in detection of latent periodicities in DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Yin, Changchuan; Wang, Jiasong

    2016-11-01

    Periodic elements play important roles in genomic structures and functions, yet some complex periodic elements in genomes are difficult to detect by conventional methods such as digital signal processing and statistical analysis. We propose a periodic power spectrum (PPS) method for analyzing periodicities of DNA sequences. The PPS method employs periodic nucleotide distributions of DNA sequences and directly calculates power spectra at specific periodicities. The magnitude of a PPS reflects the strength of a signal on periodic positions. In comparison with Fourier transform, the PPS method avoids spectral leakage, and reduces background noise that appears high in Fourier power spectrum. Thus, the PPS method can effectively capture hidden periodicities in DNA sequences. Using a sliding window approach, the PPS method can precisely locate periodic regions in DNA sequences. We apply the PPS method for detection of hidden periodicities in different genome elements, including exons, microsatellite DNA sequences, and whole genomes. The results show that the PPS method can minimize the impact of spectral leakage and thus capture true hidden periodicities in genomes. In addition, performance tests indicate that the PPS method is more effective and efficient than a fast Fourier transform. The computational complexity of the PPS algorithm is [Formula: see text]. Therefore, the PPS method may have a broad range of applications in genomic analysis. The MATLAB programs for implementing the PPS method are available from MATLAB Central ( http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/55298 ).

  15. Investigation on Periodically Surface-Corrugated Long-Period Gratings Inscribed on Photonic Crystal Fibers.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Geun

    2017-12-01

    Transmission characteristics of periodically surface-corrugated long-period gratings (LPGs) inscribed on photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) using a wet-etching technique were experimentally investigated. A conventional wet method was implemented to periodically engrave the silica cladding region of the PCFs resulting in the periodic surface corrugation in the PCF. After applying the external strain to the PCF with the periodic surface micro-ridges, periodic modulation of refractive index based on the photoelastic effect is induced resulting in the formation of the PCF-based LPG. Increasing the applied strain successfully improves the extinction ratio of the resonant peak of the PCF-based LPG without the resonant wavelength shift. We also measured the transmission characteristics of the PCF-based LPG with variations in temperature and ambient index.

  16. Periodicity of extinction: A 1988 update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkowski, J. John, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The hypothesis that events of mass extinction recur periodically at approximately 26 my intervals is an empirical claim based on analysis of data from the fossil record. The hypothesis has become closely linked with catastrophism because several events in the periodic series are associated with evidence of extraterrestrial impacts, and terrestrial forcing mechanisms with long, periodic recurrences are not easily conceived. Astronomical mechanisms that have been hypothesized include undetected solar companions and solar oscillation about the galactic plane, which induce comet showers and result in impacts on Earth at regular intervals. Because these mechanisms are speculative, they have been the subject of considerable controversy, as has the hypothesis of periodicity of extinction. In response to criticisms and uncertainties, a data base was developed on times of extinction of marine animal genera. A time series is given and analyzed with 49 sample points for the per-genus extinction rate from the Late Permian to the Recent. An unexpected pattern in the data is the uniformity of magnitude of many of the periodic extinction events. Observations suggest that the sequence of extinction events might be the result of two sets of mechanisms: a periodic forcing that normally induces only moderate amounts of extinction, and independent incidents or catastrophes that, when coincident with the periodic forcing, amplify its signal and produce major-mass extinctions.

  17. Subchronic Inhalation Exposure of Rats to Libby Amphibole and Amosite Asbestos: Effects at 18 Months Post Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma rates are evident after exposures to Libby amphibole (LA). To support dosimetry model development and compare potency, a subchronic nose-only inhalation study (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk, 13 wk) was conducted in male F344 rats. Rats were ex...

  18. Subchronic Inhalation Exposure of Rats to Libby Amphibole and Amosite Asbestos: Effects at 18 Months Post Exposure###

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma rates are evident after exposures to Libby amphibole (LA). To support dosimetry model development and compare potency, a subchronic nose-only inhalation study (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk, 13 wk) was conducted in male F344 rats. Rats were ex...

  19. Survival of plant seeds, their UV screens, and nptII DNA for 18 months outside the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Tepfer, David; Zalar, Andreja; Leach, Sydney

    2012-05-01

    The plausibility that life was imported to Earth from elsewhere can be tested by subjecting life-forms to space travel. Ultraviolet light is the major liability in short-term exposures (Horneck et al., 2001 ), and plant seeds, tardigrades, and lichens-but not microorganisms and their spores-are candidates for long-term survival (Anikeeva et al., 1990 ; Sancho et al., 2007 ; Jönsson et al., 2008 ; de la Torre et al., 2010 ). In the present study, plant seeds germinated after 1.5 years of exposure to solar UV, solar and galactic cosmic radiation, temperature fluctuations, and space vacuum outside the International Space Station. Of the 2100 exposed wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) seeds, 23% produced viable plants after return to Earth. Survival was lower in the Arabidopsis Wassilewskija ecotype and in mutants (tt4-8 and fah1-2) lacking UV screens. The highest survival occurred in tobacco (44%). Germination was delayed in seeds shielded from solar light, yet full survival was attained, which indicates that longer space travel would be possible for seeds embedded in an opaque matrix. We conclude that a naked, seed-like entity could have survived exposure to solar UV radiation during a hypothetical transfer from Mars to Earth. Chemical samples of seed flavonoid UV screens were degraded by UV, but their overall capacity to absorb UV was retained. Naked DNA encoding the nptII gene (kanamycin resistance) was also degraded by UV. A fragment, however, was detected by the polymerase chain reaction, and the gene survived in space when protected from UV. Even if seeds do not survive, components (e.g., their DNA) might survive transfer over cosmic distances.

  20. Learning to Teach Languages: An 18-Month Longitudinal Study of Two New Language Teachers in a New Zealand Primary Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers (East, 2007, 2008; Villers, Tolosa & East, 2010) have identified a shortage of language teachers in New Zealand as a main limitation in the enactment of a learning area devoted to the learning of additional languages in the New Zealand curriculum (Ministry of Education, 2007). Thus it is important to consider the range of…

  1. Zinc Supplementation Sustained Normative Neurodevelopment in a Randomized, Controlled Trial of Peruvian Infants Aged 6–18 Months12

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, John; Zavaleta, Nelly; Kannass, Kathleen N.; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Kapa, Leah L.; Caulfield, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effects of prevention of zinc deficiency on cognitive and sensorimotor development during infancy. At 6 mo of age, infants were randomly assigned to be administered a daily liquid supplement containing 10 mg/d of zinc (zinc sulfate), 10 mg/d of iron (ferrous sulfate), and 0.5 mg/d of copper (copper oxide), or an identical daily liquid supplement containing only 10 mg/d of iron and 0.5 mg/d of copper. Various controls were implemented to ensure adherence to the supplement protocol. A battery of developmental assessments was administered from 6 to 18 mo of age that included a visual habituation/recognition memory task augmented with heart rate at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age; the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID2) at 6, 12, and 18 mo; the A-not-B error task at 9 and 12 mo; and free-play attention tasks at 12 and 18 mo. Only infants supplemented with zinc had the normative decline in look duration from 6 to 12 mo during habituation and a normative decline in shifting between objects on free-play multiple-object attention tasks from 12 to 18 mo of age. The 2 groups did not differ on any of the psychophysiologic indices, the BSID2, or the A-not-B error task. The findings are consistent with zinc supplementation supporting a profile of normative information processing and active attentional profiles during the first 2 y of life. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00589264. PMID:24850625

  2. Complementary feeding with fortified spread and incidence of severe stunting in 6- to 18-month-old rural Malawians

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare growth and incidence of malnutrition in infants receiving long-term dietary supplementation with ready-to-use fortified spread (FS) or micronutrient-fortified maize-soy flour (likuni phala [LP]). A total of 182 6-month-old infants in rural Malawi were rando...

  3. Speech Preference Is Associated with Autistic-Like Behavior in 18-Months-Olds at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether infants' preference for speech at 12 months is associated with autistic-like behaviors at 18 months in infants who are at increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have an older sibling diagnosed with ASD and in low-risk infants. Only low-risk infants listened significantly longer to speech than to…

  4. Zinc supplementation sustained normative neurodevelopment in a randomized, controlled trial of Peruvian infants aged 6-18 months.

    PubMed

    Colombo, John; Zavaleta, Nelly; Kannass, Kathleen N; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Kapa, Leah L; Caulfield, Laura E

    2014-08-01

    A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effects of prevention of zinc deficiency on cognitive and sensorimotor development during infancy. At 6 mo of age, infants were randomly assigned to be administered a daily liquid supplement containing 10 mg/d of zinc (zinc sulfate), 10 mg/d of iron (ferrous sulfate), and 0.5 mg/d of copper (copper oxide), or an identical daily liquid supplement containing only 10 mg/d of iron and 0.5 mg/d of copper. Various controls were implemented to ensure adherence to the supplement protocol. A battery of developmental assessments was administered from 6 to 18 mo of age that included a visual habituation/recognition memory task augmented with heart rate at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age; the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID2) at 6, 12, and 18 mo; the A-not-B error task at 9 and 12 mo; and free-play attention tasks at 12 and 18 mo. Only infants supplemented with zinc had the normative decline in look duration from 6 to 12 mo during habituation and a normative decline in shifting between objects on free-play multiple-object attention tasks from 12 to 18 mo of age. The 2 groups did not differ on any of the psychophysiologic indices, the BSID2, or the A-not-B error task. The findings are consistent with zinc supplementation supporting a profile of normative information processing and active attentional profiles during the first 2 y of life. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00589264.

  5. The Organization of Words and Symbolic Gestures in 18-Month-Olds' Lexicons: Evidence from a Disambiguation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' early communicative repertoires include both words and symbolic gestures. The current study examined the extent to which infants organize words and gestures in a single unified lexicon. As a window into lexical organization, eighteen-month-olds' ("N" = 32) avoidance of word-gesture overlap was examined and compared with…

  6. Maternal Responsive-Didactic Caregiving in Play Interactions with 10-Month-Olds and Cognitive Development at 18 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mermelshtine, Roni; Barnes, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Maternal responsive-didactic caregiving (RDC) and infant advanced object play were investigated in a sample of 400 mothers and their 10-month-old infants during video-recorded semi-structured play interactions. Three maternal behaviours: contingent response, cognitively stimulating language and autonomy-promoting speech were coded and infant…

  7. Croup as Unusual Presentation of Post-transplantation Lymphoproliferative Disorder after Liver Transplantation in an 18-month-old Child

    PubMed Central

    Keshtkari, A.; Dehghani, S. M.; Haghighat, M.; Imanieh, M. H.; Nasimfard, A.; Yousefi, G.; Javaherizadeh, H.

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication of solid organ transplantation that occurs due to immunosuppression and other risk factors. PTLD may present with involvement of other organs and with unusual presentation. The presentation is often extranodal (e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract, lung, or the central nervous system). Herein, we report on a 1.5-year-old girl who underwent liver transplantation almost 5 months prior to admission. She was on medications such as tacrolimus and prednisolone. Her presentation was started with symptoms of the upper respiratory infection followed by croupy cough and respiratory distress with no response to usual treatments. She had respiratory arrest during broncoscopy. Therefore, emergency tracheostomy was done. Biopsy from the paratracheal mass revealed large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PTLD, monomorphic and high grade). This case presentation shows that persistent upper airway symptoms, particularly stridor and croupy cough, in children who underwent liver transplant should be further evaluated; the physician needs to have a high degree of clinical suspicion for the diagnosis of PTLD in this situation. PMID:26889375

  8. Courage to Teach: An 18-Month Personal & Professional Renewal Program for Elementary & Middle School Teachers, Spring-Summer 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellesley Centers for Women, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The document provides information about Courage to Teach (CTT) quarterly retreats for the personal and professional renewal of teachers, administrators, and counselors in the public schools. CTT retreats focus on renewing the inner lives of professionals in education. Information on what to expect, eligibility, schedule, venue, costs, and…

  9. Sexual function in the postpartum period: effects of maternal depression and interpersonal psychotherapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Moel, Joy E; Buttner, Melissa M; O'Hara, Michael W; Stuart, Scott; Gorman, Laura

    2010-12-01

    Women's sexual functioning in the postpartum period is understudied given its potential impact on women's mental health and their relationships with their partners. The sexual functioning of women with postpartum depression (PPD) in particular is not well characterized. The goals of this study were to examine factors associated with the sexual functioning of postpartum women and to compare the long-term sexual functioning of depressed postpartum women treated with interpersonal psychotherapy with a group of postpartum women who had never been depressed. Depressed (120) and never depressed (56) postpartum women were enrolled. Self-report questionnaires and clinician-rated measures were completed at initial entry to study, immediately post-treatment, and at 6, 12, and 18 months post-treatment. Analyses revealed significant differences in sexual interest between depressed and never depressed postpartum women (t (171) = 11.82, p <0.001). Although sexual interest improved significantly following treatment for depression (t (104) = -3.18, p < 0.01), those women who fully recovered continued to experience less interest (F (2, 140) = 32.24, p < 0.0001) and less sexual satisfaction through 2 years postpartum than never depressed women. These findings suggest that differences in sexual functioning exist between depressed and never depressed postpartum women, even after depressed women are treated and have recovered from their depression. Clinicians should inquire about changes in sexual functioning when treating women with PPD.

  10. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  11. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  12. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  13. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  14. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  15. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  16. Reliability, return periods, and risk under nonstationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2015-08-01

    Water resources design has widely used the average return period as a concept to inform management and communication of the risk of experiencing an exceedance event within a planning horizon. Even though nonstationarity is often apparent, in practice hydrologic design often mistakenly assumes that the probability of exceedance, p, is constant from year to year which leads to an average return period To equal to 1/p; this expression is far more complex under nonstationarity. Even for stationary processes, the common application of an average return period is problematic: it does not account for planning horizon, is an average value that may not be representative of the time to the next flood, and is generally not applied in other areas of water planning. We combine existing theoretical and empirical results from the literature to provide the first general, comprehensive description of the probabilistic behavior of the return period and reliability under nonstationarity. We show that under nonstationarity, the underlying distribution of the return period exhibits a more complex shape than the exponential distribution under stationary conditions. Using a nonstationary lognormal model, we document the increased complexity and challenges associated with planning for future flood events over a planning horizon. We compare application of the average return period with the more common concept of reliability and recommend replacing the average return period with reliability as a more practical way to communicate event likelihood in both stationary and nonstationary contexts.

  17. Late results.

    PubMed

    Daly, B D

    1999-08-01

    Pneumonectomy is performed for a number of benign and malignant conditions. It is most commonly performed for lung cancer. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant protocols have increased the number of these operations being performed and the long-term results are improving. Pneumonectomy may also be performed for metastases to lung and for mesothelioma with encouraging results. Some bronchial adenomas require pneumonectomy. Treatment of resistant mycobacteria or the complications of tuberculosis frequently require pneumonectomy. Late bronchopleural fistulae, esophagopleural fistulae, and empyema may occur.

  18. 75 FR 7426 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Advance notice of...-789-6820 or stephen.sharfman@prc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Background II... approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\ The Postal Service labels its proposal ``Proposal One''...

  19. 76 FR 296 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... consider a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The proposed change... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Requesting Initiation of a Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposals...

  20. Time domain period determination techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two simple period determination schemes are discussed. They are well suited to problems involving non-sinusoidal periodic phenomena sampled at a few irregularly spaced points. Statistical properties are discussed. The techniques are applied to the double mode Cepheids BK Cen and TU Cas as test cases.

  1. Time domain period determination techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.

    1980-05-01

    Two simple period determination schemes are discussed. They are well suited to problems involving non-sinusoidal periodic phenomena sampled at a few irregularly spaced points. Statistical properties are discussed. The techniques are applied to the double mode Cepheids BK Cen and TU Cas as test cases.

  2. Interference pattern period measurement at picometer level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Xiansong; Wei, Chunlong; Jia, Wei; Zhou, Changhe; Li, Minkang; Lu, Yancong

    2016-10-01

    To produce large scale gratings by Scanning Beam Interference Lithography (SBIL), a light spot containing grating pattern is generated by two beams interfering, and a scanning stage is used to drive the substrate moving under the light spot. In order to locate the stage at the proper exposure positions, the period of the Interference pattern must be measured accurately. We developed a set of process to obtain the period value of two interfering beams at picometer level. The process includes data acquisition and data analysis. The data is received from a photodiode and a laser interferometer with sub-nanometer resolution. Data analysis differs from conventional analyzing methods like counting wave peaks or using Fourier transform to get the signal period, after a preprocess of filtering and envelope removing, the mean square error is calculated between the received signal and ideal sinusoid waves to find the best-fit frequency, thus an accuracy period value is acquired, this method has a low sensitivity to amplitude noise and a high resolution of frequency. With 405nm laser beams interfering, a pattern period value around 562nm is acquired by employing this process, fitting diagram of the result shows the accuracy of the period value reaches picometer level, which is much higher than the results of conventional methods.

  3. Isoprenaline and canine cardiac refractory periods.

    PubMed

    Lhoste, F; Giudicelli, J F; Boissier, J R

    1976-09-01

    Atrioventricular refractory periods and their modifications induced by variable doses of sioprenaline have been investigated in dogs. Premature atrial stimuli (St2) were applied at variable intervals following regular stimuli (St1) which ensured atrial pacing. Atrial (AERP), nodoventricular (NERP) and global (GERP) effective refractory periods, as well as the global functional refractory period (GFRP) were determined before, during and after infusion of the drug. In low doses, isoprenaline did not significantly alter these various parameters. This confirms its lack of dromotropic effect on the healthy heart. In contrast, high doses of the drug significantly reduced the refractory periods, probably by simple correction of the negative dromotropic effects resulting from overstimulation. Also when the infusion was stopped, marked but reversible conduction depression was observed. It would appear that this reflects 'exhaustion' of cell metabolism induced by the drug.

  4. Periodic orbits of planets in binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voyatzis, G.

    2017-03-01

    Periodic solutions of the three body problem are very important for understanding its dynamics either in a theoretical framework or in various applications in celestial mechanics. In this paper we discuss the computation and continuation of periodic orbits for planetary systems. The study is restricted to coplanar motion. Starting from known results of two-planet systems around single stars, we perform continuation of solutions with respect to the mass and approach periodic orbits of single planets in two-star systems. Also, families of periodic solutions can be computed for fixed masses of the primaries. When they are linearly stable, we can conclude about the existence of phase space domains of long-term orbital stability.

  5. Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    Research on Global Carbon Emission and Sequestration NSFC Funded Project Made Significant Progress in Quantum Dynamics Functional Human Blood Protein Obtained from Rice How Giant Pandas Thrive on a Bamboo Diet New Evidence of Interpersonal Violence from 129,000 Years Ago Found in China Aptamer-Mediated Efficient Capture and Release of T Lymphocytes on Nanostructured Surfaces BGI Study Results on Resequencing 50 Accessions of Rice Cast New Light on Molecular Breeding BGI Reports Study Results on Frequent Mutation of Genes Encoding UMPP Components in Kidney Cancer Research on Habitat Shift Promoting Species Diversification

  6. Tevatron results

    SciTech Connect

    Lefevre, R.; /Barcelona, Autonoma U.

    2005-01-01

    Recent results obtained by the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron Run II are presented. A first part is dedicated to QCD physics where inclusive jet production, dijet azimuthal decorrelations and jet shapes measurements are reported. Electroweak physics is then discussed relating measurements of the W and Z bosons productions, of the forward-backward charge asymmetry in W production, of the W width and of the top quarks mass. The extensive Run II exploration program is finally approached reporting about searches for neutral supersymmetric Higgs bosons in multijet events and for sbottom quark from gluino decays.

  7. The Stability of Periodic Orbits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-21

    I AOB a7 PRIlNCETON UNIV NJ JOSEPH HENRY LABS OF PHYSICS FD 7/S THE STABILITY OF PERIODIC ORBITS. (U) JAN 81 L SNEDOOM N00014-77-C-0711 UNCLASSIFIE-D...NL I - The Stability of Periodic Orbits Leigh Sneddon* Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey 08544 ABSTRACT...eigenvalue of the Poincare map passes out through the unit circle at -1 : see Appendix 1) 9,10 are observed and are referred to as subharmonic or period

  8. The combination of penile revascularization surgery with penile corrective techniques as an alternative to prosthesis implantation in patients with Peyronie's disease having ED: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kayigil, O; Okulu, E

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the surgical results of combining complex corrective techniques with penile revascularization in patients with Peyronie's disease having ED and consider the technique as an alternative to penile prosthesis implantation. Between 2008 and 2011 penile revascularization surgery along with penile corrective techniques was performed in nine patients with Peyronie's disease having ED. A preoperative urological evaluation was performed with penile color doppler ultrasonography, electromyography of the corpus cavernosum and cavernosometry. The degree of penile angulation was >40° in all patients. All the patients were asked to answer a 15-item questionnaire-the 'International Index of Erectile Function' (IIEF-15)-and a 5-item version of the IIEF (IIEF-5) preoperatively and during the postoperative follow-up. The operation was deemed an improvement or a failure according to the scores on the IIEF-5. The mean age of the patients was 51.4±4.2 years. The mean follow-up period was 18 months. None of the patients reported complications after surgery. Complete penile straightening was achieved in all patients. However, two (22.2%) patients reported penile shortening but did not express any dissatisfaction in this regard. All patients were satisfied with the final surgical results. The mean IIEF-5 score was 9.8±3.1 before the operation and it was reported to be 22.03±2.4 at the end of the follow-up period (P<0.05). The mean erectile function domain score was 12.6±3.7 preoperatively and 24.09±3.9 at the end of the follow-up period (P<0.05). We achieved statistically significant improvements on the IIEF scores, and with this satisfactory preliminary results we suggest that this combination could be an alternative to penile prosthesis implantation in highly selected patients with Peyronie's disease having ED; however, further studies are needed to validate this conclusion.

  9. Chaos in Periodic Discrete Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuming; Zhang, Lijuan; Yu, Panpan; Huang, Qiuling

    This paper focuses on chaos in periodic discrete systems, whose state space may vary with time. Some close relationships between some chaotic dynamical behaviors of a periodic discrete system and its autonomous induced system are given. Based on these relationships, several criteria of chaos are established and some sufficient conditions for no chaos are given for periodic discrete systems. Further, it is shown that a finite-dimensional linear periodic discrete system is not chaotic in the sense of Li-Yorke or Wiggins. In particular, an interesting problem of whether nonchaotic rules may generate a chaotic system is studied, with some examples provided, one of which surprisingly shows that a composition of globally asymptotically stable maps can be chaotic. In addition, some properties of sign pattern matrices of non-negative square matrices are given for convenience of the study.

  10. Autism: a "critical period" disorder?

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jocelyn J; Fagiolini, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Cortical circuits in the brain are refined by experience during critical periods early in postnatal life. Critical periods are regulated by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission in the brain during development. There is now increasing evidence of E/I imbalance in autism, a complex genetic neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed by abnormal socialization, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. The underlying cause is still largely unknown and there is no fully effective treatment or cure. We propose that alteration of the expression and/or timing of critical period circuit refinement in primary sensory brain areas may significantly contribute to autistic phenotypes, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. Dissection of the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing well-established critical periods represents a powerful tool to identify new potential therapeutic targets to restore normal plasticity and function in affected neuronal circuits.

  11. The Chandlerian Period of minimum excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Naosuke

    Up to the present, the Chandlerian Period has been defined as the mean period of the revolution of the pole around its mean position. However, as the motion of the excitation pole does not contain the Chandlerian component, we can determine the length of the Chandlerian Period under the condition that the motion of the excitation pole attains a minimum after elimination of the Chandlerian component. It is calculated as 416 (mean solar) days. It means the period deduced from the angular velocity of the pole around the instantaneous excitation pole, and is able to match better those deduced from the theory of the internal constitution of the Earth. The calculated results using the recent data of ERP with a high precision show that the Chandlerian Period in this sense seems to have a reality. The main results are shown in the Figure on the next pape. This paper was published in full form in the Journal of the Geodetic Society of Japan, 33 (1987) pp.97-100.

  12. Period Estimation for Sparsely-sampled Quasi-periodic Light Curves Applied to Miras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shiyuan; Yuan, Wenlong; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Long, James; Macri, Lucas M.

    2016-12-01

    We develop a nonlinear semi-parametric Gaussian process model to estimate periods of Miras with sparsely sampled light curves. The model uses a sinusoidal basis for the periodic variation and a Gaussian process for the stochastic changes. We use maximum likelihood to estimate the period and the parameters of the Gaussian process, while integrating out the effects of other nuisance parameters in the model with respect to a suitable prior distribution obtained from earlier studies. Since the likelihood is highly multimodal for period, we implement a hybrid method that applies the quasi-Newton algorithm for Gaussian process parameters and search the period/frequency parameter space over a dense grid. A large-scale, high-fidelity simulation is conducted to mimic the sampling quality of Mira light curves obtained by the M33 Synoptic Stellar Survey. The simulated data set is publicly available and can serve as a testbed for future evaluation of different period estimation methods. The semi-parametric model outperforms an existing algorithm on this simulated test data set as measured by period recovery rate and quality of the resulting period-luminosity relations.

  13. Fuel Distribution Estimate via Spin Period to Precession Period Ratio for the Advanced Composition Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeHart, Russell; Smith, Eric; Lakin, John

    2015-01-01

    The spin period to precession period ratio of a non-axisymmetric spin-stabilized spacecraft, the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), was used to estimate the remaining mass and distribution of fuel within its propulsion system. This analysis was undertaken once telemetry suggested that two of the four fuel tanks had no propellant remaining, contrary to pre-launch expectations of the propulsion system performance. Numerical integration of possible fuel distributions was used to calculate moments of inertia for the spinning spacecraft. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of output from a dynamics simulation was employed to relate calculated moments of inertia to spin and precession periods. The resulting modeled ratios were compared to the actual spin period to precession period ratio derived from the effect of post-maneuver nutation angle on sun sensor measurements. A Monte Carlo search was performed to tune free parameters using the observed spin period to precession period ratio over the life of the mission. This novel analysis of spin and precession periods indicates that at the time of launch, propellant was distributed unevenly between the two pairs of fuel tanks, with one pair having approximately 20% more propellant than the other pair. Furthermore, it indicates the pair of the tanks with less fuel expelled all of its propellant by 2014 and that approximately 46 kg of propellant remains in the other two tanks, an amount that closely matches the operational fuel accounting estimate. Keywords: Fuel Distribution, Moments of Inertia, Precession, Spin, Nutation

  14. Metamaterial properties of periodic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ankit

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we show that a 1-D phononic crystal (laminate) can exhibit metamaterial wave phenomena which are traditionally associated with 2- and 3-D crystals. Moreover, due to the absence of a length scale in 2 of its dimensions, it can outperform higher dimensional crystals on some measures. This includes allowing only negative refraction over large frequency ranges and serving as a near-omnidirectional high-pass filter up to a large frequency value. First we provide a theoretical discussion on the salient characteristics of the dispersion relation of a laminate and formulate the solution of an interface problem by the application of the normal mode decomposition technique. We present a methodology with which to induce a pure negative refraction in the laminate. As a corollary to our approach of negative refraction, we show how the laminate can be used to steer beams over large angles for small changes in the incident angles (beam steering). Furthermore, we clarify how the transmitted modes in the laminate can be switched on and off by varying the angle of the incident wave by a small amount. Finally, we show that the laminate can be used as a remarkably efficient high-pass frequency filter. An appropriately designed laminate will reflect all plane waves from quasi-static to a large frequency, incident at it from all angles except for a small set of near-normal incidences. This will be true even if the homogeneous medium is impedance matched with the laminate. Due to the similarities between SH waves and electromagnetic (EM) waves it is expected that some or all of these results may also apply to EM waves in a layered periodic dielectric.

  15. Multiscale periodic structure in the Io wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. R.; Wright, A. N.

    1989-06-01

    Preliminary results from an eigenmode synthesis of the Alfven waves launched by Io are presented. It is found that several important periodicities emerge. Observations of the decametric emission reveal fine, medium, and large-scale radio structure. These simulations can provide structure on each of these scales, unlike earlier models.

  16. Periodicity of high-order neural functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellaway, P.; Borda, R. P.; Frost, J. D.; Carrie, J. R. G.; Coats, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    The results of recent studies on higher order, integrative processes in the central nervous system are reported. Attempts were made to determine whether these processes exhibit any ongoing rhythmicity which might manifest itself in alterations of attention and alertness. Experiments were also designed to determine if a periodicity approximating that of the REM could be detected in various parameters of brain electrical activity.

  17. 12 CFR 1730.3 - Periodic disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... financial statements; (2) The Enterprise files with the Commission all reports, statements, and forms... DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS DISCLOSURE OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION § 1730.3 Periodic disclosures. (a) Each Enterprise shall prepare disclosures relating to its financial condition, results...

  18. 14 CFR 1260.128 - Period of availability of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....128 Period of availability of funds. Where a funding period is specified, a recipient may charge to the grant only allowable costs resulting from obligations incurred during the funding period and any pre-award costs authorized by NASA. Property Standards...

  19. 14 CFR 1260.128 - Period of availability of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....128 Period of availability of funds. Where a funding period is specified, a recipient may charge to the grant only allowable costs resulting from obligations incurred during the funding period and any pre-award costs authorized by NASA. Property Standards...

  20. 14 CFR 1260.128 - Period of availability of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....128 Period of availability of funds. Where a funding period is specified, a recipient may charge to the grant only allowable costs resulting from obligations incurred during the funding period and any pre-award costs authorized by NASA. Property Standards...

  1. 14 CFR 1260.128 - Period of availability of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....128 Period of availability of funds. Where a funding period is specified, a recipient may charge to the grant only allowable costs resulting from obligations incurred during the funding period and any pre-award costs authorized by NASA. Property Standards...

  2. Frequency selective surfaces with multiple periodic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Jeffrey Alan

    A thorough computer design study using the method of Chen1,2,3 was undertaken for band-pass filters constructed from frequency selective surfaces (FSSs). The FSSs, modeled as thin, perfectly conducting surfaces with periodically arranged apertures, were designed to produce a transmission profile with a bandpass characteristic centered at 10.6 μm and to have various specified bandwidths. The effects of aperture shape and dimensions, configuration and periodicity of the aperture array, and presence of a dielectric substrate were examined in- depth. For comparison purposes, a complimentary array of metallic patches was also examined. The successful design (a thin, planar sheet of aluminum perforated with narrow rectangular apertures in a triangular array configuration on a thick zinc selenide substrate) provided a preliminary set of basic design rules for creating bandpass filters from FSSs. Dual resonance transmission profiles were generated by considering a FSS with a group of apertures as the periodic element. Chen's method1,2,3 was modified to work with periodic groups of up to four rectangular or circular shaped apertures (or metallic patches). Combinations of different length narrow slot apertures, combinations of square and narrow slot apertures, and variation of periodicity along alternating rows of narrow slot apertures, all produced a dual resonance transmission profile in the computer model. For the combination of different length narrow apertures, the dual resonance resulted from the natural resonance associated with the two different length narrow apertures, while for the combination of squares and narrow slots, an enhancement of the Wood's anomaly at the diffraction edge created the second resonance peak. Variation of the periodicity along alternating rows produced a dual resonance because each of the 'superimposed arrays' had a different periodicity. The presence of Wood's anomalies in the transmission profile was also examined. Finally, 'proof of

  3. Periodic solar wind density structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viall, Nicholeen Mary

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a specific aspect of the Sun-Earth connection: we show that coronal activity creates periodic density structures in the solar wind which convect radially outward and interact with Earth's magnetosphere. First, we analyze 11 years (1995-2005) of in situ solar wind density observations from the Wind spacecraft and find that periodic density structures occur at particular sets of radial length-scales more often than others. This indicates that these density fluctuations, which have radial length-scales of hundreds of megameters, cannot be attributed entirely to turbulence. Next, we analyze their effect on Earth's magnetosphere. Though these structures are not waves in the solar wind rest frame, they appear at discrete frequencies in Earth's reference frame. They compress the magnetosphere as they convect past, driving global magnetospheric oscillations at the same discrete frequencies as the periodic density structures. Last, we investigate source regions and mechanisms of the periodic solar wind density structures. We analyze the alpha particle to proton abundance ratio during events of periodic density structures. In many events, the proton and alpha density fluctuations are anti- correlated, which strongly argues for either temporally or spatially varying coronal source plasma. We examine white light images of the solar wind taken with SECCHI HI1 on the STEREO spacecraft and find periodic density structures as near to the Sun as 15 solar radii. The smallest resolvable periodic structures that we identify are of comparable length to those found at 1 AU, providing further evidence that at least some periodic density structures are generated in the solar corona as the solar wind is formed. Guided by the properties observed during previous studies and the characteristics established through the work presented here, we examine possible candidate mechanisms in the solar corona that can form periodic density structures. We conclude that

  4. Shortest recurrence periods of novae

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Saio, Hideyuki; Hachisu, Izumi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-10-01

    Stimulated by the recent discovery of the 1 yr recurrence period nova M31N 2008-12a, we examined the shortest recurrence periods of hydrogen shell flashes on mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs). We discuss the mechanism that yields a finite minimum recurrence period for a given WD mass. Calculating the unstable flashes for various WD masses and mass accretion rates, we identified a shortest recurrence period of about two months for a non-rotating 1.38 M {sub ☉} WD with a mass accretion rate of 3.6 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. A 1 yr recurrence period is realized for very massive (≳ 1.3 M {sub ☉}) WDs with very high accretion rates (≳ 1.5 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We revised our stability limit of hydrogen shell burning, which will be useful for binary evolution calculations toward Type Ia supernovae.

  5. Strip and microstrip line periodic heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerer, A. M.; Lerer, B. M.; Ryazanov, V. D.; Sledkov, V. A.

    1985-04-01

    A quasistatic method is described for analyzing periodic heterogeneities in single and coupled strip lines and microstrip lines. An ALGOL program on a BESM-6 computer calculated the running inductance and capacitance, wave impedances and delay coefficients for single and coupled strip lines and microstrip lines with periodic heterogeneities of arbitrary form. The analyzed quantities are investigated as a function of distance (from side shield to the strip), number of terms in the series and number of approximated functions. The method demonstrates good convergence and requires little machine time and results were verified experimentally.

  6. Onsager coefficients for systems with periodic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, Alexandre; Van den Broeck, Christian; Lindenberg, Katja

    2016-11-01

    We carry out the thermodynamic analysis of a Markovian stochastic engine, driven by a spatially and temporally periodic modulation in a d -dimensional space. We derive the analytic expressions for the Onsager coefficients characterizing the linear response regime for the isothermal transfer of one type of work (a driver) to another (a load), mediated by a stochastic time-periodic machine. As an illustration, we obtain the explicit results for a Markovian kangaroo process coupling two orthogonal directions and find extremely good agreement with numerical simulations. In addition, we obtain and discuss expressions for the entropy production, power, and efficiency for the kangaroo process.

  7. Ground states for nonuniform periodic Ising chains.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Garcilazo, J P; Ramírez, C

    2015-04-01

    We generalize Morita's works [J. Phys. A 7, 289 (1974); J. Phys. A 7, 1613 (1974)] on ground states of Ising chains, for chains with a periodic structure and different spins, to any interaction order. The main assumption is translational invariance. The length of the irreducible blocks is a multiple of the period of the chain. If there is parity invariance, it restricts the length in general only in the diatomic case. There are degenerated states and under certain circumstances there could be nonregular ground states. We illustrate the results and give the ground state diagrams in several cases.

  8. The period functionsʼ higher order derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, M.

    We prove a formula for the n-th derivative of the period function T in a period annulus of a planar differential system. For n=1, we obtain Freire, Gasull and Guillamon formula for the period's first derivative (Chicone and Dumortier, 1993) [17]. We apply such a result to Hamiltonian systems with separable variables and other systems. We give some sufficient conditions for the period function of conservative second order ODE's to be convex.

  9. Geologic periodicities and the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Stothers, Richard B.

    1986-01-01

    New geologic and astronomical developments are reviewed that have recently led to the proposal of various Galactic theories to explain the temporal pattern of impact craters on earth. Linear and harmonic time series analyses have revealed that two dominant periodicities about equal to 33 + or - 3 Myr and 260 + or - 25 Myr underlie the geologic record of terrestrial impact cratering and global tectonic phenomena. It is argued that purely terrestrial mechanisms cannot account for the cratering cycles as being preservational artifacts; cratering rather appears to influence tectonism, possibly through perturbations of mantle convection. Galactic models proposed to explain the two long-term periodicities are reviewed critically. The most likely explanation for the 33 Myr cycle involves the comparatively stable half period of vertical oscillation of the solar system about the Galactic plane. The 260 Myr cycle may be related to rare encounters with Galactic spiral arms during the revolution of the solar system around the Galactic center.

  10. Feasibility of Identifying a Female Sex Worker Cohort at High Risk of HIV Infection in the Caribbean for HIV Vaccine Efficacy Trials: Longitudinal Results of HVTN 907

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Metch, Barbara; Morgan, Cecilia A; Zorrilla, Carmen D; Donastorg, Yeycy; Swann, Edith; Taina, Dadaille; Patrice, Joseph; JW, Pape

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying cohorts of Caribbean women with HIV infection rates sufficient for inclusion in HIV vaccine efficacy trials has been challenging. HVTN 907 determined the feasibility of identifying and retaining a cohort of women at high risk for HIV acquisition by focusing recruitment on female sex workers (FSW). Methods HIV uninfected FSWs, residing in Haiti, Dominican Republic (DR) and Puerto Rico (PR), who reported unprotected sex and met previously described more stringent site-specific eligibility criteria14, were eligible. Behavioral risk assessment, HIV counseling and testing and pregnancy testing were done at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Results Among 799 FSWs (264 from DR, 334 from Haiti, 201 from PR), the median age was 26 years, with 54% having less than a high school education and 45% having a monthly household income of less than $US100. Median number of male partners six months prior to screening was 200. Retention at 18 months was 93%. Twelve women became HIV infected, nine from Haiti. The annualized HIV incidence was 1.07 % (95% CI 0.55%, 1.87%). Pregnancy incidence was 22.5% (95% CI 21.9, 29.5%). Statistically significant declines in risk behaviors occurred between screening and the 18 month visit assessment. Discussion The HVTN 907 study identified a high risk cohort of women with excellent retention for all 3 sites, despite major challenges especially in Haiti. These results show that a bridging study of a vaccine shown to be efficacious in other clade settings would be possible among FSW in the region, particularly in Haiti. PMID:26761272

  11. Discovering Periodic Patterns in Historical News.

    PubMed

    Dzogang, Fabon; Lansdall-Welfare, Thomas; Cristianini, Nello

    2016-01-01

    We address the problem of observing periodic changes in the behaviour of a large population, by analysing the daily contents of newspapers published in the United States and United Kingdom from 1836 to 1922. This is done by analysing the daily time series of the relative frequency of the 25K most frequent words for each country, resulting in the study of 50K time series for 31,755 days. Behaviours that are found to be strongly periodic include seasonal activities, such as hunting and harvesting. A strong connection with natural cycles is found, with a pronounced presence of fruits, vegetables, flowers and game. Periodicities dictated by religious or civil calendars are also detected and show a different wave-form than those provoked by weather. States that can be revealed include the presence of infectious disease, with clear annual peaks for fever, pneumonia and diarrhoea. Overall, 2% of the words are found to be strongly periodic, and the period most frequently found is 365 days. Comparisons between UK and US, and between modern and historical news, reveal how the fundamental cycles of life are shaped by the seasons, but also how this effect has been reduced in modern times.

  12. Discovering Periodic Patterns in Historical News

    PubMed Central

    Dzogang, Fabon; Lansdall-Welfare, Thomas; Cristianini, Nello

    2016-01-01

    We address the problem of observing periodic changes in the behaviour of a large population, by analysing the daily contents of newspapers published in the United States and United Kingdom from 1836 to 1922. This is done by analysing the daily time series of the relative frequency of the 25K most frequent words for each country, resulting in the study of 50K time series for 31,755 days. Behaviours that are found to be strongly periodic include seasonal activities, such as hunting and harvesting. A strong connection with natural cycles is found, with a pronounced presence of fruits, vegetables, flowers and game. Periodicities dictated by religious or civil calendars are also detected and show a different wave-form than those provoked by weather. States that can be revealed include the presence of infectious disease, with clear annual peaks for fever, pneumonia and diarrhoea. Overall, 2% of the words are found to be strongly periodic, and the period most frequently found is 365 days. Comparisons between UK and US, and between modern and historical news, reveal how the fundamental cycles of life are shaped by the seasons, but also how this effect has been reduced in modern times. PMID:27824911

  13. Boundary element solution for periodic acoustic problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, M.; Croaker, P.; Kessissoglou, N.

    2016-01-01

    This work shows when using the boundary element method to solve 3D acoustic scattering problems from periodic structures, the coefficient matrix can be represented as a block Toeplitz matrix. By exploiting the Toeplitz structure, the computational time and storage requirements to construct the coefficient matrix are significantly reduced. To solve the linear system of equations, the original matrix is embedded into a larger and more structured matrix called the block circulant matrix. Discrete Fourier transform is then employed in an iterative algorithm to solve the block Toeplitz system. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the formulation for periodic acoustic problems, two exterior acoustic case studies are considered. The first case study examines a continuous structure to predict the noise generated by a sharp-edged flat plate under quadrupole excitation. Directivity plots obtained using the periodic boundary element method technique are compared with numerical results obtained using a conventional boundary element model. The second case study examines a discrete periodic structure to predict the acoustic performance of a sonic crystal noise barrier. Results for the barrier insertion loss are compared with both finite element results and available data in the literature.

  14. Periodicity in marine extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. John, Jr.; Raup, David M.

    1986-01-01

    The periodicity of extinction events is examined in detail. In particular, the temporal distribution of specific, identifiable extinction events is analyzed. The nature and limitations of the data base on the global fossil record is discussed in order to establish limits of resolution in statistical analyses. Peaks in extinction intensity which appear to differ significantly from background levels are considered, and new analyses of the temporal distribution of these peaks are presented. Finally, some possible causes of periodicity and of interdependence among extinction events over the last quarter billion years of earth history are examined.

  15. Sigmoid Volvulus Complicating Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Erin; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Pieracci, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    Background. Sigmoid volvulus is a rare complication of pregnancy and the puerperium. Case. A 19-year-old patient, gravida 1 para 0 at 41 0/7 weeks of gestation, admitted for late-term induction of labor underwent an uncomplicated primary low transverse cesarean delivery for arrest of descent. Her postoperative period was complicated by sudden onset of abdominal pain and the ultimate diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus. Conclusion. Prompt surgical evaluation of an acute abdomen in the postpartum period is essential; delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to significant maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:28251004

  16. The plasmasphere during a space weather event: first results from the PLASMON project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberger, János; Clilverd, Mark A.; Heilig, Balázs; Vellante, Massimo; Manninen, Jyrki; Rodger, Craig J.; Collier, Andrew B.; Jørgensen, Anders M.; Reda, Jan; Holzworth, Robert H.; Friedel, Reinhard; Simon-Wedlund, Mea

    2013-06-01

    The results of the first 18 months of the PLASMON project are presented. We have extended our three, existing ground-based measuring networks, AWDANet (VLF/whistlers), EMMA/SANSA (ULF/FLRs), and AARDDVARK (VLF/perturbations on transmitters’ signal), by three, eight, and four new stations, respectively. The extended networks will allow us to achieve the four major scientific goals, the automatic retrieval of equatorial electron densities and density profiles of the plasmasphere by whistler inversion, the retrieval of equatorial plasma mass densities by EMMA and SANSA from FLRs, developing a new, data assimilative model of plasmasphere and validating the model predictions through comparison of modeled REP losses with measured data by AARDDVARK network. The first results on each of the four objectives are presented through a case study on a space weather event, a dual storm sudden commencement which occurred on August 3 and 4, 2010.

  17. Optimizing observing sequence design for periodic and non-periodic phenomena : a Bayesian approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Knight, Russell

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we report on our progress on addressing these issues. We have developed an approximate expression for the uniformity of phase coverage that can be used when scheduling to assess candidate sample times. We describe the results obtained using this estimator, and compare them with detailed simulations. We describe our progress and plans for integrating optimizing criteria for both periodic and non-periodic observations into a single observation sequence.

  18. Masseteric-facial nerve neurorrhaphy: results of a case series.

    PubMed

    Biglioli, Federico; Colombo, Valeria; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Tarabbia, Filippo; Giovanditto, Federica; Lozza, Alessandro; Cupello, Silvia; Mortini, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Facial palsy is a well-known functional and esthetic problem that bothers most patients and affects their social relationships. When the time between the onset of paralysis and patient presentation is less than 18 months and the proximal stump of the injured facial nerve is not available, another nerve must be anastomosed to the facial nerve to reactivate its function. The masseteric nerve has recently gained popularity over the classic hypoglossus nerve as a new motor source because of its lower associated morbidity rate and the relative ease with which the patient can activate it. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of masseteric-facial nerve neurorrhaphy for early facial reanimation. METHODS Thirty-four consecutive patients (21 females, 13 males) with early unilateral facial paralysis underwent masseteric-facial nerve neurorrhaphy in which an interpositional nerve graft of the great auricular or sural nerve was placed. The time between the onset of paralysis and surgery ranged from 2 to 18 months (mean 13.3 months). Electromyography revealed mimetic muscle fibrillations in all the patients. Before surgery, all patients had House-Brackmann Grade VI facial nerve dysfunction. Twelve months after the onset of postoperative facial nerve reactivation, each patient underwent a clinical examination using the modified House-Brackmann grading scale as a guide. RESULTS Overall, 91.2% of the patients experienced facial nerve function reactivation. Facial recovery began within 2-12 months (mean 6.3 months) with the restoration of facial symmetry at rest. According to the modified House-Brackmann grading scale, 5.9% of the patients had Grade I function, 61.8% Grade II, 20.6% Grade III, 2.9% Grade V, and 8.8% Grade VI. The morbidity rate was low; none of the patients could feel the loss of masseteric nerve function. There were only a few complications, including 1 case of postoperative bleeding (2.9%) and 2 local infections (5.9%), and a few

  19. Gene expression profiling in the pituitary gland of laying period and ceased period huoyan geese.

    PubMed

    Luan, Xinhong; Cao, Zhongzan; Xu, Wen; Gao, Ming; Wang, Laiyou; Zhang, Shuwei

    2013-07-01

    Huoyan goose is a Chinese local breed famous for its higher laying performance, but the problems of variety degeneration have emerged recently, especially a decrease in the number of eggs laid. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism that underlies egg laying in Huoyan geese, gene profiles in the pituitary gland of Huoyan geese taken during the laying period and ceased period were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. Total RNA was extracted from pituitary glands of ceased period and laying period geese. The cDNA in the pituitary glands of ceased geese was subtracted from the cDNA in the pituitary glands of laying geese (forward subtraction); the reverse subtraction was also performed. After sequencing and annotation, a total of 30 and 24 up and down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These genes mostly related to biosynthetic process, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, transport, cell differentiation, cellular protein modification process, signal transduction, small molecule metabolic process. Furthermore, eleven genes were selected for further analyses by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results for the most part were consistent with the SSH results. Among these genes, Synaptotagmin-1 (SYT1) and Stathmin-2 (STMN2) were substantially over-expressed in laying period compared to ceased period. These results could serve as an important reference for elucidating the molecular mechanism of higher laying performance in Huoyan geese.

  20. 76 FR 80312 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... of the Business Reply Mail cost model in periodic reporting of service performance measurement... initiate a rulemaking proceeding to address the current methodology used to develop the avoided cost.... SUMMARY: The Commission is establishing a docket to consider new measurement of Flats Sequencing...

  1. A Special Section. College Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Special section includes "True to Format," an editor's guide to periodicals (Robin Goldman); "The Move to Magazine," focusing on format (Patricia Ann LaSalle); "The Fast-paced Alternative," about timely tabloids (Janis D. Gleason, Lynn Donham); and also about tabloids, "Why Don't We Have a Magazine?" (Marsha…

  2. 76 FR 20906 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... an informal rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in... Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposal One), April 6, 2011...

  3. Quantifying periodicity in omics data

    PubMed Central

    Amariei, Cornelia; Tomita, Masaru; Murray, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    Oscillations play a significant role in biological systems, with many examples in the fast, ultradian, circadian, circalunar, and yearly time domains. However, determining periodicity in such data can be problematic. There are a number of computational methods to identify the periodic components in large datasets, such as signal-to-noise based Fourier decomposition, Fisher's g-test and autocorrelation. However, the available methods assume a sinusoidal model and do not attempt to quantify the waveform shape and the presence of multiple periodicities, which provide vital clues in determining the underlying dynamics. Here, we developed a Fourier based measure that generates a de-noised waveform from multiple significant frequencies. This waveform is then correlated with the raw data from the respiratory oscillation found in yeast, to provide oscillation statistics including waveform metrics and multi-periods. The method is compared and contrasted to commonly used statistics. Moreover, we show the utility of the program in the analysis of noisy datasets and other high-throughput analyses, such as metabolomics and flow cytometry, respectively. PMID:25364747

  4. Shell Games: Uncovering Periodic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities (demonstrations/experiments) used to introduce history of periodic properties--without electrons, orbitals, filling shells, or any conception of atoms beyond Dalton's model. Activities supplement first chapter in a currently available chemistry text. Indicates potential danger of experiments if proper safety precautions are…

  5. The Period of Salutary Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, John T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson designed to teach students about the period of Salutary Neglect (100 years before the French and Indian Wars) and its effects on later historical events. Provides an advance organizer which puts students in a situation of salutary neglect and includes student and teacher resources on the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, and the…

  6. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis associated with multiple sleep onset REM periods.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, A; Santamaria, J

    1999-12-15

    A 24-year-old man with sporadic hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) presented with moderate excessive daytime sleepiness and transitory episodes of weakness which occurred during and after sleep. Multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) demonstrated the presence of five sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs) and a sleep latency of five minutes. Treatment with a diuretic which decreases serum potassium resolved all the clinical symtomps and a new MSLT showed the absence of SOREMPs and a sleep latency of 13.5 minutes. To our knowledge, the patient herein reported is the first case that associates sleep abnormalities and multiple SOREMPs with HPP. Furthermore, the present case suggests that SOREMPs may be explained by an increased extracellular potassium conductance related to HPP.

  7. 12 CFR 390.285 - Audit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Audit period. 390.285 Section 390.285 Banks and... Associations § 390.285 Audit period. The audit period of a State savings association means the twelve month period (or other period in the case of a change in audit period) covered by the annual audit conducted...

  8. 12 CFR 161.6 - Audit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Audit period. 161.6 Section 161.6 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 161.6 Audit period. The audit period of a savings association means the twelve month period (or other period in the case of a change in audit period) covered by the annual...

  9. 12 CFR 561.6 - Audit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Audit period. 561.6 Section 561.6 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.6 Audit period. The audit period of a savings association means the twelve month period (or other period in the case of a change in audit period) covered by the annual...

  10. 12 CFR 390.285 - Audit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Audit period. 390.285 Section 390.285 Banks and... Associations § 390.285 Audit period. The audit period of a State savings association means the twelve month period (or other period in the case of a change in audit period) covered by the annual audit conducted...

  11. 7 CFR 1160.113 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fiscal period. 1160.113 Section 1160.113 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.113 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the initial period of up to 30 months that this subpart is effective. Thereafter, the fiscal period shall be such annual period as the Board may...

  12. LDEF materials results for spacecraft applications: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Compiler); Dooling, D. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    To address the challenges of space environmental effects, NASA designed the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for an 18-month mission to expose thousands of samples of candidate materials that might be used on a space station or other orbital spacecraft. LDEF was launched in April 1984 and was to have been returned to Earth in 1985. Changes in mission schedules postponed retrieval until January 1990, after 69 months in orbit. Analyses of the samples recovered from LDEF have provided spacecraft designers and managers with the most extensive data base on space materials phenomena. Many LDEF samples were greatly changed by extended space exposure. Among even the most radially altered samples, NASA and its science teams are finding a wealth of surprising conclusions and tantalizing clues about the effects of space on materials. Many were discussed at the first two LDEF results conferences and subsequent professional papers. The LDEF Materials Results for Spacecraft Applications Conference was convened in Huntsville to discuss implications for spacecraft design. Already, paint and thermal blanket selections for space station and other spacecraft have been affected by LDEF data. This volume synopsizes those results.

  13. Rare Perilunate Injury as a Result of Chronic Trauma in 3-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    A 3-year-old girl was reported to have perilunate dislocation. The child had suffered, approximately 18 months before, a repetitive wrist injury by means of frequent pulling and bending of the hand by the father who may have physically abused the child for approximately 2 months. At the age of 3 years and 4 months, we performed the reduction of the perilunate dislocation and the plasty of the dorsal scapholunate ligament using the capsular flap prepared from the extensor retinaculum. The wrist was immobilized for 6 weeks. Two months after surgery, patient started the physiotherapy for 3 months. The patient could flex up the wrist to 40 degrees and extend up to 45 degrees (mobility of the healthy wrist was 60, 50 degrees) during the examination 24 months' post-op. Only the surgical treatment of the perilunate dislocation can lead to obtain the good surgical result. PMID:26788457

  14. The LPSP instrument on OSO 8. II - In-flight performance and preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnet, R. M.; Lemaire, P.; Vial, J. C.; Artzner, G.; Gouttebroze, P.; Jouchoux, A.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Leibacher, J. W.; Skumanich, A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the in-flight performance for the first 18 months of operation of the LPSP (Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planetaire) instrument incorporated in the OSO 8 launched June 1975. By means of the instrument, an absolute pointing accuracy of nearly one second was achieved in orbit during real-time operations. The instrument uses a Cassegrain telescope and a spectrometer simultaneously observing six wavelengths. In-flight performance is discussed with attention to angular resolution, spectral resolution, dispersion and grating mechanism (spectral scanner) stability, scattered light background and dark current, photometric standardization, and absolute calibration. Real-time operation and problems are considered with reference to pointing system problems, target acquisition, and L-alpha modulation. Preliminary results involving the observational program, quiet sun and chromospheric studies, quiet chromospheric oscillation and transients, sunspots and active regions, prominences, and aeronomy investigations are reported.

  15. Quantum gates by periodic driving

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-01-01

    Topological quantum computation has been extensively studied in the past decades due to its robustness against decoherence. One way to realize the topological quantum computation is by adiabatic evolutions—it requires relatively long time to complete a gate, so the speed of quantum computation slows down. In this work, we present a method to realize single qubit quantum gates by periodic driving. Compared to adiabatic evolution, the single qubit gates can be realized at a fixed time much shorter than that by adiabatic evolution. The driving fields can be sinusoidal or square-well field. With the sinusoidal driving field, we derive an expression for the total operation time in the high-frequency limit, and an exact analytical expression for the evolution operator without any approximations is given for the square well driving. This study suggests that the period driving could provide us with a new direction in regulations of the operation time in topological quantum computation. PMID:26911900

  16. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  17. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  18. Database of Periodic DNA Regions in Major Genomes.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Felix E; Korotkova, Maria A; Korotkov, Eugene V

    2017-01-01

    Summary. We analyzed several prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes looking for the periodicity sequences availability and employing a new mathematical method. The method envisaged using the random position weight matrices and dynamic programming. Insertions and deletions were allowed inside periodicities, thus adding a novelty to the results we obtained. A periodicity length, one of the key periodicity features, varied from 2 to 50 nt. Totally over 60,000 periodicity sequences were found in 15 genomes including some chromosomes of the H. sapiens (partial), C. elegans, D. melanogaster, and A. thaliana genomes.

  19. Database of Periodic DNA Regions in Major Genomes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Summary. We analyzed several prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes looking for the periodicity sequences availability and employing a new mathematical method. The method envisaged using the random position weight matrices and dynamic programming. Insertions and deletions were allowed inside periodicities, thus adding a novelty to the results we obtained. A periodicity length, one of the key periodicity features, varied from 2 to 50 nt. Totally over 60,000 periodicity sequences were found in 15 genomes including some chromosomes of the H. sapiens (partial), C. elegans, D. melanogaster, and A. thaliana genomes. PMID:28182099

  20. Periodic fevers and autoinflammatory syndromes in childhood.

    PubMed

    Ostring, Genevieve T; Singh-Grewal, Davinder

    2016-09-01

    Recurrent fever is a common presentation in paediatric practice and can be caused by a wide variety of diseases including autoinflammatory conditions. The innate immune system plays an essential role in the 'first line' response to infection through mediation of inflammatory responses. Inflammasomes are part of the regulatory process for this system and result in the production of the powerful pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1B. Dysregulation of inflammasomes, and Interleukin 1 production, contributes to the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory diseases. This review focuses on described periodic fever syndromes (PFS) which are now collectively referred to as autoinflammatory syndromes. Conditions discussed include periodic fever aphthous stomatitis pharyngitis and cervical adenopathy, familial Mediterranean fever, tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndromes, hyperimmunoglobulinaemia D and the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes. Presenting features, complications, diagnostic and treatment approaches for these conditions are discussed. Nonetheless, as most of these conditions are rare and may have significant long-term complications, it is recommended that they be managed in consultations with a physician experienced in managing PFS.

  1. Survival of Bacillus pumilus spores for a prolonged period of time in real space conditions.

    PubMed

    Vaishampayan, Parag A; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J

    2012-05-01

    To prevent forward contamination and maintain the scientific integrity of future life-detection missions, it is important to characterize and attempt to eliminate terrestrial microorganisms associated with exploratory spacecraft and landing vehicles. Among the organisms isolated from spacecraft-associated surfaces, spores of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 exhibited unusually high resistance to decontamination techniques such as UV radiation and peroxide treatment. Subsequently, B. pumilus SAFR-032 was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to a variety of space conditions via the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF). After 18 months of exposure in the EXPOSE facility of the European Space Agency (ESA) on EuTEF under dark space conditions, SAFR-032 spores showed 10-40% survivability, whereas a survival rate of 85-100% was observed when these spores were kept aboard the ISS under dark simulated martian atmospheric conditions. In contrast, when UV (>110 nm) was applied on SAFR-032 spores for the same time period and under the same conditions used in EXPOSE, a ∼7-log reduction in viability was observed. A parallel experiment was conducted on Earth with identical samples under simulated space conditions. Spores exposed to ground simulations showed less of a reduction in viability when compared with the "real space" exposed spores (∼3-log reduction in viability for "UV-Mars," and ∼4-log reduction in viability for "UV-Space"). A comparative proteomics analysis indicated that proteins conferring resistant traits (superoxide dismutase) were present in higher concentration in space-exposed spores when compared to controls. Also, the first-generation cells and spores derived from space-exposed samples exhibited elevated UVC resistance when compared with their ground control counterparts. The data generated are important for calculating the probability and mechanisms of microbial survival in space conditions and assessing microbial contaminants

  2. Periods of High Intensity Solar Proton Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Michael A.; Stauffer, Craig A.; Jordan, Thomas M.; Adams, James H.; Dietrich, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis is presented for times during a space mission that specified solar proton flux levels are exceeded. This includes both total time and continuous time periods during missions. Results for the solar maximum and solar minimum phases of the solar cycle are presented and compared for a broad range of proton energies and shielding levels. This type of approach is more amenable to reliability analysis for spacecraft systems and instrumentation than standard statistical models.

  3. Chromatic effects in long periodic transport channels

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko V. N.; Hao, Y.; Jing, Y.

    2015-05-03

    Long periodic transport channels are frequently used in accelerator complexes and suggested for using in high-energy ERLs for electron-hadron colliders. Without proper chromaticity compensation, such transport channels exhibit high sensitivity to the random orbit errors causing significant emittance growth. Such emittance growth can come from both the correlated and the uncorrelated energy spread. In this paper we present results of our theoretical and numerical studies of such effects and develop a criteria for acceptable chromaticity in such channels.

  4. Periodic thermomagnetic structures in solar plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalev, V. A.; Laptukhov, A. I.

    2009-04-15

    Stationary solutions in the form of small-scale periodic cells in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field are obtained in the framework of two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics. The solutions are established as a result of the development of thermal instability and represent a superposition of standing temperature waves. In solving the problem, an expression is used for a generalized heat source (including heating and radiative cooling) that forms a temperature transition region between the chromosphere and corona.

  5. 7 CFR 1205.29 - Reporting results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.29 Reporting results. (a) Each county FSA office... that requested a continuance referendum, through the sign-up period, to the Deputy...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.29 - Reporting results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.29 Reporting results. (a) Each county FSA office... that requested a continuance referendum, through the sign-up period, to the Deputy...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.29 - Reporting results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.29 Reporting results. (a) Each county FSA office... that requested a continuance referendum, through the sign-up period, to the Deputy...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.29 - Reporting results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.29 Reporting results. (a) Each county FSA office... that requested a continuance referendum, through the sign-up period, to the Deputy...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.29 - Reporting results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Procedures § 1205.29 Reporting results. (a) Each county FSA office... that requested a continuance referendum, through the sign-up period, to the Deputy...

  10. Haemocytic periodicity and periodic disorders: Periodic neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphocytosis and anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Hobart A.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated of rhythmic numerical oscillation of each of the blood cells either independently or in combinations. The cyclic changes originate in the marrow of some normal persons and animals without causing illness, and can be induced experimentally. In more than 100 reported instances, periodic oscillations of various cells were accompanied by respective episodes of the disorders named in the title. The disorders may be transitory but usually recur throughout life and occasionally are fatal. All resist therapy. Features in common suggest an interrelationship of the haemal disorders and other disparate heritable periodic diseases. Theoretically, the rhythms are regulated by ubiquitous, inherent, intracellular bioclocks controlled hypothalamically or neurohumorally in relation to a feedback mechanism. Reactions to long cycles are of greater clinical importance than disturbances arising from the circadian rhythm. PMID:4397784

  11. Surgical treatment of subchondral cystic lesions of the third metacarpal bone: results in 15 horses (1986-1994).

    PubMed

    Hogan, P M; McIlwraith, C W; Honnas, C M; Watkins, J P; Bramlage, L R

    1997-11-01

    Subchondral cystic lesions (SCLs) in the condyle of the third metacarpal bone (MCIII) were surgically treated in 15 horses. The median age at presentation was 18 months (range 10 months-12 years) with 10 of 15 horses less than age 2 years. The SCLs were confined to the front limbs in all cases with 2 horses having bilateral lesions. Lesions were isolated to the medial condyle(s) of MCIII in 13 of 15 horses; a cystic lesion occurred in the lateral condyle in one horse and in the sagittal ridge in one horse. One horse with bilateral lesions had an additional cystic lesion located in the right medial femoral condyle. Fourteen of 15 horses had a history of moderate lameness attributable to the metacarpophalangeal joint; the lesion was an incidental finding in one horse. Duration of lameness ranged from 4 weeks to 8 months and was either acute in onset, or occurred intermittently and was associated with exercise. Fetlock flexion significantly exacerbated the lameness in all cases. Synovial effusion was absent in 8 (53%) cases. Cystic lesions were curetted arthroscopically in 12 horses, and through a dorsal pouch arthrotomy in 3 horses. Concurrent osteostixis of the cystic cavity was performed in 7 horses. Two horses were treated arthroscopically for osteochondral fragmentation of the proximodorsal aspect of the proximal phalanx one year following surgical curettage of the SCL. Twelve of 15 horses (80%) were sound for intended use following surgical treatment. Two horses did not regain soundness and follow-up information was unavailable for one horse. Total period of follow-up was 1-6 years. Follow-up radiographic examinations were available for 9 horses. Mild periarticular osteophyte formation and enthesiophyte formation at the dorsal joint capsular attachments was present in 5 of the 9 horses. Bony ingrowth of the cystic lesion was detectable in 8 horses and enlargement of the cystic cavity was observed in one horse. Based on the information gained from this study, it

  12. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  13. 44 CFR 206.112 - Registration period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Registration period. 206.112... Households § 206.112 Registration period. (a) Initial period. The standard FEMA registration period is 60...) Extension of the registration period. The regional administrator or his/her designee may extend...

  14. 44 CFR 206.112 - Registration period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Registration period. 206.112... Households § 206.112 Registration period. (a) Initial period. The standard FEMA registration period is 60...) Extension of the registration period. The regional administrator or his/her designee may extend...

  15. 44 CFR 206.112 - Registration period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Registration period. 206.112... Households § 206.112 Registration period. (a) Initial period. The standard FEMA registration period is 60...) Extension of the registration period. The regional administrator or his/her designee may extend...

  16. 44 CFR 206.112 - Registration period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Registration period. 206.112... Households § 206.112 Registration period. (a) Initial period. The standard FEMA registration period is 60...) Extension of the registration period. The regional administrator or his/her designee may extend...

  17. 44 CFR 206.112 - Registration period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Registration period. 206.112... Households § 206.112 Registration period. (a) Initial period. The standard FEMA registration period is 60...) Extension of the registration period. The regional administrator or his/her designee may extend...

  18. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  19. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  20. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....