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Sample records for 18-month period results

  1. Obesity Reduction Black Intervention Trial (ORBIT): 18-Month Results

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Schiffer, Linda; Sharp, Lisa K.; Singh, Vicky; Dyer, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition that is prevalent in black women. The Obesity Reduction Black Intervention Trial (ORBIT) was a randomized controlled weight loss and weight loss maintenance trial. Participants (N = 213) were randomized to the intervention or control groups in August 2005 and September 2006. Follow-up data were collected 6 and 18 months after randomization. The main outcome was change in weight and body mass index from baseline to 18 months. The mean weight at baseline was 104.9 kg and the mean weight loss in the intervention group at 6 months was 3.0 kg and a gain of 0.2 kg in the control group (mean difference between groups in weight change at 6 months, adjusting for baseline weight and cohort, -3.27 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.50 to -2.05 kg; P < .001). Both groups gained weight between 6 and 18 months (mean 1.0 kg in the intervention group and 0.1 kg in the control group). However, intervention participants lost significantly more weight than control participants during the 18 month intervention (adjusted mean difference between groups at 18 months, -2.83 kg; 95% CI, -4.71 to -0.95; P = .003). At 18 months, intervention participants were more likely than control participants to have lost at least 5% of baseline weight (24% vs. 12%, P< .04). Our results indicate that the ORBIT program did promote weight loss and weight loss maintenance. However, the results also clearly illustrate there is more to learn about what will contribute to meaningful weight loss and maintenance in this population. PMID:20300081

  2. Analytical performance of nano-LC-SRM using nondepleted human plasma over an 18-month period.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaomin; Amirkhani, Ardeshir; Wu, Jemma X; Pascovici, Dana; Zaw, Thiri; Xavier, Dylan; Clarke, Stephen J; Molloy, Mark P

    2016-08-01

    A standardized procedure for label-free nano-LC-SRM analysis of 32 high-medium abundance proteins from nondepleted human plasma was established and SRM data were acquired on 45 separate days for a control sample that was independently prepared on 39 distinct dates over an 18-month period (542 days). This case study enabled us to assess quantitative variance associated with nano-LC-SRM plasma analysis, mimicking experimental conditions that would be experienced with clinical trial biomarker studies. We assessed sample preparation variability attributed to different technicians and sample storage stability. Instrument performance varied over the 18-month period requiring ion path cleaning, so we assessed the impact of declining performance on specific peptide ion sensitivity and evaluated how various data normalization strategies could compensate for these changes. Our analysis demonstrated that while sample preparation was the main contributor for data variances when MS data were acquired within days, variability in SRM sensitivity was a far greater source of variance when data were acquired over a long period. The overall median multiplexed assay CV was 13% over the 18-month period. This case study is illustrative of large-scale plasma biomarker studies using nano-LC-SRM over extended periods and highlights aspects of bioanalysis that require careful attention to ensure reliable quantitation.

  3. A Pilot Clinical Trial of Creatine and Minocycline in Early Parkinson Disease: 18-Month Results

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report an 18-month follow-up on creatine and minocycline futility study, the Neuroprotective Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease, Futility Study 1 (NET-PD FS-1). Background The NET-PD FS-1 futility study on creatine and minocycline found neither agent futile in slowing down the progression of disability in Parkinson disease (PD) at 12 months using the prespecified futility threshold. An additional 6 months of follow-up aimed to assess safety and potential interactions of the study interventions with anti-parkinsonian therapy. Methods Additional 6 months of follow-up in randomized, blinded phase II trial of creatine (dosage, 10 g/d) and minocycline (dosage, 200 mg/d) in subjects with early PD. Results By 18 months, symptomatic treatment of PD symptoms was required in 61% of creatine, 62% of minocycline, and 60% of placebo-treated subjects. Study treatment was prematurely discontinued in 9%, 23%, and 6% of subjects in the creatine, minocycline, and placebo arms, respectively. Creatine and minocycline did not seem to adversely influence the response to symptomatic therapy nor increase adverse events. Conclusions Data from this small, 18-month phase II trial of creatine and minocycline do not demonstrate safety concerns that would preclude a large, phase III efficacy trial, although the decreased tolerability of minocycline is a concern. PMID:18520981

  4. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy in substance misusing schizophrenia: results of an 18-month feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Eack, Shaun M; Hogarty, Susan S; Greenwald, Deborah P; Litschge, Maralee Y; McKnight, Summer A F; Bangalore, Srihari S; Pogue-Geile, Michael F; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Cornelius, Jack R

    2015-02-01

    Substance use is a frequent problem in schizophrenia, and although many substance misusing patients with the disorder also experience considerable cognitive impairments, such individuals have been routinely excluded from clinical trials of cognitive remediation that could support their functional and addiction recoveries. This study conducted a small-scale feasibility trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) in substance misusing schizophrenia patients to assess the feasibility and efficacy of implementing comprehensive neurocognitive and social-cognitive remediation in this population. A total of 31 schizophrenia outpatients meeting addiction severity criteria for alcohol and/or cannabis use were randomized to 18months of CET or usual care. Feasibility findings indicated high degrees of satisfaction with CET, but also presented significant challenges in the recruitment and retention of substance misusing patients, with high levels of attrition (50%) over the study period, primarily due to positive symptom exacerbation. Intent-to-treat efficacy analyses showed large and significant improvements in neurocognition (d=.86), social cognition (d=1.13), and social adjustment (d=.92) favoring CET. Further, individuals treated with CET were more likely to reduce alcohol use (67% in CET vs. 25% in usual care) during treatment (p=.021). These results suggest that once engaged and stabilized, CET is a feasible and potentially effective treatment for cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia who misuse alcohol and/or cannabis. Substance misusing patients who are able to engage in treatment may be able to benefit from cognitive remediation, and the treatment of cognitive impairments may help improve substance use outcomes among this underserved population. PMID:25510926

  5. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy in substance misusing schizophrenia: results of an 18-month feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Eack, Shaun M; Hogarty, Susan S; Greenwald, Deborah P; Litschge, Maralee Y; McKnight, Summer A F; Bangalore, Srihari S; Pogue-Geile, Michael F; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Cornelius, Jack R

    2015-02-01

    Substance use is a frequent problem in schizophrenia, and although many substance misusing patients with the disorder also experience considerable cognitive impairments, such individuals have been routinely excluded from clinical trials of cognitive remediation that could support their functional and addiction recoveries. This study conducted a small-scale feasibility trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) in substance misusing schizophrenia patients to assess the feasibility and efficacy of implementing comprehensive neurocognitive and social-cognitive remediation in this population. A total of 31 schizophrenia outpatients meeting addiction severity criteria for alcohol and/or cannabis use were randomized to 18months of CET or usual care. Feasibility findings indicated high degrees of satisfaction with CET, but also presented significant challenges in the recruitment and retention of substance misusing patients, with high levels of attrition (50%) over the study period, primarily due to positive symptom exacerbation. Intent-to-treat efficacy analyses showed large and significant improvements in neurocognition (d=.86), social cognition (d=1.13), and social adjustment (d=.92) favoring CET. Further, individuals treated with CET were more likely to reduce alcohol use (67% in CET vs. 25% in usual care) during treatment (p=.021). These results suggest that once engaged and stabilized, CET is a feasible and potentially effective treatment for cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia who misuse alcohol and/or cannabis. Substance misusing patients who are able to engage in treatment may be able to benefit from cognitive remediation, and the treatment of cognitive impairments may help improve substance use outcomes among this underserved population.

  6. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results of an 18-Month Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Bahorik, Amber L.; Litschge, Maralee Y.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with autism experience significant impairments in social and non-social information processing for which few treatments have been developed. This study conducted an 18-month uncontrolled trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET), a comprehensive cognitive rehabilitation intervention, in 14 verbal adults with autism spectrum disorder to…

  7. Sustained Weight Loss with Vagal Nerve Blockade but Not with Sham: 18-Month Results of the ReCharge Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shikora, Scott A.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Apovian, Caroline M.; Anvari, Mehran; Sarwer, David B.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Miller, Christopher J.; Knudson, Mark B.; Tweden, Katherine S.; Sarr, Michael G.; Billington, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives. Vagal block therapy (vBloc) is effective for moderate to severe obesity at one year. Subjects/Methods. The ReCharge trial is a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial of 239 participants with body mass index (BMI) of 40 to 45 kg/m or 35 to 40 kg/m with one or more obesity-related conditions. Interventions were implantation of either vBloc or Sham devices and weight management counseling. Mixed models assessed percent excess weight loss (%EWL) and total weight loss (%TWL) in intent-to-treat analyses. At 18 months, 142 (88%) vBloc and 64 (83%) Sham patients remained enrolled in the study. Results. 18-month weight loss was 23% EWL (8.8% TWL) for vBloc and 10% EWL (3.8% TWL) for Sham (P < 0.0001). vBloc patients largely maintained 12-month weight loss of 26% EWL (9.7% TWL). Sham regained over 40% of the 17% EWL (6.4% TWL) by 18 months. Most weight regain preceded unblinding. Common adverse events of vBloc through 18 months were heartburn/dyspepsia and abdominal pain; 98% of events were reported as mild or moderate and 79% had resolved. Conclusions. Weight loss with vBloc was sustained through 18 months, while Sham regained weight between 12 and 18 months. vBloc is effective with a low rate of serious complications. PMID:26246907

  8. Developmental milestones record - 18 months

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 18 months; Normal childhood growth milestones - 18 months; Childhood growth milestones - 18 months ... PHYSICAL AND MOTOR SKILL MARKERS The typical 18-month-old: Has a closed soft spot on the ...

  9. Development of allergic antibody to an enzyme in a body lotion: results of an 18-month clinical study.

    PubMed

    Sarlo, Katherine; Adamson, Gregory M; Hollis, Victoria L; Innis, J David; Babcock, Laura S; Kirchner, D Bruce

    2004-04-01

    Use of enzymes in cosmetic products is novel and the safety of these products is not well understood. The safety of a prototype enzyme-containing body moisturizer lotion was tested via measures of skin compatibility and potential to induce protease-specific IgE antibody in a clinical study. Female, atopic subjects (n = 1,100) used body lotion containing 100 ppm protease (Y217L BPN') for 5 consecutive days per month, for 18 months. Regular lotion was used the remaining days of each month. Skin evaluation and skin prick tests (SPT) were conducted every 3 months. Measures of skin hydration were made in a subset of subjects at 3-month intervals: skin biopsies occurred at baseline and at the first 3-month timepoint. Serum from SPT positive subjects was tested for specific IgE in an immunoCAP assay. Clinical evaluation and histopathology showed no skin irritation and increased hydration of the skin over time. Three of 864 subjects completing the study developed IgE antibody to the enzyme: 1 subject after 6 months product use and 2 subjects after 15 months product use. A fourth subject was found with IgE antibody 3 months after study termination. None had allergic symptoms associated with product use. Intermittent exposure to a low level of protease enzyme in a body lotion led to the development of specific IgE antibody in 0.46% of subjects. While this study showed favorable skin compatibility of the protease containing lotion, the occurrence of allergic antibody to the enzyme was unacceptable for product commercialization.

  10. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy and Externalizing Behavior in 18-Month-Old Children: Results from a Population-Based Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Borge, Anne I. H.; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of the data on 22,545 smoking mothers and their 18-month-old children finds that maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk for externalizing behavior problem at the age of 18-months. The child's gender is found to have no moderating effects on the findings.

  11. Effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve child feeding practices and growth in rural China: updated results at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxu; Shi, Ling; Chen, Da-Fang; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate complementary feeding practices have led to, in part, significant disparities in growth and nutritional status between rural and urban children in China. A cluster-randomised, controlled trial was implemented in Laishui, China to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on caregivers' feeding practices and children's growth. Eight townships were randomly assigned to the intervention or control. Five hundred ninety-nine healthy infants were enrolled at 2-4 months old, and were followed up at ages 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. The intervention group received information on enhanced home-prepared recipes and food preparation and hygiene through group training, counselling and home visit. Key outcomes were children's physical growth, caregivers' knowledge and behaviours on complementary feeding, and the infant and child feeding index (ICFI). Analysis was by intention to treat. The intervention group achieved better knowledge and practices related to complementary feeding, and significantly higher ICFI scores at each follow-up point. Children in the intervention group achieved higher z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) than the control (0.18 vs. 0.01 and 0.49 vs. 0.19, respectively) at 18 months old, and were less likely to have stunted growth (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.53-0.94). Mixed model showed that the intervention group achieved significantly better linear growth over time, including WAZ (P = 0.016), WHZ (P = 0.030) and HAZ (P = 0.078). These results indicated that an educational intervention delivered through local health services can enhance caregivers' knowledge and practices of complementary feeding and ultimately improve children's growth.

  12. Assessing the Long-Term Effects of EMDR: Results from an 18-Month Follow-Up Study with Adult Female Survivors of CSA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmond, Tonya; Rubin, Allen

    2004-01-01

    This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence…

  13. 15-18 Months: Your Child's Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... Member Home Resources & Services Parenting Resource 15–18 Months: Your Child’s Development Download Files Feb 10, 2016 ... Spotlight on Problem-Solving Between 15 and 18 Months The ability to solve problems is very important ...

  14. Evaluation of an 18-month commercial multidisciplinary obesity treatment programme.

    PubMed

    Aller, E E J G; van Baak, M A

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of obesity is an often studied subject. Although reductions in weight and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors are important aims of obesity treatment, improvements in quality of life and eating behaviour are also relevant outcomes. In this practice-based study, we evaluated an 18-month commercial multidisciplinary obesity treatment programme and report on treatment results for weight, cardiometabolic risk factors, eating behaviour and quality of life. From a local commercial obesity treatment centre, 426 subjects (65% female; 45.4 ± 12.2 years; body mass index 40.0 ± 6.6 kg m(-2)) were recruited. Measurements of body weight, height, body composition, waist circumference and blood pressure were scheduled at baseline and every 3 months, whereas fasting blood collections were scheduled at baseline and every 6 months. At the same time points, participants were asked to fill in questionnaires on dietary intake, eating behaviour and quality of life. After 18 months of treatment programme, average weight change [mean (95% confidence interval)] was -10.9 kg (-14.8 to -7.0; P < 0.001) for the completers (n = 181) and -10.8 kg (-14.2 to -7.4; P < 0.001) for the intention-to-treat population (n = 426). Waist circumference (mean ± standard error of the mean) (-0.13 ± 0.01 cm; P < 0.001), fat mass (-7.8 ± 1.3 kg; P < 0.001) systolic (-11.4 ± 2.0; P < 0.001) and diastolic (-7.0 ± 1.3; P < 0.001) blood pressure, triglycerides (-0.4 ± 0.1; P = 0.004) and plasma glucose (-0.6 ± 0.2; P = 0.001) were significantly reduced. The PCS scale of the SF-36 and all three scales of the three-factor eating questionnaire improved significantly over the 18-month treatment period. All collected data in this study provide evidence that a multidisciplinary treatment programme based on lifestyle modification results in significant weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic

  15. Evaluation of an 18-month commercial multidisciplinary obesity treatment programme.

    PubMed

    Aller, E E J G; van Baak, M A

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of obesity is an often studied subject. Although reductions in weight and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors are important aims of obesity treatment, improvements in quality of life and eating behaviour are also relevant outcomes. In this practice-based study, we evaluated an 18-month commercial multidisciplinary obesity treatment programme and report on treatment results for weight, cardiometabolic risk factors, eating behaviour and quality of life. From a local commercial obesity treatment centre, 426 subjects (65% female; 45.4 ± 12.2 years; body mass index 40.0 ± 6.6 kg m(-2)) were recruited. Measurements of body weight, height, body composition, waist circumference and blood pressure were scheduled at baseline and every 3 months, whereas fasting blood collections were scheduled at baseline and every 6 months. At the same time points, participants were asked to fill in questionnaires on dietary intake, eating behaviour and quality of life. After 18 months of treatment programme, average weight change [mean (95% confidence interval)] was -10.9 kg (-14.8 to -7.0; P < 0.001) for the completers (n = 181) and -10.8 kg (-14.2 to -7.4; P < 0.001) for the intention-to-treat population (n = 426). Waist circumference (mean ± standard error of the mean) (-0.13 ± 0.01 cm; P < 0.001), fat mass (-7.8 ± 1.3 kg; P < 0.001) systolic (-11.4 ± 2.0; P < 0.001) and diastolic (-7.0 ± 1.3; P < 0.001) blood pressure, triglycerides (-0.4 ± 0.1; P = 0.004) and plasma glucose (-0.6 ± 0.2; P = 0.001) were significantly reduced. The PCS scale of the SF-36 and all three scales of the three-factor eating questionnaire improved significantly over the 18-month treatment period. All collected data in this study provide evidence that a multidisciplinary treatment programme based on lifestyle modification results in significant weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic

  16. Relationships between acceptance of sour taste and fruit intakes in 18-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Blossfeld, Ivonne; Collins, Aoife; Boland, Suzanne; Baixauli, Raquel; Kiely, Mairead; Delahunty, Conor

    2007-11-01

    The present study examined whether infants show an acceptance for extreme sour tastes and whether acceptance of sour taste is related to infants' fruit intake. Fruit intake of fifty-three infants at 6, 12 and 18 months was assessed using 3 d food records. Sour acceptance of these infants was studied at 18.1 (SD 1.5) months. Acceptance for four solutions differing in citric acid concentrations (0.00 M, 0.013 M, 0.029 M and 0.065 M) was measured by allowing infants ad libitum ingestion of each solution over brief time periods. The base solution to which citric acid was added was blackcurrant squash diluted in water. Infants' relative intake of each solution was used as a measure of sour acceptance. At 18 months, twelve infants readily accepted the two highest citric acid concentrations, whereas the remaining infants rejected these. Infants who accepted the most sour solutions had a significantly higher fruit intake (P = 0.025) and a higher fruit variety (P = 0.015) at 18 months than the infants who rejected the highly sour taste. Furthermore, infants who accepted the most sour solutions consumed fruits more frequently at 18 months (chi2 5.1; P = 0.024). Infants who accepted the sourest solutions also had a higher fruit intake at 6 months, and a significantly higher increase in their fruit intake from 12 to 18 months. This is the first scientific study that demonstrates the acceptance of sour tastes in some infants at the age of 18 months. Furthermore, the present results suggest a relationship between acceptance of sour tastes and infants' fruit intakes.

  17. Should routine pelvic osteotomy be added to the treatment of DDH after 18 months?

    PubMed

    Arslan, Hüseyin; Sucu, Ekim; Ozkul, Emin; Gem, Mehmet; Kişin, Biülent

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) between ages 1-3 years is controversial. Particularly controversial is the age after which pelvic osteotomy should be added to the treatment. In the present study, the outcomes of DDH patients aged 1-3 years treated with anterior open reduction alone were evaluated, and the relationship between inadequate acetabular development, the need for secondary pelvic osteotomy, and age was investigated. A total of 53 patients (70 hips) who had begun walking, who had undergone open reduction through an anterolateral approach, who had a follow-up period of at least 2 years, and who had Tönnis grade III and IV hip dysplasia were included in the study. They were grouped according to treatment age (pre-18 months: Group I; post-18 months: Group II), and the two groups were compared with regard to radiological and functional outcomes and the need for a secondary acetabular procedure. In Group I there were 29 hips (mean age: 16.09 months) and in group II there were 41 hips (mean age: 23.1 months), and the mean follow-up period was 48.9 months. According to the modified Trevor score, in Group I outcomes were excellent in 23 hips (79.3%) and good in 6 hips (20.7%), while in group II outcomes were excellent in 30 hips (73.2%), good in 10 hips (24.4%), and fair in 1 hip (2.1%). The difference between outcomes was not significant (P > 0.05). Inadequate acetabular development was determined in 11 hips in group I (37.9%) and in 16 hips in group II (39%). There was no difference between groups in terms of inadequate acetabular development or the need for acetabular prodecures (p > 0.05). No significant difference was determined between DDH patients treated before 18 months and those treated after 18 months with regard to unsatisfactory acetabular development or the need for secondary acetabular procedures. According to these results, reduction prior to 18 months does not always achieve satisfactory acetabular development, and

  18. Longitudinal Evaluation of Cognitive Functioning in Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes over 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Cato, M. Allison; Mauras, Nelly; Mazaika, Paul; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Aye, Tandy; Ambrosino, Jodie; Beck, Roy W.; Ruedy, Katrina J.; Reiss, Allan L.; Tansey, Michael; White, Neil H.; Hershey, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Objective Decrements in cognitive function may already be evident in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here we report prospectively acquired cognitive results over 18 months in a large cohort of young children with and without T1D. Methods 144 children with T1D (mean HbA1c: 7.9%) and 70 age-matched healthy controls (mean age both groups 8.5 years; median diabetes duration 3.9 yrs; mean age of onset 4.1 yrs) underwent neuropsychological testing at baseline and after 18-months of follow-up. We hypothesized that group differences observed at baseline would be more pronounced after 18 months, particularly in those T1D patients with greatest exposure to glycemic extremes. Results Cognitive domain scores did not differ between groups at the 18 month testing session and did not change differently between groups over the follow-up period. However, within the T1D group, a history of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was correlated with lower Verbal IQ and greater hyperglycemia exposure (HbA1c area under the curve) was inversely correlated to executive functions test performance. In addition, those with a history of both types of exposure performed most poorly on measures of executive function. Conclusions The subtle cognitive differences between T1D children and nondiabetic controls observed at baseline were not observed 18 months later. Within the T1D group, as at baseline, relationships between cognition (VIQ and executive functions) and glycemic variables (chronic hyperglycemia and DKA history) were evident. Continued longitudinal study of this T1D cohort and their carefully matched healthy comparison group is planned. PMID:26786245

  19. Perception Mirrors Production in 14- and 18-Month-Olds: The Case of Coda Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levelt, Clara C.

    2012-01-01

    In a word learning experiment, 14- and 18-month-old infants are tested on their perceptual sensitivity to coda-consonant omissions. The results indicate that 14-month-olds are not sensitive to coda consonant omissions, showing a parallel with the omission of target coda consonants in early child language productions. At 18 months, infants are…

  20. Trajectories of problem video gaming among adult regular gamers: an 18-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    A three-wave, longitudinal study examined the long-term trajectory of problem gaming symptoms among adult regular video gamers. Potential changes in problem gaming status were assessed at two intervals using an online survey over an 18-month period. Participants (N=117) were recruited by an advertisement posted on the public forums of multiple Australian video game-related websites. Inclusion criteria were being of adult age and having a video gaming history of at least 1 hour of gaming every week over the past 3 months. Two groups of adult video gamers were identified: those players who did (N=37) and those who did not (N=80) identify as having a serious gaming problem at the initial survey intake. The results showed that regular gamers who self-identified as having a video gaming problem at baseline reported more severe problem gaming symptoms than normal gamers, at all time points. However, both groups experienced a significant decline in problem gaming symptoms over an 18-month period, controlling for age, video gaming activity, and psychopathological symptoms. PMID:23098213

  1. Trajectories of problem video gaming among adult regular gamers: an 18-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    A three-wave, longitudinal study examined the long-term trajectory of problem gaming symptoms among adult regular video gamers. Potential changes in problem gaming status were assessed at two intervals using an online survey over an 18-month period. Participants (N=117) were recruited by an advertisement posted on the public forums of multiple Australian video game-related websites. Inclusion criteria were being of adult age and having a video gaming history of at least 1 hour of gaming every week over the past 3 months. Two groups of adult video gamers were identified: those players who did (N=37) and those who did not (N=80) identify as having a serious gaming problem at the initial survey intake. The results showed that regular gamers who self-identified as having a video gaming problem at baseline reported more severe problem gaming symptoms than normal gamers, at all time points. However, both groups experienced a significant decline in problem gaming symptoms over an 18-month period, controlling for age, video gaming activity, and psychopathological symptoms.

  2. Bilateral sacrospinous fixation without hysterectomy: 18-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Mehmet Baki; Güraslan, Hakan; Çakmak, Yusuf; Ekin, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of bilateral sacrospinous fixation (SSF), which was performed with surgical mesh interposition and bilateral vaginal repair. Material and Methods Twenty-two patients underwent SSF between 2010 and 2012, and the results were evaluated retrospectively. The results at preoperative and postoperative 6th, 12th, and 18th months of the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system (POP-Q) and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire-12 (PISQ-12) were compared using Friedman and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests. Values of p<0.05 and <0.01 were considered statistically significant. Results According to the POP-Q, significant healing was observed on all vaginal vault points (p=0.001), and no prolapse was observed until the 18-month follow-up stage. There were also prominent patients who felt satisfactory with respect to their sexual life according to PISQ-12 (p=0.001). Conclusion This technique appears to provide an adequate clinical resolution, and it may be the primary surgical option for women with pelvic organ prolapse. PMID:26097393

  3. Relationship between quadriceps femoris muscle volume and muscle torque at least 18 months after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Y; Oda, T; Tsukazaki, S; Kinugasa, R; Fukubayashi, T

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate motor unit recruitment in the quadriceps femoris (QF) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and repair. Subjects included 24 patients at ≥ 18 months after ACL reconstruction and 22 control subjects with no history of knee injury. A series of cross-sectional magnetic resonance images were obtained to compare the QF of patients' injured side with that of their uninjured sides and that of uninjured control subjects. Muscle torque per muscle volume was calculated as isokinetic peak torque divided by QF muscle volume (cm(3)). The mean muscle torque per unit volume of the injured side of patients was not significantly different from that of the uninjured side or control subjects (one-way ANOVA) Results of the present study were contrary to the results of a previous study that evaluated patients at ≤ 12 months after ACL reconstruction. The present study found that high-threshold motor unit recruitment was restored at ≥ 18 months after ACL reconstruction. Thus, clinicians must develop techniques that increase the recruitment of high-threshold motor units in the QF from the period immediately after the injury until approximately 18 months after ACL reconstruction.

  4. Risk Assessment of BRONJ in Oncologic Patients Treated with Bisphosphonates: Follow-Up to 18 Months.

    PubMed

    Sparabombe, Scilla; Vitali, Lucia; Nori, Alessandra; Berlin, Ricarda Sara; Mazur, Marta; Orsini, Giovanna; Putignano, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Bisphosphonates related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a pathological condition characterized by bone exposure or latent infection in patients treated with the drug. The aim of the study is to monitor the BRONJ level of risk health in patients with cancer, according to a preventive clinical protocol, which is firstly aimed at reducing risk factors such as the periodontal infections. Materials and Methods. 10 patients participated in the protocol and were evaluated at baseline and after 3 and 18 months of treatment with bisphosphonates, through full mouth plaque and bleeding scores (FMPS and FMBS), clinical attachment level (CAL) measurement, and the occurrence of osteonecrosis. Results. The mean plaque and bleeding were reduced and the CAL has not shown significant changes and in no cases was there manifestation of BRONJ. Conclusion. The protocol proved crucial for the maintenance of good oral health conditions by eliminating the risk of BRONJ during the observation period. PMID:25258628

  5. Risk Assessment of BRONJ in Oncologic Patients Treated with Bisphosphonates: Follow-Up to 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Vitali, Lucia; Nori, Alessandra; Berlin, Ricarda Sara; Mazur, Marta; Orsini, Giovanna; Putignano, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Bisphosphonates related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a pathological condition characterized by bone exposure or latent infection in patients treated with the drug. The aim of the study is to monitor the BRONJ level of risk health in patients with cancer, according to a preventive clinical protocol, which is firstly aimed at reducing risk factors such as the periodontal infections. Materials and Methods. 10 patients participated in the protocol and were evaluated at baseline and after 3 and 18 months of treatment with bisphosphonates, through full mouth plaque and bleeding scores (FMPS and FMBS), clinical attachment level (CAL) measurement, and the occurrence of osteonecrosis. Results. The mean plaque and bleeding were reduced and the CAL has not shown significant changes and in no cases was there manifestation of BRONJ. Conclusion. The protocol proved crucial for the maintenance of good oral health conditions by eliminating the risk of BRONJ during the observation period. PMID:25258628

  6. Hubble Space Telescope. Update: 18 months in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In April 1990, Space Shuttle Discovery launched the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). An 18 month in-orbit update of the operations and performance of the HST is presented. Numerous color photographs are shown of objects already observed, and mission plans are presented for future observations by the HST.

  7. Development of Vocal Protests from 3 to 18 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xin; Green, James A.; Gustafson, Gwen E.

    2009-01-01

    Infants often protest the activities of their caregivers, and this particular social interaction may provide an important window on early communication and its development. This study used naturalistic methods to investigate the development of vocal protests. Fifteen mother-infant dyads at each of 5 ages, from 3 to 18 months, were observed at…

  8. An Evaluation of an Abstinence-Only Sex Education Curriculum: An 18-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, George; Young, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the results from an 18-month follow-up evaluation of an abstinence education curriculum series. Participants were students from 15 school districts recruited to participate in the project. The intervention was the Sex Can Wait curriculum series, consisting of upper elementary, middle school, and high school components. The…

  9. Risk of obesity at 4 to 6 years of age among overweight or obese 18-month-olds

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Jesse J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether high weight for length at the 18-month well-baby visit is predictive of overweight or obese body mass index (BMI) at the 4- to 6-year well-child visit. Design Retrospective cohort study using objective electronic medical record measurements. Setting Eighteen family practices forming a community family health organization in Peterborough, Ont. Participants All children from the family health organization practices with at least 1 set of weight and length or height measurements at age 17 to 19 months and age 4 to 6 years (N = 126). Main outcome measure Relative risk (RR) of overweight BMI and RR of obese BMI at 4 to 6 years of age for normal versus overweight or obese 18-month-olds. Results Children who were either overweight or obese at their 18-month visits (n = 37) were more than twice as likely to be obese at age 4 to 6 years than children who had healthy weights at 18 months were (n = 89; RR = 2.71, 95% CI 1.13 to 6.47). The subgroup of obese 18-month-olds (n = 13) were at more than 3 times the risk of being obese at age 4 to 6 years than their healthy-weight-for-length counterparts (RR = 3.42, 95% CI 1.20 to 9.78). Thirty-one percent of obese 18-month-olds were obese at 4 to 6 years and a further 31% were overweight. Conclusion High weight for length at 18 months substantially increased a child’s risk of being overweight or obese at 4 to 6 years of age. Most overweight and obese 18-month-olds in this study did not achieve healthy BMIs by 4 to 6 years of age. A brief glance at the 18-month weight-for-length chart can easily help identify these high-risk toddlers. PMID:23585624

  10. An Experimental Trial of Adaptive Programming in Drug Court: Outcomes at 6, 12 and 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Benasutti, Kathleen M.; Fox, Gloria; Harron, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Test whether an adaptive program improves outcomes in drug court by adjusting the schedule of court hearings and clinical case-management sessions pursuant to a priori performance criteria. Methods Consenting participants in a misdemeanor drug court were randomly assigned to the adaptive program (n = 62) or to a baseline-matching condition (n = 63) in which they attended court hearings based on the results of a criminal risk assessment. Outcome measures were re-arrest rates at 18 months post-entry to the drug court and urine drug test results and structured interview results at 6 and 12 months post-entry. Results Although previously published analyses revealed significantly fewer positive drug tests for participants in the adaptive condition during the first 18 weeks of drug court, current analyses indicate the effects converged during the ensuing year. Between-group differences in new arrest rates, urine drug test results and self-reported psychosocial problems were small and non-statistically significant at 6, 12 and 18 months post-entry. A non-significant trend (p = .10) suggests there may have been a small residual impact (Cramer's ν = .15) on new misdemeanor arrests after 18 months. Conclusions Adaptive programming shows promise for enhancing short-term outcomes in drug courts; however, additional efforts are needed to extend the effects beyond the first 4 to 6 months of enrollment. PMID:25346652

  11. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in typically developing infants from 4 to 18 months.

    PubMed

    van Balen, Lieke C; Dijkstra, Linze Jaap; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2012-07-01

    Knowledge on the development of postural adjustments during infancy, in particular on the development of postural muscle coordination, is limited. This study aimed at the evaluation of the development of postural control during reaching in a supported sitting condition. Eleven typically developing infants participated in the study and were assessed at the ages of 4, 6, 10 and 18 months. We elicited reaching movements by presenting small toys at an arm's length distance, whilst activity of multiple arm, neck and trunk muscles was recorded using surface EMG. A model-based computer algorithm was used to detect the onset of phasic muscle activity. The results indicated that postural muscle activity during reaching whilst sitting supported is highly variable. Direction-specific postural activity was inconsistently present from early age onwards and increased between 10 and 18 months without reaching a 100 % consistency. The dominant pattern of activation at all ages was the 'complete pattern', in which all direction-specific muscles were recruited. At 4 months, a slight preference for top-down recruitment existed, which was gradually replaced by a preference for bottom-up recruitment. We conclude that postural control during the ecological task of reaching during supported sitting between 4 and 18 months of age is primarily characterized by variation. Already from 4 months onwards, infants are-within the variation-sometimes able to select muscle recruitment strategies that are optimal to the task at hand. PMID:22623096

  12. Oral Rehabilitation of an S-ECC Case with Orthodontic Intervention: 18 Months Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    OS, Raju; Krishna P, Thejo; R, Neeraja

    2011-01-01

    Severe-early childhood caries (S-ECC) is a specific form of rampant decay of primary teeth in infants, characterized by aggressive tooth destruction. This multifactorial disease in young infants is associated with the frequent use of sweetened fluids and fermentable carbohydrates over extended periods, poor oral hygiene as well as high level of mutans streptococci infection. The disease control and restoration of severely decayed primary teeth in children with S-ECC remains a challenge to general as well as pediatric dentists. This article portrays the oral rehabilitation of a five and half-year-old girl presenting with S-ECC with an 18 months follow-up.

  13. Executive functions in preschool children with ADHD and DBD: an 18-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Deković, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the stability of the association between executive functions and externalizing behavior problems, and the developmental change of executive functions in a predominately clinically diagnosed preschool sample (N = 200). Inhibition and working memory performance were assessed three times in 18 months. Across time, poorer inhibition performance in young children was associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), and poorer working memory performance was associated with ADHD. Inhibition and working memory performance increased over time, especially in the early preschool period. The improvement of inhibition performance was more pronounced in the clinically diagnosed children compared to the TD children.

  14. Pre-linguistic Vocal Trajectories at 6–18 Months of Age As Early Markers of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Chericoni, Natasha; de Brito Wanderley, Daniele; Costanzo, Valeria; Diniz-Gonçalves, Andréa; Leitgel Gille, Marluce; Parlato, Erika; Cohen, David; Apicella, Fabio; Calderoni, Sara; Muratori, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    This study explores pre-linguistic vocal trajectories in infants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during caregiver-infant interaction. Home videos were obtained from 10 infants with ASD and 10 typically developing infants (TD), covering three time periods: 0–6 months (T1, 47 video sequences), 6–12 months (T2, 47 video sequences), and 12–18 months (T3, 48 video sequences). In total 142 video sequences were analyzed. Vocalizations, long reduplicated babbling, 2-syllable babbling, and first words were investigated longitudinally. Face-gazing was also analyzed, to evaluate the social quality of vocal behaviors. Results show a lower rate of vocalizations in the ASD group at T2, and a lower rate of first words at T3, compared to the TD group. However, the prevalence of non-social babbling, appeared higher in the ASD group. The implications of these findings for screening programs are discussed. PMID:27807424

  15. Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Offspring Development at 18 Months: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stinger, Amanda; DiGirolamo, Ann M.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Neufeld, Lynnette M.; Rivera, Juan A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Stein, Aryeh D.; Wang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effects of prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on offspring development at 18 months of age. Design Randomized placebo double-blind controlled trial. Settings Cuernavaca, Mexico. Participants and Methods We followed up offspring (n = 730; 75% of the birth cohort) of women in Mexico who participated in a trial of DHA supplementation during the latter half of pregnancy. We assessed the effect of the intervention on child development and the potential modifying effects of gravidity, gender, SES, and quality of the home environment. Interventions or Main Exposures 400 mg/day of algal DHA. Outcome Measures Child development at 18 months of age measured using the Spanish version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. We calculated standardized psychomotor and mental development indices, and behavior rating scale scores. Results Intent-to-treat differences (DHA-control) were: Psychomotor Developmental Index -0.90 (95% CI: -2.35, 0.56), Mental Developmental Index -0.26 (95% CI: -1.63, 1.10) and Behavior Rating Scale -0.01 (95% CI: -0.95, 0.94). Prenatal DHA intake attenuated the positive association between home environment and psychomotor development index observed in the control group (p for interaction = 0.03) suggesting potential benefits for children living in home environments characterized by reduced caregiver interactions and opportunities for early childhood stimulation. Conclusions Prenatal DHA supplementation in a population with low intakes of DHA had no effects on offspring development at 18 months of age although there may be some benefit for infants from poor quality home environments. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00646360 PMID:26262896

  16. Attributing false beliefs about non-obvious properties at 18 months

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Rose M.; Baillargeon, Renée; Song, Hyun-joo; Leslie, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    Reports that infants in the second year of life can attribute false beliefs to others have all used a search paradigm in which an agent with a false belief about an object’s location searches for the object. The present research asked whether 18-month-olds would still demonstrate false-belief understanding when tested with a novel non-search paradigm. An experimenter shook an object, demonstrating that it rattled, and then asked an agent, “Can you do it?” In response to this prompt, the agent selected one of two test objects. Infants realized that the agent could be led through inference (Experiment 1) or memory (Experiment 2) to hold a false belief about which of the two test objects rattled. These results suggest that 18-month-olds can attribute false beliefs about non-obvious properties to others, and can do so in a non-search paradigm. These and additional results (Experiment 3) help address several alternative interpretations of false-belief findings with infants. PMID:21047625

  17. [An 18 month evaluation of MM-MTA pulpotomy on primary decayed molars].

    PubMed

    Abou Chedid, J C; Mchayleh, N; Khalil, I; Melki, B; Hardan, L S

    2015-12-01

    Pulpotomy is the most performed and controversial therapeutic in pediatric dentistry. Formocresol is known to have a toxic effect on living tissues, a mutagenic and carcinogenic potential with a systemic uptake of formocresol via pulpotomized teeth, other alternative products have been investigated. 40 molars were pulpotomized using Micro Mega Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MM-MTA), which eliminates the need for the use of formocresol. The effects of this material were evaluated both clinically and radiographically. Post-operative control examinations were performed at 1, 6, 12, and 18 months trying to detect spontaneous or stimulated pain, pathological tooth mobility, abscesses or fistulas, internal or external pathological tooth resorption, periapical bone destruction, or canal obliteration. Pain was absent at 18 months post operatively. Thirty six molar treated with the MM-MTA didn't show any mobility or pain, one molar presented a pathological resorption and one molar presented an abscess without a fistula at 12 month. The observations were compared to others related to formocresol, ferric sulfate, MTA, and laser pulpotomies, using the Chi-square test x2. The abundance of positive result strongly demonstrate that the MM-MTA pulpotomy on carious temporary molars is a promising technique. PMID:26939217

  18. Creatin-kinase elevation after accidental ingestion of almotriptan in an 18-month-old girl.

    PubMed

    Castagno, E; Lupica, M; Viola, S; Savino, F; Miniero, R

    2014-02-01

    Few studies have been published to demonstrate tolerability and efficacy of almotriptan in adolescents and children with migraine, particularly in the first years of life, though preliminary results are favorable. We report the case of an 18-month-old infant with elevation of serum levels of creatin-kinase after the accidental ingestion of almotriptan. A previously healthy 18-month-old girl (weight: 13 kg) was admitted to our Department four hours after the accidental ingestion of 6.25 mg of almotriptan (0.48 mg/kg), without any specific symptom. The performed investigations showed high serum levels of creatin-kinase (CK) (527 IU/L; normal values: 24-170 IU/L). Transaminase, creatinine, aldolase, myoglobin and troponin T serum levels were normal. The electrocardiogram proved negative. Initial management consisted of parenteral rehydration with saline solution. CK levels lowered significantly at 12 hours (455 IU/L) and at 65 hours (188 IU/L) after the ingestion. No symptoms were observed before discharge and on follow-up.

  19. Prime Time: 18-Month Violence Outcomes of a Clinic-Linked Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sieving, Renee E.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Secor-Turner, Molly; Garwick, Ann W.; Shlafer, Rebecca; Beckman, Kara J.; Pettingell, Sandra L.; Oliphant, Jennifer A.; Seppelt, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    Prime Time, a youth development intervention, aims to reduce multiple risk behaviors among adolescent girls seeking clinic services who are at high risk for pregnancy. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether Prime Time involvement produced changes in relational aggression, physical violence and related psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Qualitative case exemplars illustrated social contexts of intervention participants with differing longitudinal patterns of relational aggression and physical violence. Data were from a randomized efficacy trial with 13–17 year old girls (n=253) meeting specified risk criteria. Intervention participants were involved in Prime Time and usual clinic services for 18 months, control participants received usual clinic services. Participants in the current study completed self-report surveys at baseline and 18 months following enrollment. Outcomes analyses revealed significantly lower levels of relational aggression perpetration in the intervention group versus controls. In contrast, Prime Time involvement did not result in significant reductions in physical violence. Exploratory dose-response analyses indicated that reductions in relational aggression may have been most pronounced among girls actively involved in Prime Time case management and peer leadership activities. Qualitative findings suggested that the intervention’s emphasis on modeling and building supportive relationships contributed to reductions in relational aggression. This study contributes to a very limited evidence base regarding effective approaches to preventing violence among high-risk adolescent girls. Findings suggest that offering youth development interventions through clinic settings hold promise in reducing violence risk among vulnerable youth. PMID:23543359

  20. Prime time: 18-month violence outcomes of a clinic-linked intervention.

    PubMed

    Sieving, Renee E; McMorris, Barbara J; Secor-Turner, Molly; Garwick, Ann W; Shlafer, Rebecca; Beckman, Kara J; Pettingell, Sandra L; Oliphant, Jennifer A; Seppelt, Ann M

    2014-08-01

    Prime Time, a youth development intervention, aims to reduce multiple risk behaviors among adolescent girls seeking clinic services who are at high risk for pregnancy. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether Prime Time involvement produced changes in relational aggression, physical violence, and related psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Qualitative case exemplars illustrated social contexts of intervention participants with differing longitudinal patterns of relational aggression and physical violence. Data were from a randomized efficacy trial with 13-17 year-old girls (n = 253) meeting specified risk criteria. Intervention participants were involved in Prime Time and usual clinic services for 18 months, control participants received usual clinic services. Participants in the current study completed self-report surveys at baseline and 18 months following enrollment. Outcomes analyses revealed significantly lower levels of relational aggression perpetration in the intervention group versus controls. In contrast, Prime Time involvement did not result in significant reductions in physical violence. Exploratory dose-response analyses indicated that reductions in relational aggression may have been most pronounced among girls actively involved in Prime Time case management and peer leadership activities. Qualitative findings suggested that the intervention's emphasis on modeling and building supportive relationships contributed to reductions in relational aggression. This study contributes to what has been a very limited evidence base regarding effective approaches to preventing violence among high-risk adolescent girls. Findings suggest that offering youth development interventions through clinic settings hold promise in reducing violence risk among vulnerable youth.

  1. Prime time: 18-month violence outcomes of a clinic-linked intervention.

    PubMed

    Sieving, Renee E; McMorris, Barbara J; Secor-Turner, Molly; Garwick, Ann W; Shlafer, Rebecca; Beckman, Kara J; Pettingell, Sandra L; Oliphant, Jennifer A; Seppelt, Ann M

    2014-08-01

    Prime Time, a youth development intervention, aims to reduce multiple risk behaviors among adolescent girls seeking clinic services who are at high risk for pregnancy. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether Prime Time involvement produced changes in relational aggression, physical violence, and related psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Qualitative case exemplars illustrated social contexts of intervention participants with differing longitudinal patterns of relational aggression and physical violence. Data were from a randomized efficacy trial with 13-17 year-old girls (n = 253) meeting specified risk criteria. Intervention participants were involved in Prime Time and usual clinic services for 18 months, control participants received usual clinic services. Participants in the current study completed self-report surveys at baseline and 18 months following enrollment. Outcomes analyses revealed significantly lower levels of relational aggression perpetration in the intervention group versus controls. In contrast, Prime Time involvement did not result in significant reductions in physical violence. Exploratory dose-response analyses indicated that reductions in relational aggression may have been most pronounced among girls actively involved in Prime Time case management and peer leadership activities. Qualitative findings suggested that the intervention's emphasis on modeling and building supportive relationships contributed to reductions in relational aggression. This study contributes to what has been a very limited evidence base regarding effective approaches to preventing violence among high-risk adolescent girls. Findings suggest that offering youth development interventions through clinic settings hold promise in reducing violence risk among vulnerable youth. PMID:23543359

  2. Body weights at weaning and 18 months of Zebu, Brown Swiss, Charolais and crossbred heifers in south-east Mexico.

    PubMed

    Magaña, J G; Segura-Correa, J C

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the body weights up to 18 months of age of 12 breed groups of Zebu (Z), Brown Swiss (BS) and Charolais heifers (CH), and their crosses under tropical conditions. A total of 1434 data on weaning weights adjusted to 240 days (WW8), average daily gain to 240 days (ADG8) and 1025 body weights adjusted to 550 days (BW18) and average postweaning daily gain (ADG18) of heifers born from 1981 to 1995 were used. Cows and calves remained together from birth to weaning and grazed on Guinea grass (Panicum maximum). Years of birth were grouped in three periods, because of the small numbers of observations per year (1981-85, 1986-90 and 1991-95). Similarly, months of birth were grouped in three seasons: dry (February to May), rainy (June to September) and windy and rainy (October to January). Ages of dams were classified in six groups (or=8 years). Breed groups were animals with 12.5%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 62.5%, 75.0% and 100% BS genes and 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% and 100% CH genes and also Z and undefined crossbred animals. Data were analysed using a fixed model that included effects of period, and season of birth, age of dam and breed group of heifer. Analyses of variance showed significant (p < 0.05) effects of period, season and breed group for all traits. However, parity was significant (p < 0.05) only for WW8 and ADG8. Interactions among main factors were not significant (p > 0.05). Z heifers gained the least weight to weaning but were similar to BS at 18 months of age. CH were heavier at 18 months of age than BS heifers, but not at weaning. Body weights at 18 months of age of 1/8 and 1/4 BS crossbred heifers were similar (p > 0.05) and lower than F1 (BS x Z) (p < 0.05); however, the later and higher grades of BS had the highest body weights at 18 months of age and were similar to CH and 1/4 CH x 3/4 Z heifers. Undefined crossbred heifers had better performance than the Z breed group. Environmental factors were

  3. 7 CFR 319.8-21 - Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage... Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-21 Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage. Cotton and covers, the entry of which has been authorized subject to vacuum fumigation or...

  4. 7 CFR 319.8-21 - Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage... Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-21 Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage. Cotton and covers, the entry of which has been authorized subject to vacuum fumigation or...

  5. 7 CFR 319.8-21 - Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage... Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-21 Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage. Cotton and covers, the entry of which has been authorized subject to vacuum fumigation or...

  6. 7 CFR 319.8-21 - Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage... Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-21 Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage. Cotton and covers, the entry of which has been authorized subject to vacuum fumigation or...

  7. 7 CFR 319.8-21 - Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage... Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-21 Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage. Cotton and covers, the entry of which has been authorized subject to vacuum fumigation or...

  8. Scheduling periodic jobs using imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jen-Yao; Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1987-01-01

    One approach to avoid timing faults in hard, real-time systems is to make available intermediate, imprecise results produced by real-time processes. When a result of the desired quality cannot be produced in time, an imprecise result of acceptable quality produced before the deadline can be used. The problem of scheduling periodic jobs to meet deadlines on a system that provides the necessary programming language primitives and run-time support for processes to return imprecise results is discussed. Since the scheduler may choose to terminate a task before it is completed, causing it to produce an acceptable but imprecise result, the amount of processor time assigned to any task in a valid schedule can be less than the amount of time required to complete the task. A meaningful formulation of the scheduling problem must take into account the overall quality of the results. Depending on the different types of undesirable effects caused by errors, jobs are classified as type N or type C. For type N jobs, the effects of errors in results produced in different periods are not cumulative. A reasonable performance measure is the average error over all jobs. Three heuristic algorithms that lead to feasible schedules with small average errors are described. For type C jobs, the undesirable effects of errors produced in different periods are cumulative. Schedulability criteria of type C jobs are discussed.

  9. [Screening of hearing in children up to 18 months of age].

    PubMed

    Theunissen, E J

    2000-03-25

    In the Netherlands the hearing screening of young children is carried out at the age of nine months by the Ewing or 'Compact Amsterdam paedo-audiometric screener' (CAPAS) test. These screening tests do not always lead to the necessary follow-up diagnostics, mainly because the different disciplines disagree. Recently a consensus concerning the follow-up of children with a poor test result was reached by the Youth Health Care institutions, general practitioners, paediatricians, ENT physicians and audiologic centres. Each party has its own responsibilities and commits itself to complete the diagnostics before the age of 18 months. Until new screening methods have been validated it is advised to refer all children with poor screening test results for special diagnostics, if necessary after they have been treated for otitis media with effusion. Currently the most appropriate method for final diagnosis is the measurement of oto-acoustic emissions. PMID:10761544

  10. Changes in the Optical Properties of Materials Are Observed After 18 Months in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    1999-01-01

    Materials located on the exterior of spacecraft in low Earth orbit are subjected to a number of environmental threats, including atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeroid and debris impact. Atomic oxygen attacks materials vulnerable to oxidation. Ultraviolet radiation can break chemical bonds and cause undesirable changes in optical properties. Thermal cycling can cause cracking, and micrometeroid and debris impacts can damage protective coatings. Another threat is contamination. The outgassing of volatile chemicals can contaminate nearby surfaces, changing their thermal control properties. Contaminated surfaces may undergo further change as a result of atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation exposure. The Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA) experiment was designed as a risk mitigation experiment for the International Space Station. Samples were characterized before launch, exposed for 18 months on the exterior of Mir, and characterized upon their return. Lessons learned from POSA about the durability of material properties can be applied to the space station and other long-duration missions.

  11. Factors predicting sensory profile of 4 to 18 month old infants

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Carina; Caçola, Priscila; Carvalhal, Maria Isabel Martins Mourão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify environment factors predicting sensory profile of infants between 4 and 18 months old. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated 97 infants (40 females e 57 males), with a mean age of 1.05±0.32 years with the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants (TSFI) and also asked 97 parents and 11 kindergarten teachers of seven daycare centers to answer the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS). The AHEMD-IS is a questionnaire that characterizes the opportunities in the home environment for infants between 3 and 18 months of age. We tested the association between affordances and the sensory profile of infants. Significant variables were entered into a regression model to determine predictors of sensory profile. RESULTS: The majority of infants (66%) had a normal sensory profile and 34% were at risk or deficit. Affordances in the home were classified as adequate and they were good in the studied daycare centers. The results of the regression revealed that only daily hours in daycare center and daycare outside space influenced the sensory profile of infants, in particular the Ocular-Motor Control component. CONCLUSIONS: The sensory profile of infants was between normal and at risk. While the family home offered adequate affordances for motor development, the daycare centers of the infants involved demonstrated a good quantity and quality of affordances. Overall, we conclude that daily hours in the daycare center and daycare outside space were predictors of the sensory profile, particular on Ocular-Motor Control component. PMID:25887929

  12. Language development at 18 months is related to multimodal communicative strategies at 12 months.

    PubMed

    Igualada, Alfonso; Bosch, Laura; Prieto, Pilar

    2015-05-01

    The present study investigated the degree to which an infants' use of simultaneous gesture-speech combinations during controlled social interactions predicts later language development. Nineteen infants participated in a declarative pointing task involving three different social conditions: two experimental conditions (a) available, when the adult was visually attending to the infant but did not attend to the object of reference jointly with the child, and (b) unavailable, when the adult was not visually attending to neither the infant nor the object; and (c) a baseline condition, when the adult jointly engaged with the infant's object of reference. At 12 months of age measures related to infants' speech-only productions, pointing-only gestures, and simultaneous pointing-speech combinations were obtained in each of the three social conditions. Each child's lexical and grammatical output was assessed at 18 months of age through parental report. Results revealed a significant interaction between social condition and type of communicative production. Specifically, only simultaneous pointing-speech combinations increased in frequency during the available condition compared to baseline, while no differences were found for speech-only and pointing-only productions. Moreover, simultaneous pointing-speech combinations in the available condition at 12 months positively correlated with lexical and grammatical development at 18 months of age. The ability to selectively use this multimodal communicative strategy to engage the adult in joint attention by drawing his attention toward an unseen event or object reveals 12-month-olds' clear understanding of referential cues that are relevant for language development. This strategy to successfully initiate and maintain joint attention is related to language development as it increases learning opportunities from social interactions.

  13. Scheduling periodic jobs that allow imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jen-Yao; Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1990-01-01

    The problem of scheduling periodic jobs in hard real-time systems that support imprecise computations is discussed. Two workload models of imprecise computations are presented. These models differ from traditional models in that a task may be terminated any time after it has produced an acceptable result. Each task is logically decomposed into a mandatory part followed by an optional part. In a feasible schedule, the mandatory part of every task is completed before the deadline of the task. The optional part refines the result produced by the mandatory part to reduce the error in the result. Applications are classified as type N and type C, according to undesirable effects of errors. The two workload models characterize the two types of applications. The optional parts of the tasks in an N job need not ever be completed. The resulting quality of each type-N job is measured in terms of the average error in the results over several consecutive periods. A class of preemptive, priority-driven algorithms that leads to feasible schedules with small average error is described and evaluated.

  14. The Effects of Experimental Sleep Apnea on Cardiac and Respiratory Functions in 6 and 18 Month Old Dystrophic (mdx) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fallavollita, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease where over 90% of patients succumb to respiratory or cardiac failure. Sleep apnea and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) are noted in a plurality of DMD patients, and the resulting nocturnal episodic hypoxia (EH) cannot be ruled out as a contributing factor to cardiac and respiratory dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the impact of long-term episodic hypoxia, which mimics the cyclic hypoxia seen in sleep apnea, on cardiac and respiratory function in a murine model of DMD (mdx mice). Since the severity and prevalence of sleep apnea in DMD increases with age, we studied the impact of EH on young (6-month) and on older (18-month) mdx mice. Mice were either exposed for 12 weeks to EH (8 hours/day, 5 days/week) or to room air. We noted a significant increase in left ventricular (LV) dilatation (transthoracic echocardiography) on EH exposure in both age groups, but reduced LV contractility was seen only in 6-month old mice. With EH exposure, an increased fibrosis (hydroxyproline) was noted in both cardiac and diaphragm muscle in 18-month but not 6-month old mice. No significant change in relative diaphragm strength (in-vitro) was noted on EH exposure in 18-month old mice. In contrast, EH exposed 6-month old mice showed a significant increase in relative diaphragm strength. EH exposure did not result in any significant change in ventilatory parameters (barometric plethysmography) in awake 6-month old mdx mice. In contrast, 18-month old mdx mice showed considerable ventilatory dysfunction, consistent with reduced ventilatory reserve. Our findings highlight that sleep apnea impacts respiratory and cardiac function in muscular dystrophy, and that EH can have divergent effects on both systems. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study to investigate the impact of EH on cardiac and respiratory function in mdx mice. PMID:26808526

  15. The Effects of Experimental Sleep Apnea on Cardiac and Respiratory Functions in 6 and 18 Month Old Dystrophic (mdx) Mice.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Milind R; Fallavollita, James A; Farkas, Gaspar A

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease where over 90% of patients succumb to respiratory or cardiac failure. Sleep apnea and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) are noted in a plurality of DMD patients, and the resulting nocturnal episodic hypoxia (EH) cannot be ruled out as a contributing factor to cardiac and respiratory dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the impact of long-term episodic hypoxia, which mimics the cyclic hypoxia seen in sleep apnea, on cardiac and respiratory function in a murine model of DMD (mdx mice). Since the severity and prevalence of sleep apnea in DMD increases with age, we studied the impact of EH on young (6-month) and on older (18-month) mdx mice. Mice were either exposed for 12 weeks to EH (8 hours/day, 5 days/week) or to room air. We noted a significant increase in left ventricular (LV) dilatation (transthoracic echocardiography) on EH exposure in both age groups, but reduced LV contractility was seen only in 6-month old mice. With EH exposure, an increased fibrosis (hydroxyproline) was noted in both cardiac and diaphragm muscle in 18-month but not 6-month old mice. No significant change in relative diaphragm strength (in-vitro) was noted on EH exposure in 18-month old mice. In contrast, EH exposed 6-month old mice showed a significant increase in relative diaphragm strength. EH exposure did not result in any significant change in ventilatory parameters (barometric plethysmography) in awake 6-month old mdx mice. In contrast, 18-month old mdx mice showed considerable ventilatory dysfunction, consistent with reduced ventilatory reserve. Our findings highlight that sleep apnea impacts respiratory and cardiac function in muscular dystrophy, and that EH can have divergent effects on both systems. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study to investigate the impact of EH on cardiac and respiratory function in mdx mice. PMID:26808526

  16. Upper Airway Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Durability of the Treatment Effect at 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Strollo, Patrick J.; Gillespie, M. Boyd; Soose, Ryan J.; Maurer, Joachim T.; de Vries, Nico; Cornelius, Jason; Hanson, Ronald D.; Padhya, Tapan A.; Steward, David L.; Woodson, B. Tucker; Verbraecken, Johan; Vanderveken, Olivier M.; Goetting, Mark G.; Feldman, Neil; Chabolle, Frédéric; Badr, M. Safwan; Randerath, Winfried; Strohl, Kingman P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the stability of improvement in polysomnographic measures of sleep disordered breathing, patient reported outcomes, the durability of hypoglossal nerve recruitment and safety at 18 months in the Stimulation Treatment for Apnea Reduction (STAR) trial participants. Design: Prospective multicenter single group trial with participants serving as their own controls. Setting: Twenty-two community and academic sleep medicine and otolaryngology practices. Measurements: Primary outcome measures were the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the 4% oxygen desaturation index (ODI). Secondary outcome measures were the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), and oxygen saturation percent time < 90% during sleep. Stimulation level for each participant was collected at three predefined thresholds during awake testing. Procedure- and/or device-related adverse events were reviewed and coded by the Clinical Events Committee Results: The median AHI was reduced by 67.4% from the baseline of 29.3 to 9.7/h at 18 mo. The median ODI was reduced by 67.5% from 25.4 to 8.6/h at 18 mo. The FOSQ and ESS improved significantly at 18 mo compared to baseline values. The functional threshold was unchanged from baseline at 18 mo. Two participants experienced a serious device-related adverse event requiring neurostimulator repositioning and fixation. No tongue weakness reported at 18 mo. Conclusion: Upper airway stimulation via the hypoglossal nerve maintained a durable effect of improving airway stability during sleep and improved patient reported outcomes (Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire) without an increase of the stimulation thresholds or tongue injury at 18 mo of follow-up. Citation: Strollo PJ, Gillespie MB, Soose RJ, Maurer JT, de Vries N, Cornelius J, Hanson RD, Padhya TA, Steward DL, Woodson BT, Verbraecken J, Vanderveken OM, Goetting MG, Feldman N, Chabolle F, Badr MS, Randerath W

  17. Cumulative contextual risk, maternal responsivity, and social cognition at 18 months.

    PubMed

    Wade, Mark; Moore, Chris; Astington, Janet Wilde; Frampton, Kristen; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2015-02-01

    By 18 months children demonstrate a range of social-cognitive skills that can be considered important precursors to more advanced forms of social understanding such as theory of mind. Although individual differences in social cognition have been linked to neurocognitive maturation, sociocultural models of development suggest that environmental influences operate in the development of children's social-cognitive outcomes. In the current study of 501 children and their mothers, we tested and found support for a model in which distal environmental risk, assessed when children were newborns, was indirectly associated with children's social-cognitive competency at 18 months through mothers' responsivity at 18 months. Part of this effect also operated through children's concomitant language skills, suggesting both a language-mediated and a language-independent mechanism of social-cognitive development. These findings are discussed with respect to the Vygotskian themes of internalization and semiotic mediation.

  18. REPORT OF WORK INJURIES TO MINORS UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE, A STUDY OF 18 MONTHS' EXPERIENCE REPORTED BY 28 STATES, 1964-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Standards (DOL), Washington, DC.

    THE BUREAU OF LABOR STANDARDS FURNISHED REPORT FORMS AND GUIDES FOR COMPLETING THEM TO THE 28 PARTICIPATING STATES. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY MAIL ON A VOLUNTARY REPORTING BASIS DURING THE 18-MONTH PERIOD, JANUARY 1964 THROUGH JUNE 1965. FINDINGS INCLUDED -- (1) A TOTAL OF 16,936 INJURIES TO EMPLOYED MINORS UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE WAS REPORTED, (2) OF…

  19. Environmental impacts of the coal ash spill in Kingston, Tennessee: an 18-month survey.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, Laura; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary S; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Deonarine, Amrika

    2010-12-15

    An 18 month investigation of the environmental impacts of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) coal ash spill in Kingston, Tennessee combined with leaching experiments on the spilled TVA coal ash have revealed that leachable coal ash contaminants (LCACs), particularly arsenic, selenium, boron, strontium, and barium, have different effects on the quality of impacted environments. While LCACs levels in the downstream river water are relatively low and below the EPA drinking water and ecological thresholds, elevated levels were found in surface water with restricted water exchange and in pore water extracted from the river sediments downstream from the spill. The high concentration of arsenic (up to 2000 μg/L) is associated with some degree of anoxic conditions and predominance of the reduced arsenic species (arsenite) in the pore waters. Laboratory leaching simulations show that the pH and ash/water ratio control the LCACs' abundance and geochemical composition of the impacted water. These results have important implications for the prediction of the fate and migration of LCACs in the environment, particularly for the storage of coal combustion residues (CCRs) in holding ponds and landfills, and any potential CCRs effluents leakage into lakes, rivers, and other aquatic systems.

  20. Fathers & Babies: How Babies Grow and What They Need from You, from Birth to 18 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzollo, Jean

    This book provides fathers with specific developmental theory and practical skills and advice concerning how babies grow and what they need from fathers from the time they are born until they turn 18 months. Each chapter provides information and theory on age appropriate play activities and specific information on a baby's growth and developmental…

  1. Learning from Others in 9-18-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goubet, Nathalie; Rochat, Philippe; Maire-Leblond, Celine; Poss, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    The use of an adult as a resource for help and instruction in a problem solving situation was examined in 9, 14, and 18-month-old infants. Infants were placed in various situations ranging from a simple means-end task where a toy was placed beyond infants' prehensile space on a mat, to instances where an attractive toy was placed inside closed…

  2. The Structure of Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in the General Population at 18 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beuker, Karin T.; Schjolberg, Synnve; Lie, Kari Kveim; Donders, Rogier; Lappenschaar, Martijn; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children in the population fit the three-factor structure of ASD as described in the DSM-IV, and cluster together in individual subjects. This study analysed questionnaire data on ASD symptoms filled in by mothers of 11,332 18-month-old children that was collected in the…

  3. Differential Mental Development of 18 Month-Old Same-Sexed and Opposite-Sexed Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathryn Norcross; Campbell, Kathleen M.

    This paper describes a study which examined the performance of 48 pairs of 18-month-old twins on the Mental Development Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development to determine whether score differences would be found for the three subgroups of identical, fraternal same-sexed, and fraternal opposite-sexed twins. Of the 96 subjects, 46 (23…

  4. The Role of Context in the Categorization of Hybrid Toy Stimuli by 18-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mareschal, Denis; Tan, Seok Hui

    2008-01-01

    Using a sequential touching procedure, we examined whether 18-month-olds could use different categorization strategies adaptively as a function of context. Infants were presented with test toys of land animals (quadrupeds), cars, and hybrids made by recombining car parts with animal parts. Infants who experienced a context emphasizing a taxonomic…

  5. Which Penguin Is This? Attributing False Beliefs about Object Identity at 18 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rose M.; Baillargeon, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shown that infants as young as 13 months can attribute false beliefs to agents, suggesting that the psychological-reasoning subsystem necessary for attributing reality-incongruent informational states (Subsystem-2, SS2) is operational in infancy. The present research asked whether 18-month-olds' false-belief reasoning extends…

  6. Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

  7. Predicting Changes in Eating Disorder Symptoms among Adolescents in China: An 18-Month Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This 18-month prospective study investigated factors that contributed to changes in eating disorder symptoms among adolescents living in the People's Republic of China. Five hundred forty-one Chinese middle school and high school students (182 boys, 359 girls) completed measures of eating disorder symptoms; body dissatisfaction; appearance ideal…

  8. Object retrieval through observational learning in 8- to 18-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Esseily, R; Nadel, J; Fagard, J

    2010-12-01

    Observational learning was studied in 8-, 10-, 12-, 15- and 18-month-old infants. Using object-retrieval tasks of relatively comparable difficulty for each age group, we showed that between 10 and 12 months there is a change in the capacity to learn a new skill by observation.

  9. Psychological Morbidity in Children 18 Months after Kashmir Earthquake of 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayub, Muhammad; Poongan, Ishwari; Masood, Khadija; Gul, Huma; Ali, Mahwish; Farrukh, Ammara; Shaheen, Aisha; Chaudhry, Haroon Rasheed; Naeem, Farooq

    2012-01-01

    A severe earthquake occurred in Kashmir in 2005. The epicentre was close to Muzzafarabad. We collected data on over 1,100 children 18 months after the earthquake to look at symptoms of PTSD and behavioural and emotional problems using well established questionnaires. We found that 64.8% of children had significant symptoms of PTSD. Girls were more…

  10. The stability of 'food addiction' as assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale in a non-clinical population over 18-months.

    PubMed

    Pursey, Kirrilly M; Collins, Clare E; Stanwell, Peter; Burrows, Tracy L

    2016-01-01

    The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) is a widely used tool to assess the behavioural indicators of addictive-like eating. No studies, however, have used a longitudinal design to determine whether these addictive-like eating behaviours are a stable or transient phenomenon in a community-based population. This study aimed to evaluate whether food addiction Diagnosis and Symptom scores as assessed by the YFAS remain stable over 18-months in a non-clinical population. Young adults aged 18-35 years were recruited from the community to a web-based survey in 2013. The survey included demographics, anthropometrics and the YFAS. Participants who volunteered to be recontacted for future research were invited to complete the same survey 18-months later. The YFAS scoring outputs Diagnosis and Symptom scores were tested for agreement and reliability between the two time points. Of the 303 participants who completed the original survey and agreed to be recontacted, 69 participants (22.8% of those recontacted, 94% female, 67% normal weight at baseline) completed the 18-month follow-up survey. At baseline, thirteen participants met the YFAS predefined criteria for Diagnosis, while eleven participants met these criteria at the 18-month follow-up. YFAS Diagnosis was found to have moderate agreement [K = .50, 95% CI (.23, .77)] between the two time points while Symptom scores had good agreement [K = .70, 95% CI (.54, .83)]. Intraclass correlation coefficients were interpreted as moderate over the 18-month period for both the Diagnosis [ICC = .71, 95% CI (.45, .88)] and Symptom scores [ICC = .72, 95% CI (.58, .82)]. YFAS assessed food addiction Diagnosis and Symptom scores were found to be relatively stable over 18-months in a non-clinical population of predominantly female, young adults. Future research is required to determine the impact of behavioural weight loss interventions on YFAS assessed addictive-like eating.

  11. Purpuric nodules and macules on the scalp of an 18-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Malbora, Baris; Senel, Engin; Avci, Zekai; Ozbek, Namik

    2010-01-01

    An 18-month-old boy was consulted to a pediatric clinic with a 5-month history of purpuric macules and nodules on the scalp. He had a history of trauma (falling down from a chair) to the scalp about 6 months before the consultation. He had been brought to an emergency department after the trauma. Cranial computed tomography revealed a small crack on the temporal bone. Purpuric macules and nodules of the scalp had been noticed on the control 1 month later. Results of total blood tests had been within normal limits. Dermatologic examination disclosed multiple pink to violaceous infiltrated cutaneous nodules and purpuric macules with diameters of0.5 to 1.5 cm on his scalp (Figure 1). No petechiae or ecchymoses were seen. Cervical lymphadenopathy was detected during physical examination. There was no hepatosplenomegaly. A punch biopsy was obtained from one of the infiltrated nodules and was sent for histopathologic examination. Histopathologic examination revealed diffuse dermal and subcutaneous edema, erythrocyte extravasation and infiltration by monomorphic cells with large hyperchromatic nuclei, and high mitotic activity (Figure 2). Histopathologic staining was positive for leukocyte common antigen and CD68 in these cells. Results of complete blood cell count of the patient were as follows: hemoglobin: 8.44 g/dL; white blood cell count: 29.2 x 10(9)/L; and platelet count 55.6 x 10(9)/L. Bone marrow aspirate results showed 68.4% blast cells and a biopsy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia, with flow cytometry findings positive for acute monoblastic leukemia (AML) French-American-British (FAB)-M5 phenotype. We initiated induction chemotherapy for AML (AML-M5) according to the AML Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster 2004 protocol.' Complete resolution of the leukemia cutis lesions was attained with chemotherapy at the end of the first month of treatment.

  12. First symbols in a girl with Down syndrome: a longitudinal study from 12 to 18 months.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Karina; Rodríguez, Cintia; Palacios, Pedro

    2014-08-01

    Symbolic uses of objects originate in communicative and triadic contexts (adult-child-object). In this longitudinal study we explore the emergence and development of the first symbolic uses in triadic interaction contexts in a girl with Down syndrome between 12 and 18-months of age. We conducted five sessions of video recording, at 12, 13½, 15, 16½, and 18 months chronological age. At each session we videotaped the girl and her mother interacting with different objects. Data were coded in semiotic categories used in previous studies (Rodríguez & Moro, 1999) and a microgenetic analysis was conducted for each session. The first symbolic uses by the girl appeared at 13½ months. Symbols were of different types and levels of complexity, and the adult had an important role in facilitating the production of these symbols.

  13. Understanding Attention: 12- and 18-Month-Olds Know What Is New for Other Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael; Haberl, Katharina

    2003-01-01

    Twelve- and 18-month-olds played with 2 adults and 2 new toys. For a third toy, one adult left the room while the child and other adult played with it. This adult returned, looked at the 3 toys, expressed excitement, and asked "Can you give it to me?" Infants at both ages were able to do so, suggesting that 1-year-olds understand other persons as…

  14. Assessment of the 18-month permanence of onlay tip cartilage grafts following rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Persichetti, Paolo; Simone, Pierfranco; Carusi, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    Augmentation rhinoplasty requires addition of materials of various natures to reshape the nasal pyramid. Onlay tip grafts are single or multilayered grafts placed horizontally over the alar domes. The aim of the present study was to assess the 18-month permanence of onlay septal cartilage grafts. Twenty-eight patients underwent rhinoplasty with onlay tip cartilage graft, between June 2008 and November 2008 at the Campus Bio-Medico University in Rome, Italy. They were reviewed and photographed 6 months and 18 months postoperatively. Comparison of 6-month and 18-month postoperative pictures was performed with Adobe Photoshop CS. Measurements on pictures were taken with AutoCAD. Comparison of photographs showed no visible difference in nasal tip projection. Comparison of the measurements of tip projection showed a mean reduction of 0.06 mm (0.19%). Considerable stability of nasal tip projection after rhinoplasty with onlay tip grafts was observed postoperatively. Comparison of standardised digital photographs is a valid procedure to assess contour alterations of various anatomical structures after plastic surgery. PMID:23547534

  15. Assessment of the 18-month permanence of onlay tip cartilage grafts following rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Persichetti, Paolo; Simone, Pierfranco; Carusi, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    Augmentation rhinoplasty requires addition of materials of various natures to reshape the nasal pyramid. Onlay tip grafts are single or multilayered grafts placed horizontally over the alar domes. The aim of the present study was to assess the 18-month permanence of onlay septal cartilage grafts. Twenty-eight patients underwent rhinoplasty with onlay tip cartilage graft, between June 2008 and November 2008 at the Campus Bio-Medico University in Rome, Italy. They were reviewed and photographed 6 months and 18 months postoperatively. Comparison of 6-month and 18-month postoperative pictures was performed with Adobe Photoshop CS. Measurements on pictures were taken with AutoCAD. Comparison of photographs showed no visible difference in nasal tip projection. Comparison of the measurements of tip projection showed a mean reduction of 0.06 mm (0.19%). Considerable stability of nasal tip projection after rhinoplasty with onlay tip grafts was observed postoperatively. Comparison of standardised digital photographs is a valid procedure to assess contour alterations of various anatomical structures after plastic surgery.

  16. Antenatal Micronutrient Supplementation Relationship with Children’s Weight and Height from Birth up to the Age of 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    JABBARI, Hossein; BAKHSHIAN, Fariba; ASGARI, Mohammad; SATTARI, Mohammadreza; NAGHAVI-BEHZAD, Mohammad; MASHAYEKHI, Simin Ozar

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal nutritional is the most important environmental factor influencing pregnancy outcome. While studies showed association between maternal iron-micronutrient deficiencies with pregnancy outcome, data examining impact of micronutrient supplementation on growth rate beyond birth are sparse. Present study examined the relationship between iron and multivitamins supplementation on growth rate of babies up to age of 18 month. Methods: This study was a statistical analysis on data recorded through a routine procedure in health houses from 1994 to 2007. Subjects were selected by a two-stage randomization method and required data extracted from the records. Analyses were performed using STATA 10 software. Results: Data was collected for 3835 pairs of mother-baby. Mothers received 61.7±5.4 and 115.6±53.8 multivitamins and iron tablets, respectively. Analyses showed significant relationship between children’s weight and height at birth with iron supplementation and children’s height at 6, 12 and 18 month with multivitamins supplementation. Conclusions: Mechanisms of these effects are unclear but it is safe to suggest supplementation during pregnancy is necessary. PMID:23967431

  17. Hand- and Object-Mouthing of Rural Bangladeshi Children 3–18 Months Old

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Laura H.; Ercumen, Ayse; Pickering, Amy J.; Unicomb, Leanne; Davis, Jennifer; Luby, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Children are exposed to environmental contaminants by placing contaminated hands or objects in their mouths. We quantified hand- and object-mouthing frequencies of Bangladeshi children and determined if they differ from those of U.S. children to evaluate the appropriateness of applying U.S. exposure models in other socio-cultural contexts. We conducted a five-hour structured observation of the mouthing behaviors of 148 rural Bangladeshi children aged 3–18 months. We modeled mouthing frequencies using 2-parameter Weibull distributions to compare the modeled medians with those of U.S. children. In Bangladesh the median frequency of hand-mouthing was 37.3 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 34.4 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 29.7 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. The median frequency of object-mouthing was 23.1 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 29.6 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 15.2 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. At all ages both hand- and object-mouthing frequencies were higher than those of U.S. children. Mouthing frequencies were not associated with child location (indoor/outdoor). Using hand- and object-mouthing exposure models from U.S. and other high-income countries might not accurately estimate children’s exposure to environmental contaminants via mouthing in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:27271651

  18. What Infants Know about Syntax but Couldn't Have Learned: Experimental Evidence for Syntactic Structure at 18 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidz, Jeffrey; Waxman, Sandra; Freedman, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Examined parental speech data demonstrating that linguistic input to children does not contain sufficient information to support unaided learning of the pronoun "one." Examined 18-month-olds' interpretation of sentences with a "one" substitution. Found that 18-month-olds have command of the syntax of "one." Because syntactic knowledge could not…

  19. 18-Month-Olds Predict Specific Action Mistakes through Attribution of False Belief, Not Ignorance, and Intervene Accordingly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudsen, Birgit; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This study employed a new "anticipatory intervening" paradigm to tease apart false belief and ignorance-based interpretations of 18-month-olds' helpful informing. We investigated in three experiments whether 18-month-old infants inform an adult selectively about one of the two locations depending on the adult's belief about which of the two…

  20. Emerging narrative discourse skills 18 months after traumatic brain injury in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the longer term effect of traumatic brain injury (TBI), approximately 18 months post-injury, on emerging narrative discourse skills of 85 children with orthopaedic injury (OI), 43 children with moderate TBI, and 19 children with severe TBI who were between 3 years and 6 years 11 months at injury. Children with TBI performed worse than children with OI on most discourse indices. Children with severe TBI were less proficient than children with moderate TBI at identifying unimportant story information. Age and pragmatic skills were predictors of discourse performance. PMID:22257728

  1. A novel biodegradable biliary stent in the normal duct hepaticojejunal anastomosis: an 18-month follow-up in a large animal model.

    PubMed

    Laukkarinen, Johanna M; Sand, Juhani A; Chow, Pierce; Juuti, Hanne; Kellomäki, Minna; Kärkkäinen, Päivi; Isola, Jorma; Yu, Sidney; Somanesan, Satchithanantham; Kee, Irene; Song, In Chin; Ng, Teck Hin; Nordback, Isto H

    2007-06-01

    Creating a well-functioning hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) anastomosis with nondilated bile ducts remains a challenge. Our aim was to study the use in a large animal model of a novel, braided polylactide barium sulfate biodegradable biliary stent (BDBS) without external connection and with no need for later removal. Fifty swine were randomly operated on for Roux-Y HJ with or without BDBS in the anastomosis, and followed up (dynamic biligraphy, x-ray, serum determinations, anastomosis inner diameter, and histology) for 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. During the follow-up, one nonstented animal died because of anastomotic leakage. In x-ray BDBS was seen in place until 1.5 months in all of the stented animals. In the nonstented animals HJ anastomosis inner diameter was decreased at 18 months [6.3 (5.0-7.0) mm vs 7.4 (7.0-9.0) mm, p = 0.05] and liver clearance reduced at 12 and 18 months compared to stented animals. Serum liver values and liver and bile duct histology did not differ between the groups. We conclude that this novel BDBS is easy to insert into the HJ anastomosis with nondilated ducts. It is nontoxic, dissolves safely, and may be associated with a larger and better draining anastomosis at 18-month follow-up. These results encourage us to proceed to clinical studies. PMID:17436052

  2. Epidemiology of Dengue Among Children Aged < 18 Months-Puerto Rico, 1999-2011.

    PubMed

    Hause, Anne M; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Han, George S; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Aiwazian, Jonathan; Margolis, Harold S; Tomashek, Kay M

    2016-02-01

    Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral illness caused by dengue virus types (DENV)-1 to DENV-4, is endemic in Puerto Rico. Severe dengue usually occurs in individuals previously infected with DENV or among infants born to previously infected mothers. To describe clinical features of dengue in infants, we retrospectively characterized dengue patients aged < 18 months reported to the Passive Dengue Surveillance System (PDSS) during 1999-2011. To determine frequency of signs, symptoms, and disease severity, case report forms and medical records were evaluated for patients who tested positive for dengue by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or anti-DENV immunoglobulin Menzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 4,178 reported patients aged < 18 months, 813 (19%) were laboratory positive. Of these, most had fever (92%), rash (53%), bleeding manifestations (52%), and thrombocytopenia (52%). Medical records were available for 145 (31%) of 472 hospitalized patients, of which 40% had dengue, 23% had dengue with warning signs, and 33% had severe dengue. Mean age of patients with severe dengue was 8 months. Anti-DENV immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were not statistically different in patients with (50%) and without (59%) severe dengue. In this study, one-third of DENV-infected infants met the severe dengue case definition. The role of maternal anti-DENV IgG in development of severe disease warrants further study in prospective cohorts of mother-infant pairs. PMID:26711519

  3. Epidemiology of Dengue Among Children Aged < 18 Months-Puerto Rico, 1999-2011.

    PubMed

    Hause, Anne M; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Han, George S; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Aiwazian, Jonathan; Margolis, Harold S; Tomashek, Kay M

    2016-02-01

    Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral illness caused by dengue virus types (DENV)-1 to DENV-4, is endemic in Puerto Rico. Severe dengue usually occurs in individuals previously infected with DENV or among infants born to previously infected mothers. To describe clinical features of dengue in infants, we retrospectively characterized dengue patients aged < 18 months reported to the Passive Dengue Surveillance System (PDSS) during 1999-2011. To determine frequency of signs, symptoms, and disease severity, case report forms and medical records were evaluated for patients who tested positive for dengue by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or anti-DENV immunoglobulin Menzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 4,178 reported patients aged < 18 months, 813 (19%) were laboratory positive. Of these, most had fever (92%), rash (53%), bleeding manifestations (52%), and thrombocytopenia (52%). Medical records were available for 145 (31%) of 472 hospitalized patients, of which 40% had dengue, 23% had dengue with warning signs, and 33% had severe dengue. Mean age of patients with severe dengue was 8 months. Anti-DENV immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were not statistically different in patients with (50%) and without (59%) severe dengue. In this study, one-third of DENV-infected infants met the severe dengue case definition. The role of maternal anti-DENV IgG in development of severe disease warrants further study in prospective cohorts of mother-infant pairs.

  4. IMPACT OF FATHERS' ALCOHOLISM AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS ON PARENT-INFANT ATTACHMENT STABILITY FROM 12 TO 18 MONTHS.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ellen P; Eiden, Rina D; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2004-11-01

    This study examined short-term attachment stability and sought to identify predictors of stability and change within a sample characterized by fathers' alcoholism. Results suggest moderate stability of attachment classifications (60% for mothers, 53% for fathers) from 12 to 18 months. Higher paternal and maternal alcohol symptoms, maternal depression, and maternal antisocial behavior were found in families with stable insecure mother-infant attachment compared to those who were stable secure. Mother-infant stable insecurity was associated with higher levels of maternal negative affect expression during play. Father-infant stable insecurity was associated with lower levels of paternal positive affect expression and decreased sensitivity during play. Stable insecure children also had higher levels of negative affect during parent-infant interactions and higher negative emotionality during other episodes compared to stable secure children. Results indicate that infants who were insecure at both time points had the highest constellation of family risk characteristics.

  5. IMPACT OF FATHERS’ ALCOHOLISM AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS ON PARENT–INFANT ATTACHMENT STABILITY FROM 12 TO 18 MONTHS

    PubMed Central

    EDWARDS, ELLEN P.; EIDEN, RINA D.; LEONARD, KENNETH E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined short-term attachment stability and sought to identify predictors of stability and change within a sample characterized by fathers’ alcoholism. Results suggest moderate stability of attachment classifications (60% for mothers, 53% for fathers) from 12 to 18 months. Higher paternal and maternal alcohol symptoms, maternal depression, and maternal antisocial behavior were found in families with stable insecure mother–infant attachment compared to those who were stable secure. Mother–infant stable insecurity was associated with higher levels of maternal negative affect expression during play. Father–infant stable insecurity was associated with lower levels of paternal positive affect expression and decreased sensitivity during play. Stable insecure children also had higher levels of negative affect during parent–infant interactions and higher negative emotionality during other episodes compared to stable secure children. Results indicate that infants who were insecure at both time points had the highest constellation of family risk characteristics. PMID:19436769

  6. 18-Month Predictors of Later Outcomes in Younger Siblings of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Baby Siblings Research Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Shic, Frederick; Macari, Suzanne; Campbell, Daniel J.; Brian, Jessica; Landa, Rebecca; Hutman, Ted; Nelson, Charles A.; Ozonoff, Sally; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Young, Gregory S.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Cohen, Ira L.; Charman, Tony; Messinger, Daniel S.; Klin, Ami; Johnson, Scott; Bryson, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk (HR) for developing ASD as well as features of the broader autism phenotype. While this complicates early diagnostic considerations in this cohort, it also provides an opportunity to examine patterns of behavior associated specifically with ASD compared to other developmental outcomes. Method We applied Classification and Regression Trees (CART) analysis to individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in 719 HR siblings to identify behavioral features at 18 months predictive of diagnostic outcomes (ASD, atypical development, and typical development) at 36 months. Results Three distinct combinations of features at 18 months were predictive of ASD outcome: 1) poor eye contact combined with lack of communicative gestures and giving; 2) poor eye contact combined with a lack of imaginative play; and 3) lack of giving and presence of repetitive behaviors, but with intact eye contact. These 18-month behavioral profiles predicted ASD versus non-ASD status at 36 months with 82.7% accuracy in an initial test sample and 77.3% accuracy in a validation sample. Clinical features at age 3 among children with ASD varied as a function of their 18-month symptom profiles. Children with ASD who were misclassified at 18 months were higher functioning, and their autism symptoms increased between 18 and 36 months. Conclusion These findings suggest the presence of different developmental pathways to ASD in HR siblings. Understanding such pathways will provide clearer targets for neural and genetic research and identification of developmentally specific treatments for ASD. PMID:25457930

  7. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with marine and botanical oils: an 18-month, randomized, and double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Reed, George W; Leung, Katherine; Rossetti, Ronald G; Vanbuskirk, Susan; Sharp, John T; Zurier, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether a combination of borage seed oil rich in gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is superior to either oil alone for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Patients were randomized into a double-blind, 18-month trial. Mixed effects models compared trends over time in disease activity measures. Results. No significant differences were observed in changes in disease activity among the three randomized groups. Each group exhibited significant reductions in disease activity (DAS28) at 9 months (fish: -1.56[-2.16, -0.96], borage: -1.33[-1.83, -0.84], combined: -1.18[-1.83, -0.54]) and in CDAI (fish: -16.95[-19.91, -13.98], borage: -11.20[-14.21, -8.19], and combined: -10.31[-13.61, -7.01]). There were no significant differences in change of RA medications among the three groups. Reduced disease activity in study patients was similar to matched patients from an RA registry, and reduction in DMARD use was greater (P < 0.03) in study patients. Conclusion. All 3 treatment groups exhibited similar meaningful clinical responses after 9 months, improvements which persisted for 18 months, and a response similar to matched patients from an RA registry. Study patients were able to reduce DMARD therapy given in combination with TNF antagonists to a greater extent than registry patients. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr. John T. Sharp, M.D., a pioneer and innovator in the field of musculoskeletal radiology. PMID:24803948

  8. Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Marine and Botanical Oils: An 18-Month, Randomized, and Double-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    Reed, George W.; Leung, Katherine; Rossetti, Ronald G.; VanBuskirk, Susan; Sharp, John T.; Zurier, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether a combination of borage seed oil rich in gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is superior to either oil alone for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Patients were randomized into a double-blind, 18-month trial. Mixed effects models compared trends over time in disease activity measures. Results. No significant differences were observed in changes in disease activity among the three randomized groups. Each group exhibited significant reductions in disease activity (DAS28) at 9 months (fish: −1.56[−2.16, −0.96], borage: −1.33[−1.83, −0.84], combined: −1.18[−1.83, −0.54]) and in CDAI (fish: −16.95[−19.91, −13.98], borage: −11.20[−14.21, −8.19], and combined: −10.31[−13.61, −7.01]). There were no significant differences in change of RA medications among the three groups. Reduced disease activity in study patients was similar to matched patients from an RA registry, and reduction in DMARD use was greater (P < 0.03) in study patients. Conclusion. All 3 treatment groups exhibited similar meaningful clinical responses after 9 months, improvements which persisted for 18 months, and a response similar to matched patients from an RA registry. Study patients were able to reduce DMARD therapy given in combination with TNF antagonists to a greater extent than registry patients. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr. John T. Sharp, M.D., a pioneer and innovator in the field of musculoskeletal radiology PMID:24803948

  9. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in police staff 12-18 months after the Canterbury earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Surgenor, Lois J; Snell, Deborah L; Dorahy, Martin J

    2015-04-01

    Understanding posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in police first-responders is an underdeveloped field. Using a cross-sectional survey, this study investigated demographic and occupational characteristics, coping resources and processes, along with first-responder roles and consequences 18 months following a disaster. Hierarchical linear regression (N = 576) showed that greater symptom levels were significantly positively associated with negative emotional coping (β = .31), a communications role (β = .08) and distress following exposure to resource losses (β = .14), grotesque scenes (β = .21), personal harm (β = .14), and concern for significant others (β = .17). Optimism alone was negatively associated (β = -.15), with the overall model being a modest fit (adjusted R(2) = .39). The findings highlight variables for further study in police.

  10. A comparison of physical activity in Gambian and UK children aged 6-18 months.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, M; Lawrence, F; Durnin, J V; Whitehead, R G

    1991-05-01

    The activity patterns of 81 Gambian and 53 UK children aged six, 12 or 18 months were compared by means of an activity diary technique. Major differences between communities were observed in the duration of play (2-3 times longer in UK compared to Gambian children) and in the duration of vigorous activities such as crawling, walking and running (2-4 times longer duration in the UK compared to the The Gambia). To investigate whether the lower activity of Gambian children could be explained by differences in nutritional or health status, subgroups of Gambian children were compared. Only small differences in activity pattern were found between Gambian children above and below 80% weight for age and between Gambian children who were or were not diagnosed ill within 10 days of study, suggesting that other factors (e.g. socio-cultural differences or the absence of conventional toys) may explain the lower activity of Gambian compared to UK children. PMID:1915195

  11. SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months.

    PubMed

    Fernald, Anne; Marchman, Virginia A; Weisleder, Adriana

    2013-03-01

    This research revealed both similarities and striking differences in early language proficiency among infants from a broad range of advantaged and disadvantaged families. English-learning infants (n = 48) were followed longitudinally from 18 to 24 months, using real-time measures of spoken language processing. The first goal was to track developmental changes in processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary learning in this diverse sample. The second goal was to examine differences in these crucial aspects of early language development in relation to family socioeconomic status (SES). The most important findings were that significant disparities in vocabulary and language processing efficiency were already evident at 18 months between infants from higher- and lower-SES families, and by 24 months there was a 6-month gap between SES groups in processing skills critical to language development. PMID:23432833

  12. Understanding attention: 12- and 18-month-olds know what is new for other persons.

    PubMed

    Tomasello, Michael; Haberl, Katharina

    2003-09-01

    Infants at 12 and 18 months of age played with 2 adults and 2 new toys. For a 3rd toy, however, 1 of the adults left the room while the child and the other adult played with it. This adult then returned, looked at all 3 toys aligned on a tray, showed great excitement ("Wow! Cool!"), and then asked, "Can you give it to me?' To retrieve the toy the adult wanted, infants had to (a) know that people attend to and get excited about new things and (b) identify what was new for the adult even though it was not new for them. Infants at both ages did this successfully, lending support to the hypothesis that 1-year-old infants possess a genuine understanding of other persons as intentional and attentional agents. PMID:12952402

  13. Selective social learning of plant edibility in 6- and 18-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Wertz, Annie E; Wynn, Karen

    2014-04-01

    Recent research underscores the importance of social learning to the development of food preferences. Here, we explore whether social information about edibility--an adult placing something in his or her mouth--can be selectively tied to certain types of entities. Given that humans have relied on gathered plant resources across evolutionary time, and given the costs of trial-and-error learning, we predicted that human infants may possess selective social learning strategies that rapidly identify edible plants. Evidence from studies with 6- and 18-month-olds demonstrated that infants selectively identify plants, over artifacts, as food sources after seeing the same food-relevant social information applied to both object types. These findings are the first evidence for content-specific social learning mechanisms that facilitate the identification of edible plant resources. Evolved learning mechanisms such as these have enabled humans to survive and thrive in varied and changing environments.

  14. Vitamin D and Risk for Vitamin A Intoxication in an 18-Month-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Barreca, Massimo; Galiano, Rossella; Galati, Maria Concetta; Raiola, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    An 18-month-old boy presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and poor appetite for 6 days. He had been given a multivitamin preparation once daily, containing 50.000 IU of vitamin D and 10.000 IU of vitamin A for a wide anterior fontanelle for about three months. He presented with hypercalcemia, low levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), and very high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels. Renal ultrasound showed nephrocalcinosis. He did not have sign or symptom of vitamin A intoxication. Patient was successfully treated with intravenous hydration, furosemide, and prednisolone. With treatment, serum calcium returned rapidly to the normal range and serum 25-OHD levels were reduced progressively. In conclusion the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency rickets without checking 25-OHD levels may cause redundant treatment that leads to vitamin D intoxication (VDI). PMID:27478669

  15. SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Anne; Marchman, Virginia A.; Weisleder, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    This research revealed both similarities and striking differences in early language proficiency among infants from a broad range of advantaged and disadvantaged families. English-learning infants (n = 48) were followed longitudinally from 18 to 24 months, using real-time measures of spoken language processing. The first goal was to track developmental changes in processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary learning in this diverse sample. The second goal was to examine differences in these crucial aspects of early language development in relation to family socioeconomic status (SES). The most important findings were that significant disparities in vocabulary and language processing efficiency were already evident at 18 months between infants from higher- and lower-SES families, and by 24 months there was a six-month gap between SES groups in processing skills critical to language development. PMID:23432833

  16. Maternal PUFA status and offspring allergic diseases up to the age of 18 months.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ya-Mei; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Calder, Philip C; Hardjojo, Antony; Soh, Shu-E; Lim, Ai Lin; Fisk, Helena L; Teoh, Oon Hoe; Goh, Anne; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Pan, An; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; van Bever, Hugo P S

    2015-03-28

    Studies have suggested that maternal PUFA status during pregnancy may influence early childhood allergic diseases, although findings are inconsistent. We examined the relationship between maternal PUFA status and risk of allergic diseases in early childhood in an Asian cohort. Maternal plasma samples from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort were assayed at 26-28 weeks of gestation for relative abundance of PUFA. Offspring (n 960) were followed up from 3 weeks to 18 months of age, and clinical outcomes of potential allergic diseases (rhinitis, eczema and wheezing) were assessed by repeated questionnaires. Skin prick testing (SPT) was also performed at the age of 18 months. Any allergic disease with positive SPT was defined as having any one of the clinical outcomes plus a positive SPT. The prevalence of a positive SPT, rhinitis, eczema, wheezing and any allergic disease with positive SPT was 14·1 % (103/728), 26·5 % (214/808), 17·6 % (147/833), 10·9 % (94/859) and 9·4 % (62/657), respectively. After adjustment for confounders, maternal total n-3, n-6 PUFA status and the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio were not significantly associated with offspring rhinitis, eczema, wheezing, a positive SPT and having any allergic disease with positive SPT in the offspring (P>0·01 for all). A weak trend of higher maternal n-3 PUFA being associated with higher risk of allergic diseases with positive SPT in offspring was observed. These findings do not support the hypothesis that the risk of early childhood allergic diseases is modified by variation in maternal n-3 and n-6 PUFA status during pregnancy in an Asian population.

  17. Developmental outcomes among 18-month-old Malawians after a year of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements or corn-soy flour.

    PubMed

    Phuka, John C; Gladstone, Melissa; Maleta, Kenneth; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Cheung, Yin Bun; Briend, André; Manary, Mark J; Ashorn, Per

    2012-04-01

    The major aim of this trial was to compare the development of 18-month-old infants who received complementary feeding for 1 year either with lipid-based nutrient supplements or micronutrient fortified corn-soy porridge. Our secondary aim was to determine the socio-economic factors associated with developmental outcomes in the same population. A total of 163 six-month-old rural Malawian children were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial where the control population received daily supplementation with 71 g corn-soy flour [Likuni Phala (LP)] (282 kcal) and individuals in the intervention groups received daily either 50 g of lipid-based nutrient supplement (FS50) (264 kcal) or 25 g of lipid-based nutrient supplement (FS25) (130 kcal). The main outcome measures were Griffiths' developmental scores at 0-2 years. Independent comparison of study groups was carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistics where mean raw scores, quotients, or mental ages were compared. Association of developmental outcome with predictor variables were examined using multiple regression. At 18 months of chronological age, the mean ± standard deviation (SD) mental ages in the LP, FS50, and FS25 groups were 17.9 ± 1.3, 17.9 ± 1.3, and 17.9 ± 1.2 (P > 0.99), respectively. Likewise, the mean raw developmental scores and mean developmental quotients did not differ significantly. Length-for-age z-score gain during the intervention period, and maternal education were associated with developmental outcome at 18 months (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04; respectively). In conclusion, rural Malawian infants receiving 12-month daily supplementation of their diet either with the tested lipid-based nutrient supplements or fortified corn-soy flour have comparable development outcomes by 18 months of age. PMID:21342456

  18. An 18-month survey of infertility treatment by in vitro fertilization, gamete and zygote intrafallopian transfer, and replacement of frozen-thawed embryos.

    PubMed

    Staessen, C; Camus, M; Khan, I; Smitz, J; Van Waesberghe, L; Wisanto, A; Devroey, P; Van Steirteghem, A C

    1989-02-01

    An 18-month survey of infertility treatment by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and related procedures at the Centre for Reproductive Medicine of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel is described. During this period, 1326 treatment cycles were started in patients with long-standing infertility and 1135 oocyte retrievals were performed in 771 different patients. IVF and embryo transfer (ET) after laparoscopic (N = 793) or ultrasonically guided (N = 342) ovum pickup, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT; N = 284), or zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT; N = 15) combined with IVF as well as the replacement of cryopreserved embryos yielded an overall pregnancy rate of 21.8% per started cycle. Echographic and laparoscopic oocyte retrieval gave similar results except for a higher fertilization rate after echographic-guided retrieval. For in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer an overall pregnancy rate of 26% per transfer was obtained. For GIFT and ZIFT the pregnancy rates were, respectively, 27.8 and 46.7% per replacement. For each procedure one-third of the pregnancies aborted. After the replacement of frozen and thawed embryos, during a natural cycle, a significantly lower fetal loss was observed.

  19. Retrieval Results of Unassisted Searches of Two General Periodical Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Jennifer O.

    A survey of public library users was conducted regarding retrieval results of unassisted user searches in general periodical indexes. The data were analyzed to evaluate the impact or lack of impact of searching a CD-ROM index with loosely-controlled vocabulary and expanded-search capabilities (i.e., InfoTrac-General Periodicals Index) versus a…

  20. Use of technology in follow-up of HIV positive pregnant women and their babies till 18 months of age- an innovation by Maharashtra State AIDS Control Society (MSACS), India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Radhay Shyam; Yewale, Kiran; Hegde, Asha S.; Mulik, Tejas; Bamrotiya, Manish; Yadav, Surendra; Rane, Tushar; Pardeshi, Kushalsinh; Balakrishnan, Sudha; Reddy, D.C.S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of web-based mobile technology monitoring tool, for ensuring linkages, and tracking of HIV-exposed child until 18 months of age. Methods The ‘early infant diagnosis (EID) Follow-up System’ was designed as a tool for reminding the field level staff for follow-up of HIV-exposed babies. Using Java Swing Framework, software was developed which generates automatic advance SMS alerts regarding patient information to the Counsellor of the respective Integrated Counselling and Testing Center and district supervisor, 7 days prior to due dates. Simultaneously, system generated e-mail is sent to district program officer for monitoring and updating the line-list. Results Before the introduction of ‘EID Follow-up System’ in June 2013, only 55.9% (637/1139) of the HIV-exposed babies born were tested at 6 weeks for DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction during April 2011–March 2012. However, after its introduction, 68.4% (1117/1631) of them were tested during April 2012–March 2013. Correspondingly, the 18 months confirmatory HIV testing in eligible babies increased from 45.6% (934/2044) to 54.7%(1118/2044) during the same period. Conclusion The replicable technology driven initiative would help in strengthening the follow-up mechanisms and reach every HIV-exposed child for EID. PMID:26945142

  1. Socioeconomic status and the risk of suspected autism spectrum disorders among 18-month-old toddlers in Japan: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeo

    2014-06-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and the suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD) status of 18-month-old toddlers was investigated using a population-based sample in Japan, which has a universal healthcare system and a mandatory health checkup system for toddlers. Questionnaires including SES measurements and modified checklist for autism in toddlers were mailed to all families with 18-month-old toddlers in Chiba, a city near Tokyo (N = 6,061; response rate: 64%). The results of logistic regression analysis (which were adjusted for potential confounders) indicated that low maternal education, but not paternal education or family income, were associated with having suspected ASD offspring. Lower maternal education was associated with an increased risk of autistic traits in Japan.

  2. Linking actions and emotions: evidence from 15- and 18-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Repacholi, Betty M

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated 15- and 18-month-olds' understanding of the link between actions and emotions. Infants watched a videotape in which three adult models performed an action on an object. Each adult expressed the same emotion (positive, negative, or neutral affect) on completion of the action. Infants were subsequently given 20 seconds to interact with the object. Infants were less likely to perform the target action after the models' expressed negative as opposed to positive or neutral affect. Although infants' imitative behaviour was influenced by the models' emotional displays, this social referencing effect was not apparent in their more general object-directed behaviour. For instance, infants in the negative emotion condition were just as quick to touch the object and spent the same amount of time touching the object as did infants in the neutral and positive emotion conditions. These findings suggest that infants understood that the models' negative affect was in response to the action, rather than the object itself. Infants apparently used this negative emotional information to appraise the action as one that was 'undesirable' or 'bad'. Consequently, infants were now loath to reproduce the action themselves. PMID:19994573

  3. Intersubjective Interaction Between Deaf Parents/Deaf Infants During the Infant's First 18 Months.

    PubMed

    Roos, Carin; Cramér-Wolrath, Emelie; Falkman, Kerstin W

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of a larger longitudinal project with the aim of focusing early social interaction and development of mentalizing ability in 12 deaf infants, including the interaction between the infants and their deaf parents. The aim of the present paper is to describe early social interaction and moments of intersubjectivity between the deaf infants and their deaf parents during the first 18 months of the infant's life. The study is focused on the dyadic interaction rather than on the behaviors of the infant and the caregiver separately. In the analysis, the Intersubjective Developmental Theory Model (Loots, Devisé, & Sermijn, 2003) and the definitions of moments of intersubjectivity (Loots, Devisé, & Jacquet, 2005) were used. The findings show that the participating infants follow a typical developmental trajectory of intersubjectivity, both with regard to developmental stages and age. This development is supported by a visual, simultaneous way of communicating by gaze rather than having constant eye contact. Parents use complex visual communication skills in maintaining joint attention and also expect the infant to grasp the meaning of the interaction by use of gaze contact.

  4. Categorization of Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Stimuli by 18-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Arterberry, Martha E.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Blumenstyk, Julia B.

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, 18-month-olds’ categorization of 3D replicas and 2D photographs of the same animals and vehicles were compared to explore infants’ flexibility in categorization across different object representations. Using a sequential touching procedure, infants completed one superordinate and two basic-level categorization tasks with 3D replicas, 2D cut out photographs, or 2D images on photo cubes (“2D cubes”). For superordinate sets, 3D replicas elicited longer mean run lengths than 2D cut outs, and 3D replicas elicited equivalent mean run lengths as 2D cubes. For basic-level sets, infants categorized high-contrast animal sets when presented with 3D replicas, but they failed to categorize any of the 2D photograph sets. Categorization processes appear to differ for 3D and 2D stimuli, and infants’ discovery of object properties over time while manipulating objects may facilitate categorization, as least at the superordinate level. These findings are discussed in the context of infants’ representation abilities and the integration of perception and action. PMID:24120992

  5. Maternal Obesity, Overweight and Gestational Diabetes Affect the Offspring Neurodevelopment at 6 and 18 Months of Age – A Follow Up from the PREOBE Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Espinola, Francisco J.; Berglund, Staffan K; García-Valdés, Luz Mª; Segura, Mª Teresa; Jerez, Antonio; Campos, Daniel; Moreno-Torres, Rosario; Rueda, Ricardo; Catena, Andrés; Pérez-García, Miguel; Campoy, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Background Brain development in fetal life and early infancy is critical to determine lifelong performance in various neuropsychological domains. Metabolic pathologies such as overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes in pregnant women are prevalent and increasing risk factors that may adversely affect long-term brain development in their offspring. Objective The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of maternal metabolic pathologies on the neurodevelopment of the offspring at 6 and 18 months of life. Design This was a prospective case-control study of 331 mother- and child pairs from Granada, Spain. The mothers were included during pregnancy into four groups according to their pre-gestational body mass index and their gestational diabetes status; overweight (n:56), obese (n:64), gestational diabetic (n:79), and healthy normal weight controls (n:132). At 6 months and 18 months we assessed the children with the Bayley III scales of neurodevelopment. Results At 6 months (n=215), we found significant group differences in cognition composite language, and expressive language. Post hoc test revealed unexpectedly higher scores in the obese group compared to the normal weight group and a similar trend in overweight and diabetic group. The effects on language remained significant after adjusting for confounders with an adjusted odds ratio for a value above median in composite language score of 3.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 10.0; p=0.035) for children of obese mothers. At 18 month (n=197), the offspring born to obese mothers had lost five points in language composite scores and the previous differences in language and cognition was replaced by a suggestive trend of lower gross motor scores in the overweight, obese, and diabetic groups. Conclusions Infants of obese mothers had a temporary accelerated development of cognition and language, followed by a rapid deceleration until 18 months of age, particularly of language scores. This novel observation prompts

  6. Prevalence of Active and Latent Yaws in the Solomon Islands 18 Months after Azithromycin Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma

    PubMed Central

    Sokana, Oliver; Nachamkin, Eli; Puiahi, Elliot; Kilua, Georgina; Pillay, Allan; Bottomley, Christian; Solomon, Anthony W.; Mabey, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Both yaws and trachoma are endemic in the Pacific. Mass treatment with azithromycin is the mainstay of the WHO strategy for both the eradication of yaws and the elimination of trachoma as a public health problem, but the dose recommended for trachoma is lower than that for yaws. In countries where both diseases are endemic, there is a potential for synergy between yaws and trachoma control programs if mass treatment with the lower dose of azithromycin was shown to be effective for the treatment of yaws. In an earlier study, we demonstrated a profound reduction in the clinical and serological prevalence of yaws following a single round of mass treatment with azithromycin 20 mg/kg undertaken for the purposes of trachoma elimination. Methods This survey was conducted 18 months following a single round of azithromycin mass treatment in the same communities in which we had conducted our previous six-month follow-up survey. We examined children aged 1–14 years and took blood and lesion samples for yaws diagnosis using the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) and the non-treponemal Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) test. Results A total of 1,284 children were enrolled in the study. Amongst children aged 5–14 years, 223 had a positive TPPA (27.5%, 95% CI 13.6–47.7%). The TPPA seroprevalence amongst this age group did not differ significantly from either our pre-mass treatment survey or our initial follow-up survey. Thirty-five children had positive TPPA and positive RPR (4.3%, 95% CI 2.1–8.7%), and this did not differ significantly from our initial post-mass drug administration (MDA) follow-up survey (4.3% versus 3.5%, p = 0.43) but remained significantly lower than our initial pre-MDA survey (4.3% vs 21.7%, p <0.0001). Village-level MDA coverage was strongly associated with dual-seropositivity (p = 0.005). Amongst children aged 1–4 years, 16 had a positive TPPA (3.5%, 95% CI 1.6–7.1%). This did not differ significantly from the

  7. DENTAL CARIES AND RELATED ORAL HEALTH FACTORS AMONG 9 TO 18 MONTH OLD THAI CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Detsomboonrat, Palinee; Pisarnturakit, Pagaporn Pantuwadee

    2015-07-01

    Dental caries can occur as soon as the first tooth erupts. We studied the caries prevalence and related risk factors among children aged 9-18 months in U Thong District, Suphan Buri Province, Thailand. A total of 151 children, whose primary caregivers were willing to participate in this study, were evaluated for decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces (dmfs). Questionnaires were given to the primary caregivers of the study subjects to ascertain their socio-economic status, oral hygiene habits, and child-feeding habits. The Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to evaluate bivariate outcome data. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to determine variables predictive of dental caries in the studied children. The prevalence of dental caries among the 151 subjects was 32.5%; 15.9% had at least one cavity (cavitated caries) and 16.6% had white lesions (non-cavitated caries). The mean dmfs score was 2.83 ± 6.48. Significant associations were seen between the dmfs score and the number of erupted teeth (p < 0.001) and toothpaste usage (p < 0.01). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed four factors significantly associated with caries: number of erupted teeth, which had the highest Beta value (P = 0.35, p < 0.01), nighttime bottle feeding (P = 0.17, p < 0.05), frequency of drinking sweetened milk (P = 0.17-0.18, p < 0.05) and falling asleep with a bottle in the mouth (P = 0.18, p < 0.05). Nighttime bottle feeding, frequency of drinking sweetened milk and falling asleep with a bottle in the mouth were important caries risk factors and the number of erupted teeth was a strong caries risk predictor. Dentists should educate caregivers about these risk factors.

  8. Humour production may enhance observational learning of a new tool-use action in 18-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Esseily, Rana; Rat-Fischer, Lauriane; Somogyi, Eszter; O'Regan, Kevin John; Fagard, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that making children laugh enhances certain cognitive capacities such as attention, motivation, perception and/or memory, which in turn enhance learning. However, no study thus far has investigated whether laughing has an effect on learning earlier in infancy. The goal of this study was to see whether using humour with young infants in a demonstration of a complex tool-use task can enhance their learning. Fifty-three 18-month-old infants participated in this study and were included either in a humorous or a control demonstration group. In both groups infants observed an adult using a tool to retrieve an out-of-reach toy. What differed between groups was that in the humorous demonstration group, instead of playing with the toy, the adult threw it on the floor immediately after retrieval. The results show that infants who laughed at the demonstration in the humorous demonstration group reproduced significantly more frequent target actions than infants who did not laugh and those in the control group. This effect is discussed with regard to individual differences in terms of temperament and social capacities as well as positive emotion and dopamine release.

  9. 49 CFR 385.333 - What happens at the end of the 18-month safety monitoring period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... its safety management controls under § 385.319(c), the FMCSA will remove the new entrant designation... performed and a final determination is made regarding the adequacy of its safety management controls. Based... correct its safety management practices under § 385.319(c) will have its new entrant registration...

  10. ACT Internet-based vs face-to-face? A randomized controlled trial of two ways to deliver Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for depressive symptoms: an 18-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, Päivi; Granlund, Anna; Siltanen, Sari; Ahonen, Suvi; Vitikainen, Minna; Tolvanen, Asko; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate two interventions based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for depressive symptoms: A face-to-face treatment (ACT group) was compared to a guided self-help treatment delivered via the Internet consisting of two assessment sessions (pre and post) and an ACT-based Internet program (iACT). Outpatients experiencing at least mild depressive symptoms were randomized to either approach. The iACT treatment group received access to an ACT-based Internet program and supportive web-based contact over a period of 6 weeks. The face-to-face group received ACT-based treatment once a week over the same period of time. In both groups, the results showed a significant effect on depression symptomatology, and general wellbeing after treatment and at the 18-month follow-up. However, the data indicated that the iACT group changed differently regarding depressive symptoms and wellbeing as compared to the face-to face ACT group. Results showed large pre-treatment to 18-month follow-up within-group effect sizes for all symptom measures in the iACT treatment group (1.59-2.08), and for most outcome measures in the face-to-face ACT group (1.12-1.37). This non-inferiority study provides evidence that guided Internet-delivered ACT intervention can be as effective as ACT-based face-to-face treatment for outpatients reporting depressive symptoms, and it may offer some advantages over a face-to-face intervention.

  11. Scheduling real-time, periodic jobs using imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay; Natarajan, Swaminathan

    1987-01-01

    A process is called a monotone process if the accuracy of its intermediate results is non-decreasing as more time is spent to obtain the result. The result produced by a monotone process upon its normal termination is the desired result; the error in this result is zero. External events such as timeouts or crashes may cause the process to terminate prematurely. If the intermediate result produced by the process upon its premature termination is saved and made available, the application may still find the result unusable and, hence, acceptable; such a result is said to be an imprecise one. The error in an imprecise result is nonzero. The problem of scheduling periodic jobs to meet deadlines on a system that provides the necessary programming language primitives and run-time support for processes to return imprecise results is discussed. This problem differs from the traditional scheduling problems since the scheduler may choose to terminate a task before it is completed, causing it to produce an acceptable but imprecise result. Consequently, the amounts of processor time assigned to tasks in a valid schedule can be less than the amounts of time required to complete the tasks. A meaningful formulation of this problem taking into account the quality of the overall result is discussed. Three algorithms for scheduling jobs for which the effects of errors in results produced in different periods are not cumulative are described, and their relative merits are evaluated.

  12. The Goteborg Discotheque Fire: Posttraumatic Stress, and School Adjustment as Reported by the Primary Victims 18 Months Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broberg, Anders G.; Dyregrov, Atle; Lilled, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Background: On October 29, 1998, around 400 young people were gathered in an old warehouse in Goteborg, Sweden, for a discotheque party. A fire erupted and spread explosively. Adolescents were exposed to dreadful scenes inside and outside the building. In all, 63 young people were killed and 213 physically injured. An 18-month follow-up with 275…

  13. Television Viewing Patterns in 6- to 18-Month-Olds: The Role of Caregiver-Infant Interactional Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Ashley E.; Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines coviewing of "Baby Mozart" by 6- to 18-month-old infants and their caregivers under naturalistic conditions. We had two questions. First, extending the method of Barr, Zack, Garcia, and Muentener (Infancy, 13 [2008], 30-56) to a younger population, we asked if age, prior exposure, and caregiver verbal input would predict…

  14. CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICLES IN A RESIDENCE FOR 18 MONTHS IN 1999-2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous monitors were employed for 18 months in an occupied townhouse to measure ultrafine, fine, and coarse particles; air change rates; wind speed and direction; temperature; and relative humidity (RH). A main objective was to document short-term and long-term variation in...

  15. Function Words Constrain On-Line Recognition of Verbs and Nouns in French 18-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauvet, Elodie; Limissuri, Rita; Millotte, Severine; Skoruppa, Katrin; Cabrol, Dominique; Christophe, Anne

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment using the conditioned head-turn procedure, 18-month-old French-learning toddlers were trained to respond to either a target noun ("la balle"/"the ball") or a target verb ("je mange"/"I ea"t). They were then tested on target word recognition in two syntactic contexts: the target word was…

  16. Individual Differences in Lexical Processing at 18 Months Predict Vocabulary Growth in Typically Developing and Late-Talking Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Anne; Marchman, Virginia A.

    2012-01-01

    Using online measures of familiar word recognition in the looking-while-listening procedure, this prospective longitudinal study revealed robust links between processing efficiency and vocabulary growth from 18 to 30 months in children classified as typically developing (n = 46) and as "late talkers" (n = 36) at 18 months. Those late talkers who…

  17. Does babbling sound native? Listener responses to vocalizations produced by Swedish and American 12- and 18-month-olds.

    PubMed

    Engstrand, Olle; Williams, Karen; Lacerda, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of infants' babbling have reported contradictory results as to the extent and timing of discernible phonetic influences of the ambient language. In the present experiment, five experienced phoneticians were asked to listen for ambient language effects on vocalizations produced by American and Swedish 12- and 18-month-olds (with 8 children in each language and age group), and to motivate their decisions in terms of word or phonetic cue perception. Group results indicated that listeners did not perceive effects of ambient language on pure babbles for either of the two age groups, whereas a clear effect appeared in both age groups given a more liberal definition of babbling. This is taken to suggest that results of ambient language listening tests may depend crucially on judgments of vocalizations' word status. As compared to the group trends, listener responses to individual children's vocalizations did not indicate that a majority of either 12- or 18-monthers were sufficiently native-sounding to be reliably identified on the basis of ambient language. A closer analysis of listeners' use of phonetic cues indicated that one single phonetic property, the grave tonal word accent, was discerned by most listeners in vocalizations produced by the Swedish 18-monthers; this property was also discerned by one listener in vocalizations produced by Swedish 12-monthers. This result is consistent with the generally held belief in the primacy of tonal features in phonetic acquisition, and with experimental evidence indicating that Swedish mothers tend to enhance word accent contours in baby talk. In the final section of the paper, the results are discussed with a view to reconcile competing theories of babbling development, notably the 'babbling drift' and the 'independence' hypotheses.

  18. Cervical Arthroplasty for Moderate to Severe Disc Degeneration: Clinical and Radiological Assessments after a Minimum Follow-Up of 18 Months: Pfirrmann Grade and Cervical Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Kim, Do Yeon; Ji, Gyu Yeul; Kim, Yeo Ju; Hyun, Dongkeun; Kim, Eun Young; Park, Hyeonseon; Park, Hyeong-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Clinical outcomes and radiologic results after cervical arthroplasty have been reported in many articles, yet relatively few studies after cervical arthroplasty have been conducted in severe degenerative cervical disc disease. Materials and Methods Sixty patients who underwent cervical arthroplasty (Mobi-C®) between April 2006 and November 2011 with a minimum follow-up of 18 months were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to Pfirrmann classification on preoperative cervical MR images: group A (Pfirrmann disc grade III, n=38) and group B (Pfirrmann disc grades IV or V, n=22). Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores of neck and arm pain, modified Oswestry Disability Index (mODI) score, and radiological results including cervical range of motion (ROM) were assessed before and after surgery. Results VAS and mean mODI scores decreased after surgery from 5.1 and 57.6 to 2.7 and 31.5 in group A and from 6.1 and 59.9 to 3.7 and 38.4 in group B, respectively. In both groups, VAS and mODI scores significantly improved postoperatively (p<0.001), although no significant intergroup differences were found. Also, cervical dynamic ROM was preserved or gradually improved up to 18 months after cervical arthroplasty in both groups. Global, segmental and adjacent ROM was similar for both groups during follow-up. No cases of device subsidence or extrusion were recorded. Conclusion Clinical and radiological results following cervical arthroplasty in patients with severe degenerative cervical disc disease were no different from those in patients with mild degenerative cervical disc disease after 18 months of follow-up. PMID:24954339

  19. Novice Drivers' Exposure to Known Risk Factors During the First 18 Months of Licensure: The Effect of Vehicle Ownership

    PubMed Central

    Klauer, Sheila G.; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Lee, Suzanne E.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Howard, E. Henry; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Though there is ample research indicating that nighttime, teen passengers, and speeding increase the risk of crash involvement, there is little research about teen drivers' exposure to these known risk factors. Three research questions were assessed in this article: (1) Does exposure to known risk factors change over time? (2) Do teenage drivers experience higher rates of exposure to known risk factors than adult drivers? (3) Do teenage drivers who own a vehicle experience higher rates of exposure to risk factors than those who share a family vehicle? Methods Forty-one newly licensed teenage drivers and at least one parent (adult) were recruited at licensure. Driving data were recorded for 18 months. Results Average vehicle miles traveled (VMT) or average nighttime VMT for teens did not increase over time. Teenagers consistently drove 24 percent of VMT at night, compared with 18 percent for adults. Teenagers drove 62 percent of VMT with no passengers, 29 percent of VMT with one passenger, and less than 10 percent of VMT with multiple passengers. Driving with no passengers increased with driving experience for these teens. Teenage drivers who owned their vehicles, relative to those who shared a vehicle, sped 4 times more frequently overall and more frequently at night and with multiple teen passengers. Conclusion These findings are among the first objective data documenting the nature of teenage driving exposure to known risk factors. The findings provide evidence that vehicle access is related to risk and suggest the potential safety benefit of parental management of novice teenage driving exposure. PMID:21469023

  20. Clinical evaluation with 18 months follow-up of new PTTM enhanced dental implants in maxillo-facial post-oncological patients

    PubMed Central

    Papi, Piero; Jamshir, Sara; Brauner, Edoardo; Di Carlo, Stefano; Ceci, Antonio; Piccoli, Luca; Pompa, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aim The aim of this study is to present 18 months follow-up results of porous tantalum trabecular metal-enhanced titanium dental implant (PTTM) in implant supported prosthesis in post-oncological patients. Materials and methods A total of 25 PTTM implants were placed in each jaw of 6 patients that met specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Resonance Frequency Analysis (RFA) was conducted and Implant stability was recorded in ISQ values (Osstell ISQ, Osstell AB, Goteborg, Sweden) at implant placement and after 2,4,6,12 and 18 months of functional loading. Mean bone loss was also evaluated at the same interval of time on each periapical radiographs, bone levels were calculated by measuring the distance from the implant shoulder to the first bone to implant contact. Results Cumulative implant survival rate is 100% (n=25/25) to date and mean ISQ values recorded were: 72.14±5.61 (range= 50–81) at surgery, 64.39±8.12 (range=44–74) after 2 months, 74.26±7.14 (range=44–74) after 4 months, 76.84±7.65 (range=60–83) after 6 months, 78.13±4.14 (range=64–84) after 12 months and 80.22±6.23 (range=68–89) after 18 months of functional loading. Mean crestal marginal bone loss was 0.19±0.25 mm after 2 months of functional loading on periapical radiographs, 0.22±0.4 mm at 4 months, 0.3±0.46 mm at 6 months, 0.57±0.62 at 1 year and 0.64±0.60 mm after 18 months. Conclusions The results of this study, even if limited by the number of implants placed indicate that PTTM dental implants have a clinical efficacy in prosthetic rehabilitation of post-oncological patients, due to trabecular structure of the porous Ta metal that increases bone-implant connection values. PMID:25774249

  1. Overnight Polysomnographic Characteristics and Oxygen Saturation of Healthy Infants, 1 to 18 Months of Age, Born and Residing At High Altitude (2,640 Meters)

    PubMed Central

    Bazurto-Zapata, María A.; Gozal, David; González-García, Mauricio; Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 8% of the world population resides above 1,600 m, with about 10 million people living above 2,500 m in Colombia. However, reference values for polysomnography (PSG) and oxygen saturation (Spo2) of children < 2 years old residing at high altitude are currently unavailable. METHODS: Healthy infants aged 1 to 18 months born and residing at high altitude (Bogotá: 2,640 m) underwent overnight PSG. Four age groups were defined: group 1, < 45 days; group 2, 3 to 4 months; group 3, 6 to 7 months; and group 4, 10 to 18 months. Of 122 children enrolled, 50 had three consecutive PSG tests and were analyzed as a longitudinal subcohort. RESULTS: A total of 281 PSG tests were performed in 122 infants (56% girls): group 1, 106 PSG tests; group 2, 89 PSG tests; group 3, 61 PSG tests; and group 4, 25 PSG tests. Active sleep diminished and quiet sleep increased with maturation. Apnea-hypopnea indexes (total, central, and obstructive) were highest in group 1 (21.4, 12.4, and 6.8/h total sleep time, respectively) and diminished with age (P < .001). Mean Spo2 during waking and sleep increased with age (P < .001). Nadir Spo2 values during respiratory events were lower in younger infants. Longitudinal assessments of 50 infants confirmed the temporal trends described for the cross-sectional dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy infants (≤ 18 months old) born and residing at high altitude show preserved sleep architecture but higher apnea-hypopnea indexes and more prominent desaturation with respiratory events than do those living at low altitude. The current study findings can be used as reference values for infants at high altitude. PMID:25811138

  2. The sleeping chironomid: an insect survived 18 months of exposure to outer space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Oleg; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Sychev, Vladimir; Novikova, Nataliya; Sugimoto, Manabu; Malyutina, Ludmila; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    Anhydrobiosis is an ametabolic state of life entered by an organism in response to desiccation. There are only few groups of higher invertebrates capable to survival complete water loss. An African chironomid Polypedilum vanderpalnki is the only anhydrobiotic insect. Larvae of this sleeping chironomid living in temporary pools in semi-arid areas on the African continent become completely desiccated upon drought, but can revive after water becomes available upon the next rain. Dry larvae can revive after several decades of anhydrobiosis and show cross-resistance to different environmental stresses, including temperature fluctuation, high doses of ionizing radiation and organic solvents. This enormous resistance of the sleeping chironomid to extreme environments points to the high probability of their survival and transfer across outer space and makes this species promising model organism for astrobiological studies. In period from 2005 to 2010 the sleeping chironomid was utilized as a model organism in experiments on resistance of resting stages of invertebrates to space environment both inside of ISS ("Aquarium" research program) and on the outer side of ISS ("Biorisk-2" and "EXPOSE-R" experiments) . In the present report we mainly focus on results of "Biorisk-2" experiment where there containers with anhydrobiotic larvae were continuously exposed to outer space environment. Container 1 (FC1) remained exposed to outer space for 405 days (from June 6, 2007 to July 15, 2008), Container 2 (FC2) for 566 days (from June 6, 2007 to December 23, 2008), and Container 3 (FC3) is expected to be returning to the Earth later this year. First analysis of the larvae from the first two containers FC1 and FC2 showed that the sleeping chironomid have succesfully survived the continous space exposure comparable with duration of interpanetary spaceflight and recovered both biomolecules and cells complexes upon rehydration

  3. Individual Differences in Lexical Processing at 18 Months Predict Vocabulary Growth in Typically-Developing and Late-Talking Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Anne; Marchman, Virginia A.

    2011-01-01

    Using online measures of familiar word recognition in the looking-while-listening procedure, this prospective longitudinal study revealed robust links between processing efficiency and vocabulary growth from 18 to 30 months in children classified as typically-developing (n = 46) and as “late talkers” (n = 36) at 18 months. Those late-talkers who were more efficient in word recognition at 18 months were also more likely to “bloom”, showing more accelerated vocabulary growth over the following year, compared to late-talkers less efficient in early speech processing. Such findings support the emerging view that early differences in processing efficiency evident in infancy have cascading consequences for later learning and may be continuous with individual differences in language proficiency observed in older children and adults. PMID:22172209

  4. Ulcerated Scrotal Hemangioma in an 18-Month-Old Male Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Patoulias, Ioannis; Farmakis, Konstantinos; Kaselas, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Deep scrotal hemangiomas are rare. Less than 50 case reports have been published. After systematic research of the literature, we found less than 5 cases of ulcerated scrotal hemangioma. The aim of this case report is to illustrate the challenges of scrotal hemangiomas pose and their potential therapies based on the successful surgical treatment of an ulcerated scrotal hemangioma in an 18-month-old male patient. PMID:27413573

  5. Significance of indoor environment for the development of allergic symptoms in children followed up to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, D; Andersson, K; Fagerlund, I; Kjellman, N I

    1996-11-01

    The development of symptoms possibly related to allergy or other forms of hypersensitivity was studied in a group of 638 children on two occasions: when the children were 3 and 18 months of age. Standardized questions were used to collect basic information about the child, technical characteristics of the home, and the mother's perception of the indoor climate. All reported exposure factors were analyzed in relation to the child's symptoms at 18 months of age, by logistic regression techniques. A family history of atopy was associated with a high incidence of most of the investigated symptoms. Attendance at a day nursery before 18 months of age increased the risk of recurrent colds and the need for several courses of treatment with antibiotics. If the mother smoked, the children more often suffered from protracted coughing episodes. If the child has a sibling, the risk of developing a wheeze, repeated colds, and the need for antibiotic treatment increased. No building factors, such as size of the home, heating and ventilation system, type of foundation, dampness, or presence of wall-to-wall carpets, showed a significant correlation to symptoms reported in the children. However, if the mothers reported symptoms that are often connected with "sick buildings", the children more often had eczema, dry skin, or reactions to food. The mothers' complaints about indoor air quality and climate and mucous membrane symptoms were significantly related to the type of building and presence of condensation on the windows in winter, a finding which may indicate that indoor climate factors also have some effect on the health of the children. This study reports the prevalences of symptoms until the age of 18 months. At this age, the allergic manifestations are usually nonspecific, and follow-up examinations to 4-5 years of age are needed before any definite conclusions can be drawn about the development of atopic diseases due to indoor climate factors. PMID:8947336

  6. Ulcerated Scrotal Hemangioma in an 18-Month-Old Male Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Patoulias, Ioannis; Farmakis, Konstantinos; Kaselas, Christos; Patoulias, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Deep scrotal hemangiomas are rare. Less than 50 case reports have been published. After systematic research of the literature, we found less than 5 cases of ulcerated scrotal hemangioma. The aim of this case report is to illustrate the challenges of scrotal hemangiomas pose and their potential therapies based on the successful surgical treatment of an ulcerated scrotal hemangioma in an 18-month-old male patient. PMID:27413573

  7. Expectancies of success as a predictor of negative symptoms reduction over 18 months in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Luther, Lauren; Fukui, Sadaaki; Firmin, Ruth L; McGuire, Alan B; White, Dominique A; Minor, Kyle S; Salyers, Michelle P

    2015-09-30

    Negative symptoms are often enduring and lead to poor functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia. The cognitive model of negative symptoms proposes that low expectancies of success contribute to the development and maintenance of negative symptoms; however, longitudinal investigations assessing these beliefs and negative symptoms are needed. The current study examined whether an individual's baseline expectancies of success - one's beliefs about future success and goal attainment - predicted negative symptoms reduction over 18 months in individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n=118). Data were collected at baseline, 9 months, and 18 months as part of a randomized controlled trial of Illness Management and Recovery. A mixed effects regression analysis revealed a significant reduction in negative symptoms over time, with a significant interaction effect between time and baseline expectancies of success. After controlling for baseline negative symptoms, demographic variables, and treatment conditions, those with high and moderate baseline expectancies of success evidenced a significant reduction in negative symptoms at 18 months, while those with low baseline expectancies of success did not evidence reduced negative symptoms. Findings support the cognitive model of negative symptoms and suggest that expectancies of success may be a useful treatment target for interventions aimed at reducing negative symptoms. PMID:26162662

  8. Predicting Elements of Early Maternal Elaborative Discourse from 12 to 18 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontai, Lenna L.; Virmani, Elita Amini

    2010-01-01

    To date, much of the research investigating maternal-child discourse has focused on the preschool period of children's development, with little attention paid to how these styles develop. The current study aimed to assess whether maternal elaborative discourse elements seen in preschool are also evident during the toddler years, and whether the…

  9. MEDiterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project: state of the art and main achievements after the first 18 months

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spampinato, Letizia; Allard, Patrick; Baills, Audrey; Briole, Pierre; D'Auria, Luca; Dingwell, Donald; Martini, Marcello; Kueppers, Ulrich; Marzocchi, Warner; Minet, Christian; Vagner, Amélie

    2015-04-01

    Taking account of the valuable resources and information available for Mt. Etna, Campi Flegrei, and Vesuvius Supersites, MED-SUV aims at exploiting the huge record of geophysical, geochemical and volcanological data available for the three Supersite volcanoes and carry out experiments to fill gaps in the knowledge of the structure of these volcanoes and of the processes driving their activity. The project's activities have focused on (1) gaining new insights into the inner structure of these volcanoes; (2) evaluating the suitability of the current EO and in-situ observations to track the dynamics of the volcano supply system and/or the eruptive phenomena, (3) making the access to observations easy; (4) defining the effects of magma ascent on the stress/strain field (and vice versa); (5) assessing the capability of the Earth science community to forecast the occurrence of eruptions in terms of both location and time of an eruption; (6) optimizing the chain from observations to end-users during an eruptive event; and (7) making the project outcomes "exportable" to other European volcanic areas and elsewhere. Indeed, the overall goal of the project is to apply the rationale of the Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories GEO-GEOSS initiative to the three volcanoes, in order to better assess the volcanic hazards they posed. In the first 18 months, MED-SUV consortium carried out activities relating to coordination, scientific/technological development, and dissemination. Coordination included mainly meetings organised in order to start the project and consortium activity and to strengthen the synergy with EC and international initiatives, such as geohazard activities of GEO-GEOSS, EPOS-PP and the other two FP7 Supersite projects, MARsite and FUTUREVOLC. The main scientific/technological results included the design and development of a prototype (NETVIS) for the optimization and implementation of processing tools for the analysis of Mt. Etna's camera network, design

  10. Amyloid-Related Memory Decline in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease Is Dependent on APOE ε4 and Is Detectable over 18-Months.

    PubMed

    Thai, Christine; Lim, Yen Ying; Villemagne, Victor L; Laws, Simon M; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Maruff, Paul

    2015-01-01

    High levels of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain and carriage of the APOE ε4 allele have each been linked to cognitive impairment in cognitively normal (CN) older adults. However, the relationship between these two biomarkers and cognitive decline is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cerebral Aβ level, APOE ε4 carrier status, and cognitive decline over 18 months, in 317 cognitively healthy (CN) older adults (47.6% males, 52.4% females) aged between 60 and 89 years (Mean = 69.9, SD = 6.8). Cognition was assessed using the Cogstate Brief Battery (CBB) and the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II). Planned comparisons indicated that CN older adults with high Aβ who were also APOE ε4 carriers demonstrated the most pronounced decline in learning and working memory. In CN older adults who were APOE ε4 non-carriers, high Aβ was unrelated to cognitive decline in learning and working memory. Carriage of APOE ε4 in CN older adults with low Aβ was associated with a significantly increased rate of decline in learning and unexpectedly, improved cognitive performance on measures of verbal episodic memory over 18 months. These results suggest that Aβ and APOE ε4 interact to increase the rate of cognitive decline in CN older adults and provide further support for the use of Aβ and APOE ε4 as biomarkers of early Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26430784

  11. Amyloid-Related Memory Decline in Preclinical Alzheimer’s Disease Is Dependent on APOE ε4 and Is Detectable over 18-Months

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Christine; Lim, Yen Ying; Villemagne, Victor L.; Laws, Simon M.; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R.; Martins, Ralph N.; Masters, Colin L.; Rowe, Christopher C.; Maruff, Paul

    2015-01-01

    High levels of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain and carriage of the APOE ε4 allele have each been linked to cognitive impairment in cognitively normal (CN) older adults. However, the relationship between these two biomarkers and cognitive decline is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cerebral Aβ level, APOE ε4 carrier status, and cognitive decline over 18 months, in 317 cognitively healthy (CN) older adults (47.6% males, 52.4% females) aged between 60 and 89 years (Mean = 69.9, SD = 6.8). Cognition was assessed using the Cogstate Brief Battery (CBB) and the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II). Planned comparisons indicated that CN older adults with high Aβ who were also APOE ε4 carriers demonstrated the most pronounced decline in learning and working memory. In CN older adults who were APOE ε4 non-carriers, high Aβ was unrelated to cognitive decline in learning and working memory. Carriage of APOE ε4 in CN older adults with low Aβ was associated with a significantly increased rate of decline in learning and unexpectedly, improved cognitive performance on measures of verbal episodic memory over 18 months. These results suggest that Aβ and APOE ε4 interact to increase the rate of cognitive decline in CN older adults and provide further support for the use of Aβ and APOE ε4 as biomarkers of early Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26430784

  12. Functional response of an adapted subtidal macrobenthic community to an oil spill: macrobenthic structure and bioturbation activity over time throughout an 18-month field experiment.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Franck; Stora, Georges; Cuny, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    An experimental oil spill was carried out in order to assess in situ responses of a macrobenthic community of shallow subtidal sediments historically exposed to petroleum contamination. Both structural and functional (bioturbation activity) parameters of the community, subjected or not to a pulse acute contamination (25,000 ppm), were studied for 18 months. No difference in the community structure was detected between contaminated and control sediments, from 6 to 18 months of experimentation. Vertical distributions of organisms, however, were affected by the presence of oil contamination leading to a deeper burial of some polychaete species. In the same time, changes in sediment-reworking activity and more especially a deeper particle burying in sediments subjected to acute oil contamination were shown. These results highlight the need to complete the analysis of community structure by assessing functional aspects, such as bioturbation activity, a process integrating various aspects of benthic behaviour (e.g. feeding, locomotion, burrow building) in order to estimate real (structural and functional) and long-term effects of oil contamination on benthic communities. PMID:25471721

  13. Clinical significance of reverse redistribution on technetium-99m tetrofosmin single-photon emission computed tomography: an 18-month follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Swinkels, B.M.; Hooghoudt, T.E.H.; Schoenmakers, E.A.J.M.; Zinder, C.G.; de Boo, T.M.; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Background The clinical and prognostic significance of reverse redistribution on technetium-99m (99mTc) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is unclear. Objectives To determine outcomes of chest pain patients showing reverse redistribution after 99mTc tetrofosmin SPECT versus SPECT showing no reverse redistribution. Methods Patient outcomes (death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) within 18 months after 99mTc tetrofosmin SPECT were determined in two populations of ambulatory patients, most of whom had been evaluated because of chest pain: a population of 57 patients whose SPECT images showed reverse redistribution without reversible or fixed defects, versus a control population of 98 patients whose SPECT images were normal (no reverse redistribution, no reversible defects, no fixed defects). Results Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that the population of patients with reverse redistribution did not have a worse 18-month outcome in comparison with the control population of patients without reverse redistribution (3.5% versus 9.2%, respectively; p=0.15 corrected for age and gender). Conclusion Reverse redistribution on 99mTc tetrofosmin SPECT does not appear to be an unfavourable prognostic factor in ambulatory chest pain patients. PMID:25696192

  14. Amyloid-Related Memory Decline in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease Is Dependent on APOE ε4 and Is Detectable over 18-Months.

    PubMed

    Thai, Christine; Lim, Yen Ying; Villemagne, Victor L; Laws, Simon M; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Maruff, Paul

    2015-01-01

    High levels of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain and carriage of the APOE ε4 allele have each been linked to cognitive impairment in cognitively normal (CN) older adults. However, the relationship between these two biomarkers and cognitive decline is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cerebral Aβ level, APOE ε4 carrier status, and cognitive decline over 18 months, in 317 cognitively healthy (CN) older adults (47.6% males, 52.4% females) aged between 60 and 89 years (Mean = 69.9, SD = 6.8). Cognition was assessed using the Cogstate Brief Battery (CBB) and the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II). Planned comparisons indicated that CN older adults with high Aβ who were also APOE ε4 carriers demonstrated the most pronounced decline in learning and working memory. In CN older adults who were APOE ε4 non-carriers, high Aβ was unrelated to cognitive decline in learning and working memory. Carriage of APOE ε4 in CN older adults with low Aβ was associated with a significantly increased rate of decline in learning and unexpectedly, improved cognitive performance on measures of verbal episodic memory over 18 months. These results suggest that Aβ and APOE ε4 interact to increase the rate of cognitive decline in CN older adults and provide further support for the use of Aβ and APOE ε4 as biomarkers of early Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Functional response of an adapted subtidal macrobenthic community to an oil spill: macrobenthic structure and bioturbation activity over time throughout an 18-month field experiment.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Franck; Stora, Georges; Cuny, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    An experimental oil spill was carried out in order to assess in situ responses of a macrobenthic community of shallow subtidal sediments historically exposed to petroleum contamination. Both structural and functional (bioturbation activity) parameters of the community, subjected or not to a pulse acute contamination (25,000 ppm), were studied for 18 months. No difference in the community structure was detected between contaminated and control sediments, from 6 to 18 months of experimentation. Vertical distributions of organisms, however, were affected by the presence of oil contamination leading to a deeper burial of some polychaete species. In the same time, changes in sediment-reworking activity and more especially a deeper particle burying in sediments subjected to acute oil contamination were shown. These results highlight the need to complete the analysis of community structure by assessing functional aspects, such as bioturbation activity, a process integrating various aspects of benthic behaviour (e.g. feeding, locomotion, burrow building) in order to estimate real (structural and functional) and long-term effects of oil contamination on benthic communities.

  16. Swarm kinematic orbits and gravity fields from 18 months of GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäggi, A.; Dahle, C.; Arnold, D.; Bock, H.; Meyer, U.; Beutler, G.; van den IJssel, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Swarm mission consists of three satellites orbiting the Earth at low orbital altitudes. The onboard GPS receivers, star cameras, and laser retro-reflectors make the Swarm mission an interesting candidate to explore the contribution of Swarm GPS data to the recovery of both the static and time-variable gravity fields. We use 1.5 years of Swarm GPS and attitude data to generate kinematic positions of high quality to perform gravity field determination using the Celestial Mechanics Approach. The generated gravity fields reveal severe systematic errors along the geomagnetic equator. Their size is correlated with the ionospheric density and thus strongly varying over the analyzed time period. Similar to the findings of the GOCE mission, the systematic errors are related to the Swarm GPS carrier phase data and may be reduced by rejecting GPS data affected by large ionospheric changes. Such a measure yields a strong reduction of the systematic errors along the geomagnetic equator in the gravity field recovery. Long wavelength signatures of the gravity field may then be recovered with a similar quality as achieved with GRACE GPS data, which makes the Swarm mission well suited to bridge a potential gap between the current GRACE and the future GRACE Follow-On mission.

  17. An 18-Month Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Repeated Courses of Inhaled Aztreonam Lysine in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Oermann, Christopher M.; Retsch-Bogart, George Z.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Gibson, Ronald L.; McCoy, Karen S.; Montgomery, A. Bruce; Cooper, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Chronic airway infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) causes morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Additional anti-PA therapies are needed to improve health status and health-related quality of life. AIR-CF3 was an international 18-month, open-label study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of repeated courses of aztreonam for inhalation solution (AZLI, now marketed as Cayston®) in patients aged ≥6 years with CF and PA infection who previously participated in one of two Phase 3 studies: AIR-CF1 or AIR-CF2. Patients received up to nine courses (28 days on/28 days off) of 75 mg AZLI two (BID) or three times daily (TID) based on randomization in the previous trials. 274 patients, mean age 28.5 years (range: 8–74 years), participated. Mean treatment adherence was high (92.0% BID group, 88.0% TID group). Hospitalization rates were low and adverse events were consistent with CF With each course of AZLI, FEV1 and scores on the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised Respiratory Symptomscale improved and bacterial density in sputum was reduced. Benefits waned in the 28 days off therapy, but weight gain was sustained over the 18months. There were no sustained decreases in PA susceptibility. A dose response was observed; AZLI TID-treated patients demonstrated greater improvements in lung function and respiratory symptoms over 18 months. Repeated intermittent 28-day courses of AZLI treatment were well tolerated. Clinical benefits in pulmonary function, health-related quality of life, and weight were observed with each course of therapy. AZLI is a safe and effective new therapy in patients with CF and PA airway infection. PMID:20672296

  18. The Quality of Different Types of Child Care at 10 and 18 Months: A Comparison between Types and Factors Related to Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Penelope; Barnes, Jacqueline; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Sylva, Kathy; Stein, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The quality of care offered in four different types of non-parental child care to 307 infants at 10 months old and 331 infants at 18 months old was compared and factors associated with higher quality were identified. Observed quality was lowest in nurseries at each age point, except that at 18 months they offered more learning activities. There…

  19. Can Severely Language Delayed 3-Year-Olds Be Identified at 18 Months? Evaluation of a Screening Version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerlund, Monica; Berglund, Eva; Eriksson, Marten

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a screening instrument (the Swedish Communication Screening at 18 months of age; SCS18), derived from the Swedish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, in identification of 18-month-old children who will be severely language disabled by 3 years of age, the authors (a) analyzed which SCS18's…

  20. European collaboration for improved monitoring of Icelandic volcanoes: Status of the FUTUREVOLC project after the initial 18 months

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Stéphanie; Parks, Michelle; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Vogfjörð, Kristín; Einarsdóttir, Heiðveig Maria; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnús; Kristinsson, Ingvar; Loughlin, Sue; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Hooper, Andrew; Kylling, Arve; Witham, Claire; Bean, Chris; Braiden, Aoife; Ripepe, Maurizio; Prata, Fred; Pétur Heiðarsson, Einar; Other Members Of The Futurevolc Team

    2014-05-01

    The FUTUREVOLC project funded by the European Union (FP7) is devoted to volcanic hazard assessment and establishing an integrated volcanological monitoring procedure through a European collaboration. To reach these objectives the project combines broad expertise from 26 partners from 10 countries, focusing on the four most active volcanoes of Iceland: Grímsvötn, Katla, Hekla and Bárdarbunga. The geological setting of Iceland, the high rate of eruptions and the various eruption styles make this country an optimal natural laboratory to study volcanic processes from crustal depths to the atmosphere. The project, which began on 1 October 2012, integrates advanced monitoring and analytical techniques in an innovative way, focusing on (i) detailed monitoring to improve our understanding of the seismic/magmatic unrest, in order to estimate the amount of magma available for an eruption and to provide early warnings (ii) the dynamics of magma in the conduit and a near real time estimation of the mass eruption rate and (iii) observing and modelling the plume dynamics. The project design considers effective collaboration between partners and aims for efficient cross-disciplinary workflows. A major step during the first 18 months of the project was the installation of additional equipment in the volcanic regions of Iceland to reinforce and complement the existing monitoring. The instruments include: seismometers, GPS stations, MultigGAS detectors, DOAS, infrasonic arrays, electric field sensors, radars, and optical particle sizers. Data streaming is designed to withstand extreme weather conditions. The FUTUREVOLC project has an open data policy for real and near-time data. Implementation of a data hub is currently under way, based on open access to data from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Access to volcano monitoring data through a common interface will allow timely information on magma movements facilitated through combined analysis. A key part of the project is to

  1. Testing of defendant is valid even 18 months after the crime.

    PubMed

    1999-01-22

    Eighteen months after his alleged sexual offenses against a child, [name removed] [name removed] was ordered by a Brevard County trial judge to be tested for HIV. The testing was requested by the guardians of the victim. On appeal, [name removed] argued that testing now would provide useless information since the law mandated testing to allow the victims to receive early treatment. [Name removed] also suggested that the results from the girl being tested would be more useful to her than his test. The appeals panel disagreed with the idea that the results would be useless and rejected as speculative [name removed]'s concerns that his test results might be released in prison, thus subjecting him to possible discrimination. PMID:11366181

  2. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  3. Patent Ductus Arteriosus Therapy: Impact on Neonatal and 18-Month Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Juliette C.; Kendrick, Douglas; Hagadorn, James I.; Frantz, Ivan D.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this work was to evaluate therapy for patent ductus arteri-osus as a risk factor for death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely low birth weight infants. METHODS We studied infants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network Generic Data Base born between 2000 and 2004 at 23 to 28 weeks’ gestation and at <1000-g birth weight with patent ductus arteriosus. Patent ductus arteriosus therapy was evaluated as a risk factor for outcomes in bivariable and multivariable analyses. RESULTS Treatment for subjects with patent ductus arteriosus (n = 2838) included 403 receiving supportive treatment only, 1525 treated with indomethacin only, 775 with indomethacin followed by secondary surgical closure, and 135 treated with primary surgery. Patients who received supportive therapy for patent ductus arteriosus did not differ from subjects treated with indomethacin only for any of the outcomes of interest. Compared with indomethacin treatment only, patients undergoing primary or secondary surgery were smaller and more premature. When compared with indomethacin alone, primary surgery was associated with increased adjusted odds for neurodevelopmental impairment and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in multivariable logistic regression. Secondary surgical closure was associated with increased odds for neurodevelopmental impairment and increased adjusted odds for bronchopulmonary dysplasia but decreased adjusted odds for death. Risk of necrotizing enterocolitis did not differ among treatments. Indomethacin prophylaxis did not significantly modify these results. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that infants treated with primary or secondary surgery for patent ductus arteriosus may be at increased risk for poor short- and long-term outcomes compared with those treated with indomethacin. Prophylaxis with indomethacin in the first 24 hours

  4. When Infants Take Mothers’ Advice: 18-Month-Olds Integrate Perceptual and Social Information to Guide Motor Action

    PubMed Central

    Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Adolph, Karen E.; Lobo, Sharon A.; Karasik, Lana B.; Ishak, Shaziela; Dimitropoulou, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    The social cognition and perception–action literatures are largely separate, both conceptually and empirically. However, both areas of research emphasize infants’ emerging abilities to use available information—social and perceptual information, respectively—for making decisions about action. Borrowing methods from both research traditions, this study examined whether 18-month-old infants incorporate both social and perceptual information in their motor decisions. The infants’ task was to determine whether to walk down slopes of varying risk levels as their mothers encouraged or discouraged walking. First, a psychophysical procedure was used to determine slopes that were safe, borderline, and risky for individual infants. Next, during a series of test trials, infants received mothers’ advice about whether to walk. Infants used social information selectively: They ignored encouraging advice to walk down risky slopes and discouraging advice to avoid safe slopes, but they deferred to mothers’ advice at borderline slopes. Findings indicate that 18-month-old infants correctly weigh competing sources of information when making decisions about motor action and that they rely on social information only when perceptual information is inadequate or uncertain. PMID:18473640

  5. Workshop results on small-period wiggler designs

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.; Booske, J.H.; Warren, R.W.; Halbach, K.; Danly, B.; Jackson, B.; Walstrom, P.; Slater, J.; Toor, A.; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD; Los Alamos National Lab., NM; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA; Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC; Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY; Spectra Techno

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we present a review of a workshop on small-period wiggler and undulator designs held at Los Alamos National Laboratory on April 13, 1989. The wiggler designs are based on the following mechanisms: microwave fields, electromagnetic coils, miniature permanent magnets, current sheets, superconductive coils, and iron-free pulsed wire. 9 refs.

  6. Long-Term Safety and Longevity of a Mixture of Polymethyl Methacrylate and Cross-Linked Dextran (Lipen-10®) after Penile Augmentation: Extension Study from Six to 18 Months of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ma Tae; Ko, Kyungtae; Lee, Won Ki; Kim, Sae Chul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate the long-term efficacy and safety of a mixture of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and cross-linked dextran Lipen-10® used for penile augmentation under the physical impact generated during sexual intercourse. Materials and Methods From March 2010 to October 2011, a total of 20 patients with a mean age of 44 years (interquartile range, 20~70 years) who requested penile augmentation participated in this study. Lipen-10® filler is a mixture of 75% cross-linked dextran, 15% PMMA, and 10% hypromellose solution. With the patient in the supine position, Lipen-10® was injected into the subcutaneous tissue between the dartos fascia and Buck's fascia of the penis using a fanning technique. Penile length and circumference were measured before the procedure and six, 12, and 18 months after the procedure. Values were compared using the Student's t-test and the paired t-test. Results A total of 15 patients completed this study. The increases in circumference and length observed six months after the procedure were found to have been maintained without change at 12 and 18 months of follow-up. At 12 and 18 months of follow-up, no abnormal findings were observed. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging conducted at 18 months of follow-up showed no trace of the injected filler having migrated to other sites, and the volume was well maintained. Conclusions Lipen-10®, a mixture of PMMA and cross-linked dextran, showed good durability and tolerability over 18 months of follow-up during which the participants were sexually active. PMID:26770941

  7. No Impairment of Quality of Life 18 Months After High-Dose Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Marchand, Virginie; Bourdin, Sylvain; Charbonnel, Christelle; Rio, Emmanuel

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To determine prospectively intermediate-term toxicity and quality of life (QoL) of prostate cancer patients after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Patients and Methods: Fifty-five patients with localized prostate adenocarcinoma were treated by IMRT (76 Gy). Physicians scored acute and late toxicity using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Patients assessed general and prostate-specific QoL before IMRT (baseline) and at 2, 6, and 18 months using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaires QLQ-C30(+3) and QLQ-PR25. Results: Median age was 73 years (range, 54-80 years). Risk categories were 18% low risk, 60% intermediate risk, and 22% high risk; 45% of patients received hormonal therapy (median duration, 6 months). The incidence of urinary and bowel toxicity immediately after IMRT was, respectively, 38% and 13% (Grade 2) and 2% and none (Grade 3); at 18 months it was 15% and 11% (Grade 2) and none (Grade 3). Significant worsening of QoL was reported at 2 months with regard to fatigue (+11.31, p = 1.10{sup -7}), urinary symptoms (+9.07, p = 3.10{sup -11}), dyspnea (+7.27, p = 0.008), and emotional (-7.02, p = 0.002), social (-6.36, p = 0.003), cognitive (-4.85, p = 0.004), and physical (-3.39, p = 0.007) functioning. Only fatigue (+5.86, p = 0.003) and urinary symptoms (+5.86, p = 0.0004) had not improved by 6 months. By 18 months all QoL scores except those for dyspnea (+8.02, p = 0.01) and treatment-related symptoms (+4.24, p = 0.01) had returned to baseline. These adverse effects were exacerbated by hormonal therapy. Conclusion: High-dose IMRT with accurate positioning induces only a temporary worsening of QoL.

  8. Increased Prevalence of Human Polyomavirus JC Viruria in Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases Patients in Treatment with Anti-TNF α: A 18 Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodio, Donatella Maria; Anzivino, Elena; Mischitelli, Monica; Bellizzi, Anna; Scrivo, Rossana; Scribano, Daniela; Conte, Gianlorenzo; Prezioso, Carla; Trancassini, Maria; Valesini, Guido; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Pietropaolo, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRDs) are immune-mediated pathologies involving joints. To date, TNFα-blocking agents administration is the most promising therapy, although these treatments are associated with an increased Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) reactivation, the etiological agent of the Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). The aim of this study was the recruitment and the analysis of a CIRDs cohort in order to investigate a possible correlation between JCPyV presence and the influence of anti-TNF-α agents on viral loads. Blood and urine samples were collected from 34 CIRDs subjects prior the first anti-TNF-α infusion (T0) and after 3 (T3), 6 (T6), 12 (T12), and 18 (T18) months. Results showed persistent JC viruria significantly higher than JC viremia throughout the 18 month follow-up study (p = 0.002). In JCPyV positive samples, the non-coding control region (NCCR) was analyzed. Results evidenced archetypal structures (type II-S) in all isolates with the exception of a sequence isolated from a plasma sample, that corresponds to the type II-R found in PML subjects. Finally, the viral protein 1 (VP1) genotyping was performed and results showed the prevalence of the European genotypes 1A, 1B, and 4. Since only few studies have been carried out to understand whether there is a PML risk in CIRDs population infected by JCPyV, this study contributes to enrich literature insight on JCPyV biology in this cluster. Further investigations are necessary in order to recognize the real impact of biologics on JCPyV life cycle and to identify possible and specific viral variants related to increased virulence in CIRDs patients. PMID:27242700

  9. World Health Organization generic protocol to assess drug-resistant HIV among children <18 months of age and newly diagnosed with HIV in resource-limited countries.

    PubMed

    Bertagnolio, Silvia; Penazzato, Martina; Jordan, Michael R; Persaud, Deborah; Mofenson, Lynne M; Bennett, Diane E

    2012-05-01

    Increased use of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) in pregnant and breastfeeding women will result in fewer children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, among children infected despite prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), a substantial proportion will acquire NNRTI-resistant HIV, potentially compromising response to NNRTI-based antiretroviral therapy (ART). In countries scaling up PMTCT and pediatric ART programs, it is crucial to assess the proportion of young children with drug-resistant HIV to improve health outcomes and support national and global decision making on optimal selection of pediatric first-line ART. This article summarizes a new World Health Organization surveillance protocol to assess resistance using remnant dried blood spot specimens from a representative sample of children aged <18 months being tested for early infant diagnosis.

  10. A case report of Cowper's syringocele in an 18-months old infant at the Yaoundé Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital.

    PubMed

    Mouafo Tambo, F F; Kamadjou, C; Djeumi, T; Nwaha Makon, A S; Fossi, G; Le Coultre, C; Andze, O G; Sosso, M A; Mure, P Y

    2016-01-01

    Syringocele or dilatation of the duct of the bulbo-urethral (Cowper's) gland is usually of congenital origin but can be acquired. It is a very rare deformity, <10 cases have been reported in literature. The main objective is to describe an additional case of syringocele of Cowper's glands and review the literature. An 18-month-old infant presented with a history of acute urinary retention 3 days after birth and a cystostomy was done. Voiding cystourethrogram was normal and cystourethroscopy showed a syringocele. Endoscopic incision was performed in our patient with satisfactory results. No complications were noted. Syringocele or cystic dilatation of Cowper's gland duct usually has a congenital aetiology. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopy. Treatment is by marsupialisation in the urethra by endoscopy. Syringocele is a rare pathology usually congenital. It should be suspected in all case of lower urinary tract obstruction in children. PMID:27502886

  11. The 18-Month Impact of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Food Package Revisions on Diets of Recipient Families

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Kim, Yoonsang; Berbaum, Michael L.; Porter, Summer J.; Blumstein, Lara B.; Bess, Stephanie L.; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Beginning in 2009, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) revised its food packages and provided more whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, and fewer foods with high saturated fat content. However, knowledge of the impact of this policy shift on the diets of WIC participants remains limited. Purpose To examine the longer-term impact of the 2009 WIC food package change on nutrient and food group intake and overall diet quality among African American and Hispanic WIC child participants and their mothers/caregivers. Methods In this natural experiment, 24-hour dietary recalls were collected in the summer of 2009, immediately before WIC food package revisions occurred in Chicago, Illinois, and at 18 months following the food package change (winter/spring 2011). Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare dietary intake at these two time points. Data were analyzed in July 2013. Results Eighteen months following the WIC food package revisions, significant decreases in total fat (p=0.002) and saturated fat (p=0.0004) and increases in dietary fiber (p=0.03), and overall diet quality (p=0.02) were observed among Hispanic children only. No significant changes in nutrient intake or diet quality were observed for any other group. The prevalence of reduced-fat milk intake significantly increased for African American and Hispanic children, whereas the prevalence of whole milk intake significantly decreased for all groups. Conclusions Positive dietary changes were observed at 18-months post-policy implementation, with the effects most pronounced among Hispanic children. PMID:24842730

  12. Oral mucormycosis in an 18-month-old child: a rare case report with a literature review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oral mucormycosis is a fungal infection observed mainly in elderly immunocompromised patients. In rare instances, the disease occurs in healthy individuals and those patients that are below preschool age. Although this condition mainly involves the maxilla, it may also manifest in any part of the oral cavity based on the source of infection. Mucormycosis of the maxilla spreads rapidly, leading to necrosis of the palatal bone and palatal perforation. Such patients are usually rehabilitated using bone grafting or free flap surgeries. However, when surgeries are delayed, palatal prosthesis is an interim treatment modality that can prevent nasal regurgitation and aspiration of food or fluids. Palatal prostheses also help with mastication, speech, and swallowing. The present case describes a rare case of oral mucormycosis in an 18-month-old male involving the maxilla that was managed by palatal prosthesis. PMID:27162751

  13. Oral mucormycosis in an 18-month-old child: a rare case report with a literature review.

    PubMed

    Kalaskar, Ritesh Rambharos; Kalaskar, Ashita Ritesh; Ganvir, Sindhu

    2016-04-01

    Oral mucormycosis is a fungal infection observed mainly in elderly immunocompromised patients. In rare instances, the disease occurs in healthy individuals and those patients that are below preschool age. Although this condition mainly involves the maxilla, it may also manifest in any part of the oral cavity based on the source of infection. Mucormycosis of the maxilla spreads rapidly, leading to necrosis of the palatal bone and palatal perforation. Such patients are usually rehabilitated using bone grafting or free flap surgeries. However, when surgeries are delayed, palatal prosthesis is an interim treatment modality that can prevent nasal regurgitation and aspiration of food or fluids. Palatal prostheses also help with mastication, speech, and swallowing. The present case describes a rare case of oral mucormycosis in an 18-month-old male involving the maxilla that was managed by palatal prosthesis. PMID:27162751

  14. A virtual reality intervention (Second Life) to improve weight maintenance: Rationale and design for an 18-month randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, D K; Goetz, J R; Gibson, C A; Mayo, M S; Washburn, R A; Lee, Y; Ptomey, L T; Donnelly, J E

    2016-01-01

    Despite the plethora of weight loss programs available in the US, the prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI≥25kg/m(2)) among US adults continues to rise at least, in part, due to the high probability of weight regain following weight loss. Thus, the development and evaluation of novel interventions designed to improve weight maintenance are clearly needed. Virtual reality environments offer a promising platform for delivering weight maintenance interventions as they provide rapid feedback, learner experimentation, real-time personalized task selection and exploration. Utilizing virtual reality during weight maintenance allows individuals to engage in repeated experiential learning, practice skills, and participate in real-life scenarios without real-life repercussions, which may diminish weight regain. We will conduct an 18-month effectiveness trial (6 months weight loss, 12 months weight maintenance) in 202 overweight/obese adults (BMI 25-44.9kg/m(2)). Participants who achieve ≥5% weight loss following a 6month weight loss intervention delivered by phone conference call will be randomized to weight maintenance interventions delivered by conference call or conducted in a virtual environment (Second Life®). The primary aim of the study is to compare weight change during maintenance between the phone conference call and virtual groups. Secondarily, potential mediators of weight change including energy and macronutrient intake, physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables, self-efficacy for both physical activity and diet, and attendance and completion of experiential learning assignments will also be assessed.

  15. NEURODEVELOPMENTAL IMPAIRMENT: PREDICTORS OF ITS IMPACT ON THE FAMILIES OF EXTREMELY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS AT 18 MONTHS

    PubMed Central

    STEPHENS, BONNIE E.; BANN, CARLA M.; POOLE, W. KENNETH; VOHR, BETTY R.

    2009-01-01

    Effects on a family of a child with chronic illness have been described. The Impact on Family Scale (IOF) was developed to measure these effects. The impact of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants with neurodevelopmental impairment on families is unknown. This study determined IOF scores for families of ELBW infants with increasing degree of impairment at 18 months and identified factors that increase vulnerability to impact. A total of 3,849 ELBW infant survivors born at the 16 centers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network between January 1993 and February 2001 were assessed at 18 to 22 months. Infants were divided into four groups by degree of impairment. IOF scores were analyzed by impairment group. Multivariate analyses assessed effects of impairment, social/demographic factors, unmet service needs, and resource utilization on the IOF. A total of 1,624 (42.2%) infants had moderate/severe impairment. Increasing severity of impairment was associated with higher IOF scores. Severity of impairment contributed 6% of variance to the IOF scores. Twenty-one percent of variance was contributed by additional medical needs, low socioeconomic status (SES), and lack of social support. Although increasing severity of impairment impacts families of ELBW infants, significantly more impact is contributed by additional medical needs, low SES, and lack of social support. PMID:19779585

  16. Neurocognitive Speed and Inconsistency in Parkinson’s Disease With and Without Incipient Dementia: An 18-month Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    de Frias, Cindy M.; Dixon, Roger A.; Camicioli, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We examined two-wave longitudinal changes in two indicators of neurocognitive speed (i.e., mean rate, intraindividual variability) using one simple and three complex reaction time tasks. Participants included idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, with and without incipient dementia, and normal controls. At baseline, there were 45 patients (26 men, 19 women) with idiopathic PD who ranged from 65 to 84 years (M = 71.3, SD = 4.5) and 47 matched controls (27 men, 20 women) who ranged from 65 to 84 years (M = 71.4, SD = 4.9). The 18-month longitudinal sample comprised of 74 returning participants (43 controls, 31 PD patients) who had no cognitive impairment or dementia at both waves. Ten of the 31 PD patients returning for Time 3 had dementia or cognitive impairment. These constituted the PD with incipient dementia (PDID) group. Repeated measures analyses of variance showed that the PD and PDID groups were slower over time on the RT tasks whereas the controls improved their performance over time on all tasks. Inconsistency distinguished the two clinical groups (i.e., the PDID group but not the PD group became more inconsistent over time). Changes in neurocognitive speed and inconsistency may be valid clinical markers of PDID. PMID:22621940

  17. An Evaluation of Cerebral and Systemic Predictors of 18-Month Outcomes for Neonates With Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Shellhaas, Renée A; Kushwaha, Juhi S; Plegue, Melissa A; Selewski, David T; Barks, John D E

    2015-10-01

    Amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) is a commonly used predictor of outcome after hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Cerebral and systemic near-infrared spectroscopy and acute kidney injury might also have prognostic value. The authors monitored neonates with aEEG, cerebral and systemic near-infrared spectroscopy during therapeutic hypothermia, assigned an acute kidney injury stage, and measured neurodevelopmental outcome. For 18 infants, cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy variables did not differentiate between those with favorable (n = 13) versus adverse (death or moderate-severe disability; n = 5) 18-month outcomes. However, systemic rSO2 variability was higher during hours 48-72 of cooling among those with favorable outcomes (.02 < P < .03). Mean aEEG amplitude during hours 24 to 48 of cooling was higher among those with good outcomes (.027 < P < .032). The aEEG lower margin was also higher during hours 12 to 48 for those with good outcomes (.014 < P < .035). Acute kidney injury did not predict outcome (P > .05). aEEG is a useful prognostic tool for outcomes after neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, but the role of near-infrared spectroscopy in the hypothermia-treated population remains uncertain.

  18. An Evaluation of Cerebral and Systemic Predictors of 18-Month Outcomes for Neonates With Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Shellhaas, Renée A; Kushwaha, Juhi S; Plegue, Melissa A; Selewski, David T; Barks, John D E

    2015-10-01

    Amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) is a commonly used predictor of outcome after hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Cerebral and systemic near-infrared spectroscopy and acute kidney injury might also have prognostic value. The authors monitored neonates with aEEG, cerebral and systemic near-infrared spectroscopy during therapeutic hypothermia, assigned an acute kidney injury stage, and measured neurodevelopmental outcome. For 18 infants, cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy variables did not differentiate between those with favorable (n = 13) versus adverse (death or moderate-severe disability; n = 5) 18-month outcomes. However, systemic rSO2 variability was higher during hours 48-72 of cooling among those with favorable outcomes (.02 < P < .03). Mean aEEG amplitude during hours 24 to 48 of cooling was higher among those with good outcomes (.027 < P < .032). The aEEG lower margin was also higher during hours 12 to 48 for those with good outcomes (.014 < P < .035). Acute kidney injury did not predict outcome (P > .05). aEEG is a useful prognostic tool for outcomes after neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, but the role of near-infrared spectroscopy in the hypothermia-treated population remains uncertain. PMID:25724376

  19. Greater length-for-age increases the odds of attaining motor milestones in Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shibani; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Dearden, Kirk A; Marsh, David R; Ha, Tran Thu; Tran, Thach Duc; Pachón, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood malnutrition has been associated with delayed development. Limited data exist however about the timing of developmental delay early in life. We assessed motor milestone (MM) achievement using the World Health Organization's windows of achievement for gross motor milestones. We performed secondary analysis of baseline data of 158 Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months from a randomized community intervention trial. Median age of motor milestone achievement was compared to WHO reported medians. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic, anthropometric and dietary factors associated with motor milestone achievement during the windows of achievement. Thirty four per cent of the children were stunted. Median age of MM achievement of Vietnamese children lagged by 2.4-3.7 months, compared to the WHO median for all MMs. Greater length-for-age increased the odds for walking with assistance, standing alone and walking alone by more than 3 times. Greater weight-for-age increased the odds by 3.6 for hand-and-knees crawling. Likewise, frequency of daily complementary feeding raised the odds by 3.6 for standing with assistance. In this first application of WHO windows of achievement in Viet Nam, pre-schoolers achieved motor milestones later than WHO reported median age. High prevalence of stunting and association of length-for-age with motor milestone achievement underscore the importance of addressing chronic malnutrition to optimize children's growth and development.

  20. Maternal employment, child care, and nutritional status of 12-18-month-old children in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Lamontagne, J F; Engle, P L; Zeitlin, M F

    1998-02-01

    Relationships among women's employment, child care strategies, and nutritional status of children 12-18 months of age were examined in 80 Nicaraguan households sampled by randomized block design in 10 low income urban communities. Multiple regression analyses showed that children of employed mothers (56%) fared better in weight/height than those whose mothers were not employed, with and without controlling for socioeconomic status and maternal education, paternal financial support, child care adequacy, and sex and age of the child. Children with inadequate alternate child care (care by a preteen or care at the work place) had lower height for age, even controlling for the same variables and for maternal employment. Differences in 10 caregiving behaviors between families as a function of work status of the mother and adequacy of child care were examined. In families with working mothers, caregivers were less likely to be observed washing their hands, suggesting that the positive associations of work for earnings might be due to income rather than improved care. Inadequate care was associated with less food variety, less use of health care, and marginally less hand-washing. Inadequate child care, which tends to be associated with informal work, nuclear families and poverty, should be a concern for child welfare. PMID:9460821

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of two doses of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine or one dose of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine, both administered concomitantly with routine immunization to 12- to 18-month-old children

    PubMed Central

    Noya, Francisco; McCormack, Deirdre; Reynolds, Donna L; Neame, Dion; Oster, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the immunogenicity and safety of a two-dose series of a quadrivalent meningococcal (serogroups A, C, Y and W) polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACYW-D) administered to toddlers. METHODS: Children were randomly assigned (1:1) at study entry to receive MenACYW-D at 12 and 18 months of age (group 1; n=61) or meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine (MCC) at 12 months of age (group 2; n=62). All received routine childhood immunizations. A, C, Y and W antibody titres were measured in group 1 before and one month after the 18-month MenACYW-D vaccination and were measured in group 2 at one and seven months post-MCC vaccination. Antibodies elicited by diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed combined with inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine coadministered at the 18-month vaccination were measured one month later. Safety data were collected. RESULTS: At 19 months of age, ≥96% in group 1 achieved protective titres for the four meningococcal serogroups after dose 2; 67% in group 2 exhibited protective titres against serogroup C 28 days after MCC vaccination at 12 months of age, declining to 27% seven months later. DTaP-IPV-Hib elicited high antibody concentrations/titres in groups 1 and 2, consistent with historical values. The safety profiles after each dose generated no unexpected safety signals; no serious adverse events were related to vaccination. DISCUSSION: A two-dose series of MenACYW-D given concomitantly with a DTaP-IPV-Hib booster dose at 18 months of age demonstrated a good immunogenicity and safety profile. A two-dose series of MenACYW-D can be used as an alternative to one dose of MCC and provides protection against additional serogroups (NCT ID: NCT01359449). PMID:25285126

  2. Weight management for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities: rationale and design for an 18 month randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, J E; Saunders, R R; Saunders, M; Washburn, R A; Sullivan, D K; Gibson, C A; Ptomey, L T; Goetz, J R; Honas, J J; Betts, J L; Rondon, M R; Smith, B K; Mayo, M S

    2013-09-01

    Weight management for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) has received limited attention. Studies on weight management in this population have been conducted over short time frames, in small samples with inadequate statistical power, infrequently used a randomized design, and have not evaluated the use of emerging effective dietary strategies such as pre-packaged meals (PMs). Low energy/fat PMs may be useful in individuals with IDD as they simplify meal planning, limit undesirable food choices, teach appropriate portion sizes, are convenient and easy to prepare, and when combined with fruits and vegetables provide a high volume, low energy dense meal. A randomized effectiveness trial will be conducted in 150 overweight/obese adults with mild to moderate IDD, and their study partners to compare weight loss (6 months) and weight maintenance (12 months) between 2 weight management approaches: 1. A Stop Light Diet enhanced with reduced energy/fat PMs (eSLD); and 2. A recommended care reduced energy/fat meal plan diet (RC). The primary aim is to compare weight loss (0-6 months) and weight maintenance (7-18 months) between the eSLD and RC diets. Secondarily, changes in chronic disease risk factors between the eSLD and RC diets including blood pressure, glucose, insulin, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol will be compared during both weight loss and weight maintenance. Finally, potential mediators of weight loss including energy intake, physical activity, data recording, adherence to the diet, study partner self-efficacy and daily stress related to dietary change will be explored.

  3. Supplementary feeding with fortified spread among moderately underweight 6-18-month-old rural Malawian children.

    PubMed

    Phuka, John; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Maleta, Kenneth; Cheung, Yin Bun; Briend, André; Manary, Mark; Ashorn, Per

    2009-04-01

    We aimed to analyse growth and recovery from undernutrition among moderately underweight ambulatory children receiving micronutrient-fortified maize-soy flour (Likuni Phala, LP) or ready-to-use fortified spread (FS) supplementary diet. One hundred and seventy-six 6-18-month-old individuals were randomized to receive 500 g LP or 350 g FS weekly for 12 weeks. Baseline and end of intervention measurements were used to calculate anthropometric gains and recovery from underweight, wasting and stunting. Mean weight-for-age increased by 0.22 (95% CI 0.07-0.37) and 0.28 (0.18-0.40) Z-score units in the LP and FS groups respectively. Comparable increase for mean weight-for-length was 0.39 (0.20-0.57) and 0.52 (0.38-0.65) Z-score units. Recovery from underweight and wasting was 20% and 93% in LP group and 16% and 75% in FS group. Few individuals recovered from stunting and mean length-for-age was not markedly changed. There were no statistically significant differences between the outcomes in the two intervention groups. In a poor food-security setting, underweight infants and children receiving supplementary feeding for 12 weeks with ready-to-use FS or maize-soy flour porridge show similar recovery from moderate wasting and underweight. Neither intervention, if limited to a 12-week duration, appears to have significant impact on the process of linear growth or stunting. PMID:19292750

  4. Sarcolemmal deficiency of sarcoglycan complex in an 18-month-old Turkish boy with a large deletion in the beta sarcoglycan gene

    PubMed Central

    Tekgul, H; Hazan, F; Yararbas, K; Tukun, A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2E (LGMD-2E) is caused by autosomal recessive defects in the beta sarcoglycan (SGCB) gene located on chromosome 4q12. In this case report, the clinical findings, histopathological features and molecular genetic data in a boy with β sarcoglycanopathy are presented. An 18-month-old boy had a very high serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) level that was accidentally determined. The results of molecular analyses for the dystrophin gene was found to be normal. He underwent a muscle biopsy which showed dystrophic features. Immunohistochemistry showed that there was a total loss of sarcolemmal sarcoglycan complex. DNA analysis revealed a large homozygous deletion in the SCGB gene. During 4 years of follow-up, there was no evidence to predict a severe clinical course except the muscle enzyme elevation and myopathic electromyography (EMG) finding. The presented milder phenotype of LGMD-2E with a large deletion in the SGCB gene provided additional support for the clinical heterogeneity and pathogenic complexity of the disease.

  5. Body composition, physical work capacity and physical activity habits at 18-month follow-up of middle-aged women participating in an exercise intervention program.

    PubMed

    MacKeen, P C; Franklin, B A; Nicholas, W C; Buskirk, E R

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-six sedentary women (29-47 yr) participated in a 12-week, 4-d/week physical conditioning program (CP) involving 15-25 min/d of walking/jogging at a heart rate corresponding to 75 percent of aerobic capacity (VO2max). Twenty-three were classified obese (O, greater than 30 percent body fat, mean = 38 percent) and 13 normal (N, less than 30 percent body fat, mean = 25 percent). Significant post-CP changes included increased VO2max and decreased body fat. At 18 months post-CP a volunteer subgroup of the original 36 subjects (Ss) were re-evaluated, 19 being hydrostatically weighed, 21 exercise-tested and 28 interviewed to assess physical activity over the preceding eight quarterly periods. At CP termination 80 percent of N and 78 percent of O had intended to continue jogging, but by follow-up only 40 percent of N and 33 percent of O were so engaged, none at CP frequency, many at reduced duration and intensity. There was no significant difference between follow-up and pre-CP mean h/week of jogging for the entire follow-up group, even though eight of them (28 percent) increased their jogging over pre-CP levels. Follow-up VO2max and percent body fat means were also not significantly different from pre-CP values. It is suggested that the majority of middle-aged women participating in supervised walk-jog conditioning interventions may regress to pre-program physiologic status when left to exercise ad libitum.

  6. Bimanual Behaviours in Children Aged 8-18 Months: A Literature Review to Select Toys that Elicit the Use of Two Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves, Susan; Imms, Christine; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Dodd, Karen; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Toys that provoke the use of both hands are required to develop a test of bimanual performance in children 8-18 months with unilateral cerebral palsy (Mini-AHA). To choose the toys, a conceptual model based on perception-action theory and object use was used to guide a literature review. Evidence was sought for three critical relationships…

  7. Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) Screening at 18 Months of Age Predicts Concurrent Understanding of Desires, Word Learning and Expressive Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Kristyn; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2012-01-01

    The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) is a 23-item questionnaire used in primary screening of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current studies examine the concurrent validity of the M-CHAT in its ability to predict 18-month-olds' performance on theory of mind and word learning tasks. In Experiment 1, infants' understanding of…

  8. Developmental outcomes among 18-month-old Malawians after a year of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements or corn-soy flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major aim of this trial was to compare the development of 18-month-old infants who received complementary feeding for 1 year with either lipid-based nutrient supplements or micronutrient-fortified corn-soy porridge. Our secondary aim was to determine the socio-economic factors associated with de...

  9. Socioeconomic Status and the Risk of Suspected Autism Spectrum Disorders among 18-Month-Old Toddlers in Japan: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiwara, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and the suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD) status of 18-month-old toddlers was investigated using a population-based sample in Japan, which has a universal healthcare system and a mandatory health checkup system for toddlers. Questionnaires including SES measurements and modified…

  10. Nutrient intakes and iron and vitamin D status differ depending on main milk consumed by UK children aged 12-18 months - secondary analysis from the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children.

    PubMed

    Sidnell, Anne; Pigat, Sandrine; Gibson, Sigrid; O'Connor, Rosalyn; Connolly, Aileen; Sterecka, Sylwia; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition in the second year is important as this is a period of rapid growth and development. Milk is a major food for young children and this analysis evaluated the impact of the type of milk consumed on nutrient intakes and nutritional status. Data from the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children were used to investigate the intakes of key nutrients, and Fe and vitamin D status, of children aged 12-18 months, not breastfed, and consuming >400 g/d fortified milk (n 139) or >400 g/d of whole cows' milk (n 404). Blood samples from eligible children for measurement of Hb (n 113), serum ferritin and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (n 105) were available for approximately 20 % of children. Unpaired Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare nutrient intakes and status between consumers of fortified and cows' milk. Mean daily total dietary intakes of Fe, Zn, vitamin A and vitamin D were significantly higher in the fortified milk group. Mean daily total dietary intakes of energy, protein, Ca, iodine, Na and saturated fat were significantly higher in the cows' milk group. Hb was not different between groups. The fortified milk group had significantly higher serum ferritin (P = 0·049) and plasma 25(OH)D (P = 0·014). This analysis demonstrates significantly different nutrient intakes and status between infants consuming >400 g/d fortified milk v. those consuming >400 g/d whole cows' milk. These results indicate that fortified milks can play a significant role in improving the quality of young children's diets in their second year of life.

  11. Nutrient intakes and iron and vitamin D status differ depending on main milk consumed by UK children aged 12-18 months - secondary analysis from the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children.

    PubMed

    Sidnell, Anne; Pigat, Sandrine; Gibson, Sigrid; O'Connor, Rosalyn; Connolly, Aileen; Sterecka, Sylwia; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition in the second year is important as this is a period of rapid growth and development. Milk is a major food for young children and this analysis evaluated the impact of the type of milk consumed on nutrient intakes and nutritional status. Data from the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children were used to investigate the intakes of key nutrients, and Fe and vitamin D status, of children aged 12-18 months, not breastfed, and consuming >400 g/d fortified milk (n 139) or >400 g/d of whole cows' milk (n 404). Blood samples from eligible children for measurement of Hb (n 113), serum ferritin and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (n 105) were available for approximately 20 % of children. Unpaired Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare nutrient intakes and status between consumers of fortified and cows' milk. Mean daily total dietary intakes of Fe, Zn, vitamin A and vitamin D were significantly higher in the fortified milk group. Mean daily total dietary intakes of energy, protein, Ca, iodine, Na and saturated fat were significantly higher in the cows' milk group. Hb was not different between groups. The fortified milk group had significantly higher serum ferritin (P = 0·049) and plasma 25(OH)D (P = 0·014). This analysis demonstrates significantly different nutrient intakes and status between infants consuming >400 g/d fortified milk v. those consuming >400 g/d whole cows' milk. These results indicate that fortified milks can play a significant role in improving the quality of young children's diets in their second year of life. PMID:27547395

  12. Dopamine Receptor Gene DRD4 7-Repeat Allele X Maternal Sensitivity Interaction on Child Externalizing Behavior Problems: Independent Replication of Effects at 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    King, Anthony P.; Muzik, Maria; Hamilton, Lindsay; Taylor, Alexander B.; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    The DRD4 VNTR has been associated with child behavior problems in interaction with maternal insensitivity in European and American cohorts of preschoolers, with the 7-repeat (7R) allele associated with greater problems. We sought to replicate and expand these findings by examining effects on reports of child behavior problems at 18 months. A 63 family sample with data for observed maternal sensitivity ratings, DRD4 VNTR genotype, and maternal report of child behavior problems at 18-months was used in this preliminary analysis. Maternal sensitivity was measured at 6-months of age using laboratory observational measures (free-play and a teaching task). Maternal report of toddler behavior was obtained at 18-months via the standard Child Behavior Checklist, and infant genotype on the DRD4 VNTR was obtained using PCR. Infants carrying the DRD4 7R allele showed greater effects of maternal insensitivity than non-carriers for behavioral problems at 18-months. We replicated previous findings of association of infant DRD4 x maternal sensitivity interactions with child Externalizing problems in the European-ancestry sample (N = 42) in a median split of maternal sensitivity (p = .00011, eta2 = .329) and in regression analyses controlling for maternal age, maternal depression, and child gender in European ancestry (B = -3.4, SE 1.33, p = .01) and the total sample (B = -2.2, SE 1.02, p = .02). Exploratory analyses also found evidence of DRD4 x maternal sensitivity interaction with the CBCL ADHD scale. These findings replicate in an independent cohort DRD4 x maternal insensitivity interaction effect on child externalizing behavior problems at 18 months, further supporting the role of the DRD4 genotype in differential sensitivity to parenting. PMID:27494520

  13. Dopamine Receptor Gene DRD4 7-Repeat Allele X Maternal Sensitivity Interaction on Child Externalizing Behavior Problems: Independent Replication of Effects at 18 Months.

    PubMed

    King, Anthony P; Muzik, Maria; Hamilton, Lindsay; Taylor, Alexander B; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    The DRD4 VNTR has been associated with child behavior problems in interaction with maternal insensitivity in European and American cohorts of preschoolers, with the 7-repeat (7R) allele associated with greater problems. We sought to replicate and expand these findings by examining effects on reports of child behavior problems at 18 months. A 63 family sample with data for observed maternal sensitivity ratings, DRD4 VNTR genotype, and maternal report of child behavior problems at 18-months was used in this preliminary analysis. Maternal sensitivity was measured at 6-months of age using laboratory observational measures (free-play and a teaching task). Maternal report of toddler behavior was obtained at 18-months via the standard Child Behavior Checklist, and infant genotype on the DRD4 VNTR was obtained using PCR. Infants carrying the DRD4 7R allele showed greater effects of maternal insensitivity than non-carriers for behavioral problems at 18-months. We replicated previous findings of association of infant DRD4 x maternal sensitivity interactions with child Externalizing problems in the European-ancestry sample (N = 42) in a median split of maternal sensitivity (p = .00011, eta2 = .329) and in regression analyses controlling for maternal age, maternal depression, and child gender in European ancestry (B = -3.4, SE 1.33, p = .01) and the total sample (B = -2.2, SE 1.02, p = .02). Exploratory analyses also found evidence of DRD4 x maternal sensitivity interaction with the CBCL ADHD scale. These findings replicate in an independent cohort DRD4 x maternal insensitivity interaction effect on child externalizing behavior problems at 18 months, further supporting the role of the DRD4 genotype in differential sensitivity to parenting. PMID:27494520

  14. The effect of livestock production system and concentrate level on carcass traits and meat quality of foals slaughtered at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, J M; Crecente, S; Franco, D; Sarriés, M V; Gómez, M

    2014-03-01

    This trial was conducted to study the effect of livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) v. semi extensive system (SES)) and amount of finishing feed (1.5 v. 3.0 kg of commercial feed) in SES on carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of meat foal slaughtered at 18 months of age. For this study, a total of 49 foals (21 from FES and 28 from SES) were used. The obtained results showed that SES had a positive influence on carcass characteristic because these foals showed the best values for live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, perimeter of leg (PL) and carcass compactness index. On the other hand, finishing feeding also had a significant (P<0.05) effect on PL and lean thickness, as the highest values were obtained in foals finished with 3 kg of commercial fodder. The physico-chemical properties were significantly affected by the livestock production system with the exception of ashes content (P>0.05). Foals finished in SES increased in 408% the intramuscular fat content (0.23 v. 1.17%, for foals reared in FES and SES, respectively). On the other hand, L*-value and a*-value were significantly (P<0.01) affected by livestock production system, as foals from the FES group had a more intense redder color (higher CIE a*-value) and higher lightness (higher CIE L*-value) compared with those from the SES group. Finally, meat nutritional value was significantly affected by livestock production system, as foals from an extensive production system on wood pasture could be considered as healthier in relation to their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio) as a result of the beneficial grass intake on meat fatty acid profile.

  15. The effect of livestock production system and concentrate level on carcass traits and meat quality of foals slaughtered at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, J M; Crecente, S; Franco, D; Sarriés, M V; Gómez, M

    2014-03-01

    This trial was conducted to study the effect of livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) v. semi extensive system (SES)) and amount of finishing feed (1.5 v. 3.0 kg of commercial feed) in SES on carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of meat foal slaughtered at 18 months of age. For this study, a total of 49 foals (21 from FES and 28 from SES) were used. The obtained results showed that SES had a positive influence on carcass characteristic because these foals showed the best values for live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, perimeter of leg (PL) and carcass compactness index. On the other hand, finishing feeding also had a significant (P<0.05) effect on PL and lean thickness, as the highest values were obtained in foals finished with 3 kg of commercial fodder. The physico-chemical properties were significantly affected by the livestock production system with the exception of ashes content (P>0.05). Foals finished in SES increased in 408% the intramuscular fat content (0.23 v. 1.17%, for foals reared in FES and SES, respectively). On the other hand, L*-value and a*-value were significantly (P<0.01) affected by livestock production system, as foals from the FES group had a more intense redder color (higher CIE a*-value) and higher lightness (higher CIE L*-value) compared with those from the SES group. Finally, meat nutritional value was significantly affected by livestock production system, as foals from an extensive production system on wood pasture could be considered as healthier in relation to their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio) as a result of the beneficial grass intake on meat fatty acid profile. PMID:24398030

  16. Anhedonic-like traits and lack of affective deficits in 18-month-old C57BL/6 mice: Implications for modeling elderly depression.

    PubMed

    Malatynska, Ewa; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Redkozubova, Olga; Bolkunov, Alexei; Kubatiev, Aslan; Yeritsyan, Naira B; Vignisse, Julie; Bachurin, Sergei; Strekalova, Tatyana

    2012-08-01

    The prevalence of depression increases with aging. We hypothesized that like humans, old animals exhibit anhedonic-like behavior, along with signs of behavioral despair. In rodents, anhedonia, a reduced sensitivity to reward, which is listed as a core feature of major depression in the DSM-IVR, can be measured by a decrease in intake of and preference for sweet solutions. Here, sucrose intake, forced swimming, immobility in the modified tail suspension test, novelty exploration, grooming, anxiety and locomotor activity were compared in naïve 3- and 18-month-old male C57BL/6 mice. The absolute amounts and the ratio of consumed 1% sucrose solution to water intake was significantly smaller in 18-month-old mice than in 3-month-old mice. The consumption of 5%-sucrose solution requiring high levels of drinking effort, novelty exploration in two setups and grooming behavior in the splash test were reduced in older animals. Analysis of other behaviors suggested that the above-mentioned signs of anhedonic-like traits were unlikely to be attributable to the potential effect of aging on metabolic needs for water, taste perception, motor capabilities or the induction of essential anxiety and neophobia. A 4-week treatment with the antidepressant imipramine (7mg/kg/day) or dimebon, a compound with suggested neuroprotective proneurogenic properties (1mg/kg/day) restored sucrose intake and preference in 18-month-old mice. Meanwhile, young and old mice showed no differences in the parameters of behavioral despair evaluated in the forced swim and modified tail suspension tests. Thus, the behavioral profile of aged mice parallels that of humans with elderly depression, in whom the symptoms of hedonic deficits typically outweigh affective disturbances. The assessment of anhedonic-like traits with the sucrose preference test in 18-month-old mice will be useful in preclinical studies of elderly depression.

  17. 17 CFR 274.127e-1 - Form N-27E-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders of 18-month surrender rights...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-27E-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Forms for...

  18. Sire breed effects in matings with Angus cows: I. Fertility, calf survival and performance to 18 months.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, T J; Notter, D R; Brown, R A; Tolley, E A

    1984-07-01

    Over six calf crops, 524 exposures of Angus cows to three sire breeds resulted in 432 weaned calves for an 82.4% calf crop. Least-squares means for weaning rate by sire breed were 81.8, 80.5 and 83.9% for Angus, Charolais and Holsteins, respectively. Sire breed effect was not significant for calving rate, calf mortality or overall weaning rate, but was significant for all growth traits from birth to 18 mo. Angus-sired calves were smallest at birth, grew at a slower rate and were lightest in weight at all ages. Charolais-sired calves were heaviest at all weigh periods and Holstein-sired calves were intermediate. Holstein-sired calves scored significantly lower for both grade and condition than did Angus- and Charolais-sired calves. Charolais-sired calves had the highest grade. Calving rate tended to be influenced by the effect of cow (P less than .10) and sire breed X year (P less than .001). Calving rate was highest for 3-yr-old and for 6- to 10-yr-old cows and was also 1.5 percentage units higher for crossbred matings. Cow productivity (kg of calf weaned/cow exposed) is a combined measure of fertility, calf survival and weaning weight. Although sire breed did not significantly affect cow productivity (P less than .20), actual values favored cows producing crossbred calves by 14 and 9 kg for Charolais and Holstein crosses, respectively. Likewise, weight differences at 18 mo favored these crosses by 50 and 32 kg for heifers and 72 and 62 kg for steers. Among the two crossbred types, Charolais X Angus heifers were 28 kg heavier (P less than .05) than Holstein X Angus heifers at 18 mo but the 10 kg difference in steers was not significant. The fact that the large sire breeds produced calves with heavier weaning weights without demonstrating significant increases in overall productivity points out the importance of high weaning rates.

  19. 42 CFR 412.76 - Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.76 Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims. If a hospital's base-year costs, as estimated for purposes of determining... penalty or assessment, to include costs that were unlawfully claimed, the hospital's base-period costs...

  20. 42 CFR 412.76 - Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims. 412.76 Section 412.76 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.76 Recovery of excess transition period payment...

  1. 42 CFR 412.76 - Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims. 412.76 Section 412.76 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.76 Recovery of excess transition period payment...

  2. 42 CFR 412.76 - Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims. 412.76 Section 412.76 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.76 Recovery of excess transition period payment...

  3. The Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite: Mission status and CCD evolution after 18 months on-orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, B.; Scott, R.; Sale, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat) is a small telescope equipped microsatellite designed to perform both Space Situational Awareness (SSA) experiments and asteroid detection. NEOSSat was launched on 25 February 2013, however, due to time pressures, NEOSSat was launched with only the minimal software required to keep the spacecraft safe. The time pressure also resulted in the spacecraft undergoing reduced system and environmental testing on the ground. The full software suite, required to obtain imagery and maintain stable pointing, has since been uploaded to the spacecraft. NEOSSat has obtained imagery since June 2013, with the shutter both open and closed, but as of March 2014 has not achieved the fine pointing required to obtain scientifically useful data. The collected imagery is being used to characterize the on-board CCD camera. While gain and dark current values agree with pre-launch values, unexpected artefacts have appeared in the images. Methods for mitigating the artefacts through image processing have been developed, and spacecraft-level fixes are currently being investigated. In addition, damage from high energy particles impacting the CCD has produced hot pixels in imagery. We have been able to measure the evolution of these hot pixels over several months, both in terms of numbers and characteristics; these results will be presented. In addition, early results from the mission (image quality issues and evolution, early imagery examples), as well as the mission status (including fine pointing), will be discussed.

  4. A school-based assessment of secondary stressors and adolescent mental health 18 months post-Katrina.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, Stacy; Salloum, Alison; Badour, Christal

    2010-10-01

    The goals of the current study were to examine the prevalence of secondary stressors related to Hurricane Katrina and to determine their impact on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among a sample of high school students. In addition, the moderating role of problem substance use was examined to determine whether it increased the risk of PTSD symptoms in the face of secondary stressors. A total of 271 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse adolescents completed an anonymous survey. Results indicated that problem substance use potentiated the positive relation between secondary stressors and PTSD symptoms, specifically symptoms of re-experiencing. The findings highlight the need for school-based assessment of and interventions for the long-term psychological effects of disasters.

  5. Organic Production Enhances Milk Nutritional Quality by Shifting Fatty Acid Composition: A United States–Wide, 18-Month Study

    PubMed Central

    Benbrook, Charles M.; Butler, Gillian; Latif, Maged A.; Leifert, Carlo; Davis, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last century, intakes of omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids in Western diets have dramatically increased, while omega-3 (ω-3) intakes have fallen. Resulting ω-6/ω-3 intake ratios have risen to nutritionally undesirable levels, generally 10 to 15, compared to a possible optimal ratio near 2.3. We report results of the first large-scale, nationwide study of fatty acids in U.S. organic and conventional milk. Averaged over 12 months, organic milk contained 25% less ω-6 fatty acids and 62% more ω-3 fatty acids than conventional milk, yielding a 2.5-fold higher ω-6/ω-3 ratio in conventional compared to organic milk (5.77 vs. 2.28). All individual ω-3 fatty acid concentrations were higher in organic milk—α-linolenic acid (by 60%), eicosapentaenoic acid (32%), and docosapentaenoic acid (19%)—as was the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (18%). We report mostly moderate regional and seasonal variability in milk fatty acid profiles. Hypothetical diets of adult women were modeled to assess milk fatty-acid-driven differences in overall dietary ω-6/ω-3 ratios. Diets varied according to three choices: high instead of moderate dairy consumption; organic vs. conventional dairy products; and reduced vs. typical consumption of ω-6 fatty acids. The three choices together would decrease the ω-6/ω-3 ratio among adult women by ∼80% of the total decrease needed to reach a target ratio of 2.3, with relative impact “switch to low ω-6 foods” > “switch to organic dairy products” ≈ “increase consumption of conventional dairy products.” Based on recommended servings of dairy products and seafoods, dairy products supply far more α-linolenic acid than seafoods, about one-third as much eicosapentaenoic acid, and slightly more docosapentaenoic acid, but negligible docosahexaenoic acid. We conclude that consumers have viable options to reduce average ω-6/ω-3 intake ratios, thereby reducing or eliminating probable risk factors for a wide range of

  6. Enriched environment increases myelinated fiber volume and length in brain white matter of 18-month female rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu; Lu, Wei; Zhou, De-shan; Tang, Yong

    2015-04-23

    Cognition and memory decline with normal aging, which could be partly attributed to the degeneration of brain white matter. Previous studies demonstrated that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) could protect cognition and memory from aging. However, if or how EE might affect the brain white matter has not been thoroughly investigated. In the current study, 24 middle-aged (14-month-old) female Sprague -Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to EE or standard environment (SE) for 4 months. At the end of the environment intervention, the Morris water maze tests were performed. Then, 5 rats were randomly selected from each group for stereological assessment of the brain white matter and its myelinated fibers. The results revealed that middle-aged rats living in EE displayed better spatial learning than SE controls. The white matter volume was 124.6 ± 7.8mm(3) in EE rats, which was significantly enlarged compared with 84.8 ± 3.4mm(3) in SE rats. Likewise, the myelinated fiber volume was markedly increased from 56.6 ± 1.7 mm(3) in SE rats to 87.2 ± 9.0mm(3) in EE rats; so was the myelinated fiber length from 83.5 ± 6.6 km in SE rats to 119.0 ± 10.0 km in EE rats. Our data suggested that EE could protect brain white matter and its myelinated fibers of female rats at middle age.

  7. Ultra-Short-Period Planets in K2: New Results From SuPerPiG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elisabeth; Jackson, Brian; Endl, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Ultra-short-period planets, with orbital periods of less than 1 day, are a challenge to theories of planet formation. The SuPerPiG collaboration (Short-Period Planet Group) reports on 19 candidates identified in Campaigns 0-5 of the K2 mission. Planet candidates range in size from 0.7-16 Earth radii and in orbital period from 4.2 to 23.5 hours. One candidate (EPIC 203533312, Kp=12.5) is among the shortest-period planet candidates discovered to date (P=4.2 hours), and, if confirmed as a planet, must have a density of at least rho=8.9 g/cm^3 in order to not be tidally disrupted. Five candidates have nominal radius values in the sub-Jovian desert (R_P=3-11 R_E and P<=1.5 days) where theoretical models do not favor their long-term stability; the only confirmed planet in this range is thought to be disintegrating (EPIC 201637175). Based on an assessment of our survey's completeness, we estimate an occurrence rate for ultra-short-period planets among K2 target stars that is about half that estimated from the Kepler sample, raising questions as to whether K2 systems are intrinsically different from Kepler systems, possibly as a result of their different galactic location.

  8. 42 CFR 412.76 - Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims. 412.76 Section 412.76 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Determination...

  9. Understanding and measuring parent use of food to soothe infant and toddler distress: A longitudinal study from 6 to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Stifter, Cynthia A; Moding, Kameron J

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the development of parent use of food to soothe infant distress by examining this feeding practice longitudinally when infants were 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Two measures of feeding to soothe were obtained: parent self-report and observations of food to soothe during each laboratory visit. Demographic and maternal predictors of food to soothe were examined as well as the outcome, infant weight gain. The findings showed that the two measures of food to soothe were unrelated but did reveal similar and unique relations with predictor variables such as parent feeding style and maternal self-efficacy. Only observations of the use of food to soothe were related to infant weight gain. The findings indicate that the two measures of food to soothe may be complementary and that observations of this feeding practice may capture certain relations that are not obtained through the use of self-report.

  10. Replacement of Anterior Composite Resin Restorations Using Conservative Ceramics for Occlusal and Periodontal Rehabilitation: An 18-Month Clinical Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Prochnow, Rayane Alexandra; Costacurta, Adriana Osten; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a patient with discolored and fractured composite resin restorations on the anterior teeth in whom substitution was indicated. After wax-up and mock-up, the composite was removed and replaced with minimally invasive ceramic laminates. An established and predictable protocol was performed using resin cement. Minimally invasive ceramic restorations are increasingly being used to replace composite restorations. This treatment improves the occlusal and periodontal aspects during the planning and restorative phases, such as anterior guides, and laterality can be restored easily with ceramic laminates. In addition, the surface smoothness and contour of ceramic restorations do not affect the health of the surrounding periodontal tissues. Here we present the outcome after 18 months of clinical follow-up in a patient in whom composite resin restorations in the anterior teeth were replaced with minimally invasive ceramic laminates. PMID:27555970

  11. Replacement of Anterior Composite Resin Restorations Using Conservative Ceramics for Occlusal and Periodontal Rehabilitation: An 18-Month Clinical Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Prochnow, Rayane Alexandra; Costacurta, Adriana Osten; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a patient with discolored and fractured composite resin restorations on the anterior teeth in whom substitution was indicated. After wax-up and mock-up, the composite was removed and replaced with minimally invasive ceramic laminates. An established and predictable protocol was performed using resin cement. Minimally invasive ceramic restorations are increasingly being used to replace composite restorations. This treatment improves the occlusal and periodontal aspects during the planning and restorative phases, such as anterior guides, and laterality can be restored easily with ceramic laminates. In addition, the surface smoothness and contour of ceramic restorations do not affect the health of the surrounding periodontal tissues. Here we present the outcome after 18 months of clinical follow-up in a patient in whom composite resin restorations in the anterior teeth were replaced with minimally invasive ceramic laminates. PMID:27555970

  12. Understanding and measuring parent use of food to soothe infant and toddler distress: A longitudinal study from 6 to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Stifter, Cynthia A; Moding, Kameron J

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the development of parent use of food to soothe infant distress by examining this feeding practice longitudinally when infants were 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Two measures of feeding to soothe were obtained: parent self-report and observations of food to soothe during each laboratory visit. Demographic and maternal predictors of food to soothe were examined as well as the outcome, infant weight gain. The findings showed that the two measures of food to soothe were unrelated but did reveal similar and unique relations with predictor variables such as parent feeding style and maternal self-efficacy. Only observations of the use of food to soothe were related to infant weight gain. The findings indicate that the two measures of food to soothe may be complementary and that observations of this feeding practice may capture certain relations that are not obtained through the use of self-report. PMID:26164121

  13. Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely.

    PubMed

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-09-01

    Children born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks gestation) exhibit greater internalizing (anxious/depressed) behaviors compared to term-born peers as early as 2 years corrected age (CA); however, the role of early stress in the etiology of internalizing problems in preterm children remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behavior at 18 months CA in children born very preterm and examined whether parent behavior and stress moderated this relationship. Participants were 145 children (96 very preterm, 49 full term) assessed at 18 months CA. Neonatal data were obtained from medical and nursing chart review. Neonatal pain was defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures. Cognitive ability was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index III, Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5, and participated in a videotaped play session with their child, which was coded using the Emotional Availability Scale IV. Very preterm children displayed greater Internalizing behaviors compared to full-term control children (P=.02). Parent Sensitivity and Nonhostility moderated the relationship between neonatal pain and Internalizing behavior (all P<.05); higher parent education (P<.03), lower Parenting Stress (P=.001), and fewer children in the home (P<.01) were associated with lower Internalizing behavior in very preterm children, after adjusting for neonatal medical confounders, gender, and child cognitive ability (all P>.05). Parent Emotional Availability and stress were not associated with Internalizing behaviors in full-term control children. Positive parent interaction and lower stress appears to ameliorate negative effects of neonatal pain on stress-sensitive behaviors in this vulnerable population.

  14. Periodic fever syndromes in Eastern and Central European countries: results of a pediatric multinational survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalence of diagnosed and suspected autoinflammatory diseases in Eastern and Central European (ECE) countries, with a particular interest on the diagnostic facilities in these countries. Methods Two different strategies were used to collect data on patients with periodic fever syndromes from ECE countries- the Eurofever survey and collection of data with the structured questionnaire. Results Data from 35 centers in 14 ECE countries were collected. All together there were 11 patients reported with genetically confirmed familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), 14 with mevalonate-kinase deficiency (MKD), 11 with tumor necrosis factor receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) and 4 with chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome (CINCA). Significantly higher numbers were reported for suspected cases which were not genetically tested. All together there were 49 suspected FMF patients reported, 24 MKD, 16 TRAPS, 7 CINCA and 2 suspected Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) patients. Conclusions The number of genetically confirmed patients with periodic fever syndromes in ECE countries is very low. In order to identify more patients in the future, it is important to organize educational programs for increasing the knowledge on these diseases and to establish a network for genetic testing of periodic fever syndromes in ECE countries. PMID:21539753

  15. Results of Laboratory and Industrial Tests of Periodic-Type Gas Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, I. N.; P‧yanykh, K. E.; Antoshchuk, T. A.; Lysenko, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Results of laboratory and industrial tests of periodic-type gas generators burning various solid biofuels have been presented. The tests were carried out with the aim of obtaining producer gas which could totally or partly replace natural gas in power equipment burning gaseous fuel. The energy and environmental characteristics of a boiler unit burning a mixture of producer gas and natural gas have been assessed.

  16. Periodic inspection on crop sprayers: results according to age of sprayers.

    PubMed

    Antuniassi, Ulisses R; Gandolfo, Marco A

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the IPP Project--Periodic Inspection on Crop Sprayers--are to develop methods for sprayer certification, analyze quality on spray operation, propose an inspection system for crop sprayers in Brazil, improve environmental quality on spray operation, and reduce costs on chemical control for plant protection systems. Periodic inspections on crop sprayers are performed in several countries and are compulsory in most of them, and it is becoming an important tool for improvement and optimization of use of chemicals. The IPP Project in Brazil is funded by FAPESP--Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo. The results so far showed that all the sprayers presented failures. However, most of them could be approved with minor services. As an example, 56.6% of the sprayers with more than 2 years of use presented leaks, 47% of them had damaged hoses and 80.5% presented bad tips (nozzles). These results indicate the need for better procedures of use and maintenance of sprayers, justifying the periodic inspection system.

  17. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was −4.727% (95% CI: −4.821% to −4.634%) per year for men and −6.633% (95% CI: −6.751% to −6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994–2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20–24 years old and 15–24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  18. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was -4.727% (95% CI: -4.821% to -4.634%) per year for men and -6.633% (95% CI: -6.751% to -6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994-2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20-24 years old and 15-24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  19. Prediction of 18-month survival in patients with primary myelodysplastic syndrome. A regression model and scoring system based on the combination of chromosome findings and the Bournemouth score.

    PubMed

    Parlier, V; van Melle, G; Beris, P; Schmidt, P M; Tobler, A; Haller, E; Bellomo, M J

    1995-06-01

    The predictive potential of six selected factors was assessed in 72 patients with primary myelodysplastic syndrome using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of survival at 18 months. Factors were age (above median of 69 years), dysplastic features in the three myeloid bone marrow cell lineages, presence of chromosome defects, all metaphases abnormal, double or complex chromosome defects (C23), and a Bournemouth score of 2, 3, or 4 (B234). In the multivariate approach, B234 and C23 proved to be significantly associated with a reduction in the survival probability. The similarity of the regression coefficients associated with these two factors means that they have about the same weight. Consequently, the model was simplified by counting the number of factors (0, 1, or 2) present in each patient, thus generating a scoring system called the Lausanne-Bournemouth score (LB score). The LB score combines the well-recognized and easy-to-use Bournemouth score (B score) with the chromosome defect complexity, C23 constituting an additional indicator of patient outcome. The predicted risk of death within 18 months calculated from the model is as follows: 7.1% (confidence interval: 1.7-24.8) for patients with an LB score of 0, 60.1% (44.7-73.8) for an LB score of 1, and 96.8% (84.5-99.4) for an LB score of 2. The scoring system presented here has several interesting features. The LB score may improve the predictive value of the B score, as it is able to recognize two prognostic groups in the intermediate risk category of patients with B scores of 2 or 3. It has also the ability to identify two distinct prognostic subclasses among RAEB and possibly CMML patients. In addition to its above-described usefulness in the prognostic evaluation, the LB score may bring new insights into the understanding of evolution patterns in MDS. We used the combination of the B score and chromosome complexity to define four classes which may be considered four possible states of

  20. Assesment of perinatal mortality in two different periods: results of a single center

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Serdar Sadık; Kavuncuoğlu, Sultan; Sarı, Ferhat; Aldemir, Esin Yıldız; Kavçık, Nazlı; Demir, Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to investigate the perinatal mortality rate with 37 864 deliveries which occured in two different periods in a single center, to compare the components of perinatal mortality and affecting factors with the results of the study related with perinatal mortality which we conducted in 1999 and to emphasize the precautions directed to reduce mortality rates. Material and Methods: All live births and stillbirths which occurred in Bakırköy Obstetrics and Pediatrics Training and Research Hospital between January 2007 and December 2007 were evaluated. The results were compared with the results of the study conducted in 1999. Newborns with a weight above five hundred grams and a gestational age above 22 weeks were enrolled in the study. The stillbirth rate, early neonatal mortality rate, late neonatal mortality rate, perinatal mortality rate and corrected perinatal mortality rate were calculated. Modified Wigglesworth Classification was used for evaluating the perinatal mortality and the subjects were examined in 7 groups. The characteristics belonging to the years of 2007 and 1999 were examined, the differences were recorded and the results were discussed. When the two periods were compared, it was observed that the perinatal mortality rate increased from 23.5‰ to 26‰. Result: When the causes were investigated, it was observed that the stillbirth rate was increased in 2007 (84%) and especially congenital anomalies had an important role in this increment. The early neonatal mortality rate declined from 0.8% in 1999 to 0.4% in 2007. It was found that especially the premature mortality rate (Group 3) and the mortality rate related with perinatal asphyxia (Group 4) were significantly decreased. Conclusion: The decrease in early neonatal mortality rate could be best explained by productive operation of the new neonatal intensive care unit which had been established after 2002. PMID:27738396

  1. Utilization of Child Health Services during the first 18 months of life: aspects of health surveillance in Swedish preschool children based on information in health records.

    PubMed

    Hagelin, E; Jackson, K; Wikblad, K

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate some aspects of care given within the preventive Child Health Services (CHS) during the first 18 months of life. A national random sample performed on child health records of 172 Swedish preschool children born between 1982 and 1987 was analysed regarding services recorded as having been provided and used within and beyond the national programme of health surveillance. Most families had made visits within the core programme of health surveillance to an optimal or at least sufficient extent. First-time parents visited the CHS more frequently than did more experienced parents. Procedures within the programme, such as growth monitoring, hip examination and immunizations, were documented to have been optimally performed on a majority of the children. Conversely, screening for hearing impairment and assessment of developmental milestones were performed less frequently, as were health information and postnatal parental education. To improve the quality of care, national recommendations ought to be more specific regarding both the performance and the documentation of the service.

  2. Results of IPS Observations in the Period Near Solar Activity Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashei, I. V.; Shishov, V. I.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.; Subaev, I. A.; Oreshko, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    IPS observations with the Big Scanning Array of Lebedev Physical Institute (BSA LPI) radio telescope at the frequency 111 MHz have been monitored since 2006. All the sources, about several hundred daily, with a scintillating flux greater than 0.2 Jy are recorded for 24 hours in the 16 beams of the radio telescope covering a sky strip of 8∘ declination width. We present some results of IPS observations for the recent period of low solar activity considering a statistical ensemble of scintillating radio sources. The dependences of the averaged over ensemble scintillation index on heliocentric distance are considerably weaker than the dependence expected for a spherically symmetric geometry. The difference is especially pronounced in the year 2008 during the very deep solar activity minimum period. These features are explained by the influence of the heliospheric current sheet that is seen as a strong concentration of turbulent solar wind plasma aligned with the solar equatorial plane. A local maximum of the scintillation index is found in the anti-solar direction. Future prospects of IPS observations using BSA LPI are briefly discussed.

  3. Evaporation over land surfaces - First results from HAPEX-MOBILHY Special Observing Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Jean-Claude; Goutorbe, Jean-Paul; Bessemoulin, Pierre; Perrier, Alain; Becker, Francois

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from the May 7-July 15, 1986 Special Observing Period (SOP) of the HAPEX-MOBILHY program, which examines the hydrological budget and evaporation flux at the scale of a 10,000 sq km GCM grid square to determine soil moisture, surface-energy budgets, and surface hydrology. The SOP used two highly instrumented remote sensing aircraft to obtain detailed measurements of atmospheric fluxes and surface properties. It is noted that the measurements are reliable at spatially local and short time scales, as well as on the monthly time scale. The data base obtained may be used in parametrization schemes against which land-surface water budgets can be tested.

  4. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  5. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined.

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with parental concerns about development detected by the Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) at 6-month, 12-month and 18-month well-child checks in a birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Woolfenden, Susan; Eapen, Valsamma; Jalaludin, Bin; Hayen, Andrew; Kemp, Lynn; Dissanyake, Cheryl; Hendry, Alexandra; Axelsson, Emma; Overs, Bronwyn; Eastwood, John; Črnčec, Rudi; McKenzie, Anne; Beasley, Deborah; Murphy, Elisabeth; Williams, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Early identification of developmental vulnerability is vital. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of moderate or high developmental risk on the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) at 6-month, 12-month and 18-month well-child checks; identify associated risk factors; and examine documentation of the PEDS at well-child checks. Design, participants A prospective birth cohort of 2025 children with 50% of those approached agreeing to participate. Demographic data were obtained via questionnaires and linked electronic medical records. Telephone interviews were conducted with parents to collect PEDS data. Primary and secondary outcomes Multiple logistic regression analyses identified risk factors for moderate or high developmental risk on the PEDS. A Cumulative Risk Index examined the impact of multiple risk factors on developmental risk and documentation of the PEDS at the well-child checks. Results Of the original cohort, 792 (39%) had 6-month, 649 (32%) had 12-month and 565 (28%) had 18-month PEDS data. Parental concerns indicating moderate or high developmental risk on the PEDS were 27% (95% CI 24 to 30) at 6 months, 27% (95% CI 24 to 30) at 12 months and 33% (95% CI 29 to 37) at 18 months. Factors associated with moderate or high developmental risk were perinatal risk (OR 12 months: 1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7)); maternal Middle Eastern or Asian nationality (OR 6 months: 1.6 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.4)), (OR 12 months: 1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7)); and household disadvantage (OR 6 months: 1.5 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.2). As the number of risk factors increased the odds increased for high or moderate developmental risk and no documentation of the PEDS at well-child checks. Conclusions Children with multiple risk factors are more likely to have parental concerns indicating developmental vulnerability using the PEDS and for these concerns to not be documented. PMID:27609853

  7. Latitudinal variation of perturbation electric fields during magnetically disturbed periods - 1986 Sundial observations and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fejer, B. G.; Spiro, R. W.; Wolf, R. A.; Foster, J. C.

    1990-06-01

    F-region incoherent scatter radar drift observations from Millstone Hill and Jicamarca, h-prime F observations from Huancayo, and high latitude ground-magnetometer measurements taken during the Sundial 1986 campaign are used to study the relationship between plasmaspheric electric field perturbations and high latitude currents during disturbed periods. The observations are in good agreement with numerical results from a Rice Covection Model run that involved a sharp increase in the polar cap potential drop followed by a subsequent decrease. The zonal disturbance electric field pattern is latitude independent, and the corresponding amplitudes change approximately as L exp n (where n is about 1.5). The meridional electric field patterns and amplitudes have larger latitudinal variations. The mid-, low, and equatorial electric fields from the Rice Convection Model are in good agreement with previous results from the semianalytic, Senior-Blanc (1987) model. Also discussed are three physical mechanisms (over-shielding, fossil winds, and magnetic reconfiguration) that contribute to the long lasting (1-2 h) equatorial zonal electric field perturbations associated with a sudden northward turning of the IMF. It is predicted that the penetration of high latitude electric fields to low latitudes should, in general, be closely related to the rate of motion of the shielding layer and the equatorward edge of the diffuse aurora.

  8. (1)H-NMR analysis of the human urinary metabolome in response to an 18-month multi-component exercise program and calcium-vitamin-D3 supplementation in older men.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, John R; Gooley, Paul R; Nahid, Amsha; Tull, Dedreia L; McConville, Malcolm J; Kukuljan, Sonja; Nowson, Caryl A; Daly, Robin M; Ebeling, Peter R

    2014-11-01

    The musculoskeletal benefits of calcium and vitamin-D3 supplementation and exercise have been extensively studied, but the effect on metabolism remains contentious. Urine samples were analyzed by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy from participants recruited for an 18-month, randomized controlled trial of a multi-component exercise program and calcium and vitamin-D3 fortified milk consumption. It was shown previously that no increase in musculoskeletal composition was observed for participants assigned to the calcium and vitamin-D3 intervention, but exercise resulted in increased bone mineral density, total lean body mass, and muscle strength. Retrospective metabolomics analysis of urine samples from patients involved in this study revealed no distinct changes in the urinary metabolome in response to the calcium and vitamin-D3 intervention, but significant changes followed the exercise intervention, notably a reduction in creatinine and an increase in choline, guanidinoacetate, and hypoxanthine (p < 0.001, fold change > 1.5). These metabolites are intrinsically involved in anaerobic ATP synthesis, intracellular buffering, and methyl-balance regulation. The exercise intervention had a marked effect on the urine metabolome and markers of muscle turnover but none of these metabolites were obvious markers of bone turnover. Measurement of specific urinary exercise biomarkers may provide a basis for monitoring performance and metabolic response to exercise regimes.

  9. STS-40 orbital acceleration research experiment flight results during a typical sleep period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Nicholson, J. Y.; Ritter, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), an electrostatic accelerometer package with complete on-orbit calibration capabilities, was flown for the first time aboard the Space Shuttle on STS-40. This is also the first time an accelerometer package with nano-g sensitivity and a calibration facility has flown aboard the Space Shuttle. The instrument is designed to measure and record the Space Shuttle aerodynamic acceleration environment from the free molecule flow regime through the rarified flow transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Because of its sensitivity, the OARE instrument defects aerodynamic behavior of the Space Shuttle while in low-earth orbit. A 2-hour orbital time period on day seven of the mission, when the crew was asleep and other spacecraft activities were at a minimum, was examined. During the flight, a 'trimmed-mean' filter was used to produce high quality, low frequency data which was successfully stored aboard the Space Shuttle in the OARE data storage system. Initial review of the data indicated that, although the expected precision was achieved, some equipment problems occurred resulting in uncertain accuracy. An acceleration model which includes aerodynamic, gravity-gradient, and rotational effects was constructed and compared with flight data. Examination of the model with the flight data shows the instrument to be sensitive to all major expected low frequency acceleration phenomena; however, some erratic instrument bias behavior persists in two axes. In these axes, the OARE data can be made to match a comprehensive atmospheric-aerodynamic model by making bias adjustments and slight linear corrections for drift. The other axis does not exhibit these difficulties and gives good agreement with the acceleration model.

  10. Long Period Variables in the LMC: Results from MACHO and 2Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, O J; Cook, K H; Keller, S C; Hawley, S L

    2004-07-19

    We use the eight year light curve database from the MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects) project together with infrared colors and magnitudes from 2MASS (the Two Micron All Sky Survey) to identify a sample of 22,000 long period variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud (referred to hereafter as LMC LPVs). A period luminosity diagram of these stars reveals six well defined sequences, in substantial agreement with previous analyses of samples from OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment). In our analysis we identify analogues to galactic LPVs in the LMC LPV sample. We find that carbon dominated AGB stars populate only two of the sequences, one of which includes the Mira variables. The high luminosity end of the same two sequences are also the location of the only stars with J K{sub s} > 2, indicating that they are enshrouded in dust. The unknown mechanism that produces the variability of the last sequence--those stars with long secondary periods--produces different morphology in the period luminosity diagram than what is seen in the first four sequences, which are thought to be caused by pulsation. In particular, the last sequence extends to lower luminosity RGB stars and the luminosity function does not peak among the AGB stars. We point out several features which will constrain new models of the period luminosity sequences.

  11. Boundary conditions for creeping flow along periodic or random rough surfaces : experimental and theoretical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoq, Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    Hydrodynamic interactions between particles and walls are relevant for the open problem of specifying boundary conditions for suspension flows. The Reynolds number around a small particle close to a wall is usually low and creeping flow equations apply. From the solution of these equations, the drag coefficient on a sphere becomes infinite when the gap between the sphere and a smooth wall vanishes, so that contact may not occur. Physically, the drag is finite because of various reasons, one of them being the particle and wall roughness. Then, for vanishing gap, even though some layers of fluid molecules may be left between the particle and wall roughness peaks, it may conventionally be said that contact occurs. In this paper, we are considering the example of a smooth sphere moving towards a rough wall. The roughness considered here consist of random rough planes or parallel periodic wedges, the characteristic length of which is small compared with the sphere radius. This problem is considered both experimentally and theoretically. The motion of a millimetre size bead settling towards a corrugated horizontal wall in a viscous oil is measured with laser interferometry giving an accuracy on the displacement of 0.2μm. Several random rough planes and wedge shaped walls were used, with various wavelengths and wedge angles. From the results, it is observed that the velocity of the sphere is, except for small gaps, similar to that towards a smooth plane that is shifted down from the top of corrugations. For the periodic wedges, the creeping flow is calculated as a series in the slope of the roughness grooves. The convergence of the series for the shift distance in term of the slope is accelerated by use of Euler transformation and of the existence of a limit for large slope. The cases of a flow along and across the grooves are considered separately. The shift is larger in the former case. Slightly flattened tops of the wedges used in experiments are also considered in

  12. CULP (California Union List of Periodicals) 1980 User Survey Results. PN-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Karl M., Jr.

    This survey of California libraries was conducted to gather information on the use of the California Union List of Periodicals (CULP), a microfiche finding list for serials held in all kinds of libraries statewide, exept for those held by major academic institutions. Returned by 391 of 696 libraries in October 1980, the survey questionnaire was…

  13. Saturn's periodicities: New results from an MHD simulation of magnetospheric response to rotating ionospheric vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivelson, M.; Jia, X.

    2013-12-01

    In previous work we demonstrated that a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of Saturn's magnetosphere in which periodicity is imposed by rotating vortical flows in the ionosphere reproduces many reported periodically varying properties of the system. Here we shall show that previously unreported features of the MHD simulation of Saturn's magnetosphere illuminate additional measured properties of the system. By averaging over a rotation period, we identify a global electric field whose magnitude is a few tenths of a mV/m (see Figure 1). The electric field intensity decreases with radial distance in the middle magnetosphere, consistent with drift speeds v=E/B of a few km/s towards the morning side and relatively independent of radial distance. The electric field within 10 RS in the equatorial plane is oriented from post-noon to post-midnight, in excellent agreement with observations [e.g., Thomsen et al., 2012; Andriopoulou et al., 2012, 2013; Wilson et al., 2013]. By following the electric field over a full rotation phase we identify oscillatory behavior whose magnitude is consistent with the reported fluctuations of measured electric fields. Of particular interest is the nature of the fast mode perturbations that produce periodic displacement of the magnetopause and flapping of the current sheet. Figure (2) shows the total perturbation pressure (the sum of magnetic and thermal pressure) in the equatorial plane at a rotation phase for which the ionospheric flow near noon is equatorward. By following the perturbations over a full rotation period, we demonstrate properties of the fast mode wave launched by the rotating flow structures and thereby characterize the 'cam' signal originally proposed by Espinosa et al. [2003].

  14. Inappropriate Neural Activity during a Sensitive Period in Embryogenesis Results in Persistent Seizure-like Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Giachello, Carlo N.G.; Baines, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Maturation of neural circuits requires activity-dependent processes that underpin the emergence of appropriate behavior in the adult. It has been proposed that disruption of these events, during specific critical periods when they exert maximal influence, may lead to neurodevelopmental diseases, including epilepsy [1, 2, 3]. However, complexity of neurocircuitry, coupled with the lack of information on network formation in mammals, makes it difficult to directly investigate this hypothesis. Alternative models, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, show remarkable similarities between experimental seizure-like activity and clinical phenotypes [4, 5, 6]. In particular, a group of flies, termed bang-sensitive (bs) mutants have been extensively used to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying seizure [7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12]. Seizure phenotype can be measured in larval stages using an electroshock assay, and this behavior in bs mutants is dramatically reduced following ingestion of typical anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs; [13]). In this study we describe a critical period of embryonic development in Drosophila during which manipulation of neural activity is sufficient to significantly influence seizure behavior at postembryonic stages. We show that inhibition of elevated activity, characteristic of bs seizure models, during the critical period is sufficient to suppress seizure. By contrast, increasing neuronal excitation during the same period in wild-type (WT) is sufficient to permanently induce a seizure behavior. Further, we show that induction of seizure in WT correlates with functional alteration of motoneuron inputs that is a characteristic of bs mutants. Induction of seizure is rescued by prior administration of AEDs, opening a new perspective for early drug intervention in the treatment of genetic epilepsy. PMID:26549258

  15. Quasi-periodic Pulsations in Solar and Stellar Flares: An Overview of Recent Results (Invited Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Doorsselaere, Tom; Kupriyanova, Elena G.; Yuan, Ding

    2016-09-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (or QPPs) are periodic intensity variations in the flare emission that occur across all wavelength bands. In this article, we review the observational and modelling achievements since the previous review on this topic by Nakariakov and Melnikov (Space Sci. Rev. 149, 119, 2009). In recent years, it has become clear that QPPs are an inherent feature of solar flares because almost all flares exhibit QPPs. Moreover, it is now firmly established that QPPs often show multiple periods. We also review possible mechanisms for generating QPPs. Up to now, it has not been possible to conclusively identify the triggering mechanism or cause of QPPs. The lack of this identification currently hampers possible seismological inferences of flare plasma parameters. QPPs in stellar flares have been detected for a long time, and the high-quality data of the Kepler mission allows studying the QPP more systematically. However, it has not been conclusively shown whether the timescales of stellar QPPs are different or the same as those in solar flares.

  16. Impact of lipid-based nutrient supplements and corn-soy blend on energy and nutrient intake among moderately underweight 8-18-month-old children participating in a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M; Ashorn, Per; Phuka, John C; Cheung, Yin Bun; Briend, André; Maleta, Kenneth M

    2015-12-01

    Nutrition interventions have an effect on growth, energy and nutrient intake, and development, but there are mixed reports on the effect of supplementation of energy-dense foods on dietary intake. This substudy aimed at assessing the effect of supplementation with corn-soy blend (CSB) or lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) on energy and nutrient intake in moderately underweight children participating in a clinical trial. A total of 188 children aged 8-18 months participated and received daily either 284 kcal from CSB or 220 kcal from LNS and no supplements (control). An interactive 24-h recall method was used to estimate energy and nutrient intakes in the groups. Total mean energy intake was 548 kcal, 551 kcal and 692 kcal in the control, CSB and LNS groups, respectively (P = 0.011). The mean (95% confidence interval) intake of energy and protein were 144 (37-250; P < 0.001) and 46 (1.5-7.6; P < 0.001) larger, respectively, in the LNS group than among the controls. No significant differences were observed between the control and CSB groups. Energy intake from non-supplement foods was significantly lower in the CSB group compared with the control group, but not in the LNS group, suggesting a lower displacement of non-supplement foods with LNS. Both CSB and LNS supplementation resulted in higher intakes of calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin C compared with controls (all P ≤ 0.001). This study indicates that LNS might be superior to CSB to supplement underweight children as it results in higher energy intake, but this requires confirmation in other settings.

  17. Experimental results of antigliadin antibodies detection using long period fiber grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corres, J. M.; Matias, I. R.; Goicoechea, J.; Arregui, F. J.; Viegas, D.; Araújo, F. M.; Santos, J. L.

    2008-04-01

    In this work a new nano-biofilm is proposed for the detection of celiac disease (CD). A long-period fiber grating (LPFG) is used as a transducer and the surface of the fiber is coated with a precursor layer of SiO2-nanospheres using the electrostatic self-assembly technique (ESA). This layer has been designed in order to create a substrate of high porosity where the gliadins could be deposited. Under the presence of specific antibodies antigliadin antibodies (AGA) the refractive index of the overlay changes giving a detectable shift in the resonance wavelength of the LPFG. Concentrations as low as 5 ppm were detected.

  18. STS-40 orbital acceleration research experiment flight results during a typical sleep period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.

    1992-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), an electrostatic accelerometer package with complete on-orbit calibration capabilities was flown aboard Shuttle on STS-40. The instrument is designed to measure and record the Shuttle aerodynamic acceleration environment from the free molecule flow regime through the rarefied flow transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Because of its sensitivity, the OARE instrument detects aerodynamic behavior of the Shuttle while in low-earth orbit. A 2-h orbital time period on day seven of the mission, when the crew was asleep and other spacecraft activities were at a minimum, was examined. Examination of the model with the flight data shows the instrument to be sensitive to all major expected low-frequency acceleration phenomena; however, some erratic instrument bias behavior persists in two axes. In these axes, the OARE data can be made to match a comprehensive atmospheric-aerodynamic model by making bias adjustments and slight liner corrections for drift.

  19. Effectiveness of Using the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers in Two-Stage Screening of Autism Spectrum Disorder at the 18-Month Health Check-Up in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Koyama, Tomonori; Inokuchi, Eiko; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Kuroda, Miho

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) in conjunction with the routine 18-month health check-up identifies Japanese toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Two-stage screening using the M-CHAT was conducted with 1,851 children attending the check-up. Final ASD diagnosis was confirmed at age =3 years.…

  20. [Influenza surveillance in five consecutive seasons during post pandemic period: results from National Influenza Center, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Altaş, Ayşe Başak; Bayrakdar, Fatma; Korukluoğlu, Gülay

    2016-07-01

    Influenza surveillance provides data about the characteristics of influenza activity, types, sub-types and antigenic properties of the influenza viruses in circulation in a region. Surveillance also provides for the preparation against potential influenza pandemics with the identification of the genetic properties of viruses and the mutant strains that could pose a threat. In this study, data in the scope of national influenza surveillance carried out by National Influenza Center, Turkey for five consecutive influenza seasons between 2010-2015, following the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus pandemic, have been presented and evaluated. A total of 15.149 respiratory samples, including 8.894 sentinel and 6.255 non-sentinel specimens, during 2010-2015 influenza seasons, within the periods between September and May, were evaluated in our center. All samples were tested using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) for the presence of influenza virus types and subtypes. Within the sentinel influenza surveillance, the samples that were detected negative for influenza viruses, have also been tested for the other respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, rhinoviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses) using the same technique. Further analysis, including virus isolation by cell culture inoculation and antigenic characterization by hemagglutination inhibiton test were performed for the samples found positive for influenza A and B viruses. Selected representative virus isolates have been sent to WHO reference laboratory for the sequence analysis. In the study, influenza virus positivity rates detected for all of the samples (sentinel+non-sentinel) were as follows; 34% (779/2316) in 2010-11 season; 25% (388/1554) in 2011-12; 20% (696/3541) in 2012-13; 23% (615/2678) in 2013-14; and 26% (1332/5060) in 2014-15. When all the samples were considered for influenza A and B viruses, the positivity rates for the seasons of 2010-11; 2011-12; 2012-13; 2013-14; 2014-15 were determined as

  1. [Influenza surveillance in five consecutive seasons during post pandemic period: results from National Influenza Center, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Altaş, Ayşe Başak; Bayrakdar, Fatma; Korukluoğlu, Gülay

    2016-07-01

    Influenza surveillance provides data about the characteristics of influenza activity, types, sub-types and antigenic properties of the influenza viruses in circulation in a region. Surveillance also provides for the preparation against potential influenza pandemics with the identification of the genetic properties of viruses and the mutant strains that could pose a threat. In this study, data in the scope of national influenza surveillance carried out by National Influenza Center, Turkey for five consecutive influenza seasons between 2010-2015, following the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus pandemic, have been presented and evaluated. A total of 15.149 respiratory samples, including 8.894 sentinel and 6.255 non-sentinel specimens, during 2010-2015 influenza seasons, within the periods between September and May, were evaluated in our center. All samples were tested using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) for the presence of influenza virus types and subtypes. Within the sentinel influenza surveillance, the samples that were detected negative for influenza viruses, have also been tested for the other respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, rhinoviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses) using the same technique. Further analysis, including virus isolation by cell culture inoculation and antigenic characterization by hemagglutination inhibiton test were performed for the samples found positive for influenza A and B viruses. Selected representative virus isolates have been sent to WHO reference laboratory for the sequence analysis. In the study, influenza virus positivity rates detected for all of the samples (sentinel+non-sentinel) were as follows; 34% (779/2316) in 2010-11 season; 25% (388/1554) in 2011-12; 20% (696/3541) in 2012-13; 23% (615/2678) in 2013-14; and 26% (1332/5060) in 2014-15. When all the samples were considered for influenza A and B viruses, the positivity rates for the seasons of 2010-11; 2011-12; 2012-13; 2013-14; 2014-15 were determined as

  2. Amphetamines and cannabinoids testing in hair: Evaluation of results from a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Burgueño, María José; Alonso, Amaya; Sánchez, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of a set of amphetamines and cannabinoids tests performed on head hair samples from the Medico-Legal sector at the Madrid Department of the Spanish National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences during the years 2013 and 2014. The hair samples were tested for five stimulant phenylalkylamine derivatives -amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA)- and/or two cannabinoids-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBN)- by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry detection in selected-ion monitoring mode, applying a method accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The test results were interpreted according to the confirmation cut-offs proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) to identify chronic drug use. The ratios of positive results were studied in relation to gender, age, hair colour, dyeing and length of the tested samples to assess the independence from these variables or the association with them. Low, medium and high ranges of concentration were also estimated for each drug. 21.94% of the 2954 hair samples tested for phenylalkylamine derivatives were positive for one or more substances. 16.38% of the samples were positive for AP, 12.09% for MDMA and only 0.44% for MA. 6.60% of the tested samples were positive for AP/MDMA combination. A total of 3178 samples were tested for cannabinoids, resulting in 53.40% positive for THC and CBN. Simultaneous tests for phenylalkylamine derivatives and cannabinoids were performed in 2931 of the samples; 14.94% of them were positive for THC, CBN, and one or more amphetamines. According to the results from the statistical analysis, the use of THC and MDMA vary with age and gender among the Medico-Legal sector in an extended area of Spain, while the use of AP appears to be independent of these variables. On the other hand, the results of THC in

  3. Amphetamines and cannabinoids testing in hair: Evaluation of results from a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Burgueño, María José; Alonso, Amaya; Sánchez, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of a set of amphetamines and cannabinoids tests performed on head hair samples from the Medico-Legal sector at the Madrid Department of the Spanish National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences during the years 2013 and 2014. The hair samples were tested for five stimulant phenylalkylamine derivatives -amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA)- and/or two cannabinoids-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBN)- by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry detection in selected-ion monitoring mode, applying a method accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The test results were interpreted according to the confirmation cut-offs proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) to identify chronic drug use. The ratios of positive results were studied in relation to gender, age, hair colour, dyeing and length of the tested samples to assess the independence from these variables or the association with them. Low, medium and high ranges of concentration were also estimated for each drug. 21.94% of the 2954 hair samples tested for phenylalkylamine derivatives were positive for one or more substances. 16.38% of the samples were positive for AP, 12.09% for MDMA and only 0.44% for MA. 6.60% of the tested samples were positive for AP/MDMA combination. A total of 3178 samples were tested for cannabinoids, resulting in 53.40% positive for THC and CBN. Simultaneous tests for phenylalkylamine derivatives and cannabinoids were performed in 2931 of the samples; 14.94% of them were positive for THC, CBN, and one or more amphetamines. According to the results from the statistical analysis, the use of THC and MDMA vary with age and gender among the Medico-Legal sector in an extended area of Spain, while the use of AP appears to be independent of these variables. On the other hand, the results of THC in

  4. Clinical Effects and Radiological Results of Vertebroplasty: Over a 2-year Follow-Up Period

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Han Ga Wi; Shin, Il Young; Moon, Seung-Myung; Hwang, Hyung Sik

    2012-01-01

    Objective We investigated the association between clinical and radiological results and assessed the radiological changes according to the distribution pattern and amount of injected cement after vertebroplasty. Methods Two hundred and one patients underwent vertebroplasty; of these, 15 were follow up for more than 2 years. For radiological analysis, we grouped the patients according to cement distribution as follows: group 1, unilateral, unilateral distribution of cement; group 2, bilateral-uneven, bilateral distribution of cement but separated mass; and group 3, bilateral-even, bilateral single mass of cement. To compare radiologic with clinical results, we assessed the visual analogue scale (VAS) score, amount of injected cement, bone mineral density (BMD), postoperative and follow-up vertebral body compression ratios, and postoperative and follow-up kyphotic angles. Results There were 4 (26.7%) patients in group 1, 6 (40.0%) in group 2, and 5 (33.3%) in group 3. The mean VAS score was 5.2 preoperatively, 1.8 postoperatively, and 3.2 at 2-year follow-up. The 2-year follow-up compression ratio was better in patients with even distribution of injected cement (group 2 and 3) than group 1. However, it was not statistically insignificant (p>0.05). The follow-up kyphotic angle was more aggravated in the group 1 than in the other groups (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study showed that vertebroplasty had a beneficial effect on pain relief, particularly in the immediate postoperative stage. The augmented spine tended to be more stable in the cases with increased amount and more even distribution of injected cement. PMID:25983842

  5. Design and Experimental Results for the S827 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1998--1999

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 21%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S827, for the 75% blade radial station of 40- to 50-meter, stall-regulated, horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The primary objective of restrained maximum lift has not been achieved, although the maximum lift is relatively insensitive to roughness, which meets the design goal. The airfoil exhibits a relatively docile stall, which meets the design goal. The primary objective of low profile drag has been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement with the exception of maximum lift, which is significantly underpredicted.

  6. Design and Experimental Results for the S825 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1998-1999

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 17%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S825, for the 75% blade radial station of 20- to 40-meter, variable-speed and variable-pitch (toward feather), horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, relatively insensitive to roughness and low-profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil exhibits a rapid, trailing-edge stall, which does not meet the design goal of a docile stall. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement.

  7. A new paleointensity result deduced for the Oligocene period fromQatrani basalt, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Ahmed; Yamamoto, Yuhji

    2016-04-01

    We have conducted paleodirection and paleointensity measurements of basalt flows from Qatrani basalt, Egypt. Published age of Qatrani basat is 25±2 Ma. Various rock magnetic analyses indicate that the main magnetic carriers of samples are one phase of pure magnetite (Ti-poor titanomagnetites), which have pseudo single domain (PSD) sizes. Directional analysis of the Oligocene basalts is very straightforward and updated mean VGPs have been calculated from the Qatrani (68N, 90E; Kappa=274; A95=1.8) which is coincide with the previous Oligocene paleomagnetic studies. The Tsunakawa-Shaw (LTD-DHT Shaw) method yielded five successful results of 12.9-17.5 μTfrom two sites, giving one acceptable site-mean paleointensityof 15.5 μT with a standard deviation of 1.8 μTat the 25±2Ma. In terms of a dipole moment, an average VDM is calculated to be 2.7×1022A m2with a standard deviation of 1.29×1022Am2. This is the first result from Egypt, and is associated with a reasonably high QPI value (Biggin and Paterson, 2015) of 5. The newly obtained VDM is indistinguishable from an average VDM of 3.55×1022Am2with a standard deviation of 0.67×1022Am2 calculated from theselected 65 site-mean Thellier paleointensity data from the latest paleointensity database, and is about third of the present geomagnetic dipole moment (˜8×1022 Am2).

  8. Long-term quasi-periodicity of 4U 1636-536 resulting from accretion disc instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewicz, Mateusz; Zdziarski, Andrzej; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Rosinska, Dorota; Slowikowska, Agnieszka

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of a study of the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-536. We have performed temporal analysis of all available RXTE/ASM, RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT and MAXI data. We have confirmed the previously discovered quasi-periodicity of ˜45 d present during ˜2004, however we found it continued to 2006. At other epochs, the quasi-periodicity is only transient, and the quasi-period, if present, drifts. We have then applied a time-dependent accretion disc model to the interval with the significant X-ray quasi-periodicity. For our best model, the period and the amplitude of the theoretical light curve agree well with that observed. The modelled quasi-periodicity is due to the hydrogen thermal-ionization instability occurring in outer regions of the accretion disc. The model parameters are the average mass accretion rate (estimated from the light curves), and the accretion disc viscosity parameters, α_{cold} and α_{hot}, for the hot and cold phases, respectively. Our best model gives relatively low values of α_{cold} and α_{hot}.

  9. “Pre-schoolers in the playground” an outdoor physical activity intervention for children aged 18 months to 4 years old: study protocol for a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The pre-school years are considered critical for establishing healthy lifestyle behaviours such as physical activity. Levels of physical activity track through childhood into adulthood, thus establishing habitual physical activity early in life is vital. Time spent outdoors is associated with greater physical activity and playground interventions have been shown to increase physical activity in school aged children. There are few pre-school, playground-based interventions, and evaluations of these have found mixed results. A recent report published by the UK Chief Medical Officer (CMO) highlighted that new interventions to promote movement in the early years (0–5 years old) are needed. The aim of this study is to undertake a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) of an outdoor playground-based physical activity intervention for parents and their children aged 18 months to 4 years old (“Pre-schoolers in the Playground”; PiP) and to assess the feasibility of conducting a full scale cluster RCT. The PiP intervention is grounded in behavioural theory (Social Cognitive Theory), and is in accordance with the CMO guidance for physical activity in the early years. It is informed by existing literature and data collected from focus groups with parents. Methods/Design One hundred and fifty pre-school children affiliated to 10 primary schools will be recruited. Schools will be randomised to either the PiP intervention arm or the control arm (usual practice). Children in the intervention arm will be invited to attend three 30 minute outdoor play sessions per week for 30 weeks (3 school terms) at the school. Feasibility will be assessed by examining recruitment rates, attendance, attrition, acceptability of the trial and of the PiP intervention to parents, fidelity of intervention implementation, capability and capacity for schools to deliver the intervention. Health outcomes and the feasibility of outcome measurement tools will be assessed. These

  10. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR... ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Utilization and Quality Control Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs) Qio Review Functions § 476.96 Review period and reopening...

  11. The OmegaWhite Survey for short period variable stars - II. An overview of results from the first four years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, R.; Ramsay, G.; Macfarlane, S.; Groot, P. J.; Woudt, P. A.; Dhillon, V.; Jeffery, C. S.; Marsh, T.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.

    2016-11-01

    OmegaWhite is a wide-field, high cadence, synoptic survey targeting fields in the southern Galactic plane, with the aim of discovering short period variable stars. Our strategy is to take a series of 39 s exposures in the g band of a 1 deg2 of sky lasting 2 h using the OmegaCAM wide field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). We give an overview of the initial 4 yr of data which covers 134 deg2 and includes 12.3 million light curves. As the fields overlap with the VLT Survey Telescope Hα Photometric Survey of the Galactic plane and Bulge (VPHAS+), we currently have ugriHα photometry for ˜1/3 of our fields. We find that a significant fraction of the light curves have been affected by the diffraction spikes of bright stars sweeping across stars within a few dozen of pixels over the two hour observing time interval due to the alt-az nature of the VST. We select candidate variable stars using a variety of variability statistics, followed by a manual verification stage. We present samples of several classes of short period variables, including: an ultra compact binary, a DQ white dwarf, a compact object with evidence of a 100 min rotation period, three CVs, one eclipsing binary with an 85 min period, a symbiotic binary which shows evidence of a 31 min photometric period, and a large sample of candidate δ Sct type stars including one with a 9.3 min period. Our overall goal is to cover 400 deg2, and this study indicates we will find many more interesting short period variable stars as a result.

  12. The OmegaWhite Survey for short period variable stars II: An overview of results from the first four years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, R.; Ramsay, G.; Macfarlane, S.; Groot, P. J.; Woudt, P. A.; Dhillon, V.; Jeffery, C. S.; Marsh, T.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.

    2016-08-01

    OmegaWhite is a wide-field, high cadence, synoptic survey targeting fields in the southern Galactic plane, with the aim of discovering short period variable stars. Our strategy is to take a series of 39 s exposures in the g band of a 1 square degree of sky lasting 2 h using the OmegaCAM wide field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). We give an overview of the initial 4 years of data which covers 134 square degrees and includes 12.3 million light curves. As the fields overlap with the VLT Survey Telescope Hα Photometric Survey of the Galactic plane and Bulge (VPHAS+), we currently have ugriHα photometry for ˜1/3 of our fields. We find that a significant fraction of the light curves have been affected by the diffraction spikes of bright stars sweeping across stars within a few dozen of pixels over the two hour observing time interval due to the alt-az nature of the VST. We select candidate variable stars using a variety of variability statistics, followed by a manual verification stage. We present samples of several classes of short period variables, including: an ultra compact binary, a DQ white dwarf, a compact object with evidence of a 100 min rotation period, three CVs, one eclipsing binary with an 85 min period, a symbiotic binary which shows evidence of a 31 min photometric period, and a large sample of candidate δ Sct type stars including one with a 9.3 min period. Our overall goal is to cover 400 square degrees, and this study indicates we will find many more interesting short period variable stars as a result.

  13. Vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR): a comparison between the antibody responses at the ages of 18 months and 12 years and between different methods of antibody titration.

    PubMed

    Christenson, B; Böttiger, M

    1985-04-01

    In connection with the introduction of the trivalent vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella at 18 months and 12 years of age, an evaluation of the seroconversion and booster effects in the two age-groups was carried out. This also comprised different laboratory-test methods appropriate for follow-up studies after large-scale, vaccination studies. The measles, mumps and rubella antibodies were measured by the haemolysis-in-gel (HIG) method. Measles antibodies were also measured by the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test. Borderline values or samples negative to measles or mumps were also tested by the serum-neutralization (SN) test. All but four of 150 18-month-old children lacked antibodies against measles by the HI test and one of these by the HIG method. Against mumps, 99% were seronegative in the HIG test and 97% in the SN test and two against rubella prior to vaccination. Among 247 schoolchildren, 60 (24%) lacked antibodies in the HI test and 28 (11%) of these also in the HIG test. Sixty-six schoolchildren (25%) were negative to mumps and 45% to rubella prior to vaccination. The seroconversion rate for the 18-month-old children was 96% against measles, 93% against mumps and 99% against rubella. The figure for the schoolchildren was 82% against measles, 80% against mumps and 100% against rubella. On comparing the titre levels in seroconverting children, the measles-antibody levels were found to be lower among older children, compared with younger, while the opposite was true for rubella.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Ultra-short-period Planets in K2 SuPerPiG Results for Campaigns 0-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elisabeth R.; Jackson, Brian; Endl, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed data from Campaigns 0-5 of the K2 mission and report 19 ultra-short-period candidate planets with orbital periods of less than one day (nine of which have not been previously reported). Planet candidates range in size from 0.7 to 16 Earth radii and in orbital period from 4.2 to 23.5 hr. One candidate (EPIC 203533312, Kp = 12.5) is among the shortest-period planet candidates discovered to date (P=4.2 hr), and, if confirmed as a planet, must have a density of at least ρ =8.9 {{g}} {{cm}}-3 to not be tidally disrupted. Five candidates have nominal radius values in the sub-Jovian desert ({R}P=3{--}11 {R}\\oplus and P≤slant 1.5 days) where theoretical models do not favor their long-term stability; the only confirmed planet in this range is thought to be disintegrating (EPIC 201637175). In addition to the planet candidates, we report on four objects that may not be planetary, including one with intermittent transits (EPIC 211152484) and three initially promising candidates that are likely false positives based on characteristics of their light curves and on radial velocity follow-up. A list of 91 suspected eclipsing binaries identified at various stages in our vetting process is also provided. Based on an assessment of our survey's completeness, we estimate an occurrence rate for ultra-short-period planets among K2 target stars that is about half that estimated from the Kepler sample, raising questions as to whether K2 systems are intrinsically different from Kepler systems, possibly as a result of their different galactic location.

  15. Ultra-short-period Planets in K2 SuPerPiG Results for Campaigns 0–5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elisabeth R.; Jackson, Brian; Endl, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed data from Campaigns 0–5 of the K2 mission and report 19 ultra-short-period candidate planets with orbital periods of less than one day (nine of which have not been previously reported). Planet candidates range in size from 0.7 to 16 Earth radii and in orbital period from 4.2 to 23.5 hr. One candidate (EPIC 203533312, Kp = 12.5) is among the shortest-period planet candidates discovered to date (P=4.2 hr), and, if confirmed as a planet, must have a density of at least ρ =8.9 {{g}} {{cm}}-3 to not be tidally disrupted. Five candidates have nominal radius values in the sub-Jovian desert ({R}P=3{--}11 {R}\\oplus and P≤slant 1.5 days) where theoretical models do not favor their long-term stability; the only confirmed planet in this range is thought to be disintegrating (EPIC 201637175). In addition to the planet candidates, we report on four objects that may not be planetary, including one with intermittent transits (EPIC 211152484) and three initially promising candidates that are likely false positives based on characteristics of their light curves and on radial velocity follow-up. A list of 91 suspected eclipsing binaries identified at various stages in our vetting process is also provided. Based on an assessment of our survey's completeness, we estimate an occurrence rate for ultra-short-period planets among K2 target stars that is about half that estimated from the Kepler sample, raising questions as to whether K2 systems are intrinsically different from Kepler systems, possibly as a result of their different galactic location.

  16. Association of placenta organotin concentrations with growth and ponderal index in 110 newborn boys from Finland during the first 18 months of life: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Humans are exposed to tributyltin (TBT), previously used as an antifouling paint in ships, mainly through fish consumption. As TBT is a known obesogen, we studied the association of placenta TBT and other organotin compounds (OTCs) with ponderal index (PI) and growth during the first 18 months of life in boys. Methods In a prospective Finnish study, 110 placenta samples were collected from mothers of boys born in 1997–1999 with (n = 55) and without (n = 55) cryptorchidism. To account for the original study design, linear regression, weighted for sampling fractions of boys with (121/55) and without (5677/55) cryptorchidism from the total cohort, was used to study the association between placenta OTCs and children’s weight, length, growth rates and PI up to 18 months of age. Results Placenta TBT concentrations were above the limit of quantification (LOQ) in 99% of the samples. However, monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) concentrations were below LOQ in 90%, 35% and 57% of samples, respectively. Placenta TBT was positively associated (p = 0.024) with weight gain during the first three months of life, but no other significant associations were observed for weight or length gain. Also, no significant associations between placenta OTC concentrations and child length, weight or PI at any time point were found. Conclusions We observed a trend towards higher weight gain from birth to 3 months of age with increasing placenta TBT concentration. These results should be interpreted with caution because obesogenic effects in animal experiments were seen after in-utero TBT exposures to doses that were orders of magnitude higher. Also the number of study subjects included in this study was limited. PMID:24899383

  17. Viability of the lichen Xanthoria elegans and its symbionts after 18 months of space exposure and simulated Mars conditions on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Annette; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Onofri, Silvano; Ott, Sieglinde

    2015-07-01

    The lichen Xanthoria elegans has been exposed to space conditions and simulated Mars-analogue conditions in the lichen and fungi experiment (LIFE) on the International Space Station (ISS). After several simulations and short space exposure experiments such as BIOPAN, this was the first long-term exposure of eukaryotic organisms to the hostile space conditions of the low Earth orbit (LEO). The biological samples were integrated in the EXPOSE-E facility and exposed for 1.5 years outside the ISS to the combined impact of insolation, ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation, cosmic radiation, temperatures and vacuum conditions of LEO space. Additionally, a subset of X. elegans samples was exposed to simulated Martian environmental conditions by applying Mars-analogue atmosphere and suitable solar radiation filters. After their return to Earth the viability of the lichen samples was ascertained by viability analysis of LIVE/DEAD staining and confocal laser-scanning microscopy, but also by analyses of chlorophyll a fluorescence. According to the LIVE/DEAD staining results, the lichen photobiont showed an average viability rate of 71%, whereas the even more resistant lichen mycobiont showed a rate of 84%. Post-exposure viability rates did not significantly vary among the applied exposure conditions. This remarkable viability is discussed in the context of particular protective mechanisms of lichens such as anhydrobiosis and UV-screening pigments.

  18. COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING WITH FORTIFIED SPREAD IS LIKELY TO REDUCE THE INCIDENCE OF SEVERE STUNTING AMONG 6–18 MONTH OLD RURAL MALAWIAN INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    Phuka, John C.; Maleta, Kenneth; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Cheung, Yin Bun; Briend, André; Manary, Mark J.; Ashorn, Per

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare growth and incidence of malnutrition among infants receiving long-term dietary complementation with ready-to-use fortified spread (FS) or micronutrient fortified maize-soy flour (LP). Design Randomized, controlled, single-blind trial Setting Rural Malawian population with high incidence of malnutrition Participants 182 six-month-old infants. Intervention Participants were randomized to receive 1-year-long daily supplementation with either 71g of LP (282 kcal energy / day), 50g FS50 (256 kcal), or 25g FS25 (127 kcal). Main outcome measures Weight and length gain, incidence of severe stunting, underweight, and wasting. Results The mean weight and length gains in LP, FS50 and FS25 groups were 2.37, 2.47, and 2.37 kg (p= 0.658) and 12.7, 13.5, and 13.2 cm (p=0.234), respectively. In the same groups, cumulative 12-month incidence of severe stunting was 14.0%, 0.0% and 4.0% (p=0.011), severe underweight 15.0%, 22.5% and 16.9% (p=0.706), and severe wasting 1.8%, 1.9% and 1.8% (p=0.999). Compared to LP-supplemented infants, those given FS50 gained on average (95%CI;p) 100 g (−143 to 343; p=0.419) more weight and 0.8 cm (−0.1 to 1.7; p=0.091) more length. There was a significant interaction between baseline length and intervention (p=0.042); among children with below-median length at enrolment, those given FS50 gained on average 1.9 cm (0.3 to 3.5; p=0.020) more than individuals receiving LP. Conclusions One-year-long complementary feeding with FS does not have significantly larger effect than maize-soy flour on the average weight gain of all infants, but it seems to boost linear growth in the disadvantaged individuals and hence decrease the incidence of severe stunting. PMID:18606932

  19. Supernova 1987A: 18 months later

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the significance for physics of the closest visual supernova in almost 400 years is presented. The supernova occurred in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), approx. 50 kpc away. The supernova star was a massive star of approx. 15 to 20 solar mass. Observations now show that it was once a red giant but lost its outer envelope. The lower than standard luminosity and higher observed velocities are a natural consequence of the pre-supernova star being a blue rather than a red (supergiant). Of particular importance to physicsts is the detection of neutrinos from the event by detectors in the United States and Japan. Not only did this establish extra-solar system neutrino astronomy, but it also constrained the properties of neutrino. It is shown that the well established Kamioka-IMB neutrino burst experimentally implies an event with about 2 to 4 x 10 to the 53rd power ergs emitted in neutrinos and a temperature, T sub nu e, of between 4 and 4.5 MeV. This event is in excellent agreement with what one would expect from the gravitational core collapse of a massive star. The anticipated frequency of collapse events in our Galaxy is discussed.

  20. Supernova 1987A: 18 Months later

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the significance for physics of the closest visual supernova in almost 400 years is presented. The supernova occurred in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), /approximately/50 kpc away. The supernova star was a massive star of /approximately/15--20M. Observations now show that it was once a red-giant but lost its outer envelope. The lower than standard luminosity and higher observed velocities are a natural consequence of the pre-supernova star being a blue rather than a red (supergiant). Of particular importance to physicists is the detection of neutrinos from the event by detectors in the United States and Japan. Not only did this establish extra-solar system neutrino astronomy, but it also constrained the properties of neutrino. It is shown that the well established Kamioka-IMB neutrino burst experimentally implies an event with about 2--4 /times/ 10/sup 53/ergs emitted in neutrinos and a temperature, T/sub /bar /nu/e//, of between 4 and 4.5 MeV. This event is in excellent agreement with what one would expect from the gravitational core collapse of a massive star. A neutrino detection, such as that reported earlier in Mt. Blanc, would require more than the rest mass energy of a neutron star to be converted to neutrinos, if it were to have its origin in the LMC. Thus it is probably unrelated to the supernova. The anticipated frequency of collapse events in our Galaxy, will also be discussed with a rate as high as 1/10 year shown to be not unreasonable. 61 refs.

  1. Reliability of Fitness Tests Using Methods and Time Periods Common in Sport and Occupational Management

    PubMed Central

    Burnstein, Bryan D.; Steele, Russell J.; Shrier, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Context: Fitness testing is used frequently in many areas of physical activity, but the reliability of these measurements under real-world, practical conditions is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the reliability of specific fitness tests using the methods and time periods used in the context of real-world sport and occupational management. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Eighteen different Cirque du Soleil shows. Patients or Other Participants: Cirque du Soleil physical performers who completed 4 consecutive tests (6-month intervals) and were free of injury or illness at each session (n = 238 of 701 physical performers). Intervention(s): Performers completed 6 fitness tests on each assessment date: dynamic balance, Harvard step test, handgrip, vertical jump, pull-ups, and 60-second jump test. Main Outcome Measure(s): We calculated the intraclass coefficient (ICC) and limits of agreement between baseline and each time point and the ICC over all 4 time points combined. Results: Reliability was acceptable (ICC > 0.6) over an 18-month time period for all pairwise comparisons and all time points together for the handgrip, vertical jump, and pull-up assessments. The Harvard step test and 60-second jump test had poor reliability (ICC < 0.6) between baseline and other time points. When we excluded the baseline data and calculated the ICC for 6-month, 12-month, and 18-month time points, both the Harvard step test and 60-second jump test demonstrated acceptable reliability. Dynamic balance was unreliable in all contexts. Limit-of-agreement analysis demonstrated considerable intraindividual variability for some tests and a learning effect by administrators on others. Conclusions: Five of the 6 tests in this battery had acceptable reliability over an 18-month time frame, but the values for certain individuals may vary considerably from time to time for some tests. Specific tests may require a learning period for administrators. PMID:22488138

  2. Brain distribution of c-fos expression as a result of prolonged rapid eye movement (REM) sleep period duration.

    PubMed

    Merchant-Nancy, H; Vázquez, J; García, F; Drucker-Colín, R

    1995-05-29

    Auditory stimulation (AS) or recovery from sleep deprivation (SD) has been shown to increase REM sleep periods in rats, cats and humans. This increment in REM has been credited to an amplified level of excitability in a widely distributed neuronal network throughout the brain. Fos-like immunostaining (FLI) has been useful in constructing maps of post-synaptic neuronal activity with single cell resolution, and has been proposed to be tightly related with progressing neuronal activation. This study utilized FLI as a marker to determine the number of neurons and structures which express c-fos in broadly distributed areas of the brain in animals with REM periods prolonged by either AS or SD. The results indicated that the brain stem and diencephalon present FLI increases in a variety of structures that possibly share various functional aspects of the REM sleep mechanism. These results are discussed in terms of the possibility that REM maintenance is related to an increase in the recruitment of REM-on neurons.

  3. Adverse incidents resulting in exposure to body fluids at a UK dental teaching hospital over a 6-year period

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, A; Davies, L; Hale, R; Gallagher, JE

    2012-01-01

    Background: The safety and protection of patients and health care workers is of paramount importance in dentistry, and this includes students in training who provide clinical care. Given the nature of dental care, adverse incidents can and do occur, exposing health care workers to body fluids and putting them at risk of infection, including contracting a blood-borne virus. The aim of this research was to analyze trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital from 2005 to 2010. Methods: Descriptive analysis of trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital over a six-year period was undertaken in relation to the level of outpatient and day surgery activity. Results: In total, 287 incidents were reported over a six-year period, which amounted to 0.039% of outpatient or day surgery appointments. Nearly three quarters of all the incidents (n = 208, 72%) took place during treatment or whilst clearing away after the appointment. The most frequent incidents were associated with administration of local anesthetic (n = 63, 22%), followed by burs used in dental hand pieces (n = 51, 18%). Conclusion: This research confirms that adverse incidents are a feature of dental hospitals and reports the common sources. The importance of accurate and consistent reporting of data to ensure that these issues are monitored to inform action and reduce risks to staff, students, and patients are highlighted. PMID:23118545

  4. Results of dose sensors measurements in the middle-Earth orbit for the period of 2009-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopopov, Grigory; Shatov, Pavel; Tasenko, Sergey; Lyakhov, Igor; Makarova, Nina; Balashov, Sergey; Sitnikova, Ninel

    2016-07-01

    The measurements results of space radiation exposure on electronic components carried out by dose sensors are presented in the paper. Dose sensors operate on metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor dosimetry pricniple. The flight data have been receiving for more than 6 years. The measurements results are compared with others flight data on different orbits. The analysis of the received data from 2009 to 2015 allows us to find out the periods with sharp increase of dose rate and to define values of such increases. We had analyzed space radiation characteristics data from other monitoring systems (such as GOES, Electro-L) in dates of dose rate sharp increase. Results of the analysis of dose rate increase, which had been fixed by TID sensors in 2015, will be presented in full paper. We had calculated average dose rates for different space models in the middle-Earth orbit (AE8, AE9 and others) and determined the most relevant models to the experimental data (with account for relaxation effect of dose sensor outputs). The comparison results for different models will be presented in the full paper. We had used different approaches for simulating of dose sensors shielding geometry, such as semi-sphere, semi-infinite plate, sector analysis, with taking account of different shielding elements. The analysis results of shielding configuration influence on calculated values of dose rate will be presented in the full paper.

  5. [Spasmodic torticollis, substantiating Manto syndrome, of possible toxic aethiology, with alterations of brainstem acoustic evoked potentials (BAEPs). Treatment with L-5-hydroxytryptophan. Follow up of 18 months, during which high degree resolution of symptoms and normalization of BAEPs took place].

    PubMed

    Disertori, B; Ducati, A; Piazza, M

    1982-01-01

    A case of very severe spasmodic torticollis observed for 18 months is presented and discussed. Head was so rotated that permitted only backward seeing and compressed brachial plexus between scaleni muscles with sensory, motor and trophic troubles in the hand. A toxic aethiology from parathion is likely. Brainstem Acoustic Evoked Potentials (BAEPs) showed in the beginning abnormal responses, especially as refers to waves originating in the mesencephalon. Therapy with L-5-hydroxytryptophan subdued neurological symptoms; a parallel normalization of BAEPs recording was observed. The Authors propose to call this syndrome (spasmodic torticollis with thoracic outlet syndrome) after the mythical diviner Manto, which Dante Alighieri refers to in his "Divina Commedia" (Inferno, XX, 55 e segg.).

  6. Phase I-II pilot study on the efficacy and tolerability of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Rescue M-VEC) and preoperative radiation therapy for infiltrating bladder cancer: results of an 18-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Voce, S; Montanari, F; Arnone, S; Dal Pozzo, C; Suprani, G; Cerullo, G; Fornarola, V

    1992-06-01

    In spite of the improvement of surgical techniques used alone or in combination with preoperative radiation therapy, more than 50% of the patients with infiltrating transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder die of distant metastases. Systemic antiblastic polychemotherapy has been reported to achieve a complete remission rate of approximately 30% in patients with infiltrating bladder TCC, although there are still doubts relative to the duration of such complete remissions. This study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of a preoperative chemo- and radiotherapeutic treatment modality and the possibility of performing preservative surgery. Thirty-seven patients with bladder TCC stage T2-T4, N0, M0, have been subjected to neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to the "Rescue M-VEC" scheme of methotrexate 30 mg/m2 +folinic acid 15 mg. after 24 hours on days 1, 15, 22; vinblastine 3 mg/m2 on days 1, 15, 22; epidoxorubicin 30 mg/m2 on day 1 and cisplatin 70 mg/m2 on day 1. The course was repeated from day 29. After 2 "Rescue M-VEC" courses, the patients received pelvic cobalt tele-therapy (CTT) combined with cisplatin 24 mg/m2/week. The patients were then restaged. Those with complete remission (CR) received consolidation radiotherapeutic boost combined with cisplatin 24 mg/m2/week, avoiding radical cystectomy. Such treatment was also given to patients with significant partial remission (PR) who had undergone TUR or partial cystectomy. In all the remaining cases we carried out radical cystectomy. We obtained 45.7% CR, 31.4% PR and 22.8% were non-responders (NR), of 35 patients who were evaluable at restaging. Only 9 radical cystectomies were performed in this series. The overall survival rate was 80.6% at a mean follow-up of 18.1 months.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Quasi-periodic oscillations in a radiative transonic flow: results of a coupled Monte Carlo-TVD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garain, Sudip K.; Ghosh, Himadri; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2014-01-01

    Low- and intermediate-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in black hole candidates are believed to be due to oscillations of the Comptonizing regions in an accretion flow. Assuming that the general structure of an accretion disc is a two-component advective flow (TCAF), we numerically simulate the light curves emitted from an accretion disc for different accretion rates and find how the QPO frequencies vary. We use a standard Keplerian disc residing at the equatorial plane as a source of soft photons. These soft photons, after suffering multiple scattering with the hot electrons of the low angular momentum, sub-Keplerian, flow emerge out as hard radiation. The hydrodynamic and thermal properties of the electron cloud is simulated using a total variation diminishing (TVD) code. The TVD code is then coupled with a radiative transfer code which simulates the energy exchange between the electron and radiation using Monte Carlo technique. The resulting localized heating and cooling are included also. We find that the QPO frequency increases and the spectrum becomes softer as we increase the Keplerian disc rate. However, the spectrum becomes harder if we increase the sub-Keplerian accretion rate. We find that an earlier prediction that QPOs occur when the infall time-scale roughly matches with the cooling time-scale, originally obtained using a power-law cooling, remains valid even for Compton cooling. Our findings agree with the general observations of low-frequency QPOs in black hole candidates.

  8. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided.

  9. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided. PMID:25603466

  10. Conditional deletion of Mecp2 in parvalbumin-expressing GABAergic cells results in the absence of critical period plasticity.

    PubMed

    He, Ling-jie; Liu, Nan; Cheng, Tian-lin; Chen, Xiao-jing; Li, Yi-ding; Shu, You-sheng; Qiu, Zi-long; Zhang, Xiao-hui

    2014-10-09

    Mutations in the X-linked gene encoding the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) impair postnatal development of the brain. Here we use neuronal-type specific gene deletion in mice to show that conditional Mecp2 deletion in GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing (PV) cells (PV-Mecp2(-/y)) does not cause most Rett-syndrome-like behaviours, but completely abolishes experience-dependent critical period plasticity of primary visual cortex (V1) that develops normal visual functions. However, selective loss of Mecp2 in GABAergic somatostatin-expressing cells or glutamatergic pyramidal cells does not affect the critical period plasticity. MeCP2-deficient PV cells exhibit high intrinsic excitability, selectively reduced efficacy of recurrent excitatory synapses in V1 layer 4 circuits, and decreased evoked visual responses in vivo. Enhancing cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition with diazepam infusion can restore critical period plasticity in both young and adult PV-Mecp2(-/y) mice. Thus, MeCP2 expression in inhibitory PV cells during the critical period is essential for local circuit functions underlying experience-dependent cortical plasticity.

  11. PG 0308 + 096 and PG 1026 + 002 - Two new short period binary stars resulting from common-envelope evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saffer, Rex A.; Wade, Richard A.; Liebert, James; Green, Richard F.; Sion, Edward M.; Bechtold, J.; Foss, Diana; Kidder, K.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry have been used to study the excess UV stars PG 0308 + 096 and PG 1026 + 002. Both objects are short-period binary systems, each containing a DA white dwarf star and a dM star. Orbital periods of approximately 0.284 day for PG 0308 + 096, and aproximately 0.597 day for PG 1026, have been found by spectroscopic analysis of the H-alpha emission line. Ly-alpha and Balmer line profile fitting were used to estimate the mass of white dwarf stars; mass estimates for the dM stars are based on their spectral types. The orbital inclinations are derived from these masses, the periods, and amplitudes of the H-alpha radial velocity curves. The equivalent width of the H-alpha emission line, in each binary system, varies with the orbital phase in such a manner as to imply that it arises, in large part at least, from the hemisphere of the M star that faces the white dwarf star.

  12. Impact of Masked Replacement of Sugar-Sweetened with Sugar-Free Beverages on Body Weight Increases with Initial BMI: Secondary Analysis of Data from an 18 Month Double–Blind Trial in Children

    PubMed Central

    Katan, Martijn B.; de Ruyter, Janne C.; Kuijper, Lothar D. J.; Chow, Carson C.; Hall, Kevin D.; Olthof, Margreet R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. This effect may be more pronounced in children with a high body mass index (BMI) because their sensing of kilocalories might be compromised. We investigated the impact of sugar-free versus sugary drinks separately in children with a higher and a lower initial BMI z score, and predicted caloric intakes and degree of compensation in the two groups. Methods and Findings This is a secondary, explorative analysis of our double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) which showed that replacement of one 250-mL sugary drink per day by a sugar—free drink for 18 months significantly reduced weight gain. In the 477 children who completed the trial, mean initial weights were close to the Dutch average. Only 16% were overweight and 3% obese. Weight changes were expressed as BMI z-score, i.e. as standard deviations of the BMI distribution per age and sex group. We designated the 239 children with an initial BMI z-score below the median as ‘lower BMI’ and the 238 children above the median as ‘higher BMI’. The difference in caloric intake from experimental beverages between treatments was 86 kcal/day both in the lower and in the higher BMI group. We used a multiple linear regression and the coefficient of the interaction term (initial BMI group times treatment), indicated whether children with a lower BMI responded differently from children with a higher BMI. Statistical significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Relative to the sugar sweetened beverage, consumption of the sugar—free beverage for 18 months reduced the BMI z-score by 0.05 SD units within the lower BMI group and by 0.21 SD within the higher BMI group. Body weight gain was reduced by 0.62 kg in the lower BMI group and by 1.53 kg in the higher BMI group. Thus the treatment reduced the BMI z-score by 0.16 SD units more in the higher BMI group than in the lower BMI group (p = 0.04; 95% CI -0.31 to -0.01). The impact of the

  13. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. (a) General timeframe. A QIO or... initial denial determination or a change as a result of a DRG validation. (b) Extended timeframes. (1)...

  14. Probability of a false-negative HIV antibody test result during the window period: a tool for pre- and post-test counselling.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Darlene; Durigon, Monica; Davis, Heather; Archibald, Chris; Konrad, Bernhard; Coombs, Daniel; Gilbert, Mark; Cook, Darrel; Krajden, Mel; Wong, Tom; Ogilvie, Gina

    2015-03-01

    Failure to understand the risk of false-negative HIV test results during the window period results in anxiety. Patients typically want accurate test results as soon as possible while clinicians prefer to wait until the probability of a false-negative is virtually nil. This review summarizes the median window periods for third-generation antibody and fourth-generation HIV tests and provides the probability of a false-negative result for various days post-exposure. Data were extracted from published seroconversion panels. A 10-day eclipse period was used to estimate days from infection to first detection of HIV RNA. Median (interquartile range) days to seroconversion were calculated and probabilities of a false-negative result at various time periods post-exposure are reported. The median (interquartile range) window period for third-generation tests was 22 days (19-25) and 18 days (16-24) for fourth-generation tests. The probability of a false-negative result is 0.01 at 80 days' post-exposure for third-generation tests and at 42 days for fourth-generation tests. The table of probabilities of falsely-negative HIV test results may be useful during pre- and post-test HIV counselling to inform co-decision making regarding the ideal time to test for HIV.

  15. The HyMeX Special Observation Period in Central Italy: Precipitation Measurements, Retrieval Techniques and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Patrick; Wingo, Matt; Petersen, Walt; Marzano, Frank Silvio; Baldini, Luca; Picciotti, Errico; Colantonio, Matteo; Barbieri, Stefano; Di Fabio, Saverio; Montopoli, Mario; Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Anagnostou, Emmanoil N..; Ferretti, Rossella

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean area concentrates the major natural risks related to the water cycle, including heavy precipitation and flash-flooding during the fall season. The capability to predict such high-impact events remains weak because of the contribution of very fine-scale processes and their non-linear interactions with the larger scale processes. These societal and science issues motivate the HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment, http://www.hymex.orgl) experimental programme. HyMeX aims at a better quantification and understanding of the water cycle in the Mediterranean with emphasis on intense events. The observation strategy of HyMEX is organized in a long-term (4 years) Enhanced Observation Periods (EOP) and short-term (2 months) Special Observation Periods (SOP). HyMEX has identified 3 main Mediterranean target areas: North-West (NW), Adriatic (A) and South-East (SE). Within each target area several hydrometeorological sites for heavy rainfall and flash flooding have been set up. The hydrometeorological sire in Central Italy (CI) is interested by both western and eastern fronts coming from the Atlantic Ocean and Siberia, respectively. Orographic precipitations play an important role due to the central Apennine range, which reaches nearly 3000 m (Gran Sasso peak). Moreover, convective systems commonly develop in CI during late summer and beginning of autumn, often causing localized hailstorms with cluster organized cells. Western fronts may heavily hit the Tiber basin crossing large urban areas (Rome), whereas eastern fronts can cause flash floods along the Adriatic coastline. Two major basins are involved within Cl region: Tiber basin (1000 km long) and its tributary Aniene and the Aterno-Pescara basin (300 km long). The first HyMeX SOP1.1 was carried out from Sept. till Nov. 2012 in the NW target area The Italian SOP1.1 was coordinated by the Centre of Excellence CETEMPS, University of L'Aquila, a city located in the CI heart. The CI area

  16. Periodic ordering of clusters and stripes in a two-dimensional lattice model. II. Results of Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Almarza, N G; Pȩkalski, J; Ciach, A

    2014-04-28

    The triangular lattice model with nearest-neighbor attraction and third-neighbor repulsion, introduced by Pȩkalski, Ciach, and Almarza [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 114701 (2014)] is studied by Monte Carlo simulation. Introduction of appropriate order parameters allowed us to construct a phase diagram, where different phases with patterns made of clusters, bubbles or stripes are thermodynamically stable. We observe, in particular, two distinct lamellar phases-the less ordered one with global orientational order and the more ordered one with both orientational and translational order. Our results concern spontaneous pattern formation on solid surfaces, fluid interfaces or membranes that is driven by competing interactions between adsorbing particles or molecules.

  17. Implementation of basic quality control tests for malaria medicines in Amazon Basin countries: results for the 2005–2010 period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ensuring the quality of malaria medicines is crucial in working toward malaria control and eventual elimination. Unlike other validated tests that can assess all critical quality attributes, which is the standard for determining the quality of medicines, basic tests are significantly less expensive, faster, and require less skilled labour; yet, these tests provide reproducible data and information on several critical quality attributes, such as identity, purity, content, and disintegration. Visual and physical inspection also provides valuable information about the manufacturing and the labelling of medicines, and in many cases this inspection is sufficient to detect counterfeit medicines. The Promoting the Quality of Medicines (PQM) programme has provided technical assistance to Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI) countries to implement the use of basic tests as a key screening mechanism to assess the quality of malaria medicines available to patients in decentralized regions. Methods Trained personnel from the National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs), often in collaboration with country’s Official Medicine Control Laboratory (OMCL), developed country- specific protocols that encompassed sampling methods, sample analysis, and data reporting. Sampling sites were selected based on malaria burden, accessibility, and geographical location. Convenience sampling was performed and countries were recommended to store the sampled medicines under conditions that did not compromise their quality. Basic analytical tests, such as disintegration and thin layer chromatography (TLC), were performed utilizing a portable mini-laboratory. Results Results were originally presented at regional meetings in a non-standardized format that lacked relevant medicines information. However, since 2008 information has been submitted utilizing a template specifically developed by PQM for that purpose. From 2005 to 2010, the quality of 1,663 malaria medicines from seven AMI countries

  18. Differing effects of PTH 1-34, PTH 1-84, and zoledronic acid on bone microarchitecture and estimated strength in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: an 18-month open-labeled observational study using HR-pQCT.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Stinus; Hauge, Ellen M; Beck Jensen, Jens-Erik; Brixen, Kim

    2013-04-01

    Whereas the beneficial effects of intermittent treatment with parathyroid hormone (PTH) (intact PTH 1-84 or fragment PTH 1-34, teriparatide) on vertebral strength is well documented, treatment may not be equally effective in the peripheral skeleton. We used high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) to detail effects on compartmental geometry, density, and microarchitecture as well as finite element (FE) estimated integral strength at the distal radius and tibia in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with PTH 1-34 (20 µg sc daily, n = 18) or PTH 1-84 (100 µg sc daily, n = 20) for 18 months in an open-label, nonrandomized study. A group of postmenopausal osteoporotic women receiving zoledronic acid (5 mg infusion once yearly, n = 33) was also included. Anabolic therapy increased cortical porosity in radius (PTH 1-34 32 ± 37%, PTH 1-84 39 ± 32%, both p < 0.001) and tibia (PTH 1-34 13 ± 27%, PTH 1-84 15 ± 22%, both p < 0.001) with corresponding declines in cortical density. With PTH 1-34, increases in cortical thickness in radius (2.0 ± 3.8%, p < 0.05) and tibia (3.8 ± 10.4%, p < 0.01) were found. Trabecular number increased in tibia with both PTH 1-34 (4.2 ± 7.1%, p < 0.05) and PTH 1-84 (5.3 ± 8.3%, p < 0.01). Zoledronic acid did not impact cortical porosity at either site but increased cortical thickness (3.0 ± 3.5%, p < 0.01), total (2.7 ± 2.5%, p < 0.001) and cortical density (1.5 ± 2.0%, p < 0.01) in tibia as well as trabecular volume fraction in radius (2.5 ± 5.1%, p < 0.05) and tibia (2.2 ± 2.2%, p < 0.01). FE estimated bone strength was preserved, but not increased, with PTH 1-34 and zoledronic acid at both sites, whereas it decreased with PTH 1-84 in radius (-2.8 ± 5.8%, p < 0.05) and tibia (-3.9 ± 4.8%, p < 0.001). Conclusively, divergent treatment-specific effects in cortical

  19. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  20. On the Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Examined are Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period relationships based on the cyclic behavior of the 12-month moving averages of monthly mean sunspot numbers for cycles 0.23, both in terms of Fisher's exact tests for 2x2 contingency tables and linear regression analyses. Concerning the Period-Amplitude relationship (same cycle), because cycle 23's maximum amplitude is known to be 120.8, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that its period will be 131 +/- 24 months (using all cycles) or 131 +/- 18 months (ignoring cycles 2 and 4, which have the extremes of period, 108 and 164 months, respectively). Because cycle 23 has already persisted for 142 months (May 1996 through February 2008), based on the latter prediction, it should end before September 2008. Concerning the Amplitude-Period relationship (following cycle maximum amplitude versus preceding cycle period), because cycle 23's period is known to be at least 142 months, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that cycle 24's maximum amplitude will be about less than or equal to 96.1 +/- 55.0 (using all cycle pairs) or less than or equal to 91.0 +/- 36.7 (ignoring statistical outlier cycle pairs). Hence, cycle 24's maximum amplitude is expected to be less than 151, perhaps even less than 128, unless cycle pair 23/24 proves to be a statistical outlier.

  1. Brain Growth Periodization Research: Curricular Implications for Nursery Through Grade 12 Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toepfer, Conrad F., Jr.

    Research indicates that the brain grows in spurts occurring every two years or so and alternating with plateau periods in which the gains due to growth are consolidated. While the number of brain cells no longer increases after the age of about 18 months, substantial increases in the complexity of neural networks occur generally between the ages…

  2. 75 FR 39957 - Extension of the Initial Registration Period for Haitians Under the Temporary Protected Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Notice announcing the designation of Haiti for TPS. See 75 FR 3476 (January 21, 2010). When is my TPS... Protected Status (TPS) program for a period of 18 months. See 75 FR 3476 (January 21, 2010). What is the... 75 FR 3476 (January 21, 2010). What happens to an application that is submitted without the...

  3. Brown midrib corn silage fed during the peripartal period increased intake and resulted in a persistent increase in milk solids yield of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Stone, W C; Chase, L E; Overton, T R; Nestor, K E

    2012-11-01

    the BMRCS treatment were likely because of a reduction in fill, whereas the increased intakes in the postpartum period in cows fed the BMRCS were either because of the higher intakes during the prepartum period or because of a reduction in fill limitations in the postpartum period. The carryover response in wk 4 to 15 may have resulted from cows that received BMRCS during the transition period being in a more positive nutrient balance than cows fed CCS. The results of this study indicate the importance that digestible NDF can have in transition diets and the long-term production responses that can occur when intake is increased in the transition period.

  4. SSPS-CRS first period of operation: preliminary operation results, experiences, and events. IEA Small Solar Power Systems Project SR4

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, W.

    1984-05-01

    Some lessons learned from operating the SSPS-CRS plant for over one and a half years are presented and major results from the evaluation of plant performance data are provided. Meteorological conditions at the site during the period of operation are described, including insolation, wind, temperatures, precipitation, and a thunderstorm. The performance of the heliostat field system, receiver, sodium heat transfer system, and power conversion system is discussed, and results are given of heliostat flux measurements, receiver efficiencies and losses, sodium heat transfer system losses, heat transfer system performance and efficiency. (LEW)

  5. METHODS AND RESULTS OF RECONSTRUCTION OF NOBLE GAS RELEASES FROM THE STACKS OF THE MAYAK PA GRAPHITE REACTORS OVER THE WHOLE PERIOD OF THEIR OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Glagolenko, Y. V.; Drozhko, Evgeniy G.; Mokrov, Y.; Pyatin, N. P.; Rovny, Sergey I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2008-06-01

    Brief analysis of design features and operational modes of Mayak PA industrial graphite-uranium reactors (PUGRs) is given. The above mentioned Mayak PA PUGRs determined the rates of releases of radioactive noble gases (RNG) from activation (41Ar) and fission (isotopes of Krypton and Xenon) through the vent stack of the reactor. Information is given on methods and results of experimental determination of RNG atmospheric releases for the period starting from 1965 till PUGRs decommissioning in 1987-1990. A calculation method for reconstruction of radioactive noble gas releases is proposed and justified. The results of reconstruction are given. It is shown that maximum rates of RNG releases from PUGRs high stacks were observed in the 1950s, when ordinary atmospheric air was used as a cover gas for the reactor graphite stacks and gas purification systems (flow-type gas holders) had not been installed yet.

  6. Clinical Application of Autologous Adipose Stem Cells in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Stepien, Adam; Dabrowska, Natalia L.; Maciagowska, Marzena; Zolocinska, Aleksandra; Mazur, Slawomir; Frankowska, Emilia; Kidzinski, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    The clinical outcome of autologous adipose stem cell (ASC) treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) was investigated following one year of observation. Methods. The clinical and MRI outcomes of 16 ASC-treated patients with RRMS and SPMS are reported after a one-year follow-up period. Results. At 18 months of follow-up, some patients showed “enticing” improvements on some exploratory efficacy measures, although a significant benefit was not observed for any measure across the entire group. Neither the progression of disability nor relapses were observed in any cases. In four patients, we found new gadolinium+ (Gd+) lesions on MRI. Our results indicate that ASC therapy is safe and does not produce any substantial side effects. Disease progression-free survival (PFS) of 18 months was seen in all patients with RRMS and SPMS. In these patients, EDSS scores did not progress above baseline scores. Gd-enhancing lesions were observed in two cases with RRMS, but these patients did not exhibit changes in EDSS score. Conclusion. Intrathecal treatment with ASCs is an attractive form of therapy for patients with MS but should be reserved for cases with aggressive disease progression, for cases that are still in the inflammatory phase, and for the malignant form. PMID:27761060

  7. Results of Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Atmospheric Turbulence, Internal Gravity Waves and Sporadic-E Layers by Resonant Scattering of Radio Waves on Artificial Periodic Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Grigoriev; Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.

    Artificial periodic irregularities (API) formed by the powerful standing radio waves in the ionospheric plasma give the good chance for the lower ionosphere comprehensive studies. In this paper we present some applications of the API technique for experimental studies of sporadic E-layers (E _{s}), internal gravity waves and turbulent events in the lower ionosphere. API are formed in the field of the standing radio wave produced by interference of the incident wave and reflected one from the ionosphere (in more details about the API technique one can see in the book Belikovich et al., Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities - Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. 2002. Copernicus GmbH. ISBN 3-936586-03-9). The spatial period of the irregular structure is equal to the standing wavelength Lambda or one-half the powerful wavelength lambda/2. API diagnostics are carried out at the API relaxation or decay stage by their sounding of probing radio pulses. Based on the measurement of an amplitude and a phase of the API scattered signal their relaxation time and regular vertical plasma velocity are measured. In the E-region of the ionosphere API are formed as a result of the diffusion redistribution of the non-uniformly heated plasma. The relaxation of the periodic structure is specified by the ambipolar diffusion process. The diffusion time is tau=(K (2) D _{a}) (-1) where K=2pi/Lambda and D _{a} is the ambipolar diffusion rate. The atmospheric turbulence causes reduction of the API relaxation time in comparison the diffusion time. Determination of the turbulent velocity is based on this fact. The vertical plasma velocity is determined by measuring the phase of the scattered signal. Atmospheric waves having the periods from 5-10 minutes to 5-6 hours give the contribution to temporal variations of the velocity. Parameters and effects of atmospheric waves and the turbulence on the API relaxation process are presented. Determination of the masses of the

  8. Medicaid program; allocation of enhanced federal matching funds for increased administrative costs resulting from welfare reform--HCFA. Notice with comment period.

    PubMed

    1997-05-14

    This notice with comment period announces the methodology used to determine the allocation, among the States and certain Territories, of a $500 million fund to assist them with the additional expenses attributable to eligibility determinations incurred as a result of the provisions of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, which decouples Medicaid eligibility from receipt of cash assistance for families and children. Also, it announces the actual allocation amount for each State and Territory. The special fund is available for matching a State's or Territory's allowable administrative expenditures incurred only during Federal fiscal years 1997 through 2000, and only during the first 12 calendar quarters in which the State's Temporary Assistance to Needy Families program, which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program, is in effect after August 21, 1996. PMID:10167530

  9. Results of the groundwater monitoring program performed at the former St. Louis Airport Storage Site for the period of January 1981 through January 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.; Berven, B.A.

    1984-03-01

    Results of a two-year groundwater monitoring program performed at the former St. Louis Airport Storage Site in January 1981 though January 1983 are presented. Data indicate that radionuclides stored onsite are leaching into the groundwater; however, the radionuclide concentrations are well below the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for effluents to unrestricted areas. The only radionuclide detected in measurable amounts in the groundwater at these wells was /sup 238/U. One well averaged approximately 1860 pCi/L of /sup 238/U during the two-year period. The maximum concentration of /sup 238/U observed at this well was 2230 pCi/L. This well water sample exceeded the maximum background /sup 238/U concentration (45 pCi/L) measured in groundwater throughout the state of Missouri by a factor of 50. Based on the results of the /sup 238/U concentration measured (in well water) at the former St. Louis Airport Storage Site, leaching of radionuclides is occurring, resulting in concentrations of /sup 238/U in the groundwater above background levels. However, the concentration of the radionuclides analyzed did not exceed the MPC for effluents as given in Appendix B, Table II, Column 2 of 10 CRF 20. Although there appears to be some movement of the groundwater into Coldwater Creek, adjacent to the site, due to dilution of the creek water, the concentrations of radionuclides in Coldwater Creek are expected to be substantially below MPC. 7 references, 11 figures, 5 tables.

  10. Trends in drinking habits among adolescents in the Baltic countries over the period of transition: HBSC survey results, 1993–2002

    PubMed Central

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sumskas, Linas; Maser, Mai; Pudule, Iveta

    2006-01-01

    Background The Baltic countries – Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania – are considered to be an example of regional homogeneity over the period of transition. The World Health Organization cross-national study on Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) allows a comparison and time trends analysis of behavioral patterns among adolescents in this region. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and trends of alcohol consumption and drunkenness among adolescents of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02. Methods Representative samples of 5286 boys and 6485 girls aged 15 from Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were surveyed in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02 school-year within the framework of HBSC study. The standardized survey methods were applied. The research focused on the following outcome variables: i) frequency of drinking beer, wine, and spirits; and ii) frequency of drunkenness. The same wording of questions on the consumption of alcohol was retained in each survey. Results Beer was the most frequently used alcoholic beverage across the Baltic countries among adolescents. The rate of weekly drinking of any alcoholic beverage increased considerably during the eight years of observation, especially among Estonian and Lithuanian students. In 2001/02, 25% of boys and 12.5% of girls have reported drinking alcohol at least weekly. The rate of regular alcohol drinking was two times higher in boys, while irregular drinking was more prevalent in girls. Two or more episodes of drunkenness in the lifespan were reported by 30% of boys and 15% of girls in 1993/94 and by 52% of boys and 36% of girls in 2001/02. The use of alcoholic beverages was related to the perceived family wealth: the students from the families perceived by them as wealthy were more likely to drink weekly as compared to the students from the families perceived by them as not wealthy. Conclusion Over the period between 1993 and 2002 the prevalence of alcohol

  11. An experimental investigation of gapwise periodicity and unsteady aerodynamic response in an oscillating cascade. 1: Experimental and theoretical results. [turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carta, F. O.

    1982-01-01

    Tests were conducted on a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blades along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge. The pressure data were reduced to Fourier coefficient form for direct comparison, and were also processed to yield integrated loads and, particularly, the aerodynamic damping coefficient. Results from the unsteady Verdon/Caspar theory for cascaded blades with nonzero thickness and camber were compared with the experimental measurements. The three primary results are: (1) from the leading edge plane blade data, the cascade was judged to be periodic in unsteady flow over the range of parameters tested; (2) the interblade phase angle was found to be the single most important parameter affecting the stability of the oscillating cascade blades; and (3) the real blade theory and the experiment were in excellent agreement for the several cases chosen for comparison.

  12. Analytical model for calculating indeterminate results interval of screening tests, the effect on seroconversion window period: a brief evaluation of the impact of uncertain results on the blood establishment budget.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-10-01

    The evaluation of measurement uncertainty is not required by the European Union regulation or blood establishments’ laboratory tests. However, it is required for tests accredited by ISO 15189. Also, the forthcoming ISO 9001 edition requires “risk based thinking” with risk described as “the effect of uncertainty on an expected result”. ISO recommends GUM models for determination of measurement uncertainty, but their application is not intended for ordinal value measurements, such as what happens with screening test binary results. This article reviews, discusses and proposes concepts intended for measurement uncertainty of screening test results. The precision model focuses on cutoff level allowing the evaluation of the indeterminate interval using analytical sources of variance. The intervalis considered in the estimation of the seroconversion window period. The delta-value of patients and healthy subjects’ samples allows ranking two tests according to the probability of the two classes of indeterminate results: chance of false negative results and chance of false positive results (waste on budget).

  13. Analytical model for calculating indeterminate results interval of screening tests, the effect on seroconversion window period: a brief evaluation of the impact of uncertain results on the blood establishment budget.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-10-01

    The evaluation of measurement uncertainty is not required by the European Union regulation or blood establishments’ laboratory tests. However, it is required for tests accredited by ISO 15189. Also, the forthcoming ISO 9001 edition requires “risk based thinking” with risk described as “the effect of uncertainty on an expected result”. ISO recommends GUM models for determination of measurement uncertainty, but their application is not intended for ordinal value measurements, such as what happens with screening test binary results. This article reviews, discusses and proposes concepts intended for measurement uncertainty of screening test results. The precision model focuses on cutoff level allowing the evaluation of the indeterminate interval using analytical sources of variance. The intervalis considered in the estimation of the seroconversion window period. The delta-value of patients and healthy subjects’ samples allows ranking two tests according to the probability of the two classes of indeterminate results: chance of false negative results and chance of false positive results (waste on budget). PMID:25457752

  14. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal. III. Results for the 2002-2007 data-taking period

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurashitov, J. N.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Gurkina, P. P.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Khairnasov, N. G.; Knodel, T. V.; Mirmov, I. N.; Shikhin, A. A.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Yants, V. E.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Bowles, T. J.; Elliott, S. R.; Teasdale, W. A.; Nico, J. S.; Cleveland, B. T.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2009-07-15

    The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in December 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. In this article we present the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in December 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through December 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keV of 65.4{sub -3.0}{sup +3.1} (stat) {sub -2.8}{sup +2.6} (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neutrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1{+-}3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced {sup 37}Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior {sup 51}Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.87{+-}0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in {sup 71}Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63 SNU to 66 SNU with an uncertainty of about 4%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the neutrino flux produced in the Sun by the proton-proton fusion reaction to be {phi}{sub pp}{sup {center_dot}}=(6.0{+-}0.8)x10{sup 10}/(cm{sup 2} s), which agrees well with the pp flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we make several tests and show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

  15. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or “social threats” across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not “social threats”) significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and “social threat” groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the “social threat” group. Collectively, our

  16. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or "social threats" across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, "social threat", or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, "social threat", or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not "social threats") significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and "social threat" groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the "social threat" group. Collectively, our findings indicate that repeated

  17. Implementation of an Aerosol-Cloud Microphysics-Radiation Coupling into the NASA Unified WRF: Simulation Results for the 6-7 August 2006 AMMA Special Observing Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, J. J.; Matsui, T.; Tao, W.-K.; Tan, Q.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Chin, M.; Pickering, K.; Guy, N.; Lang, S.; Kemp, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aerosols affect the Earth's radiation balance directly and cloud microphysical processes indirectly via the activation of cloud condensation and ice nuclei. These two effects have often been considered separately and independently, hence the need to assess their combined impact given the differing nature of their effects on convective clouds. To study both effects, an aerosol-microphysics-radiation coupling, including Goddard microphysics and radiation schemes, was implemented into the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting model (NU-WRF). Fully coupled NU-WRF simulations were conducted for a mesoscale convective system (MCS) that passed through the Niamey, Niger area on 6-7 August 2006 during an African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) special observing period. The results suggest that rainfall is reduced when aerosol indirect effects are included, regardless of the aerosol direct effect. Daily mean radiation heating profiles in the area traversed by the MCS showed the aerosol (mainly mineral dust) direct effect had the largest impact near cloud tops just above 200 hectopascals where short-wave heating increased by about 0.8 Kelvin per day; the weakest long-wave cooling was at around 250 hectopascals. It was also found that more condensation and ice nuclei as a result of higher aerosol/dust concentrations led to increased amounts of all cloud hydrometeors because of the microphysical indirect effect, and the radiation direct effect acts to reduce precipitating cloud particles (rain, snow and graupel) in the middle and lower cloud layers while increasing the non-precipitating particles (ice) in the cirrus anvil. However, when the aerosol direct effect was activated, regardless of the indirect effect, the onset of MCS precipitation was delayed about 2 hours, in conjunction with the delay in the activation of cloud condensation and ice nuclei. Overall, for this particular environment, model set-up and physics configuration, the effect of aerosol

  18. CONSTRAINTS ON LONG-PERIOD PLANETS FROM AN L'- AND M-BAND SURVEY OF NEARBY SUN-LIKE STARS: MODELING RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Heinze, A. N.; Hinz, Philip M.; Kenworthy, Matthew; Sivanandam, Suresh; Miller, Douglas; Meyer, Michael E-mail: phinz@as.arizona.ed E-mail: suresh@as.arizona.ed E-mail: mmeyer@phys.ethz.c

    2010-05-10

    We have carried out an L'- and M-band adaptive optics (AO) extrasolar planet imaging survey of 54 nearby, Sun-like stars using the Clio camera at the MMT. Our survey concentrates more strongly than all others to date on very nearby F, G, and K stars, in that we have prioritized proximity higher than youth. Our survey is also the first to include extensive observations in the M band, which supplemented the primary L' observations. These longer-wavelength bands are most useful for very nearby systems in which low-temperature planets with red IR colors (i.e., H - L', H - M) could be detected. The survey detected no planets, but set interesting limits on planets and brown dwarfs in the star systems we investigated. We have interpreted our null result by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations and constrained the distributions of extrasolar planets in mass M and semimajor axis a. If planets are distributed according to a power law with dN {proportional_to} M {sup {alpha}} a {sup {beta}} dMda, normalized to be consistent with radial velocity (RV) statistics, we find that a distribution with {alpha} = -1.1 and {beta} = -0.46, truncated at 110 AU, is ruled out at the 90% confidence level. These particular values of {alpha} and {beta} are significant because they represent the most planet-rich case consistent with current statistics from RV observations. With 90% confidence no more than 8.1% of stars like those in our survey have systems with three widely spaced, massive planets like the A star HR 8799. Our observations show that giant planets in long-period orbits around Sun-like stars are rare, confirming the results of shorter-wavelength surveys and increasing the robustness of the conclusion.

  19. Men's Understanding of and Experiences During the Postcircumcision Abstinence Period: Results From a Field Study of ShangRing Circumcision During Routine Clinical Services in Kenya and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Philip S.; Zulu, Robert; Awori, Quentin D.; Agot, Kawango; Combes, Stephanie; Simba, Raymond O.; Lee, Richard K.; Hart, Catherine; Lai, Jaim Jou; Zyambo, Zude; Goldstein, Marc; Feldblum, Paul J.; Sokal, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Men's understanding of counseling messages after voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) plays an important role in whether they follow them. Data on triggers for early resumption of sex may be useful as scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention continues in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Data on understanding of post-VMMC abstinence recommendations, resumption of sex, condom use, and triggers for resuming sex were collected from participants during a follow-up interview 35–42 days after ShangRing circumcision in Kenya and Zambia. Results: Of 1149 men who had ShangRing circumcision, 1096 (95.4%) completed follow-up. Nearly all (99.2%) reported being counseled to abstain from sex post-VMMC; among those, most (92.2%) recalled the recommended abstinence period was 6 weeks. Most men (94.1%) reported that the counselor gave reasons for post-VMMC abstinence and recalled appropriate reasons. Few (13.4%) men reported resuming sex at 35–42 days' follow-up. Among those, 54.8% reported never using a condom post-VMMC. Younger participants (odds ratio 0.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.2 to 0.5, P < 0.0001) and those reporting at least some condom use at baseline (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval: 0.3 to 0.7, P = 0.0003) were less likely to report resuming sex. Among men who reported some condom use, most (71.5%) said condoms were much easier or easier to use after circumcision. Men reported various reasons for early resumption of sex, primarily strong sexual desire (76.4%). Conclusions: Most men reported awareness of and adherence to the counseling recommendations for post-VMMC abstinence. A minority reported early resumption of sex, and, among those, condom use was low. Results could be used to improve post-VMMC counseling. PMID:27331585

  20. Effect of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements and corn-soy blend on the incidence of stunting and linear growth among 6- to 18-month-old infants and children in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mangani, Charles; Maleta, Kenneth; Phuka, John; Cheung, Yin Bun; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Dewey, Kathryn; Manary, Mark; Puumalainen, Taneli; Ashorn, Per

    2015-12-01

    Low nutritional value of complementary foods is associated with high incidence of childhood growth stunting in low-income countries. This study was done to test a hypothesis that dietary complementation with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) promotes linear growth and reduces the incidence of severe stunting among at-risk infants. A total of 840 6-month-old healthy infants in rural Malawi were enrolled to a randomised assessor-blinded trial. The participants received 12-month supplementation with nothing, milk-LNS, soy-LNS, or corn-soy blend (CSB). Supplements provided micronutrients and approximately 280 kcal energy per day. Outcomes were incidence of severe and very severe stunting [length-for-age z-score, (LAZ) < -3.00 and <-3.50, respectively], and change in LAZ. The incidence of severe stunting was 11.8%, 8.2%, 9.1% and 15.5% (P = 0.098) and that of very severe stunting 7.4%, 2.9%, 8.0% and 6.4% (P = 0.138) in control, milk-LNS, soy-LNS and CSB groups, respectively. Between 9 and 12 months of age, the mean change in LAZ was -0.15, -0.02, -0.12 and -0.18 (P = 0.045) for control, milk-LNS, soy-LNS and CSB groups, respectively. There was no significant between-group difference in linear growth during other age-intervals. Although participants who received milk-LNS had the lowest incidence of severe and very severe stunting, the differences between the groups were smaller than expected. Thus, the results do not provide conclusive evidence on a causal association between the LNS supplementation and the lower incidence of stunting. Exploratory analyses suggest that provision of milk-LNS, but not soy-LNS promotes linear growth among at-risk infants mainly between 9 and 12 months of age.

  1. Spatial extent of a hydrothermal system at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, determined from array analyses of shallow long-period seismicity 2. Results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almendros, J.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.

    2001-01-01

    Array data from a seismic experiment carried out at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, in February 1997, are analyzed by the frequency-slowness method. The slowness vectors are determined at each of three small-aperture seismic antennas for the first arrivals of 1129 long-period (LP) events and 147 samples of volcanic tremor. The source locations are determined by using a probabilistic method which compares the event azimuths and slownesses with a slowness vector model. The results show that all the LP seismicity, including both discrete LP events and tremor, was generated in the same source region along the east flank of the Halemaumau pit crater, demonstrating the strong relation that exists between the two types of activities. The dimensions of the source region are approximately 0.6 X 1.0 X 0.5 km. For LP events we are able to resolve at least three different clusters of events. The most active cluster is centered ???200 m northeast of Halemaumau at depths shallower than 200 m beneath the caldera floor. A second cluster is located beneath the northeast quadrant of Halemaumau at a depth of ???400 m. The third cluster is <200 m deep and extends southeastward from the northeast quadrant of Halemaumau. Only one source zone is resolved for tremor. This zone is coincident with the most active source zone of LP events, northeast of Halemaumau. The location, depth, and size of the source region suggest a hydrothermal origin for all the analyzed LP seismicity. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Trends in overweight among women differ by occupational class: Results from 33 low and middle income countries in the period 1992–2009

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Arana, Sandra; Avendano, Mauricio; van Lenthe, Frank J; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Objective There has been an increase in overweight among women in low- and middle-income countries, but whether these trends differ for women in different occupations is unknown. We examined trends by occupational class among women from 33 low- and middle-income countries in four regions. Design Cross-national study with repeated cross-sectional demographic health surveys (DHS). Subjects Height and weight were assessed at least twice between 1992 and 2009 in 248,925 women aged 25–49 years. Interviews were conducted to assess occupational class, age, place of residence, educational level, household wealth index, parity, and age at first birth and breastfeeding. We used logistic and linear regression analyses to assess the annual percent change (APC) in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2) by occupational class. Results The prevalence of overweight ranged from 2.2% in Nepal in 1992–1997 to 75% in Egypt in 2004–2009. In all four regions, women working in agriculture had consistently lower prevalence of overweight, while women from professional, technical, managerial as well as clerical occupational classes had higher prevalence. Although the prevalence of overweight increased in all occupational classes in most regions, women working in agriculture and production experienced the largest increase in overweight over the study period, while women in higher occupational classes experienced smaller increases. To illustrate, overweight increased annually by 0.5% in Latin America and the Caribbean and by 0.7% in Sub-Saharan Africa among women from professional, technical, and managerial classes, as compared to 2.8% and 3.7%, respectively, among women in agriculture. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight has increased in most low and middle income countries, but women working in agriculture and production have experienced larger increases than women in higher occupational classes. PMID:23649471

  3. Development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing surgery for brain tumors: results from a single center over a 10 year period.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy R; Nanney, Allan D; Lall, Rishi R; Graham, Randall B; McClendon, Jamal; Lall, Rohan R; Adel, Joseph G; Zakarija, Anaadriana; Cote, David J; Chandler, James P

    2015-03-01

    Patients who undergo craniotomy for brain neoplasms have a high risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thromboses (DVT) and pulmonary emboli (PE). The reasons for this correlation are not fully understood. This retrospective, single-center review aimed to determine the risk factors for VTE in patients who underwent neurosurgical resection of brain tumors at Northwestern University from 1999 to 2010. Our cohort included 1148 patients, 158 (13.7%) of whom were diagnosed with DVT and 38 (3.3%) of whom were diagnosed with PE. A variety of clinical factors were studied to determine predictors of VTE, including sex, ethnicity, medical co-morbidities, surgical positioning, length of hospital stay, tumor location, and tumor histology. Use of post-operative anticoagulants and hemorrhagic complications were also investigated. A prior history of VTE was found to be highly predictive of post-operative DVT (odds ratio [OR]=7.6, p=0.01), as was the patient's sex (OR=14.2, p<0.001), ethnicity (OR=0.5, p=0.04), post-operative intensive care unit days (OR=0.2, p=0.003), and tumor histology (OR=-0.16, p=0.01). Contrary to reports in the literature, the data collected did not indicate that the administration of post-operative medical prophylaxis for VTE was significant in preventing their formation (OR=-0.14, p=0.76). Hemorrhagic complications were low (2.2%) and resultant neurologic deficit was lower still (0.7%). The study indicates that patients with high-grade primary brain tumors and metastatic lesions should receive aggressive preventative measures in the post-operative period.

  4. Atmospheric Boundary Layer wind profile at a flat coastal site - wind speed lidar measurements and mesoscale modeling results during a summer period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, S.-E.; Hahmann, A.; Peña, A.; Mikkelsen, T.

    2010-09-01

    The wind profile above the surface layer up to 1 kilometer is presently a challenge for wind energy assessment studies and air pollution applications, as instruments for high resolution (in time and space) measurements were rarely available until recently and mesoscale meteorological models have difficulties to predict it, due to complex phenomena taking place in nature and not accounted for in the ABL parameterizations currently used. Worldwide an effort is going on to emphasize the important role of boundary layer research in various direct applications (as wind energy and air pollution) and in weather forecast models. Contributing to this effort are the Danish Research Agency Strategic Research Council (Sagsnr. 2104-08-0025) "Tall wind project" and the EU FP7-People-IEF VSABLA (PIEF-GA-2009-237471). The data analyzed here are presenting a summer period of wind lidar (WSL70) measurements at a site at the West coast of Jutland, Denmark, situated approximately 2 km inland. Therefore over water conditions are defining the structure of the boundary layer at westerly winds, while the land surface is felt only within the internal boundary layer estimated in previous studies as about 80 - 100 m deep at the site. Patterns of the wind field and wind profiles over the North Sea up to 1 km height are studied based on observations and mesoscale modelling results. Simultaneously, the height of the atmospheric boundary layer is estimated from aerosol lidars backscatter analysis and thus providing a rich data set for testing and development of new parametrizations for the wind profile within the entire atmospheric boundary layer over different surfaces.

  5. Changes in Maternal Plasma Adiponectin from Late Pregnancy to the Postpartum Period According to the Mode of Delivery: Results from a Prospective Cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Franco-Sena, Ana Beatriz; Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Kac, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Maternal plasma adiponectin is inversely related to insulin resistance, atherosclerosis and child health. However, little is known about its concentrations in the perinatal period, especially according to mode of delivery. Our aim is to evaluate the association between mode of delivery and changes in maternal plasma adiponectin from 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 30–45 days postpartum. Methods A cohort was recruited in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with four waves of follow-up: 5-13th, 22-26th, 30-36th gestational weeks and 30–45 days postpartum. Eligible subjects should be between 20–40 years of age, be free of chronic and infectious diseases and presenting with a singleton pregnancy. The mode of delivery was classified as vaginal (VD) or cesarean (CS). Plasma adiponectin concentration (μg/mL) was measured using commercial ELISA kits. Statistical analyses included the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the multiple linear mixed effects model. Results A total of 159 participated in the study. Median adiponectin concentrations were higher for the VD group (n = 99; 8.25, IQR: 5.85–11.90) than for the CS group (n = 60; 7.34, IQR: 4.36–9.76; p = 0.040) in the postpartum samples but were not different between the two groups in the 3rd trimester. Women who underwent CS had a lower rate of increase in adiponectin concentration from the 3rd trimester to 30–45 days postpartum compared to those who underwent VD (β = -.15, 95% CI: -.28-.02, p = 0.030). Conclusion The CS procedure was associated with lower maternal circulating concentrations of adiponectin at 30–45 days postpartum, compared to the VD. PMID:27391647

  6. Implicit Meaning in 18-Month-Old Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delle Luche, Claire; Durrant, Samantha; Floccia, Caroline; Plunkett, Kim

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence demonstrates that infants understand the meaning of spoken words from as early as 6 months. Yet little is known about their ability to do so in the absence of any visual referent, which would offer diagnostic evidence for an adult-like, symbolic interpretation of words and their use in language mediated thought. We…

  7. Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative: 18 Month Interim Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Eva; Norton, Michael H.; Good, Deborah; Levin, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This report presents Year One (2010-11) school level achievement and attendance outcomes and case study findings from fall 2011 that focused on school leadership and instruction. Thirteen schools were included in the first year of Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative (2010-11). Of these schools: (1) Four K-8 schools were…

  8. 18-month-olds comprehend indirect communicative acts.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Cornelia; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-03-01

    From soon after their first birthdays young children are able to make inferences from a communicator's referential act (e.g., pointing to a container) to her overall social goal for communication (e.g., to inform that a searched-for toy is inside; see Behne, Carpenter, & Tomasello, 2005; Behne, Liszkowski, Carpenter, & Tomasello, 2012). But in such cases the inferential distance between referential act and communicative intention is still fairly close, as both container and searched-for toy lie in the direction of the pointing gesture. In the current study we tested 18- and 26-month-old children in a situation in which referential act and communicative goal were more distant: In the midst of a game, the child needed a certain toy. The experimenter then held up a key (that they knew in common ground could be used to open a container) to the child ostensively. In two control conditions the experimenter either inadvertently moved the key and so drew the child's attention to it non-ostensively or else held up the key for her own inspection intentionally but non-communicatively. Children of both ages took only the ostensive showing of the key, not the accidental moving or the non-ostensive but intentional inspection of the key, as an indirect request to take the key and open the container to retrieve the toy inside. From soon after they start acquiring language young children thus are able to infer a communicator's social goal for communication not only from directly-referential acts, but from more indirect communicative acts as well.

  9. Sexually Abstinent Adolescents: An 18-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Berger, Thomas J.; Hewett, John; Oleson, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    This study was a longitudinal follow-up of 697 early adolescents from 20 schools in Missouri, investigating students who, in 1997, indicated on a survey of sexual attitudes and behaviors that they had not had sexual intercourse. They completed the Reasons for Abstinence Scale (RAS) by identifying those items that were reasons why they had not had…

  10. 40 CFR 51.341 - Request for 18-month extension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Extensions § 51.341 Request for... can be achieved through the application of reasonably available control technology. (c) Any...

  11. Bootstrapping Results of Exercise Therapy and Education for Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witta, E. Lea; Brubaker, Craig

    2003-01-01

    When studies are conducted over a period of time, the sample size typically decreases. In a study of the effects of exercise therapy and education with recovering congestive heart failure (CHF) patients (Brubaker, Witta, & Angelopoulus, 2003), the sample size decreased from over 40 to 9 participants after an 18-month time span. Although the…

  12. New results to discuss possibility of irrigation in Bat (Wadi Sharsah, northwestern Oman) before Hafit period (ca. 3100-2700 BCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouache, Eric; Desruelles, Stéphane; Eddargach, Wassel; Cammas, Cecilia; Wattez, Julia; Martin, Chloé; Tengberg, Margareta; Beuzen-Waller, Tara; Cable, Charlotte; Thornton, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Registered as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1989, the extensive archaeological site of Bat is situated within the Wadi Sharsah and around the modern village and palm grove of Bat, 24 km from the modern city of Ibri in northwestern Oman. The archaeological remains from the Bronze Age excavated by the Bat Archaeological Project are located in two mains areas. The northern area consists of a chain of low limestone hills cut by wadi tributaries leading to the main Wadi Sharsah. It is characterised by an exceptionnally high density of graves from two successive Bronze Age periods : Hafit (ca. 3100-2700 BCE) and Umm an-Nar (ca. 2700-2000 BCE). South of the Bat cemetery, in the flat part of the valley, there are several large circular structures (known historically as « towers ») and remains from both Hafit and Umm an-Nar periods, as well as later periods. Geomorphological mapping of the floodplain, associated with archaeological survey, have identified walls suggesting that during the Umm an-Nar period there was a system of irrigation which controlled flood water. Sedimentological, malacological, C14 dating and micromorphological studies of a 10 m long and 2.5 m high section located 143 m northeast of the Tower 1146 on the left bank of a small tributary of the Wadi Sharsah provide strong argument for the presence of an irrigation system that began before the Hafit period. New C14 datings confirm this hypothesis. Botanical macro-remains collected during the excavation of early Bronze Age structures at Bat further indicate the presence of date palm gardens since the 3rd millenium BCE allowing the cultivation of several crop species, in particular cereals. Most generally the global palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from our data supports a model of a general trend of aridification from Bronze Age to iron Age. Key words : Bronze Age, Holocene, Geomoephology, Micromorphology, Irrigation, Oman.

  13. "Toothbrush" the Feet: A Periodic Mechanical Stimulus for Healing of a Severe Chronic Leg Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Vounotrypidis, Periklis; Pappas, Periklis; Vrangalas, Vasilios; Pehlivanidis, Anthimos

    2015-09-01

    Chronic wounds develop when the sequence of healing events are disrupted, usually in patients with underlying diseases such as diabetes mellitus, venous insufficiency, peripheral artery disease, and neuropathies and they affect most often the lower extremities. We present a 68-year-old woman with plantar ulceration, lasting for approximately 18 months, resistant to healing with conventional therapy and various modalities we used. The patient had a long history of seronegative enteropathic arthritis, Crohn's disease, secondary fibrillar amyloidosis, multiplex neuropathy, and small vessel vasculitis, the latter being the trigger event for the ulceration of her right foot. Before the decision for a final surgical intervention, we implemented a mechanical periodic stimulus using a soft toothbrush, which resulted in the gradual and complete healing of the ulcer within a period of 6 weeks. Patient's history and previous treatments are presented along with the procedures that led to the healing of the chronic wound. This report supports the idea that periodic mechanical stimulus is of great importance for the healing process and this could be the mechanism of action of some other methods that have been described in the medical literature.

  14. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  15. Mid term results of Pemberton pericapsular osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Balioğlu, Mehmet Bülent; Öner, Ali; Aykut, Ümit Selçuk; Kaygusuz, Mehmet Akif

    2015-01-01

    Background: Treatment for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) varies according to the age of the patient. For children under 3 months, the preferred treatment is Pavlik bandaging and/or dynamic hip orthosis;for children of 3–18 months (with/without arthrography), closed and open reductions (ORs) are most common; and for children 18 months and older, pelvic osteotomies are used. Radiological and functional outcomes of patients between 16 months and 7 years of age who underwent Pemberton pericapsular osteotomy (PPO) were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) received treatment on 14 hips between 2001 and 2006. All patients with DDH had PPO as pelvic osteotomy. PPO was done solely in 3 hips, PPO and open reduction (OR) in and OR + PPO + femoral shortening in 6. The average age was 39.85 months (range 16–83 months). All had 1-stage surgery. Acetabular index (AI) and the grade of displacement were determined according to Tönnis’. Center-edge (CE) angle was evaluated. Clinical evaluations were made as described by McKay, radiological assessments by Severin's criteria and femoral head avascular necrosis measurements by Kalamchi–MacEwen's criteria. Average followup periods were 83.35 months (range 48–115 months). Results: Preoperative and postoperative average AI levels were 41.92° (range 30–50°) and 19,5° (range 5–34°), respectively (P < 0.001). According to Severin's classification, 11 (78.57%) patients were Ia, 1 (7.14%) was Ib, 1 (7.14%) was II and 1 (7.14%) was III. According to Kalamchi–McEven criteria, 12 (85.71%) patients were type I, 2 (14.28%) patients were type II. CE postoperatively was measured as 24.24° (range 12–41°). Clinically (McKay), the functional results in 13 (92.85%) patients were very good (I) and in 1 (7.14%) was good (II). Conclusions: Functional and radiological mid term outcomes were found to be comparable in most of the patients with DDH undergoing PPO

  16. Organic micro-pollutants in a karst system during low and high flow periods, results of a two-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, Roland; Licha, Tobias; Geyer, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Sauter, Martin

    2013-04-01

    and desethylatrazine, indicates limited aquifer connections and demonstrates a residence time of several years for vertical transport into the deep aquifer. Phenazone originates also from a disused waste disposal and is showing a persistency for more than three decades under the observed redox conditions. References Nödler K, Licha T, Bester K, Sauter M. Development of a multi-residue analytical method, based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, for the simultaneous determination of 46 micro-contaminants in aqueous samples. Journal of Chromatography A 2010;1217(42), 6511-6521. Reh R, Licha T, Geyer T, Nödler, K.,Sauter M. Occurrence and spatial distribution of organic micro-pollutants in a complex hydrogeological karst system during low flow and high flow periods, results of a two-year study. Science of The Total Environment 2013, 443,438-445, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.005.

  17. Bone mineral density loss in relation to the final menstrual period in a multiethnic cohort: results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    PubMed

    Greendale, Gail A; Sowers, MaryFran; Han, Weijuan; Huang, Mei-Hua; Finkelstein, Joel S; Crandall, Carolyn J; Lee, Jennifer S; Karlamangla, Arun S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the time of onset and offset of bone mineral density (BMD) loss relative to the date of the final menstrual period (FMP); the rate and amount of BMD decline during the 5 years before and the 5 years after the FMP; and the independent associations between age at FMP, body mass index (BMI), and race/ethnicity with rates of BMD loss during this time interval. The sample included 242 African American, 384 white, 117 Chinese, and 119 Japanese women, pre- or early perimenopausal at baseline, who had experienced their FMP and for whom an FMP date could be determined. Loess-smoothed curves showed that BMD loss began 1 year before the FMP and decelerated (but did not cease) 2 years after the FMP, at both the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) sites. Piecewise, linear, mixed-effects regression models demonstrated that during the 10-year observation period, at each bone site, the rates and cumulative amounts of bone loss were greatest from 1 year before through 2 years after the FMP, termed the transmenopause. Postmenopausal loss rates, those occurring between 2 and 5 years after the FMP, were less than those observed during transmenopause. Cumulative, 10-year LS BMD loss was 10.6%; 7.38% was lost during the transmenopause. Cumulative FN loss was 9.1%; 5.8% was lost during the transmenopause. Greater BMI and African American heritage were related to slower loss rates, whereas the opposite was true of Japanese and Chinese ancestry. PMID:21976317

  18. A multicenter, open-label extension study of velaglucerase alfa in Japanese patients with Gaucher disease: Results after a cumulative treatment period of 24months.

    PubMed

    Ida, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Akemi; Matsubayashi, Tomoko; Murayama, Kei; Hongo, Teruaki; Lee, Hak-Myung; Mellgard, Björn

    2016-07-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with exogenous glucocerebrosidase is indicated to treat symptomatic Gaucher disease (GD), a rare, inherited metabolic disorder. ERT with velaglucerase alfa, which is produced in a human cell line using gene activation technology, was studied in a 12-month phase III trial in Japanese patients with type 1 or 3 GD who were switched from imiglucerase ERT (n=6); the current, open-label, 12-month extension study was designed to assess longer-term safety and efficacy. Two adult and three pediatric patients (aged <18years) were enrolled into the extension study. Every-other-week intravenous infusions were administered for 63-78weeks at average doses between 51.5 and 60.7units/kg. Three non-serious adverse events were considered related to velaglucerase alfa treatment, but no patient discontinued from the study. Six serious but non-drug-related adverse events were reported. No patient tested positive for anti-velaglucerase alfa antibodies. Hemoglobin concentrations, platelet counts, and liver and spleen volumes (normalized to body weight) in these patients were generally stable over a cumulative 24-month period from the baseline of the parent trial. The data suggest that velaglucerase alfa was well tolerated and maintained clinical stability in Japanese GD patients over 2years after switching from imiglucerase. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01842841. PMID:27241455

  19. Policy and planning of prevention in Italy: Results from an appraisal of prevention plans developed by Regions for the period 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Annalisa; Marzuillo, Carolina; Massimi, Azzurra; De Vito, Corrado; de Belvis, Anton Giulio; La Torre, Giuseppe; Federici, Antonio; Ricciardi, Walter; Villari, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    Health policies on disease prevention differ widely between countries. Studies suggest that different countries have much to learn from each other and that significant health gains could be achieved if all countries followed best practice. This paper describes the policy development and planning process relating to prevention activities in Italy, through a critical appraisal of Regional Prevention Plans (RPPs) drafted for the period 2010-2012. The analysis was performed using a specific evaluation tool developed by a Scientific Committee appointed by the Italian Ministry of Health. We appraised nineteen RPPs, comprising a total of 702 projects, most of them in the areas of universal prevention (62.9%) and prevention in high risk groups (27.0%). Italian Regions established prevention activities using an innovative combination of population and high-risk individuals approaches. However, some issues, such as the need to reduce health inequalities, were poorly addressed. The technical drafting of RPPs required some improvement; e.g. the evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the health interventions proposed was seldom reported. There were significant geographical differences across the Regions in the appraisal of RPPs. Our research suggests that continuous assessment of the planning process of prevention may become a very useful tool for monitoring, and ultimately strengthening, public health capacity in the field of prevention. Further research is needed to analyze determinants of regional variation. PMID:25887486

  20. How do long-term development and periodical changes of river-floodplain systems affect the fate of contaminants? Results from European rivers.

    PubMed

    Lair, G J; Zehetner, F; Fiebig, M; Gerzabek, M H; van Gestel, C A M; Hein, T; Hohensinner, S; Hsu, P; Jones, K C; Jordan, G; Koelmans, A A; Poot, A; Slijkerman, D M E; Totsche, K U; Bondar-Kunze, E; Barth, J A C

    2009-12-01

    In many densely populated areas, riverine floodplains have been strongly impacted and degraded by river channelization and flood protection dikes. Floodplains act as buffers for flood water and as filters for nutrients and pollutants carried with river water and sediment from upstream source areas. Based on results of the EU-funded "AquaTerra" project (2004-2009), we analyze changes in the dynamics of European river-floodplain systems over different temporal scales and assess their effects on contaminant behaviour and ecosystem functioning. We find that human-induced changes in the hydrologic regime of rivers have direct and severe consequences on nutrient cycling and contaminant retention in adjacent floodplains. We point out the complex interactions of contaminants with nutrient availability and other physico-chemical characteristics (pH, organic matter) in determining ecotoxicity and habitat quality, and draw conclusions for improved floodplain management.

  1. How do long-term development and periodical changes of river-floodplain systems affect the fate of contaminants? Results from European rivers.

    PubMed

    Lair, G J; Zehetner, F; Fiebig, M; Gerzabek, M H; van Gestel, C A M; Hein, T; Hohensinner, S; Hsu, P; Jones, K C; Jordan, G; Koelmans, A A; Poot, A; Slijkerman, D M E; Totsche, K U; Bondar-Kunze, E; Barth, J A C

    2009-12-01

    In many densely populated areas, riverine floodplains have been strongly impacted and degraded by river channelization and flood protection dikes. Floodplains act as buffers for flood water and as filters for nutrients and pollutants carried with river water and sediment from upstream source areas. Based on results of the EU-funded "AquaTerra" project (2004-2009), we analyze changes in the dynamics of European river-floodplain systems over different temporal scales and assess their effects on contaminant behaviour and ecosystem functioning. We find that human-induced changes in the hydrologic regime of rivers have direct and severe consequences on nutrient cycling and contaminant retention in adjacent floodplains. We point out the complex interactions of contaminants with nutrient availability and other physico-chemical characteristics (pH, organic matter) in determining ecotoxicity and habitat quality, and draw conclusions for improved floodplain management. PMID:19604610

  2. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  3. Financial Results during Periods of Inflation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James W.; Anderson, Richard E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of inflation on the operations of 10 northeastern colleges and universities and the effect of using current cost accounting are considered. The focus is on adjustments to assets in the plant fund by restating the surplus and deficit calculations of four state and six private institutions. The 10 institutions had plant assets with an…

  4. "It's Not All about Grades": Accounting for Gendered Degree Results in Geography at Brunel University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the results of an 18-month study at Brunel University that aimed to explain the significant gendered differences in academic performance amongst geography students. Male students are doing considerably less well than their female peers, being awarded far fewer first class and upper second class degrees, a phenomenon that cannot…

  5. Sequences close to periodic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchnik, Andrei A.; Pritykin, Yurii L.; Semenov, Aleksei L.

    2009-10-01

    This paper is a survey of concepts and results connected with generalizations of the notion of a periodic sequence, both classical and new. The topics discussed relate to almost periodicity in such areas as combinatorics on words, symbolic dynamics, expressibility in logical theories, computability, Kolmogorov complexity, and number theory. Bibliography: 124 titles.

  6. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  7. Replantation of an avulsed tooth with an extended extra oral period.

    PubMed

    Kubasad, Girish; Ghivari, Sheetal; Garg, Khushboo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have reported a case of the replantation of a maxillary incisor with an extended extraoral period following a traumatic avulsion. After storage in normal saline, the root surface of the avulsed tooth was conditioned with citric acid and treated with a triple antibiotic solution. The tooth socket was filled with Emdogain before replantation. A 12 month, 18 month and a 5 year follow-up clinical examination revealed the patient to be asymptomatic, and the tooth was functional. The recall radiograph showed no evidence of renewed periradicular breakdown and apical root resorption. PMID:23649072

  8. Combined Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (HibMenC) or serogroup C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate (and HibMenCY) vaccines are well-tolerated and immunogenic when administered according to the 2,3,4 months schedule with a fourth dose at 12-18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Habermehl, Pirmin; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Sänger, Roland; Mächler, Gudrun; Boutriau, Dominique

    2010-08-01

    Combined HibMenCY and HibMenC conjugate vaccines may facilitate inclusion of vaccination against MenC and MenY into routine vaccination schedules, without additional injections. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of vaccination with three different formulations of a novel HibMenCY-conjugate vaccine, or a HibMenC-conjugate vaccine was assessed. Infants were randomized to receive either Hib(2.5 µg)-MenC(5 µg)-MenY(5 µg)-TT, Hib(5 µg)-MenC(10 µg)-MenY(10 µg)-TT, Hib(5 µg)-MenC(5 µg)-MenY(5 µg)-TT or Hib(5 µg)-MenC(5 µg)-TT vaccines co-administered with DTPa-HBV-IPV at 2-3-4 months of age. Controls received licensed conjugate MenC-CRM197 vaccine co-administered with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib. A fourth dose was administered to a subset of children at age 12-18 months. Anti-PRP concentrations and meningococcal bactericidal (rSBA-MenC/Y) titres were measured prior to and one month post third and fourth vaccination dose. Solicited local, general symptoms and unsolicited adverse events were recorded for 7 and 30 days after each vaccination, respectively. Post dose 3, all subjects had anti-PRP antibody levels ≥ 0.15 µg/ml and rSBA-MenC ≥ 1:8. 97.0%-98.6% of HibMenCY recipients had rSBA-MenY ≥ 1:8. Pre-dose-4, 95.6%-100% of HibMenCY and HibMenC recipients had anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml and 90.7%-97.6% recipients had rSBA-MenC titres ≥ 1:8. In HibMenCY groups, 78.6%-86.7% had persisting rSBA-MenY ≥ 1:8. The post-dose-4 response was robust after all vaccines with all subjects having anti-PRP ≥ 1 µg/ml and 92.3%-100% rSBA-MenC ≥ 1:128. All HibMenCY recipients had rSBA-MenY ≥ 1:128. Vaccination with the novel Hib-meningococcal vaccines had a safety profile similar to control. HibMenCY and HibMenC conjugate vaccine formulations given at 2-3-4 months of age with a fourth dose in the second year of life were immunogenic and had a comparable safety profile to licensed vaccines. (study 792014 and 100381;www.clinicaltrial.govID:NCT00129116)

  9. Influence of social support on cognitive change and mortality in old age: results from the prospective multicentre cohort study AgeCoDe

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support has been suggested to positively influence cognition and mortality in old age. However, this suggestion has been questioned due to inconsistent operationalisations of social support among studies and the small number of longitudinal studies available. This study aims to investigate the influence of perceived social support, understood as the emotional component of social support, on cognition and mortality in old age as part of a prospective longitudinal multicentre study in Germany. Methods A national subsample of 2,367 primary care patients was assessed twice over an observation period of 18 months regarding the influence of social support on cognitive function and mortality. Perceived social support was assessed using the 14-item version of the FSozU, which is a standardised and validated questionnaire of social support. Cognition was tested by the neuropsychological test battery of the Structured Interview for the Diagnosis of Dementia (SIDAM). The influence of perceived support on cognitive change was analysed by multivariate ANCOVA; mortality was analysed by multivariate logistic and cox regression. Results Sample cognitive change (N = 1,869): Mean age was 82.4 years (SD 3.3) at the beginning of the observation period, 65.9% were female, mean cognition was 49 (SD 4.4) in the SIDAM. Over the observation period cognitive function declined in 47.2% by a mean of 3.4 points. Sample mortality (N = 2,367): Mean age was 82.5 years (SD 3.4), 65.7% were female and 185 patients died during the observation period. Perceived social support showed no longitudinal association with cognitive change (F = 2.235; p = 0.135) and mortality (p = 0.332; CI 0.829-1.743). Conclusions Perceived social support did not influence cognition and mortality over an 18 months observation period. However, previous studies using different operationalisations of social support and longer observation periods indicate that such an influence may exist. This influence is

  10. Transition from non-periodic to periodic explosions.

    PubMed

    Cartes, Carlos; Descalzi, Orazio

    2015-12-13

    We show the existence of periodic exploding dissipative solitons. These non-chaotic explosions appear when higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects are added to the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling soliton transmission lines. This counterintuitive phenomenon is the result of period-halving bifurcations leading to order (periodic explosions), followed by period-doubling bifurcations (or intermittency) leading to chaos (non-periodic explosions). PMID:26527807

  11. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  12. Saturn's variable radio period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Gurnett, D. A.; Cecconi, B.

    Temporal modulations in radio emissions are often used to determine the rotation rate of the emitting body. The rotation period (presumably) of Jupiter's interior was established in this way [Burke et al., 1962] and has recently been refined by Higgins et al. [1997]. Rotation periods for the remainder of the outer planet gas giants were determined from Voyager planetary radio astronomy observations. Similar techniques have been applied to astrophysical objects, including pulsars, for which the radio period is assumed to be the rotation period of the neutron star. In 2001, however, this simple relation between the radio period and rotation period became suspect, at least for the case of Saturn. Galopeau and Lecacheux [2001] reported that the radio period of Saturn had changed by as much as 1% from that determined by Voyager and, further, exhibited variations on time scales of years. More recently, Cassini observations indicate that the Saturn kilometric radiation is modulated with a period longer than that observed by Voyager and that this period is variable on a time scale of a year or less. The recent Higgins et al. result suggests that Jupiter's period is steady, within measurement accuracy. There are no additional measurements from Uranus or Neptune with which to look for time variations in their radio periods. For conservation of energy and angular momentum reasons, true variations of the rotation period of Saturn's deep interior are not believed to be a viable explanation for the variation in radio period, hence, it would appear that there is some disconnection of the radio period from the rotation period in the case of Saturn. One possible contributing factor may be that since Saturn's magnetic field is very accurately aligned with its rotational axis, there is no first-order beaming effect caused by the wobbling of the magnetic field, contrary to the situation at the other magnetized planets. Another explanation suggested by Galopeau and Lecacheux [2001] and

  13. Calculation of the first static hyperpolarizability tensor of three-dimensional periodic compounds with a local basis set: A comparison of LDA, PBE, PBE0, B3LYP, and HF results.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Roberto; Lacivita, Valentina; Bast, Radovan; Ruud, Kenneth

    2010-06-28

    The computational scheme for the evaluation of the second-order electric susceptibility tensor in periodic systems, recently implemented in the CRYSTAL code within the coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock (HF) scheme, has been extended to local-density, gradient-corrected, and hybrid density functionals (coupled-perturbed Kohn-Sham) and applied to a set of cubic and hexagonal semiconductors. The method is based on the use of local basis sets and analytical calculation of derivatives. The high-frequency dielectric tensor (epsilon(infinity)) and second-harmonic generation susceptibility (d) have been calculated with hybrid functionals (PBE0 and B3LYP) and the HF approximation. Results are compared with the values of epsilon(infinity) and d obtained from previous plane-wave local density approximation or generalized gradient approximation calculations and from experiment. The agreement is in general good, although comparison with experiment is affected by a certain degree of uncertainty implicit in the experimental techniques.

  14. Prospective survey of indoor fungal contamination in hospital during a period of building construction.

    PubMed

    Sautour, M; Sixt, N; Dalle, F; L'ollivier, C; Calinon, C; Fourquenet, V; Thibaut, C; Jury, H; Lafon, I; Aho, S; Couillault, G; Vagner, O; Cuisenier, B; Besancenot, J-P; Caillot, D; Bonnin, A

    2007-12-01

    An 18-month survey of indoor fungal contamination was conducted in one haematology unit during a period of construction work. Air was sampled with a portable Air System Impactor and surfaces with contact Sabouraud plates. During this survey the mean concentration of viable fungi in air was 4.2 cfu/m(3) and that for surfaces was 1.7 cfu/plate. At the beginning of construction work, there were increases in airborne fungal spores (from 3.0 to 9.8 cfu/m(3)) in the unit, but concentrations did not exceed 10 cfu/m(3) during the 18-month period. The most frequently recovered airborne fungi were Penicillium spp. (27-38%), Aspergillus spp. (25%) and Bjerkandera adusta, a basidiomycete identified with molecular tools (7-12%). Blastomycetes accounted for more than 50% of the fungal flora on surfaces. Investigating the impact of a new air-treatment system (mobile Plasmair units), there were significant reductions in fungal contamination for the Plasmer -treated rooms, and in these rooms we observed the same level of fungal load whether construction work was in progress or not.

  15. Use and cost of hospitalization in dementia: longitudinal results from a community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Carolyn W.; Cosentino, Stephanie; Ornstein, Katherine; Gu, Yian; Andrews, Howard; Stern, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to examine the relative contribution of functional impairment and cognitive deficits on risk of hospitalization and costs. Methods A prospective cohort of Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older who participated in the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP) were followed approximately every 18 months for over 10 years (1805 never diagnosed with dementia during study period, 221 diagnosed with dementia at enrollment). Hospitalization and Medicare expenditures data (1999–2010) were obtained from Medicare claims. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine (1) risk of all-cause hospitalizations, (2) hospitalizations from ambulatory care sensitive (ACSs) conditions, (3) hospital length of stay (LOS), and (4) Medicare expenditures. Propensity score matching methods were used to reduce observed differences between demented and non-demented groups at study enrollment. Analyses took into account repeated observations within each individual. Results Compared to propensity-matched individuals without dementia, individuals with dementia had significantly higher risk for all-cause hospitalization, longer LOS, and higher Medicare expenditures. Functional and cognitive deficits were significantly associated with higher risks for hospitalizations, hospital LOS, and Medicare expenditures. Functional and cognitive deficits were associated with higher risks of for some ACS but not all admissions. Conclusions These results allow us to differentiate the impact of functional and cognitive deficits on hospitalizations. To develop strategies to reduce hospitalizations and expenditures, better understanding of which types of hospitalizations and which disease characteristics impact these outcomes will be critical. PMID:25351909

  16. Spontaneous periodic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Kloos, R T

    1995-09-01

    "diencephalic epilepsy" may in fact be accurate, given the periodic episodes of the case presented here and similar cases resulting from non-generalized seizure activity, with or without an underlying predisposing lesion. The label diencephalic epilepsy has been merely speculative so far, however, as definitive evidence of seizure activity has not been documented. Further, it is expected that the descriptive terms "spontaneous periodic hypothermia" and "episodic spontaneous hypothermia with hyperhidrosis" will outlive their usefulness as researchers gain greater understanding of this syndrome, and be replaced with a more pathophysiologically meaningful nomenclature. PMID:7565067

  17. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  18. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  19. Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei; Chen, Tianping

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases.

  20. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  1. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  2. Effect of biostimulation on the microbial community in PCB-contaminated sediments through periodic amendment of sediment with iron.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa Varadhan, A; Khodadoust, Amid P; Brenner, Richard C

    2011-10-01

    Reductive dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by indigenous dehalorespiring microorganisms in contaminated sediments may be enhanced via biostimulation by supplying hydrogen generated through the anaerobic corrosion of elemental iron added to the sediment. In this study, the effect of periodic amendment of sediment with various dosages of iron on the microbial community present in sediment was investigated using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) over a period of 18 months. Three PCB-contaminated sediments (two freshwater lake sediments and one marine sediment) were used. Signature biomarker analysis of the microbial community present in all three sediments revealed the enrichment of Dehalococcoides species, the population of which was sustained for a longer period of time when the sediment microcosms were amended with the lower dosage of iron (0.01 g iron per g dry sediment) every 6 months as compared to the blank system (without iron). Lower microbial stress levels were reported for the system periodically amended with 0.01 g of iron per g dry sediment every 6 months, thus reducing the competition from other hydrogen-utilizing microorganisms like methanogens, iron reducers, and sulfate reducers. The concentration of hydrogen in the system was found to be an important factor influencing the shift in microbial communities in all sediments with time. Periodic amendment of sediment with larger dosages of iron every 3 months resulted in the early prevalence of Geobacteraceae and sulfate-reducing bacteria followed by methanogens. An average pH of 8.4 (range of 8.2-8.6) and an average hydrogen concentration of 0.75% (range of 0.3-1.2%) observed between 6 and 15 months of the study were found to be conducive to sustaining the population of Dehalococcoides species in the three sediments amended with 0.01 g iron per g dry sediment. Biostimulation of indigenous PCB dechlorinators by the periodic amendment of contaminated sediments with low dosages of

  3. Results of International Space Station Vehicle Materials Exposed on MISSE-7B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Golden, Johnny L.; O'Rourke, Mary Jane E.; Kravchenko, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Materials samples were exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment as part of the MISSE-7B flight experiment for 18 months. Optical properties, thickness/mass loss, surface elemental analysis, visual and microscopic analysis for surface change are some of the techniques employed in this investigation. Where possible, the MISSE-7B results are compared to analyses from other LEO experiments. ISS materials currently flying on MISSE-8 are also discussed.

  4. The postanesthetic period. Complications.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F

    1987-01-01

    Postanesthetic complications can occur even in the best of circumstances. Proper preparation of the staff, aggressive monitoring of the recovering patient, and early recognition and management of the complications are essential if the outcome is to be successful. In reviewing postanesthetic complications, two factors are present in the overwhelming majority of situations--hypoxia and hypercarbia--often the direct result of inadequate monitoring during the postanesthetic period. The anesthetic procedure is not over once the anesthetic agents are discontinued. The skillful anesthetist is aware of the possibilities of postoperative complications and prevents problems by employing enhanced monitoring techniques during the recovery phase.

  5. Surgical and Functional Results of Hybrid 25-27-Gauge Vitrectomy Combined with Coaxial 2.2 mm Small Incision Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Höhn, Fabian; Kretz, Florian; Pavlidis, Mitrofanis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate outcomes after coaxial 2.2 mm small incision cataract surgery combined with hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy in eyes with vitreoretinal disease and age-related cataract. Methods. A single-center, retrospective case series study of 55 subjects (55 eyes) with a mean age of 70 years who underwent combined small incision phacoemulsification, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy during the 12-month period to December 2014. Intraoperative and postoperative complications and visual results were the main outcome measures. Results. The mean follow-up period was 6 months (range: 2–18 months). Intraoperative findings were 3 retinal breaks (5.5%). No cases required corneal or scleral suture or conversion to larger-gauge vitrectomy. Postoperative complications consisted of posterior capsule opacification (12.7%), elevated intraocular pressure >30 mmHg (1.8%), and fibrin reaction (5.5%). There were no cases of hypotony (<7 mmHg), IOL decentration, or postoperative endophthalmitis. Visual acuity (mean ± SD) improved from 0.52 ± 0.6 logMAR preoperatively to 0.22 ± 0.46 logMAR at final postoperative visit (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. Surgical and visual outcomes suggest hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy combined with small incision phacoemulsification and IOL implantation is feasible, safe, and effective as a one-step surgical procedure for the management of vitreoretinal pathologies and concurrent cataract. PMID:26966558

  6. Growth hormone treatment of adolescents with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) during the transition period: results of a survey among adult and paediatric endocrinologists from Italy. Endorsed by SIEDP/ISPED, AME, SIE, SIMA.

    PubMed

    Aimaretti, G; Attanasio, R; Cannavò, S; Nicoletti, M C; Castello, R; Di Somma, C; Garofalo, P; Iughetti, L; Loche, S; Maghnie, M; Mazzanti, L; Saggese, G; Salerno, M; Tonini, G; Toscano, V; Zucchini, S; Cappa, M

    2015-03-01

    Treatment of adolescents with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) during the transition period is a controversial issue. This paper is a contribution from the Italian community of paediatric and adult endocrinologists surveyed in a Delphi panel. The Delphi method is a structured communication technique, originally developed as a systematic, interactive forecasting method that relies on a panel of experts. The experts answer questionnaires in two or more rounds. There was substantial agreement on the definition of the problems associated with the diagnosis and treatment of adolescents with GHD in the transition period, as well as on the identification of the controversial issues which need further studies. There is general consensus on the need of re-testing all isolated idiopathic GHD after at least 30-day withdrawn from treatment, while in patients with multiple pituitary deficiency and low IGF-I levels there is generally no need to re-test. In patients with permanent or confirmed GHD, a starting low rhGH dose (0.01-0.03 mg per day) to be adjusted according to IGF-I concentrations is also widely accepted. For those continuing treatment, the optimal therapeutic schedule to obtain full somatic maturation, normalization of body composition and bone density, cardiovascular function and Quality of Life, need to be evaluated. PMID:25362629

  7. Evidence of past climate change in the Little Ice Age and of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation periodicity in Africa: comparison between two neighbor stalagmites from Namibia and Botswana (preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voarintsoa, N. G.; Railsback, L. B.; Liang, F.; Brook, G. A.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.

    2013-12-01

    Stalagmites are potential sources of paleoenvironmental records because their characteristics respond to climate change. In this preliminary study we compare isotopic values resolvable at annual to bi-annual scale from two stalagmites from caves in Proterozoic dolomitic marbles, as a proxy for the past climate variability in Southern Africa. Stalagmite DP1 is from Dante Cave in the Otjozondjupa region of Namibia, and Stalagmite BC97-14 is from Bone Cave, in the Koanaka Hills of Northwest Botswana, ~125km west of the Okavango Delta. Dante and Bone Cave receive respectively ~532 and ~475mm annual rainfall with an annual average temperature of 21.0°C and 22.6°C. Both caves are in semi-arid areas with highly seasonal rainfall. Vegetation is distinctive for each location: deciduous woodland savanna with a relatively high diversity of scattered tall trees on the hill in which Dante is located and a sparser tree cover on the hillsite of Bone Cave area. The data from the two stalagmites are very different, reflecting the distinctive hydrological and vegetation settings of the caves where they formed. δ18O in BC97-14 is highly variable, ranging from -11.6 to -5.8 ‰, while δ13C is nearly constant (-10.5 to -8.5 ‰). In contrast, δ13C and δ18O are covariant in DP1, with much higher δ13C values (-10.8 to -5.1‰) and much lower δ18O (-11.7 to -6.5 ‰) compared to that of Bone Cave. The distance from the water vapor source (Indian Ocean) might explain the generally lower δ18O values from the Namibian stalagmite compared to that of Botswana; while the difference in vegetation cover reflects the difference between δ13C for the two areas. Regardless of this isotopic difference, the stalagmite data for Bone Cave show a marked 15- to 22-year periodicity that is much more subdued in the Namibia speleothem. This cycle matches with the 17- or 18-year periodicity in the Botswana historical rainfall record. The periodicity is very well pronounced between AD 1825 to 1925

  8. Attention Reorients Periodically.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space.

  9. Assessing Periodicity of Periodic Leg Movements During Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Rummel, Christian; Gast, Heidemarie; Schindler, Kaspar; Müller, Markus; Amor, Frédérique; Hess, Christian W.; Mathis, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Background: Periodic leg movements (PLM) during sleep consist of involuntary periodic movements of the lower extremities. The debated functional relevance of PLM during sleep is based on correlation of clinical parameters with the PLM index (PLMI). However, periodicity in movements may not be reflected best by the PLMI. Here, an approach novel to the field of sleep research is used to reveal intrinsic periodicity in inter movement intervals (IMI) in patients with PLM. Methods: Three patient groups of 10 patients showing PLM with OSA (group 1), PLM without OSA or RLS (group 2) and PLM with RLS (group 3) are considered. Applying the “unfolding” procedure, a method developed in statistical physics, enhances or even reveals intrinsic periodicity of PLM. The degree of periodicity of PLM is assessed by fitting one-parameter distributions to the unfolded IMI distributions. Finally, it is investigated whether the shape of the IMI distributions allows to separate patients into different groups. Results: Despite applying the unfolding procedure, periodicity is neither homogeneous within nor considerably different between the three clinically defined groups. Data-driven clustering reveals more homogeneous and better separated clusters. However, they consist of patients with heterogeneous demographic data and comorbidities, including RLS and OSA. Conclusions: The unfolding procedure may be necessary to enhance or reveal periodicity. Thus this method is proposed as a pre-processing step before analyzing PLM statistically. Data-driven clustering yields much more reasonable results when applied to the unfolded IMI distributions than to the original data. Despite this effort no correlation between the degree of periodicity and demographic data or comorbidities is found. However, there are indications that the nature of the periodicity might be determined by long-range interactions between LM of patients with PLM and OSA. PMID:20948585

  10. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  11. The impact of different flooding periods on the dynamics of pore water concentrations of As, Cr, Mo and V in a contaminated floodplain soil - results of a lysimeter study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, Holger; Meissner, Ralph; Shaheen, Sabry; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements and arsenic (As) were transported with water during inundation in floodplain ecosystems, where they settled down and accumulated predominantly in depressions and low-lying terraces. Highly variable hydrological conditions in floodplains can affect the dynamics of pollutants. The impact of different flooding/drying periods on the temporal dynamics of pore water concentrations of As, Cr, Mo and V as a function of soil EH/pH changes and dynamics of DOC, Fe, Mn and SO42- was studied in a contaminated floodplain soil collected at the Elbe River (Germany). A specific groundwater lysimeter technique with two separate small lysimeter vessels served as replicates was used for this study. The groundwater level inside the lysimeters was controlled to simulate long term and short term flooding/drying. The long term (LT) flooding scenario consists of 94 days of flooding followed by similar drying term. The short term (ST) flooding/drying scenario comprises 21 days and was six times repeated. The entire experimental period (LT_ST) was about 450 days. Flooding of the soil caused a significant decrease of EH and pH. Concentrations of soluble As, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo and DOC were higher under reducing conditions than under oxidizing conditions in LT. However, As and Cr tended to be mobilized under oxidizing conditions during ST, which might be due to slow kinetics of the redox reaction of As and Cr. Dynamics of Mo were more affected by changes of EH/pH as compared to As, Cr and V and governed mainly by Fe-Mn chemistry. Concentrations of V in ST were higher than in LT and were controlled particularly by pH and chemistry of Fe. The interactions between the elements and carriers studied were stronger during long flood-dry-cycles than during short cycles, which confirmed our hypothesis. We conclude that the dynamics of As, Cr, Mo and V are determined by the length of time soils are exposed to flooding, because drivers of element mobility need a certain time to provoke

  12. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  13. Schuler Period in LEO Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Russell J.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper generalizes and extends the concept of the Schuler oscillation that occurs in the theory of inertial navigation systems, allowing one to see how the Schuler phenomenon affects inertial navigation systems operating in space. We show why a low earth orbit satellite's orbital period is identical to the period of the Schuler pendulum, which is the period of the errors for terrestrial inertial navigation systems. We also show that the generalized form of the Schuler oscillation takes the same form as the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations for satellite relative motion and that the period of the out-of-plane motion in neighboring satellite relative trajectories is the same as the Schuler period. Finally, we describe how INS gyro drift manifests itself in different coordinate systems for the orbital case. These results may assist orbital flight dynamics and attitude control systems engineers in the design and analysis of INS-equipped spacecraft

  14. Forward Period Analysis Method of the Periodic Hamiltonian System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Using the forward period analysis (FPA), we obtain the period of a Morse oscillator and mathematical pendulum system, with the accuracy of 100 significant digits. From these results, the long-term [0, 1060] (time unit) solutions, ranging from the Planck time to the age of the universe, are computed reliably and quickly with a parallel multiple-precision Taylor series (PMT) scheme. The application of FPA to periodic systems can greatly reduce the computation time of long-term reliable simulations. This scheme provides an efficient way to generate reference solutions, against which long-term simulations using other schemes can be tested. PMID:27727295

  15. Congenital cataract surgery during the early enlightenment period and the Stepkins oculists.

    PubMed

    Leffler, Christopher T; Schwartz, Stephen G; Davenport, Byrd

    2014-07-01

    From antiquity through the Renaissance, congenital blindness was generally regarded as incurable, as noted in both medical and lay publications. The earliest reference to congenital cataract surgery that we identified, reported in 1663, referred to an 18-year-old female treated by English oculist John Stepkins (d. 1652). An examination of the literature related to the Stepkins family reveals the presence of male and female oculists during that period, including his daughter, Lady Theodosia Ivy. Eye waters attributed to Stepkins contained tutty (an oxide of zinc), roses, sugar candy, and other ingredients. Interestingly, John Thomas Woolhouse, the author of the next identified report of congenital cataract surgery in 1706, stated that he was related to Stepkins. Woolhouse reported by 1721 that he had performed 36 congenital cataract surgeries, with the youngest patient being 18 months of age.

  16. Incorporating Spectra Into Periodic Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Alanna; Hong, J.; Protopapas, P.; Kashyap, V.

    2011-09-01

    The Chandra surveys have resulted in a wealth of data on low-luminosity X-ray sources (Lx 1030-34 erg/s) of Galactic scales beyond the local solar neighborhood. Many of these are compact binaries, in particular, cataclysmic variables, often identified by their periodic X-ray variability and spectra. Hong et al. (2009, 2011) have used energy quantiles (Hong, Schlegel & Grindlay, 2004) as a fast, robust indicator of spectral hardness and absorption of the X-ray sources. Energy quantiles also enable a simple but effective illustration of spectral changes with phase in these periodic systems: e.g. absorption by the accreting material is understood to drive the periodic light-curves. An interesting question is how to best make use of the information encapsulated in the periodic change in energy spectrum, along with the periodic change in intensity, especially for cases of ambiguous period determination? And, how to do it computationally efficiently? A first approach is to do the period search in intensity, as is standard; and then use a criterion of spectral variation to verify possible periods. Huijse, Zegers & Protopapas (2011) recently demonstrated a powerful period estimation technique using information potential and correntropy embedded in the light curve. Similar quantities based on energies (or energy quantiles) of X-ray photons can serve as criteria of spectral variation. A different approach treats the spectrum variations and intensity variations completely independently, searching through period-space in each, and then combining the results. A more general method would include both at the same time, looking for statistically significant variations above what is expected for a constant (in intensity and spectrum).

  17. Psychological morbidity in children 18 months after Kashmir Earthquake of 2005.

    PubMed

    Ayub, Muhammad; Poongan, Ishwari; Masood, Khadija; Gul, Huma; Ali, Mahwish; Farrukh, Ammara; Shaheen, Aisha; Chaudhry, Haroon Rasheed; Naeem, Farooq

    2012-06-01

    A severe earthquake occurred in Kashmir in 2005. The epicentre was close to Muzzafarabad. We collected data on over 1,100 children 18 months after the earthquake to look at symptoms of PTSD and behavioural and emotional problems using well established questionnaires. We found that 64.8% of children had significant symptoms of PTSD. Girls were more likely to suffer from these symptoms. The proportion of children suffering from emotional and behaviour difficulties was 34.6%. This percentage was not different from other studies of children from Pakistan within areas which were not affected by the earthquake. The rate of emotional symptoms was higher in girls while hyperactivity was more frequent in boys. This pattern is similar to other studies from across the world.

  18. Double-Blind 18-Month Trial of Lithium Versus Divalproex Maintenance Treatment in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; McNamara, Nora K.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Stansbrey, Robert; Gracious, Barbara L.; Reed, Michael D.; Calabrese, Joseph R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether divalproex sodium (DVPX) was superior to lithium carbonate ([Li.sup.+]) in the maintenance monotherapy treatment of youths diagnosed with bipolar disorder who had been previously stabilized on combination [Li.sup.+] and DVPX ([Li.sup.+]/DVPX) pharmacotherapy. Method: Youths ages 5-17 years with bipolar I or II…

  19. Intersubjective Interaction between Deaf Parents/Deaf Infants during the Infant's First 18 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, Carin; Cramér-Wolrath, Emelie; Falkman, Kerstin W.

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of a larger longitudinal project with the aim of focusing early social interaction and development of mentalizing ability in 12 deaf infants, including the interaction between the infants and their deaf parents. The aim of the present paper is to describe early social interaction and moments of intersubjectivity between the deaf…

  20. Infant Nutrition and 12 and 18 Months Secure Base Behavior: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Theodore D.; Posada, German; Carbonell, Olga A.; Creed-Kanashiro, Hillary; Gurkas, Pinar

    2011-01-01

    A notable omission in studies of developmental links to early nutritional deficiencies is infant attachment. In those few studies investigating associations between infant nutrition and attachment, nutrition was defined solely by physical growth, and infants had moderate-severe growth retardation. In this study, we utilized multiple markers of…

  1. Memory Load Affects Object Individuation in 18-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosh, Jennifer M.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Accurate representation of a changing environment requires individuation--the ability to determine how many numerically distinct objects are present in a scene. Much research has characterized early individuation abilities by identifying which object features infants can use to individuate throughout development. However, despite the fact that…

  2. Being Mimicked Increases Prosocial Behavior in 18-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Malinda; Uebel, Johanna; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Most previous research on imitation in infancy has focused on infants' learning of instrumental actions on objects. This study focused instead on the more social side of imitation, testing whether being mimicked increases prosocial behavior in infants, as it does in adults (van Baaren, Holland, Kawakami, & van Knippenberg, 2004).…

  3. WWC Review of the Report "Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative: 18 Month Interim Report"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study reviewed in this report examined the effects of Philadelphia's "Renaissance Schools Initiative" on students in K-8 schools after one year of implementation. Schools were selected for participation based on their School Performance Index (SPI) at the start of the 2010-11 school year. The SPI rates every school in Philadelphia from one to…

  4. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative: 18 Month Interim Report"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative after one year of implementation. The Renaissance Schools Initiative, which began in the 2010-11 school year, aimed at improving low-performing schools by providing new management, additional resources, and new educational strategies. The study reported that…

  5. Methodological quality and scientific impact of quantitative nursing education research over 18 months.

    PubMed

    Yucha, Carolyn B; Schneider, Barbara St Pierre; Smyer, Tish; Kowalski, Susan; Stowers, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The methodological quality of nursing education research has not been rigorously studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the methodological quality and scientific impact of nursing education research reports. The methodological quality of 133 quantitative nursing education research articles published between July 2006 and December 2007 was evaluated using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI).The mean (+/- SD) MERSQI score was 9.8 +/- 2.2. It correlated (p < .05) with several scientific impact indicators: citation counts from Scopus (r = .223), Google Scholar (r = .224), and journal impact factor (r = .216); it was not associated with Web of Science citation count, funding, or h Index. The similarities between this study's MERSQI ratings for nursing literature and those reported for the medical literature, coupled with the association with citation counts, suggest that the MERSQI is an appropriate instrument to evaluate the quality of nursing education research.

  6. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  7. Spike: AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope after 18 months of orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a progress report on the Spike scheduling system, developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute for long-term scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. Spike is an activity-based scheduler which exploits artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for constraint representation and for scheduling search. The system has been in operational use since shortly after HST launch in April 1990. Spike was adopted for several other satellite scheduling problems; of particular interest was the demonstration that the Spike framework is sufficiently flexible to handle both long-term and short-term scheduling, on timescales of years down to minutes or less. We describe the recent progress made in scheduling search techniques, the lessons learned from early HST operations, and the application of Spike to other problem domains. We also describe plans for the future evolution of the system.

  8. Assessment of radiocesium contamination in frogs 18 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Noe; Ihara, Sadao; Takase, Minoru; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2015-04-10

    We investigated the accumulation of radionuclides in frogs inhabiting radioactively contaminated areas around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) to search for possible adverse effects due to radionuclides. We collected 5 frog species and soil samples in areas within and outside a 20-km radius from FDNPP in August and September 2012 and determined their radiocesium concentrations ((134)Cs and (137)Cs). There was a positive correlation between radiocesium concentrations in the soil samples and frogs, and the highest concentration in frogs was 47,278.53 Bq/kg-wet. Although we conducted a histological examination of frog ovaries and testes by light microscopy to detect possible effects of radionuclides on the morphology of germ cells, there were no clear abnormalities in the gonadal tissues of frogs collected from sites with different contamination levels.

  9. Developmental dysplasia of the hip: diagnosis and management to 18 months.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Nicholas M P

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip represents a spectrum of disease ranging from transient neonatal instability to established dislocation. It is accepted that female sex, breech presentation, and family history are risk factors for the disease. Early diagnosis by clinical examination or ultrasound imaging is emphasized, with splint treatment ideally commencing by 6 weeks of age. Treatment using the Pavlik harness is successful in up to 90% of patients. Ultrasound imaging is the gold standard for monitoring a patient during harness wear. Failed splintage or late presentation usually necessitates surgical intervention depending on the patient's age and the severity of the hip dysplasia and displacement. PMID:24720316

  10. Assessment of radiocesium contamination in frogs 18 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Noe; Ihara, Sadao; Takase, Minoru; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the accumulation of radionuclides in frogs inhabiting radioactively contaminated areas around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) to search for possible adverse effects due to radionuclides. We collected 5 frog species and soil samples in areas within and outside a 20-km radius from FDNPP in August and September 2012 and determined their radiocesium concentrations ((134)Cs and (137)Cs). There was a positive correlation between radiocesium concentrations in the soil samples and frogs, and the highest concentration in frogs was 47,278.53 Bq/kg-wet. Although we conducted a histological examination of frog ovaries and testes by light microscopy to detect possible effects of radionuclides on the morphology of germ cells, there were no clear abnormalities in the gonadal tissues of frogs collected from sites with different contamination levels. PMID:25857262

  11. Intermuscular adipose tissue and thigh muscle area dynamics during an 18-month randomized weight loss trial.

    PubMed

    Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Tene, Lilac; Zelicha, Hila; Tsaban, Gal; Bilitzky, Avital; Komy, Oded; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Zeller, Lior; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Thiery, Joachim; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2016-08-01

    It remains unclear whether intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) has any metabolic influence or whether it is merely a marker of abnormalities, as well as what are the effects of specific lifestyle strategies for weight loss on the dynamics of both IMAT and thigh muscle area (TMA). We followed the trajectory of IMAT and TMA during 18-mo lifestyle intervention among 278 sedentary participants with abdominal obesity, using magnetic resonance imaging. We measured the resting metabolic rate (RMR) by an indirect calorimeter. Among 273 eligible participants (47.8 ± 9.3 yr of age), the mean IMAT was 9.6 ± 4.6 cm(2) Baseline IMAT levels were directly correlated with waist circumference, abdominal subdepots, C-reactive protein, and leptin and inversely correlated with baseline TMA and creatinine (P < 0.05 for all). After 18 mo (86.3% adherence), both IMAT (-1.6%) and TMA (-3.3%) significantly decreased (P < 0.01 vs. baseline). The changes in both IMAT and TMA were similar across the lifestyle intervention groups and directly corresponded with moderate weight loss (P < 0.001). IMAT change did not remain independently associated with decreased abdominal subdepots or improved cardiometabolic parameters after adjustments for age, sex, and 18-mo weight loss. In similar models, 18-mo TMA loss remained associated with decreased RMR, decreased activity, and with increased fasting glucose levels and IMAT (P < 0.05 for all). Unlike other fat depots, IMAT may not represent a unique or specific adipose tissue, instead largely reflecting body weight change per se. Moderate weight loss induced a significant decrease in thigh muscle area, suggesting the importance of resistance training to accompany weight loss programs. PMID:27402560

  12. Assessment of radiocesium contamination in frogs 18 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Noe; Ihara, Sadao; Takase, Minoru; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the accumulation of radionuclides in frogs inhabiting radioactively contaminated areas around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) to search for possible adverse effects due to radionuclides. We collected 5 frog species and soil samples in areas within and outside a 20-km radius from FDNPP in August and September 2012 and determined their radiocesium concentrations (134Cs and 137Cs). There was a positive correlation between radiocesium concentrations in the soil samples and frogs, and the highest concentration in frogs was 47,278.53 Bq/kg-wet. Although we conducted a histological examination of frog ovaries and testes by light microscopy to detect possible effects of radionuclides on the morphology of germ cells, there were no clear abnormalities in the gonadal tissues of frogs collected from sites with different contamination levels.

  13. Assessment of radiocesium contamination in frogs 18 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Noe; Ihara, Sadao; Takase, Minoru; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the accumulation of radionuclides in frogs inhabiting radioactively contaminated areas around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) to search for possible adverse effects due to radionuclides. We collected 5 frog species and soil samples in areas within and outside a 20-km radius from FDNPP in August and September 2012 and determined their radiocesium concentrations (134Cs and 137Cs). There was a positive correlation between radiocesium concentrations in the soil samples and frogs, and the highest concentration in frogs was 47,278.53 Bq/kg-wet. Although we conducted a histological examination of frog ovaries and testes by light microscopy to detect possible effects of radionuclides on the morphology of germ cells, there were no clear abnormalities in the gonadal tissues of frogs collected from sites with different contamination levels. PMID:25857262

  14. Development of Communicative Gestures in Normally Developing Children between 8 and 18 Months: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veena, Kadiyali D; Bellur, Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Children who have not developed speech tend to use gestures to communicate. Since gestures are not encouraged and suppressed in the Indian traditional context while speaking, this study focused on profiling the developing gestures in children to explore whether they use the gestures before development of speech. Eight normally developing…

  15. Period Adjustment of TT Scuti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederbloom, Steve E.

    1985-12-01

    The RR Lyrae variable TT Scuti was studied using photographic photometry. The O-C data show a possible downwards curve, which would indicate a decreasing period, but the results are not conclusive. New linear elements are: JD(max) = 2439384.915 + 0.45293855 E. A limit for the maximum rate of change of the period is -0.03 +/- 0.04 cycles per million years.

  16. Cyclical Period Changes in Short-Period Dwarf Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, R.; Borges, B. W.; Bond, H. E.; Jablonski, F.; Steiner, J. E.; Grauer, A. D.

    2004-01-01

    The observed-minus-calculated (O-C) diagrams of the eclipse timings of three dwarf novae of the SU UMa sub-class are presented and discussed. The (O-C) diagrams cover 28 24 and 15 years respectively for Z~Cha V2051~Oph and V4140~Sgr and show clear orbital period changes. Z~Cha shows conspicuous cyclical changes of period 28+/-2 yr and amplitude 60+/-12 s. V2051~Oph shows a cyclical period change of period 22+/-2 yr and amplitude 17+/-3 s. The (O-C) diagram of V4140~Sgr shows less convincing evidence but can also be explained in terms of a cyclical period modulation with an amplitude of about 16s and a time scale of 6.9+/-0.3 years. The best explanation for these observations is that of a solar-type magnetic activity cycle in the secondary star modulating its radius and consequently the mass transfer rate and the orbital separation on time scales of years. These results support the recent findings of Ak Ozkan & Mattei that the quiescent magnitudes and outburst interval of a sample of dwarf novae (including many SU UMa stars) show cyclical variations produced by solar-type magnetic activity cycles. Our results also confirm that the fully-convective secondary stars of these short period binaries still possess non-negligible magnetic fields.

  17. Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Orbitsfor the Standard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berretti, Alberto; Gentile, Guido

    We consider both periodic and quasi-periodic solutions for the standard map, and we study the corresponding conjugating functions, i.e. the functions conjugating the motions to trivial rotations. We compare the invariant curves with rotation numbers ω satisfying the Bryuno condition and the sequences of periodic orbits with rotation numbers given by their convergents ωN = pN/qN. We prove the following results for N--> ∞: (1) for rotation numbers ωNN we study the radius of convergence of the conjugating functions and we find lower bounds on them, which tend to a limit which is a lower bound on the corresponding quantity for ω (2) the periodic orbits consist of points which are more and more close to the invariant curve with rotation number ω (3) such orbits lie on analytical curves which tend uniformly to the invariant curve.

  18. [Scientific periodicals: quality criteria].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Gonzaga; Krzyzanowski, Rosaly Favero

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a historical literature review on the evaluation of periodicals and the methodology employed for their evaluation. It emphasizes the attention that should be given to the contents of the periodicals and their format based on technical standards in order to reach a global quality of the publications. This paper includes a summary of the most important aspects of the technical standards for periodicals and scientific articles.

  19. The dependence of honey-bee behaviour on weather — Shown by the results of weighing bee-hives in the period of 1969 to 1978 in the region of the Beekeepers Association of Hannover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Jutta

    1985-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of honey bee behaviour and their dependence on weather conditions. The main interest of the data evaluation was the rentability of beekeeping, especially the amount of honey produced, meteorological parameters were used to analyse the measurements. So-called “hive scale” measurements, a method used to judge the annual development of honey bees, were carried out in the region of the “Landesverband Hannoverscher Imker e. V.” by 30 to 35 observers from 1969 to 1978 under the direction of Wagener. Number of flight and forage days were collected in addition to climatic data and evaluated.

  20. Multidimensional period doubling structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yup; Flom, Dvir; Ben-Abraham, Shelomo I

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops the formalism necessary to generalize the period doubling sequence to arbitrary dimension by straightforward extension of the substitution and recursion rules. It is shown that the period doubling structures of arbitrary dimension are pure point diffractive. The symmetries of the structures are pointed out. PMID:27126116

  1. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  2. Total enbloc spondylectomy for metastatic high grade spinal tumors: Early results

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sanganagouda S; Nene, Abhay M

    2016-01-01

    Background: High grade metastatic spinal tumors are most common and are invasive. These patients can succumb to disease progression if not treated timely. Although considered as invasive and morbid, total enbloc spondylectomy (TES) in selected cases has better survival rates. The authors describe the results of TES for high grade metastatic spinal tumors. Materials and Methods: Five patients (four females and one male) underwent TES for solitary metastatic vertebral lesion between November 2012 and January 2014. These patients presented to us with spinal instability, unrelenting severe spinal pain and/or with severe progressive radiculopathy. Average age was 46.2 years (range 39–62 years). After complete investigations, computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging scan and positron emission tomography (PET) scan, it was confirmed that these patients had high grade solitary vertebral metastatic tumor. Results: Average duration of followup was 18 months (range 16–20 months). The average preoperative visual analog scale score of 9.4 (range 9–10) improved to 2 (range 1–4) at last followup. Average blood loss was 1440 mL (range 1000–2000 mL). Average duration of surgery was 198 min (range 180–240 min). Significant pain relief was noticed in each patient in the immediate postoperative period and during followups. These patients attained complete functional activities of daily living with in a month. The imaging showed implants in situ, no recurrence of tumor, and no activity on PET scan at the final followup. Conclusion: The present series shows favorable short term results of TES for solitary, metastatic, high grade vertebral body tumors by a team approach. PMID:27512215

  3. Bragg interactions in periodic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic waves of wavelength lambda with periodic structures of spatial period lambda are studied. The emphasis of the work is on Bragg interactions where lambda approximately equal to 2 lambda/N and the Bragg order N takes on the values 1, 2,.... An extended coupled waves (ECW) theory is developed for the case N greater or equal to 2 and the results of the theory are found to compare favorably with the exact results of Floquet theory. Numerous numerical results are displayed as Brillouin diagrams for the first few Bragg orders. Moreover, explicit expressions for coupling coefficients, bandgap shifts and bandgap widths are derived for singly periodic media. Particular note is taken of phase speeding effects.

  4. [Bibliometry of biomedical periodicals].

    PubMed

    Similowski, T; Derenne, J P

    1995-01-01

    Bibliometry or the science citation index is a quantitative evaluation of periodical literature, biomedical or others. It depends above all on an analysis of citations which allows for a calculation of different indices characterising and classifying journals (number of articles published, frequency of citation, impact, topicality...). The applications of bibliometry are varied from the administration of library collections to the appreciation of the significance of a review in its own speciality area. By extension the bibliometry index are sometimes used to evaluate the importance of a discipline in the literature, the place of a nation within a discipline, the significance of certain opinions or the quality of research. The intrinsic limits of bibliometry are such that this last application should be handled with caution. In effect, various biases can mechanically affect the value of different indices and particularly the fact that an article appearing in a prestigious review should not prejudge its quality such as the relevance of the question posed, the validity of the methodology employed or the accuracy of the results. For this, the study of citations is insufficient and some qualitative or semi-quantitative criteria bearing on the contents of the article should be used (critical reading, gate analysis, etc.) This general review has, as its aim, to expose both the definitions and limits of bibliometry illustrating them with some information calculated from the principal respiratory journals.

  5. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Jalali, Bahram

    2009-03-01

    We propose a new class of photonic devices based on periodic stress fields in silicon that enable second-order nonlinearity as well as quasi-phase matching. Periodically poled silicon (PePSi) adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on second-order nonlinear effects. As an example of the utility of the PePSi technology, we present simulations showing that midwave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50%.

  6. Periodized Daubechies wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.; Schlossnagle, G.

    1996-03-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrated by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and their use ius illustrated in the approximation of two commonly used differential operators. The periodization of the connection coefficients in Galerkin schemes is presented in detail.

  7. Your First Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe asthma). Always follow the directions on the bottle about how much to take. Exercise. Place a ... days. Glossary Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods. Egg: The female reproductive cell produced in and released ...

  8. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  9. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of thyroid hormone in their blood ( hyperthyroidism , thyrotoxicosis). Causes This is a rare condition that ... include a family history of periodic paralysis and hyperthyroidism. Symptoms Symptoms involve attacks of muscle weakness or ...

  10. Survival of Implants in Immediate Extraction Sockets of Anterior Teeth: Early Clinical Results

    PubMed Central

    Sabir, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background The aims and objectives of this study were placement of implants in freshly extracted sockets of anterior teeth and to evaluate the implant stability, peri-implant radiolucency and gingival inflammation around implant over a short period of 30 months. Materials and Methods A total of 12 patients (8 male and 4 female), ranging in the age from 20 to 50 years, from March 2007 to June 2007, were evaluated for immediate implant placement into 22 fresh extraction sockets. Only maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth/roots (central incisors, lateral incisors and canines) were considered for replacement with implants. One piece implant with integrated abutment and integrated surface, non-submerged, threaded and tapered at apical 5 mm, sand-blasted and acid etched surfaced implants (HI-TEC TRX-OP Implants of Life Care Company) were used. Results The mobility was not present in any of the implants at all the follow up visits. There were 2 implants at 6 month, 1 implant at 12 month, 1 implant at 18 month visits, showing peri-implant radiolucency at some sites at bone to implant contact site. Severe gingival inflammation was not observed in any of the implant site. At every follow-up visit, every implant met the criteria of success and none was found to be failed over a 30 months duration i.e. 100% success rate was achieved by implants in immediate extraction socket. Conclusion The success rate of implant survival in this study was found 100%. These implants have fulfilled all the criteria of implant success and based on the defined criteria, the success rate of implants placed in immediate extraction sockets of anterior teeth compared favorably with the conventional implants. The early results of the present study showed that high survival rates with the implants in immediate extraction sockets can be achieved. PMID:26266220

  11. Results from a National Central Auditory Processing Disorder Service: A Real-World Assessment of Diagnostic Practices and Remediation for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Sharon; Glyde, Helen; Dillon, Harvey; King, Alison; Gillies, Karin

    2015-11-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of a national service to diagnose and remediate central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). Data were gathered from 38 participating Australian Hearing centers over an 18-month period from 666 individuals age 6, 0 (years, months) to 24, 8 (median 9, 0). A total of 408 clients were diagnosed with either a spatial processing disorder (n = 130), a verbal memory deficit (n = 174), or a binaural integration deficit (n = 104). A hierarchical test protocol was used so not all children were assessed on all tests in the battery. One hundred fifty clients decided to proceed with deficit-specific training (LiSN & Learn or Memory Booster) and/or be fitted with a frequency modulation system. Families were provided with communication strategies targeted to a child's specific listening difficulties and goals. Outcomes were measured using repeat assessment of the relevant diagnostic test, as well as the Client Oriented Scale of Improvement measure and Listening Inventories for Education teacher questionnaire. Group analyses revealed significant improvements postremediation for all training/management options. Individual posttraining performance and results of outcome measures also are discussed. PMID:27587910

  12. 7 CFR 1437.5 - Coverage period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage period. 1437.5 Section 1437.5 Agriculture... Provisions § 1437.5 Coverage period. (a) The coverage period is the time during which coverage is available against loss of production of the eligible crop as a result of natural disaster. (b) The coverage...

  13. Novel features of 3q29 deletion syndrome: Results from the 3q29 registry

    PubMed Central

    Glassford, Megan R.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Freedman, Alexa A.; Zwick, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    3q29 deletion syndrome is caused by a recurrent, typically de novo heterozygous 1.6 Mb deletion, but because incidence of the deletion is rare (1 in 30,000 births) the phenotype is not well described. To characterize the range of phenotypic manifestations associated with 3q29 deletion syndrome, we have developed an online registry (3q29deletion.org) for ascertainment of study subjects and phenotypic data collection via Internet‐based survey instruments. We report here on data collected during the first 18 months of registry operation, from 44 patients. This is the largest cohort of 3q29 deletion carriers ever assembled and surveyed in a systematic way. Our data reveal that 28% of registry participants report neuropsychiatric phenotypes, including anxiety disorder, panic attacks, depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Other novel findings include a high prevalence (64%) of feeding problems in infancy and reduced weight at birth for 3q29 deletion carriers (average reduction 13.9 oz (394 g), adjusted for gestational age and sex, P = 6.5e‐07). We further report on the frequency of heart defects, autism, recurrent ear infections, gastrointestinal phenotypes, and dental phenotypes, among others. We also report on the expected timing of delayed developmental milestones. This is the most comprehensive description of the 3q29 deletion phenotype to date. These results are clinically actionable toward improving patient care for 3q29 deletion carriers, and can guide the expectations of physicians and parents. These data also demonstrate the value of patient‐reported outcomes to reveal the full phenotypic spectrum of rare genomic disorders. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26738761

  14. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  15. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  16. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  17. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  18. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  19. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Neki, N S

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level. PMID:27648066

  20. Periodically kicked turbulence

    PubMed

    Lohse

    2000-10-01

    Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041

  1. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Neki, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level. PMID:27648066

  2. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  3. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  4. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  5. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  6. The two periods of TT ARIETIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorstensen, J. R.; Smak, J.; Hessman, F. V.

    1985-05-01

    To clarify the spectroscopic period and demonstrate that the spectroscopic and photometric periods are distinct, velocities of the cataclysmic variable TT Ari in its high and intermediate photometric states are obtained. Evidence for periodicity is found near the period of Cowley et al. (1975) in both the high-state and intermediate-state velocities and in a reanalysis of the Cowley et al. velocities no evidence is found for periodicity near the photometric period. Since no single period fits all the data well and since the original Cowley et al. period fits all the high-state data quite well, it is shown that the velocities change phase between the high and the intermediate states. Results indicate that the intermediate-state velocities lag the high-state velocities by 0.28 of a cycle and that in the high-state data, the gamma velocities tend to be systematically lower for the high-order Balmer lines.

  7. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself.

  8. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  9. Long period coupling terms for Lagrange's equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A generalization of that portion of the work of Berger, which deals with the long period coupling effect of certain pairs of zonal harmonics. Long period terms arising from the short short period coupling of zonal harmonics are derived for Lagrange's equations. The formulation is general so that the results are valid for any pairs of zonal harmonics. Formulas are given to generate the various functions and integrals needed for the results given. Checks have been made against the work of Kozai.

  10. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  11. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  12. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates. PMID:17757358

  13. Maternal dietary restriction during the periconceptional period in normal-weight or obese ewes results in adrenocortical hypertrophy, an up-regulation of the JAK/STAT and down-regulation of the IGF1R signaling pathways in the adrenal of the postnatal lamb.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song; Morrison, Janna L; Gill, Amreet; Rattanatray, Leewen; MacLaughlin, Severence M; Kleemann, David; Walker, Simon K; McMillen, I Caroline

    2013-12-01

    Maternal dietary restriction during the periconceptional period results in an increase in adrenal growth and in the cortisol stress response in the offspring. The intraadrenal mechanisms that result in the programming of these changes are not clear. Activation of the IGF and the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)/suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) pathways regulate adrenal growth. We have used an embryo transfer model in sheep to investigate the impact of exposure to either dietary restriction in normal or obese mothers or to maternal obesity during the periconceptional period on adrenal growth and function in the offspring. We assessed the adrenal abundance of key signaling molecules in the IGF-I and Janus kinase/STAT/SOCS pathways including IGF-I receptor, IGF-II receptor, Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin, ribosomal protein S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, SOCS1, and SOCS3 in female and male postnatal lambs. Maternal dietary restriction in the periconceptional period resulted in the hypertrophy of the adrenocortical cells in the zona fasciculata-reticularis and an up-regulation in STAT1, phospho-STAT1, and phospho-STAT3 (Ser727) abundance and a down-regulation in IGF-I receptor, Akt, and phospho-Akt abundance in the adrenal cortex of the postnatal lamb. These studies highlight that weight loss around the time of conception, independent of the starting maternal body weight, results in the activation of the adrenal Janus kinase/STAT pathway and adrenocortical hypertrophy. Thus, signals of adversity around the time of conception have a long-term impact on the mechanisms that regulate adrenocortical growth.

  14. Maternal Dietary Restriction During the Periconceptional Period in Normal-Weight or Obese Ewes Results in Adrenocortical Hypertrophy, an Up-Regulation of the JAK/STAT and Down-Regulation of the IGF1R Signaling Pathways in the Adrenal of the Postnatal Lamb

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Song; Morrison, Janna L.; Gill, Amreet; Rattanatray, Leewen; MacLaughlin, Severence M.; Kleemann, David; Walker, Simon K.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal dietary restriction during the periconceptional period results in an increase in adrenal growth and in the cortisol stress response in the offspring. The intraadrenal mechanisms that result in the programming of these changes are not clear. Activation of the IGF and the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)/suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) pathways regulate adrenal growth. We have used an embryo transfer model in sheep to investigate the impact of exposure to either dietary restriction in normal or obese mothers or to maternal obesity during the periconceptional period on adrenal growth and function in the offspring. We assessed the adrenal abundance of key signaling molecules in the IGF-I and Janus kinase/STAT/SOCS pathways including IGF-I receptor, IGF-II receptor, Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin, ribosomal protein S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, SOCS1, and SOCS3 in female and male postnatal lambs. Maternal dietary restriction in the periconceptional period resulted in the hypertrophy of the adrenocortical cells in the zona fasciculata-reticularis and an up-regulation in STAT1, phospho-STAT1, and phospho-STAT3 (Ser727) abundance and a down-regulation in IGF-I receptor, Akt, and phospho-Akt abundance in the adrenal cortex of the postnatal lamb. These studies highlight that weight loss around the time of conception, independent of the starting maternal body weight, results in the activation of the adrenal Janus kinase/STAT pathway and adrenocortical hypertrophy. Thus, signals of adversity around the time of conception have a long-term impact on the mechanisms that regulate adrenocortical growth. PMID:24108072

  15. Early Maternal Withdrawal and Nonverbal Childhood IQ as Precursors for Substance Use Disorder in Young Adulthood: Results of a 20-Year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Pechtel, Pia; Woodman, Ashley; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2012-01-01

    The relation between early mother-infant interaction and later socio-emotional development has been well established. The present study addresses the more recent interest in the impact of maternal caregiving on cognitive development and their role in decision-making in young adulthood. Using data from a prospective longitudinal study on attachment, prediction from early mother-infant interactions at age 18 months and from verbal and nonverbal cognitive skill at age 5 were examined as predictors of a substance use disorder (abuse/dependence) in young adulthood (age 20) on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Results reveal that the mother's withdrawal from interaction with the infant at age 18 months, coded using the AMBIANCE coding system (Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification), was associated with the child's lower nonverbal cognitive scores but not verbal cognitive scores at age 5. In addition, maternal withdrawal at 18 months predicted a clinical diagnosis of substance use disorder (alcohol/cannabis) at age 20. Finally, nonverbal reasoning at age 5 mediated the relationship between early maternal withdrawal and substance use disorder (alcohol/cannabis) in young adulthood. Findings indicate the need for further work examining how early maternal withdrawal affects nonverbal cognitive development by school entry, and how these nonverbal deficits further contribute to maladaptive coping strategies such as substance use by young adulthood. PMID:25473440

  16. Early Maternal Withdrawal and Nonverbal Childhood IQ as Precursors for Substance Use Disorder in Young Adulthood: Results of a 20-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pechtel, Pia; Woodman, Ashley; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2014-01-01

    The relation between early mother–infant interaction and later socio-emotional development has been well established. The present study addresses the more recent interest in the impact of maternal caregiving on cognitive development and their role in decision-making in young adulthood. Using data from a prospective longitudinal study on attachment, prediction from early mother–infant interactions at age 18 months and from verbal and nonverbal cognitive skill at age 5 were examined as predictors of a substance use disorder (abuse/dependence) in young adulthood (age 20) on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Results reveal that the mother’s withdrawal from interaction with the infant at age 18 months, coded using the AMBIANCE coding system (Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification), was associated with the child’s lower nonverbal cognitive scores but not verbal cognitive scores at age 5. In addition, maternal withdrawal at 18 months predicted a clinical diagnosis of substance use disorder (alcohol/cannabis) at age 20. Finally, nonverbal reasoning at age 5 mediated the relationship between early maternal withdrawal and substance use disorder (alcohol/cannabis) in young adulthood. Findings indicate the need for further work examining how early maternal withdrawal affects nonverbal cognitive development by school entry, and how these nonverbal deficits further contribute to maladaptive coping strategies such as substance use by young adulthood. PMID:25473440

  17. Periodic Structures in Optical Fibres.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, Duncan Paul

    1990-01-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The work presented in this thesis concerns techniques for the formation of periodic structures in optical fibres. Two different methods of producing such structures are studied in detail. The first of these involves a breakdown mechanism (known as the 'fibre fuse') that permanently damages the core glass in a periodic manner leaving it unable to guide light. The dynamics of this mechanism are studied, with a view to controlling it for the production of interactive grating structures. It is determined that, due to a sharp rise in fibre absorption with temperature, a thermal shock -wave, with a typical thermal gradient of several hundred degrees Kelvin per micron, forms and travels along the fibre, heating the core glass to such an extent that damage occurs. The periodicity of the resultant damage arises from thermal focusing and defocusing of light in the region of this shock-wave. The second method makes use of the photorefractivity observed in certain germanosilicate fibres on exposure to moderate intensity blue light of wavelength ~480nm or UV light ~240nm. A single-mode fibre transmission filter is demonstrated for the first time, produced by exposing a fibre Sagnac loop mirror to 488nm holographic fringes. Average index changes are shown to occur if such fibres are exposed to spatially uniform blue or UV light, indicating that grating formation is by a different mechanism to the local charge separation which occurs in photorefractive crystals. The various characteristics of these average index changes are measured and analysed, with the conclusion that they result from defect centre formation, driven by two photon absorption with blue light, or single photon absorption with UV light. Associated birefringence changes are also measured and are exploited in a hi-bi fibre to periodically perturb the birefringence axes, producing a narrow-line transmission filter.

  18. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-07-28

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  19. Periodically oscillating plasma sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.; Nebel, R.A.; Stange, S.; Murali, S. Krupakar

    2005-05-15

    The periodically oscillating plasma sphere, or POPS, is a novel fusion concept first proposed by D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel [Fusion Technol. 38, 28 (1998)]. POPS utilizes the self-similar collapse of an oscillating ion cloud in a spherical harmonic oscillator potential well formed by electron injection. Once the ions have been phase-locked, their coherent motion simultaneously produces very high densities and temperatures during the collapse phase of the oscillation. A requirement for POPS is that the electron injection produces a stable harmonic oscillator potential. This has been demonstrated in a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device and verified by particle simulation. Also, the POPS oscillation has been confirmed experimentally through observation that the ions in the potential well exhibit resonance behavior when driven at the POPS frequency. Excellent agreement between the observed POPS frequencies and the theoretical predictions has been observed for a wide range of potential well depths and three different ion species. Practical applications of POPS require large plasma compressions. These large compressions have been observed in particle simulations, although space charge neutralization remains a major issue.

  20. The First Eighteen Months of NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2): Mission Status, Error Characterization, and Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    OCO-2 began taking science data in September 2014 and continues to operate well, returning nearly 1 million observations per day. Approximately 10% of these are sufficiently free of cloud and aerosol contamination to allow for an accurate determination of the column mean carbon dioxide dry air mole fraction, XCO2. The measurements have relatively low noise, of order 0.5-1.0 ppm for most nadir soundings over land and sun-glint geometry soundings over water surfaces. A number of changes have been made to the observing strategy to maintain performance and enhance the science quality of the data: change in glint yaw angle in October 2014, change in nadir glint cycling in July 2015, change to nadir yaw and glint orbit optimization in late 2015, in addition to periodic instrument cyclings. In this presentation, we will summarize the data quality enabled via comparison to a number of validation metrics, discuss the current health and long-term prospects for the instrument, and give an overview of some early science results from the first 18 months of observations. While XCO2 and other products are still being validated to identify and correct biases, OCO-2's XCO2 observations are starting to reveal the most robust features of the atmospheric carbon cycle. At regional scales, fluxes from the eastern U.S. and China are most clear in the fall, when the north-south XCO2 gradient is small. Enhanced XCO2 coincident with biomass burning in the some parts of the tropics, in particular central Africa, is also obvious in the fall. The annual growth rate of CO2 was anomalously high in 2015 according to OCO-2, consistent with NOAA surface measurements and in accord with the warmer annual average surface temperature that year. This was also apparent in the decreased northern hemisphere summer uptake, likely due to anomalously warm boreal temperatures in the northern hemisphere summer of 2015.

  1. Treatment with octreotide LAR in clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma: results from a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Alessandra; Giampietro, Antonella; Bianchi, Antonio; Cimino, Vincenzo; Lugli, Francesca; Piacentini, Serena; Lorusso, Margherita; Tofani, Anna; Perotti, Germano; Lauriola, Libero; Anile, Carmelo; Maira, Giulio; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; De Marinis, Laura

    2012-12-01

    Surgical cure cannot be achieved in most patients with invasive non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFPA). Short-term residual tumor treatment with somatostatin analogs has produced disappointing results. This prospective case-control study assessed the efficacy of chronic treatment with long acting octreotide (octreotide LAR) on tumor volume in patients harboring post-surgical NFPA residue. The study population comprised 39 patients with NFPAs not cured by surgery. All patients underwent somatostatin receptor scintigraphy at least 6 months after the last surgery. Patients with a positive pituitary level octreoscan at (n = 26) received octreotide LAR (20 mg every 28 days) for ≥ 12 months (mean follow-up 37 ± 18 months) (Treated group). Moreover, a fragment of tumor tissue from patients in the treated group was retrospectively collected to assess the immunohistochemical expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes (SSTRs). The patients with a negative octreoscan (n = 13) formed the control group (mean follow-up 37 ± 16 months). Hormonal, radiological and visual field parameters were periodically assessed. In the treated group, all tumors expressed at least one SSTR subtype. The SSTR5 subtype was the most abundant, followed by SSTR3. The tumor residue increased in five of 26 patients (19%) in the treated group and in seven of 13 controls (53%). Visual field and pituitary function did not change in any patient. This study indicates that SSTR5 and SSTR3 are the most frequently expressed SSTR subtypes in NFPAs and supports a potential role of SSTR subtypes in stabilization of tumor remnant from NFPAs. PMID:22207350

  2. Local field effects in periodic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porvatkina, O. V.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Strikhanov, M. N.

    2016-08-01

    In this article we investigate dielectric and magnetic properties of periodic metamaterials taking into account the so-called local field effect, caused by interaction between single particles the material consists of. We also consider the spatial dispersion effects. As a result, generalized Clausius-Mossotti techniques have been extended to the case of periodic metamaterials; permittivity tensor and permeability tensor were obtained.

  3. Uniform period spacings in white dwarf models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical models of g-mode oscillations in white dwarfs are investigated analytically. Numerical results of period-spacing computations for DOV, DAV, and DBV models are presented in tables, and the relationships between period spacings and the composition and structure of the stellar atmospheres are discussed.

  4. NONPARAMETRIC BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF PERIODIC LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuyang; Khardon, Roni; Protopapas, Pavlos

    2012-09-01

    Many astronomical phenomena exhibit patterns that have periodic behavior. An important step when analyzing data from such processes is the problem of identifying the period: estimating the period of a periodic function based on noisy observations made at irregularly spaced time points. This problem is still a difficult challenge despite extensive study in different disciplines. This paper makes several contributions toward solving this problem. First, we present a nonparametric Bayesian model for period finding, based on Gaussian Processes (GPs), that does not make assumptions on the shape of the periodic function. As our experiments demonstrate, the new model leads to significantly better results in period estimation especially when the light curve does not exhibit sinusoidal shape. Second, we develop a new algorithm for parameter optimization for GP which is useful when the likelihood function is very sensitive to the parameters with numerous local minima, as in the case of period estimation. The algorithm combines gradient optimization with grid search and incorporates several mechanisms to overcome the high computational complexity of GP. Third, we develop a novel approach for using domain knowledge, in the form of a probabilistic generative model, and incorporate it into the period estimation algorithm. Experimental results validate our approach showing significant improvement over existing methods.

  5. All-fibre components using periodic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngquist, R. C.; Brooks, J. L.; Risk, W. P.; Kino, G. S.; Shaw, H. J.

    1985-10-01

    The paper presents a new class of all-fiber devices based upon periodic coupling principles. The two basic devices which are described are a birefringent fiber polarization coupler and a two-mode fiber transverse mode coupler. Both devices consist of a ridged plate which is used to periodically stress a fiber with a periodicity equal to the beat length of the modes to be coupled. This periodic stress has been shown to result in almost complete power transfer for both the devices described. These 'in-line couplers' have been shown to have several applications, e.g., amplitude modulators, notch filters, polarizers, mixers, etc. One of the most important results of the work in this area was the development of an all-fiber frequency shifter based upon the principles of periodic coupling. More work needs to be done in the design and engineering of these devices, and there is still room for new ideas and approaches.

  6. 7 CFR 1437.5 - Coverage period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... against loss of production of the eligible crop as a result of natural disaster. (b) The coverage period... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...

  7. Rotational period of GQ Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeg, C.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Guenther, E.; Gaedke, A.; Bedalov, A.; Neuhäuser, R.; Walter, F. M.

    2007-06-01

    Aims: We wanted to determine the rotation parameters of GQ Lup A, thereby constraining the evolutionary history of the GQ Lup system. Methods: We have undertaken a photometric monitoring campaign on GQ Lup A consisting of two epochs spaced one year apart. We also searched the photometric archives to enlarge the data set. Results: We were able to determine the photometric period (8.45±0.2 days) in both epochs in several photometric bands. This periodicity could also be found in some of the archival data. The combined false-alarm probability is 0.015. The variation is most likely caused by hot spots on the surface of GQ Lup A. This, combined with high-resolution spectra (v sin i) allows calculation of GQ Lup A's inclination (i=27±5°). Radial velocity data also contains this period but is inconclusive. Nevertheless, the RV data supports the interpretation that hot spots cause the photometric variation. We use the known K-band variability, amplitude, and phase of GQ Lup A together with a new image of GQ Lup A+b, taken quasi-simultaneously with our monitoring of the star, to confirm the magnitude and, hence, luminosity of the companion. Based on observations obtained on Cerro Paranal, Chile, in ESO program 075.C-0710(C) and on La Silla, Chile, in ESO programs 074.C-0034(A),075.C-0710(E), 075.C-0710(F), 075.C-0202(A), 076.C-0010(A) as well as with ANDICAM of the SMARTS consortium. Photometry data of epochs I and II are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/468/1039

  8. Comparative Effectiveness of Peer Leaders and Community Health Workers in Diabetes Self-management Support: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tricia S.; Funnell, Martha; Sinco, Brandy; Piatt, Gretchen; Palmisano, Gloria; Spencer, Michael S.; Kieffer, Edith C.; Heisler, Michele

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare a peer leader (PL) versus a community health worker (CHW) telephone outreach intervention in sustaining improvements in HbA1c over 12 months after a 6-month diabetes self-management education (DSME) program. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS One hundred and sixteen Latino adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited from a federally qualified health center and randomized to 1) a 6-month DSME program followed by 12 months of weekly group sessions delivered by PLs with telephone outreach to those unable to attend or 2) a 6-month DSME program followed by 12 months of monthly telephone outreach delivered by CHWs. The primary outcome was HbA1c. Secondary outcomes were cardiovascular disease risk factors, diabetes distress, and diabetes social support. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. RESULTS After DSME, the PL group achieved a reduction in mean HbA1c (8.2–7.5% or 66–58 mmol/mol, P < 0.0001) that was maintained at 18 months (−0.6% or −6.6 mmol/mol from baseline [P = 0.009]). The CHW group also showed a reduction in HbA1c (7.8 vs. 7.3% or 62 vs. 56 mmol/mol, P = 0.0004) post–6 month DSME; however, it was attenuated at 18 months (−0.3% or −3.3 mmol/mol from baseline, within-group P = 0.234). Only the PL group maintained improvements achieved in blood pressure at 18 months. At the 18-month follow-up, both groups maintained improvements in waist circumference, diabetes support, and diabetes distress, with no significant differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS Both low-cost maintenance programs led by either a PL or a CHW maintained improvements in key patient-reported diabetes outcomes, but the PL intervention may have additional benefit in sustaining clinical improvements beyond 12 months. PMID:24722495

  9. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  10. Early results of metal on metal articulation total hip arthroplasty in young patients.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, J A; Kwan, M K; Merican, A M; Abbas, A A; Kamari, Z H; Hisa, M K; Ismail, Z; Idrus, R M

    2004-12-01

    We report our early experience of 20 cases of metal on metal articulation total hip arthroplasty in 19 young patients. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (63%) was the commonest diagnosis for patients undergoing this procedure, followed by osteoarthritis (21%). In general, most of the patients were young and physically active with an average age of 43.1 years (range, 25 to 58 years). The average follow-up period was 18 months (range, 7 to 46 months). The mean total Harris Hip Score preoperatively and at final follow-up was 31 points and 89 points respectively. The mean total Pain Score improved from an average of 11.5 to 41.1 points at final follow-up. Sixteen (84%) of the patients had a good to excellent hip score. There was one dislocation, which stabilized after reduction and conservative management. One case of early infection underwent a two-staged revision.

  11. New Galactic Double Periodic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennickent, R. E.; Rosales, J.

    2014-10-01

    We discovered two new Double Periodic Variables in the ASAS catalogue of variable stars, viz., V495 Cen and V4142 Sgr. Other 3 candidates for Double Periodic Variables were found. All systems have relatively long orbital periods. We present improved ephemerides and disentangled light curves.

  12. 75 FR 1301 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Docket No. RM2009-10, Order on Analytical Principles Used in Periodic Reporting (Proposals Three...

  13. Effects on vitamin A deficiency in children of periodic high-dose supplements and of fortified oil promotion in a deficient area of the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Mason, John B; Ramirez, Maria A; Fernandez, Chona M; Pedro, Regina; Lloren, Tina; Saldanha, Lisa; Deitchler, Megan; Eisele, T

    2011-09-01

    Regular semi-annual distribution of high-dose (200,000 IU) vitamin A capsules (VACs) to children 1 - 5 years of age (previously identified as underweight), in Leyte Province, the Philippines, was compared to providing extra VACs to give three-monthly dosing, and to vitamin A-fortified cooking oil (VAFO) promotion (with continued VACs every 6 months). Serum retinol (SR) was measured at baseline and after 12 or 18 months (for VAFO). No sustained increase in SR was determined from the three-month VAC dosing regimen, and the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) as assessed by SR (< 20 mcg / dL) remained around 30 % (in line with national survey estimates over the previous 15 years). The major difference found was that 18 months of VAFO (of which 9 months had sustained promotion) was associated with reducing the prevalence of VAD to < 10 %. The effective fortification and lack of effect of semi-annual VAC results are in line with previous studies; testing with dosing of VAC every three months is a new intervention. The results imply that promotion of fortified oil would reduce VAD in these conditions; whether it can replace or needs to be added to semi-annual VAC dosing remains to be determined. A phased changeover to reliance on fortified commodities (including oil) with careful monitoring of VAD trends is indicated.

  14. Periodicity of the earth's magnetic reversals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented from an attempt to perform a relatively comprehensive analysis of the evidence for a periodicity, with harmonics, of the observed regular reversals of the earth's magnetic field. The database considered covers 296 reversals over the past 165 Myr. Histograms with bins 1 Myr apart reveal only 30 Myr reversal patterns. The reversal dates are fitted to a linear periodic function and a spectrum is computed for the residuals at the adopted dates. The possible presence of multiple periodicities is evaluated and over various time intervals. The analysis shows that a recently observed 15 Myr periodicity is probably a harmonic of the 29.5-30.5 Myr period. The calculations do not confirm an inherent magnetic reversal property of the earth. The reversals may arise from tectonic events or from impacts from extraterrestrial objects.

  15. Orbital period changes of YY Coronae Borealis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yun-Xia; Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Xiao, Ting-Yu

    2015-06-01

    By using all available times of light minimum, the orbital period changes of a W UMa eclipsing binary YY CrB have been investigated. Two possible orbital period variations are found: (1) a secular period decrease with a rate of dP/dt = -6.727 × 10-7 d yr-1, on which a sinusoidal oscillation with a period of P = 12.68 yr is superposed, or (2) an abrupt period change with a sudden period decrease of -0.7862 s around the year 2005. The secular period decrease is discussed in terms of (1) the mass transfer from the more massive companion to the less massive one with a mass transfer rate of dM2/dt = 2.8096 × 10-7 M⊙ yr-1, and (2) the mass loss via stellar wind from the system. The sinusoidal oscillatory can be interpreted as a result of the magnetic activity cycles of the system. In addition, the abrupt period decrease of the system might be due to the sudden mass transfer between the components.

  16. The dispersion of period spacing for DAVstars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. H.

    2016-05-01

    Three groups of DAV star models are evolved with time-dependent element diffusion by WDEC. The core compositions of these models are directly from white dwarf models evolved by MESA, which are results of thermonuclear burning. Based on these DAV star models, we try to study the dispersion of period spacing. The thickness of hydrogen atmosphere can seriously affect the deviation degree of minimal period spacings. The minimal period spacings dominate the dispersion of period spacing. The thinner the hydrogen atmosphere, basically, the more dispersive the period spacing. Standard deviations are used to analyse the dispersion of period spacing. Studying the dispersion of period spacing on a DAV star KUV03442+0719 preliminarily, we suggest that log(MH/M*) is from -8.5 to -5.5. In addition, modes partly trapped in C/O core are found based on those DAV star models. The identified modes and average period spacings indicate that KUV03442+0719 may be the first star to `observe' modes partly trapped in C/O core.

  17. A periodic table for cancer.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Cancers exhibit differences in metastatic behavior and drug sensitivity that correlate with certain tumor-specific variables such as differentiation grade, growth rate/extent and molecular regulatory aberrations. In practice, patient management is based on the past results of clinical trials adjusted for these biomarkers. Here, it is proposed that treatment strategies could be fine-tuned upfront simply by quantifying tumorigenic spatial (cell growth) and temporal (genetic stability) control losses, as predicted by genetic defects of cell-cycle-regulatory gatekeeper and genome-stabilizing caretaker tumor suppressor genes, respectively. These differential quantifications of tumor dysfunction may in turn be used to create a tumor-specific 'periodic table' that guides rational formulation of survival-enhancing anticancer treatment strategies.

  18. Spontaneous periodic hypothermia and hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Nihal Olgac; Boz, Adil; Duman, Ozgur; Aydin, Funda; Haspolat, Senay

    2008-12-01

    We present a patient diagnosed with Shapiro syndrome without corpus callosum agenesis. A 4-year-old-girl was admitted to the hospital with complaints of sweating, cooling, and drowsiness that continued during the last week of her admission. Attacks occurred almost daily, and lasted for about 1 hour. All laboratory findings, as well as Holter and echocardiography results, were normal. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an intact corpus callosum, and electroencephalography obtained during an attack revealed normal findings. However, technetium 99m-labeled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission computed tomography indicated increased perfusion in the right thalamus, basal ganglia, and inferior frontal areas during a hypothermic period. Although oxcarbazepine reduced the frequency of attacks, they were not halted completely. The patient responded better to carbamazepine. PMID:19027594

  19. Evolutionary ecology of periodical insects.

    PubMed

    Heliövaara, K; Väisänen, R; Simon, C

    1994-12-01

    To be periodical, a species must have a fixed life cycle length and adults must appear synchronously, reproduce only once, and die. The consequence of this life history is that, at a given location, adults of a periodical species will be absent or rare in some years and abundant in others. The relative scarcity of periodical Insect species suggests that periodicity does not evolve easily. The major obstacle to its evolution is selection favoring life cycles In which the offspring of any given female appear over a two- or three-year period. Chance events which disrupt this 'bet-hedging' strategy set the stage for periodicity. Mathematical models predict that, given certain initial conditions, intraspecific competition and predation favor its development. Recent studies suggest that periodicity is rarely perfect but that it can persist in the face of limited gene flow through time.

  20. Periodicity of extinction: A 1988 update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkowski, J. John, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The hypothesis that events of mass extinction recur periodically at approximately 26 my intervals is an empirical claim based on analysis of data from the fossil record. The hypothesis has become closely linked with catastrophism because several events in the periodic series are associated with evidence of extraterrestrial impacts, and terrestrial forcing mechanisms with long, periodic recurrences are not easily conceived. Astronomical mechanisms that have been hypothesized include undetected solar companions and solar oscillation about the galactic plane, which induce comet showers and result in impacts on Earth at regular intervals. Because these mechanisms are speculative, they have been the subject of considerable controversy, as has the hypothesis of periodicity of extinction. In response to criticisms and uncertainties, a data base was developed on times of extinction of marine animal genera. A time series is given and analyzed with 49 sample points for the per-genus extinction rate from the Late Permian to the Recent. An unexpected pattern in the data is the uniformity of magnitude of many of the periodic extinction events. Observations suggest that the sequence of extinction events might be the result of two sets of mechanisms: a periodic forcing that normally induces only moderate amounts of extinction, and independent incidents or catastrophes that, when coincident with the periodic forcing, amplify its signal and produce major-mass extinctions.

  1. Superluminal periodic orbits in the Lorenz system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algaba, A.; Merino, M.; Rodríguez-Luis, A. J.

    2016-10-01

    In this work we present, for the Lorenz system, analytical and numerical results on the existence of periodic orbits with unbounded amplitude and whose period tends to zero. Since a particle moving on these periodic orbits would be faster-than-light, we call them superluminal periodic orbits. To achieve this goal, we first find analytical expressions for the period in three different situations, where Hopf and Takens-Bogdanov bifurcations of infinite codimension occur. Thus, taking limit in the corresponding expressions allows to demonstrate the existence of superluminal periodic orbits for finite values of the parameter ρ (in a region where the other two parameters σ and b are negative). Moreover, we numerically show, in other two different cases of physical interest, that these orbits also exist when the parameter ρ tends to infinity. Finally, the presence of superluminal periodic orbits in the widely studied Chen and Lü systems follows directly from our results, taking into account that they are, generically, particular cases of the Lorenz system, as can be proved with a linear scaling in time and state variables.

  2. Fractional-period excitations in continuum periodic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nistazakis, H. E.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Porter, Mason A.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Nicolin, A.; Chin, J. K.

    2006-12-15

    We investigate the generation of fractional-period states in continuum periodic systems. As an example, we consider a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an optical-lattice potential. We show that when the potential is turned on nonadiabatically, the system explores a number of transient states whose periodicity is a fraction of that of the lattice. We illustrate the origin of fractional-period states analytically by treating them as resonant states of a parametrically forced Duffing oscillator and discuss their transient nature and potential observability.

  3. Generalized periodic discharges in the critically ill

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Jan; Abou Khaled, Karine; Jirsch, Jeffrey; Alschuler, Daniel M.; Wittman, John; Emerson, Ronald G.; Hirsch, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Generalized periodic discharges are increasingly recognized on continuous EEG monitoring, but their relationship to seizures and prognosis remains unclear. Methods: All adults with generalized periodic discharges from 1996 to 2006 were matched 1:1 to controls by age, etiology, and level of consciousness. Overall, 200 patients with generalized periodic discharges were matched to 200 controls. Results: Mean age was 66 years (range 18–96); 56% were comatose. Presenting illnesses included acute brain injury (44%), acute systemic illness (38%), cardiac arrest (15%), and epilepsy (3%). A total of 46% of patients with generalized periodic discharges had a seizure during their hospital stay (almost half were focal), vs 34% of controls (p = 0.014). Convulsive seizures were seen in a third of both groups. A total of 27% of patients with generalized periodic discharges had nonconvulsive seizures, vs 8% of controls (p < 0.001); 22% of patients with generalized periodic discharges had nonconvulsive status epilepticus, vs 7% of controls (p < 0.001). In both groups, approximately half died or were in a vegetative state, one-third had severe disability, and one-fifth had moderate to no disability. Excluding cardiac arrest patients, generalized periodic discharges were associated with increased mortality on univariate analysis (36.8% vs 26.9%; p = 0.049). Multivariate predictors of worse outcome were cardiac arrest, coma, nonconvulsive status epilepticus, and sepsis, but not generalized periodic discharges. Conclusion: Generalized periodic discharges were strongly associated with nonconvulsive seizures and nonconvulsive status epilepticus. While nonconvulsive status epilepticus was independently associated with worse outcome, generalized periodic discharges were not after matching for age, etiology, and level of consciousness. PMID:23035068

  4. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  5. Changing Periods of ST Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S.; Butterworth, N.; Pearce, A.

    2015-12-01

    ST Puppis is a reasonably bright W Virginis variable star, a Type 2 Cepheid with a record of substantial and erratic period changes—21 during the interval 1900 to 1985 with a range of magnitude from 17.4 to 19.2. It was observed as part of Variable Stars South's Cepheid project by Butterworth in 2014 and 2015 using DSLR photometry in BGR passbands and visually by Pearce in 2015. The known period changes are shown graphically and doubtful ones examined and discarded if necessary. With its period and amplitude with a frequently changing period it is a suitable and worthwhile object for visual observing.

  6. Reliability, return periods, and risk under nonstationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2015-08-01

    Water resources design has widely used the average return period as a concept to inform management and communication of the risk of experiencing an exceedance event within a planning horizon. Even though nonstationarity is often apparent, in practice hydrologic design often mistakenly assumes that the probability of exceedance, p, is constant from year to year which leads to an average return period To equal to 1/p; this expression is far more complex under nonstationarity. Even for stationary processes, the common application of an average return period is problematic: it does not account for planning horizon, is an average value that may not be representative of the time to the next flood, and is generally not applied in other areas of water planning. We combine existing theoretical and empirical results from the literature to provide the first general, comprehensive description of the probabilistic behavior of the return period and reliability under nonstationarity. We show that under nonstationarity, the underlying distribution of the return period exhibits a more complex shape than the exponential distribution under stationary conditions. Using a nonstationary lognormal model, we document the increased complexity and challenges associated with planning for future flood events over a planning horizon. We compare application of the average return period with the more common concept of reliability and recommend replacing the average return period with reliability as a more practical way to communicate event likelihood in both stationary and nonstationary contexts.

  7. Using Culturally Sensitive Media Messages to Reduce HIV-associated Sexual Behavior in High-risk African-American Adolescents: Results from a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sznitman, Sharon; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Salazar, Laura F.; DiClemente, Ralph; Farber, Naomi; Romer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To test the long-term effects of a mass media intervention that used culturally and developmentally appropriate messages to enhance HIV-preventive beliefs and behavior of high-risk African-American adolescents. Methods Television and radio messages were delivered over three years in two cities (Syracuse, NY and Macon, GA) that were randomly selected within each of two regionally matched city pairs with the other cities (Providence, RI and Columbia, SC) serving as controls. African American adolescents ages 14 to 17 (N = 1710), recruited in the four cities over a 16-month period, completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at recruitment and again at 3, 6, 12 and 18-months post-recruitment to assess the long-term effects of the media program. To identify the unique effects of the media intervention, youth who completed at least one follow-up and who did not test positive for any of three sexually transmitted infections at recruitment or at 6 and 12-month follow-up were retained for analysis (N=1346). Results The media intervention reached virtually all of the adolescents in the trial and produced a range of effects including improved normative condom-use negotiation expectancies and increased sex refusal self-efficacy. Most importantly, older adolescents (ages 16-17) exposed to the media program exhibited a less risky age trajectory of unprotected sex than those in the non-media cities. Conclusions Culturally tailored mass media messages delivered consistently over time have the potential to reach a large audience of high-risk adolescents, to support changes in HIV-preventive beliefs, and to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors among older youth. PMID:21856515

  8. Hepatitis C virus seroconversion among HIV-positive men who have sex with men with no history of injection drug use: Results from a clinical HIV cohort

    PubMed Central

    Burchell, Ann N; Gardner, Sandra L; Mazzulli, Tony; Manno, Michael; Raboud, Janet; Allen, Vanessa G; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Kaul, Rupert; McGee, Frank; Millson, Peggy; Remis, Robert S; Wobeser, Wendy; Cooper, Curtis; Rourke, Sean B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Internationally, there is a growing recognition that hepatitis C virus (HCV) may be sexually transmitted among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). OBJECTIVE: To report the first Canadian estimate of HCV seroincidence in 2000 to 2010 and its risk factors among HIV-positive MSM with no known history of injection drug use. METHODS: Data from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study, an ongoing cohort of individuals in HIV care in Ontario, were analyzed. Data were obtained from medical charts, interviews and record linkage with the provincial public health laboratories. The analysis was restricted to 1534 MSM who did not report injection drug use and had undergone ≥2 HCV antibody tests, of which the first was negative (median 6.1 person-years [PY] of follow-up; sum 9987 PY). RESULTS: In 2000 to 2010, 51 HCV seroconversions were observed, an overall incidence of 5.1 per 1000 PY (95% CI 3.9 to 6.7). Annual incidence varied from 1.6 to 8.9 per 1000 PY, with no statistical evidence of a temporal trend. Risk for seroconversion was elevated among men who had ever had syphilis (adjusted HR 2.5 [95% CI 1.1 to 5.5) and men who had acute syphilis infection in the previous 18 months (adjusted HR 2.8 [95% CI 1.0 to 7.9]). Risk was lower for men who had initiated antiretroviral treatment (adjusted HR 0.49 [95% CI 0.25 to 0.95]). There were no statistically significant effects of age, ethnicity, region, CD4 cell count or HIV viral load. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that periodic HCV rescreening may be appropriate in Ontario among HIV-positive MSM. Future research should seek evidence whether syphilis is simply a marker for high-risk sexual behaviour or networks, or whether it potentiates sexual HCV transmission among individuals with HIV. PMID:25798149

  9. Time domain period determination techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two simple period determination schemes are discussed. They are well suited to problems involving non-sinusoidal periodic phenomena sampled at a few irregularly spaced points. Statistical properties are discussed. The techniques are applied to the double mode Cepheids BK Cen and TU Cas as test cases.

  10. 76 FR 297 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... INFORMATION: Regulatory History, 75 FR 58449 (Sept. 24, 2010). On December 20, 2010, the Postal Service...

  11. 75 FR 7426 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Advance notice of...-789-6820 or stephen.sharfman@prc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Background II... approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\ The Postal Service labels its proposal ``Proposal One''...

  12. Latino Periodicals: A Selection Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerena, Salvador, Ed.; Pisano, Vivian M., Ed.

    This guide is a collection development tool of national scope for librarians who need in-depth coverage of Latino periodicals suitable for public, school, and academic libraries. Periodicals evaluated include general interest and popular magazines and newspapers that appeal to Spanish-speaking, bilingual, and English-speaking library patrons and…

  13. 76 FR 296 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... consider a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The proposed change... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Requesting Initiation of a Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposals...

  14. 76 FR 52915 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... informal rulemaking on proposed changes in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Proposed Changes in Analytical Principles (Proposals Four-Eight), August 8, 2011 (Petition). Proposal...

  15. When Infants Take Mothers' Advice: 18-Month-Olds Integrate Perceptual and Social Information to Guide Motor Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Adolph, Karen E.; Lobo, Sharon A.; Karasik, Lana B.; Ishak, Shaziela; Dimitropoulou, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    The social cognition and perception-action literatures are largely separate, both conceptually and empirically. However, both areas of research emphasize infants' emerging abilities to use available information--social and perceptual information, respectively--for making decisions about action. Borrowing methods from both research traditions, this…

  16. Production and Maternal Report of 16- and 18-Month-Olds' Vocabulary in Low- and Middle-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furey, Joan E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare maternal report of children's vocabularies on the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories Words and Gestures form (CDI:WG; Fenson et al., 1993) with spontaneous production data in both low- and middle-income families. Method: As part of a longitudinal investigation, language samples were gathered from 23 mother-child…

  17. Subchronic Inhalation Exposure of Rats to Libby Amphibole and Amosite Asbestos: Effects at 18 Months Post Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma rates are evident after exposures to Libby amphibole (LA). To support dosimetry model development and compare potency, a subchronic nose-only inhalation study (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk, 13 wk) was conducted in male F344 rats. Rats were ex...

  18. Subchronic Inhalation Exposure of Rats to Libby Amphibole and Amosite Asbestos: Effects at 18 Months Post Exposure###

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma rates are evident after exposures to Libby amphibole (LA). To support dosimetry model development and compare potency, a subchronic nose-only inhalation study (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk, 13 wk) was conducted in male F344 rats. Rats were ex...

  19. A School-Based Assessment of Secondary Stressors and Adolescent Mental Health 18 Months Post-Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overstreet, Stacy; Salloum, Alison; Badour, Christal

    2010-01-01

    The goals of the current study were to examine the prevalence of secondary stressors related to Hurricane Katrina and to determine their impact on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among a sample of high school students. In addition, the moderating role of problem substance use was examined to determine whether it increased the risk of…

  20. Mortality in Cambodia: an 18-month prospective community-based surveillance of all-age deaths using verbal autopsies.

    PubMed

    Goyet, Sophie; Rammaert, Blandine; McCarron, Margaret; Khieu, Virak; Fournier, Isabelle; Kitsutani, Paul; Ly, Sowath; Mounts, Anthony; Letson, William G; Buchy, Philippe; Vong, Sirenda

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the 2009-2010 death rates, causes, and patterns of mortality in rural Cambodia, we conducted active, population-based death surveillance in 25 rural villages of Cambodia from March 2009 to August 2010. Among the population of 28,053 under surveillance, 280 deaths were reported and explored by physician-certified verbal autopsies, using the International Classification of Diseases 10, yielding an overall mortality rate (MR) of 6.7/1000 persons-year (95% CI 5.74-7.68). The MR was 39.1/1000 live births for those younger than 5 years old. Infants accounted for 5.4% of all deaths. In children younger than 5 years, infectious and parasitic diseases were the leading causes of death. In children 5 to 14 years, 3 out of 4 deaths were due to injuries. Adult deaths were mainly attributed to noncommunicable diseases (52%). We conclude that this rural population is facing a substantial burden of noncommunicable diseases while still struggling with infectious diseases, respiratory diseases in particular.

  1. Maternal Responsive-Didactic Caregiving in Play Interactions with 10-Month-Olds and Cognitive Development at 18 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mermelshtine, Roni; Barnes, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Maternal responsive-didactic caregiving (RDC) and infant advanced object play were investigated in a sample of 400 mothers and their 10-month-old infants during video-recorded semi-structured play interactions. Three maternal behaviours: contingent response, cognitively stimulating language and autonomy-promoting speech were coded and infant…

  2. Zinc Supplementation Sustained Normative Neurodevelopment in a Randomized, Controlled Trial of Peruvian Infants Aged 6–18 Months12

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, John; Zavaleta, Nelly; Kannass, Kathleen N.; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Kapa, Leah L.; Caulfield, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effects of prevention of zinc deficiency on cognitive and sensorimotor development during infancy. At 6 mo of age, infants were randomly assigned to be administered a daily liquid supplement containing 10 mg/d of zinc (zinc sulfate), 10 mg/d of iron (ferrous sulfate), and 0.5 mg/d of copper (copper oxide), or an identical daily liquid supplement containing only 10 mg/d of iron and 0.5 mg/d of copper. Various controls were implemented to ensure adherence to the supplement protocol. A battery of developmental assessments was administered from 6 to 18 mo of age that included a visual habituation/recognition memory task augmented with heart rate at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age; the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID2) at 6, 12, and 18 mo; the A-not-B error task at 9 and 12 mo; and free-play attention tasks at 12 and 18 mo. Only infants supplemented with zinc had the normative decline in look duration from 6 to 12 mo during habituation and a normative decline in shifting between objects on free-play multiple-object attention tasks from 12 to 18 mo of age. The 2 groups did not differ on any of the psychophysiologic indices, the BSID2, or the A-not-B error task. The findings are consistent with zinc supplementation supporting a profile of normative information processing and active attentional profiles during the first 2 y of life. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00589264. PMID:24850625

  3. Speech Preference Is Associated with Autistic-Like Behavior in 18-Months-Olds at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether infants' preference for speech at 12 months is associated with autistic-like behaviors at 18 months in infants who are at increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have an older sibling diagnosed with ASD and in low-risk infants. Only low-risk infants listened significantly longer to speech than to…

  4. Survival of plant seeds, their UV screens, and nptII DNA for 18 months outside the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Tepfer, David; Zalar, Andreja; Leach, Sydney

    2012-05-01

    The plausibility that life was imported to Earth from elsewhere can be tested by subjecting life-forms to space travel. Ultraviolet light is the major liability in short-term exposures (Horneck et al., 2001 ), and plant seeds, tardigrades, and lichens-but not microorganisms and their spores-are candidates for long-term survival (Anikeeva et al., 1990 ; Sancho et al., 2007 ; Jönsson et al., 2008 ; de la Torre et al., 2010 ). In the present study, plant seeds germinated after 1.5 years of exposure to solar UV, solar and galactic cosmic radiation, temperature fluctuations, and space vacuum outside the International Space Station. Of the 2100 exposed wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) seeds, 23% produced viable plants after return to Earth. Survival was lower in the Arabidopsis Wassilewskija ecotype and in mutants (tt4-8 and fah1-2) lacking UV screens. The highest survival occurred in tobacco (44%). Germination was delayed in seeds shielded from solar light, yet full survival was attained, which indicates that longer space travel would be possible for seeds embedded in an opaque matrix. We conclude that a naked, seed-like entity could have survived exposure to solar UV radiation during a hypothetical transfer from Mars to Earth. Chemical samples of seed flavonoid UV screens were degraded by UV, but their overall capacity to absorb UV was retained. Naked DNA encoding the nptII gene (kanamycin resistance) was also degraded by UV. A fragment, however, was detected by the polymerase chain reaction, and the gene survived in space when protected from UV. Even if seeds do not survive, components (e.g., their DNA) might survive transfer over cosmic distances.

  5. Courage to Teach: An 18-Month Personal & Professional Renewal Program for Elementary & Middle School Teachers, Spring-Summer 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellesley Centers for Women, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The document provides information about Courage to Teach (CTT) quarterly retreats for the personal and professional renewal of teachers, administrators, and counselors in the public schools. CTT retreats focus on renewing the inner lives of professionals in education. Information on what to expect, eligibility, schedule, venue, costs, and…

  6. Complementary feeding with fortified spread and incidence of severe stunting in 6- to 18-month-old rural Malawians

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare growth and incidence of malnutrition in infants receiving long-term dietary supplementation with ready-to-use fortified spread (FS) or micronutrient-fortified maize-soy flour (likuni phala [LP]). A total of 182 6-month-old infants in rural Malawi were rando...

  7. Croup as Unusual Presentation of Post-transplantation Lymphoproliferative Disorder after Liver Transplantation in an 18-month-old Child

    PubMed Central

    Keshtkari, A.; Dehghani, S. M.; Haghighat, M.; Imanieh, M. H.; Nasimfard, A.; Yousefi, G.; Javaherizadeh, H.

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication of solid organ transplantation that occurs due to immunosuppression and other risk factors. PTLD may present with involvement of other organs and with unusual presentation. The presentation is often extranodal (e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract, lung, or the central nervous system). Herein, we report on a 1.5-year-old girl who underwent liver transplantation almost 5 months prior to admission. She was on medications such as tacrolimus and prednisolone. Her presentation was started with symptoms of the upper respiratory infection followed by croupy cough and respiratory distress with no response to usual treatments. She had respiratory arrest during broncoscopy. Therefore, emergency tracheostomy was done. Biopsy from the paratracheal mass revealed large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PTLD, monomorphic and high grade). This case presentation shows that persistent upper airway symptoms, particularly stridor and croupy cough, in children who underwent liver transplant should be further evaluated; the physician needs to have a high degree of clinical suspicion for the diagnosis of PTLD in this situation. PMID:26889375

  8. Croup as Unusual Presentation of Post-transplantation Lymphoproliferative Disorder after Liver Transplantation in an 18-month-old Child.

    PubMed

    Keshtkari, A; Dehghani, S M; Haghighat, M; Imanieh, M H; Nasimfard, A; Yousefi, G; Javaherizadeh, H

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication of solid organ transplantation that occurs due to immunosuppression and other risk factors. PTLD may present with involvement of other organs and with unusual presentation. The presentation is often extranodal (e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract, lung, or the central nervous system). Herein, we report on a 1.5-year-old girl who underwent liver transplantation almost 5 months prior to admission. She was on medications such as tacrolimus and prednisolone. Her presentation was started with symptoms of the upper respiratory infection followed by croupy cough and respiratory distress with no response to usual treatments. She had respiratory arrest during broncoscopy. Therefore, emergency tracheostomy was done. Biopsy from the paratracheal mass revealed large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PTLD, monomorphic and high grade). This case presentation shows that persistent upper airway symptoms, particularly stridor and croupy cough, in children who underwent liver transplant should be further evaluated; the physician needs to have a high degree of clinical suspicion for the diagnosis of PTLD in this situation. PMID:26889375

  9. Extrapontine myelinolysis in an 18-month-old boy with diabetic ketoacidosis: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Gencpinar, Pinar; Tekguc, Hakan; Senol, A Utku; Duman, Ozgur; Dursun, Oguz

    2014-11-01

    Extrapontine myelinolysis is characterized by symmetric demyelination following rapid shifts in serum osmolality in the supratentorial compartment. Extrapontine myelinolysis in children is rare compared to adults. The most common underlying pathophysiology is rapid correction of hyponatremia. Only 2 cases were published after diabetic ketoacidosis without electrolyte imbalance in the English literature. This study presents an unusual and possibly the youngest case of extrapontine myelinolysis that occurred in the setting of diabetic ketoacidosis and complicated cerebral edema without electrolyte imbalance, along with a review of the literature.

  10. The Organization of Words and Symbolic Gestures in 18-Month-Olds' Lexicons: Evidence from a Disambiguation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' early communicative repertoires include both words and symbolic gestures. The current study examined the extent to which infants organize words and gestures in a single unified lexicon. As a window into lexical organization, eighteen-month-olds' ("N" = 32) avoidance of word-gesture overlap was examined and compared with avoidance of…

  11. Survival of plant seeds, their UV screens, and nptII DNA for 18 months outside the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Tepfer, David; Zalar, Andreja; Leach, Sydney

    2012-05-01

    The plausibility that life was imported to Earth from elsewhere can be tested by subjecting life-forms to space travel. Ultraviolet light is the major liability in short-term exposures (Horneck et al., 2001 ), and plant seeds, tardigrades, and lichens-but not microorganisms and their spores-are candidates for long-term survival (Anikeeva et al., 1990 ; Sancho et al., 2007 ; Jönsson et al., 2008 ; de la Torre et al., 2010 ). In the present study, plant seeds germinated after 1.5 years of exposure to solar UV, solar and galactic cosmic radiation, temperature fluctuations, and space vacuum outside the International Space Station. Of the 2100 exposed wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) seeds, 23% produced viable plants after return to Earth. Survival was lower in the Arabidopsis Wassilewskija ecotype and in mutants (tt4-8 and fah1-2) lacking UV screens. The highest survival occurred in tobacco (44%). Germination was delayed in seeds shielded from solar light, yet full survival was attained, which indicates that longer space travel would be possible for seeds embedded in an opaque matrix. We conclude that a naked, seed-like entity could have survived exposure to solar UV radiation during a hypothetical transfer from Mars to Earth. Chemical samples of seed flavonoid UV screens were degraded by UV, but their overall capacity to absorb UV was retained. Naked DNA encoding the nptII gene (kanamycin resistance) was also degraded by UV. A fragment, however, was detected by the polymerase chain reaction, and the gene survived in space when protected from UV. Even if seeds do not survive, components (e.g., their DNA) might survive transfer over cosmic distances. PMID:22680697

  12. LYRA Mid-Term Periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauters, L.; Dominique, M.; Dammasch, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    The spectra of the PROBA2/LYRA data, similarly to every other solar time series, show predominant periodicities that can be of solar or instrumental origin. In this article, we compare the main periodicities characterizing the LYRA spectrum to those found in the sunspot number, in the 10.7 cm flux, in an X-ray flare index, and in the sunspot area evolution. We focused on the 2010 to 2014 time range, for which the LYRA data are available, although we also briefly address the evolution of the main periodicities in the longer range. The mid-term periodicities at {˜} 28, {˜} 44, {˜} 54, {˜} 59, {˜} 100, {˜} 110, and {˜} 150 days appear as highly significant in several analyzed datasets. The consistency of distinct periodicities between datasets provides characteristics for the global Sun. This consistency also strengthens the reliability of LYRA data.

  13. New Results from Hermes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytgat, M.

    2004-06-01

    An overview is given of selected recent HERMES results obtained from measurements performed during the first running period of HERA. These topics include inclusive g1(x)-measurements with a NLO QCD analysis, polarized quark distribution extraction, b1(x)-measurement, double spin asymmetries in vector meson production, ρ0-nuclear transparency and finally quark fragmentation in nuclei.

  14. Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    Research on Global Carbon Emission and Sequestration NSFC Funded Project Made Significant Progress in Quantum Dynamics Functional Human Blood Protein Obtained from Rice How Giant Pandas Thrive on a Bamboo Diet New Evidence of Interpersonal Violence from 129,000 Years Ago Found in China Aptamer-Mediated Efficient Capture and Release of T Lymphocytes on Nanostructured Surfaces BGI Study Results on Resequencing 50 Accessions of Rice Cast New Light on Molecular Breeding BGI Reports Study Results on Frequent Mutation of Genes Encoding UMPP Components in Kidney Cancer Research on Habitat Shift Promoting Species Diversification

  15. 75 FR 65593 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Rules Concerning Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Measurements and Customer Satisfaction, May... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION... waiver request. SUMMARY: The Commission is establishing a docket to address a recent Postal...

  16. 76 FR 80312 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    .... SUMMARY: The Commission is establishing a docket to consider new measurement of Flats Sequencing Systems... of the Business Reply Mail cost model in periodic reporting of service performance measurement...). Proposal Sixteen: proposed productivity measurement for Flats Sequencing System. Proposal...

  17. Autism: a "critical period" disorder?

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jocelyn J; Fagiolini, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Cortical circuits in the brain are refined by experience during critical periods early in postnatal life. Critical periods are regulated by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission in the brain during development. There is now increasing evidence of E/I imbalance in autism, a complex genetic neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed by abnormal socialization, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. The underlying cause is still largely unknown and there is no fully effective treatment or cure. We propose that alteration of the expression and/or timing of critical period circuit refinement in primary sensory brain areas may significantly contribute to autistic phenotypes, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. Dissection of the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing well-established critical periods represents a powerful tool to identify new potential therapeutic targets to restore normal plasticity and function in affected neuronal circuits.

  18. Detecting a periodic signal in the terrestrial cratering record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grieve, Richard A. F.; Rupert, James D.; Goodacre, Alan K.; Sharpton, Virgil L.

    1988-01-01

    A time-series analysis of model periodic data, where the period and phase are known, has been performed in order to investigate whether a significant period can be detected consistently from a mix of random and periodic impacts. Special attention is given to the effect of age uncertainties and random ages in the detection of a periodic signal. An equivalent analysis is performed with observed data on crater ages and compared with the model data, and the effects of the temporal distribution of crater ages on the results from the time-series analysis are studied. Evidence for a consistent 30-m.y. period is found to be weak.

  19. Rotational Period Determination for 3632 Grachevka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Luis E.

    2014-04-01

    CCD photometric observations for main-belt asteroid 3632 Grachevka was made from 2013 October 9 through 25. The resulting lightcurve was found to have a synodic period of 3.9536 ± 0.0001 hours and amplitude 0.37 ± 0.01 mag.

  20. Long periodic perturbations of Trojan asteroids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Érdi, B.

    1987-03-01

    The motion of the Trojan asteroids is studied in the elliptic restricted three-body problem of the Sun-Jupiter-asteroid system. Long periodic perturbations of the orbital elements are discussed. Relations between dynamical parameters are considered and comparisons are made with Bien's and Schubart's results.

  1. Long periodic perturbations of Trojan asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdi, B.

    The motion of the Trojan asteroids is studied in the elliptic restricted three-body problem of the Sun-Jupiter-asteroid system. Long periodic perturbations of the orbital elements are discussed. Relations between dynamical parameters are considered and comparisons are made with Bien's and Schubart's results.

  2. 16 CFR 1107.21 - Periodic testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... may be based on a fixed production interval, a set number of units produced, or another method chosen.... Component part testing pursuant to 16 CFR part 1109 may be used to support the periodic testing requirements... results, as indicated by a relatively large sample standard deviation in quantitative tests;...

  3. Periodicity of high-order neural functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellaway, P.; Borda, R. P.; Frost, J. D.; Carrie, J. R. G.; Coats, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    The results of recent studies on higher order, integrative processes in the central nervous system are reported. Attempts were made to determine whether these processes exhibit any ongoing rhythmicity which might manifest itself in alterations of attention and alertness. Experiments were also designed to determine if a periodicity approximating that of the REM could be detected in various parameters of brain electrical activity.

  4. Multiscale periodic structure in the Io wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. R.; Wright, A. N.

    1989-06-01

    Preliminary results from an eigenmode synthesis of the Alfven waves launched by Io are presented. It is found that several important periodicities emerge. Observations of the decametric emission reveal fine, medium, and large-scale radio structure. These simulations can provide structure on each of these scales, unlike earlier models.

  5. Fuel Distribution Estimate via Spin Period to Precession Period Ratio for the Advanced Composition Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeHart, Russell; Smith, Eric; Lakin, John

    2015-01-01

    The spin period to precession period ratio of a non-axisymmetric spin-stabilized spacecraft, the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), was used to estimate the remaining mass and distribution of fuel within its propulsion system. This analysis was undertaken once telemetry suggested that two of the four fuel tanks had no propellant remaining, contrary to pre-launch expectations of the propulsion system performance. Numerical integration of possible fuel distributions was used to calculate moments of inertia for the spinning spacecraft. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of output from a dynamics simulation was employed to relate calculated moments of inertia to spin and precession periods. The resulting modeled ratios were compared to the actual spin period to precession period ratio derived from the effect of post-maneuver nutation angle on sun sensor measurements. A Monte Carlo search was performed to tune free parameters using the observed spin period to precession period ratio over the life of the mission. This novel analysis of spin and precession periods indicates that at the time of launch, propellant was distributed unevenly between the two pairs of fuel tanks, with one pair having approximately 20% more propellant than the other pair. Furthermore, it indicates the pair of the tanks with less fuel expelled all of its propellant by 2014 and that approximately 46 kg of propellant remains in the other two tanks, an amount that closely matches the operational fuel accounting estimate. Keywords: Fuel Distribution, Moments of Inertia, Precession, Spin, Nutation

  6. Cost‐Effectiveness of Supervised Exercise, Stenting, and Optimal Medical Care for Claudication: Results From the Claudication: Exercise Versus Endoluminal Revascularization (CLEVER) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Matthew R.; Apruzzese, Patricia; Galper, Benjamin Z.; Murphy, Timothy P.; Hirsch, Alan T.; Cutlip, Donald E.; Mohler, Emile R.; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Cohen, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Both supervised exercise (SE) and stenting (ST) improve functional status, symptoms, and quality of life compared with optimal medical care (OMC) in patients with claudication. The relative cost‐effectiveness of these strategies is not well defined. Methods and Results The Claudication: Exercise Versus Endoluminal Revascularization (CLEVER) study randomized patients with claudication due to aortoiliac stenosis to a 6‐month SE program, to ST, or to OMC. Participants who completed 6‐month follow‐up (n=98) were included in a health economic analysis through 18 months. Costs were assessed using resource‐based methods and hospital billing data. Quality‐adjusted life‐years were estimated using the EQ‐5D. Markov modeling based on the in‐trial results was used to explore the impact of assumptions about the longer term durability of observed differences in quality of life. Through 18 months, mean healthcare costs were $5178, $9804, and $14 590 per patient for OMC, SE, and ST, respectively. Measured quality‐adjusted life‐years through 18 months were 1.04, 1.16, and 1.20. In our base case analysis, which assumed that observed differences in quality of life would dissipate after 5 years, the incremental cost‐effectiveness ratios were $24 070 per quality‐adjusted life‐year gained for SE versus OMC, $41 376 for ST versus OMC, and $122 600 for ST versus SE. If the treatment effect of ST was assumed to be more durable than that of SE, the incremental cost‐effectiveness ratio for ST versus SE became more favorable. Conclusions Both SE and ST are economically attractive by US standards relative to OMC for the treatment of claudication in patients with aortoiliac disease. ST is more expensive than SE, with uncertain incremental benefit. Clinical Trial Registration URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov, Unique identifier: NCT00132743. PMID:25389284

  7. Shortest recurrence periods of novae

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Saio, Hideyuki; Hachisu, Izumi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-10-01

    Stimulated by the recent discovery of the 1 yr recurrence period nova M31N 2008-12a, we examined the shortest recurrence periods of hydrogen shell flashes on mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs). We discuss the mechanism that yields a finite minimum recurrence period for a given WD mass. Calculating the unstable flashes for various WD masses and mass accretion rates, we identified a shortest recurrence period of about two months for a non-rotating 1.38 M {sub ☉} WD with a mass accretion rate of 3.6 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. A 1 yr recurrence period is realized for very massive (≳ 1.3 M {sub ☉}) WDs with very high accretion rates (≳ 1.5 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We revised our stability limit of hydrogen shell burning, which will be useful for binary evolution calculations toward Type Ia supernovae.

  8. Frontline nilotinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: results from the European ENEST1st study

    PubMed Central

    Hochhaus, A; Rosti, G; Cross, N C P; Steegmann, J L; le Coutre, P; Ossenkoppele, G; Petrov, L; Masszi, T; Hellmann, A; Griskevicius, L; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W; Rea, D; Coriu, D; Brümmendorf, T H; Porkka, K; Saglio, G; Gastl, G; Müller, M C; Schuld, P; Di Matteo, P; Pellegrino, A; Dezzani, L; Mahon, F-X; Baccarani, M; Giles, F J

    2016-01-01

    The Evaluating Nilotinib Efficacy and Safety in Clinical Trials as First-Line Treatment (ENEST1st) study included 1089 patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase. The rate of deep molecular response (MR4 (BCR-ABL1⩽0.01% on the International Scale or undetectable BCR-ABL1 with ⩾10 000 ABL1 transcripts)) at 18 months was evaluated as the primary end point, with molecular responses monitored by the European Treatment and Outcome Study network of standardized laboratories. This analysis was conducted after all patients had completed 24 months of study treatment (80.9% of patients) or discontinued early. In patients with typical BCR-ABL1 transcripts and ⩽3 months of prior imatinib therapy, 38.4% (404/1052) achieved MR4 at 18 months. Six patients (0.6%) developed accelerated or blastic phase, and 13 (1.2%) died. The safety profile of nilotinib was consistent with that of previous studies, although the frequencies of some nilotinib-associated adverse events were lower (for example, rash, 21.4%). Ischemic cardiovascular events occurred in 6.0% of patients. Routine monitoring of lipid and glucose levels was not mandated in the protocol. These results support the use of frontline nilotinib, particularly when achievement of a deep molecular response (a prerequisite for attempting treatment-free remission in clinical trials) is a treatment goal. PMID:26437782

  9. Sensor-augmented pump therapy for A1C reduction (STAR 3) study: results from the 6-month continuation phase.

    PubMed

    Bergenstal, Richard M; Tamborlane, William V; Ahmann, Andrew; Buse, John B; Dailey, George; Davis, Stephen N; Joyce, Carol; Perkins, Bruce A; Welsh, John B; Willi, Steven M; Wood, Michael A

    2011-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of crossing over from optimized multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy to sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy for 6 months, and the effects of 18 months' sustained use of SAP. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The 6-month, single-crossover continuation phase of Sensor-Augmented Pump Therapy for A1C Reduction (STAR 3) provided SAP therapy to 420 subjects who completed the 1-year randomized study. The primary outcome was change in A1C in the crossover group. RESULTS A1C values were initially lower in the continuing-SAP group than in the crossover group (7.4 vs. 8.0%, P < 0.001). A1C values remained reduced in the SAP group. After 3 months on the SAP system, A1C decreased to 7.6% in the crossover group (P < 0.001); this was a significant and sustained decrease among both adults and children (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Switching from optimized MDI to SAP therapy allowed for rapid and safe A1C reductions. Glycemic benefits of SAP therapy persist for at least 18 months.

  10. The period functionsʼ higher order derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, M.

    We prove a formula for the n-th derivative of the period function T in a period annulus of a planar differential system. For n=1, we obtain Freire, Gasull and Guillamon formula for the period's first derivative (Chicone and Dumortier, 1993) [17]. We apply such a result to Hamiltonian systems with separable variables and other systems. We give some sufficient conditions for the period function of conservative second order ODE's to be convex.

  11. Effective propagation in a perturbed periodic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurel, Agnès; Pagneux, Vincent

    2008-08-01

    In a recent paper [D. Torrent, A. Hakansson, F. Cervera, and J. Sánchez-Dehesa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 204302 (2006)] inspected the effective parameters of a cluster containing an ensemble of scatterers with a periodic or a weakly disordered arrangement. A small amount of disorder is shown to have a small influence on the characteristics of the acoustic wave propagation with respect to the periodic case. In this Brief Report, we inspect further the effect of a deviation in the scatterer distribution from the periodic distribution. The quasicrystalline approximation is shown to be an efficient tool to quantify this effect. An analytical formula for the effective wave number is obtained in one-dimensional acoustic medium and is compared with the Berryman result in the low-frequency limit. Direct numerical calculations show a good agreement with the analytical predictions.

  12. Effective propagation in a perturbed periodic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Maurel, Agnes; Pagneux, Vincent

    2008-08-01

    In a recent paper [D. Torrent, A. Hakansson, F. Cervera, and J. Sanchez-Dehesa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 204302 (2006)] inspected the effective parameters of a cluster containing an ensemble of scatterers with a periodic or a weakly disordered arrangement. A small amount of disorder is shown to have a small influence on the characteristics of the acoustic wave propagation with respect to the periodic case. In this Brief Report, we inspect further the effect of a deviation in the scatterer distribution from the periodic distribution. The quasicrystalline approximation is shown to be an efficient tool to quantify this effect. An analytical formula for the effective wave number is obtained in one-dimensional acoustic medium and is compared with the Berryman result in the low-frequency limit. Direct numerical calculations show a good agreement with the analytical predictions.

  13. The plasmasphere during a space weather event: first results from the PLASMON project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberger, János; Clilverd, Mark A.; Heilig, Balázs; Vellante, Massimo; Manninen, Jyrki; Rodger, Craig J.; Collier, Andrew B.; Jørgensen, Anders M.; Reda, Jan; Holzworth, Robert H.; Friedel, Reinhard; Simon-Wedlund, Mea

    2013-06-01

    The results of the first 18 months of the PLASMON project are presented. We have extended our three, existing ground-based measuring networks, AWDANet (VLF/whistlers), EMMA/SANSA (ULF/FLRs), and AARDDVARK (VLF/perturbations on transmitters’ signal), by three, eight, and four new stations, respectively. The extended networks will allow us to achieve the four major scientific goals, the automatic retrieval of equatorial electron densities and density profiles of the plasmasphere by whistler inversion, the retrieval of equatorial plasma mass densities by EMMA and SANSA from FLRs, developing a new, data assimilative model of plasmasphere and validating the model predictions through comparison of modeled REP losses with measured data by AARDDVARK network. The first results on each of the four objectives are presented through a case study on a space weather event, a dual storm sudden commencement which occurred on August 3 and 4, 2010.

  14. Dynamics of Coulombic and gravitational periodic systems.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Miller, Bruce N

    2016-04-01

    We study the dynamics and the phase-space structures of Coulombic and self-gravitating versions of the classical one-dimensional three-body system with periodic boundary conditions. We demonstrate that such a three-body system may be reduced isomorphically to a spatially periodic system of a single particle experiencing a two-dimensional potential on a rhombic plane. For the case of both Coulombic and gravitational versions, exact expressions of the Hamiltonian have been derived in rhombic coordinates. We simulate the phase-space evolution through an event-driven algorithm that utilizes analytic solutions to the equations of motion. The simulation results show that the motion exhibits chaotic, quasiperiodic, and periodic behaviors in segmented regions of the phase space. While there is no evidence of global chaos in either the Coulombic or the gravitational system, the former exhibits a transition from a completely nonchaotic phase space at low energies to a mixed behavior. Gradual yet striking transitions from mild to intense chaos are indicated with changing energy, a behavior that differentiates the spatially periodic systems studied in this Rapid Communication from the well-understood free-boundary versions of the three-body problem. Our treatment of the three-body systems opens avenues for analysis of the dynamical properties exhibited by spatially periodic versions of various classes of systems studied in plasma and gravitational physics as well as in cosmology. PMID:27176238

  15. Dynamics of Coulombic and gravitational periodic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Miller, Bruce N.

    2016-04-01

    We study the dynamics and the phase-space structures of Coulombic and self-gravitating versions of the classical one-dimensional three-body system with periodic boundary conditions. We demonstrate that such a three-body system may be reduced isomorphically to a spatially periodic system of a single particle experiencing a two-dimensional potential on a rhombic plane. For the case of both Coulombic and gravitational versions, exact expressions of the Hamiltonian have been derived in rhombic coordinates. We simulate the phase-space evolution through an event-driven algorithm that utilizes analytic solutions to the equations of motion. The simulation results show that the motion exhibits chaotic, quasiperiodic, and periodic behaviors in segmented regions of the phase space. While there is no evidence of global chaos in either the Coulombic or the gravitational system, the former exhibits a transition from a completely nonchaotic phase space at low energies to a mixed behavior. Gradual yet striking transitions from mild to intense chaos are indicated with changing energy, a behavior that differentiates the spatially periodic systems studied in this Rapid Communication from the well-understood free-boundary versions of the three-body problem. Our treatment of the three-body systems opens avenues for analysis of the dynamical properties exhibited by spatially periodic versions of various classes of systems studied in plasma and gravitational physics as well as in cosmology.

  16. Periodicity in marine extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. John, Jr.; Raup, David M.

    1986-01-01

    The periodicity of extinction events is examined in detail. In particular, the temporal distribution of specific, identifiable extinction events is analyzed. The nature and limitations of the data base on the global fossil record is discussed in order to establish limits of resolution in statistical analyses. Peaks in extinction intensity which appear to differ significantly from background levels are considered, and new analyses of the temporal distribution of these peaks are presented. Finally, some possible causes of periodicity and of interdependence among extinction events over the last quarter billion years of earth history are examined.

  17. Optimizing observing sequence design for periodic and non-periodic phenomena : a Bayesian approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Knight, Russell

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we report on our progress on addressing these issues. We have developed an approximate expression for the uniformity of phase coverage that can be used when scheduling to assess candidate sample times. We describe the results obtained using this estimator, and compare them with detailed simulations. We describe our progress and plans for integrating optimizing criteria for both periodic and non-periodic observations into a single observation sequence.

  18. Urological surgery in elderly patients: results and complications

    PubMed Central

    Brodak, Milos; Tomasek, Jan; Pacovsky, Jaroslav; Holub, Lukas; Husek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Owing to the large aging population, a growing number of elderly patients are undergoing surgical treatment. Surgical procedures in elderly patients are associated with a higher risk of complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of urological surgeries in old patients. Methods The authors carried out a retrospective study, evaluating results and early postoperative complications in patients aged 75 years and older. The cohort of patients included 221 patients who underwent surgical procedures in the department of urology between January 2011 and December 2012. The average age of patients was 78. The results and complications were categorized based on the type of surgery performed, and the Dindo–Clavien scale. Results The median follow-up was 18 months. All surgeries for malignant tumors were performed successfully with no residual disease. Totally, 48 (22%) complications were recorded. The most serious were as follows: one patient (<0.5%) died; and four (<2%) patients underwent reoperation. The most common complications involved infection, mainly sepsis and surgical site infections. Other complications included mild respiratory insufficiency, delirium, bleeding, etc. Conclusion Surgeries in elderly patients were effective and safe. The cornerstone of safety is careful preparation and treatment of comorbidities. Complications occurred mainly as a result of emergency procedures during emergency procedures and in major surgeries such as cystectomy and nephrectomy. The standard use of low molecular-weight heparin caused no incidence of thromboembolic disease. PMID:25673978

  19. Rotational Period of 2770 Tsvet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Lorenzo; Papini, Riccardo

    2014-07-01

    Photometric observations of main-belt asteroid 2770 Tsvet were made over three nights during 2014 March. Lightcurve analysis shows a synodic period P = 7.82 ± 0.01 h with an amplitude A = 0.47 ± 0.03 mag.

  20. 76 FR 8325 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Service Performance Measurements and Customer Satisfaction, May 25, 2010, at 22-24 (Order No. 465). Order... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION... certain temporary waivers from periodic reporting of service performance measurement. Establishing...

  1. On Some Periodic Toda Lattices

    PubMed Central

    Kac, M.; Van Moerbeke, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    A discrete version of Floquet's theory is developed and applied to a system of non-linear differential equations related to the periodic Toda lattice. A special solution previously found by Toda is thus seen to fit into the formalism of inverse scattering problems. PMID:16592244

  2. Shell Games: Uncovering Periodic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities (demonstrations/experiments) used to introduce history of periodic properties--without electrons, orbitals, filling shells, or any conception of atoms beyond Dalton's model. Activities supplement first chapter in a currently available chemistry text. Indicates potential danger of experiments if proper safety precautions are…

  3. The Period of Salutary Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, John T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson designed to teach students about the period of Salutary Neglect (100 years before the French and Indian Wars) and its effects on later historical events. Provides an advance organizer which puts students in a situation of salutary neglect and includes student and teacher resources on the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, and the…

  4. Quantifying periodicity in omics data.

    PubMed

    Amariei, Cornelia; Tomita, Masaru; Murray, Douglas B

    2014-01-01

    Oscillations play a significant role in biological systems, with many examples in the fast, ultradian, circadian, circalunar, and yearly time domains. However, determining periodicity in such data can be problematic. There are a number of computational methods to identify the periodic components in large datasets, such as signal-to-noise based Fourier decomposition, Fisher's g-test and autocorrelation. However, the available methods assume a sinusoidal model and do not attempt to quantify the waveform shape and the presence of multiple periodicities, which provide vital clues in determining the underlying dynamics. Here, we developed a Fourier based measure that generates a de-noised waveform from multiple significant frequencies. This waveform is then correlated with the raw data from the respiratory oscillation found in yeast, to provide oscillation statistics including waveform metrics and multi-periods. The method is compared and contrasted to commonly used statistics. Moreover, we show the utility of the program in the analysis of noisy datasets and other high-throughput analyses, such as metabolomics and flow cytometry, respectively.

  5. 76 FR 20906 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... an informal rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in... Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposal One), April 6, 2011...

  6. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis associated with multiple sleep onset REM periods.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, A; Santamaria, J

    1999-12-15

    A 24-year-old man with sporadic hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) presented with moderate excessive daytime sleepiness and transitory episodes of weakness which occurred during and after sleep. Multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) demonstrated the presence of five sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs) and a sleep latency of five minutes. Treatment with a diuretic which decreases serum potassium resolved all the clinical symtomps and a new MSLT showed the absence of SOREMPs and a sleep latency of 13.5 minutes. To our knowledge, the patient herein reported is the first case that associates sleep abnormalities and multiple SOREMPs with HPP. Furthermore, the present case suggests that SOREMPs may be explained by an increased extracellular potassium conductance related to HPP.

  7. LDEF materials results for spacecraft applications: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Compiler); Dooling, D. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    To address the challenges of space environmental effects, NASA designed the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for an 18-month mission to expose thousands of samples of candidate materials that might be used on a space station or other orbital spacecraft. LDEF was launched in April 1984 and was to have been returned to Earth in 1985. Changes in mission schedules postponed retrieval until January 1990, after 69 months in orbit. Analyses of the samples recovered from LDEF have provided spacecraft designers and managers with the most extensive data base on space materials phenomena. Many LDEF samples were greatly changed by extended space exposure. Among even the most radially altered samples, NASA and its science teams are finding a wealth of surprising conclusions and tantalizing clues about the effects of space on materials. Many were discussed at the first two LDEF results conferences and subsequent professional papers. The LDEF Materials Results for Spacecraft Applications Conference was convened in Huntsville to discuss implications for spacecraft design. Already, paint and thermal blanket selections for space station and other spacecraft have been affected by LDEF data. This volume synopsizes those results.

  8. An update on field test results for an engineered refractory for slagging gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, O.N.; Alman, D.E.; Jablonski, P.D.; Hawk, J.A.

    2006-05-01

    The widespread commercial adaptation of slagging gasifier technology to produce power, fuel, and/or chemicals from coal will depend in large measure on the technology’s ability to prove itself both economic and reliable. Improvements in gasifier reliability, availability, and maintainability will in part depend on the development of improved performance structural materials with longer service life in this application. Current generation refractory materials used to line the air-cooled, slagging gasifier vessel, and contain the gasification reaction, often last no more than three to 18 months in commercial applications. The downtime required for tear-out and replacement of these critical materials contributes to gasifier on-line availabilities that fall short of targeted goals. In this talk we will discuss the development of an improved refractory material engineered by the NETL for longer service life in this application, and provide an update on recent field test results.

  9. A result of sublabial transnasomaxillary approach for nasopharyngeal angiofibroma--retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Euswas, C

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the result of sublabial transnasomaxillary approach (STA) as a route for removal of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA). Eleven young male patients with angiofibroma underwent removal via the sublabial transnasomaxillary approach. This technique is described in detail. There was neither major operative nor postoperative complication. One patient developed dacryocystitis. Long term follow-up longer than 18 months in 5 patients, showed no recurrence. This technique is useful for removal of angiofibroma because it enables the surgeon to gain extensive exposure of maxillary, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses and to control sphenopalatine and internal maxillary arteries, without risk of palatal dysfunction or of oronasal fistula. Other advantages comprise the lack of a facial scar, nasal septal scar and bilateral premaxillar numbness, and good postoperative assessment.

  10. The LPSP instrument on OSO 8. II - In-flight performance and preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnet, R. M.; Lemaire, P.; Vial, J. C.; Artzner, G.; Gouttebroze, P.; Jouchoux, A.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Leibacher, J. W.; Skumanich, A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the in-flight performance for the first 18 months of operation of the LPSP (Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planetaire) instrument incorporated in the OSO 8 launched June 1975. By means of the instrument, an absolute pointing accuracy of nearly one second was achieved in orbit during real-time operations. The instrument uses a Cassegrain telescope and a spectrometer simultaneously observing six wavelengths. In-flight performance is discussed with attention to angular resolution, spectral resolution, dispersion and grating mechanism (spectral scanner) stability, scattered light background and dark current, photometric standardization, and absolute calibration. Real-time operation and problems are considered with reference to pointing system problems, target acquisition, and L-alpha modulation. Preliminary results involving the observational program, quiet sun and chromospheric studies, quiet chromospheric oscillation and transients, sunspots and active regions, prominences, and aeronomy investigations are reported.

  11. Congenital myopathies--clinical features and frequency of individual subtypes diagnosed over a 5-year period in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Maggi, L; Scoto, M; Cirak, S; Robb, S A; Klein, A; Lillis, S; Cullup, T; Feng, L; Manzur, A Y; Sewry, C A; Abbs, S; Jungbluth, H; Muntoni, F

    2013-03-01

    The congenital myopathies are a group of inherited neuromuscular disorders mainly defined on the basis of characteristic histopathological features. We analysed 66 patients assessed at a single centre over a 5 year period. Of the 54 patients where muscle biopsy was available, 29 (54%) had a core myopathy (central core disease, multi-minicore disease), 9 (17%) had nemaline myopathy, 7 (13%) had myotubular/centronuclear myopathy, 2 (4%) had congenital fibre type disproportion, 6 (11%) had isolated type 1 predominance and 1 (2%) had a mixed core-rod myopathy. Of the 44 patients with a genetic diagnosis, RYR1 was mutated in 26 (59%), ACTA1 in 7 (16%), SEPN1 in 7 (16%), MTM1 in 2 (5%), NEB in 1 (2%) and TPM3 in 1 (2%). Clinically, 77% of patients older than 18 months could walk independently. 35% of all patients required ventilatory support and/or enteral feeding. Clinical course was stable or improved in 57/66 (86%) patients, whilst 4 (6%) got worse and 5 (8%) died. These findings indicate that core myopathies are the most common form of congenital myopathies and that more than half can be attributed to RYR1 mutations. The underlying genetic defect remains to be identified in 1/3 of congenital myopathies cases. PMID:23394784

  12. Quantum gates by periodic driving

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-01-01

    Topological quantum computation has been extensively studied in the past decades due to its robustness against decoherence. One way to realize the topological quantum computation is by adiabatic evolutions—it requires relatively long time to complete a gate, so the speed of quantum computation slows down. In this work, we present a method to realize single qubit quantum gates by periodic driving. Compared to adiabatic evolution, the single qubit gates can be realized at a fixed time much shorter than that by adiabatic evolution. The driving fields can be sinusoidal or square-well field. With the sinusoidal driving field, we derive an expression for the total operation time in the high-frequency limit, and an exact analytical expression for the evolution operator without any approximations is given for the square well driving. This study suggests that the period driving could provide us with a new direction in regulations of the operation time in topological quantum computation. PMID:26911900

  13. Effects of feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on meat quality at the late stage of the fattening period of Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Nade, Toshihiro; Uchida, Kyouhei; Omori, Kouhei; Matsubayashi, Kenta; Kimura, Nobuhiro

    2012-04-01

    Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) during the late stage of the fattening period of Holstein steers was studied in regard to the influence on meat quality. Sixteen Holstein steers approximately 18 months old were used in this study. Eight animals were fed commercial concentrated feed for the entire fattening period. The other eight animals were fed 15% DDGS in the concentrated feed for 3 months before slaughtering. The moisture, ether extract and crude protein from both groups was approximately the same. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBA) value of storage for 7 days at 5°C from the animals fed DDGS showed a tendency to be lower (P = 0.059). The change in the TBA value during storage was also lower for the animals not fed DDGS (P < 0.05). There were no differences in the subcutaneous fat color between the two groups. The a*(measure of redness) and b*(measure of yellowness) of the M. longissimus from the animals fed DDGS showed a tendency to be lower (P = 0.051, 0.070). The fatty acid composition of the M. longissimus, subcutaneous and perirenal fat were not widely influenced by the feeding of DDGS. It is suggested that feeding 15% DDGS during the late stage of the fattening period for Holstein steers reduced the oxidation of the beef.

  14. Survival of Bacillus pumilus spores for a prolonged period of time in real space conditions.

    PubMed

    Vaishampayan, Parag A; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J

    2012-05-01

    To prevent forward contamination and maintain the scientific integrity of future life-detection missions, it is important to characterize and attempt to eliminate terrestrial microorganisms associated with exploratory spacecraft and landing vehicles. Among the organisms isolated from spacecraft-associated surfaces, spores of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 exhibited unusually high resistance to decontamination techniques such as UV radiation and peroxide treatment. Subsequently, B. pumilus SAFR-032 was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to a variety of space conditions via the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF). After 18 months of exposure in the EXPOSE facility of the European Space Agency (ESA) on EuTEF under dark space conditions, SAFR-032 spores showed 10-40% survivability, whereas a survival rate of 85-100% was observed when these spores were kept aboard the ISS under dark simulated martian atmospheric conditions. In contrast, when UV (>110 nm) was applied on SAFR-032 spores for the same time period and under the same conditions used in EXPOSE, a ∼7-log reduction in viability was observed. A parallel experiment was conducted on Earth with identical samples under simulated space conditions. Spores exposed to ground simulations showed less of a reduction in viability when compared with the "real space" exposed spores (∼3-log reduction in viability for "UV-Mars," and ∼4-log reduction in viability for "UV-Space"). A comparative proteomics analysis indicated that proteins conferring resistant traits (superoxide dismutase) were present in higher concentration in space-exposed spores when compared to controls. Also, the first-generation cells and spores derived from space-exposed samples exhibited elevated UVC resistance when compared with their ground control counterparts. The data generated are important for calculating the probability and mechanisms of microbial survival in space conditions and assessing microbial contaminants

  15. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  16. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  17. Cell scale modeling of electropermeabilization by periodic pulses.

    PubMed

    Leguebe, Michael

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we focus on the behaviour of periodic solutions to a cell-scale electropermeabilization model previously proposed by Kavian et al. [6]. Since clinical permeabilization protocols mostly submit cancer cells to trains of periodic pulses, we investigate on parameters that modify significantly the resulting permeabilization. Theoretical results of existence and uniqueness of periodic solutions are presented, for two different models of membrane electric conductivity. Numerical simulations were performed to corroborate these results and illustrate the asymptotic convergence to periodic solutions, as well as the dependency on biological parameters such as the cell size and the extracellular conductivity. PMID:25811552

  18. Multispacecraft observations of quasi-periodic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Frantisek; Picket, Jolene S.; Santolik, Ondrej

    2014-05-01

    Quasi-periodic (QP) emissions are VLF electromagnetic waves in the frequency range of about 0.5-5 kHz which exhibit a periodic time modulation of the wave intensity. The modulation period is usually on the order of a few tens of seconds. The generation mechanism of these emissions is still not understood, but at least in some cases it appears to be related to ULF magnetic field pulsations which result in periodic modifications of the resonant conditions in the source region. We use multipoint measurements of QP emissions by the 4 Cluster spacecraft. The observations are obtained close to the equatorial region at radial distances of about 4 Earth radii, i.e. close to a possible generation region. A combined analysis of the high resolution data obtained by the WBD instruments and the ULF magnetic field data obtained by the FGM instruments allows for a detailed case-study analysis of these unique emissions. The presented analysis benefits from the recent close-separation configuration of three of the Cluster spacecraft (≡20-100 km) and a related timing analysis, which would be impossible otherwise.

  19. Periodic fevers and autoinflammatory syndromes in childhood.

    PubMed

    Ostring, Genevieve T; Singh-Grewal, Davinder

    2016-09-01

    Recurrent fever is a common presentation in paediatric practice and can be caused by a wide variety of diseases including autoinflammatory conditions. The innate immune system plays an essential role in the 'first line' response to infection through mediation of inflammatory responses. Inflammasomes are part of the regulatory process for this system and result in the production of the powerful pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1B. Dysregulation of inflammasomes, and Interleukin 1 production, contributes to the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory diseases. This review focuses on described periodic fever syndromes (PFS) which are now collectively referred to as autoinflammatory syndromes. Conditions discussed include periodic fever aphthous stomatitis pharyngitis and cervical adenopathy, familial Mediterranean fever, tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndromes, hyperimmunoglobulinaemia D and the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes. Presenting features, complications, diagnostic and treatment approaches for these conditions are discussed. Nonetheless, as most of these conditions are rare and may have significant long-term complications, it is recommended that they be managed in consultations with a physician experienced in managing PFS. PMID:27650143

  20. The genetic code as a periodic table.

    PubMed

    Jungck, J R

    1978-08-01

    The contemporary genetic code is reflective of a significant correlation between the properties of amino acids and their anticodons in a periodic manner. Almost all properties of amino acids showed a greater correlation to anticondonic than to codonic dinucleoside monophosphate properties. The polarity and bulkiness of amino acid side chains can be used to predict the anticodon with considerable confidence. The results are most consistent with predictions of the "direct interaction" and "ambiguity reduction" hypotheses for the origin of the genetic code.