Science.gov

Sample records for 18-month time period

  1. Analytical performance of nano-LC-SRM using nondepleted human plasma over an 18-month period.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaomin; Amirkhani, Ardeshir; Wu, Jemma X; Pascovici, Dana; Zaw, Thiri; Xavier, Dylan; Clarke, Stephen J; Molloy, Mark P

    2016-08-01

    A standardized procedure for label-free nano-LC-SRM analysis of 32 high-medium abundance proteins from nondepleted human plasma was established and SRM data were acquired on 45 separate days for a control sample that was independently prepared on 39 distinct dates over an 18-month period (542 days). This case study enabled us to assess quantitative variance associated with nano-LC-SRM plasma analysis, mimicking experimental conditions that would be experienced with clinical trial biomarker studies. We assessed sample preparation variability attributed to different technicians and sample storage stability. Instrument performance varied over the 18-month period requiring ion path cleaning, so we assessed the impact of declining performance on specific peptide ion sensitivity and evaluated how various data normalization strategies could compensate for these changes. Our analysis demonstrated that while sample preparation was the main contributor for data variances when MS data were acquired within days, variability in SRM sensitivity was a far greater source of variance when data were acquired over a long period. The overall median multiplexed assay CV was 13% over the 18-month period. This case study is illustrative of large-scale plasma biomarker studies using nano-LC-SRM over extended periods and highlights aspects of bioanalysis that require careful attention to ensure reliable quantitation.

  2. Prime Time: 18-Month Violence Outcomes of a Clinic-Linked Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sieving, Renee E.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Secor-Turner, Molly; Garwick, Ann W.; Shlafer, Rebecca; Beckman, Kara J.; Pettingell, Sandra L.; Oliphant, Jennifer A.; Seppelt, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    Prime Time, a youth development intervention, aims to reduce multiple risk behaviors among adolescent girls seeking clinic services who are at high risk for pregnancy. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether Prime Time involvement produced changes in relational aggression, physical violence and related psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Qualitative case exemplars illustrated social contexts of intervention participants with differing longitudinal patterns of relational aggression and physical violence. Data were from a randomized efficacy trial with 13–17 year old girls (n=253) meeting specified risk criteria. Intervention participants were involved in Prime Time and usual clinic services for 18 months, control participants received usual clinic services. Participants in the current study completed self-report surveys at baseline and 18 months following enrollment. Outcomes analyses revealed significantly lower levels of relational aggression perpetration in the intervention group versus controls. In contrast, Prime Time involvement did not result in significant reductions in physical violence. Exploratory dose-response analyses indicated that reductions in relational aggression may have been most pronounced among girls actively involved in Prime Time case management and peer leadership activities. Qualitative findings suggested that the intervention’s emphasis on modeling and building supportive relationships contributed to reductions in relational aggression. This study contributes to a very limited evidence base regarding effective approaches to preventing violence among high-risk adolescent girls. Findings suggest that offering youth development interventions through clinic settings hold promise in reducing violence risk among vulnerable youth. PMID:23543359

  3. Prime time: 18-month violence outcomes of a clinic-linked intervention.

    PubMed

    Sieving, Renee E; McMorris, Barbara J; Secor-Turner, Molly; Garwick, Ann W; Shlafer, Rebecca; Beckman, Kara J; Pettingell, Sandra L; Oliphant, Jennifer A; Seppelt, Ann M

    2014-08-01

    Prime Time, a youth development intervention, aims to reduce multiple risk behaviors among adolescent girls seeking clinic services who are at high risk for pregnancy. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether Prime Time involvement produced changes in relational aggression, physical violence, and related psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Qualitative case exemplars illustrated social contexts of intervention participants with differing longitudinal patterns of relational aggression and physical violence. Data were from a randomized efficacy trial with 13-17 year-old girls (n = 253) meeting specified risk criteria. Intervention participants were involved in Prime Time and usual clinic services for 18 months, control participants received usual clinic services. Participants in the current study completed self-report surveys at baseline and 18 months following enrollment. Outcomes analyses revealed significantly lower levels of relational aggression perpetration in the intervention group versus controls. In contrast, Prime Time involvement did not result in significant reductions in physical violence. Exploratory dose-response analyses indicated that reductions in relational aggression may have been most pronounced among girls actively involved in Prime Time case management and peer leadership activities. Qualitative findings suggested that the intervention's emphasis on modeling and building supportive relationships contributed to reductions in relational aggression. This study contributes to what has been a very limited evidence base regarding effective approaches to preventing violence among high-risk adolescent girls. Findings suggest that offering youth development interventions through clinic settings hold promise in reducing violence risk among vulnerable youth.

  4. Prime time: 18-month violence outcomes of a clinic-linked intervention.

    PubMed

    Sieving, Renee E; McMorris, Barbara J; Secor-Turner, Molly; Garwick, Ann W; Shlafer, Rebecca; Beckman, Kara J; Pettingell, Sandra L; Oliphant, Jennifer A; Seppelt, Ann M

    2014-08-01

    Prime Time, a youth development intervention, aims to reduce multiple risk behaviors among adolescent girls seeking clinic services who are at high risk for pregnancy. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether Prime Time involvement produced changes in relational aggression, physical violence, and related psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Qualitative case exemplars illustrated social contexts of intervention participants with differing longitudinal patterns of relational aggression and physical violence. Data were from a randomized efficacy trial with 13-17 year-old girls (n = 253) meeting specified risk criteria. Intervention participants were involved in Prime Time and usual clinic services for 18 months, control participants received usual clinic services. Participants in the current study completed self-report surveys at baseline and 18 months following enrollment. Outcomes analyses revealed significantly lower levels of relational aggression perpetration in the intervention group versus controls. In contrast, Prime Time involvement did not result in significant reductions in physical violence. Exploratory dose-response analyses indicated that reductions in relational aggression may have been most pronounced among girls actively involved in Prime Time case management and peer leadership activities. Qualitative findings suggested that the intervention's emphasis on modeling and building supportive relationships contributed to reductions in relational aggression. This study contributes to what has been a very limited evidence base regarding effective approaches to preventing violence among high-risk adolescent girls. Findings suggest that offering youth development interventions through clinic settings hold promise in reducing violence risk among vulnerable youth. PMID:23543359

  5. Developmental milestones record - 18 months

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 18 months; Normal childhood growth milestones - 18 months; Childhood growth milestones - 18 months ... PHYSICAL AND MOTOR SKILL MARKERS The typical 18-month-old: Has a closed soft spot on the ...

  6. Functional response of an adapted subtidal macrobenthic community to an oil spill: macrobenthic structure and bioturbation activity over time throughout an 18-month field experiment.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Franck; Stora, Georges; Cuny, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    An experimental oil spill was carried out in order to assess in situ responses of a macrobenthic community of shallow subtidal sediments historically exposed to petroleum contamination. Both structural and functional (bioturbation activity) parameters of the community, subjected or not to a pulse acute contamination (25,000 ppm), were studied for 18 months. No difference in the community structure was detected between contaminated and control sediments, from 6 to 18 months of experimentation. Vertical distributions of organisms, however, were affected by the presence of oil contamination leading to a deeper burial of some polychaete species. In the same time, changes in sediment-reworking activity and more especially a deeper particle burying in sediments subjected to acute oil contamination were shown. These results highlight the need to complete the analysis of community structure by assessing functional aspects, such as bioturbation activity, a process integrating various aspects of benthic behaviour (e.g. feeding, locomotion, burrow building) in order to estimate real (structural and functional) and long-term effects of oil contamination on benthic communities. PMID:25471721

  7. Functional response of an adapted subtidal macrobenthic community to an oil spill: macrobenthic structure and bioturbation activity over time throughout an 18-month field experiment.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Franck; Stora, Georges; Cuny, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    An experimental oil spill was carried out in order to assess in situ responses of a macrobenthic community of shallow subtidal sediments historically exposed to petroleum contamination. Both structural and functional (bioturbation activity) parameters of the community, subjected or not to a pulse acute contamination (25,000 ppm), were studied for 18 months. No difference in the community structure was detected between contaminated and control sediments, from 6 to 18 months of experimentation. Vertical distributions of organisms, however, were affected by the presence of oil contamination leading to a deeper burial of some polychaete species. In the same time, changes in sediment-reworking activity and more especially a deeper particle burying in sediments subjected to acute oil contamination were shown. These results highlight the need to complete the analysis of community structure by assessing functional aspects, such as bioturbation activity, a process integrating various aspects of benthic behaviour (e.g. feeding, locomotion, burrow building) in order to estimate real (structural and functional) and long-term effects of oil contamination on benthic communities.

  8. 15-18 Months: Your Child's Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... Member Home Resources & Services Parenting Resource 15–18 Months: Your Child’s Development Download Files Feb 10, 2016 ... Spotlight on Problem-Solving Between 15 and 18 Months The ability to solve problems is very important ...

  9. Relationships between acceptance of sour taste and fruit intakes in 18-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Blossfeld, Ivonne; Collins, Aoife; Boland, Suzanne; Baixauli, Raquel; Kiely, Mairead; Delahunty, Conor

    2007-11-01

    The present study examined whether infants show an acceptance for extreme sour tastes and whether acceptance of sour taste is related to infants' fruit intake. Fruit intake of fifty-three infants at 6, 12 and 18 months was assessed using 3 d food records. Sour acceptance of these infants was studied at 18.1 (SD 1.5) months. Acceptance for four solutions differing in citric acid concentrations (0.00 M, 0.013 M, 0.029 M and 0.065 M) was measured by allowing infants ad libitum ingestion of each solution over brief time periods. The base solution to which citric acid was added was blackcurrant squash diluted in water. Infants' relative intake of each solution was used as a measure of sour acceptance. At 18 months, twelve infants readily accepted the two highest citric acid concentrations, whereas the remaining infants rejected these. Infants who accepted the most sour solutions had a significantly higher fruit intake (P = 0.025) and a higher fruit variety (P = 0.015) at 18 months than the infants who rejected the highly sour taste. Furthermore, infants who accepted the most sour solutions consumed fruits more frequently at 18 months (chi2 5.1; P = 0.024). Infants who accepted the sourest solutions also had a higher fruit intake at 6 months, and a significantly higher increase in their fruit intake from 12 to 18 months. This is the first scientific study that demonstrates the acceptance of sour tastes in some infants at the age of 18 months. Furthermore, the present results suggest a relationship between acceptance of sour tastes and infants' fruit intakes.

  10. Evaluation of an 18-month commercial multidisciplinary obesity treatment programme.

    PubMed

    Aller, E E J G; van Baak, M A

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of obesity is an often studied subject. Although reductions in weight and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors are important aims of obesity treatment, improvements in quality of life and eating behaviour are also relevant outcomes. In this practice-based study, we evaluated an 18-month commercial multidisciplinary obesity treatment programme and report on treatment results for weight, cardiometabolic risk factors, eating behaviour and quality of life. From a local commercial obesity treatment centre, 426 subjects (65% female; 45.4 ± 12.2 years; body mass index 40.0 ± 6.6 kg m(-2)) were recruited. Measurements of body weight, height, body composition, waist circumference and blood pressure were scheduled at baseline and every 3 months, whereas fasting blood collections were scheduled at baseline and every 6 months. At the same time points, participants were asked to fill in questionnaires on dietary intake, eating behaviour and quality of life. After 18 months of treatment programme, average weight change [mean (95% confidence interval)] was -10.9 kg (-14.8 to -7.0; P < 0.001) for the completers (n = 181) and -10.8 kg (-14.2 to -7.4; P < 0.001) for the intention-to-treat population (n = 426). Waist circumference (mean ± standard error of the mean) (-0.13 ± 0.01 cm; P < 0.001), fat mass (-7.8 ± 1.3 kg; P < 0.001) systolic (-11.4 ± 2.0; P < 0.001) and diastolic (-7.0 ± 1.3; P < 0.001) blood pressure, triglycerides (-0.4 ± 0.1; P = 0.004) and plasma glucose (-0.6 ± 0.2; P = 0.001) were significantly reduced. The PCS scale of the SF-36 and all three scales of the three-factor eating questionnaire improved significantly over the 18-month treatment period. All collected data in this study provide evidence that a multidisciplinary treatment programme based on lifestyle modification results in significant weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic

  11. Evaluation of an 18-month commercial multidisciplinary obesity treatment programme.

    PubMed

    Aller, E E J G; van Baak, M A

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of obesity is an often studied subject. Although reductions in weight and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors are important aims of obesity treatment, improvements in quality of life and eating behaviour are also relevant outcomes. In this practice-based study, we evaluated an 18-month commercial multidisciplinary obesity treatment programme and report on treatment results for weight, cardiometabolic risk factors, eating behaviour and quality of life. From a local commercial obesity treatment centre, 426 subjects (65% female; 45.4 ± 12.2 years; body mass index 40.0 ± 6.6 kg m(-2)) were recruited. Measurements of body weight, height, body composition, waist circumference and blood pressure were scheduled at baseline and every 3 months, whereas fasting blood collections were scheduled at baseline and every 6 months. At the same time points, participants were asked to fill in questionnaires on dietary intake, eating behaviour and quality of life. After 18 months of treatment programme, average weight change [mean (95% confidence interval)] was -10.9 kg (-14.8 to -7.0; P < 0.001) for the completers (n = 181) and -10.8 kg (-14.2 to -7.4; P < 0.001) for the intention-to-treat population (n = 426). Waist circumference (mean ± standard error of the mean) (-0.13 ± 0.01 cm; P < 0.001), fat mass (-7.8 ± 1.3 kg; P < 0.001) systolic (-11.4 ± 2.0; P < 0.001) and diastolic (-7.0 ± 1.3; P < 0.001) blood pressure, triglycerides (-0.4 ± 0.1; P = 0.004) and plasma glucose (-0.6 ± 0.2; P = 0.001) were significantly reduced. The PCS scale of the SF-36 and all three scales of the three-factor eating questionnaire improved significantly over the 18-month treatment period. All collected data in this study provide evidence that a multidisciplinary treatment programme based on lifestyle modification results in significant weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic

  12. Executive functions in preschool children with ADHD and DBD: an 18-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Deković, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the stability of the association between executive functions and externalizing behavior problems, and the developmental change of executive functions in a predominately clinically diagnosed preschool sample (N = 200). Inhibition and working memory performance were assessed three times in 18 months. Across time, poorer inhibition performance in young children was associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), and poorer working memory performance was associated with ADHD. Inhibition and working memory performance increased over time, especially in the early preschool period. The improvement of inhibition performance was more pronounced in the clinically diagnosed children compared to the TD children.

  13. Trajectories of problem video gaming among adult regular gamers: an 18-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    A three-wave, longitudinal study examined the long-term trajectory of problem gaming symptoms among adult regular video gamers. Potential changes in problem gaming status were assessed at two intervals using an online survey over an 18-month period. Participants (N=117) were recruited by an advertisement posted on the public forums of multiple Australian video game-related websites. Inclusion criteria were being of adult age and having a video gaming history of at least 1 hour of gaming every week over the past 3 months. Two groups of adult video gamers were identified: those players who did (N=37) and those who did not (N=80) identify as having a serious gaming problem at the initial survey intake. The results showed that regular gamers who self-identified as having a video gaming problem at baseline reported more severe problem gaming symptoms than normal gamers, at all time points. However, both groups experienced a significant decline in problem gaming symptoms over an 18-month period, controlling for age, video gaming activity, and psychopathological symptoms. PMID:23098213

  14. Trajectories of problem video gaming among adult regular gamers: an 18-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    A three-wave, longitudinal study examined the long-term trajectory of problem gaming symptoms among adult regular video gamers. Potential changes in problem gaming status were assessed at two intervals using an online survey over an 18-month period. Participants (N=117) were recruited by an advertisement posted on the public forums of multiple Australian video game-related websites. Inclusion criteria were being of adult age and having a video gaming history of at least 1 hour of gaming every week over the past 3 months. Two groups of adult video gamers were identified: those players who did (N=37) and those who did not (N=80) identify as having a serious gaming problem at the initial survey intake. The results showed that regular gamers who self-identified as having a video gaming problem at baseline reported more severe problem gaming symptoms than normal gamers, at all time points. However, both groups experienced a significant decline in problem gaming symptoms over an 18-month period, controlling for age, video gaming activity, and psychopathological symptoms.

  15. Supernova 1987A: 18 Months later

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the significance for physics of the closest visual supernova in almost 400 years is presented. The supernova occurred in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), /approximately/50 kpc away. The supernova star was a massive star of /approximately/15--20M. Observations now show that it was once a red-giant but lost its outer envelope. The lower than standard luminosity and higher observed velocities are a natural consequence of the pre-supernova star being a blue rather than a red (supergiant). Of particular importance to physicists is the detection of neutrinos from the event by detectors in the United States and Japan. Not only did this establish extra-solar system neutrino astronomy, but it also constrained the properties of neutrino. It is shown that the well established Kamioka-IMB neutrino burst experimentally implies an event with about 2--4 /times/ 10/sup 53/ergs emitted in neutrinos and a temperature, T/sub /bar /nu/e//, of between 4 and 4.5 MeV. This event is in excellent agreement with what one would expect from the gravitational core collapse of a massive star. A neutrino detection, such as that reported earlier in Mt. Blanc, would require more than the rest mass energy of a neutron star to be converted to neutrinos, if it were to have its origin in the LMC. Thus it is probably unrelated to the supernova. The anticipated frequency of collapse events in our Galaxy, will also be discussed with a rate as high as 1/10 year shown to be not unreasonable. 61 refs.

  16. Obesity Reduction Black Intervention Trial (ORBIT): 18-Month Results

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Schiffer, Linda; Sharp, Lisa K.; Singh, Vicky; Dyer, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition that is prevalent in black women. The Obesity Reduction Black Intervention Trial (ORBIT) was a randomized controlled weight loss and weight loss maintenance trial. Participants (N = 213) were randomized to the intervention or control groups in August 2005 and September 2006. Follow-up data were collected 6 and 18 months after randomization. The main outcome was change in weight and body mass index from baseline to 18 months. The mean weight at baseline was 104.9 kg and the mean weight loss in the intervention group at 6 months was 3.0 kg and a gain of 0.2 kg in the control group (mean difference between groups in weight change at 6 months, adjusting for baseline weight and cohort, -3.27 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.50 to -2.05 kg; P < .001). Both groups gained weight between 6 and 18 months (mean 1.0 kg in the intervention group and 0.1 kg in the control group). However, intervention participants lost significantly more weight than control participants during the 18 month intervention (adjusted mean difference between groups at 18 months, -2.83 kg; 95% CI, -4.71 to -0.95; P = .003). At 18 months, intervention participants were more likely than control participants to have lost at least 5% of baseline weight (24% vs. 12%, P< .04). Our results indicate that the ORBIT program did promote weight loss and weight loss maintenance. However, the results also clearly illustrate there is more to learn about what will contribute to meaningful weight loss and maintenance in this population. PMID:20300081

  17. The stability of 'food addiction' as assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale in a non-clinical population over 18-months.

    PubMed

    Pursey, Kirrilly M; Collins, Clare E; Stanwell, Peter; Burrows, Tracy L

    2016-01-01

    The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) is a widely used tool to assess the behavioural indicators of addictive-like eating. No studies, however, have used a longitudinal design to determine whether these addictive-like eating behaviours are a stable or transient phenomenon in a community-based population. This study aimed to evaluate whether food addiction Diagnosis and Symptom scores as assessed by the YFAS remain stable over 18-months in a non-clinical population. Young adults aged 18-35 years were recruited from the community to a web-based survey in 2013. The survey included demographics, anthropometrics and the YFAS. Participants who volunteered to be recontacted for future research were invited to complete the same survey 18-months later. The YFAS scoring outputs Diagnosis and Symptom scores were tested for agreement and reliability between the two time points. Of the 303 participants who completed the original survey and agreed to be recontacted, 69 participants (22.8% of those recontacted, 94% female, 67% normal weight at baseline) completed the 18-month follow-up survey. At baseline, thirteen participants met the YFAS predefined criteria for Diagnosis, while eleven participants met these criteria at the 18-month follow-up. YFAS Diagnosis was found to have moderate agreement [K = .50, 95% CI (.23, .77)] between the two time points while Symptom scores had good agreement [K = .70, 95% CI (.54, .83)]. Intraclass correlation coefficients were interpreted as moderate over the 18-month period for both the Diagnosis [ICC = .71, 95% CI (.45, .88)] and Symptom scores [ICC = .72, 95% CI (.58, .82)]. YFAS assessed food addiction Diagnosis and Symptom scores were found to be relatively stable over 18-months in a non-clinical population of predominantly female, young adults. Future research is required to determine the impact of behavioural weight loss interventions on YFAS assessed addictive-like eating.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope. Update: 18 months in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In April 1990, Space Shuttle Discovery launched the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). An 18 month in-orbit update of the operations and performance of the HST is presented. Numerous color photographs are shown of objects already observed, and mission plans are presented for future observations by the HST.

  19. Development of Vocal Protests from 3 to 18 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xin; Green, James A.; Gustafson, Gwen E.

    2009-01-01

    Infants often protest the activities of their caregivers, and this particular social interaction may provide an important window on early communication and its development. This study used naturalistic methods to investigate the development of vocal protests. Fifteen mother-infant dyads at each of 5 ages, from 3 to 18 months, were observed at…

  20. Fathers & Babies: How Babies Grow and What They Need from You, from Birth to 18 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzollo, Jean

    This book provides fathers with specific developmental theory and practical skills and advice concerning how babies grow and what they need from fathers from the time they are born until they turn 18 months. Each chapter provides information and theory on age appropriate play activities and specific information on a baby's growth and developmental…

  1. Should routine pelvic osteotomy be added to the treatment of DDH after 18 months?

    PubMed

    Arslan, Hüseyin; Sucu, Ekim; Ozkul, Emin; Gem, Mehmet; Kişin, Biülent

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) between ages 1-3 years is controversial. Particularly controversial is the age after which pelvic osteotomy should be added to the treatment. In the present study, the outcomes of DDH patients aged 1-3 years treated with anterior open reduction alone were evaluated, and the relationship between inadequate acetabular development, the need for secondary pelvic osteotomy, and age was investigated. A total of 53 patients (70 hips) who had begun walking, who had undergone open reduction through an anterolateral approach, who had a follow-up period of at least 2 years, and who had Tönnis grade III and IV hip dysplasia were included in the study. They were grouped according to treatment age (pre-18 months: Group I; post-18 months: Group II), and the two groups were compared with regard to radiological and functional outcomes and the need for a secondary acetabular procedure. In Group I there were 29 hips (mean age: 16.09 months) and in group II there were 41 hips (mean age: 23.1 months), and the mean follow-up period was 48.9 months. According to the modified Trevor score, in Group I outcomes were excellent in 23 hips (79.3%) and good in 6 hips (20.7%), while in group II outcomes were excellent in 30 hips (73.2%), good in 10 hips (24.4%), and fair in 1 hip (2.1%). The difference between outcomes was not significant (P > 0.05). Inadequate acetabular development was determined in 11 hips in group I (37.9%) and in 16 hips in group II (39%). There was no difference between groups in terms of inadequate acetabular development or the need for acetabular prodecures (p > 0.05). No significant difference was determined between DDH patients treated before 18 months and those treated after 18 months with regard to unsatisfactory acetabular development or the need for secondary acetabular procedures. According to these results, reduction prior to 18 months does not always achieve satisfactory acetabular development, and

  2. Longitudinal Evaluation of Cognitive Functioning in Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes over 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Cato, M. Allison; Mauras, Nelly; Mazaika, Paul; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Aye, Tandy; Ambrosino, Jodie; Beck, Roy W.; Ruedy, Katrina J.; Reiss, Allan L.; Tansey, Michael; White, Neil H.; Hershey, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Objective Decrements in cognitive function may already be evident in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here we report prospectively acquired cognitive results over 18 months in a large cohort of young children with and without T1D. Methods 144 children with T1D (mean HbA1c: 7.9%) and 70 age-matched healthy controls (mean age both groups 8.5 years; median diabetes duration 3.9 yrs; mean age of onset 4.1 yrs) underwent neuropsychological testing at baseline and after 18-months of follow-up. We hypothesized that group differences observed at baseline would be more pronounced after 18 months, particularly in those T1D patients with greatest exposure to glycemic extremes. Results Cognitive domain scores did not differ between groups at the 18 month testing session and did not change differently between groups over the follow-up period. However, within the T1D group, a history of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was correlated with lower Verbal IQ and greater hyperglycemia exposure (HbA1c area under the curve) was inversely correlated to executive functions test performance. In addition, those with a history of both types of exposure performed most poorly on measures of executive function. Conclusions The subtle cognitive differences between T1D children and nondiabetic controls observed at baseline were not observed 18 months later. Within the T1D group, as at baseline, relationships between cognition (VIQ and executive functions) and glycemic variables (chronic hyperglycemia and DKA history) were evident. Continued longitudinal study of this T1D cohort and their carefully matched healthy comparison group is planned. PMID:26786245

  3. Risk of obesity at 4 to 6 years of age among overweight or obese 18-month-olds

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Jesse J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether high weight for length at the 18-month well-baby visit is predictive of overweight or obese body mass index (BMI) at the 4- to 6-year well-child visit. Design Retrospective cohort study using objective electronic medical record measurements. Setting Eighteen family practices forming a community family health organization in Peterborough, Ont. Participants All children from the family health organization practices with at least 1 set of weight and length or height measurements at age 17 to 19 months and age 4 to 6 years (N = 126). Main outcome measure Relative risk (RR) of overweight BMI and RR of obese BMI at 4 to 6 years of age for normal versus overweight or obese 18-month-olds. Results Children who were either overweight or obese at their 18-month visits (n = 37) were more than twice as likely to be obese at age 4 to 6 years than children who had healthy weights at 18 months were (n = 89; RR = 2.71, 95% CI 1.13 to 6.47). The subgroup of obese 18-month-olds (n = 13) were at more than 3 times the risk of being obese at age 4 to 6 years than their healthy-weight-for-length counterparts (RR = 3.42, 95% CI 1.20 to 9.78). Thirty-one percent of obese 18-month-olds were obese at 4 to 6 years and a further 31% were overweight. Conclusion High weight for length at 18 months substantially increased a child’s risk of being overweight or obese at 4 to 6 years of age. Most overweight and obese 18-month-olds in this study did not achieve healthy BMIs by 4 to 6 years of age. A brief glance at the 18-month weight-for-length chart can easily help identify these high-risk toddlers. PMID:23585624

  4. Incorporating Spectra Into Periodic Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Alanna; Hong, J.; Protopapas, P.; Kashyap, V.

    2011-09-01

    The Chandra surveys have resulted in a wealth of data on low-luminosity X-ray sources (Lx 1030-34 erg/s) of Galactic scales beyond the local solar neighborhood. Many of these are compact binaries, in particular, cataclysmic variables, often identified by their periodic X-ray variability and spectra. Hong et al. (2009, 2011) have used energy quantiles (Hong, Schlegel & Grindlay, 2004) as a fast, robust indicator of spectral hardness and absorption of the X-ray sources. Energy quantiles also enable a simple but effective illustration of spectral changes with phase in these periodic systems: e.g. absorption by the accreting material is understood to drive the periodic light-curves. An interesting question is how to best make use of the information encapsulated in the periodic change in energy spectrum, along with the periodic change in intensity, especially for cases of ambiguous period determination? And, how to do it computationally efficiently? A first approach is to do the period search in intensity, as is standard; and then use a criterion of spectral variation to verify possible periods. Huijse, Zegers & Protopapas (2011) recently demonstrated a powerful period estimation technique using information potential and correntropy embedded in the light curve. Similar quantities based on energies (or energy quantiles) of X-ray photons can serve as criteria of spectral variation. A different approach treats the spectrum variations and intensity variations completely independently, searching through period-space in each, and then combining the results. A more general method would include both at the same time, looking for statistically significant variations above what is expected for a constant (in intensity and spectrum).

  5. Bilateral sacrospinous fixation without hysterectomy: 18-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Mehmet Baki; Güraslan, Hakan; Çakmak, Yusuf; Ekin, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of bilateral sacrospinous fixation (SSF), which was performed with surgical mesh interposition and bilateral vaginal repair. Material and Methods Twenty-two patients underwent SSF between 2010 and 2012, and the results were evaluated retrospectively. The results at preoperative and postoperative 6th, 12th, and 18th months of the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system (POP-Q) and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire-12 (PISQ-12) were compared using Friedman and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests. Values of p<0.05 and <0.01 were considered statistically significant. Results According to the POP-Q, significant healing was observed on all vaginal vault points (p=0.001), and no prolapse was observed until the 18-month follow-up stage. There were also prominent patients who felt satisfactory with respect to their sexual life according to PISQ-12 (p=0.001). Conclusion This technique appears to provide an adequate clinical resolution, and it may be the primary surgical option for women with pelvic organ prolapse. PMID:26097393

  6. Oral Rehabilitation of an S-ECC Case with Orthodontic Intervention: 18 Months Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    OS, Raju; Krishna P, Thejo; R, Neeraja

    2011-01-01

    Severe-early childhood caries (S-ECC) is a specific form of rampant decay of primary teeth in infants, characterized by aggressive tooth destruction. This multifactorial disease in young infants is associated with the frequent use of sweetened fluids and fermentable carbohydrates over extended periods, poor oral hygiene as well as high level of mutans streptococci infection. The disease control and restoration of severely decayed primary teeth in children with S-ECC remains a challenge to general as well as pediatric dentists. This article portrays the oral rehabilitation of a five and half-year-old girl presenting with S-ECC with an 18 months follow-up.

  7. Pre-linguistic Vocal Trajectories at 6–18 Months of Age As Early Markers of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Chericoni, Natasha; de Brito Wanderley, Daniele; Costanzo, Valeria; Diniz-Gonçalves, Andréa; Leitgel Gille, Marluce; Parlato, Erika; Cohen, David; Apicella, Fabio; Calderoni, Sara; Muratori, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    This study explores pre-linguistic vocal trajectories in infants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during caregiver-infant interaction. Home videos were obtained from 10 infants with ASD and 10 typically developing infants (TD), covering three time periods: 0–6 months (T1, 47 video sequences), 6–12 months (T2, 47 video sequences), and 12–18 months (T3, 48 video sequences). In total 142 video sequences were analyzed. Vocalizations, long reduplicated babbling, 2-syllable babbling, and first words were investigated longitudinally. Face-gazing was also analyzed, to evaluate the social quality of vocal behaviors. Results show a lower rate of vocalizations in the ASD group at T2, and a lower rate of first words at T3, compared to the TD group. However, the prevalence of non-social babbling, appeared higher in the ASD group. The implications of these findings for screening programs are discussed. PMID:27807424

  8. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  9. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  10. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  11. Reliability of Fitness Tests Using Methods and Time Periods Common in Sport and Occupational Management

    PubMed Central

    Burnstein, Bryan D.; Steele, Russell J.; Shrier, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Context: Fitness testing is used frequently in many areas of physical activity, but the reliability of these measurements under real-world, practical conditions is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the reliability of specific fitness tests using the methods and time periods used in the context of real-world sport and occupational management. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Eighteen different Cirque du Soleil shows. Patients or Other Participants: Cirque du Soleil physical performers who completed 4 consecutive tests (6-month intervals) and were free of injury or illness at each session (n = 238 of 701 physical performers). Intervention(s): Performers completed 6 fitness tests on each assessment date: dynamic balance, Harvard step test, handgrip, vertical jump, pull-ups, and 60-second jump test. Main Outcome Measure(s): We calculated the intraclass coefficient (ICC) and limits of agreement between baseline and each time point and the ICC over all 4 time points combined. Results: Reliability was acceptable (ICC > 0.6) over an 18-month time period for all pairwise comparisons and all time points together for the handgrip, vertical jump, and pull-up assessments. The Harvard step test and 60-second jump test had poor reliability (ICC < 0.6) between baseline and other time points. When we excluded the baseline data and calculated the ICC for 6-month, 12-month, and 18-month time points, both the Harvard step test and 60-second jump test demonstrated acceptable reliability. Dynamic balance was unreliable in all contexts. Limit-of-agreement analysis demonstrated considerable intraindividual variability for some tests and a learning effect by administrators on others. Conclusions: Five of the 6 tests in this battery had acceptable reliability over an 18-month time frame, but the values for certain individuals may vary considerably from time to time for some tests. Specific tests may require a learning period for administrators. PMID:22488138

  12. Time domain period determination techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two simple period determination schemes are discussed. They are well suited to problems involving non-sinusoidal periodic phenomena sampled at a few irregularly spaced points. Statistical properties are discussed. The techniques are applied to the double mode Cepheids BK Cen and TU Cas as test cases.

  13. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  14. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  15. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  16. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  17. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  18. Risk Assessment of BRONJ in Oncologic Patients Treated with Bisphosphonates: Follow-Up to 18 Months.

    PubMed

    Sparabombe, Scilla; Vitali, Lucia; Nori, Alessandra; Berlin, Ricarda Sara; Mazur, Marta; Orsini, Giovanna; Putignano, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Bisphosphonates related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a pathological condition characterized by bone exposure or latent infection in patients treated with the drug. The aim of the study is to monitor the BRONJ level of risk health in patients with cancer, according to a preventive clinical protocol, which is firstly aimed at reducing risk factors such as the periodontal infections. Materials and Methods. 10 patients participated in the protocol and were evaluated at baseline and after 3 and 18 months of treatment with bisphosphonates, through full mouth plaque and bleeding scores (FMPS and FMBS), clinical attachment level (CAL) measurement, and the occurrence of osteonecrosis. Results. The mean plaque and bleeding were reduced and the CAL has not shown significant changes and in no cases was there manifestation of BRONJ. Conclusion. The protocol proved crucial for the maintenance of good oral health conditions by eliminating the risk of BRONJ during the observation period. PMID:25258628

  19. Risk Assessment of BRONJ in Oncologic Patients Treated with Bisphosphonates: Follow-Up to 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Vitali, Lucia; Nori, Alessandra; Berlin, Ricarda Sara; Mazur, Marta; Orsini, Giovanna; Putignano, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Bisphosphonates related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a pathological condition characterized by bone exposure or latent infection in patients treated with the drug. The aim of the study is to monitor the BRONJ level of risk health in patients with cancer, according to a preventive clinical protocol, which is firstly aimed at reducing risk factors such as the periodontal infections. Materials and Methods. 10 patients participated in the protocol and were evaluated at baseline and after 3 and 18 months of treatment with bisphosphonates, through full mouth plaque and bleeding scores (FMPS and FMBS), clinical attachment level (CAL) measurement, and the occurrence of osteonecrosis. Results. The mean plaque and bleeding were reduced and the CAL has not shown significant changes and in no cases was there manifestation of BRONJ. Conclusion. The protocol proved crucial for the maintenance of good oral health conditions by eliminating the risk of BRONJ during the observation period. PMID:25258628

  20. A comparison of physical activity in Gambian and UK children aged 6-18 months.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, M; Lawrence, F; Durnin, J V; Whitehead, R G

    1991-05-01

    The activity patterns of 81 Gambian and 53 UK children aged six, 12 or 18 months were compared by means of an activity diary technique. Major differences between communities were observed in the duration of play (2-3 times longer in UK compared to Gambian children) and in the duration of vigorous activities such as crawling, walking and running (2-4 times longer duration in the UK compared to the The Gambia). To investigate whether the lower activity of Gambian children could be explained by differences in nutritional or health status, subgroups of Gambian children were compared. Only small differences in activity pattern were found between Gambian children above and below 80% weight for age and between Gambian children who were or were not diagnosed ill within 10 days of study, suggesting that other factors (e.g. socio-cultural differences or the absence of conventional toys) may explain the lower activity of Gambian compared to UK children. PMID:1915195

  1. Body weights at weaning and 18 months of Zebu, Brown Swiss, Charolais and crossbred heifers in south-east Mexico.

    PubMed

    Magaña, J G; Segura-Correa, J C

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the body weights up to 18 months of age of 12 breed groups of Zebu (Z), Brown Swiss (BS) and Charolais heifers (CH), and their crosses under tropical conditions. A total of 1434 data on weaning weights adjusted to 240 days (WW8), average daily gain to 240 days (ADG8) and 1025 body weights adjusted to 550 days (BW18) and average postweaning daily gain (ADG18) of heifers born from 1981 to 1995 were used. Cows and calves remained together from birth to weaning and grazed on Guinea grass (Panicum maximum). Years of birth were grouped in three periods, because of the small numbers of observations per year (1981-85, 1986-90 and 1991-95). Similarly, months of birth were grouped in three seasons: dry (February to May), rainy (June to September) and windy and rainy (October to January). Ages of dams were classified in six groups (or=8 years). Breed groups were animals with 12.5%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 62.5%, 75.0% and 100% BS genes and 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% and 100% CH genes and also Z and undefined crossbred animals. Data were analysed using a fixed model that included effects of period, and season of birth, age of dam and breed group of heifer. Analyses of variance showed significant (p < 0.05) effects of period, season and breed group for all traits. However, parity was significant (p < 0.05) only for WW8 and ADG8. Interactions among main factors were not significant (p > 0.05). Z heifers gained the least weight to weaning but were similar to BS at 18 months of age. CH were heavier at 18 months of age than BS heifers, but not at weaning. Body weights at 18 months of age of 1/8 and 1/4 BS crossbred heifers were similar (p > 0.05) and lower than F1 (BS x Z) (p < 0.05); however, the later and higher grades of BS had the highest body weights at 18 months of age and were similar to CH and 1/4 CH x 3/4 Z heifers. Undefined crossbred heifers had better performance than the Z breed group. Environmental factors were

  2. Perception Mirrors Production in 14- and 18-Month-Olds: The Case of Coda Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levelt, Clara C.

    2012-01-01

    In a word learning experiment, 14- and 18-month-old infants are tested on their perceptual sensitivity to coda-consonant omissions. The results indicate that 14-month-olds are not sensitive to coda consonant omissions, showing a parallel with the omission of target coda consonants in early child language productions. At 18 months, infants are…

  3. 7 CFR 319.8-21 - Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage... Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-21 Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage. Cotton and covers, the entry of which has been authorized subject to vacuum fumigation or...

  4. 7 CFR 319.8-21 - Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage... Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-21 Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage. Cotton and covers, the entry of which has been authorized subject to vacuum fumigation or...

  5. 7 CFR 319.8-21 - Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage... Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-21 Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage. Cotton and covers, the entry of which has been authorized subject to vacuum fumigation or...

  6. 7 CFR 319.8-21 - Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage... Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-21 Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage. Cotton and covers, the entry of which has been authorized subject to vacuum fumigation or...

  7. 7 CFR 319.8-21 - Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage... Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-21 Release of cotton and covers after 18 months' storage. Cotton and covers, the entry of which has been authorized subject to vacuum fumigation or...

  8. SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months.

    PubMed

    Fernald, Anne; Marchman, Virginia A; Weisleder, Adriana

    2013-03-01

    This research revealed both similarities and striking differences in early language proficiency among infants from a broad range of advantaged and disadvantaged families. English-learning infants (n = 48) were followed longitudinally from 18 to 24 months, using real-time measures of spoken language processing. The first goal was to track developmental changes in processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary learning in this diverse sample. The second goal was to examine differences in these crucial aspects of early language development in relation to family socioeconomic status (SES). The most important findings were that significant disparities in vocabulary and language processing efficiency were already evident at 18 months between infants from higher- and lower-SES families, and by 24 months there was a 6-month gap between SES groups in processing skills critical to language development. PMID:23432833

  9. Selective social learning of plant edibility in 6- and 18-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Wertz, Annie E; Wynn, Karen

    2014-04-01

    Recent research underscores the importance of social learning to the development of food preferences. Here, we explore whether social information about edibility--an adult placing something in his or her mouth--can be selectively tied to certain types of entities. Given that humans have relied on gathered plant resources across evolutionary time, and given the costs of trial-and-error learning, we predicted that human infants may possess selective social learning strategies that rapidly identify edible plants. Evidence from studies with 6- and 18-month-olds demonstrated that infants selectively identify plants, over artifacts, as food sources after seeing the same food-relevant social information applied to both object types. These findings are the first evidence for content-specific social learning mechanisms that facilitate the identification of edible plant resources. Evolved learning mechanisms such as these have enabled humans to survive and thrive in varied and changing environments.

  10. SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Anne; Marchman, Virginia A.; Weisleder, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    This research revealed both similarities and striking differences in early language proficiency among infants from a broad range of advantaged and disadvantaged families. English-learning infants (n = 48) were followed longitudinally from 18 to 24 months, using real-time measures of spoken language processing. The first goal was to track developmental changes in processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary learning in this diverse sample. The second goal was to examine differences in these crucial aspects of early language development in relation to family socioeconomic status (SES). The most important findings were that significant disparities in vocabulary and language processing efficiency were already evident at 18 months between infants from higher- and lower-SES families, and by 24 months there was a six-month gap between SES groups in processing skills critical to language development. PMID:23432833

  11. Relationship between quadriceps femoris muscle volume and muscle torque at least 18 months after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Y; Oda, T; Tsukazaki, S; Kinugasa, R; Fukubayashi, T

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate motor unit recruitment in the quadriceps femoris (QF) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and repair. Subjects included 24 patients at ≥ 18 months after ACL reconstruction and 22 control subjects with no history of knee injury. A series of cross-sectional magnetic resonance images were obtained to compare the QF of patients' injured side with that of their uninjured sides and that of uninjured control subjects. Muscle torque per muscle volume was calculated as isokinetic peak torque divided by QF muscle volume (cm(3)). The mean muscle torque per unit volume of the injured side of patients was not significantly different from that of the uninjured side or control subjects (one-way ANOVA) Results of the present study were contrary to the results of a previous study that evaluated patients at ≤ 12 months after ACL reconstruction. The present study found that high-threshold motor unit recruitment was restored at ≥ 18 months after ACL reconstruction. Thus, clinicians must develop techniques that increase the recruitment of high-threshold motor units in the QF from the period immediately after the injury until approximately 18 months after ACL reconstruction.

  12. Expectancies of success as a predictor of negative symptoms reduction over 18 months in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Luther, Lauren; Fukui, Sadaaki; Firmin, Ruth L; McGuire, Alan B; White, Dominique A; Minor, Kyle S; Salyers, Michelle P

    2015-09-30

    Negative symptoms are often enduring and lead to poor functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia. The cognitive model of negative symptoms proposes that low expectancies of success contribute to the development and maintenance of negative symptoms; however, longitudinal investigations assessing these beliefs and negative symptoms are needed. The current study examined whether an individual's baseline expectancies of success - one's beliefs about future success and goal attainment - predicted negative symptoms reduction over 18 months in individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n=118). Data were collected at baseline, 9 months, and 18 months as part of a randomized controlled trial of Illness Management and Recovery. A mixed effects regression analysis revealed a significant reduction in negative symptoms over time, with a significant interaction effect between time and baseline expectancies of success. After controlling for baseline negative symptoms, demographic variables, and treatment conditions, those with high and moderate baseline expectancies of success evidenced a significant reduction in negative symptoms at 18 months, while those with low baseline expectancies of success did not evidence reduced negative symptoms. Findings support the cognitive model of negative symptoms and suggest that expectancies of success may be a useful treatment target for interventions aimed at reducing negative symptoms. PMID:26162662

  13. Upper Airway Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Durability of the Treatment Effect at 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Strollo, Patrick J.; Gillespie, M. Boyd; Soose, Ryan J.; Maurer, Joachim T.; de Vries, Nico; Cornelius, Jason; Hanson, Ronald D.; Padhya, Tapan A.; Steward, David L.; Woodson, B. Tucker; Verbraecken, Johan; Vanderveken, Olivier M.; Goetting, Mark G.; Feldman, Neil; Chabolle, Frédéric; Badr, M. Safwan; Randerath, Winfried; Strohl, Kingman P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the stability of improvement in polysomnographic measures of sleep disordered breathing, patient reported outcomes, the durability of hypoglossal nerve recruitment and safety at 18 months in the Stimulation Treatment for Apnea Reduction (STAR) trial participants. Design: Prospective multicenter single group trial with participants serving as their own controls. Setting: Twenty-two community and academic sleep medicine and otolaryngology practices. Measurements: Primary outcome measures were the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the 4% oxygen desaturation index (ODI). Secondary outcome measures were the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), and oxygen saturation percent time < 90% during sleep. Stimulation level for each participant was collected at three predefined thresholds during awake testing. Procedure- and/or device-related adverse events were reviewed and coded by the Clinical Events Committee Results: The median AHI was reduced by 67.4% from the baseline of 29.3 to 9.7/h at 18 mo. The median ODI was reduced by 67.5% from 25.4 to 8.6/h at 18 mo. The FOSQ and ESS improved significantly at 18 mo compared to baseline values. The functional threshold was unchanged from baseline at 18 mo. Two participants experienced a serious device-related adverse event requiring neurostimulator repositioning and fixation. No tongue weakness reported at 18 mo. Conclusion: Upper airway stimulation via the hypoglossal nerve maintained a durable effect of improving airway stability during sleep and improved patient reported outcomes (Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire) without an increase of the stimulation thresholds or tongue injury at 18 mo of follow-up. Citation: Strollo PJ, Gillespie MB, Soose RJ, Maurer JT, de Vries N, Cornelius J, Hanson RD, Padhya TA, Steward DL, Woodson BT, Verbraecken J, Vanderveken OM, Goetting MG, Feldman N, Chabolle F, Badr MS, Randerath W

  14. Linking actions and emotions: evidence from 15- and 18-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Repacholi, Betty M

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated 15- and 18-month-olds' understanding of the link between actions and emotions. Infants watched a videotape in which three adult models performed an action on an object. Each adult expressed the same emotion (positive, negative, or neutral affect) on completion of the action. Infants were subsequently given 20 seconds to interact with the object. Infants were less likely to perform the target action after the models' expressed negative as opposed to positive or neutral affect. Although infants' imitative behaviour was influenced by the models' emotional displays, this social referencing effect was not apparent in their more general object-directed behaviour. For instance, infants in the negative emotion condition were just as quick to touch the object and spent the same amount of time touching the object as did infants in the neutral and positive emotion conditions. These findings suggest that infants understood that the models' negative affect was in response to the action, rather than the object itself. Infants apparently used this negative emotional information to appraise the action as one that was 'undesirable' or 'bad'. Consequently, infants were now loath to reproduce the action themselves. PMID:19994573

  15. Categorization of Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Stimuli by 18-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Arterberry, Martha E.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Blumenstyk, Julia B.

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, 18-month-olds’ categorization of 3D replicas and 2D photographs of the same animals and vehicles were compared to explore infants’ flexibility in categorization across different object representations. Using a sequential touching procedure, infants completed one superordinate and two basic-level categorization tasks with 3D replicas, 2D cut out photographs, or 2D images on photo cubes (“2D cubes”). For superordinate sets, 3D replicas elicited longer mean run lengths than 2D cut outs, and 3D replicas elicited equivalent mean run lengths as 2D cubes. For basic-level sets, infants categorized high-contrast animal sets when presented with 3D replicas, but they failed to categorize any of the 2D photograph sets. Categorization processes appear to differ for 3D and 2D stimuli, and infants’ discovery of object properties over time while manipulating objects may facilitate categorization, as least at the superordinate level. These findings are discussed in the context of infants’ representation abilities and the integration of perception and action. PMID:24120992

  16. Cumulative contextual risk, maternal responsivity, and social cognition at 18 months.

    PubMed

    Wade, Mark; Moore, Chris; Astington, Janet Wilde; Frampton, Kristen; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2015-02-01

    By 18 months children demonstrate a range of social-cognitive skills that can be considered important precursors to more advanced forms of social understanding such as theory of mind. Although individual differences in social cognition have been linked to neurocognitive maturation, sociocultural models of development suggest that environmental influences operate in the development of children's social-cognitive outcomes. In the current study of 501 children and their mothers, we tested and found support for a model in which distal environmental risk, assessed when children were newborns, was indirectly associated with children's social-cognitive competency at 18 months through mothers' responsivity at 18 months. Part of this effect also operated through children's concomitant language skills, suggesting both a language-mediated and a language-independent mechanism of social-cognitive development. These findings are discussed with respect to the Vygotskian themes of internalization and semiotic mediation.

  17. REPORT OF WORK INJURIES TO MINORS UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE, A STUDY OF 18 MONTHS' EXPERIENCE REPORTED BY 28 STATES, 1964-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Standards (DOL), Washington, DC.

    THE BUREAU OF LABOR STANDARDS FURNISHED REPORT FORMS AND GUIDES FOR COMPLETING THEM TO THE 28 PARTICIPATING STATES. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY MAIL ON A VOLUNTARY REPORTING BASIS DURING THE 18-MONTH PERIOD, JANUARY 1964 THROUGH JUNE 1965. FINDINGS INCLUDED -- (1) A TOTAL OF 16,936 INJURIES TO EMPLOYED MINORS UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE WAS REPORTED, (2) OF…

  18. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy in substance misusing schizophrenia: results of an 18-month feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Eack, Shaun M; Hogarty, Susan S; Greenwald, Deborah P; Litschge, Maralee Y; McKnight, Summer A F; Bangalore, Srihari S; Pogue-Geile, Michael F; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Cornelius, Jack R

    2015-02-01

    Substance use is a frequent problem in schizophrenia, and although many substance misusing patients with the disorder also experience considerable cognitive impairments, such individuals have been routinely excluded from clinical trials of cognitive remediation that could support their functional and addiction recoveries. This study conducted a small-scale feasibility trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) in substance misusing schizophrenia patients to assess the feasibility and efficacy of implementing comprehensive neurocognitive and social-cognitive remediation in this population. A total of 31 schizophrenia outpatients meeting addiction severity criteria for alcohol and/or cannabis use were randomized to 18months of CET or usual care. Feasibility findings indicated high degrees of satisfaction with CET, but also presented significant challenges in the recruitment and retention of substance misusing patients, with high levels of attrition (50%) over the study period, primarily due to positive symptom exacerbation. Intent-to-treat efficacy analyses showed large and significant improvements in neurocognition (d=.86), social cognition (d=1.13), and social adjustment (d=.92) favoring CET. Further, individuals treated with CET were more likely to reduce alcohol use (67% in CET vs. 25% in usual care) during treatment (p=.021). These results suggest that once engaged and stabilized, CET is a feasible and potentially effective treatment for cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia who misuse alcohol and/or cannabis. Substance misusing patients who are able to engage in treatment may be able to benefit from cognitive remediation, and the treatment of cognitive impairments may help improve substance use outcomes among this underserved population. PMID:25510926

  19. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy in substance misusing schizophrenia: results of an 18-month feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Eack, Shaun M; Hogarty, Susan S; Greenwald, Deborah P; Litschge, Maralee Y; McKnight, Summer A F; Bangalore, Srihari S; Pogue-Geile, Michael F; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Cornelius, Jack R

    2015-02-01

    Substance use is a frequent problem in schizophrenia, and although many substance misusing patients with the disorder also experience considerable cognitive impairments, such individuals have been routinely excluded from clinical trials of cognitive remediation that could support their functional and addiction recoveries. This study conducted a small-scale feasibility trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) in substance misusing schizophrenia patients to assess the feasibility and efficacy of implementing comprehensive neurocognitive and social-cognitive remediation in this population. A total of 31 schizophrenia outpatients meeting addiction severity criteria for alcohol and/or cannabis use were randomized to 18months of CET or usual care. Feasibility findings indicated high degrees of satisfaction with CET, but also presented significant challenges in the recruitment and retention of substance misusing patients, with high levels of attrition (50%) over the study period, primarily due to positive symptom exacerbation. Intent-to-treat efficacy analyses showed large and significant improvements in neurocognition (d=.86), social cognition (d=1.13), and social adjustment (d=.92) favoring CET. Further, individuals treated with CET were more likely to reduce alcohol use (67% in CET vs. 25% in usual care) during treatment (p=.021). These results suggest that once engaged and stabilized, CET is a feasible and potentially effective treatment for cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia who misuse alcohol and/or cannabis. Substance misusing patients who are able to engage in treatment may be able to benefit from cognitive remediation, and the treatment of cognitive impairments may help improve substance use outcomes among this underserved population.

  20. An Evaluation of an Abstinence-Only Sex Education Curriculum: An 18-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, George; Young, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the results from an 18-month follow-up evaluation of an abstinence education curriculum series. Participants were students from 15 school districts recruited to participate in the project. The intervention was the Sex Can Wait curriculum series, consisting of upper elementary, middle school, and high school components. The…

  1. Learning from Others in 9-18-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goubet, Nathalie; Rochat, Philippe; Maire-Leblond, Celine; Poss, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    The use of an adult as a resource for help and instruction in a problem solving situation was examined in 9, 14, and 18-month-old infants. Infants were placed in various situations ranging from a simple means-end task where a toy was placed beyond infants' prehensile space on a mat, to instances where an attractive toy was placed inside closed…

  2. The Structure of Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in the General Population at 18 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beuker, Karin T.; Schjolberg, Synnve; Lie, Kari Kveim; Donders, Rogier; Lappenschaar, Martijn; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children in the population fit the three-factor structure of ASD as described in the DSM-IV, and cluster together in individual subjects. This study analysed questionnaire data on ASD symptoms filled in by mothers of 11,332 18-month-old children that was collected in the…

  3. Differential Mental Development of 18 Month-Old Same-Sexed and Opposite-Sexed Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathryn Norcross; Campbell, Kathleen M.

    This paper describes a study which examined the performance of 48 pairs of 18-month-old twins on the Mental Development Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development to determine whether score differences would be found for the three subgroups of identical, fraternal same-sexed, and fraternal opposite-sexed twins. Of the 96 subjects, 46 (23…

  4. The Role of Context in the Categorization of Hybrid Toy Stimuli by 18-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mareschal, Denis; Tan, Seok Hui

    2008-01-01

    Using a sequential touching procedure, we examined whether 18-month-olds could use different categorization strategies adaptively as a function of context. Infants were presented with test toys of land animals (quadrupeds), cars, and hybrids made by recombining car parts with animal parts. Infants who experienced a context emphasizing a taxonomic…

  5. Which Penguin Is This? Attributing False Beliefs about Object Identity at 18 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rose M.; Baillargeon, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shown that infants as young as 13 months can attribute false beliefs to agents, suggesting that the psychological-reasoning subsystem necessary for attributing reality-incongruent informational states (Subsystem-2, SS2) is operational in infancy. The present research asked whether 18-month-olds' false-belief reasoning extends…

  6. Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

  7. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results of an 18-Month Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Bahorik, Amber L.; Litschge, Maralee Y.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with autism experience significant impairments in social and non-social information processing for which few treatments have been developed. This study conducted an 18-month uncontrolled trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET), a comprehensive cognitive rehabilitation intervention, in 14 verbal adults with autism spectrum disorder to…

  8. Predicting Changes in Eating Disorder Symptoms among Adolescents in China: An 18-Month Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This 18-month prospective study investigated factors that contributed to changes in eating disorder symptoms among adolescents living in the People's Republic of China. Five hundred forty-one Chinese middle school and high school students (182 boys, 359 girls) completed measures of eating disorder symptoms; body dissatisfaction; appearance ideal…

  9. Object retrieval through observational learning in 8- to 18-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Esseily, R; Nadel, J; Fagard, J

    2010-12-01

    Observational learning was studied in 8-, 10-, 12-, 15- and 18-month-old infants. Using object-retrieval tasks of relatively comparable difficulty for each age group, we showed that between 10 and 12 months there is a change in the capacity to learn a new skill by observation.

  10. Psychological Morbidity in Children 18 Months after Kashmir Earthquake of 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayub, Muhammad; Poongan, Ishwari; Masood, Khadija; Gul, Huma; Ali, Mahwish; Farrukh, Ammara; Shaheen, Aisha; Chaudhry, Haroon Rasheed; Naeem, Farooq

    2012-01-01

    A severe earthquake occurred in Kashmir in 2005. The epicentre was close to Muzzafarabad. We collected data on over 1,100 children 18 months after the earthquake to look at symptoms of PTSD and behavioural and emotional problems using well established questionnaires. We found that 64.8% of children had significant symptoms of PTSD. Girls were more…

  11. An 18-Month Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Repeated Courses of Inhaled Aztreonam Lysine in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Oermann, Christopher M.; Retsch-Bogart, George Z.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Gibson, Ronald L.; McCoy, Karen S.; Montgomery, A. Bruce; Cooper, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Chronic airway infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) causes morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Additional anti-PA therapies are needed to improve health status and health-related quality of life. AIR-CF3 was an international 18-month, open-label study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of repeated courses of aztreonam for inhalation solution (AZLI, now marketed as Cayston®) in patients aged ≥6 years with CF and PA infection who previously participated in one of two Phase 3 studies: AIR-CF1 or AIR-CF2. Patients received up to nine courses (28 days on/28 days off) of 75 mg AZLI two (BID) or three times daily (TID) based on randomization in the previous trials. 274 patients, mean age 28.5 years (range: 8–74 years), participated. Mean treatment adherence was high (92.0% BID group, 88.0% TID group). Hospitalization rates were low and adverse events were consistent with CF With each course of AZLI, FEV1 and scores on the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised Respiratory Symptomscale improved and bacterial density in sputum was reduced. Benefits waned in the 28 days off therapy, but weight gain was sustained over the 18months. There were no sustained decreases in PA susceptibility. A dose response was observed; AZLI TID-treated patients demonstrated greater improvements in lung function and respiratory symptoms over 18 months. Repeated intermittent 28-day courses of AZLI treatment were well tolerated. Clinical benefits in pulmonary function, health-related quality of life, and weight were observed with each course of therapy. AZLI is a safe and effective new therapy in patients with CF and PA airway infection. PMID:20672296

  12. Jovian electrons during solar quiet time periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Peral, L.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Sequeiros, J.; Kunow, H.; Müller-Mellin, R.

    2002-03-01

    The electron spectrum in the energy range 150 keV to 10 MeV, measured by EPHIN sensor onboard SOHO observatory during 1996 quiet time periods, is presented. The results show that the dominant electron population is of jovian origin. The spectral indexes obtained range from 1.5 to 1.8. In this work an estimation of the emission intensity of electrons from the jovian magnetosphere is also obtained. Unexpected recurrence of jovian electrons at the middle of 1996 during poor Earth-Jupiter magnetic connection have been observed.

  13. First symbols in a girl with Down syndrome: a longitudinal study from 12 to 18 months.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Karina; Rodríguez, Cintia; Palacios, Pedro

    2014-08-01

    Symbolic uses of objects originate in communicative and triadic contexts (adult-child-object). In this longitudinal study we explore the emergence and development of the first symbolic uses in triadic interaction contexts in a girl with Down syndrome between 12 and 18-months of age. We conducted five sessions of video recording, at 12, 13½, 15, 16½, and 18 months chronological age. At each session we videotaped the girl and her mother interacting with different objects. Data were coded in semiotic categories used in previous studies (Rodríguez & Moro, 1999) and a microgenetic analysis was conducted for each session. The first symbolic uses by the girl appeared at 13½ months. Symbols were of different types and levels of complexity, and the adult had an important role in facilitating the production of these symbols.

  14. Understanding Attention: 12- and 18-Month-Olds Know What Is New for Other Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael; Haberl, Katharina

    2003-01-01

    Twelve- and 18-month-olds played with 2 adults and 2 new toys. For a third toy, one adult left the room while the child and other adult played with it. This adult returned, looked at the 3 toys, expressed excitement, and asked "Can you give it to me?" Infants at both ages were able to do so, suggesting that 1-year-olds understand other persons as…

  15. Assessment of the 18-month permanence of onlay tip cartilage grafts following rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Persichetti, Paolo; Simone, Pierfranco; Carusi, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    Augmentation rhinoplasty requires addition of materials of various natures to reshape the nasal pyramid. Onlay tip grafts are single or multilayered grafts placed horizontally over the alar domes. The aim of the present study was to assess the 18-month permanence of onlay septal cartilage grafts. Twenty-eight patients underwent rhinoplasty with onlay tip cartilage graft, between June 2008 and November 2008 at the Campus Bio-Medico University in Rome, Italy. They were reviewed and photographed 6 months and 18 months postoperatively. Comparison of 6-month and 18-month postoperative pictures was performed with Adobe Photoshop CS. Measurements on pictures were taken with AutoCAD. Comparison of photographs showed no visible difference in nasal tip projection. Comparison of the measurements of tip projection showed a mean reduction of 0.06 mm (0.19%). Considerable stability of nasal tip projection after rhinoplasty with onlay tip grafts was observed postoperatively. Comparison of standardised digital photographs is a valid procedure to assess contour alterations of various anatomical structures after plastic surgery. PMID:23547534

  16. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in typically developing infants from 4 to 18 months.

    PubMed

    van Balen, Lieke C; Dijkstra, Linze Jaap; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2012-07-01

    Knowledge on the development of postural adjustments during infancy, in particular on the development of postural muscle coordination, is limited. This study aimed at the evaluation of the development of postural control during reaching in a supported sitting condition. Eleven typically developing infants participated in the study and were assessed at the ages of 4, 6, 10 and 18 months. We elicited reaching movements by presenting small toys at an arm's length distance, whilst activity of multiple arm, neck and trunk muscles was recorded using surface EMG. A model-based computer algorithm was used to detect the onset of phasic muscle activity. The results indicated that postural muscle activity during reaching whilst sitting supported is highly variable. Direction-specific postural activity was inconsistently present from early age onwards and increased between 10 and 18 months without reaching a 100 % consistency. The dominant pattern of activation at all ages was the 'complete pattern', in which all direction-specific muscles were recruited. At 4 months, a slight preference for top-down recruitment existed, which was gradually replaced by a preference for bottom-up recruitment. We conclude that postural control during the ecological task of reaching during supported sitting between 4 and 18 months of age is primarily characterized by variation. Already from 4 months onwards, infants are-within the variation-sometimes able to select muscle recruitment strategies that are optimal to the task at hand. PMID:22623096

  17. A Pilot Clinical Trial of Creatine and Minocycline in Early Parkinson Disease: 18-Month Results

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report an 18-month follow-up on creatine and minocycline futility study, the Neuroprotective Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease, Futility Study 1 (NET-PD FS-1). Background The NET-PD FS-1 futility study on creatine and minocycline found neither agent futile in slowing down the progression of disability in Parkinson disease (PD) at 12 months using the prespecified futility threshold. An additional 6 months of follow-up aimed to assess safety and potential interactions of the study interventions with anti-parkinsonian therapy. Methods Additional 6 months of follow-up in randomized, blinded phase II trial of creatine (dosage, 10 g/d) and minocycline (dosage, 200 mg/d) in subjects with early PD. Results By 18 months, symptomatic treatment of PD symptoms was required in 61% of creatine, 62% of minocycline, and 60% of placebo-treated subjects. Study treatment was prematurely discontinued in 9%, 23%, and 6% of subjects in the creatine, minocycline, and placebo arms, respectively. Creatine and minocycline did not seem to adversely influence the response to symptomatic therapy nor increase adverse events. Conclusions Data from this small, 18-month phase II trial of creatine and minocycline do not demonstrate safety concerns that would preclude a large, phase III efficacy trial, although the decreased tolerability of minocycline is a concern. PMID:18520981

  18. An Experimental Trial of Adaptive Programming in Drug Court: Outcomes at 6, 12 and 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Benasutti, Kathleen M.; Fox, Gloria; Harron, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Test whether an adaptive program improves outcomes in drug court by adjusting the schedule of court hearings and clinical case-management sessions pursuant to a priori performance criteria. Methods Consenting participants in a misdemeanor drug court were randomly assigned to the adaptive program (n = 62) or to a baseline-matching condition (n = 63) in which they attended court hearings based on the results of a criminal risk assessment. Outcome measures were re-arrest rates at 18 months post-entry to the drug court and urine drug test results and structured interview results at 6 and 12 months post-entry. Results Although previously published analyses revealed significantly fewer positive drug tests for participants in the adaptive condition during the first 18 weeks of drug court, current analyses indicate the effects converged during the ensuing year. Between-group differences in new arrest rates, urine drug test results and self-reported psychosocial problems were small and non-statistically significant at 6, 12 and 18 months post-entry. A non-significant trend (p = .10) suggests there may have been a small residual impact (Cramer's ν = .15) on new misdemeanor arrests after 18 months. Conclusions Adaptive programming shows promise for enhancing short-term outcomes in drug courts; however, additional efforts are needed to extend the effects beyond the first 4 to 6 months of enrollment. PMID:25346652

  19. Assessment of the 18-month permanence of onlay tip cartilage grafts following rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Persichetti, Paolo; Simone, Pierfranco; Carusi, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    Augmentation rhinoplasty requires addition of materials of various natures to reshape the nasal pyramid. Onlay tip grafts are single or multilayered grafts placed horizontally over the alar domes. The aim of the present study was to assess the 18-month permanence of onlay septal cartilage grafts. Twenty-eight patients underwent rhinoplasty with onlay tip cartilage graft, between June 2008 and November 2008 at the Campus Bio-Medico University in Rome, Italy. They were reviewed and photographed 6 months and 18 months postoperatively. Comparison of 6-month and 18-month postoperative pictures was performed with Adobe Photoshop CS. Measurements on pictures were taken with AutoCAD. Comparison of photographs showed no visible difference in nasal tip projection. Comparison of the measurements of tip projection showed a mean reduction of 0.06 mm (0.19%). Considerable stability of nasal tip projection after rhinoplasty with onlay tip grafts was observed postoperatively. Comparison of standardised digital photographs is a valid procedure to assess contour alterations of various anatomical structures after plastic surgery.

  20. Hand- and Object-Mouthing of Rural Bangladeshi Children 3–18 Months Old

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Laura H.; Ercumen, Ayse; Pickering, Amy J.; Unicomb, Leanne; Davis, Jennifer; Luby, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Children are exposed to environmental contaminants by placing contaminated hands or objects in their mouths. We quantified hand- and object-mouthing frequencies of Bangladeshi children and determined if they differ from those of U.S. children to evaluate the appropriateness of applying U.S. exposure models in other socio-cultural contexts. We conducted a five-hour structured observation of the mouthing behaviors of 148 rural Bangladeshi children aged 3–18 months. We modeled mouthing frequencies using 2-parameter Weibull distributions to compare the modeled medians with those of U.S. children. In Bangladesh the median frequency of hand-mouthing was 37.3 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 34.4 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 29.7 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. The median frequency of object-mouthing was 23.1 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 29.6 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 15.2 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. At all ages both hand- and object-mouthing frequencies were higher than those of U.S. children. Mouthing frequencies were not associated with child location (indoor/outdoor). Using hand- and object-mouthing exposure models from U.S. and other high-income countries might not accurately estimate children’s exposure to environmental contaminants via mouthing in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:27271651

  1. Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Offspring Development at 18 Months: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stinger, Amanda; DiGirolamo, Ann M.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Neufeld, Lynnette M.; Rivera, Juan A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Stein, Aryeh D.; Wang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effects of prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on offspring development at 18 months of age. Design Randomized placebo double-blind controlled trial. Settings Cuernavaca, Mexico. Participants and Methods We followed up offspring (n = 730; 75% of the birth cohort) of women in Mexico who participated in a trial of DHA supplementation during the latter half of pregnancy. We assessed the effect of the intervention on child development and the potential modifying effects of gravidity, gender, SES, and quality of the home environment. Interventions or Main Exposures 400 mg/day of algal DHA. Outcome Measures Child development at 18 months of age measured using the Spanish version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. We calculated standardized psychomotor and mental development indices, and behavior rating scale scores. Results Intent-to-treat differences (DHA-control) were: Psychomotor Developmental Index -0.90 (95% CI: -2.35, 0.56), Mental Developmental Index -0.26 (95% CI: -1.63, 1.10) and Behavior Rating Scale -0.01 (95% CI: -0.95, 0.94). Prenatal DHA intake attenuated the positive association between home environment and psychomotor development index observed in the control group (p for interaction = 0.03) suggesting potential benefits for children living in home environments characterized by reduced caregiver interactions and opportunities for early childhood stimulation. Conclusions Prenatal DHA supplementation in a population with low intakes of DHA had no effects on offspring development at 18 months of age although there may be some benefit for infants from poor quality home environments. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00646360 PMID:26262896

  2. What Infants Know about Syntax but Couldn't Have Learned: Experimental Evidence for Syntactic Structure at 18 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidz, Jeffrey; Waxman, Sandra; Freedman, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Examined parental speech data demonstrating that linguistic input to children does not contain sufficient information to support unaided learning of the pronoun "one." Examined 18-month-olds' interpretation of sentences with a "one" substitution. Found that 18-month-olds have command of the syntax of "one." Because syntactic knowledge could not…

  3. 18-Month-Olds Predict Specific Action Mistakes through Attribution of False Belief, Not Ignorance, and Intervene Accordingly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudsen, Birgit; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This study employed a new "anticipatory intervening" paradigm to tease apart false belief and ignorance-based interpretations of 18-month-olds' helpful informing. We investigated in three experiments whether 18-month-old infants inform an adult selectively about one of the two locations depending on the adult's belief about which of the two…

  4. Emerging narrative discourse skills 18 months after traumatic brain injury in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the longer term effect of traumatic brain injury (TBI), approximately 18 months post-injury, on emerging narrative discourse skills of 85 children with orthopaedic injury (OI), 43 children with moderate TBI, and 19 children with severe TBI who were between 3 years and 6 years 11 months at injury. Children with TBI performed worse than children with OI on most discourse indices. Children with severe TBI were less proficient than children with moderate TBI at identifying unimportant story information. Age and pragmatic skills were predictors of discourse performance. PMID:22257728

  5. IMPACT OF FATHERS' ALCOHOLISM AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS ON PARENT-INFANT ATTACHMENT STABILITY FROM 12 TO 18 MONTHS.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ellen P; Eiden, Rina D; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2004-11-01

    This study examined short-term attachment stability and sought to identify predictors of stability and change within a sample characterized by fathers' alcoholism. Results suggest moderate stability of attachment classifications (60% for mothers, 53% for fathers) from 12 to 18 months. Higher paternal and maternal alcohol symptoms, maternal depression, and maternal antisocial behavior were found in families with stable insecure mother-infant attachment compared to those who were stable secure. Mother-infant stable insecurity was associated with higher levels of maternal negative affect expression during play. Father-infant stable insecurity was associated with lower levels of paternal positive affect expression and decreased sensitivity during play. Stable insecure children also had higher levels of negative affect during parent-infant interactions and higher negative emotionality during other episodes compared to stable secure children. Results indicate that infants who were insecure at both time points had the highest constellation of family risk characteristics.

  6. IMPACT OF FATHERS’ ALCOHOLISM AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS ON PARENT–INFANT ATTACHMENT STABILITY FROM 12 TO 18 MONTHS

    PubMed Central

    EDWARDS, ELLEN P.; EIDEN, RINA D.; LEONARD, KENNETH E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined short-term attachment stability and sought to identify predictors of stability and change within a sample characterized by fathers’ alcoholism. Results suggest moderate stability of attachment classifications (60% for mothers, 53% for fathers) from 12 to 18 months. Higher paternal and maternal alcohol symptoms, maternal depression, and maternal antisocial behavior were found in families with stable insecure mother–infant attachment compared to those who were stable secure. Mother–infant stable insecurity was associated with higher levels of maternal negative affect expression during play. Father–infant stable insecurity was associated with lower levels of paternal positive affect expression and decreased sensitivity during play. Stable insecure children also had higher levels of negative affect during parent–infant interactions and higher negative emotionality during other episodes compared to stable secure children. Results indicate that infants who were insecure at both time points had the highest constellation of family risk characteristics. PMID:19436769

  7. [An 18 month evaluation of MM-MTA pulpotomy on primary decayed molars].

    PubMed

    Abou Chedid, J C; Mchayleh, N; Khalil, I; Melki, B; Hardan, L S

    2015-12-01

    Pulpotomy is the most performed and controversial therapeutic in pediatric dentistry. Formocresol is known to have a toxic effect on living tissues, a mutagenic and carcinogenic potential with a systemic uptake of formocresol via pulpotomized teeth, other alternative products have been investigated. 40 molars were pulpotomized using Micro Mega Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MM-MTA), which eliminates the need for the use of formocresol. The effects of this material were evaluated both clinically and radiographically. Post-operative control examinations were performed at 1, 6, 12, and 18 months trying to detect spontaneous or stimulated pain, pathological tooth mobility, abscesses or fistulas, internal or external pathological tooth resorption, periapical bone destruction, or canal obliteration. Pain was absent at 18 months post operatively. Thirty six molar treated with the MM-MTA didn't show any mobility or pain, one molar presented a pathological resorption and one molar presented an abscess without a fistula at 12 month. The observations were compared to others related to formocresol, ferric sulfate, MTA, and laser pulpotomies, using the Chi-square test x2. The abundance of positive result strongly demonstrate that the MM-MTA pulpotomy on carious temporary molars is a promising technique. PMID:26939217

  8. Creatin-kinase elevation after accidental ingestion of almotriptan in an 18-month-old girl.

    PubMed

    Castagno, E; Lupica, M; Viola, S; Savino, F; Miniero, R

    2014-02-01

    Few studies have been published to demonstrate tolerability and efficacy of almotriptan in adolescents and children with migraine, particularly in the first years of life, though preliminary results are favorable. We report the case of an 18-month-old infant with elevation of serum levels of creatin-kinase after the accidental ingestion of almotriptan. A previously healthy 18-month-old girl (weight: 13 kg) was admitted to our Department four hours after the accidental ingestion of 6.25 mg of almotriptan (0.48 mg/kg), without any specific symptom. The performed investigations showed high serum levels of creatin-kinase (CK) (527 IU/L; normal values: 24-170 IU/L). Transaminase, creatinine, aldolase, myoglobin and troponin T serum levels were normal. The electrocardiogram proved negative. Initial management consisted of parenteral rehydration with saline solution. CK levels lowered significantly at 12 hours (455 IU/L) and at 65 hours (188 IU/L) after the ingestion. No symptoms were observed before discharge and on follow-up.

  9. Epidemiology of Dengue Among Children Aged < 18 Months-Puerto Rico, 1999-2011.

    PubMed

    Hause, Anne M; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Han, George S; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Aiwazian, Jonathan; Margolis, Harold S; Tomashek, Kay M

    2016-02-01

    Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral illness caused by dengue virus types (DENV)-1 to DENV-4, is endemic in Puerto Rico. Severe dengue usually occurs in individuals previously infected with DENV or among infants born to previously infected mothers. To describe clinical features of dengue in infants, we retrospectively characterized dengue patients aged < 18 months reported to the Passive Dengue Surveillance System (PDSS) during 1999-2011. To determine frequency of signs, symptoms, and disease severity, case report forms and medical records were evaluated for patients who tested positive for dengue by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or anti-DENV immunoglobulin Menzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 4,178 reported patients aged < 18 months, 813 (19%) were laboratory positive. Of these, most had fever (92%), rash (53%), bleeding manifestations (52%), and thrombocytopenia (52%). Medical records were available for 145 (31%) of 472 hospitalized patients, of which 40% had dengue, 23% had dengue with warning signs, and 33% had severe dengue. Mean age of patients with severe dengue was 8 months. Anti-DENV immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were not statistically different in patients with (50%) and without (59%) severe dengue. In this study, one-third of DENV-infected infants met the severe dengue case definition. The role of maternal anti-DENV IgG in development of severe disease warrants further study in prospective cohorts of mother-infant pairs. PMID:26711519

  10. Attributing false beliefs about non-obvious properties at 18 months

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Rose M.; Baillargeon, Renée; Song, Hyun-joo; Leslie, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    Reports that infants in the second year of life can attribute false beliefs to others have all used a search paradigm in which an agent with a false belief about an object’s location searches for the object. The present research asked whether 18-month-olds would still demonstrate false-belief understanding when tested with a novel non-search paradigm. An experimenter shook an object, demonstrating that it rattled, and then asked an agent, “Can you do it?” In response to this prompt, the agent selected one of two test objects. Infants realized that the agent could be led through inference (Experiment 1) or memory (Experiment 2) to hold a false belief about which of the two test objects rattled. These results suggest that 18-month-olds can attribute false beliefs about non-obvious properties to others, and can do so in a non-search paradigm. These and additional results (Experiment 3) help address several alternative interpretations of false-belief findings with infants. PMID:21047625

  11. Epidemiology of Dengue Among Children Aged < 18 Months-Puerto Rico, 1999-2011.

    PubMed

    Hause, Anne M; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Han, George S; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Aiwazian, Jonathan; Margolis, Harold S; Tomashek, Kay M

    2016-02-01

    Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral illness caused by dengue virus types (DENV)-1 to DENV-4, is endemic in Puerto Rico. Severe dengue usually occurs in individuals previously infected with DENV or among infants born to previously infected mothers. To describe clinical features of dengue in infants, we retrospectively characterized dengue patients aged < 18 months reported to the Passive Dengue Surveillance System (PDSS) during 1999-2011. To determine frequency of signs, symptoms, and disease severity, case report forms and medical records were evaluated for patients who tested positive for dengue by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or anti-DENV immunoglobulin Menzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 4,178 reported patients aged < 18 months, 813 (19%) were laboratory positive. Of these, most had fever (92%), rash (53%), bleeding manifestations (52%), and thrombocytopenia (52%). Medical records were available for 145 (31%) of 472 hospitalized patients, of which 40% had dengue, 23% had dengue with warning signs, and 33% had severe dengue. Mean age of patients with severe dengue was 8 months. Anti-DENV immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were not statistically different in patients with (50%) and without (59%) severe dengue. In this study, one-third of DENV-infected infants met the severe dengue case definition. The role of maternal anti-DENV IgG in development of severe disease warrants further study in prospective cohorts of mother-infant pairs.

  12. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with marine and botanical oils: an 18-month, randomized, and double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Reed, George W; Leung, Katherine; Rossetti, Ronald G; Vanbuskirk, Susan; Sharp, John T; Zurier, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether a combination of borage seed oil rich in gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is superior to either oil alone for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Patients were randomized into a double-blind, 18-month trial. Mixed effects models compared trends over time in disease activity measures. Results. No significant differences were observed in changes in disease activity among the three randomized groups. Each group exhibited significant reductions in disease activity (DAS28) at 9 months (fish: -1.56[-2.16, -0.96], borage: -1.33[-1.83, -0.84], combined: -1.18[-1.83, -0.54]) and in CDAI (fish: -16.95[-19.91, -13.98], borage: -11.20[-14.21, -8.19], and combined: -10.31[-13.61, -7.01]). There were no significant differences in change of RA medications among the three groups. Reduced disease activity in study patients was similar to matched patients from an RA registry, and reduction in DMARD use was greater (P < 0.03) in study patients. Conclusion. All 3 treatment groups exhibited similar meaningful clinical responses after 9 months, improvements which persisted for 18 months, and a response similar to matched patients from an RA registry. Study patients were able to reduce DMARD therapy given in combination with TNF antagonists to a greater extent than registry patients. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr. John T. Sharp, M.D., a pioneer and innovator in the field of musculoskeletal radiology. PMID:24803948

  13. Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Marine and Botanical Oils: An 18-Month, Randomized, and Double-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    Reed, George W.; Leung, Katherine; Rossetti, Ronald G.; VanBuskirk, Susan; Sharp, John T.; Zurier, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether a combination of borage seed oil rich in gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is superior to either oil alone for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Patients were randomized into a double-blind, 18-month trial. Mixed effects models compared trends over time in disease activity measures. Results. No significant differences were observed in changes in disease activity among the three randomized groups. Each group exhibited significant reductions in disease activity (DAS28) at 9 months (fish: −1.56[−2.16, −0.96], borage: −1.33[−1.83, −0.84], combined: −1.18[−1.83, −0.54]) and in CDAI (fish: −16.95[−19.91, −13.98], borage: −11.20[−14.21, −8.19], and combined: −10.31[−13.61, −7.01]). There were no significant differences in change of RA medications among the three groups. Reduced disease activity in study patients was similar to matched patients from an RA registry, and reduction in DMARD use was greater (P < 0.03) in study patients. Conclusion. All 3 treatment groups exhibited similar meaningful clinical responses after 9 months, improvements which persisted for 18 months, and a response similar to matched patients from an RA registry. Study patients were able to reduce DMARD therapy given in combination with TNF antagonists to a greater extent than registry patients. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr. John T. Sharp, M.D., a pioneer and innovator in the field of musculoskeletal radiology PMID:24803948

  14. European collaboration for improved monitoring of Icelandic volcanoes: Status of the FUTUREVOLC project after the initial 18 months

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Stéphanie; Parks, Michelle; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Vogfjörð, Kristín; Einarsdóttir, Heiðveig Maria; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnús; Kristinsson, Ingvar; Loughlin, Sue; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Hooper, Andrew; Kylling, Arve; Witham, Claire; Bean, Chris; Braiden, Aoife; Ripepe, Maurizio; Prata, Fred; Pétur Heiðarsson, Einar; Other Members Of The Futurevolc Team

    2014-05-01

    The FUTUREVOLC project funded by the European Union (FP7) is devoted to volcanic hazard assessment and establishing an integrated volcanological monitoring procedure through a European collaboration. To reach these objectives the project combines broad expertise from 26 partners from 10 countries, focusing on the four most active volcanoes of Iceland: Grímsvötn, Katla, Hekla and Bárdarbunga. The geological setting of Iceland, the high rate of eruptions and the various eruption styles make this country an optimal natural laboratory to study volcanic processes from crustal depths to the atmosphere. The project, which began on 1 October 2012, integrates advanced monitoring and analytical techniques in an innovative way, focusing on (i) detailed monitoring to improve our understanding of the seismic/magmatic unrest, in order to estimate the amount of magma available for an eruption and to provide early warnings (ii) the dynamics of magma in the conduit and a near real time estimation of the mass eruption rate and (iii) observing and modelling the plume dynamics. The project design considers effective collaboration between partners and aims for efficient cross-disciplinary workflows. A major step during the first 18 months of the project was the installation of additional equipment in the volcanic regions of Iceland to reinforce and complement the existing monitoring. The instruments include: seismometers, GPS stations, MultigGAS detectors, DOAS, infrasonic arrays, electric field sensors, radars, and optical particle sizers. Data streaming is designed to withstand extreme weather conditions. The FUTUREVOLC project has an open data policy for real and near-time data. Implementation of a data hub is currently under way, based on open access to data from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Access to volcano monitoring data through a common interface will allow timely information on magma movements facilitated through combined analysis. A key part of the project is to

  15. 43 CFR 45.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 45.3... IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES General Provisions § 45.3 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are computed as follows: (1) The day of the act or event from which the period begins...

  16. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in police staff 12-18 months after the Canterbury earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Surgenor, Lois J; Snell, Deborah L; Dorahy, Martin J

    2015-04-01

    Understanding posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in police first-responders is an underdeveloped field. Using a cross-sectional survey, this study investigated demographic and occupational characteristics, coping resources and processes, along with first-responder roles and consequences 18 months following a disaster. Hierarchical linear regression (N = 576) showed that greater symptom levels were significantly positively associated with negative emotional coping (β = .31), a communications role (β = .08) and distress following exposure to resource losses (β = .14), grotesque scenes (β = .21), personal harm (β = .14), and concern for significant others (β = .17). Optimism alone was negatively associated (β = -.15), with the overall model being a modest fit (adjusted R(2) = .39). The findings highlight variables for further study in police.

  17. Changes in the Optical Properties of Materials Are Observed After 18 Months in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    1999-01-01

    Materials located on the exterior of spacecraft in low Earth orbit are subjected to a number of environmental threats, including atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeroid and debris impact. Atomic oxygen attacks materials vulnerable to oxidation. Ultraviolet radiation can break chemical bonds and cause undesirable changes in optical properties. Thermal cycling can cause cracking, and micrometeroid and debris impacts can damage protective coatings. Another threat is contamination. The outgassing of volatile chemicals can contaminate nearby surfaces, changing their thermal control properties. Contaminated surfaces may undergo further change as a result of atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation exposure. The Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA) experiment was designed as a risk mitigation experiment for the International Space Station. Samples were characterized before launch, exposed for 18 months on the exterior of Mir, and characterized upon their return. Lessons learned from POSA about the durability of material properties can be applied to the space station and other long-duration missions.

  18. [Screening of hearing in children up to 18 months of age].

    PubMed

    Theunissen, E J

    2000-03-25

    In the Netherlands the hearing screening of young children is carried out at the age of nine months by the Ewing or 'Compact Amsterdam paedo-audiometric screener' (CAPAS) test. These screening tests do not always lead to the necessary follow-up diagnostics, mainly because the different disciplines disagree. Recently a consensus concerning the follow-up of children with a poor test result was reached by the Youth Health Care institutions, general practitioners, paediatricians, ENT physicians and audiologic centres. Each party has its own responsibilities and commits itself to complete the diagnostics before the age of 18 months. Until new screening methods have been validated it is advised to refer all children with poor screening test results for special diagnostics, if necessary after they have been treated for otitis media with effusion. Currently the most appropriate method for final diagnosis is the measurement of oto-acoustic emissions. PMID:10761544

  19. Understanding attention: 12- and 18-month-olds know what is new for other persons.

    PubMed

    Tomasello, Michael; Haberl, Katharina

    2003-09-01

    Infants at 12 and 18 months of age played with 2 adults and 2 new toys. For a 3rd toy, however, 1 of the adults left the room while the child and the other adult played with it. This adult then returned, looked at all 3 toys aligned on a tray, showed great excitement ("Wow! Cool!"), and then asked, "Can you give it to me?' To retrieve the toy the adult wanted, infants had to (a) know that people attend to and get excited about new things and (b) identify what was new for the adult even though it was not new for them. Infants at both ages did this successfully, lending support to the hypothesis that 1-year-old infants possess a genuine understanding of other persons as intentional and attentional agents. PMID:12952402

  20. Vitamin D and Risk for Vitamin A Intoxication in an 18-Month-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Barreca, Massimo; Galiano, Rossella; Galati, Maria Concetta; Raiola, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    An 18-month-old boy presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and poor appetite for 6 days. He had been given a multivitamin preparation once daily, containing 50.000 IU of vitamin D and 10.000 IU of vitamin A for a wide anterior fontanelle for about three months. He presented with hypercalcemia, low levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), and very high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels. Renal ultrasound showed nephrocalcinosis. He did not have sign or symptom of vitamin A intoxication. Patient was successfully treated with intravenous hydration, furosemide, and prednisolone. With treatment, serum calcium returned rapidly to the normal range and serum 25-OHD levels were reduced progressively. In conclusion the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency rickets without checking 25-OHD levels may cause redundant treatment that leads to vitamin D intoxication (VDI). PMID:27478669

  1. Factors predicting sensory profile of 4 to 18 month old infants

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Carina; Caçola, Priscila; Carvalhal, Maria Isabel Martins Mourão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify environment factors predicting sensory profile of infants between 4 and 18 months old. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated 97 infants (40 females e 57 males), with a mean age of 1.05±0.32 years with the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants (TSFI) and also asked 97 parents and 11 kindergarten teachers of seven daycare centers to answer the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS). The AHEMD-IS is a questionnaire that characterizes the opportunities in the home environment for infants between 3 and 18 months of age. We tested the association between affordances and the sensory profile of infants. Significant variables were entered into a regression model to determine predictors of sensory profile. RESULTS: The majority of infants (66%) had a normal sensory profile and 34% were at risk or deficit. Affordances in the home were classified as adequate and they were good in the studied daycare centers. The results of the regression revealed that only daily hours in daycare center and daycare outside space influenced the sensory profile of infants, in particular the Ocular-Motor Control component. CONCLUSIONS: The sensory profile of infants was between normal and at risk. While the family home offered adequate affordances for motor development, the daycare centers of the infants involved demonstrated a good quantity and quality of affordances. Overall, we conclude that daily hours in the daycare center and daycare outside space were predictors of the sensory profile, particular on Ocular-Motor Control component. PMID:25887929

  2. Language development at 18 months is related to multimodal communicative strategies at 12 months.

    PubMed

    Igualada, Alfonso; Bosch, Laura; Prieto, Pilar

    2015-05-01

    The present study investigated the degree to which an infants' use of simultaneous gesture-speech combinations during controlled social interactions predicts later language development. Nineteen infants participated in a declarative pointing task involving three different social conditions: two experimental conditions (a) available, when the adult was visually attending to the infant but did not attend to the object of reference jointly with the child, and (b) unavailable, when the adult was not visually attending to neither the infant nor the object; and (c) a baseline condition, when the adult jointly engaged with the infant's object of reference. At 12 months of age measures related to infants' speech-only productions, pointing-only gestures, and simultaneous pointing-speech combinations were obtained in each of the three social conditions. Each child's lexical and grammatical output was assessed at 18 months of age through parental report. Results revealed a significant interaction between social condition and type of communicative production. Specifically, only simultaneous pointing-speech combinations increased in frequency during the available condition compared to baseline, while no differences were found for speech-only and pointing-only productions. Moreover, simultaneous pointing-speech combinations in the available condition at 12 months positively correlated with lexical and grammatical development at 18 months of age. The ability to selectively use this multimodal communicative strategy to engage the adult in joint attention by drawing his attention toward an unseen event or object reveals 12-month-olds' clear understanding of referential cues that are relevant for language development. This strategy to successfully initiate and maintain joint attention is related to language development as it increases learning opportunities from social interactions.

  3. Maternal PUFA status and offspring allergic diseases up to the age of 18 months.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ya-Mei; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Calder, Philip C; Hardjojo, Antony; Soh, Shu-E; Lim, Ai Lin; Fisk, Helena L; Teoh, Oon Hoe; Goh, Anne; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Pan, An; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; van Bever, Hugo P S

    2015-03-28

    Studies have suggested that maternal PUFA status during pregnancy may influence early childhood allergic diseases, although findings are inconsistent. We examined the relationship between maternal PUFA status and risk of allergic diseases in early childhood in an Asian cohort. Maternal plasma samples from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort were assayed at 26-28 weeks of gestation for relative abundance of PUFA. Offspring (n 960) were followed up from 3 weeks to 18 months of age, and clinical outcomes of potential allergic diseases (rhinitis, eczema and wheezing) were assessed by repeated questionnaires. Skin prick testing (SPT) was also performed at the age of 18 months. Any allergic disease with positive SPT was defined as having any one of the clinical outcomes plus a positive SPT. The prevalence of a positive SPT, rhinitis, eczema, wheezing and any allergic disease with positive SPT was 14·1 % (103/728), 26·5 % (214/808), 17·6 % (147/833), 10·9 % (94/859) and 9·4 % (62/657), respectively. After adjustment for confounders, maternal total n-3, n-6 PUFA status and the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio were not significantly associated with offspring rhinitis, eczema, wheezing, a positive SPT and having any allergic disease with positive SPT in the offspring (P>0·01 for all). A weak trend of higher maternal n-3 PUFA being associated with higher risk of allergic diseases with positive SPT in offspring was observed. These findings do not support the hypothesis that the risk of early childhood allergic diseases is modified by variation in maternal n-3 and n-6 PUFA status during pregnancy in an Asian population.

  4. Developmental outcomes among 18-month-old Malawians after a year of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements or corn-soy flour.

    PubMed

    Phuka, John C; Gladstone, Melissa; Maleta, Kenneth; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Cheung, Yin Bun; Briend, André; Manary, Mark J; Ashorn, Per

    2012-04-01

    The major aim of this trial was to compare the development of 18-month-old infants who received complementary feeding for 1 year either with lipid-based nutrient supplements or micronutrient fortified corn-soy porridge. Our secondary aim was to determine the socio-economic factors associated with developmental outcomes in the same population. A total of 163 six-month-old rural Malawian children were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial where the control population received daily supplementation with 71 g corn-soy flour [Likuni Phala (LP)] (282 kcal) and individuals in the intervention groups received daily either 50 g of lipid-based nutrient supplement (FS50) (264 kcal) or 25 g of lipid-based nutrient supplement (FS25) (130 kcal). The main outcome measures were Griffiths' developmental scores at 0-2 years. Independent comparison of study groups was carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistics where mean raw scores, quotients, or mental ages were compared. Association of developmental outcome with predictor variables were examined using multiple regression. At 18 months of chronological age, the mean ± standard deviation (SD) mental ages in the LP, FS50, and FS25 groups were 17.9 ± 1.3, 17.9 ± 1.3, and 17.9 ± 1.2 (P > 0.99), respectively. Likewise, the mean raw developmental scores and mean developmental quotients did not differ significantly. Length-for-age z-score gain during the intervention period, and maternal education were associated with developmental outcome at 18 months (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04; respectively). In conclusion, rural Malawian infants receiving 12-month daily supplementation of their diet either with the tested lipid-based nutrient supplements or fortified corn-soy flour have comparable development outcomes by 18 months of age. PMID:21342456

  5. Neurocognitive Speed and Inconsistency in Parkinson’s Disease With and Without Incipient Dementia: An 18-month Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    de Frias, Cindy M.; Dixon, Roger A.; Camicioli, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We examined two-wave longitudinal changes in two indicators of neurocognitive speed (i.e., mean rate, intraindividual variability) using one simple and three complex reaction time tasks. Participants included idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, with and without incipient dementia, and normal controls. At baseline, there were 45 patients (26 men, 19 women) with idiopathic PD who ranged from 65 to 84 years (M = 71.3, SD = 4.5) and 47 matched controls (27 men, 20 women) who ranged from 65 to 84 years (M = 71.4, SD = 4.9). The 18-month longitudinal sample comprised of 74 returning participants (43 controls, 31 PD patients) who had no cognitive impairment or dementia at both waves. Ten of the 31 PD patients returning for Time 3 had dementia or cognitive impairment. These constituted the PD with incipient dementia (PDID) group. Repeated measures analyses of variance showed that the PD and PDID groups were slower over time on the RT tasks whereas the controls improved their performance over time on all tasks. Inconsistency distinguished the two clinical groups (i.e., the PDID group but not the PD group became more inconsistent over time). Changes in neurocognitive speed and inconsistency may be valid clinical markers of PDID. PMID:22621940

  6. Sustained Weight Loss with Vagal Nerve Blockade but Not with Sham: 18-Month Results of the ReCharge Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shikora, Scott A.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Apovian, Caroline M.; Anvari, Mehran; Sarwer, David B.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Miller, Christopher J.; Knudson, Mark B.; Tweden, Katherine S.; Sarr, Michael G.; Billington, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives. Vagal block therapy (vBloc) is effective for moderate to severe obesity at one year. Subjects/Methods. The ReCharge trial is a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial of 239 participants with body mass index (BMI) of 40 to 45 kg/m or 35 to 40 kg/m with one or more obesity-related conditions. Interventions were implantation of either vBloc or Sham devices and weight management counseling. Mixed models assessed percent excess weight loss (%EWL) and total weight loss (%TWL) in intent-to-treat analyses. At 18 months, 142 (88%) vBloc and 64 (83%) Sham patients remained enrolled in the study. Results. 18-month weight loss was 23% EWL (8.8% TWL) for vBloc and 10% EWL (3.8% TWL) for Sham (P < 0.0001). vBloc patients largely maintained 12-month weight loss of 26% EWL (9.7% TWL). Sham regained over 40% of the 17% EWL (6.4% TWL) by 18 months. Most weight regain preceded unblinding. Common adverse events of vBloc through 18 months were heartburn/dyspepsia and abdominal pain; 98% of events were reported as mild or moderate and 79% had resolved. Conclusions. Weight loss with vBloc was sustained through 18 months, while Sham regained weight between 12 and 18 months. vBloc is effective with a low rate of serious complications. PMID:26246907

  7. 7 CFR 1.603 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How are time periods computed? 1.603 Section 1.603 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses General Provisions § 1.603 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are...

  8. 7 CFR 1.603 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How are time periods computed? 1.603 Section 1.603 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses General Provisions § 1.603 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are...

  9. 7 CFR 1.603 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How are time periods computed? 1.603 Section 1.603 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses General Provisions § 1.603 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are...

  10. 7 CFR 1.603 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How are time periods computed? 1.603 Section 1.603 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses General Provisions § 1.603 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are...

  11. 38 CFR 8.6 - Calculation of time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculation of time period. 8.6 Section 8.6 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Calculation of Time Period § 8.6 Calculation of time period. If the last day of...

  12. 38 CFR 8.6 - Calculation of time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculation of time period. 8.6 Section 8.6 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Calculation of Time Period § 8.6 Calculation of time period. If the last day of...

  13. 38 CFR 8.6 - Calculation of time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calculation of time period. 8.6 Section 8.6 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Calculation of Time Period § 8.6 Calculation of time period. If the last day of...

  14. 38 CFR 8.6 - Calculation of time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of time period. 8.6 Section 8.6 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Calculation of Time Period § 8.6 Calculation of time period. If the last day of...

  15. 50 CFR 221.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 221.3 Section 221.3 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Provisions § 221.3 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are computed as follows: (1)...

  16. 7 CFR 1.603 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are time periods computed? 1.603 Section 1.603 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses General Provisions § 1.603 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are...

  17. Detecting unstable periodic orbits from transient chaotic time series

    PubMed

    Dhamala; Lai; Kostelich

    2000-06-01

    We address the detection of unstable periodic orbits from experimentally measured transient chaotic time series. In particular, we examine recurrence times of trajectories in the vector space reconstructed from an ensemble of such time series. Numerical experiments demonstrate that this strategy can yield periodic orbits of low periods even when noise is present. We analyze the probability of finding periodic orbits from transient chaotic time series and derive a scaling law for this probability. The scaling law implies that unstable periodic orbits of high periods are practically undetectable from transient chaos.

  18. Contact time periods in immunological synapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Daniel R.; Chattopadhyay, Amit K.

    2014-10-01

    This paper resolves the long standing debate as to the proper time scale <τ> of the onset of the immunological synapse bond, the noncovalent chemical bond defining the immune pathways involving T cells and antigen presenting cells. Results from our model calculations show <τ> to be of the order of seconds instead of minutes. Close to the linearly stable regime, we show that in between the two critical spatial thresholds defined by the integrin:ligand pair (Δ2˜ 40-45 nm) and the T-cell receptor TCR:peptide-major-histocompatibility-complex pMHC bond (Δ1˜ 14-15 nm), <τ> grows monotonically with increasing coreceptor bond length separation δ (= Δ2-Δ1˜ 26-30 nm) while <τ> decays with Δ1 for fixed Δ2. The nonuniversal δ-dependent power-law structure of the probability density function further explains why only the TCR:pMHC bond is a likely candidate to form a stable synapse.

  19. Intersubjective Interaction Between Deaf Parents/Deaf Infants During the Infant's First 18 Months.

    PubMed

    Roos, Carin; Cramér-Wolrath, Emelie; Falkman, Kerstin W

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of a larger longitudinal project with the aim of focusing early social interaction and development of mentalizing ability in 12 deaf infants, including the interaction between the infants and their deaf parents. The aim of the present paper is to describe early social interaction and moments of intersubjectivity between the deaf infants and their deaf parents during the first 18 months of the infant's life. The study is focused on the dyadic interaction rather than on the behaviors of the infant and the caregiver separately. In the analysis, the Intersubjective Developmental Theory Model (Loots, Devisé, & Sermijn, 2003) and the definitions of moments of intersubjectivity (Loots, Devisé, & Jacquet, 2005) were used. The findings show that the participating infants follow a typical developmental trajectory of intersubjectivity, both with regard to developmental stages and age. This development is supported by a visual, simultaneous way of communicating by gaze rather than having constant eye contact. Parents use complex visual communication skills in maintaining joint attention and also expect the infant to grasp the meaning of the interaction by use of gaze contact.

  20. Environmental impacts of the coal ash spill in Kingston, Tennessee: an 18-month survey.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, Laura; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary S; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Deonarine, Amrika

    2010-12-15

    An 18 month investigation of the environmental impacts of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) coal ash spill in Kingston, Tennessee combined with leaching experiments on the spilled TVA coal ash have revealed that leachable coal ash contaminants (LCACs), particularly arsenic, selenium, boron, strontium, and barium, have different effects on the quality of impacted environments. While LCACs levels in the downstream river water are relatively low and below the EPA drinking water and ecological thresholds, elevated levels were found in surface water with restricted water exchange and in pore water extracted from the river sediments downstream from the spill. The high concentration of arsenic (up to 2000 μg/L) is associated with some degree of anoxic conditions and predominance of the reduced arsenic species (arsenite) in the pore waters. Laboratory leaching simulations show that the pH and ash/water ratio control the LCACs' abundance and geochemical composition of the impacted water. These results have important implications for the prediction of the fate and migration of LCACs in the environment, particularly for the storage of coal combustion residues (CCRs) in holding ponds and landfills, and any potential CCRs effluents leakage into lakes, rivers, and other aquatic systems.

  1. Greater length-for-age increases the odds of attaining motor milestones in Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shibani; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Dearden, Kirk A; Marsh, David R; Ha, Tran Thu; Tran, Thach Duc; Pachón, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood malnutrition has been associated with delayed development. Limited data exist however about the timing of developmental delay early in life. We assessed motor milestone (MM) achievement using the World Health Organization's windows of achievement for gross motor milestones. We performed secondary analysis of baseline data of 158 Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months from a randomized community intervention trial. Median age of motor milestone achievement was compared to WHO reported medians. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic, anthropometric and dietary factors associated with motor milestone achievement during the windows of achievement. Thirty four per cent of the children were stunted. Median age of MM achievement of Vietnamese children lagged by 2.4-3.7 months, compared to the WHO median for all MMs. Greater length-for-age increased the odds for walking with assistance, standing alone and walking alone by more than 3 times. Greater weight-for-age increased the odds by 3.6 for hand-and-knees crawling. Likewise, frequency of daily complementary feeding raised the odds by 3.6 for standing with assistance. In this first application of WHO windows of achievement in Viet Nam, pre-schoolers achieved motor milestones later than WHO reported median age. High prevalence of stunting and association of length-for-age with motor milestone achievement underscore the importance of addressing chronic malnutrition to optimize children's growth and development.

  2. Student Instruction Should Be Distributed over Long Time Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Doug

    2015-01-01

    In many academic courses, students encounter a particular fact or concept many times over a period of a few weeks and then do not see it again during the remainder of the course. Are these brief instructional periods sufficient, or should the same amount of instruction be distributed over longer periods of time? This question was the focus of…

  3. A virtual reality intervention (Second Life) to improve weight maintenance: Rationale and design for an 18-month randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, D K; Goetz, J R; Gibson, C A; Mayo, M S; Washburn, R A; Lee, Y; Ptomey, L T; Donnelly, J E

    2016-01-01

    Despite the plethora of weight loss programs available in the US, the prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI≥25kg/m(2)) among US adults continues to rise at least, in part, due to the high probability of weight regain following weight loss. Thus, the development and evaluation of novel interventions designed to improve weight maintenance are clearly needed. Virtual reality environments offer a promising platform for delivering weight maintenance interventions as they provide rapid feedback, learner experimentation, real-time personalized task selection and exploration. Utilizing virtual reality during weight maintenance allows individuals to engage in repeated experiential learning, practice skills, and participate in real-life scenarios without real-life repercussions, which may diminish weight regain. We will conduct an 18-month effectiveness trial (6 months weight loss, 12 months weight maintenance) in 202 overweight/obese adults (BMI 25-44.9kg/m(2)). Participants who achieve ≥5% weight loss following a 6month weight loss intervention delivered by phone conference call will be randomized to weight maintenance interventions delivered by conference call or conducted in a virtual environment (Second Life®). The primary aim of the study is to compare weight change during maintenance between the phone conference call and virtual groups. Secondarily, potential mediators of weight change including energy and macronutrient intake, physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables, self-efficacy for both physical activity and diet, and attendance and completion of experiential learning assignments will also be assessed.

  4. Purpuric nodules and macules on the scalp of an 18-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Malbora, Baris; Senel, Engin; Avci, Zekai; Ozbek, Namik

    2010-01-01

    An 18-month-old boy was consulted to a pediatric clinic with a 5-month history of purpuric macules and nodules on the scalp. He had a history of trauma (falling down from a chair) to the scalp about 6 months before the consultation. He had been brought to an emergency department after the trauma. Cranial computed tomography revealed a small crack on the temporal bone. Purpuric macules and nodules of the scalp had been noticed on the control 1 month later. Results of total blood tests had been within normal limits. Dermatologic examination disclosed multiple pink to violaceous infiltrated cutaneous nodules and purpuric macules with diameters of0.5 to 1.5 cm on his scalp (Figure 1). No petechiae or ecchymoses were seen. Cervical lymphadenopathy was detected during physical examination. There was no hepatosplenomegaly. A punch biopsy was obtained from one of the infiltrated nodules and was sent for histopathologic examination. Histopathologic examination revealed diffuse dermal and subcutaneous edema, erythrocyte extravasation and infiltration by monomorphic cells with large hyperchromatic nuclei, and high mitotic activity (Figure 2). Histopathologic staining was positive for leukocyte common antigen and CD68 in these cells. Results of complete blood cell count of the patient were as follows: hemoglobin: 8.44 g/dL; white blood cell count: 29.2 x 10(9)/L; and platelet count 55.6 x 10(9)/L. Bone marrow aspirate results showed 68.4% blast cells and a biopsy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia, with flow cytometry findings positive for acute monoblastic leukemia (AML) French-American-British (FAB)-M5 phenotype. We initiated induction chemotherapy for AML (AML-M5) according to the AML Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster 2004 protocol.' Complete resolution of the leukemia cutis lesions was attained with chemotherapy at the end of the first month of treatment.

  5. DENTAL CARIES AND RELATED ORAL HEALTH FACTORS AMONG 9 TO 18 MONTH OLD THAI CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Detsomboonrat, Palinee; Pisarnturakit, Pagaporn Pantuwadee

    2015-07-01

    Dental caries can occur as soon as the first tooth erupts. We studied the caries prevalence and related risk factors among children aged 9-18 months in U Thong District, Suphan Buri Province, Thailand. A total of 151 children, whose primary caregivers were willing to participate in this study, were evaluated for decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces (dmfs). Questionnaires were given to the primary caregivers of the study subjects to ascertain their socio-economic status, oral hygiene habits, and child-feeding habits. The Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to evaluate bivariate outcome data. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to determine variables predictive of dental caries in the studied children. The prevalence of dental caries among the 151 subjects was 32.5%; 15.9% had at least one cavity (cavitated caries) and 16.6% had white lesions (non-cavitated caries). The mean dmfs score was 2.83 ± 6.48. Significant associations were seen between the dmfs score and the number of erupted teeth (p < 0.001) and toothpaste usage (p < 0.01). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed four factors significantly associated with caries: number of erupted teeth, which had the highest Beta value (P = 0.35, p < 0.01), nighttime bottle feeding (P = 0.17, p < 0.05), frequency of drinking sweetened milk (P = 0.17-0.18, p < 0.05) and falling asleep with a bottle in the mouth (P = 0.18, p < 0.05). Nighttime bottle feeding, frequency of drinking sweetened milk and falling asleep with a bottle in the mouth were important caries risk factors and the number of erupted teeth was a strong caries risk predictor. Dentists should educate caregivers about these risk factors.

  6. Novice Drivers' Exposure to Known Risk Factors During the First 18 Months of Licensure: The Effect of Vehicle Ownership

    PubMed Central

    Klauer, Sheila G.; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Lee, Suzanne E.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Howard, E. Henry; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Though there is ample research indicating that nighttime, teen passengers, and speeding increase the risk of crash involvement, there is little research about teen drivers' exposure to these known risk factors. Three research questions were assessed in this article: (1) Does exposure to known risk factors change over time? (2) Do teenage drivers experience higher rates of exposure to known risk factors than adult drivers? (3) Do teenage drivers who own a vehicle experience higher rates of exposure to risk factors than those who share a family vehicle? Methods Forty-one newly licensed teenage drivers and at least one parent (adult) were recruited at licensure. Driving data were recorded for 18 months. Results Average vehicle miles traveled (VMT) or average nighttime VMT for teens did not increase over time. Teenagers consistently drove 24 percent of VMT at night, compared with 18 percent for adults. Teenagers drove 62 percent of VMT with no passengers, 29 percent of VMT with one passenger, and less than 10 percent of VMT with multiple passengers. Driving with no passengers increased with driving experience for these teens. Teenage drivers who owned their vehicles, relative to those who shared a vehicle, sped 4 times more frequently overall and more frequently at night and with multiple teen passengers. Conclusion These findings are among the first objective data documenting the nature of teenage driving exposure to known risk factors. The findings provide evidence that vehicle access is related to risk and suggest the potential safety benefit of parental management of novice teenage driving exposure. PMID:21469023

  7. ACT Internet-based vs face-to-face? A randomized controlled trial of two ways to deliver Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for depressive symptoms: an 18-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, Päivi; Granlund, Anna; Siltanen, Sari; Ahonen, Suvi; Vitikainen, Minna; Tolvanen, Asko; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate two interventions based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for depressive symptoms: A face-to-face treatment (ACT group) was compared to a guided self-help treatment delivered via the Internet consisting of two assessment sessions (pre and post) and an ACT-based Internet program (iACT). Outpatients experiencing at least mild depressive symptoms were randomized to either approach. The iACT treatment group received access to an ACT-based Internet program and supportive web-based contact over a period of 6 weeks. The face-to-face group received ACT-based treatment once a week over the same period of time. In both groups, the results showed a significant effect on depression symptomatology, and general wellbeing after treatment and at the 18-month follow-up. However, the data indicated that the iACT group changed differently regarding depressive symptoms and wellbeing as compared to the face-to face ACT group. Results showed large pre-treatment to 18-month follow-up within-group effect sizes for all symptom measures in the iACT treatment group (1.59-2.08), and for most outcome measures in the face-to-face ACT group (1.12-1.37). This non-inferiority study provides evidence that guided Internet-delivered ACT intervention can be as effective as ACT-based face-to-face treatment for outpatients reporting depressive symptoms, and it may offer some advantages over a face-to-face intervention.

  8. 36 CFR 218.10 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... holidays. However, when the time period expires on a Saturday, Sunday, or Federal holiday, the time is extended to the end of the next Federal working day as stated in the legal notice or to the end of...

  9. 36 CFR 218.26 - Objection time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROJECT-LEVEL PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS Provisions Specific to Project-Level Proposals Not Authorized Under Healthy Forests Restoration Act § 218.26 Objection time periods. (a) Time to...

  10. 36 CFR 218.32 - Objection time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROJECT-LEVEL PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS Provisions Specific to Proposed Projects Authorized Under the Healthy Forests Restoration Act § 218.32 Objection time periods. (a) Time to file...

  11. 36 CFR 218.32 - Objection time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROJECT-LEVEL PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS Provisions Specific to Proposed Projects Authorized Under the Healthy Forests Restoration Act § 218.32 Objection time periods. (a) Time to file...

  12. 36 CFR 218.26 - Objection time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROJECT-LEVEL PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS Provisions Specific to Project-Level Proposals Not Authorized Under Healthy Forests Restoration Act § 218.26 Objection time periods. (a) Time to...

  13. 49 CFR 385.333 - What happens at the end of the 18-month safety monitoring period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... its safety management controls under § 385.319(c), the FMCSA will remove the new entrant designation... performed and a final determination is made regarding the adequacy of its safety management controls. Based... correct its safety management practices under § 385.319(c) will have its new entrant registration...

  14. 19 CFR 158.21a - Time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time period. 158.21a Section 158.21a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... While in Customs Custody § 158.21a Time period. An abatement or refund of duties shall be made in...

  15. 19 CFR 158.21a - Time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time period. 158.21a Section 158.21a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... While in Customs Custody § 158.21a Time period. An abatement or refund of duties shall be made in...

  16. 43 CFR 45.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 45.3 Section 45.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES General Provisions § 45.3 How are time periods computed? (a)...

  17. 43 CFR 45.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true How are time periods computed? 45.3 Section 45.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES General Provisions § 45.3 How are time periods computed? (a) General....

  18. 43 CFR 45.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 45.3 Section 45.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES General Provisions § 45.3 How are time periods computed? (a)...

  19. 43 CFR 45.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 45.3 Section 45.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES General Provisions § 45.3 How are time periods computed? (a)...

  20. 19 CFR 158.21a - Time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time period. 158.21a Section 158.21a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... While in Customs Custody § 158.21a Time period. An abatement or refund of duties shall be made in...

  1. Swarm kinematic orbits and gravity fields from 18 months of GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäggi, A.; Dahle, C.; Arnold, D.; Bock, H.; Meyer, U.; Beutler, G.; van den IJssel, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Swarm mission consists of three satellites orbiting the Earth at low orbital altitudes. The onboard GPS receivers, star cameras, and laser retro-reflectors make the Swarm mission an interesting candidate to explore the contribution of Swarm GPS data to the recovery of both the static and time-variable gravity fields. We use 1.5 years of Swarm GPS and attitude data to generate kinematic positions of high quality to perform gravity field determination using the Celestial Mechanics Approach. The generated gravity fields reveal severe systematic errors along the geomagnetic equator. Their size is correlated with the ionospheric density and thus strongly varying over the analyzed time period. Similar to the findings of the GOCE mission, the systematic errors are related to the Swarm GPS carrier phase data and may be reduced by rejecting GPS data affected by large ionospheric changes. Such a measure yields a strong reduction of the systematic errors along the geomagnetic equator in the gravity field recovery. Long wavelength signatures of the gravity field may then be recovered with a similar quality as achieved with GRACE GPS data, which makes the Swarm mission well suited to bridge a potential gap between the current GRACE and the future GRACE Follow-On mission.

  2. The Goteborg Discotheque Fire: Posttraumatic Stress, and School Adjustment as Reported by the Primary Victims 18 Months Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broberg, Anders G.; Dyregrov, Atle; Lilled, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Background: On October 29, 1998, around 400 young people were gathered in an old warehouse in Goteborg, Sweden, for a discotheque party. A fire erupted and spread explosively. Adolescents were exposed to dreadful scenes inside and outside the building. In all, 63 young people were killed and 213 physically injured. An 18-month follow-up with 275…

  3. Television Viewing Patterns in 6- to 18-Month-Olds: The Role of Caregiver-Infant Interactional Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Ashley E.; Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines coviewing of "Baby Mozart" by 6- to 18-month-old infants and their caregivers under naturalistic conditions. We had two questions. First, extending the method of Barr, Zack, Garcia, and Muentener (Infancy, 13 [2008], 30-56) to a younger population, we asked if age, prior exposure, and caregiver verbal input would predict…

  4. CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICLES IN A RESIDENCE FOR 18 MONTHS IN 1999-2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous monitors were employed for 18 months in an occupied townhouse to measure ultrafine, fine, and coarse particles; air change rates; wind speed and direction; temperature; and relative humidity (RH). A main objective was to document short-term and long-term variation in...

  5. Function Words Constrain On-Line Recognition of Verbs and Nouns in French 18-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauvet, Elodie; Limissuri, Rita; Millotte, Severine; Skoruppa, Katrin; Cabrol, Dominique; Christophe, Anne

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment using the conditioned head-turn procedure, 18-month-old French-learning toddlers were trained to respond to either a target noun ("la balle"/"the ball") or a target verb ("je mange"/"I ea"t). They were then tested on target word recognition in two syntactic contexts: the target word was…

  6. Individual Differences in Lexical Processing at 18 Months Predict Vocabulary Growth in Typically Developing and Late-Talking Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Anne; Marchman, Virginia A.

    2012-01-01

    Using online measures of familiar word recognition in the looking-while-listening procedure, this prospective longitudinal study revealed robust links between processing efficiency and vocabulary growth from 18 to 30 months in children classified as typically developing (n = 46) and as "late talkers" (n = 36) at 18 months. Those late talkers who…

  7. Threshold dynamics of a time periodic reaction-diffusion epidemic model with latent period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Zhi-Cheng; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we first propose a time-periodic reaction-diffusion epidemic model which incorporates simple demographic structure and the latent period of infectious disease. Then we introduce the basic reproduction number R0 for this model and prove that the sign of R0 - 1 determines the local stability of the disease-free periodic solution. By using the comparison arguments and persistence theory, we further show that the disease-free periodic solution is globally attractive if R0 < 1, while there is an endemic periodic solution and the disease is uniformly persistent if R0 > 1.

  8. Period04: Statistical analysis of large astronomical time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Patrick; Breger, Michel

    2014-07-01

    Period04 statistically analyzes large astronomical time series containing gaps. It calculates formal uncertainties, can extract the individual frequencies from the multiperiodic content of time series, and provides a flexible interface to perform multiple-frequency fits with a combination of least-squares fitting and the discrete Fourier transform algorithm. Period04, written in Java/C++, supports the SAMP communication protocol to provide interoperability with other applications of the Virtual Observatory. It is a reworked and extended version of Period98 (Sperl 1998) and PERIOD/PERDET (Breger 1990).

  9. Development of allergic antibody to an enzyme in a body lotion: results of an 18-month clinical study.

    PubMed

    Sarlo, Katherine; Adamson, Gregory M; Hollis, Victoria L; Innis, J David; Babcock, Laura S; Kirchner, D Bruce

    2004-04-01

    Use of enzymes in cosmetic products is novel and the safety of these products is not well understood. The safety of a prototype enzyme-containing body moisturizer lotion was tested via measures of skin compatibility and potential to induce protease-specific IgE antibody in a clinical study. Female, atopic subjects (n = 1,100) used body lotion containing 100 ppm protease (Y217L BPN') for 5 consecutive days per month, for 18 months. Regular lotion was used the remaining days of each month. Skin evaluation and skin prick tests (SPT) were conducted every 3 months. Measures of skin hydration were made in a subset of subjects at 3-month intervals: skin biopsies occurred at baseline and at the first 3-month timepoint. Serum from SPT positive subjects was tested for specific IgE in an immunoCAP assay. Clinical evaluation and histopathology showed no skin irritation and increased hydration of the skin over time. Three of 864 subjects completing the study developed IgE antibody to the enzyme: 1 subject after 6 months product use and 2 subjects after 15 months product use. A fourth subject was found with IgE antibody 3 months after study termination. None had allergic symptoms associated with product use. Intermittent exposure to a low level of protease enzyme in a body lotion led to the development of specific IgE antibody in 0.46% of subjects. While this study showed favorable skin compatibility of the protease containing lotion, the occurrence of allergic antibody to the enzyme was unacceptable for product commercialization.

  10. Does babbling sound native? Listener responses to vocalizations produced by Swedish and American 12- and 18-month-olds.

    PubMed

    Engstrand, Olle; Williams, Karen; Lacerda, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of infants' babbling have reported contradictory results as to the extent and timing of discernible phonetic influences of the ambient language. In the present experiment, five experienced phoneticians were asked to listen for ambient language effects on vocalizations produced by American and Swedish 12- and 18-month-olds (with 8 children in each language and age group), and to motivate their decisions in terms of word or phonetic cue perception. Group results indicated that listeners did not perceive effects of ambient language on pure babbles for either of the two age groups, whereas a clear effect appeared in both age groups given a more liberal definition of babbling. This is taken to suggest that results of ambient language listening tests may depend crucially on judgments of vocalizations' word status. As compared to the group trends, listener responses to individual children's vocalizations did not indicate that a majority of either 12- or 18-monthers were sufficiently native-sounding to be reliably identified on the basis of ambient language. A closer analysis of listeners' use of phonetic cues indicated that one single phonetic property, the grave tonal word accent, was discerned by most listeners in vocalizations produced by the Swedish 18-monthers; this property was also discerned by one listener in vocalizations produced by Swedish 12-monthers. This result is consistent with the generally held belief in the primacy of tonal features in phonetic acquisition, and with experimental evidence indicating that Swedish mothers tend to enhance word accent contours in baby talk. In the final section of the paper, the results are discussed with a view to reconcile competing theories of babbling development, notably the 'babbling drift' and the 'independence' hypotheses.

  11. Weight management for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities: rationale and design for an 18 month randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, J E; Saunders, R R; Saunders, M; Washburn, R A; Sullivan, D K; Gibson, C A; Ptomey, L T; Goetz, J R; Honas, J J; Betts, J L; Rondon, M R; Smith, B K; Mayo, M S

    2013-09-01

    Weight management for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) has received limited attention. Studies on weight management in this population have been conducted over short time frames, in small samples with inadequate statistical power, infrequently used a randomized design, and have not evaluated the use of emerging effective dietary strategies such as pre-packaged meals (PMs). Low energy/fat PMs may be useful in individuals with IDD as they simplify meal planning, limit undesirable food choices, teach appropriate portion sizes, are convenient and easy to prepare, and when combined with fruits and vegetables provide a high volume, low energy dense meal. A randomized effectiveness trial will be conducted in 150 overweight/obese adults with mild to moderate IDD, and their study partners to compare weight loss (6 months) and weight maintenance (12 months) between 2 weight management approaches: 1. A Stop Light Diet enhanced with reduced energy/fat PMs (eSLD); and 2. A recommended care reduced energy/fat meal plan diet (RC). The primary aim is to compare weight loss (0-6 months) and weight maintenance (7-18 months) between the eSLD and RC diets. Secondarily, changes in chronic disease risk factors between the eSLD and RC diets including blood pressure, glucose, insulin, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol will be compared during both weight loss and weight maintenance. Finally, potential mediators of weight loss including energy intake, physical activity, data recording, adherence to the diet, study partner self-efficacy and daily stress related to dietary change will be explored.

  12. Overnight Polysomnographic Characteristics and Oxygen Saturation of Healthy Infants, 1 to 18 Months of Age, Born and Residing At High Altitude (2,640 Meters)

    PubMed Central

    Bazurto-Zapata, María A.; Gozal, David; González-García, Mauricio; Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 8% of the world population resides above 1,600 m, with about 10 million people living above 2,500 m in Colombia. However, reference values for polysomnography (PSG) and oxygen saturation (Spo2) of children < 2 years old residing at high altitude are currently unavailable. METHODS: Healthy infants aged 1 to 18 months born and residing at high altitude (Bogotá: 2,640 m) underwent overnight PSG. Four age groups were defined: group 1, < 45 days; group 2, 3 to 4 months; group 3, 6 to 7 months; and group 4, 10 to 18 months. Of 122 children enrolled, 50 had three consecutive PSG tests and were analyzed as a longitudinal subcohort. RESULTS: A total of 281 PSG tests were performed in 122 infants (56% girls): group 1, 106 PSG tests; group 2, 89 PSG tests; group 3, 61 PSG tests; and group 4, 25 PSG tests. Active sleep diminished and quiet sleep increased with maturation. Apnea-hypopnea indexes (total, central, and obstructive) were highest in group 1 (21.4, 12.4, and 6.8/h total sleep time, respectively) and diminished with age (P < .001). Mean Spo2 during waking and sleep increased with age (P < .001). Nadir Spo2 values during respiratory events were lower in younger infants. Longitudinal assessments of 50 infants confirmed the temporal trends described for the cross-sectional dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy infants (≤ 18 months old) born and residing at high altitude show preserved sleep architecture but higher apnea-hypopnea indexes and more prominent desaturation with respiratory events than do those living at low altitude. The current study findings can be used as reference values for infants at high altitude. PMID:25811138

  13. A time-periodic reaction-diffusion epidemic model with infection period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Zhi-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a time-periodic and diffusive SIR epidemic model with constant infection period. By introducing the basic reproduction number R_0 via a next generation operator for this model, we show that the disease goes extinction if R_0 < 1; while the disease is uniformly persistent if R_0 > 1.

  14. Clinical evaluation with 18 months follow-up of new PTTM enhanced dental implants in maxillo-facial post-oncological patients

    PubMed Central

    Papi, Piero; Jamshir, Sara; Brauner, Edoardo; Di Carlo, Stefano; Ceci, Antonio; Piccoli, Luca; Pompa, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aim The aim of this study is to present 18 months follow-up results of porous tantalum trabecular metal-enhanced titanium dental implant (PTTM) in implant supported prosthesis in post-oncological patients. Materials and methods A total of 25 PTTM implants were placed in each jaw of 6 patients that met specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Resonance Frequency Analysis (RFA) was conducted and Implant stability was recorded in ISQ values (Osstell ISQ, Osstell AB, Goteborg, Sweden) at implant placement and after 2,4,6,12 and 18 months of functional loading. Mean bone loss was also evaluated at the same interval of time on each periapical radiographs, bone levels were calculated by measuring the distance from the implant shoulder to the first bone to implant contact. Results Cumulative implant survival rate is 100% (n=25/25) to date and mean ISQ values recorded were: 72.14±5.61 (range= 50–81) at surgery, 64.39±8.12 (range=44–74) after 2 months, 74.26±7.14 (range=44–74) after 4 months, 76.84±7.65 (range=60–83) after 6 months, 78.13±4.14 (range=64–84) after 12 months and 80.22±6.23 (range=68–89) after 18 months of functional loading. Mean crestal marginal bone loss was 0.19±0.25 mm after 2 months of functional loading on periapical radiographs, 0.22±0.4 mm at 4 months, 0.3±0.46 mm at 6 months, 0.57±0.62 at 1 year and 0.64±0.60 mm after 18 months. Conclusions The results of this study, even if limited by the number of implants placed indicate that PTTM dental implants have a clinical efficacy in prosthetic rehabilitation of post-oncological patients, due to trabecular structure of the porous Ta metal that increases bone-implant connection values. PMID:25774249

  15. Survival of Bacillus pumilus spores for a prolonged period of time in real space conditions.

    PubMed

    Vaishampayan, Parag A; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J

    2012-05-01

    To prevent forward contamination and maintain the scientific integrity of future life-detection missions, it is important to characterize and attempt to eliminate terrestrial microorganisms associated with exploratory spacecraft and landing vehicles. Among the organisms isolated from spacecraft-associated surfaces, spores of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 exhibited unusually high resistance to decontamination techniques such as UV radiation and peroxide treatment. Subsequently, B. pumilus SAFR-032 was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to a variety of space conditions via the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF). After 18 months of exposure in the EXPOSE facility of the European Space Agency (ESA) on EuTEF under dark space conditions, SAFR-032 spores showed 10-40% survivability, whereas a survival rate of 85-100% was observed when these spores were kept aboard the ISS under dark simulated martian atmospheric conditions. In contrast, when UV (>110 nm) was applied on SAFR-032 spores for the same time period and under the same conditions used in EXPOSE, a ∼7-log reduction in viability was observed. A parallel experiment was conducted on Earth with identical samples under simulated space conditions. Spores exposed to ground simulations showed less of a reduction in viability when compared with the "real space" exposed spores (∼3-log reduction in viability for "UV-Mars," and ∼4-log reduction in viability for "UV-Space"). A comparative proteomics analysis indicated that proteins conferring resistant traits (superoxide dismutase) were present in higher concentration in space-exposed spores when compared to controls. Also, the first-generation cells and spores derived from space-exposed samples exhibited elevated UVC resistance when compared with their ground control counterparts. The data generated are important for calculating the probability and mechanisms of microbial survival in space conditions and assessing microbial contaminants

  16. Individual Differences in Lexical Processing at 18 Months Predict Vocabulary Growth in Typically-Developing and Late-Talking Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Anne; Marchman, Virginia A.

    2011-01-01

    Using online measures of familiar word recognition in the looking-while-listening procedure, this prospective longitudinal study revealed robust links between processing efficiency and vocabulary growth from 18 to 30 months in children classified as typically-developing (n = 46) and as “late talkers” (n = 36) at 18 months. Those late-talkers who were more efficient in word recognition at 18 months were also more likely to “bloom”, showing more accelerated vocabulary growth over the following year, compared to late-talkers less efficient in early speech processing. Such findings support the emerging view that early differences in processing efficiency evident in infancy have cascading consequences for later learning and may be continuous with individual differences in language proficiency observed in older children and adults. PMID:22172209

  17. Ulcerated Scrotal Hemangioma in an 18-Month-Old Male Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Patoulias, Ioannis; Farmakis, Konstantinos; Kaselas, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Deep scrotal hemangiomas are rare. Less than 50 case reports have been published. After systematic research of the literature, we found less than 5 cases of ulcerated scrotal hemangioma. The aim of this case report is to illustrate the challenges of scrotal hemangiomas pose and their potential therapies based on the successful surgical treatment of an ulcerated scrotal hemangioma in an 18-month-old male patient. PMID:27413573

  18. Significance of indoor environment for the development of allergic symptoms in children followed up to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, D; Andersson, K; Fagerlund, I; Kjellman, N I

    1996-11-01

    The development of symptoms possibly related to allergy or other forms of hypersensitivity was studied in a group of 638 children on two occasions: when the children were 3 and 18 months of age. Standardized questions were used to collect basic information about the child, technical characteristics of the home, and the mother's perception of the indoor climate. All reported exposure factors were analyzed in relation to the child's symptoms at 18 months of age, by logistic regression techniques. A family history of atopy was associated with a high incidence of most of the investigated symptoms. Attendance at a day nursery before 18 months of age increased the risk of recurrent colds and the need for several courses of treatment with antibiotics. If the mother smoked, the children more often suffered from protracted coughing episodes. If the child has a sibling, the risk of developing a wheeze, repeated colds, and the need for antibiotic treatment increased. No building factors, such as size of the home, heating and ventilation system, type of foundation, dampness, or presence of wall-to-wall carpets, showed a significant correlation to symptoms reported in the children. However, if the mothers reported symptoms that are often connected with "sick buildings", the children more often had eczema, dry skin, or reactions to food. The mothers' complaints about indoor air quality and climate and mucous membrane symptoms were significantly related to the type of building and presence of condensation on the windows in winter, a finding which may indicate that indoor climate factors also have some effect on the health of the children. This study reports the prevalences of symptoms until the age of 18 months. At this age, the allergic manifestations are usually nonspecific, and follow-up examinations to 4-5 years of age are needed before any definite conclusions can be drawn about the development of atopic diseases due to indoor climate factors. PMID:8947336

  19. The Effects of Experimental Sleep Apnea on Cardiac and Respiratory Functions in 6 and 18 Month Old Dystrophic (mdx) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fallavollita, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease where over 90% of patients succumb to respiratory or cardiac failure. Sleep apnea and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) are noted in a plurality of DMD patients, and the resulting nocturnal episodic hypoxia (EH) cannot be ruled out as a contributing factor to cardiac and respiratory dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the impact of long-term episodic hypoxia, which mimics the cyclic hypoxia seen in sleep apnea, on cardiac and respiratory function in a murine model of DMD (mdx mice). Since the severity and prevalence of sleep apnea in DMD increases with age, we studied the impact of EH on young (6-month) and on older (18-month) mdx mice. Mice were either exposed for 12 weeks to EH (8 hours/day, 5 days/week) or to room air. We noted a significant increase in left ventricular (LV) dilatation (transthoracic echocardiography) on EH exposure in both age groups, but reduced LV contractility was seen only in 6-month old mice. With EH exposure, an increased fibrosis (hydroxyproline) was noted in both cardiac and diaphragm muscle in 18-month but not 6-month old mice. No significant change in relative diaphragm strength (in-vitro) was noted on EH exposure in 18-month old mice. In contrast, EH exposed 6-month old mice showed a significant increase in relative diaphragm strength. EH exposure did not result in any significant change in ventilatory parameters (barometric plethysmography) in awake 6-month old mdx mice. In contrast, 18-month old mdx mice showed considerable ventilatory dysfunction, consistent with reduced ventilatory reserve. Our findings highlight that sleep apnea impacts respiratory and cardiac function in muscular dystrophy, and that EH can have divergent effects on both systems. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study to investigate the impact of EH on cardiac and respiratory function in mdx mice. PMID:26808526

  20. Ulcerated Scrotal Hemangioma in an 18-Month-Old Male Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Patoulias, Ioannis; Farmakis, Konstantinos; Kaselas, Christos; Patoulias, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Deep scrotal hemangiomas are rare. Less than 50 case reports have been published. After systematic research of the literature, we found less than 5 cases of ulcerated scrotal hemangioma. The aim of this case report is to illustrate the challenges of scrotal hemangiomas pose and their potential therapies based on the successful surgical treatment of an ulcerated scrotal hemangioma in an 18-month-old male patient. PMID:27413573

  1. The Effects of Experimental Sleep Apnea on Cardiac and Respiratory Functions in 6 and 18 Month Old Dystrophic (mdx) Mice.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Milind R; Fallavollita, James A; Farkas, Gaspar A

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease where over 90% of patients succumb to respiratory or cardiac failure. Sleep apnea and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) are noted in a plurality of DMD patients, and the resulting nocturnal episodic hypoxia (EH) cannot be ruled out as a contributing factor to cardiac and respiratory dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the impact of long-term episodic hypoxia, which mimics the cyclic hypoxia seen in sleep apnea, on cardiac and respiratory function in a murine model of DMD (mdx mice). Since the severity and prevalence of sleep apnea in DMD increases with age, we studied the impact of EH on young (6-month) and on older (18-month) mdx mice. Mice were either exposed for 12 weeks to EH (8 hours/day, 5 days/week) or to room air. We noted a significant increase in left ventricular (LV) dilatation (transthoracic echocardiography) on EH exposure in both age groups, but reduced LV contractility was seen only in 6-month old mice. With EH exposure, an increased fibrosis (hydroxyproline) was noted in both cardiac and diaphragm muscle in 18-month but not 6-month old mice. No significant change in relative diaphragm strength (in-vitro) was noted on EH exposure in 18-month old mice. In contrast, EH exposed 6-month old mice showed a significant increase in relative diaphragm strength. EH exposure did not result in any significant change in ventilatory parameters (barometric plethysmography) in awake 6-month old mdx mice. In contrast, 18-month old mdx mice showed considerable ventilatory dysfunction, consistent with reduced ventilatory reserve. Our findings highlight that sleep apnea impacts respiratory and cardiac function in muscular dystrophy, and that EH can have divergent effects on both systems. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study to investigate the impact of EH on cardiac and respiratory function in mdx mice. PMID:26808526

  2. Particle energization through time-periodic helical magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Brandenburg, Axel; Dasgupta, Brahmananda; Niklasson, Eyvind; Ram, Abhay

    2014-04-01

    We solve for the motion of charged particles in a helical time-periodic ABC (Arnold-Beltrami-Childress) magnetic field. The magnetic field lines of a stationary ABC field with coefficients A=B=C=1 are chaotic, and we show that the motion of a charged particle in such a field is also chaotic at late times with positive Lyapunov exponent. We further show that in time-periodic ABC fields, the kinetic energy of a charged particle can increase indefinitely with time. At late times the mean kinetic energy grows as a power law in time with an exponent that approaches unity. For an initial distribution of particles, whose kinetic energy is uniformly distributed within some interval, the probability density function of kinetic energy is, at late times, close to a Gaussian but with steeper tails.

  3. Predicting Elements of Early Maternal Elaborative Discourse from 12 to 18 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontai, Lenna L.; Virmani, Elita Amini

    2010-01-01

    To date, much of the research investigating maternal-child discourse has focused on the preschool period of children's development, with little attention paid to how these styles develop. The current study aimed to assess whether maternal elaborative discourse elements seen in preschool are also evident during the toddler years, and whether the…

  4. MEDiterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project: state of the art and main achievements after the first 18 months

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spampinato, Letizia; Allard, Patrick; Baills, Audrey; Briole, Pierre; D'Auria, Luca; Dingwell, Donald; Martini, Marcello; Kueppers, Ulrich; Marzocchi, Warner; Minet, Christian; Vagner, Amélie

    2015-04-01

    Taking account of the valuable resources and information available for Mt. Etna, Campi Flegrei, and Vesuvius Supersites, MED-SUV aims at exploiting the huge record of geophysical, geochemical and volcanological data available for the three Supersite volcanoes and carry out experiments to fill gaps in the knowledge of the structure of these volcanoes and of the processes driving their activity. The project's activities have focused on (1) gaining new insights into the inner structure of these volcanoes; (2) evaluating the suitability of the current EO and in-situ observations to track the dynamics of the volcano supply system and/or the eruptive phenomena, (3) making the access to observations easy; (4) defining the effects of magma ascent on the stress/strain field (and vice versa); (5) assessing the capability of the Earth science community to forecast the occurrence of eruptions in terms of both location and time of an eruption; (6) optimizing the chain from observations to end-users during an eruptive event; and (7) making the project outcomes "exportable" to other European volcanic areas and elsewhere. Indeed, the overall goal of the project is to apply the rationale of the Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories GEO-GEOSS initiative to the three volcanoes, in order to better assess the volcanic hazards they posed. In the first 18 months, MED-SUV consortium carried out activities relating to coordination, scientific/technological development, and dissemination. Coordination included mainly meetings organised in order to start the project and consortium activity and to strengthen the synergy with EC and international initiatives, such as geohazard activities of GEO-GEOSS, EPOS-PP and the other two FP7 Supersite projects, MARsite and FUTUREVOLC. The main scientific/technological results included the design and development of a prototype (NETVIS) for the optimization and implementation of processing tools for the analysis of Mt. Etna's camera network, design

  5. Identifying multiple periodicities in sparse photon event time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koen, Chris

    2016-07-01

    The data considered are event times (e.g. photon arrival times, or the occurrence of sharp pulses). The source is multiperiodic, or the data could be multiperiodic because several unresolved sources contribute to the time series. Most events may be unobserved, either because the source is intermittent, or because some events are below the detection limit. The data may also be contaminated by spurious pulses. The problem considered is the determination of the periods in the data. A two-step procedure is proposed: in the first, a likely period is identified; in the second, events associated with this periodicity are removed from the time series. The steps are repeated until the remaining events do not exhibit any periodicity. A number of period-finding methods from the literature are reviewed, and a new maximum likelihood statistic is also introduced. It is shown that the latter is competitive compared to other techniques. The proposed methodology is tested on simulated data. Observations of two rotating radio transients are discussed, but contrary to claims in the literature, no evidence for multiperiodicity could be found.

  6. Optimal health insurance for multiple goods and time periods.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Randall P; Jiang, Shenyi; Manning, Willard G

    2015-05-01

    We examine the efficiency-based arguments for second-best optimal health insurance with multiple treatment goods and multiple time periods. Correlated shocks across health care goods and over time interact with complementarity and substitutability to affect optimal cost sharing. Health care goods that are substitutes or have positively correlated demand shocks should have lower optimal patient cost sharing. Positive serial correlations of demand shocks and uncompensated losses that are positively correlated with covered health services also reduce optimal cost sharing. Our results rationalize covering pharmaceuticals and outpatient spending more fully than is implied by static, one good, or one period models.

  7. Pseudo analytical solution to time periodic stiffness systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Zhong; Zhou, Yuan-Zi

    2011-04-01

    An analytical form of state transition matrix for a system of equations with time periodic stiffness is derived in order to solve the free response and also allow for the determination of system stability and bifurcation. A pseudo-closed form complete solution for parametrically excited systems subjected to inhomogeneous generalized forcing is developed, based on the Fourier expansion of periodic matrices and the substitution of matrix exponential terms via Lagrange—Sylvester theorem. A Mathieu type of equation with large amplitude is presented to demonstrate the method of formulating state transition matrix and Floquet multipliers. A two-degree-of-freedom system with irregular time periodic stiffness characterized by spiral bevel gear mesh vibration is presented to find forced response in stability and instability. The obtained results are presented and discussed.

  8. Analysis of time-domain scattering by periodic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yixian; Li, Peijun

    2016-11-01

    This paper is devoted to the mathematical analysis of a time-domain electromagnetic scattering by periodic structures which are known as diffraction gratings. The scattering problem is reduced equivalently into an initial-boundary value problem in a bounded domain by using an exact transparent boundary condition. The well-posedness and stability of the solution are established for the reduced problem. Moreover, a priori energy estimates are obtained with minimum regularity requirement for the data and explicit dependence on the time.

  9. 36 CFR 215.15 - Appeal time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appeal time periods and process. 215.15 Section 215.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOTICE, COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES §...

  10. 36 CFR 215.15 - Appeal time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeal time periods and process. 215.15 Section 215.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOTICE, COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES §...

  11. 36 CFR 215.15 - Appeal time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appeal time periods and process. 215.15 Section 215.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOTICE, COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES §...

  12. 36 CFR 215.15 - Appeal time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appeal time periods and process. 215.15 Section 215.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOTICE, COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES §...

  13. 36 CFR 215.15 - Appeal time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appeal time periods and process. 215.15 Section 215.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOTICE, COMMENT, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES FOR NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES §...

  14. 50 CFR 221.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 221.3 Section 221.3 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES...

  15. 50 CFR 221.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 221.3 Section 221.3 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES...

  16. 50 CFR 221.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 221.3 Section 221.3 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES...

  17. 50 CFR 221.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 221.3 Section 221.3 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES...

  18. Physical Activity in High School during "Free-Time" Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Pedro; Sousa, Michael; Sá, Carla; Ribeiro, José; Mota, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine youth physical activity (PA) in free-time periods during high school days and their contribution to total PA. Differences in terms of sex, age, body mass index and school level were assessed in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Participants totalled 213 (135 girls), aged 14.6 ± 1.7, from two different…

  19. The Quality of Different Types of Child Care at 10 and 18 Months: A Comparison between Types and Factors Related to Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Penelope; Barnes, Jacqueline; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Sylva, Kathy; Stein, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The quality of care offered in four different types of non-parental child care to 307 infants at 10 months old and 331 infants at 18 months old was compared and factors associated with higher quality were identified. Observed quality was lowest in nurseries at each age point, except that at 18 months they offered more learning activities. There…

  20. Can Severely Language Delayed 3-Year-Olds Be Identified at 18 Months? Evaluation of a Screening Version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerlund, Monica; Berglund, Eva; Eriksson, Marten

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a screening instrument (the Swedish Communication Screening at 18 months of age; SCS18), derived from the Swedish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, in identification of 18-month-old children who will be severely language disabled by 3 years of age, the authors (a) analyzed which SCS18's…

  1. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy and Externalizing Behavior in 18-Month-Old Children: Results from a Population-Based Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Borge, Anne I. H.; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of the data on 22,545 smoking mothers and their 18-month-old children finds that maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk for externalizing behavior problem at the age of 18-months. The child's gender is found to have no moderating effects on the findings.

  2. Time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose , D.M.; Wilkening, Jon

    2008-04-01

    We present a spectrally accurate numerical method for finding non-trivial time-periodic solutions of non-linear partial differential equations. The method is based on minimizing a functional (of the initial condition and the period) that is positive unless the solution is periodic, in which case it is zero. We solve an adjoint PDE to compute the gradient of this functional with respect to the initial condition. We include additional terms in the functional to specify the free parameters, which, in the case of the Benjamin-Ono equation, are the mean, a spatial phase, a temporal phase and the real part of one of the Fourier modes at t = 0. We use our method to study global paths of non-trivial time-periodic solutions connecting stationary and traveling waves of the Benjamin-Ono equation. As a starting guess for each path, we compute periodic solutions of the linearized problem by solving an infinite dimensional eigenvalue problem in closed form. We then use our numerical method to continue these solutions beyond the realm of linear theory until another traveling wave is reached (or until the solution blows up). By experimentation with data fitting, we identify the analytical form of the solutions on the path connecting the one-hump stationary solution to the two-hump traveling wave. We then derive exact formulas for these solutions by explicitly solving the system of ODE's governing the evolution of solitons using the ansatz suggested by the numerical simulations.

  3. False periodicities in quasar time-domain surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, S.; Uttley, P.; Markowitz, A. G.; Huppenkothen, D.; Middleton, M. J.; Alston, W. N.; Scargle, J. D.; Farr, W. M.

    2016-09-01

    There have recently been several reports of apparently periodic variations in the light curves of quasars, e.g. PG 1302-102 by Graham et al. Any quasar showing periodic oscillations in brightness would be a strong candidate to be a close binary supermassive black hole and, in turn, a candidate for gravitational wave studies. However, normal quasars - powered by accretion on to a single, supermassive black hole - usually show stochastic variability over a wide range of time-scales. It is therefore important to carefully assess the methods for identifying periodic candidates from among a population dominated by stochastic variability. Using a Bayesian analysis of the light curve of PG 1302-102, we find that a simple stochastic process is preferred over a sinusoidal variation. We then discuss some of the problems one encounters when searching for rare, strictly periodic signals among a large number of irregularly sampled, stochastic time series, and use simulations of quasar light curves to illustrate these points. From a few thousand simulations of steep spectrum (`red noise') stochastic processes, we find many simulations that display few-cycle periodicity like that seen in PG 1302-102. We emphasize the importance of calibrating the false positive rate when the number of targets in a search is very large.

  4. The sleeping chironomid: an insect survived 18 months of exposure to outer space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Oleg; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Sychev, Vladimir; Novikova, Nataliya; Sugimoto, Manabu; Malyutina, Ludmila; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    Anhydrobiosis is an ametabolic state of life entered by an organism in response to desiccation. There are only few groups of higher invertebrates capable to survival complete water loss. An African chironomid Polypedilum vanderpalnki is the only anhydrobiotic insect. Larvae of this sleeping chironomid living in temporary pools in semi-arid areas on the African continent become completely desiccated upon drought, but can revive after water becomes available upon the next rain. Dry larvae can revive after several decades of anhydrobiosis and show cross-resistance to different environmental stresses, including temperature fluctuation, high doses of ionizing radiation and organic solvents. This enormous resistance of the sleeping chironomid to extreme environments points to the high probability of their survival and transfer across outer space and makes this species promising model organism for astrobiological studies. In period from 2005 to 2010 the sleeping chironomid was utilized as a model organism in experiments on resistance of resting stages of invertebrates to space environment both inside of ISS ("Aquarium" research program) and on the outer side of ISS ("Biorisk-2" and "EXPOSE-R" experiments) . In the present report we mainly focus on results of "Biorisk-2" experiment where there containers with anhydrobiotic larvae were continuously exposed to outer space environment. Container 1 (FC1) remained exposed to outer space for 405 days (from June 6, 2007 to July 15, 2008), Container 2 (FC2) for 566 days (from June 6, 2007 to December 23, 2008), and Container 3 (FC3) is expected to be returning to the Earth later this year. First analysis of the larvae from the first two containers FC1 and FC2 showed that the sleeping chironomid have succesfully survived the continous space exposure comparable with duration of interpanetary spaceflight and recovered both biomolecules and cells complexes upon rehydration

  5. Periodicity detection method for small-sample time series datasets.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    Time series of gene expression often exhibit periodic behavior under the influence of multiple signal pathways, and are represented by a model that incorporates multiple harmonics and noise. Most of these data, which are observed using DNA microarrays, consist of few sampling points in time, but most periodicity detection methods require a relatively large number of sampling points. We have previously developed a detection algorithm based on the discrete Fourier transform and Akaike's information criterion. Here we demonstrate the performance of the algorithm for small-sample time series data through a comparison with conventional and newly proposed periodicity detection methods based on a statistical analysis of the power of harmonics.We show that this method has higher sensitivity for data consisting of multiple harmonics, and is more robust against noise than other methods. Although "combinatorial explosion" occurs for large datasets, the computational time is not a problem for small-sample datasets. The MATLAB/GNU Octave script of the algorithm is available on the author's web site: http://www.cbrc.jp/%7Etominaga/piccolo/. PMID:21151841

  6. The time-transgressive termination of the African Humid Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanahan, Timothy M.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Hughen, Konrad A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Heil, Clifford W.; King, John; Scholz, Christopher A.; Peck, John

    2015-02-01

    During the African Humid Period about 14,800 to 5,500 years ago, changes in incoming solar radiation during Northern Hemisphere summers led to the large-scale expansion and subsequent collapse of the African monsoon. Hydrologic reconstructions from arid North Africa show an abrupt onset and termination of the African Humid Period. These abrupt transitions have been invoked in arguments that the African monsoon responds rapidly to gradual forcing as a result of nonlinear land surface feedbacks. Here we present a reconstruction of precipitation in humid tropical West Africa for the past 20,000 years using the hydrogen isotope composition of leaf waxes preserved in sediments from Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana. We show that over much of tropical and subtropical Africa the monsoon responded synchronously and predictably to glacial reorganizations of overturning circulation in the Atlantic Ocean, but the response to the relatively weaker radiative forcing during the African Humid Period was more spatially and temporally complex. A synthesis of hydrologic reconstructions from across Africa shows that the termination of the African Humid Period was locally abrupt, but occurred progressively later at lower latitudes. We propose that this time-transgressive termination of the African Humid Period reflects declining rainfall intensity induced directly by decreasing summer insolation as well as the gradual southward migration of the tropical rainbelt that occurred during this interval.

  7. Antenatal Micronutrient Supplementation Relationship with Children’s Weight and Height from Birth up to the Age of 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    JABBARI, Hossein; BAKHSHIAN, Fariba; ASGARI, Mohammad; SATTARI, Mohammadreza; NAGHAVI-BEHZAD, Mohammad; MASHAYEKHI, Simin Ozar

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal nutritional is the most important environmental factor influencing pregnancy outcome. While studies showed association between maternal iron-micronutrient deficiencies with pregnancy outcome, data examining impact of micronutrient supplementation on growth rate beyond birth are sparse. Present study examined the relationship between iron and multivitamins supplementation on growth rate of babies up to age of 18 month. Methods: This study was a statistical analysis on data recorded through a routine procedure in health houses from 1994 to 2007. Subjects were selected by a two-stage randomization method and required data extracted from the records. Analyses were performed using STATA 10 software. Results: Data was collected for 3835 pairs of mother-baby. Mothers received 61.7±5.4 and 115.6±53.8 multivitamins and iron tablets, respectively. Analyses showed significant relationship between children’s weight and height at birth with iron supplementation and children’s height at 6, 12 and 18 month with multivitamins supplementation. Conclusions: Mechanisms of these effects are unclear but it is safe to suggest supplementation during pregnancy is necessary. PMID:23967431

  8. When Infants Take Mothers’ Advice: 18-Month-Olds Integrate Perceptual and Social Information to Guide Motor Action

    PubMed Central

    Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Adolph, Karen E.; Lobo, Sharon A.; Karasik, Lana B.; Ishak, Shaziela; Dimitropoulou, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    The social cognition and perception–action literatures are largely separate, both conceptually and empirically. However, both areas of research emphasize infants’ emerging abilities to use available information—social and perceptual information, respectively—for making decisions about action. Borrowing methods from both research traditions, this study examined whether 18-month-old infants incorporate both social and perceptual information in their motor decisions. The infants’ task was to determine whether to walk down slopes of varying risk levels as their mothers encouraged or discouraged walking. First, a psychophysical procedure was used to determine slopes that were safe, borderline, and risky for individual infants. Next, during a series of test trials, infants received mothers’ advice about whether to walk. Infants used social information selectively: They ignored encouraging advice to walk down risky slopes and discouraging advice to avoid safe slopes, but they deferred to mothers’ advice at borderline slopes. Findings indicate that 18-month-old infants correctly weigh competing sources of information when making decisions about motor action and that they rely on social information only when perceptual information is inadequate or uncertain. PMID:18473640

  9. Periodic, Quasi-periodic and Chaotic Dynamics in Simple Gene Elements with Time Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoko; Lu, Mingyang; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Onuchic, José N.

    2016-02-01

    Regulatory gene circuit motifs play crucial roles in performing and maintaining vital cellular functions. Frequently, theoretical studies of gene circuits focus on steady-state behaviors and do not include time delays. In this study, the inclusion of time delays is shown to entirely change the time-dependent dynamics for even the simplest possible circuits with one and two gene elements with self and cross regulations. These elements can give rise to rich behaviors including periodic, quasi-periodic, weak chaotic, strong chaotic and intermittent dynamics. We introduce a special power-spectrum-based method to characterize and discriminate these dynamical modes quantitatively. Our simulation results suggest that, while a single negative feedback loop of either one- or two-gene element can only have periodic dynamics, the elements with two positive/negative feedback loops are the minimalist elements to have chaotic dynamics. These elements typically have one negative feedback loop that generates oscillations, and another unit that allows frequent switches among multiple steady states or between oscillatory and non-oscillatory dynamics. Possible dynamical features of several simple one- and two-gene elements are presented in details. Discussion is presented for possible roles of the chaotic behavior in the robustness of cellular functions and diseases, for example, in the context of cancer.

  10. Periodic, Quasi-periodic and Chaotic Dynamics in Simple Gene Elements with Time Delays

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yoko; Lu, Mingyang; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Onuchic, José N.

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory gene circuit motifs play crucial roles in performing and maintaining vital cellular functions. Frequently, theoretical studies of gene circuits focus on steady-state behaviors and do not include time delays. In this study, the inclusion of time delays is shown to entirely change the time-dependent dynamics for even the simplest possible circuits with one and two gene elements with self and cross regulations. These elements can give rise to rich behaviors including periodic, quasi-periodic, weak chaotic, strong chaotic and intermittent dynamics. We introduce a special power-spectrum-based method to characterize and discriminate these dynamical modes quantitatively. Our simulation results suggest that, while a single negative feedback loop of either one- or two-gene element can only have periodic dynamics, the elements with two positive/negative feedback loops are the minimalist elements to have chaotic dynamics. These elements typically have one negative feedback loop that generates oscillations, and another unit that allows frequent switches among multiple steady states or between oscillatory and non-oscillatory dynamics. Possible dynamical features of several simple one- and two-gene elements are presented in details. Discussion is presented for possible roles of the chaotic behavior in the robustness of cellular functions and diseases, for example, in the context of cancer. PMID:26876008

  11. Periodic, Quasi-periodic and Chaotic Dynamics in Simple Gene Elements with Time Delays.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoko; Lu, Mingyang; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Onuchic, José N

    2016-02-15

    Regulatory gene circuit motifs play crucial roles in performing and maintaining vital cellular functions. Frequently, theoretical studies of gene circuits focus on steady-state behaviors and do not include time delays. In this study, the inclusion of time delays is shown to entirely change the time-dependent dynamics for even the simplest possible circuits with one and two gene elements with self and cross regulations. These elements can give rise to rich behaviors including periodic, quasi-periodic, weak chaotic, strong chaotic and intermittent dynamics. We introduce a special power-spectrum-based method to characterize and discriminate these dynamical modes quantitatively. Our simulation results suggest that, while a single negative feedback loop of either one- or two-gene element can only have periodic dynamics, the elements with two positive/negative feedback loops are the minimalist elements to have chaotic dynamics. These elements typically have one negative feedback loop that generates oscillations, and another unit that allows frequent switches among multiple steady states or between oscillatory and non-oscillatory dynamics. Possible dynamical features of several simple one- and two-gene elements are presented in details. Discussion is presented for possible roles of the chaotic behavior in the robustness of cellular functions and diseases, for example, in the context of cancer.

  12. Krylov-subspace acceleration of time periodic waveform relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsdaine, A.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the author uses Krylov-subspace techniques to accelerate the convergence of waveform relaxation applied to solving systems of first order time periodic ordinary differential equations. He considers the problem in the frequency domain and presents frequency dependent waveform GMRES (FDWGMRES), a member of a new class of frequency dependent Krylov-subspace techniques. FDWGMRES exhibits many desirable properties, including finite termination independent of the number of timesteps and, for certain problems, a convergence rate which is bounded from above by the convergence rate of GMRES applied to the static matrix problem corresponding to the linear time-invariant ODE.

  13. Effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve child feeding practices and growth in rural China: updated results at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxu; Shi, Ling; Chen, Da-Fang; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate complementary feeding practices have led to, in part, significant disparities in growth and nutritional status between rural and urban children in China. A cluster-randomised, controlled trial was implemented in Laishui, China to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on caregivers' feeding practices and children's growth. Eight townships were randomly assigned to the intervention or control. Five hundred ninety-nine healthy infants were enrolled at 2-4 months old, and were followed up at ages 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. The intervention group received information on enhanced home-prepared recipes and food preparation and hygiene through group training, counselling and home visit. Key outcomes were children's physical growth, caregivers' knowledge and behaviours on complementary feeding, and the infant and child feeding index (ICFI). Analysis was by intention to treat. The intervention group achieved better knowledge and practices related to complementary feeding, and significantly higher ICFI scores at each follow-up point. Children in the intervention group achieved higher z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) than the control (0.18 vs. 0.01 and 0.49 vs. 0.19, respectively) at 18 months old, and were less likely to have stunted growth (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.53-0.94). Mixed model showed that the intervention group achieved significantly better linear growth over time, including WAZ (P = 0.016), WHZ (P = 0.030) and HAZ (P = 0.078). These results indicated that an educational intervention delivered through local health services can enhance caregivers' knowledge and practices of complementary feeding and ultimately improve children's growth.

  14. The 18-Month Impact of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Food Package Revisions on Diets of Recipient Families

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Kim, Yoonsang; Berbaum, Michael L.; Porter, Summer J.; Blumstein, Lara B.; Bess, Stephanie L.; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Beginning in 2009, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) revised its food packages and provided more whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, and fewer foods with high saturated fat content. However, knowledge of the impact of this policy shift on the diets of WIC participants remains limited. Purpose To examine the longer-term impact of the 2009 WIC food package change on nutrient and food group intake and overall diet quality among African American and Hispanic WIC child participants and their mothers/caregivers. Methods In this natural experiment, 24-hour dietary recalls were collected in the summer of 2009, immediately before WIC food package revisions occurred in Chicago, Illinois, and at 18 months following the food package change (winter/spring 2011). Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare dietary intake at these two time points. Data were analyzed in July 2013. Results Eighteen months following the WIC food package revisions, significant decreases in total fat (p=0.002) and saturated fat (p=0.0004) and increases in dietary fiber (p=0.03), and overall diet quality (p=0.02) were observed among Hispanic children only. No significant changes in nutrient intake or diet quality were observed for any other group. The prevalence of reduced-fat milk intake significantly increased for African American and Hispanic children, whereas the prevalence of whole milk intake significantly decreased for all groups. Conclusions Positive dietary changes were observed at 18-months post-policy implementation, with the effects most pronounced among Hispanic children. PMID:24842730

  15. Scheduling real-time, periodic jobs using imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay; Natarajan, Swaminathan

    1987-01-01

    A process is called a monotone process if the accuracy of its intermediate results is non-decreasing as more time is spent to obtain the result. The result produced by a monotone process upon its normal termination is the desired result; the error in this result is zero. External events such as timeouts or crashes may cause the process to terminate prematurely. If the intermediate result produced by the process upon its premature termination is saved and made available, the application may still find the result unusable and, hence, acceptable; such a result is said to be an imprecise one. The error in an imprecise result is nonzero. The problem of scheduling periodic jobs to meet deadlines on a system that provides the necessary programming language primitives and run-time support for processes to return imprecise results is discussed. This problem differs from the traditional scheduling problems since the scheduler may choose to terminate a task before it is completed, causing it to produce an acceptable but imprecise result. Consequently, the amounts of processor time assigned to tasks in a valid schedule can be less than the amounts of time required to complete the tasks. A meaningful formulation of this problem taking into account the quality of the overall result is discussed. Three algorithms for scheduling jobs for which the effects of errors in results produced in different periods are not cumulative are described, and their relative merits are evaluated.

  16. Oral mucormycosis in an 18-month-old child: a rare case report with a literature review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oral mucormycosis is a fungal infection observed mainly in elderly immunocompromised patients. In rare instances, the disease occurs in healthy individuals and those patients that are below preschool age. Although this condition mainly involves the maxilla, it may also manifest in any part of the oral cavity based on the source of infection. Mucormycosis of the maxilla spreads rapidly, leading to necrosis of the palatal bone and palatal perforation. Such patients are usually rehabilitated using bone grafting or free flap surgeries. However, when surgeries are delayed, palatal prosthesis is an interim treatment modality that can prevent nasal regurgitation and aspiration of food or fluids. Palatal prostheses also help with mastication, speech, and swallowing. The present case describes a rare case of oral mucormycosis in an 18-month-old male involving the maxilla that was managed by palatal prosthesis. PMID:27162751

  17. Oral mucormycosis in an 18-month-old child: a rare case report with a literature review.

    PubMed

    Kalaskar, Ritesh Rambharos; Kalaskar, Ashita Ritesh; Ganvir, Sindhu

    2016-04-01

    Oral mucormycosis is a fungal infection observed mainly in elderly immunocompromised patients. In rare instances, the disease occurs in healthy individuals and those patients that are below preschool age. Although this condition mainly involves the maxilla, it may also manifest in any part of the oral cavity based on the source of infection. Mucormycosis of the maxilla spreads rapidly, leading to necrosis of the palatal bone and palatal perforation. Such patients are usually rehabilitated using bone grafting or free flap surgeries. However, when surgeries are delayed, palatal prosthesis is an interim treatment modality that can prevent nasal regurgitation and aspiration of food or fluids. Palatal prostheses also help with mastication, speech, and swallowing. The present case describes a rare case of oral mucormycosis in an 18-month-old male involving the maxilla that was managed by palatal prosthesis. PMID:27162751

  18. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raz, O.; Subaşı, Y.; Jarzynski, C.

    2016-04-01

    Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents. To generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters—also known as a stochastic pump (SP)—reaches a periodic state with nonvanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems, we establish a mapping between nonequilibrium stationary states and stochastic pumps. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents, and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged) values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: They show that stochastic pumps are able to mimic the behavior of nonequilibrium steady states, and vice versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics. Nonequilibrium steady states and stochastic pumps are often used to model, respectively, biomolecular motors driven by chemical reactions and artificial molecular machines steered by the variation of external, macroscopic parameters. Our results loosely suggest that anything a biomolecular machine can do, an artificial molecular machine can do equally well. We illustrate this principle by showing that kinetic proofreading, a NESS mechanism that explains the low error rates in biochemical reactions, can be effectively mimicked by a constrained periodic driving.

  19. (abstract) Short Time Period Variations in Jupiter's Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, S. J.; Klein, M. J.; Gulkis, S.; Foster, R.; Heiles, C.; Pater, I. de

    1994-01-01

    The long term time variability of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation on yearly time scales has been established for some time. For many years, theorists have speculated about the effects variations in the solar wind, solar flux, Io, the Io torus, and Jupiter's magnetic field have on the ultra-relativistic electron population responsible for the emission. Early observational results suggested the additional possibility of a short term time variability, on timescales of days to weeks. In 1989 a program designed to investigate the existence of short term time variability using the 85 foot Hat Creek radio telescope operating at 1400 MHz was initiated. The availability of a dedicated telescope provided the opportunity, for the first time, to obtain numerous observations over the full Jupiter rotation period. These and future observations will enable two important studies, characterization and confirmation of possible short term variations, and the investigation of the stability of Jupiter's synchrotron emission beaming curve. Analysis of Hat Creek observations and early results from the Maryland Point Naval research Laboratory will be presented.

  20. Langevin Dynamics with Space-Time Periodic Nonequilibrium Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubaud, R.; Pavliotis, G. A.; Stoltz, G.

    2015-01-01

    We present results on the ballistic and diffusive behavior of the Langevin dynamics in a periodic potential that is driven away from equilibrium by a space-time periodic driving force, extending some of the results obtained by Collet and Martinez in (J Math Biol, 56(6):765-792 2008). In the hyperbolic scaling, a nontrivial average velocity can be observed even if the external forcing vanishes in average. More surprisingly, an average velocity in the direction opposite to the forcing may develop at the linear response level—a phenomenon called negative mobility. The diffusive limit of the non-equilibrium Langevin dynamics is also studied using the general methodology of central limit theorems for additive functionals of Markov processes. To apply this methodology, which is based on the study of appropriate Poisson equations, we extend recent results on pointwise estimates of the resolvent of the generator associated with the Langevin dynamics. Our theoretical results are illustrated by numerical simulations of a two-dimensional system.

  1. Desensitization to media violence over a short period of time.

    PubMed

    Fanti, Kostas A; Vanman, Eric; Henrich, Christopher C; Avraamides, Marios N

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the desensitization to violence over a short period of time. Participants watched nine violent movie scenes and nine comedy scenes, and reported whether they enjoyed the violent or comedy scenes and whether they felt sympathetic toward the victim of violence. Using latent growth modeling, analyses were carried out to investigate how participants responded to the different scenes across time. The findings of this study suggested that repeated exposure to media violence reduces the psychological impact of media violence in the short term, therefore desensitizing viewers to media violence. As a result, viewers tended to feel less sympathetic toward the victims of violence and actually enjoy more the violence portrayed in the media. Additionally, desensitization to media violence was better represented by a curvilinear pattern, whereas desensitization to comedy scenes was better represented by a linear pattern. Finally, trait aggression was not related to the pattern of change over time, although significant effects were found for initial reports of enjoyment and sympathy. PMID:19172659

  2. Swimming and transport of bacteria in time-periodic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Rebecca; Patteson, Alison; Gagnon, David; Arratia, Paulo

    The transport of bacteria can be highly influenced by external flows in oceans, rivers, and intestinal tracts. This has implications in biological systems for the performance of major biological processes, such as biofilm formation. In this study, we experimentally investigate the aggregation and transport of swimming Vibrio cholerae bacteria in time-periodic flows. Bacteria are placed in a well-characterized flow, and bacterial concentrations are recorded for a range of Reynolds numbers (Re) that spans two orders of magnitude, from 0.1 to 10. It is generally found that bacteria deplete from regions of high deformation rate and accumulate near vortices. This phenomenon seems to be dictated by a combination of bacterial activity and background flow vorticity. R.W. supported by NSF-GRFP.

  3. Relaxation Characteristics of 828 DGEBA Epoxy Over Long Time Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoo, Jasmine; Reprogle, Riley C.; Wisler, Brian; Arechederra, Gabriel K.; McCoy, John D.; Kropka, Jamie M.; Long, Kevin N.

    The mechanical relaxation response in uniaxial compression of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy was studied over long time periods. The epoxy, 828DEA, was Epon 828 cured with diethanolamine (DEA). A sample was compressed at constant strain rate and held at various strain levels for days to allow the sample to relax. The sample was then compressed further and held once more. The relaxation curves were fit with a stretched exponential function. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Prevalence of Active and Latent Yaws in the Solomon Islands 18 Months after Azithromycin Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma

    PubMed Central

    Sokana, Oliver; Nachamkin, Eli; Puiahi, Elliot; Kilua, Georgina; Pillay, Allan; Bottomley, Christian; Solomon, Anthony W.; Mabey, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Both yaws and trachoma are endemic in the Pacific. Mass treatment with azithromycin is the mainstay of the WHO strategy for both the eradication of yaws and the elimination of trachoma as a public health problem, but the dose recommended for trachoma is lower than that for yaws. In countries where both diseases are endemic, there is a potential for synergy between yaws and trachoma control programs if mass treatment with the lower dose of azithromycin was shown to be effective for the treatment of yaws. In an earlier study, we demonstrated a profound reduction in the clinical and serological prevalence of yaws following a single round of mass treatment with azithromycin 20 mg/kg undertaken for the purposes of trachoma elimination. Methods This survey was conducted 18 months following a single round of azithromycin mass treatment in the same communities in which we had conducted our previous six-month follow-up survey. We examined children aged 1–14 years and took blood and lesion samples for yaws diagnosis using the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) and the non-treponemal Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) test. Results A total of 1,284 children were enrolled in the study. Amongst children aged 5–14 years, 223 had a positive TPPA (27.5%, 95% CI 13.6–47.7%). The TPPA seroprevalence amongst this age group did not differ significantly from either our pre-mass treatment survey or our initial follow-up survey. Thirty-five children had positive TPPA and positive RPR (4.3%, 95% CI 2.1–8.7%), and this did not differ significantly from our initial post-mass drug administration (MDA) follow-up survey (4.3% versus 3.5%, p = 0.43) but remained significantly lower than our initial pre-MDA survey (4.3% vs 21.7%, p <0.0001). Village-level MDA coverage was strongly associated with dual-seropositivity (p = 0.005). Amongst children aged 1–4 years, 16 had a positive TPPA (3.5%, 95% CI 1.6–7.1%). This did not differ significantly from the

  5. Navy Global Predictions for the Dynamo Time Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, C. A.; Ridout, J. A.; Flatau, M. K.; Chen, J.; Richman, J. G.; Jensen, T. G.; Shriver, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    The performance of 30-day simulations of the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM) is evaluated under several metrics. The time period of interest is the DYNAMO (Dynamics of Madden Julian Oscillation) field experiment period, starting late October 2011. The NAVGEM experiments are run at an effective 37-km resolution with several different SST configurations. The in the first set of experiments, the initial SST analysis, provided by the NCODA (Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation) system, is either held fixed to the initial value (fixed SST) or updated every 6 hours. These forecasts are compared with forecasts in which the SST is updated with 3-h analyses from the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), and forecasts in which NAVGEM is interactively coupled to HYCOM. Experiments are also performed with different physical parameterization options. The extended integrations are verified using observed OLR, TRMM precipitation estimates, and global analyses. The use of fixed SSTs is clearly sub-optimal. Biases in monthly mean fields are far more pronounced in the simulations where the SST is held fixed as compared to those in simulations where updated SST analyses are used. Biases in the monthly mean fields are further reduced when NAVGEM is coupled to HYCOM. Differences in SST can "migrate" to substantial changes in the time-mean land-surface temperatures, illustrating the substantial impact of SSTs over the full domain. Concerning the simulation of the MJO, some improvement is noted when the system is fully coupled, although the simulations still exhibit deficiencies such as eastward propagation that is too slow, and difficulty propagating over the maritime continent. Simulations that are started every 5 days indicate that the NAVGEM uncoupled system has difficulty predicting MJO initiation, but simulations started when the MJO is active in the Indian Ocean are able to capture eastward propagation characteristics. The coupled NAVGEM-HYCOM system shows ability to

  6. An 18-month survey of infertility treatment by in vitro fertilization, gamete and zygote intrafallopian transfer, and replacement of frozen-thawed embryos.

    PubMed

    Staessen, C; Camus, M; Khan, I; Smitz, J; Van Waesberghe, L; Wisanto, A; Devroey, P; Van Steirteghem, A C

    1989-02-01

    An 18-month survey of infertility treatment by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and related procedures at the Centre for Reproductive Medicine of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel is described. During this period, 1326 treatment cycles were started in patients with long-standing infertility and 1135 oocyte retrievals were performed in 771 different patients. IVF and embryo transfer (ET) after laparoscopic (N = 793) or ultrasonically guided (N = 342) ovum pickup, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT; N = 284), or zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT; N = 15) combined with IVF as well as the replacement of cryopreserved embryos yielded an overall pregnancy rate of 21.8% per started cycle. Echographic and laparoscopic oocyte retrieval gave similar results except for a higher fertilization rate after echographic-guided retrieval. For in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer an overall pregnancy rate of 26% per transfer was obtained. For GIFT and ZIFT the pregnancy rates were, respectively, 27.8 and 46.7% per replacement. For each procedure one-third of the pregnancies aborted. After the replacement of frozen and thawed embryos, during a natural cycle, a significantly lower fetal loss was observed.

  7. 14 CFR 221.190 - Time for filing and computation of time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time for filing and computation of time periods. 221.190 Section 221.190 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.190...

  8. 14 CFR 221.190 - Time for filing and computation of time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time for filing and computation of time periods. 221.190 Section 221.190 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.190...

  9. 12 CFR 116.10 - How does the OCC compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... commences the time period. When the last day of a time period is a Saturday, Sunday, or Federal holiday, the time period runs until the end of the next day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, or Federal holiday....

  10. 12 CFR 116.10 - How does the OCC compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... commences the time period. When the last day of a time period is a Saturday, Sunday, or Federal holiday, the time period runs until the end of the next day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, or Federal holiday....

  11. NEURODEVELOPMENTAL IMPAIRMENT: PREDICTORS OF ITS IMPACT ON THE FAMILIES OF EXTREMELY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS AT 18 MONTHS

    PubMed Central

    STEPHENS, BONNIE E.; BANN, CARLA M.; POOLE, W. KENNETH; VOHR, BETTY R.

    2009-01-01

    Effects on a family of a child with chronic illness have been described. The Impact on Family Scale (IOF) was developed to measure these effects. The impact of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants with neurodevelopmental impairment on families is unknown. This study determined IOF scores for families of ELBW infants with increasing degree of impairment at 18 months and identified factors that increase vulnerability to impact. A total of 3,849 ELBW infant survivors born at the 16 centers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network between January 1993 and February 2001 were assessed at 18 to 22 months. Infants were divided into four groups by degree of impairment. IOF scores were analyzed by impairment group. Multivariate analyses assessed effects of impairment, social/demographic factors, unmet service needs, and resource utilization on the IOF. A total of 1,624 (42.2%) infants had moderate/severe impairment. Increasing severity of impairment was associated with higher IOF scores. Severity of impairment contributed 6% of variance to the IOF scores. Twenty-one percent of variance was contributed by additional medical needs, low socioeconomic status (SES), and lack of social support. Although increasing severity of impairment impacts families of ELBW infants, significantly more impact is contributed by additional medical needs, low SES, and lack of social support. PMID:19779585

  12. An Evaluation of Cerebral and Systemic Predictors of 18-Month Outcomes for Neonates With Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Shellhaas, Renée A; Kushwaha, Juhi S; Plegue, Melissa A; Selewski, David T; Barks, John D E

    2015-10-01

    Amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) is a commonly used predictor of outcome after hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Cerebral and systemic near-infrared spectroscopy and acute kidney injury might also have prognostic value. The authors monitored neonates with aEEG, cerebral and systemic near-infrared spectroscopy during therapeutic hypothermia, assigned an acute kidney injury stage, and measured neurodevelopmental outcome. For 18 infants, cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy variables did not differentiate between those with favorable (n = 13) versus adverse (death or moderate-severe disability; n = 5) 18-month outcomes. However, systemic rSO2 variability was higher during hours 48-72 of cooling among those with favorable outcomes (.02 < P < .03). Mean aEEG amplitude during hours 24 to 48 of cooling was higher among those with good outcomes (.027 < P < .032). The aEEG lower margin was also higher during hours 12 to 48 for those with good outcomes (.014 < P < .035). Acute kidney injury did not predict outcome (P > .05). aEEG is a useful prognostic tool for outcomes after neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, but the role of near-infrared spectroscopy in the hypothermia-treated population remains uncertain.

  13. An Evaluation of Cerebral and Systemic Predictors of 18-Month Outcomes for Neonates With Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Shellhaas, Renée A; Kushwaha, Juhi S; Plegue, Melissa A; Selewski, David T; Barks, John D E

    2015-10-01

    Amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) is a commonly used predictor of outcome after hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Cerebral and systemic near-infrared spectroscopy and acute kidney injury might also have prognostic value. The authors monitored neonates with aEEG, cerebral and systemic near-infrared spectroscopy during therapeutic hypothermia, assigned an acute kidney injury stage, and measured neurodevelopmental outcome. For 18 infants, cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy variables did not differentiate between those with favorable (n = 13) versus adverse (death or moderate-severe disability; n = 5) 18-month outcomes. However, systemic rSO2 variability was higher during hours 48-72 of cooling among those with favorable outcomes (.02 < P < .03). Mean aEEG amplitude during hours 24 to 48 of cooling was higher among those with good outcomes (.027 < P < .032). The aEEG lower margin was also higher during hours 12 to 48 for those with good outcomes (.014 < P < .035). Acute kidney injury did not predict outcome (P > .05). aEEG is a useful prognostic tool for outcomes after neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, but the role of near-infrared spectroscopy in the hypothermia-treated population remains uncertain. PMID:25724376

  14. Maternal employment, child care, and nutritional status of 12-18-month-old children in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Lamontagne, J F; Engle, P L; Zeitlin, M F

    1998-02-01

    Relationships among women's employment, child care strategies, and nutritional status of children 12-18 months of age were examined in 80 Nicaraguan households sampled by randomized block design in 10 low income urban communities. Multiple regression analyses showed that children of employed mothers (56%) fared better in weight/height than those whose mothers were not employed, with and without controlling for socioeconomic status and maternal education, paternal financial support, child care adequacy, and sex and age of the child. Children with inadequate alternate child care (care by a preteen or care at the work place) had lower height for age, even controlling for the same variables and for maternal employment. Differences in 10 caregiving behaviors between families as a function of work status of the mother and adequacy of child care were examined. In families with working mothers, caregivers were less likely to be observed washing their hands, suggesting that the positive associations of work for earnings might be due to income rather than improved care. Inadequate care was associated with less food variety, less use of health care, and marginally less hand-washing. Inadequate child care, which tends to be associated with informal work, nuclear families and poverty, should be a concern for child welfare. PMID:9460821

  15. Humour production may enhance observational learning of a new tool-use action in 18-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Esseily, Rana; Rat-Fischer, Lauriane; Somogyi, Eszter; O'Regan, Kevin John; Fagard, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that making children laugh enhances certain cognitive capacities such as attention, motivation, perception and/or memory, which in turn enhance learning. However, no study thus far has investigated whether laughing has an effect on learning earlier in infancy. The goal of this study was to see whether using humour with young infants in a demonstration of a complex tool-use task can enhance their learning. Fifty-three 18-month-old infants participated in this study and were included either in a humorous or a control demonstration group. In both groups infants observed an adult using a tool to retrieve an out-of-reach toy. What differed between groups was that in the humorous demonstration group, instead of playing with the toy, the adult threw it on the floor immediately after retrieval. The results show that infants who laughed at the demonstration in the humorous demonstration group reproduced significantly more frequent target actions than infants who did not laugh and those in the control group. This effect is discussed with regard to individual differences in terms of temperament and social capacities as well as positive emotion and dopamine release.

  16. Adaptive stabilization of discrete-time systems using linear periodically time varying controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, Romeo; Albertos, Pedro; Lozano, Rogelio

    1988-01-01

    A direct adaptive scheme based on the use of linear time-varying periodic controllers is proposed which estimates online the periodic coefficients of the controller. It is shown that adaptive stabilization is attained for all possibly nonstably invertible plants of known order but unknown delay. Although no appeal is made to persistency of excitation arguments, a provision is needed to avoid the singularity of an estimated matrix, this property being required only for the analysis and not the control calculations.

  17. Utilization of Child Health Services during the first 18 months of life: aspects of health surveillance in Swedish preschool children based on information in health records.

    PubMed

    Hagelin, E; Jackson, K; Wikblad, K

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate some aspects of care given within the preventive Child Health Services (CHS) during the first 18 months of life. A national random sample performed on child health records of 172 Swedish preschool children born between 1982 and 1987 was analysed regarding services recorded as having been provided and used within and beyond the national programme of health surveillance. Most families had made visits within the core programme of health surveillance to an optimal or at least sufficient extent. First-time parents visited the CHS more frequently than did more experienced parents. Procedures within the programme, such as growth monitoring, hip examination and immunizations, were documented to have been optimally performed on a majority of the children. Conversely, screening for hearing impairment and assessment of developmental milestones were performed less frequently, as were health information and postnatal parental education. To improve the quality of care, national recommendations ought to be more specific regarding both the performance and the documentation of the service.

  18. Supplementary feeding with fortified spread among moderately underweight 6-18-month-old rural Malawian children.

    PubMed

    Phuka, John; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Maleta, Kenneth; Cheung, Yin Bun; Briend, André; Manary, Mark; Ashorn, Per

    2009-04-01

    We aimed to analyse growth and recovery from undernutrition among moderately underweight ambulatory children receiving micronutrient-fortified maize-soy flour (Likuni Phala, LP) or ready-to-use fortified spread (FS) supplementary diet. One hundred and seventy-six 6-18-month-old individuals were randomized to receive 500 g LP or 350 g FS weekly for 12 weeks. Baseline and end of intervention measurements were used to calculate anthropometric gains and recovery from underweight, wasting and stunting. Mean weight-for-age increased by 0.22 (95% CI 0.07-0.37) and 0.28 (0.18-0.40) Z-score units in the LP and FS groups respectively. Comparable increase for mean weight-for-length was 0.39 (0.20-0.57) and 0.52 (0.38-0.65) Z-score units. Recovery from underweight and wasting was 20% and 93% in LP group and 16% and 75% in FS group. Few individuals recovered from stunting and mean length-for-age was not markedly changed. There were no statistically significant differences between the outcomes in the two intervention groups. In a poor food-security setting, underweight infants and children receiving supplementary feeding for 12 weeks with ready-to-use FS or maize-soy flour porridge show similar recovery from moderate wasting and underweight. Neither intervention, if limited to a 12-week duration, appears to have significant impact on the process of linear growth or stunting. PMID:19292750

  19. Convergence Time towards Periodic Orbits in Discrete Dynamical Systems

    PubMed Central

    San Martín, Jesús; Porter, Mason A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the convergence towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems. We examine the probability that a randomly chosen point converges to a particular neighborhood of a periodic orbit in a fixed number of iterations, and we use linearized equations to examine the evolution near that neighborhood. The underlying idea is that points of stable periodic orbit are associated with intervals. We state and prove a theorem that details what regions of phase space are mapped into these intervals (once they are known) and how many iterations are required to get there. We also construct algorithms that allow our theoretical results to be implemented successfully in practice. PMID:24736594

  20. Convergence time towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Jesús; Porter, Mason A

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the convergence towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems. We examine the probability that a randomly chosen point converges to a particular neighborhood of a periodic orbit in a fixed number of iterations, and we use linearized equations to examine the evolution near that neighborhood. The underlying idea is that points of stable periodic orbit are associated with intervals. We state and prove a theorem that details what regions of phase space are mapped into these intervals (once they are known) and how many iterations are required to get there. We also construct algorithms that allow our theoretical results to be implemented successfully in practice.

  1. Convergence time towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Jesús; Porter, Mason A

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the convergence towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems. We examine the probability that a randomly chosen point converges to a particular neighborhood of a periodic orbit in a fixed number of iterations, and we use linearized equations to examine the evolution near that neighborhood. The underlying idea is that points of stable periodic orbit are associated with intervals. We state and prove a theorem that details what regions of phase space are mapped into these intervals (once they are known) and how many iterations are required to get there. We also construct algorithms that allow our theoretical results to be implemented successfully in practice. PMID:24736594

  2. Logic Model Checking of Time-Periodic Real-Time Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florian, Mihai; Gamble, Ed; Holzmann, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on the work we performed to extend the logic model checker SPIN with built-in support for the verification of periodic, real-time embedded software systems, as commonly used in aircraft, automobiles, and spacecraft. We first extended the SPIN verification algorithms to model priority based scheduling policies. Next, we added a library to support the modeling of periodic tasks. This library was used in a recent application of the SPIN model checker to verify the engine control software of an automobile, to study the feasibility of software triggers for unintended acceleration events.

  3. Body composition, physical work capacity and physical activity habits at 18-month follow-up of middle-aged women participating in an exercise intervention program.

    PubMed

    MacKeen, P C; Franklin, B A; Nicholas, W C; Buskirk, E R

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-six sedentary women (29-47 yr) participated in a 12-week, 4-d/week physical conditioning program (CP) involving 15-25 min/d of walking/jogging at a heart rate corresponding to 75 percent of aerobic capacity (VO2max). Twenty-three were classified obese (O, greater than 30 percent body fat, mean = 38 percent) and 13 normal (N, less than 30 percent body fat, mean = 25 percent). Significant post-CP changes included increased VO2max and decreased body fat. At 18 months post-CP a volunteer subgroup of the original 36 subjects (Ss) were re-evaluated, 19 being hydrostatically weighed, 21 exercise-tested and 28 interviewed to assess physical activity over the preceding eight quarterly periods. At CP termination 80 percent of N and 78 percent of O had intended to continue jogging, but by follow-up only 40 percent of N and 33 percent of O were so engaged, none at CP frequency, many at reduced duration and intensity. There was no significant difference between follow-up and pre-CP mean h/week of jogging for the entire follow-up group, even though eight of them (28 percent) increased their jogging over pre-CP levels. Follow-up VO2max and percent body fat means were also not significantly different from pre-CP values. It is suggested that the majority of middle-aged women participating in supervised walk-jog conditioning interventions may regress to pre-program physiologic status when left to exercise ad libitum.

  4. Burning invariant manifolds in time-periodic and time-aperiodic vortex flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowen, Savannah; Solomon, Tom

    2014-11-01

    We present experiments that study reaction fronts in a flow composed of a single, translating vortex. The fronts are produced by the excitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) chemical reaction, and the vortex flow is driven magnetohydrodynamically by a radial current in a thin fluid layer above a Nd-Fe-Bo magnet. The magnet is mounted on a pair of perpendicular translation stages, allowing for controlled, two-dimensional movement of the magnet and the resulting vortex. We study reaction fronts that pin to the vortex for time-independent flows (produced by moving the vortex with a constant velocity) and for time-periodic and time-aperiodic flows produced by oscillating the vortex laterally. The steady-state front shape is analyzed in terms of burning invariant manifolds (BIMs) that act as one-way barriers against any propagating reaction fronts. For time independent and time-periodic flows, the location of the BIMs are calculated numerically and are compared with experimental images of the pinned reaction fronts. We investigate extensions of this BIM approach for analyzing fronts in time-aperiodic flows. Supported by NSF Grants DMR-1004744, DMR-1361881 and PHY-1156964.

  5. 29 CFR 4000.43 - How do I compute a time period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I compute a time period? 4000.43 Section 4000.43..., ISSUANCE, COMPUTATION OF TIME, AND RECORD RETENTION Computation of Time § 4000.43 How do I compute a time period? (a) In general. If you are computing a time period to which this part applies, whether you...

  6. Unsettled Times, Unsettled Prices: Periodical Price Survey 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketcham, Lee; Born, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of the thirty-seventh annual periodical price survey conducted by "Library Journal". Highlights include canceling print subscriptions and electronic journals, cost trends by subject and by countries, prices for public and school libraries and for college and medium-sized university libraries, and budgeting for 1988. (LRW)

  7. Using travel times to simulate multi-dimensional bioreactive transport in time-periodic flows.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2016-04-01

    In travel-time models, the spatially explicit description of reactive transport is replaced by associating reactive-species concentrations with the travel time or groundwater age at all locations. These models have been shown adequate for reactive transport in river-bank filtration under steady-state flow conditions. Dynamic hydrological conditions, however, can lead to fluctuations of infiltration velocities, putting the validity of travel-time models into question. In transient flow, the local travel-time distributions change with time. We show that a modified version of travel-time based reactive transport models is valid if only the magnitude of the velocity fluctuates, whereas its spatial orientation remains constant. We simulate nonlinear, one-dimensional, bioreactive transport involving oxygen, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, aerobic and denitrifying bacteria, considering periodic fluctuations of velocity. These fluctuations make the bioreactive system pulsate: The aerobic zone decreases at times of low velocity and increases at those of high velocity. For the case of diurnal fluctuations, the biomass concentrations cannot follow the hydrological fluctuations and a transition zone containing both aerobic and obligatory denitrifying bacteria is established, whereas a clear separation of the two types of bacteria prevails in the case of seasonal velocity fluctuations. We map the 1-D results to a heterogeneous, two-dimensional domain by means of the mean groundwater age for steady-state flow in both domains. The mapped results are compared to simulation results of spatially explicit, two-dimensional, advective-dispersive-bioreactive transport subject to the same relative fluctuations of velocity as in the one-dimensional model. The agreement between the mapped 1-D and the explicit 2-D results is excellent. We conclude that travel-time models of nonlinear bioreactive transport are adequate in systems of time-periodic flow if the flow direction does not change.

  8. Using travel times to simulate multi-dimensional bioreactive transport in time-periodic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2016-04-01

    In travel-time models, the spatially explicit description of reactive transport is replaced by associating reactive-species concentrations with the travel time or groundwater age at all locations. These models have been shown adequate for reactive transport in river-bank filtration under steady-state flow conditions. Dynamic hydrological conditions, however, can lead to fluctuations of infiltration velocities, putting the validity of travel-time models into question. In transient flow, the local travel-time distributions change with time. We show that a modified version of travel-time based reactive transport models is valid if only the magnitude of the velocity fluctuates, whereas its spatial orientation remains constant. We simulate nonlinear, one-dimensional, bioreactive transport involving oxygen, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, aerobic and denitrifying bacteria, considering periodic fluctuations of velocity. These fluctuations make the bioreactive system pulsate: The aerobic zone decreases at times of low velocity and increases at those of high velocity. For the case of diurnal fluctuations, the biomass concentrations cannot follow the hydrological fluctuations and a transition zone containing both aerobic and obligatory denitrifying bacteria is established, whereas a clear separation of the two types of bacteria prevails in the case of seasonal velocity fluctuations. We map the 1-D results to a heterogeneous, two-dimensional domain by means of the mean groundwater age for steady-state flow in both domains. The mapped results are compared to simulation results of spatially explicit, two-dimensional, advective-dispersive-bioreactive transport subject to the same relative fluctuations of velocity as in the one-dimensional model. The agreement between the mapped 1-D and the explicit 2-D results is excellent. We conclude that travel-time models of nonlinear bioreactive transport are adequate in systems of time-periodic flow if the flow direction does not change.

  9. Existence, Uniqueness and Asymptotic Stability of Time Periodic Traveling Waves for a Periodic Lotka-Volterra Competition System with Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangyu; Ruan, Shigui

    2011-06-01

    We study the existence, uniqueness, and asymptotic stability of time periodic traveling wave solutions to a periodic diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition system. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exists a maximal wave speed c(*) such that for each wave speed c ≤ c(*), there is a time periodic traveling wave connecting two semi-trivial periodic solutions of the corresponding kinetic system. It is shown that such a traveling wave is unique modulo translation and is monotone with respect to its co-moving frame coordinate. We also show that the traveling wave solutions with wave speed c < c(*) are asymptotically stable in certain sense. In addition, we establish the nonexistence of time periodic traveling waves for nonzero speed c > c(*).

  10. Existence, Uniqueness and Asymptotic Stability of Time Periodic Traveling Waves for a Periodic Lotka-Volterra Competition System with Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangyu; Ruan, Shigui

    2011-06-01

    We study the existence, uniqueness, and asymptotic stability of time periodic traveling wave solutions to a periodic diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition system. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exists a maximal wave speed c(*) such that for each wave speed c ≤ c(*), there is a time periodic traveling wave connecting two semi-trivial periodic solutions of the corresponding kinetic system. It is shown that such a traveling wave is unique modulo translation and is monotone with respect to its co-moving frame coordinate. We also show that the traveling wave solutions with wave speed c < c(*) are asymptotically stable in certain sense. In addition, we establish the nonexistence of time periodic traveling waves for nonzero speed c > c(*). PMID:21572575

  11. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  12. Bimanual Behaviours in Children Aged 8-18 Months: A Literature Review to Select Toys that Elicit the Use of Two Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves, Susan; Imms, Christine; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Dodd, Karen; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Toys that provoke the use of both hands are required to develop a test of bimanual performance in children 8-18 months with unilateral cerebral palsy (Mini-AHA). To choose the toys, a conceptual model based on perception-action theory and object use was used to guide a literature review. Evidence was sought for three critical relationships…

  13. A novel biodegradable biliary stent in the normal duct hepaticojejunal anastomosis: an 18-month follow-up in a large animal model.

    PubMed

    Laukkarinen, Johanna M; Sand, Juhani A; Chow, Pierce; Juuti, Hanne; Kellomäki, Minna; Kärkkäinen, Päivi; Isola, Jorma; Yu, Sidney; Somanesan, Satchithanantham; Kee, Irene; Song, In Chin; Ng, Teck Hin; Nordback, Isto H

    2007-06-01

    Creating a well-functioning hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) anastomosis with nondilated bile ducts remains a challenge. Our aim was to study the use in a large animal model of a novel, braided polylactide barium sulfate biodegradable biliary stent (BDBS) without external connection and with no need for later removal. Fifty swine were randomly operated on for Roux-Y HJ with or without BDBS in the anastomosis, and followed up (dynamic biligraphy, x-ray, serum determinations, anastomosis inner diameter, and histology) for 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. During the follow-up, one nonstented animal died because of anastomotic leakage. In x-ray BDBS was seen in place until 1.5 months in all of the stented animals. In the nonstented animals HJ anastomosis inner diameter was decreased at 18 months [6.3 (5.0-7.0) mm vs 7.4 (7.0-9.0) mm, p = 0.05] and liver clearance reduced at 12 and 18 months compared to stented animals. Serum liver values and liver and bile duct histology did not differ between the groups. We conclude that this novel BDBS is easy to insert into the HJ anastomosis with nondilated ducts. It is nontoxic, dissolves safely, and may be associated with a larger and better draining anastomosis at 18-month follow-up. These results encourage us to proceed to clinical studies. PMID:17436052

  14. Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) Screening at 18 Months of Age Predicts Concurrent Understanding of Desires, Word Learning and Expressive Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Kristyn; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2012-01-01

    The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) is a 23-item questionnaire used in primary screening of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current studies examine the concurrent validity of the M-CHAT in its ability to predict 18-month-olds' performance on theory of mind and word learning tasks. In Experiment 1, infants' understanding of…

  15. Developmental outcomes among 18-month-old Malawians after a year of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements or corn-soy flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major aim of this trial was to compare the development of 18-month-old infants who received complementary feeding for 1 year with either lipid-based nutrient supplements or micronutrient-fortified corn-soy porridge. Our secondary aim was to determine the socio-economic factors associated with de...

  16. Assessing the Long-Term Effects of EMDR: Results from an 18-Month Follow-Up Study with Adult Female Survivors of CSA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmond, Tonya; Rubin, Allen

    2004-01-01

    This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence…

  17. Socioeconomic Status and the Risk of Suspected Autism Spectrum Disorders among 18-Month-Old Toddlers in Japan: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiwara, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and the suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD) status of 18-month-old toddlers was investigated using a population-based sample in Japan, which has a universal healthcare system and a mandatory health checkup system for toddlers. Questionnaires including SES measurements and modified…

  18. Controlling mixing and segregation in time periodic granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Tathagata

    Segregation is a major problem for many solids processing industries. Differences in particle size or density can lead to flow-induced segregation. In the present work, we employ the discrete element method (DEM)---one type of particle dynamics (PD) technique---to investigate the mixing and segregation of granular material in some prototypical solid handling devices, such as a rotating drum and chute. In DEM, one calculates the trajectories of individual particles based on Newton's laws of motion by employing suitable contact force models and a collision detection algorithm. Recently, it has been suggested that segregation in particle mixers can be thwarted if the particle flow is inverted at a rate above a critical forcing frequency. Further, it has been hypothesized that, for a rotating drum, the effectiveness of this technique can be linked to the probability distribution of the number of times a particle passes through the flowing layer per rotation of the drum. In the first portion of this work, various configurations of solid mixers are numerically and experimentally studied to investigate the conditions for improved mixing in light of these hypotheses. Besides rotating drums, many studies of granular flow have focused on gravity driven chute flows owing to its practical importance in granular transportation and to the fact that the relative simplicity of this type of flow allows for development and testing of new theories. In this part of the work, we observe the deposition behavior of both mono-sized and polydisperse dry granular materials in an inclined chute flow. The effects of different parameters such as chute angle, particle size, falling height and charge amount on the mass fraction distribution of granular materials after deposition are investigated. The simulation results obtained using DEM are compared with the experimental findings and a high degree of agreement is observed. Tuning of the underlying contact force parameters allows the achievement

  19. 18-Month Predictors of Later Outcomes in Younger Siblings of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Baby Siblings Research Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Shic, Frederick; Macari, Suzanne; Campbell, Daniel J.; Brian, Jessica; Landa, Rebecca; Hutman, Ted; Nelson, Charles A.; Ozonoff, Sally; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Young, Gregory S.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Cohen, Ira L.; Charman, Tony; Messinger, Daniel S.; Klin, Ami; Johnson, Scott; Bryson, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk (HR) for developing ASD as well as features of the broader autism phenotype. While this complicates early diagnostic considerations in this cohort, it also provides an opportunity to examine patterns of behavior associated specifically with ASD compared to other developmental outcomes. Method We applied Classification and Regression Trees (CART) analysis to individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in 719 HR siblings to identify behavioral features at 18 months predictive of diagnostic outcomes (ASD, atypical development, and typical development) at 36 months. Results Three distinct combinations of features at 18 months were predictive of ASD outcome: 1) poor eye contact combined with lack of communicative gestures and giving; 2) poor eye contact combined with a lack of imaginative play; and 3) lack of giving and presence of repetitive behaviors, but with intact eye contact. These 18-month behavioral profiles predicted ASD versus non-ASD status at 36 months with 82.7% accuracy in an initial test sample and 77.3% accuracy in a validation sample. Clinical features at age 3 among children with ASD varied as a function of their 18-month symptom profiles. Children with ASD who were misclassified at 18 months were higher functioning, and their autism symptoms increased between 18 and 36 months. Conclusion These findings suggest the presence of different developmental pathways to ASD in HR siblings. Understanding such pathways will provide clearer targets for neural and genetic research and identification of developmentally specific treatments for ASD. PMID:25457930

  20. Dopamine Receptor Gene DRD4 7-Repeat Allele X Maternal Sensitivity Interaction on Child Externalizing Behavior Problems: Independent Replication of Effects at 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    King, Anthony P.; Muzik, Maria; Hamilton, Lindsay; Taylor, Alexander B.; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    The DRD4 VNTR has been associated with child behavior problems in interaction with maternal insensitivity in European and American cohorts of preschoolers, with the 7-repeat (7R) allele associated with greater problems. We sought to replicate and expand these findings by examining effects on reports of child behavior problems at 18 months. A 63 family sample with data for observed maternal sensitivity ratings, DRD4 VNTR genotype, and maternal report of child behavior problems at 18-months was used in this preliminary analysis. Maternal sensitivity was measured at 6-months of age using laboratory observational measures (free-play and a teaching task). Maternal report of toddler behavior was obtained at 18-months via the standard Child Behavior Checklist, and infant genotype on the DRD4 VNTR was obtained using PCR. Infants carrying the DRD4 7R allele showed greater effects of maternal insensitivity than non-carriers for behavioral problems at 18-months. We replicated previous findings of association of infant DRD4 x maternal sensitivity interactions with child Externalizing problems in the European-ancestry sample (N = 42) in a median split of maternal sensitivity (p = .00011, eta2 = .329) and in regression analyses controlling for maternal age, maternal depression, and child gender in European ancestry (B = -3.4, SE 1.33, p = .01) and the total sample (B = -2.2, SE 1.02, p = .02). Exploratory analyses also found evidence of DRD4 x maternal sensitivity interaction with the CBCL ADHD scale. These findings replicate in an independent cohort DRD4 x maternal insensitivity interaction effect on child externalizing behavior problems at 18 months, further supporting the role of the DRD4 genotype in differential sensitivity to parenting. PMID:27494520

  1. Dopamine Receptor Gene DRD4 7-Repeat Allele X Maternal Sensitivity Interaction on Child Externalizing Behavior Problems: Independent Replication of Effects at 18 Months.

    PubMed

    King, Anthony P; Muzik, Maria; Hamilton, Lindsay; Taylor, Alexander B; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    The DRD4 VNTR has been associated with child behavior problems in interaction with maternal insensitivity in European and American cohorts of preschoolers, with the 7-repeat (7R) allele associated with greater problems. We sought to replicate and expand these findings by examining effects on reports of child behavior problems at 18 months. A 63 family sample with data for observed maternal sensitivity ratings, DRD4 VNTR genotype, and maternal report of child behavior problems at 18-months was used in this preliminary analysis. Maternal sensitivity was measured at 6-months of age using laboratory observational measures (free-play and a teaching task). Maternal report of toddler behavior was obtained at 18-months via the standard Child Behavior Checklist, and infant genotype on the DRD4 VNTR was obtained using PCR. Infants carrying the DRD4 7R allele showed greater effects of maternal insensitivity than non-carriers for behavioral problems at 18-months. We replicated previous findings of association of infant DRD4 x maternal sensitivity interactions with child Externalizing problems in the European-ancestry sample (N = 42) in a median split of maternal sensitivity (p = .00011, eta2 = .329) and in regression analyses controlling for maternal age, maternal depression, and child gender in European ancestry (B = -3.4, SE 1.33, p = .01) and the total sample (B = -2.2, SE 1.02, p = .02). Exploratory analyses also found evidence of DRD4 x maternal sensitivity interaction with the CBCL ADHD scale. These findings replicate in an independent cohort DRD4 x maternal insensitivity interaction effect on child externalizing behavior problems at 18 months, further supporting the role of the DRD4 genotype in differential sensitivity to parenting. PMID:27494520

  2. 16 CFR 1502.2 - Computation of time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... officer, or by the Commission, Saturdays, Sundays, and Federal holidays are included in computing time. However, if the last day for taking such action falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or Federal holiday,...

  3. 16 CFR 1502.2 - Computation of time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... officer, or by the Commission, Saturdays, Sundays, and Federal holidays are included in computing time. However, if the last day for taking such action falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or Federal holiday,...

  4. Use of technology in follow-up of HIV positive pregnant women and their babies till 18 months of age- an innovation by Maharashtra State AIDS Control Society (MSACS), India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Radhay Shyam; Yewale, Kiran; Hegde, Asha S.; Mulik, Tejas; Bamrotiya, Manish; Yadav, Surendra; Rane, Tushar; Pardeshi, Kushalsinh; Balakrishnan, Sudha; Reddy, D.C.S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of web-based mobile technology monitoring tool, for ensuring linkages, and tracking of HIV-exposed child until 18 months of age. Methods The ‘early infant diagnosis (EID) Follow-up System’ was designed as a tool for reminding the field level staff for follow-up of HIV-exposed babies. Using Java Swing Framework, software was developed which generates automatic advance SMS alerts regarding patient information to the Counsellor of the respective Integrated Counselling and Testing Center and district supervisor, 7 days prior to due dates. Simultaneously, system generated e-mail is sent to district program officer for monitoring and updating the line-list. Results Before the introduction of ‘EID Follow-up System’ in June 2013, only 55.9% (637/1139) of the HIV-exposed babies born were tested at 6 weeks for DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction during April 2011–March 2012. However, after its introduction, 68.4% (1117/1631) of them were tested during April 2012–March 2013. Correspondingly, the 18 months confirmatory HIV testing in eligible babies increased from 45.6% (934/2044) to 54.7%(1118/2044) during the same period. Conclusion The replicable technology driven initiative would help in strengthening the follow-up mechanisms and reach every HIV-exposed child for EID. PMID:26945142

  5. The nature of species interactions shifts profoundly between time periods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species interactions change through time, for example ontogenetically, successionally, and evolutionarily. They also change as environmental conditions change, both within years (seasonally) and between years (year effects). The former are relatively well-studied, but the latter have received less a...

  6. Load Balancing Using Time Series Analysis for Soft Real Time Systems with Statistically Periodic Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailperin, Max

    1993-01-01

    This thesis provides design and analysis of techniques for global load balancing on ensemble architectures running soft-real-time object-oriented applications with statistically periodic loads. It focuses on estimating the instantaneous average load over all the processing elements. The major contribution is the use of explicit stochastic process models for both the loading and the averaging itself. These models are exploited via statistical time-series analysis and Bayesian inference to provide improved average load estimates, and thus to facilitate global load balancing. This thesis explains the distributed algorithms used and provides some optimality results. It also describes the algorithms' implementation and gives performance results from simulation. These results show that our techniques allow more accurate estimation of the global system load ing, resulting in fewer object migration than local methods. Our method is shown to provide superior performance, relative not only to static load-balancing schemes but also to many adaptive methods.

  7. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations: Energy Dependent Time-lags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, R.; Mandal, S.

    2014-07-01

    We present a a generic model for alternating lags in QPO harmonics where variations in the photon spectrum are caused by oscillations in two parameters that characterize the spectrum. The model assumes that variations in one of the parameters are linearly driven by variations in the other after a time delay. We show that alternating lags will be observed for a range of time delays. We have further developed a phenomenological model based on this generic one that can explain the amplitude and phase lag variation with energy of the fundamental and the next three harmonics of the 67 mHz QPO observed in GRS 1915+105. The phenomenological model also predicts the variation of the Bicoherence phase with energy, which can be checked by further analysis of the observational data.

  8. Socioeconomic status and the risk of suspected autism spectrum disorders among 18-month-old toddlers in Japan: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeo

    2014-06-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and the suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD) status of 18-month-old toddlers was investigated using a population-based sample in Japan, which has a universal healthcare system and a mandatory health checkup system for toddlers. Questionnaires including SES measurements and modified checklist for autism in toddlers were mailed to all families with 18-month-old toddlers in Chiba, a city near Tokyo (N = 6,061; response rate: 64%). The results of logistic regression analysis (which were adjusted for potential confounders) indicated that low maternal education, but not paternal education or family income, were associated with having suspected ASD offspring. Lower maternal education was associated with an increased risk of autistic traits in Japan.

  9. Anhedonic-like traits and lack of affective deficits in 18-month-old C57BL/6 mice: Implications for modeling elderly depression.

    PubMed

    Malatynska, Ewa; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Redkozubova, Olga; Bolkunov, Alexei; Kubatiev, Aslan; Yeritsyan, Naira B; Vignisse, Julie; Bachurin, Sergei; Strekalova, Tatyana

    2012-08-01

    The prevalence of depression increases with aging. We hypothesized that like humans, old animals exhibit anhedonic-like behavior, along with signs of behavioral despair. In rodents, anhedonia, a reduced sensitivity to reward, which is listed as a core feature of major depression in the DSM-IVR, can be measured by a decrease in intake of and preference for sweet solutions. Here, sucrose intake, forced swimming, immobility in the modified tail suspension test, novelty exploration, grooming, anxiety and locomotor activity were compared in naïve 3- and 18-month-old male C57BL/6 mice. The absolute amounts and the ratio of consumed 1% sucrose solution to water intake was significantly smaller in 18-month-old mice than in 3-month-old mice. The consumption of 5%-sucrose solution requiring high levels of drinking effort, novelty exploration in two setups and grooming behavior in the splash test were reduced in older animals. Analysis of other behaviors suggested that the above-mentioned signs of anhedonic-like traits were unlikely to be attributable to the potential effect of aging on metabolic needs for water, taste perception, motor capabilities or the induction of essential anxiety and neophobia. A 4-week treatment with the antidepressant imipramine (7mg/kg/day) or dimebon, a compound with suggested neuroprotective proneurogenic properties (1mg/kg/day) restored sucrose intake and preference in 18-month-old mice. Meanwhile, young and old mice showed no differences in the parameters of behavioral despair evaluated in the forced swim and modified tail suspension tests. Thus, the behavioral profile of aged mice parallels that of humans with elderly depression, in whom the symptoms of hedonic deficits typically outweigh affective disturbances. The assessment of anhedonic-like traits with the sucrose preference test in 18-month-old mice will be useful in preclinical studies of elderly depression.

  10. Maternal Obesity, Overweight and Gestational Diabetes Affect the Offspring Neurodevelopment at 6 and 18 Months of Age – A Follow Up from the PREOBE Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Espinola, Francisco J.; Berglund, Staffan K; García-Valdés, Luz Mª; Segura, Mª Teresa; Jerez, Antonio; Campos, Daniel; Moreno-Torres, Rosario; Rueda, Ricardo; Catena, Andrés; Pérez-García, Miguel; Campoy, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Background Brain development in fetal life and early infancy is critical to determine lifelong performance in various neuropsychological domains. Metabolic pathologies such as overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes in pregnant women are prevalent and increasing risk factors that may adversely affect long-term brain development in their offspring. Objective The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of maternal metabolic pathologies on the neurodevelopment of the offspring at 6 and 18 months of life. Design This was a prospective case-control study of 331 mother- and child pairs from Granada, Spain. The mothers were included during pregnancy into four groups according to their pre-gestational body mass index and their gestational diabetes status; overweight (n:56), obese (n:64), gestational diabetic (n:79), and healthy normal weight controls (n:132). At 6 months and 18 months we assessed the children with the Bayley III scales of neurodevelopment. Results At 6 months (n=215), we found significant group differences in cognition composite language, and expressive language. Post hoc test revealed unexpectedly higher scores in the obese group compared to the normal weight group and a similar trend in overweight and diabetic group. The effects on language remained significant after adjusting for confounders with an adjusted odds ratio for a value above median in composite language score of 3.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 10.0; p=0.035) for children of obese mothers. At 18 month (n=197), the offspring born to obese mothers had lost five points in language composite scores and the previous differences in language and cognition was replaced by a suggestive trend of lower gross motor scores in the overweight, obese, and diabetic groups. Conclusions Infants of obese mothers had a temporary accelerated development of cognition and language, followed by a rapid deceleration until 18 months of age, particularly of language scores. This novel observation prompts

  11. 17 CFR 274.127e-1 - Form N-27E-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders of 18-month surrender rights...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-27E-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Forms for...

  12. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest time requirements. 135.273 Section 135.273 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.273 Duty period...

  13. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest time requirements. 135.273 Section 135.273 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.273 Duty period...

  14. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest time requirements. 135.273 Section 135.273 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.273 Duty period...

  15. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest time requirements. 135.273 Section 135.273 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.273 Duty period...

  16. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest time requirements. 135.273 Section 135.273 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.273 Duty period...

  17. The timing behavior of magnetar Swift J1822.3-1606: timing noise or a decreasing period derivative?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Hao; Xu, Ren-Xin

    2013-10-01

    The different timing results of the magnetar Swift J1822.3-1606 are analyzed and understood theoretically. It is noted that different timing solutions are caused not only by timing noise, but also because the period derivative is decreasing after the outburst. Both the decreasing period derivative and the large timing noise may originate from wind braking associated with the magnetar. Future timing of Swift J1822.3-1606 will help clarify whether or not its period derivative is decreasing with time.

  18. Estimation of postmortem interval based on colony development time for Anoplolepsis longipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Goff, M L; Win, B H

    1997-11-01

    The postmortem interval for a set of human remains discovered inside a metal tool box was estimated using the development time required for a stratiomyid fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), Hermetia illucens, in combination with the time required to establish a colony of the ant Anoplolepsis longipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) capable of producing alate (winged) reproductives. This analysis resulted in a postmortem interval estimate of 14 + months, with a period of 14-18 months being the most probable time interval. The victim had been missing for approximately 18 months. PMID:9397565

  19. Estimation of postmortem interval based on colony development time for Anoplolepsis longipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Goff, M L; Win, B H

    1997-11-01

    The postmortem interval for a set of human remains discovered inside a metal tool box was estimated using the development time required for a stratiomyid fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), Hermetia illucens, in combination with the time required to establish a colony of the ant Anoplolepsis longipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) capable of producing alate (winged) reproductives. This analysis resulted in a postmortem interval estimate of 14 + months, with a period of 14-18 months being the most probable time interval. The victim had been missing for approximately 18 months.

  20. 45 CFR 402.26 - Time period for obligation and expenditure of grant funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 92.23(b). This time limit will not be extended. The time limit established by 45 CFR 92.23(b) does... STATE LEGALIZATION IMPACT ASSISTANCE GRANTS Administration of Grants § 402.26 Time period for...

  1. 20 CFR 404.996 - Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires. 404.996 Section 404.996 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... § 404.996 Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires. If, after the time...

  2. Cervical Arthroplasty for Moderate to Severe Disc Degeneration: Clinical and Radiological Assessments after a Minimum Follow-Up of 18 Months: Pfirrmann Grade and Cervical Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Kim, Do Yeon; Ji, Gyu Yeul; Kim, Yeo Ju; Hyun, Dongkeun; Kim, Eun Young; Park, Hyeonseon; Park, Hyeong-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Clinical outcomes and radiologic results after cervical arthroplasty have been reported in many articles, yet relatively few studies after cervical arthroplasty have been conducted in severe degenerative cervical disc disease. Materials and Methods Sixty patients who underwent cervical arthroplasty (Mobi-C®) between April 2006 and November 2011 with a minimum follow-up of 18 months were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to Pfirrmann classification on preoperative cervical MR images: group A (Pfirrmann disc grade III, n=38) and group B (Pfirrmann disc grades IV or V, n=22). Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores of neck and arm pain, modified Oswestry Disability Index (mODI) score, and radiological results including cervical range of motion (ROM) were assessed before and after surgery. Results VAS and mean mODI scores decreased after surgery from 5.1 and 57.6 to 2.7 and 31.5 in group A and from 6.1 and 59.9 to 3.7 and 38.4 in group B, respectively. In both groups, VAS and mODI scores significantly improved postoperatively (p<0.001), although no significant intergroup differences were found. Also, cervical dynamic ROM was preserved or gradually improved up to 18 months after cervical arthroplasty in both groups. Global, segmental and adjacent ROM was similar for both groups during follow-up. No cases of device subsidence or extrusion were recorded. Conclusion Clinical and radiological results following cervical arthroplasty in patients with severe degenerative cervical disc disease were no different from those in patients with mild degenerative cervical disc disease after 18 months of follow-up. PMID:24954339

  3. Structure and dating errors in the geologic time scale and periodicity in mass extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Structure in the geologic time scale reflects a partly paleontological origin. As a result, ages of Cenozoic and Mesozoic stage boundaries exhibit a weak 28-Myr periodicity that is similar to the strong 26-Myr periodicity detected in mass extinctions of marine life by Raup and Sepkoski. Radiometric dating errors in the geologic time scale, to which the mass extinctions are stratigraphically tied, do not necessarily lessen the likelihood of a significant periodicity in mass extinctions, but do spread the acceptable values of the period over the range 25-27 Myr for the Harland et al. time scale or 25-30 Myr for the DNAG time scale. If the Odin time scale is adopted, acceptable periods fall between 24 and 33 Myr, but are not robust against dating errors. Some indirect evidence from independently-dated flood-basalt volcanic horizons tends to favor the Odin time scale.

  4. The Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite: Mission status and CCD evolution after 18 months on-orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, B.; Scott, R.; Sale, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat) is a small telescope equipped microsatellite designed to perform both Space Situational Awareness (SSA) experiments and asteroid detection. NEOSSat was launched on 25 February 2013, however, due to time pressures, NEOSSat was launched with only the minimal software required to keep the spacecraft safe. The time pressure also resulted in the spacecraft undergoing reduced system and environmental testing on the ground. The full software suite, required to obtain imagery and maintain stable pointing, has since been uploaded to the spacecraft. NEOSSat has obtained imagery since June 2013, with the shutter both open and closed, but as of March 2014 has not achieved the fine pointing required to obtain scientifically useful data. The collected imagery is being used to characterize the on-board CCD camera. While gain and dark current values agree with pre-launch values, unexpected artefacts have appeared in the images. Methods for mitigating the artefacts through image processing have been developed, and spacecraft-level fixes are currently being investigated. In addition, damage from high energy particles impacting the CCD has produced hot pixels in imagery. We have been able to measure the evolution of these hot pixels over several months, both in terms of numbers and characteristics; these results will be presented. In addition, early results from the mission (image quality issues and evolution, early imagery examples), as well as the mission status (including fine pointing), will be discussed.

  5. Sire breed effects in matings with Angus cows: I. Fertility, calf survival and performance to 18 months.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, T J; Notter, D R; Brown, R A; Tolley, E A

    1984-07-01

    Over six calf crops, 524 exposures of Angus cows to three sire breeds resulted in 432 weaned calves for an 82.4% calf crop. Least-squares means for weaning rate by sire breed were 81.8, 80.5 and 83.9% for Angus, Charolais and Holsteins, respectively. Sire breed effect was not significant for calving rate, calf mortality or overall weaning rate, but was significant for all growth traits from birth to 18 mo. Angus-sired calves were smallest at birth, grew at a slower rate and were lightest in weight at all ages. Charolais-sired calves were heaviest at all weigh periods and Holstein-sired calves were intermediate. Holstein-sired calves scored significantly lower for both grade and condition than did Angus- and Charolais-sired calves. Charolais-sired calves had the highest grade. Calving rate tended to be influenced by the effect of cow (P less than .10) and sire breed X year (P less than .001). Calving rate was highest for 3-yr-old and for 6- to 10-yr-old cows and was also 1.5 percentage units higher for crossbred matings. Cow productivity (kg of calf weaned/cow exposed) is a combined measure of fertility, calf survival and weaning weight. Although sire breed did not significantly affect cow productivity (P less than .20), actual values favored cows producing crossbred calves by 14 and 9 kg for Charolais and Holstein crosses, respectively. Likewise, weight differences at 18 mo favored these crosses by 50 and 32 kg for heifers and 72 and 62 kg for steers. Among the two crossbred types, Charolais X Angus heifers were 28 kg heavier (P less than .05) than Holstein X Angus heifers at 18 mo but the 10 kg difference in steers was not significant. The fact that the large sire breeds produced calves with heavier weaning weights without demonstrating significant increases in overall productivity points out the importance of high weaning rates.

  6. Dynamics of phase slips in systems with time-periodic modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Punit; Knobloch, Edgar; Beaume, Cédric

    2015-12-01

    The Adler equation with time-periodic frequency modulation is studied. A series of resonances between the period of the frequency modulation and the time scale for the generation of a phase slip is identified. The resulting parameter space structure is determined using a combination of numerical continuation, time simulations, and asymptotic methods. Regions with an integer number of phase slips per period are separated by regions with noninteger numbers of phase slips and include canard trajectories that drift along unstable equilibria. Both high- and low-frequency modulation is considered. An adiabatic description of the low-frequency modulation regime is found to be accurate over a large range of modulation periods.

  7. 5 CFR 550.404 - Computation of advance payments and evacuation payments; time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... evacuation payments; time periods. 550.404 Section 550.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.404 Computation of advance payments and evacuation payments; time periods. (a) Payments shall be based on the...

  8. 5 CFR 550.404 - Computation of advance payments and evacuation payments; time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... evacuation payments; time periods. 550.404 Section 550.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.404 Computation of advance payments and evacuation payments; time periods. (a) Payments shall be based on the...

  9. 47 CFR 54.724 - Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions. 54.724 Section 54.724 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Review of Decisions Issued by the Administrator § 54.724 Time periods for...

  10. 47 CFR 54.724 - Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time periods for Commission approval of...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Review of Decisions Issued by the Administrator § 54.724 Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions. (a) The Wireline...

  11. 47 CFR 54.724 - Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time periods for Commission approval of...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Review of Decisions Issued by the Administrator § 54.724 Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions. (a) The Wireline...

  12. 47 CFR 54.724 - Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time periods for Commission approval of...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Review of Decisions Issued by the Administrator § 54.724 Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions. (a) The Wireline...

  13. 47 CFR 54.724 - Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time periods for Commission approval of...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Review of Decisions Issued by the Administrator § 54.724 Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions. (a) The Wireline...

  14. 12 CFR 516.10 - How does OTS compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How does OTS compute time periods under this part? 516.10 Section 516.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.10 How does OTS compute time periods under this part? In...

  15. 12 CFR 516.10 - How does OTS compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does OTS compute time periods under this part? 516.10 Section 516.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.10 How does OTS compute time periods under this part? In...

  16. 17 CFR 260.7a-24 - Words relating to periods of time in the past.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Words relating to periods of time in the past. 260.7a-24 Section 260.7a-24 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Requirements As to Contents § 260.7a-24 Words relating to periods of time in the past. Unless the...

  17. Amyloid-Related Memory Decline in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease Is Dependent on APOE ε4 and Is Detectable over 18-Months.

    PubMed

    Thai, Christine; Lim, Yen Ying; Villemagne, Victor L; Laws, Simon M; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Maruff, Paul

    2015-01-01

    High levels of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain and carriage of the APOE ε4 allele have each been linked to cognitive impairment in cognitively normal (CN) older adults. However, the relationship between these two biomarkers and cognitive decline is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cerebral Aβ level, APOE ε4 carrier status, and cognitive decline over 18 months, in 317 cognitively healthy (CN) older adults (47.6% males, 52.4% females) aged between 60 and 89 years (Mean = 69.9, SD = 6.8). Cognition was assessed using the Cogstate Brief Battery (CBB) and the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II). Planned comparisons indicated that CN older adults with high Aβ who were also APOE ε4 carriers demonstrated the most pronounced decline in learning and working memory. In CN older adults who were APOE ε4 non-carriers, high Aβ was unrelated to cognitive decline in learning and working memory. Carriage of APOE ε4 in CN older adults with low Aβ was associated with a significantly increased rate of decline in learning and unexpectedly, improved cognitive performance on measures of verbal episodic memory over 18 months. These results suggest that Aβ and APOE ε4 interact to increase the rate of cognitive decline in CN older adults and provide further support for the use of Aβ and APOE ε4 as biomarkers of early Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26430784

  18. Amyloid-Related Memory Decline in Preclinical Alzheimer’s Disease Is Dependent on APOE ε4 and Is Detectable over 18-Months

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Christine; Lim, Yen Ying; Villemagne, Victor L.; Laws, Simon M.; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R.; Martins, Ralph N.; Masters, Colin L.; Rowe, Christopher C.; Maruff, Paul

    2015-01-01

    High levels of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain and carriage of the APOE ε4 allele have each been linked to cognitive impairment in cognitively normal (CN) older adults. However, the relationship between these two biomarkers and cognitive decline is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cerebral Aβ level, APOE ε4 carrier status, and cognitive decline over 18 months, in 317 cognitively healthy (CN) older adults (47.6% males, 52.4% females) aged between 60 and 89 years (Mean = 69.9, SD = 6.8). Cognition was assessed using the Cogstate Brief Battery (CBB) and the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II). Planned comparisons indicated that CN older adults with high Aβ who were also APOE ε4 carriers demonstrated the most pronounced decline in learning and working memory. In CN older adults who were APOE ε4 non-carriers, high Aβ was unrelated to cognitive decline in learning and working memory. Carriage of APOE ε4 in CN older adults with low Aβ was associated with a significantly increased rate of decline in learning and unexpectedly, improved cognitive performance on measures of verbal episodic memory over 18 months. These results suggest that Aβ and APOE ε4 interact to increase the rate of cognitive decline in CN older adults and provide further support for the use of Aβ and APOE ε4 as biomarkers of early Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26430784

  19. Clinical significance of reverse redistribution on technetium-99m tetrofosmin single-photon emission computed tomography: an 18-month follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Swinkels, B.M.; Hooghoudt, T.E.H.; Schoenmakers, E.A.J.M.; Zinder, C.G.; de Boo, T.M.; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Background The clinical and prognostic significance of reverse redistribution on technetium-99m (99mTc) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is unclear. Objectives To determine outcomes of chest pain patients showing reverse redistribution after 99mTc tetrofosmin SPECT versus SPECT showing no reverse redistribution. Methods Patient outcomes (death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) within 18 months after 99mTc tetrofosmin SPECT were determined in two populations of ambulatory patients, most of whom had been evaluated because of chest pain: a population of 57 patients whose SPECT images showed reverse redistribution without reversible or fixed defects, versus a control population of 98 patients whose SPECT images were normal (no reverse redistribution, no reversible defects, no fixed defects). Results Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that the population of patients with reverse redistribution did not have a worse 18-month outcome in comparison with the control population of patients without reverse redistribution (3.5% versus 9.2%, respectively; p=0.15 corrected for age and gender). Conclusion Reverse redistribution on 99mTc tetrofosmin SPECT does not appear to be an unfavourable prognostic factor in ambulatory chest pain patients. PMID:25696192

  20. Amyloid-Related Memory Decline in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease Is Dependent on APOE ε4 and Is Detectable over 18-Months.

    PubMed

    Thai, Christine; Lim, Yen Ying; Villemagne, Victor L; Laws, Simon M; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Maruff, Paul

    2015-01-01

    High levels of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain and carriage of the APOE ε4 allele have each been linked to cognitive impairment in cognitively normal (CN) older adults. However, the relationship between these two biomarkers and cognitive decline is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cerebral Aβ level, APOE ε4 carrier status, and cognitive decline over 18 months, in 317 cognitively healthy (CN) older adults (47.6% males, 52.4% females) aged between 60 and 89 years (Mean = 69.9, SD = 6.8). Cognition was assessed using the Cogstate Brief Battery (CBB) and the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II). Planned comparisons indicated that CN older adults with high Aβ who were also APOE ε4 carriers demonstrated the most pronounced decline in learning and working memory. In CN older adults who were APOE ε4 non-carriers, high Aβ was unrelated to cognitive decline in learning and working memory. Carriage of APOE ε4 in CN older adults with low Aβ was associated with a significantly increased rate of decline in learning and unexpectedly, improved cognitive performance on measures of verbal episodic memory over 18 months. These results suggest that Aβ and APOE ε4 interact to increase the rate of cognitive decline in CN older adults and provide further support for the use of Aβ and APOE ε4 as biomarkers of early Alzheimer's disease.

  1. 29 CFR 4000.43 - How do I compute a time period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I compute a time period? 4000.43 Section 4000.43..., ISSUANCE, COMPUTATION OF TIME, AND RECORD RETENTION Computation of Time § 4000.43 How do I compute a time... backwards. Suppose you are required to file an advance notice of reportable event for a transaction that...

  2. 29 CFR 4000.43 - How do I compute a time period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I compute a time period? 4000.43 Section 4000.43..., ISSUANCE, COMPUTATION OF TIME, AND RECORD RETENTION Computation of Time § 4000.43 How do I compute a time... backwards. Suppose you are required to file an advance notice of reportable event for a transaction that...

  3. Period, epoch, and prediction errors of ephemerides from continuous sets of timing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, H. J.

    2015-06-01

    Space missions such as Kepler and CoRoT have led to large numbers of eclipse or transit measurements in nearly continuous time series. This paper shows how to obtain the period error in such measurements from a basic linear least-squares fit, and how to correctly derive the timing error in the prediction of future transit or eclipse events. Assuming strict periodicity, a formula for the period error of these time series is derived, σP = σT (12 / (N3-N))1 / 2, where σP is the period error, σT the timing error of a single measurement, and N the number of measurements. Compared to the iterative method for period error estimation by Mighell & Plavchan (2013), this much simpler formula leads to smaller period errors, whose correctness has been verified through simulations. For the prediction of times of future periodic events, usual linear ephemeris were epoch errors are quoted for the first time measurement, are prone to an overestimation of the error of that prediction. This may be avoided by a correction for the duration of the time series. An alternative is the derivation of ephemerides whose reference epoch and epoch error are given for the centre of the time series. For long continuous or near-continuous time series whose acquisition is completed, such central epochs should be the preferred way for the quotation of linear ephemerides. While this work was motivated from the analysis of eclipse timing measures in space-based light curves, it should be applicable to any other problem with an uninterrupted sequence of discrete timings for which the determination of a zero point, of a constant period and of the associated errors is needed.

  4. No Impairment of Quality of Life 18 Months After High-Dose Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Marchand, Virginie; Bourdin, Sylvain; Charbonnel, Christelle; Rio, Emmanuel

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To determine prospectively intermediate-term toxicity and quality of life (QoL) of prostate cancer patients after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Patients and Methods: Fifty-five patients with localized prostate adenocarcinoma were treated by IMRT (76 Gy). Physicians scored acute and late toxicity using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Patients assessed general and prostate-specific QoL before IMRT (baseline) and at 2, 6, and 18 months using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaires QLQ-C30(+3) and QLQ-PR25. Results: Median age was 73 years (range, 54-80 years). Risk categories were 18% low risk, 60% intermediate risk, and 22% high risk; 45% of patients received hormonal therapy (median duration, 6 months). The incidence of urinary and bowel toxicity immediately after IMRT was, respectively, 38% and 13% (Grade 2) and 2% and none (Grade 3); at 18 months it was 15% and 11% (Grade 2) and none (Grade 3). Significant worsening of QoL was reported at 2 months with regard to fatigue (+11.31, p = 1.10{sup -7}), urinary symptoms (+9.07, p = 3.10{sup -11}), dyspnea (+7.27, p = 0.008), and emotional (-7.02, p = 0.002), social (-6.36, p = 0.003), cognitive (-4.85, p = 0.004), and physical (-3.39, p = 0.007) functioning. Only fatigue (+5.86, p = 0.003) and urinary symptoms (+5.86, p = 0.0004) had not improved by 6 months. By 18 months all QoL scores except those for dyspnea (+8.02, p = 0.01) and treatment-related symptoms (+4.24, p = 0.01) had returned to baseline. These adverse effects were exacerbated by hormonal therapy. Conclusion: High-dose IMRT with accurate positioning induces only a temporary worsening of QoL.

  5. 40 CFR 93.162 - Emissions beyond the time period covered by the SIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... covered by the SIP. 93.162 Section 93.162 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 93.162 Emissions beyond the time period covered by the SIP. If a Federal action would result in total... period covered by the SIP, the Federal agency can: (a) Demonstrate conformity with the last...

  6. 40 CFR 93.162 - Emissions beyond the time period covered by the SIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... covered by the SIP. 93.162 Section 93.162 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 93.162 Emissions beyond the time period covered by the SIP. If a Federal action would result in total... period covered by the SIP, the Federal agency can: (a) Demonstrate conformity with the last...

  7. 45 CFR 402.26 - Time period for obligation and expenditure of grant funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR 92.23(b). This time limit will not be extended. The time limit established by 45 CFR 92.23(b) does... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time period for obligation and expenditure of grant funds. 402.26 Section 402.26 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE...

  8. 45 CFR 402.26 - Time period for obligation and expenditure of grant funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR 92.23(b). This time limit will not be extended. The time limit established by 45 CFR 92.23(b) does... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Time period for obligation and expenditure of grant funds. 402.26 Section 402.26 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF...

  9. Understanding and measuring parent use of food to soothe infant and toddler distress: A longitudinal study from 6 to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Stifter, Cynthia A; Moding, Kameron J

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the development of parent use of food to soothe infant distress by examining this feeding practice longitudinally when infants were 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Two measures of feeding to soothe were obtained: parent self-report and observations of food to soothe during each laboratory visit. Demographic and maternal predictors of food to soothe were examined as well as the outcome, infant weight gain. The findings showed that the two measures of food to soothe were unrelated but did reveal similar and unique relations with predictor variables such as parent feeding style and maternal self-efficacy. Only observations of the use of food to soothe were related to infant weight gain. The findings indicate that the two measures of food to soothe may be complementary and that observations of this feeding practice may capture certain relations that are not obtained through the use of self-report.

  10. World Health Organization generic protocol to assess drug-resistant HIV among children <18 months of age and newly diagnosed with HIV in resource-limited countries.

    PubMed

    Bertagnolio, Silvia; Penazzato, Martina; Jordan, Michael R; Persaud, Deborah; Mofenson, Lynne M; Bennett, Diane E

    2012-05-01

    Increased use of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) in pregnant and breastfeeding women will result in fewer children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, among children infected despite prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), a substantial proportion will acquire NNRTI-resistant HIV, potentially compromising response to NNRTI-based antiretroviral therapy (ART). In countries scaling up PMTCT and pediatric ART programs, it is crucial to assess the proportion of young children with drug-resistant HIV to improve health outcomes and support national and global decision making on optimal selection of pediatric first-line ART. This article summarizes a new World Health Organization surveillance protocol to assess resistance using remnant dried blood spot specimens from a representative sample of children aged <18 months being tested for early infant diagnosis.

  11. Replacement of Anterior Composite Resin Restorations Using Conservative Ceramics for Occlusal and Periodontal Rehabilitation: An 18-Month Clinical Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Prochnow, Rayane Alexandra; Costacurta, Adriana Osten; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a patient with discolored and fractured composite resin restorations on the anterior teeth in whom substitution was indicated. After wax-up and mock-up, the composite was removed and replaced with minimally invasive ceramic laminates. An established and predictable protocol was performed using resin cement. Minimally invasive ceramic restorations are increasingly being used to replace composite restorations. This treatment improves the occlusal and periodontal aspects during the planning and restorative phases, such as anterior guides, and laterality can be restored easily with ceramic laminates. In addition, the surface smoothness and contour of ceramic restorations do not affect the health of the surrounding periodontal tissues. Here we present the outcome after 18 months of clinical follow-up in a patient in whom composite resin restorations in the anterior teeth were replaced with minimally invasive ceramic laminates. PMID:27555970

  12. Replacement of Anterior Composite Resin Restorations Using Conservative Ceramics for Occlusal and Periodontal Rehabilitation: An 18-Month Clinical Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Prochnow, Rayane Alexandra; Costacurta, Adriana Osten; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a patient with discolored and fractured composite resin restorations on the anterior teeth in whom substitution was indicated. After wax-up and mock-up, the composite was removed and replaced with minimally invasive ceramic laminates. An established and predictable protocol was performed using resin cement. Minimally invasive ceramic restorations are increasingly being used to replace composite restorations. This treatment improves the occlusal and periodontal aspects during the planning and restorative phases, such as anterior guides, and laterality can be restored easily with ceramic laminates. In addition, the surface smoothness and contour of ceramic restorations do not affect the health of the surrounding periodontal tissues. Here we present the outcome after 18 months of clinical follow-up in a patient in whom composite resin restorations in the anterior teeth were replaced with minimally invasive ceramic laminates. PMID:27555970

  13. Understanding and measuring parent use of food to soothe infant and toddler distress: A longitudinal study from 6 to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Stifter, Cynthia A; Moding, Kameron J

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the development of parent use of food to soothe infant distress by examining this feeding practice longitudinally when infants were 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Two measures of feeding to soothe were obtained: parent self-report and observations of food to soothe during each laboratory visit. Demographic and maternal predictors of food to soothe were examined as well as the outcome, infant weight gain. The findings showed that the two measures of food to soothe were unrelated but did reveal similar and unique relations with predictor variables such as parent feeding style and maternal self-efficacy. Only observations of the use of food to soothe were related to infant weight gain. The findings indicate that the two measures of food to soothe may be complementary and that observations of this feeding practice may capture certain relations that are not obtained through the use of self-report. PMID:26164121

  14. A case report of Cowper's syringocele in an 18-months old infant at the Yaoundé Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital.

    PubMed

    Mouafo Tambo, F F; Kamadjou, C; Djeumi, T; Nwaha Makon, A S; Fossi, G; Le Coultre, C; Andze, O G; Sosso, M A; Mure, P Y

    2016-01-01

    Syringocele or dilatation of the duct of the bulbo-urethral (Cowper's) gland is usually of congenital origin but can be acquired. It is a very rare deformity, <10 cases have been reported in literature. The main objective is to describe an additional case of syringocele of Cowper's glands and review the literature. An 18-month-old infant presented with a history of acute urinary retention 3 days after birth and a cystostomy was done. Voiding cystourethrogram was normal and cystourethroscopy showed a syringocele. Endoscopic incision was performed in our patient with satisfactory results. No complications were noted. Syringocele or cystic dilatation of Cowper's gland duct usually has a congenital aetiology. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopy. Treatment is by marsupialisation in the urethra by endoscopy. Syringocele is a rare pathology usually congenital. It should be suspected in all case of lower urinary tract obstruction in children. PMID:27502886

  15. Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely.

    PubMed

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-09-01

    Children born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks gestation) exhibit greater internalizing (anxious/depressed) behaviors compared to term-born peers as early as 2 years corrected age (CA); however, the role of early stress in the etiology of internalizing problems in preterm children remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behavior at 18 months CA in children born very preterm and examined whether parent behavior and stress moderated this relationship. Participants were 145 children (96 very preterm, 49 full term) assessed at 18 months CA. Neonatal data were obtained from medical and nursing chart review. Neonatal pain was defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures. Cognitive ability was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index III, Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5, and participated in a videotaped play session with their child, which was coded using the Emotional Availability Scale IV. Very preterm children displayed greater Internalizing behaviors compared to full-term control children (P=.02). Parent Sensitivity and Nonhostility moderated the relationship between neonatal pain and Internalizing behavior (all P<.05); higher parent education (P<.03), lower Parenting Stress (P=.001), and fewer children in the home (P<.01) were associated with lower Internalizing behavior in very preterm children, after adjusting for neonatal medical confounders, gender, and child cognitive ability (all P>.05). Parent Emotional Availability and stress were not associated with Internalizing behaviors in full-term control children. Positive parent interaction and lower stress appears to ameliorate negative effects of neonatal pain on stress-sensitive behaviors in this vulnerable population.

  16. Increased Prevalence of Human Polyomavirus JC Viruria in Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases Patients in Treatment with Anti-TNF α: A 18 Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodio, Donatella Maria; Anzivino, Elena; Mischitelli, Monica; Bellizzi, Anna; Scrivo, Rossana; Scribano, Daniela; Conte, Gianlorenzo; Prezioso, Carla; Trancassini, Maria; Valesini, Guido; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Pietropaolo, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRDs) are immune-mediated pathologies involving joints. To date, TNFα-blocking agents administration is the most promising therapy, although these treatments are associated with an increased Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) reactivation, the etiological agent of the Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). The aim of this study was the recruitment and the analysis of a CIRDs cohort in order to investigate a possible correlation between JCPyV presence and the influence of anti-TNF-α agents on viral loads. Blood and urine samples were collected from 34 CIRDs subjects prior the first anti-TNF-α infusion (T0) and after 3 (T3), 6 (T6), 12 (T12), and 18 (T18) months. Results showed persistent JC viruria significantly higher than JC viremia throughout the 18 month follow-up study (p = 0.002). In JCPyV positive samples, the non-coding control region (NCCR) was analyzed. Results evidenced archetypal structures (type II-S) in all isolates with the exception of a sequence isolated from a plasma sample, that corresponds to the type II-R found in PML subjects. Finally, the viral protein 1 (VP1) genotyping was performed and results showed the prevalence of the European genotypes 1A, 1B, and 4. Since only few studies have been carried out to understand whether there is a PML risk in CIRDs population infected by JCPyV, this study contributes to enrich literature insight on JCPyV biology in this cluster. Further investigations are necessary in order to recognize the real impact of biologics on JCPyV life cycle and to identify possible and specific viral variants related to increased virulence in CIRDs patients. PMID:27242700

  17. Existence and exponential stability of positive almost periodic solution for Nicholson's blowflies models on time scales.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongkun; Li, Bing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we first give a new definition of almost periodic time scales, two new definitions of almost periodic functions on time scales and investigate some basic properties of them. Then, as an application, by using a fixed point theorem in Banach space and the time scale calculus theory, we obtain some sufficient conditions for the existence and exponential stability of positive almost periodic solutions for a class of Nicholson's blowflies models on time scales. Finally, we present an illustrative example to show the effectiveness of obtained results. Our results show that under a simple condition the continuous-time Nicholson's blowflies model and its discrete-time analogue have the same dynamical behaviors. PMID:27468397

  18. An infinite branching hierarchy of time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, Jon

    2008-07-01

    We present a new representation of solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation that are periodic in space and time. Up to an additive constant and a Galilean transformation, each of these solutions is a previously known, multi-periodic solution; however, the new representation unifies the subset of such solutions with a fixed spatial period and a continuously varying temporal period into a single network of smooth manifolds connected together by an infinite hierarchy of bifurcations. Our representation explicitly describes the evolution of the Fourier modes of the solution as well as the particle trajectories in a meromorphic representation of these solutions; therefore, we have also solved the problem of finding periodic solutions of the ordinary differential equation governing these particles, including a description of a bifurcation mechanism for adding or removing particles without destroying periodicity. We illustrate the types of bifurcation that occur with several examples, including degenerate bifurcations not predicted by linearization about traveling waves.

  19. Dynamics of phase slips in systems with time-periodic modulation.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Punit; Knobloch, Edgar; Beaume, Cédric

    2015-12-01

    The Adler equation with time-periodic frequency modulation is studied. A series of resonances between the period of the frequency modulation and the time scale for the generation of a phase slip is identified. The resulting parameter space structure is determined using a combination of numerical continuation, time simulations, and asymptotic methods. Regions with an integer number of phase slips per period are separated by regions with noninteger numbers of phase slips and include canard trajectories that drift along unstable equilibria. Both high- and low-frequency modulation is considered. An adiabatic description of the low-frequency modulation regime is found to be accurate over a large range of modulation periods. PMID:26764781

  20. Non-Markovian diffusion over a potential barrier in the presence of periodic time modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolomietz, V. M.; Radionov, S. V.

    2011-11-15

    The diffusive non-Markovian motion over a single-well potential barrier in the presence of a weak sinusoidal time modulation is studied. We found nonmonotonic dependence of the mean escape time from the barrier on a frequency of the periodic modulation that is analogous to the stochastic resonance phenomenon. The resonant increase of diffusion over the barrier occurs at the frequency inversely proportional to the mean first-passage time for the motion in the absence of the time modulation.

  1. Time Lapse Hydrogeophysical Monitoring of Near Surface Processes over Long Time Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, A.; Beynon, A.; Hansen, J.; Toy, C.; Steelman, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    The capacity to provide non-invasive time lapse monitoring that gives valuable insight into complex near-surface processes is a well-recognized attribute of hydrogeophysical techniques. Many of the studies using time lapse hydrogeophysical monitoring have been done for durations ranging from a day to several months. However, the nature of these processes can significantly change over the annual cycle of hydrological conditions. Hence, studies using time lapse hydrogeophysical monitoring for duration of one or more annual cycles are needed to investigate these longer term effects. The hydrogeophysics group at the University of Waterloo has undertaken an extensive series of field studies using high-resolution geophysical techniques to monitor several annual cycles of shallow soil moisture dynamics typical in temperate climates. In this work, our group have been employing a variety of geoelectrical methods, such as electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground conductivity meters (GCM) and high-frequency (i.e., 225-900 MHz) ground penetrating radar (GPR). In particular, we have investigated the ability of these geoelectrical methods to characterize both the vertical soil moisture distribution within the shallow vadose zone and the nature of its coupling with soil moisture variations at the surface. Our results clearly demonstrate the ability of these geoelectrical methods to characterize the evolution of near-surface hydrological processes over the annual cycle. In particular, we have been able to perform detailed monitoring of winter freeze-thaw processes which have major hydrological impacts in temperate regions. Further, our multi-year data sets have allowed us to investigate variation in hydrological processes between contrasting annual cycles (e.g., wet versus dry summer conditions).

  2. A framework for periodic outlier pattern detection in time-series sequences.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Faraz; Alhajj, Reda

    2014-05-01

    Periodic pattern detection in time-ordered sequences is an important data mining task, which discovers in the time series all patterns that exhibit temporal regularities. Periodic pattern mining has a large number of applications in real life; it helps understanding the regular trend of the data along time, and enables the forecast and prediction of future events. An interesting related and vital problem that has not received enough attention is to discover outlier periodic patterns in a time series. Outlier patterns are defined as those which are different from the rest of the patterns; outliers are not noise. While noise does not belong to the data and it is mostly eliminated by preprocessing, outliers are actual instances in the data but have exceptional characteristics compared with the majority of the other instances. Outliers are unusual patterns that rarely occur, and, thus, have lesser support (frequency of appearance) in the data. Outlier patterns may hint toward discrepancy in the data such as fraudulent transactions, network intrusion, change in customer behavior, recession in the economy, epidemic and disease biomarkers, severe weather conditions like tornados, etc. We argue that detecting the periodicity of outlier patterns might be more important in many sequences than the periodicity of regular, more frequent patterns. In this paper, we present a robust and time efficient suffix tree-based algorithm capable of detecting the periodicity of outlier patterns in a time series by giving more significance to less frequent yet periodic patterns. Several experiments have been conducted using both real and synthetic data; all aspects of the proposed approach are compared with the existing algorithm InfoMiner; the reported results demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach.

  3. Finding hidden periodic signals in time series - an application to stock prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Data in the form of time series appear in many areas of science. In cases where the periodicity is apparent and the only other contribution to the time series is stochastic in origin, the data can be `folded' to improve signal to noise and this has been done for light curves of variable stars with the folding resulting in a cleaner light curve signal. Stock index prices versus time are classic examples of time series. Repeating patterns have been claimed by many workers and include unusually large returns on small-cap stocks during the month of January, and small returns on the Dow Jones Industrial average (DJIA) in the months June through September compared to the rest of the year. Such observations imply that these prices have a periodic component. We investigate this for the DJIA. If such a component exists it is hidden in a large non-periodic variation and a large stochastic variation. We show how to extract this periodic component and for the first time reveal its yearly (averaged) shape. This periodic component leads directly to the `Sell in May and buy at Halloween' adage. We also drill down and show that this yearly variation emerges from approximately half of the underlying stocks making up the DJIA index.

  4. Rank One Strange Attractors in Periodically Kicked Predator-Prey System with Time-Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenjie; Lin, Yiping; Dai, Yunxian; Zhao, Huitao

    2016-06-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the problem of rank one strange attractor in a periodically kicked predator-prey system with time-delay. Our discussion is based on the theory of rank one maps formulated by Wang and Young. Firstly, we develop the rank one chaotic theory to delayed systems. It is shown that strange attractors occur when the delayed system undergoes a Hopf bifurcation and encounters an external periodic force. Then we use the theory to the periodically kicked predator-prey system with delay, deriving the conditions for Hopf bifurcation and rank one chaos along with the results of numerical simulations.

  5. Area Spectrum of Btz Black Holes from the Periodicity in Euclidean Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrañaga, Alexis

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we analyze the area spectrum of BTZ three-dimensional black holes by considering an outgoing wave and relating its period of motion with the period of the gravitational system with respect to Euclidean time. The area spectra obtained for the rotating and non-rotating black holes are equally spaced and it is important to note that in this paper, we do not need to use the small angular momentum assumption which is necessary in the quasinormal mode approach for rotating black holes. The results suggest that the periodicity of the black hole gravitational system may be the origin of area quantization.

  6. Prediction of 18-month survival in patients with primary myelodysplastic syndrome. A regression model and scoring system based on the combination of chromosome findings and the Bournemouth score.

    PubMed

    Parlier, V; van Melle, G; Beris, P; Schmidt, P M; Tobler, A; Haller, E; Bellomo, M J

    1995-06-01

    The predictive potential of six selected factors was assessed in 72 patients with primary myelodysplastic syndrome using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of survival at 18 months. Factors were age (above median of 69 years), dysplastic features in the three myeloid bone marrow cell lineages, presence of chromosome defects, all metaphases abnormal, double or complex chromosome defects (C23), and a Bournemouth score of 2, 3, or 4 (B234). In the multivariate approach, B234 and C23 proved to be significantly associated with a reduction in the survival probability. The similarity of the regression coefficients associated with these two factors means that they have about the same weight. Consequently, the model was simplified by counting the number of factors (0, 1, or 2) present in each patient, thus generating a scoring system called the Lausanne-Bournemouth score (LB score). The LB score combines the well-recognized and easy-to-use Bournemouth score (B score) with the chromosome defect complexity, C23 constituting an additional indicator of patient outcome. The predicted risk of death within 18 months calculated from the model is as follows: 7.1% (confidence interval: 1.7-24.8) for patients with an LB score of 0, 60.1% (44.7-73.8) for an LB score of 1, and 96.8% (84.5-99.4) for an LB score of 2. The scoring system presented here has several interesting features. The LB score may improve the predictive value of the B score, as it is able to recognize two prognostic groups in the intermediate risk category of patients with B scores of 2 or 3. It has also the ability to identify two distinct prognostic subclasses among RAEB and possibly CMML patients. In addition to its above-described usefulness in the prognostic evaluation, the LB score may bring new insights into the understanding of evolution patterns in MDS. We used the combination of the B score and chromosome complexity to define four classes which may be considered four possible states of

  7. Identification of periods of clear sky irradiance in time series of GHI measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Reno, Matthew J.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2016-01-18

    In this study, we present a simple algorithm for identifying periods of time with broadband global horizontal irradiance (GHI) similar to that occurring during clear sky conditions from a time series of GHI measurements. Other available methods to identify these periods do so by identifying periods with clear sky conditions using additional measurements, such as direct or diffuse irradiance. Our algorithm compares characteristics of the time series of measured GHI with the output of a clear sky model without requiring additional measurements. We validate our algorithm using data from several locations by comparing our results with those obtained from amore » clear sky detection algorithm, and with satellite and ground-based sky imagery.« less

  8. Reproductive numbers for nonautonomous spatially distributed periodic SIS models acting on two time scales.

    PubMed

    Marvá, M; Bravo de la Parra, R; Auger, P

    2012-06-01

    In this work we deal with a general class of spatially distributed periodic SIS epidemic models with two time scales. We let susceptible and infected individuals migrate between patches with periodic time dependent migration rates. The existence of two time scales in the system allows to describe certain features of the asymptotic behavior of its solutions with the help of a less dimensional, aggregated, system. We derive global reproduction numbers governing the general spatially distributed nonautonomous system through the aggregated system. We apply this result when the mass action law and the frequency dependent transmission law are considered. Comparing these global reproductive numbers to their non spatially distributed counterparts yields the following: adequate periodic migration rates allow global persistence or eradication of epidemics where locally, in absence of migrations, the contrary is expected.

  9. Periodic trim solutions with hp-version finite elements in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.; Hou, Lin-Jun

    1990-01-01

    Finite elements in time as an alternative strategy for rotorcraft trim problems are studied. The research treats linear flap and linearized flap-lag response both for quasi-trim and trim cases. The connection between Fourier series analysis and hp-finite elements for periodic a problem is also examined. It is proved that Fourier series is a special case of space-time finite elements in which one element is used with a strong displacement formulation. Comparisons are made with respect to accuracy among Fourier analysis, displacement methods, and mixed methods over a variety parameters. The hp trade-off is studied for the periodic trim problem to provide an optimum step size and order of polynomial for a given error criteria. It is found that finite elements in time can outperform Fourier analysis for periodic problems, and for some given error criteria. The mixed method provides better results than does the displacement method.

  10. People's preference patterns for gains/losses in multiple time period situations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shin-Shin; Chang, Jung-Hua

    2013-10-01

    Little research to date has been devoted to investigating whether people treat time differently from money when facing multiple gains or losses. This study tested the hypothesis that because time is characterized by perishability, fixed supply, and infungibility, people with strong motivation to obtain a long period of uninterrupted discretionary time would strive to trim the time needed for non-discretionary activities or to combine several non-discretionary activities. As a result, people prefer integration over segregation of multiple time losses or gains, which is not consistent with the prediction based on hedonic editing theory or the renewable resource model. This proposition is supported by results from four experiments.

  11. People's preference patterns for gains/losses in multiple time period situations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shin-Shin; Chang, Jung-Hua

    2013-10-01

    Little research to date has been devoted to investigating whether people treat time differently from money when facing multiple gains or losses. This study tested the hypothesis that because time is characterized by perishability, fixed supply, and infungibility, people with strong motivation to obtain a long period of uninterrupted discretionary time would strive to trim the time needed for non-discretionary activities or to combine several non-discretionary activities. As a result, people prefer integration over segregation of multiple time losses or gains, which is not consistent with the prediction based on hedonic editing theory or the renewable resource model. This proposition is supported by results from four experiments. PMID:24597454

  12. Adaptive time-delayed stabilization of steady states and periodic orbits.

    PubMed

    Selivanov, Anton; Lehnert, Judith; Fradkov, Alexander; Schöll, Eckehard

    2015-01-01

    We derive adaptive time-delayed feedback controllers that stabilize fixed points and periodic orbits. First, we develop an adaptive controller for stabilization of a steady state by applying the speed-gradient method to an appropriate goal function and prove global asymptotic stability of the resulting system. For an example we show that the advantage of the adaptive controller over the nonadaptive one is in a smaller controller gain. Second, we propose adaptive time-delayed algorithms for stabilization of periodic orbits. Their efficiency is confirmed by local stability analysis. Numerical examples demonstrate the applicability of the proposed controllers.

  13. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shihe; Wei, Xiangqing; Zhang, Fangwei

    2016-01-01

    A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations.

  14. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shihe; Wei, Xiangqing; Zhang, Fangwei

    2016-01-01

    A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations. PMID:27274763

  15. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shihe; Wei, Xiangqing; Zhang, Fangwei

    2016-01-01

    A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations. PMID:27274763

  16. Sarcolemmal deficiency of sarcoglycan complex in an 18-month-old Turkish boy with a large deletion in the beta sarcoglycan gene

    PubMed Central

    Tekgul, H; Hazan, F; Yararbas, K; Tukun, A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2E (LGMD-2E) is caused by autosomal recessive defects in the beta sarcoglycan (SGCB) gene located on chromosome 4q12. In this case report, the clinical findings, histopathological features and molecular genetic data in a boy with β sarcoglycanopathy are presented. An 18-month-old boy had a very high serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) level that was accidentally determined. The results of molecular analyses for the dystrophin gene was found to be normal. He underwent a muscle biopsy which showed dystrophic features. Immunohistochemistry showed that there was a total loss of sarcolemmal sarcoglycan complex. DNA analysis revealed a large homozygous deletion in the SCGB gene. During 4 years of follow-up, there was no evidence to predict a severe clinical course except the muscle enzyme elevation and myopathic electromyography (EMG) finding. The presented milder phenotype of LGMD-2E with a large deletion in the SGCB gene provided additional support for the clinical heterogeneity and pathogenic complexity of the disease.

  17. Developmental critical windows and sensitive periods as three-dimensional constructs in time and space.

    PubMed

    Burggren, Warren W; Mueller, Casey A

    2015-01-01

    A critical window (sensitive period) represents a period during development when an organism's phenotype is responsive to intrinsic or extrinsic (environmental) factors. Such windows represent a form of developmental phenotypic plasticity and result from the interaction between genotype and environment. Critical windows have typically been defined as comprising discrete periods in development with a distinct starting time and end time, as identified by experiments following an on and an off protocol. Yet in reality, periods of responsiveness during development are likely more ambiguous that depicted. Our goal is to extend the concept of the developmental critical window by introducing a three-dimensional construct in which time during development, dose of the stressor applied, and the resultant phenotypic modification can be utilized to more realistically define a critical window. Using the example of survival of the brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) during exposure to different salinity levels during development, we illustrate that it is not just stressor dose or exposure time but the interaction of these two factors that results in the measured phenotypic change, which itself may vary within a critical window. We additionally discuss a systems approach to critical windows, in which the components of a developing system--whether they be molecular, physiological, or morphological--may show differing responses with respect to time and dose. Thus, the plasticity of each component may contribute to a broader overall system response. PMID:25730265

  18. Acute increases in night-time plasma melatonin levels following a period of meditation.

    PubMed

    Tooley, G A; Armstrong, S M; Norman, T R; Sali, A

    2000-05-01

    To determine whether a period of meditation could influence melatonin levels, two groups of meditators were tested in a repeated measures design for changes in plasma melatonin levels at midnight. Experienced meditators practising either TM-Sidhi or another internationally well known form of yoga showed significantly higher plasma melatonin levels in the period immediately following meditation compared with the same period at the same time on a control night. It is concluded that meditation, at least in the two forms studied here, can affect plasma melatonin levels. It remains to be determined whether this is achieved through decreased hepatic metabolism of the hormone or via a direct effect on pineal physiology. Either way, facilitation of higher physiological melatonin levels at appropriate times of day might be one avenue through which the claimed health promoting effects of meditation occur.

  19. Periodic bifurcation of Duffing-van der Pol oscillators having fractional derivatives and time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, A. Y. T.; Yang, H. X.; Zhu, P.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a Duffing-van der Pol oscillator having fractional derivatives and time delays is investigated by the residue harmonic method. The angular frequencies and limit cycles of periodic motions are expanded into a power series of an order-tracking parameter and the unbalanced residues resulting from the truncated Fourier series are considered iteratively to improve the accuracy. The periodic bifurcations are examined using the fractional order, feedback gain and time delay as continuation parameters. It is shown that jumps and hysteresis phenomena can be delayed or removed. Transition from discontinuous bifurcation to continuous bifurcation is observed. The approximations are verified by numerical integration. We find that the proposed method can easily be programmed and can predict accurate periodic approximations while the system parameters being unfolded.

  20. Molecular response properties from a Hermitian eigenvalue equation for a time-periodic Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawłowski, Filip; Olsen, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Poul

    2015-03-01

    The time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a time-periodic perturbation is recasted into a Hermitian eigenvalue equation, where the quasi-energy is an eigenvalue and the time-periodic regular wave function an eigenstate. From this Hermitian eigenvalue equation, a rigorous and transparent formulation of response function theory is developed where (i) molecular properties are defined as derivatives of the quasi-energy with respect to perturbation strengths, (ii) the quasi-energy can be determined from the time-periodic regular wave function using a variational principle or via projection, and (iii) the parametrization of the unperturbed state can differ from the parametrization of the time evolution of this state. This development brings the definition of molecular properties and their determination on par for static and time-periodic perturbations and removes inaccuracies and inconsistencies of previous response function theory formulations. The development where the parametrization of the unperturbed state and its time evolution may differ also extends the range of the wave function models for which response functions can be determined. The simplicity and universality of the presented formulation is illustrated by applying it to the configuration interaction (CI) and the coupled cluster (CC) wave function models and by introducing a new model—the coupled cluster configuration interaction (CC-CI) model—where a coupled cluster exponential parametrization is used for the unperturbed state and a linear parametrization for its time evolution. For static perturbations, the CC-CI response functions are shown to be the analytical analogues of the static molecular properties obtained from finite field equation-of-motion coupled cluster (EOMCC) energy calculations. The structural similarities and differences between the CI, CC, and CC-CI response functions are also discussed with emphasis on linear versus non-linear parametrizations and the size-extensivity of the

  1. A Gaussian Process Based Online Change Detection Algorithm for Monitoring Periodic Time Series

    SciTech Connect

    Chandola, Varun; Vatsavai, Raju

    2011-01-01

    Online time series change detection is a critical component of many monitoring systems, such as space and air-borne remote sensing instruments, cardiac monitors, and network traffic profilers, which continuously analyze observations recorded by sensors. Data collected by such sensors typically has a periodic (seasonal) component. Most existing time series change detection methods are not directly applicable to handle such data, either because they are not designed to handle periodic time series or because they cannot operate in an online mode. We propose an online change detection algorithm which can handle periodic time series. The algorithm uses a Gaussian process based non-parametric time series prediction model and monitors the difference between the predictions and actual observations within a statistically principled control chart framework to identify changes. A key challenge in using Gaussian process in an online mode is the need to solve a large system of equations involving the associated covariance matrix which grows with every time step. The proposed algorithm exploits the special structure of the covariance matrix and can analyze a time series of length T in O(T^2) time while maintaining a O(T) memory footprint, compared to O(T^4) time and O(T^2) memory requirement of standard matrix manipulation methods. We experimentally demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm over several existing time series change detection algorithms on a set of synthetic and real time series. Finally, we illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for identifying land use land cover changes using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data collected for an agricultural region in Iowa state, USA. Our algorithm is able to detect different types of changes in a NDVI validation data set (with ~80% accuracy) which occur due to crop type changes as well as disruptive changes (e.g., natural disasters).

  2. Identifying the Critical Time Period for Information Extraction when Recognizing Sequences of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Jamie S.; Williams, A. Mark

    2008-01-01

    The authors attempted to determine the critical time period for information extraction when recognizing play sequences in soccer. Although efforts have been made to identify the perceptual information underpinning such decisions, no researchers have attempted to determine "when" this information may be extracted from the display. The authors…

  3. The Role of Thermal Properties in Periodic Time-Varying Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, E.

    2007-01-01

    The role played by physical parameters governing the transport of heat in periodical time-varying phenomena within solids is discussed. Starting with a brief look at the conduction heat transport mechanism, the equations governing heat conduction under static, stationary and non-stationary conditions, and the physical parameters involved, are…

  4. Real-time control of the period of individual ELMs by EC power on TCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felici, F.; Rossel, J. X.; Duval, B. P.; Coda, S.; Goodman, T. P.; Martin, Y.; Moret, J.-M.; Sauter, O.; the TCV Team

    2013-11-01

    The period of individual type-I edge-localized modes (ELMs) in TCV H-mode plasmas is controlled by real-time controlled application of electron cyclotron (EC) power close to the plasma pedestal. An ELM pacing algorithm, closely related to sawtooth pacing (Goodman et al (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 245002)) has been implemented in the TCV control system. This algorithm switches the EC power to a low level after detecting an ELM, and subsequently increases the power to a higher level after a pre-set time interval, stimulating the advent of the next ELM. While the mean ELM period is observed to depend only on the mean power applied, ELM pacing is shown to significantly regularize the ELM period with respect to the case of continuously applied power. It is also shown that the ELM period can be changed from one ELM to the next on time scales shorter than the global energy confinement time. These results present a challenging benchmark to physics-based pedestal models and can point towards obtaining a deeper understanding of the physics of individual ELM cycles.

  5. 19 CFR 351.524 - Allocation of benefit to a particular time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation of benefit to a particular time period. 351.524 Section 351.524 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... support payments; discounts on electricity, water, and other utilities; freight subsidies;...

  6. 9 CFR 201.217 - Reasonable period of time to remedy a breach of contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reasonable period of time to remedy a breach of contract. 201.217 Section 201.217 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... contract or agreement where food safety or animal welfare is concerned. These criteria, include, but...

  7. 41 CFR 105-8.150-3 - Time period for compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time period for compliance. 105-8.150-3 Section 105-8.150-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 8-ENFORCEMENT OF...

  8. 41 CFR 105-8.150-3 - Time period for compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time period for compliance. 105-8.150-3 Section 105-8.150-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 8-ENFORCEMENT OF...

  9. 41 CFR 105-8.150-3 - Time period for compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Time period for compliance. 105-8.150-3 Section 105-8.150-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 8-ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS...

  10. 41 CFR 105-8.150-3 - Time period for compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time period for compliance. 105-8.150-3 Section 105-8.150-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 8-ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS...

  11. 18 CFR 290.103 - Time of filing and reporting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time of filing and reporting period. 290.103 Section 290.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... 1978 COLLECTION OF COST OF SERVICE INFORMATION UNDER SECTION 133 OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY...

  12. 18 CFR 290.103 - Time of filing and reporting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time of filing and reporting period. 290.103 Section 290.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... 1978 COLLECTION OF COST OF SERVICE INFORMATION UNDER SECTION 133 OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY...

  13. 9 CFR 201.217 - Reasonable period of time to remedy a breach of contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reasonable period of time to remedy a breach of contract. 201.217 Section 201.217 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... termination. These criteria do not limit a packer, swine contractor or live poultry dealer's rights under...

  14. 9 CFR 201.217 - Reasonable period of time to remedy a breach of contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reasonable period of time to remedy a breach of contract. 201.217 Section 201.217 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... termination. These criteria do not limit a packer, swine contractor or live poultry dealer's rights under...

  15. 42 CFR 87.7 - For what period of time will grants be awarded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false For what period of time will grants be awarded? 87.7 Section 87.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY...

  16. 5 CFR 550.404 - Computation of advance payments and evacuation payments; time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computation of advance payments and... Computation of advance payments and evacuation payments; time periods. (a) Payments shall be based on the rate... others, when applicable, shall be made before advance payments or evacuation payments are made....

  17. 5 CFR 550.404 - Computation of advance payments and evacuation payments; time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computation of advance payments and... Computation of advance payments and evacuation payments; time periods. (a) Payments shall be based on the rate... others, when applicable, shall be made before advance payments or evacuation payments are made....

  18. Forum Page Letters in the "Straits Times" of Singapore during Relatively Free and Restricted Press Periods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaprasad, Jyotika; Ong, James

    In order to identify the scope or limits of the practice of development journalism, a study examined the content of the Forum page in the "Straits Times" of Singapore during relatively free (1979-1980) and restricted (1986-1987) press periods. The study had two major objectives: (1) to study the nature of the Forum page (a readers' letter page in…

  19. Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Harper, Liam D; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners' perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: 'importance of extra-time', 'rule changes', 'efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision', 'nutritional timing', 'future research directions', 'preparatory modulations' and 'recovery'. The majority of practitioners (63%) either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50%) and do not (50%) account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority) were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses, acute injury risk, recovery

  20. Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Harper, Liam D; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners' perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: 'importance of extra-time', 'rule changes', 'efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision', 'nutritional timing', 'future research directions', 'preparatory modulations' and 'recovery'. The majority of practitioners (63%) either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50%) and do not (50%) account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority) were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses, acute injury risk, recovery

  1. Time-space Variability of Weekly to Monthly Period Equatorial Waves in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durland, T.; Farrar, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Data from satellite altimetry are used to characterize wavelike variability in the tropical Pacific Ocean at periods of days to two months. This period band is of interest because the space-time scales of oceanic equatorial waves at these frequencies have historically made adequate observation of the variability difficult. These waves have zonal scales that are very large (exceeding 3000 km) and meridional scales that are relatively short (~100 km), making in situ measurements difficult, and the short temporal scales pose challenges for observation with satellite altimeters because the wave periods are short compared to orbit repeat periods. As a result, there has been relatively little progress since the early 1980s in characterizing and understanding these equatorial inertia-gravity and mixed Rossby-gravity waves. In this analysis, we seek to exploit the long zonal length scales of these high-frequency equatorial waves in an analysis of satellite scatterometer and altimeter data to shed new light on the properties and dynamics of these waves. At periods of 2-14 days, there is clear evidence for the presence of several basin-scale equatorial wave modes, including mixed Rossby-gravity waves and inertia-gravity waves associated with baroclinic modes one and two. Here, we focus on equatorial Kelvin waves and mixed Rossby-gravity waves forced in the western Pacific, and examine their variability in time and space and their relation to wind.

  2. The Varying Light Curve and Timings of the Ultrashort-period Contact Binary KIC 9532219

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Koo, Jae-Rim; Park, Jang-Ho

    2016-03-01

    KIC 9532219 is a W UMa-type eclipsing binary with an orbital period of 0.1981549 days that is below the short-period limit (˜0.22 days) of the period distribution for contact binaries. The Kepler light curve of the system exhibits striking changes in both eclipse depths and light maxima. Applying third-body and spot effects, the light-curve synthesis indicates that the eclipsing pair is currently in a marginal contact stage with a mass ratio of q = 1.20, an orbital inclination of i = 66.°0, a temperature difference of T1-T2 = 172 K, and a third light of l3 = 75.9%. To understand the light variations with time, we divided up the light curve into 312 segments and analyzed them separately. The results reveal that variation of eclipse depth is primarily caused by changing amounts of contamination due to the nearby star KIC 9532228 between the Kepler Quarters and that the variable O’Connell effect originates from the starspot activity on the less massive primary component. Based on our light-curve timings, a period study of KIC 9532219 indicates that the orbital period has varied as a combination of a downward parabola and a light-travel-time (LTT) effect due to a third body, which has a period of 1196 days and a minimum mass of 0.0892 M⊙ in an orbit of eccentricity 0.150. The parabolic variation could be a small part of a second LTT orbit due to a fourth component in a wider orbit, instead of either mass transfer or angular momentum loss.

  3. Child Mortality Estimation: Appropriate Time Periods for Child Mortality Estimates from Full Birth Histories

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Jon; Liu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Background Child mortality estimates from complete birth histories from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) surveys and similar surveys are a chief source of data used to track Millennium Development Goal 4, which aims for a reduction of under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Based on the expected sample sizes when the DHS program commenced, the estimates are usually based on 5-y time periods. Recent surveys have had larger sample sizes than early surveys, and here we aimed to explore the benefits of using shorter time periods than 5 y for estimation. We also explore the benefit of changing the estimation procedure from being based on years before the survey, i.e., measured with reference to the date of the interview for each woman, to being based on calendar years. Methods and Findings Jackknife variance estimation was used to calculate standard errors for 207 DHS surveys in order to explore to what extent the large samples in recent surveys can be used to produce estimates based on 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-y periods. We also recalculated the estimates for the surveys into calendar-year-based estimates. We demonstrate that estimation for 1-y periods is indeed possible for many recent surveys. Conclusions The reduction in bias achieved using 1-y periods and calendar-year-based estimation is worthwhile in some cases. In particular, it allows tracking of the effects of particular events such as droughts, epidemics, or conflict on child mortality in a way not possible with previous estimation procedures. Recommendations to use estimation for short time periods when possible and to use calendar-year-based estimation were adopted in the United Nations 2011 estimates of child mortality. PMID:22952435

  4. Effects of combined linear and nonlinear periodic training on physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kyung-Hun; Suk, Min-Hwa; Kang, Shin-Woo; Shin, Yun-A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined linear and nonlinear periodic training on physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers. The linear resistance training model (6 days/week) and nonlinear underwater training (4 days/week) were applied to 12 finswimmers (age, 16.08± 1.44 yr; career, 3.78± 1.90 yr) for 12 weeks. Body composition measures included weight, body mass index (BMI), percent fat, and fat-free mass. Physical fitness measures included trunk flexion forward, trunk extension backward, sargent jump, 1-repetition-maximum (1 RM) squat, 1 RM dead lift, knee extension, knee flexion, trunk extension, trunk flexion, and competition times. Body composition and physical fitness were improved after the 12-week periodic training program. Weight, BMI, and percent fat were significantly decreased, and trunk flexion forward, trunk extension backward, sargent jump, 1 RM squat, 1 RM dead lift, and knee extension (right) were significantly increased. The 50- and 100-m times significantly decreased in all 12 athletes. After 12 weeks of training, all finswimmers who participated in this study improved their times in a public competition. These data indicate that combined linear and nonlinear periodic training enhanced the physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers. PMID:25426469

  5. The effect of entrainment on the timing of periodic eye movements.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Brian A; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2010-01-18

    We performed an experiment in which eight healthy individuals made periodic eye movements at five pacing interval conditions (500 ms, 750 ms, 1000 ms, 1250 ms, and 1500 ms). Three methods of entrainment were used in the synchronization phase: saccade, continuous pursuit and discontinuous pursuit. The stimulus train was extinguished and in the continuation phase, subjects made saccadic eye movements at the entrained movement frequencies between two static targets. Using the Wing-Kristofferson model, clock and motor variance were extracted from the time series of continuation trials for all three entrainment conditions. Our results revealed a main effect of time interval on total variance clock variance (as predicted by Weber's law) and on motor variance. We also report that the pursuit entrainment conditions resulted in and mean duration and variance to the saccade entrainment. These results suggest that the neural networks recruited to support a periodic motor timing task depend on the method used to establish the temporal reference.

  6. Periodic trim solutions with HP-version finite elements in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Finite Element in Time has been proven to be a powerful alternative solving strategy for the rotor craft trim problem. Additionally, Finite Element Method in Time has been developed in various versions like time-marching framework, Galerkin framework, Rayleigh-Ritz framework, and mixed formulation. Recently, this method was applied to the rotorcraft trim problem to obtain linearized solutions. The rotorcraft trim problem consists of trying to find a period solution for period-coefficient, differential equations subject to side constraints where certain force and momentum balance equations are forced to be equal to zero. There are free (or trim) parameters that are chosen to meet these side constraints. This project aims at expanding the application, in terms of the rotorcraft trim problem, from a linearized solution to nonlinear solution.

  7. Association of intrinsic circadian period with morningness-eveningness, usual wake time, and circadian phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, J. F.; Rimmer, D. W.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    The biological basis of preferences for morning or evening activity patterns ("early birds" and "night owls") has been hypothesized but has remained elusive. The authors reported that, compared with evening types, the circadian pacemaker of morning types was entrained to an earlier hour with respect to both clock time and wake time. The present study explores a chronobiological mechanism by which the biological clock of morning types may be set to an earlier hour. Intrinsic period, a fundamental property of the circadian system, was measured in a month-long inpatient study. A subset of participants also had their circadian phase assessed. Participants completed a morningness-eveningness questionnaire before study. Circadian period was correlated with morningness-eveningness, circadian phase, and wake time, demonstrating that a fundamental property of the circadian pacemaker is correlated with the behavioral trait of morningness-eveningness.

  8. Estimating Periodic Software Rejuvenation Schedules under Discrete-Time Operation Circumstance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Kazuki; Dohi, Tadashi; Kaio, Naoto

    Software rejuvenation is a preventive and proactive solution that is particularly useful for counteracting the phenomenon of software aging. In this article, we consider periodic software rejuvenation models based on the expected cost per unit time in the steady state under discrete-time operation circumstance. By applying the discrete renewal reward processes, we describe the stochastic behavior of a telecommunication billing application with a degradation mode, and determine the optimal periodic software rejuvenation schedule minimizing the expected cost. Similar to the earlier work by the same authors, we develop a statistically non-parametric algorithm to estimate the optimal software rejuvenation schedule, by applying the discrete total time on test concept. Numerical examples are presented to estimate the optimal software rejuvenation schedules from the simulation data. We discuss the asymptotic behavior of estimators developed in this paper.

  9. Sex difference in the near-24-hour intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Jeanne F.; Cain, Sean W.; Chang, Anne-Marie; Phillips, Andrew J. K.; Münch, Mirjam Y.; Gronfier, Claude; Wyatt, James K.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    The circadian rhythms of melatonin and body temperature are set to an earlier hour in women than in men, even when the women and men maintain nearly identical and consistent bedtimes and wake times. Moreover, women tend to wake up earlier than men and exhibit a greater preference for morning activities than men. Although the neurobiological mechanism underlying this sex difference in circadian alignment is unknown, multiple studies in nonhuman animals have demonstrated a sex difference in circadian period that could account for such a difference in circadian alignment between women and men. Whether a sex difference in intrinsic circadian period in humans underlies the difference in circadian alignment between men and women is unknown. We analyzed precise estimates of intrinsic circadian period collected from 157 individuals (52 women, 105 men; aged 18–74 y) studied in a month-long inpatient protocol designed to minimize confounding influences on circadian period estimation. Overall, the average intrinsic period of the melatonin and temperature rhythms in this population was very close to 24 h [24.15 ± 0.2 h (24 h 9 min ± 12 min)]. We further found that the intrinsic circadian period was significantly shorter in women [24.09 ± 0.2 h (24 h 5 min ± 12 min)] than in men [24.19 ± 0.2 h (24 h 11 min ± 12 min); P < 0.01] and that a significantly greater proportion of women have intrinsic circadian periods shorter than 24.0 h (35% vs. 14%; P < 0.01). The shorter average intrinsic circadian period observed in women may have implications for understanding sex differences in habitual sleep duration and insomnia prevalence. PMID:21536890

  10. Global exponential periodicity and stability of discrete-time complex-valued recurrent neural networks with time-delays.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jin; Wang, Jun

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, complex-valued recurrent neural networks have been developed and analysed in-depth in view of that they have good modelling performance for some applications involving complex-valued elements. In implementing continuous-time dynamical systems for simulation or computational purposes, it is quite necessary to utilize a discrete-time model which is an analogue of the continuous-time system. In this paper, we analyse a discrete-time complex-valued recurrent neural network model and obtain the sufficient conditions on its global exponential periodicity and exponential stability. Simulation results of several numerical examples are delineated to illustrate the theoretical results and an application on associative memory is also given.

  11. A General Approach to Time Periodic Incompressible Viscous Fluid Flow Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissert, Matthias; Hieber, Matthias; Nguyen, Thieu Huy

    2016-06-01

    This article develops a general approach to time periodic incompressible fluid flow problems and semilinear evolution equations. It yields, on the one hand, a unified approach to various classical problems in incompressible fluid flow and, on the other hand, gives new results for periodic solutions to the Navier-Stokes-Oseen flow, the Navier-Stokes flow past rotating obstacles, and, in the geophysical setting, for Ornstein-Uhlenbeck and various diffusion equations with rough coefficients. The method is based on a combination of interpolation and topological arguments, as well as on the smoothing properties of the linearized equation.

  12. Continuous Time Random Walks in periodic systems: fluid limit and fractional differential equations on the circle

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, Ivan; Carreras, Benjamin A; Sanchez, Raul; van Milligen, B. Ph.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the continuous time random walk on the circle is studied. We derive the corresponding generalized master equation and discuss the effects of topology, especially important when Levy flights are allowed. Then, we work out the fluid limit equation, formulated in terms of the periodic version of the fractional Riemann-Liouville operators, for which we provide explicit expressions. Finally, we compute the propagator in some simple cases. The analysis presented herein should be relevant when investigating anomalous transport phenomena in systems with periodic dimensions.

  13. The effect of livestock production system and concentrate level on carcass traits and meat quality of foals slaughtered at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, J M; Crecente, S; Franco, D; Sarriés, M V; Gómez, M

    2014-03-01

    This trial was conducted to study the effect of livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) v. semi extensive system (SES)) and amount of finishing feed (1.5 v. 3.0 kg of commercial feed) in SES on carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of meat foal slaughtered at 18 months of age. For this study, a total of 49 foals (21 from FES and 28 from SES) were used. The obtained results showed that SES had a positive influence on carcass characteristic because these foals showed the best values for live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, perimeter of leg (PL) and carcass compactness index. On the other hand, finishing feeding also had a significant (P<0.05) effect on PL and lean thickness, as the highest values were obtained in foals finished with 3 kg of commercial fodder. The physico-chemical properties were significantly affected by the livestock production system with the exception of ashes content (P>0.05). Foals finished in SES increased in 408% the intramuscular fat content (0.23 v. 1.17%, for foals reared in FES and SES, respectively). On the other hand, L*-value and a*-value were significantly (P<0.01) affected by livestock production system, as foals from the FES group had a more intense redder color (higher CIE a*-value) and higher lightness (higher CIE L*-value) compared with those from the SES group. Finally, meat nutritional value was significantly affected by livestock production system, as foals from an extensive production system on wood pasture could be considered as healthier in relation to their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio) as a result of the beneficial grass intake on meat fatty acid profile.

  14. The effect of livestock production system and concentrate level on carcass traits and meat quality of foals slaughtered at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, J M; Crecente, S; Franco, D; Sarriés, M V; Gómez, M

    2014-03-01

    This trial was conducted to study the effect of livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) v. semi extensive system (SES)) and amount of finishing feed (1.5 v. 3.0 kg of commercial feed) in SES on carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of meat foal slaughtered at 18 months of age. For this study, a total of 49 foals (21 from FES and 28 from SES) were used. The obtained results showed that SES had a positive influence on carcass characteristic because these foals showed the best values for live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, perimeter of leg (PL) and carcass compactness index. On the other hand, finishing feeding also had a significant (P<0.05) effect on PL and lean thickness, as the highest values were obtained in foals finished with 3 kg of commercial fodder. The physico-chemical properties were significantly affected by the livestock production system with the exception of ashes content (P>0.05). Foals finished in SES increased in 408% the intramuscular fat content (0.23 v. 1.17%, for foals reared in FES and SES, respectively). On the other hand, L*-value and a*-value were significantly (P<0.01) affected by livestock production system, as foals from the FES group had a more intense redder color (higher CIE a*-value) and higher lightness (higher CIE L*-value) compared with those from the SES group. Finally, meat nutritional value was significantly affected by livestock production system, as foals from an extensive production system on wood pasture could be considered as healthier in relation to their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio) as a result of the beneficial grass intake on meat fatty acid profile. PMID:24398030

  15. Plasticity of the Intrinsic Period of the Human Circadian Timing System

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, Frank A.J.L.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Kronauer, Richard E.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    Human expeditions to Mars will require adaptation to the 24.65-h Martian solar day-night cycle (sol), which is outside the range of entrainment of the human circadian pacemaker under lighting intensities to which astronauts are typically exposed. Failure to entrain the circadian time-keeping system to the desired rest-activity cycle disturbs sleep and impairs cognitive function. Furthermore, differences between the intrinsic circadian period and Earth's 24-h light-dark cycle underlie human circadian rhythm sleep disorders, such as advanced sleep phase disorder and non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders. Therefore, first, we tested whether exposure to a model-based lighting regimen would entrain the human circadian pacemaker at a normal phase angle to the 24.65-h Martian sol and to the 23.5-h day length often required of astronauts during short duration space exploration. Second, we tested here whether such prior entrainment to non-24-h light-dark cycles would lead to subsequent modification of the intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system. Here we show that exposure to moderately bright light (∼450 lux; ∼1.2 W/m2) for the second or first half of the scheduled wake episode is effective for entraining individuals to the 24.65-h Martian sol and a 23.5-h day length, respectively. Estimations of the circadian periods of plasma melatonin, plasma cortisol, and core body temperature rhythms collected under forced desynchrony protocols revealed that the intrinsic circadian period of the human circadian pacemaker was significantly longer following entrainment to the Martian sol as compared to following entrainment to the 23.5-h day. The latter finding of after-effects of entrainment reveals for the first time plasticity of the period of the human circadian timing system. Both findings have important implications for the treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders and human space exploration. PMID:17684566

  16. Magnus' expansion for time-periodic systems: Parameter-dependent approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, Eric A.; Sari, Ma'en; Bueler, Ed; Carlson, Tim

    2009-12-01

    Magnus' expansion solves the nonlinear Hausdorff equation associated with a linear time-varying system of ordinary differential equations by forming the matrix exponential of a series of integrated commutators of the matrix-valued coefficient. Instead of expanding the fundamental solution itself, that is, the logarithm is expanded. Within some finite interval in the time variable, such an expansion converges faster than direct methods like Picard iteration and it preserves symmetries of the ODE system, if present. For time-periodic systems, Magnus expansion, in some cases, allows one to symbolically approximate the logarithm of the Floquet transition matrix (monodromy matrix) in terms of parameters. Although it has been successfully used as a numerical tool, this use of the Magnus expansion is new. Here we use a version of Magnus' expansion due to Iserles [Iserles A. Expansions that grow on trees. Not Am Math Soc 2002;49:430-40], who reordered the terms of Magnus' expansion for more efficient computation. Though much about the convergence of the Magnus expansion is not known, we explore the convergence of the expansion and apply known convergence estimates. We discuss the possible benefits to using it for time-periodic systems, and we demonstrate the expansion on several examples of periodic systems through the use of a computer algebra system, showing how the convergence depends on parameters.

  17. Stability and attractivity of periodic solutions of parabolic systems with time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pao, C. V.

    2005-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the existence, stability, and global attractivity of time-periodic solutions for a class of coupled parabolic equations in a bounded domain. The problem under consideration includes coupled system of parabolic and ordinary differential equations, and time delays may appear in the nonlinear reaction functions. Our approach to the problem is by the method of upper and lower solutions and its associated monotone iterations. The existence of time-periodic solutions is for a class of locally Lipschitz continuous reaction functions without any quasimonotone requirement using Schauder fixed point theorem, while the stability and attractivity analysis is for quasimonotone nondecreasing and mixed quasimonotone reaction functions using the monotone iterative scheme. The results for the general system are applied to the standard parabolic equations without time delay and to the corresponding ordinary differential system. Applications are also given to three Lotka-Volterra reaction diffusion model problems, and in each problem a sufficient condition on the reaction rates is obtained to ensure the stability and global attractivity of positive periodic solutions.

  18. Primate enamel evinces long period biological timing and regulation of life history.

    PubMed

    Bromage, Timothy G; Hogg, Russell T; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Hou, Chen

    2012-07-21

    The factor(s) regulating the combination of traits that define the overall life history matrix of mammalian species, comprising attributes such as brain and body weight, age at sexual maturity, lifespan and others, remains a complete mystery. The principal objectives of the present research are (1) to provide evidence for a key variable effecting life history integration and (2) to provide a model for how one would go about investigating the metabolic mechanisms responsible for this rhythm. We suggest here that a biological rhythm with a period greater than the circadian rhythm is responsible for observed variation in primate life history. Evidence for this rhythm derives from studies of tooth enamel formation. Enamel contains an enigmatic periodicity in its microstructure called the striae of Retzius, which develops at species specific intervals in units of whole days. We refer to this enamel rhythm as the repeat interval (RI). For primates, we identify statistically significant relationships between RI and all common life history traits. Importantly, RI also correlates with basal and specific metabolic rates. With the exception of estrous cyclicity, all relationships share a dependence upon body mass. This dependence on body mass informs us that some aspect of metabolism is responsible for periodic energy allocations at RI timescales, regulating cell proliferation rates and growth, thus controlling the pace, patterning, and co-variation of life history traits. Estrous cyclicity relates to the long period rhythm in a body mass-independent manner. The mass-dependency and -independency of life history relationships with RI periodicity align with hypothalamic-mediated neurosecretory anterior and posterior pituitary outputs. We term this period the Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO), in reference to Clopton Havers, a 17th Century hard tissue anatomist, and Franz Halberg, a long-time explorer of long-period rhythms. We propose a mathematical model that may help elucidate

  19. Tracing temperature in a nanometer size region in a picosecond time period

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Kaoru; Kitayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Makoto; Sataka, Masao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Toulemonde, Marcel; Bouffard, Serge; Kimura, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Irradiation of materials with either swift heavy ions or slow highly charged ions leads to ultrafast heating on a timescale of several picosecond in a region of several nanometer. This ultrafast local heating result in formation of nanostructures, which provide a number of potential applications in nanotechnologies. These nanostructures are believed to be formed when the local temperature rises beyond the melting or boiling point of the material. Conventional techniques, however, are not applicable to measure temperature in such a localized region in a short time period. Here, we propose a novel method for tracing temperature in a nanometer region in a picosecond time period by utilizing desorption of gold nanoparticles around the ion impact position. The feasibility is examined by comparing with the temperature evolution predicted by a theoretical model. PMID:26293488

  20. Tracing temperature in a nanometer size region in a picosecond time period.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kaoru; Kitayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Makoto; Sataka, Masao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Toulemonde, Marcel; Bouffard, Serge; Kimura, Kenji

    2015-08-21

    Irradiation of materials with either swift heavy ions or slow highly charged ions leads to ultrafast heating on a timescale of several picosecond in a region of several nanometer. This ultrafast local heating result in formation of nanostructures, which provide a number of potential applications in nanotechnologies. These nanostructures are believed to be formed when the local temperature rises beyond the melting or boiling point of the material. Conventional techniques, however, are not applicable to measure temperature in such a localized region in a short time period. Here, we propose a novel method for tracing temperature in a nanometer region in a picosecond time period by utilizing desorption of gold nanoparticles around the ion impact position. The feasibility is examined by comparing with the temperature evolution predicted by a theoretical model.

  1. Tracing temperature in a nanometer size region in a picosecond time period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Kaoru; Kitayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Makoto; Sataka, Masao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Toulemonde, Marcel; Bouffard, Serge; Kimura, Kenji

    2015-08-01

    Irradiation of materials with either swift heavy ions or slow highly charged ions leads to ultrafast heating on a timescale of several picosecond in a region of several nanometer. This ultrafast local heating result in formation of nanostructures, which provide a number of potential applications in nanotechnologies. These nanostructures are believed to be formed when the local temperature rises beyond the melting or boiling point of the material. Conventional techniques, however, are not applicable to measure temperature in such a localized region in a short time period. Here, we propose a novel method for tracing temperature in a nanometer region in a picosecond time period by utilizing desorption of gold nanoparticles around the ion impact position. The feasibility is examined by comparing with the temperature evolution predicted by a theoretical model.

  2. Tracing temperature in a nanometer size region in a picosecond time period.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kaoru; Kitayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Makoto; Sataka, Masao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Toulemonde, Marcel; Bouffard, Serge; Kimura, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Irradiation of materials with either swift heavy ions or slow highly charged ions leads to ultrafast heating on a timescale of several picosecond in a region of several nanometer. This ultrafast local heating result in formation of nanostructures, which provide a number of potential applications in nanotechnologies. These nanostructures are believed to be formed when the local temperature rises beyond the melting or boiling point of the material. Conventional techniques, however, are not applicable to measure temperature in such a localized region in a short time period. Here, we propose a novel method for tracing temperature in a nanometer region in a picosecond time period by utilizing desorption of gold nanoparticles around the ion impact position. The feasibility is examined by comparing with the temperature evolution predicted by a theoretical model. PMID:26293488

  3. Periodic solutions of a nonautonomous predator-prey system with stage structure and time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rui; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2006-11-01

    A nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra type predator-prey model with stage structure and time delays is investigated. It is assumed in the model that the individuals in each species may belong to one of two classes: the immatures and the matures, the age to maturity is presented by a time delay, and that the immature predators do not feed on prey and do not have the ability to reproduce. By some comparison arguments we first discuss the permanence of the model. By using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of positive periodic solutions to the model. By means of a suitable Lyapunov functional, sufficient conditions are obtained for the uniqueness and global stability of the positive periodic solutions to the model.

  4. Time functions of deep earthquakes from broadband and short-period stacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, H.; Benz, H.M.; Vidale, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    To constrain dynamic source properties of deep earthquakes, we have systematically constructed broadband time functions of deep earthquakes by stacking and scaling teleseismic P waves from U.S. National Seismic Network, TERRAscope, and Berkeley Digital Seismic Network broadband stations. We examined 42 earthquakes with depths from 100 to 660 km that occurred between July 1, 1992 and July 31, 1995. To directly compare time functions, or to group them by size, depth, or region, it is essential to scale them to remove the effect of moment, which varies by more than 3 orders of magnitude for these events. For each event we also computed short-period stacks of P waves recorded by west coast regional arrays. The comparison of broadband with short-period stacks yields a considerable advantage, enabling more reliable measurement of event duration. A more accurate estimate of the duration better constrains the scaling procedure to remove the effect of moment, producing scaled time functions with both correct timing and amplitude. We find only subtle differences in the broadband time-function shape with moment, indicating successful scaling and minimal effects of attenuation at the periods considered here. The average shape of the envelopes of the short-period stacks is very similar to the average broadband time function. The main variations seen with depth are (1) a mild decrease in duration with increasing depth, (2) greater asymmetry in the time functions of intermediate events compared to deep ones, and (3) unexpected complexity and late moment release for events between 350 and 550 km, with seven of the eight events in that depth interval displaying markedly more complicated time functions with more moment release late in the rupture than most events above or below. The first two results are broadly consistent with our previous studies, while the third is reported here for the first time. The greater complexity between 350 and 550 km suggests greater heterogeneity in

  5. Periodic Time-Domain Nonlocal Nonreflecting Boundary Conditions for Duct Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Zorumski, William E.

    1996-01-01

    Periodic time-domain boundary conditions are formulated for direct numerical simulation of acoustic waves in ducts without flow. Well-developed frequency-domain boundary conditions are transformed into the time domain. The formulation is presented here in one space dimension and time; however, this formulation has an advantage in that its extension to variable-area, higher dimensional, and acoustically treated ducts is rigorous and straightforward. The boundary condition simulates a nonreflecting wave field in an infinite uniform duct and is implemented by impulse-response operators that are applied at the boundary of the computational domain. These operators are generated by convolution integrals of the corresponding frequency-domain operators. The acoustic solution is obtained by advancing the Euler equations to a periodic state with the MacCormack scheme. The MacCormack scheme utilizes the boundary condition to limit the computational space and preserve the radiation boundary condition. The success of the boundary condition is attributed to the fact that it is nonreflecting to periodic acoustic waves. In addition, transient waves can pass rapidly out of the solution domain. The boundary condition is tested for a pure tone and a multitone source in a linear setting. The effects of various initial conditions are assessed. Computational solutions with the boundary condition are consistent with the known solutions for nonreflecting wave fields in an infinite uniform duct.

  6. Time-varying singular value decomposition for periodic transient identification in bearing fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shangbin; Lu, Siliang; He, Qingbo; Kong, Fanrang

    2016-09-01

    For rotating machines, the defective faults of bearings generally are represented as periodic transient impulses in acquired signals. The extraction of transient features from signals has been a key issue for fault diagnosis. However, the background noise reduces identification performance of periodic faults in practice. This paper proposes a time-varying singular value decomposition (TSVD) method to enhance the identification of periodic faults. The proposed method is inspired by the sliding window method. By applying singular value decomposition (SVD) to the signal under a sliding window, we can obtain a time-varying singular value matrix (TSVM). Each column in the TSVM is occupied by the singular values of the corresponding sliding window, and each row represents the intrinsic structure of the raw signal, namely time-singular-value-sequence (TSVS). Theoretical and experimental analyses show that the frequency of TSVS is exactly twice that of the corresponding intrinsic structure. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of TSVS is improved significantly in comparison with the raw signal. The proposed method takes advantages of the TSVS in noise suppression and feature extraction to enhance fault frequency for diagnosis. The effectiveness of the TSVD is verified by means of simulation studies and applications to diagnosis of bearing faults. Results indicate that the proposed method is superior to traditional methods for bearing fault diagnosis.

  7. Rank One Chaos in Periodically-Kicked Time-Delayed Chen System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yunxian; Lin, Yiping; Yang, Wenjie; Zhao, Huitao

    In this paper, we study the existence of rank one strange attractor in time-delayed system. First, we try to develop rank one theory for delayed differential equations. Then, we consider Chen system with time-delay, the conditions under which a supercritical Hopf bifurcation occurs are given by using the normal form method and center manifold theorem. Then, we add an external periodic force as an input and observe rank one strange attractors. Finally, several numerical simulations supporting the theoretical analysis are also given.

  8. Real-time Periodic Processing of RT-middleware Utilizing Linux Standard Functionalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Masaharu; Toda, Kengo; Hayashibara, Yasuo; Yamato, Hideaki; Furuta, Takayuki

    A new methodology of real-time periodic processing on RT-middleware based on the Linux standard functionalities is presented in this paper. The central of discussion is on the realization of real-time processing while keeping the reusability of software modules ensured by the RT-middleware framework as well as the portability provided by the Linux development mainstream. In order to show the validity of the proposed approach, two robot systems, including an omnidirectional electric wheelchair steered by haptic joystick, are presented and the discussion about the evaluation result follows from the view point of practicality.

  9. Nutrient intakes and iron and vitamin D status differ depending on main milk consumed by UK children aged 12-18 months - secondary analysis from the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children.

    PubMed

    Sidnell, Anne; Pigat, Sandrine; Gibson, Sigrid; O'Connor, Rosalyn; Connolly, Aileen; Sterecka, Sylwia; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition in the second year is important as this is a period of rapid growth and development. Milk is a major food for young children and this analysis evaluated the impact of the type of milk consumed on nutrient intakes and nutritional status. Data from the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children were used to investigate the intakes of key nutrients, and Fe and vitamin D status, of children aged 12-18 months, not breastfed, and consuming >400 g/d fortified milk (n 139) or >400 g/d of whole cows' milk (n 404). Blood samples from eligible children for measurement of Hb (n 113), serum ferritin and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (n 105) were available for approximately 20 % of children. Unpaired Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare nutrient intakes and status between consumers of fortified and cows' milk. Mean daily total dietary intakes of Fe, Zn, vitamin A and vitamin D were significantly higher in the fortified milk group. Mean daily total dietary intakes of energy, protein, Ca, iodine, Na and saturated fat were significantly higher in the cows' milk group. Hb was not different between groups. The fortified milk group had significantly higher serum ferritin (P = 0·049) and plasma 25(OH)D (P = 0·014). This analysis demonstrates significantly different nutrient intakes and status between infants consuming >400 g/d fortified milk v. those consuming >400 g/d whole cows' milk. These results indicate that fortified milks can play a significant role in improving the quality of young children's diets in their second year of life.

  10. Nutrient intakes and iron and vitamin D status differ depending on main milk consumed by UK children aged 12-18 months - secondary analysis from the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children.

    PubMed

    Sidnell, Anne; Pigat, Sandrine; Gibson, Sigrid; O'Connor, Rosalyn; Connolly, Aileen; Sterecka, Sylwia; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition in the second year is important as this is a period of rapid growth and development. Milk is a major food for young children and this analysis evaluated the impact of the type of milk consumed on nutrient intakes and nutritional status. Data from the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children were used to investigate the intakes of key nutrients, and Fe and vitamin D status, of children aged 12-18 months, not breastfed, and consuming >400 g/d fortified milk (n 139) or >400 g/d of whole cows' milk (n 404). Blood samples from eligible children for measurement of Hb (n 113), serum ferritin and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (n 105) were available for approximately 20 % of children. Unpaired Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare nutrient intakes and status between consumers of fortified and cows' milk. Mean daily total dietary intakes of Fe, Zn, vitamin A and vitamin D were significantly higher in the fortified milk group. Mean daily total dietary intakes of energy, protein, Ca, iodine, Na and saturated fat were significantly higher in the cows' milk group. Hb was not different between groups. The fortified milk group had significantly higher serum ferritin (P = 0·049) and plasma 25(OH)D (P = 0·014). This analysis demonstrates significantly different nutrient intakes and status between infants consuming >400 g/d fortified milk v. those consuming >400 g/d whole cows' milk. These results indicate that fortified milks can play a significant role in improving the quality of young children's diets in their second year of life. PMID:27547395

  11. Infrared Time Lags for the Periodic Quasar PG 1302-102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Hyunsung D.; Stern, Daniel; Graham, Matthew J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mainzer, Amy; Cutri, Roc M.; Drake, Andrew J.; Mahabal, Ashish A.

    2015-11-01

    The optical light curve of the quasar PG 1302-102 at z=0.278 shows a strong, smooth 5.2 year periodic signal, detectable over a period of ∼20 years. Although the interpretation of this phenomenon is still uncertain, the most plausible mechanisms involve a binary system of two supermassive black holes with a subparsec separation. At this close separation, the nuclear black holes in PG 1302-102 will likely merge within ∼ {10}5 years due to gravitational wave emission alone. Here, we report the rest-frame near-infrared time lags for PG 1302-102. Compiling data from WISE and Akari, we confirm that the periodic behavior reported in the optical light curve from Graham et al. is reproduced at infrared wavelengths, with best-fit observed-frame 3.4 and 4.6 μ {{m}} time lags of (2219 ± 153, 2408 ± 148) days for a near face-on orientation of the torus, or (4103 ± 153, 4292 ± 148) days for an inclined system with relativistic Doppler boosting in effect. The periodicity in the infrared light curves and the light-travel time of the accretion disk photons to reach the dust glowing regions support that a source within the accretion disk is responsible for the optical variability of PG 1302-102, echoed at the farther out dusty regions. The implied distance of this dusty, assumed toroidal region is ∼1.5 pc for a near face-on geometry or ∼1.1 pc for the relativistic Doppler-boosted case.

  12. Quasiequilibrium directed hopping in a time-dependent two-well periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenbaum, V. M.; Shapochkina, I. V.

    2011-11-01

    We consider the directed motion of a Brownian particle in a two-well periodic potential with time-varying barriers and wells described by arbitrary periodic functions of time, v(t) and u(t), alternating with the period τ. In the framework of the low-temperature kinetic approach, we obtain explicit formulas for the probabilities of finding the particle in potential wells, average velocity of directed motion, input energy Pin and useful work Pout against additionally introduced stationary load force f. These formulas are considerably simplified by the assumption of the quasiequilibrium regime of motion corresponding to small values of u(t) and f. It is shown that depending on the same or opposite parity of the functions v(t) and u(t) with respect to time reversal, the motion direction of a Brownian particle is retained or reversed under the reversal of the direction of movement along the (v-u) loop in the phase space of the functions v(t) and u(t), and the nondiagonal kinetic coefficients are mutually symmetric or antisymmetric. In the adiabatic limit τ→∞, the average velocity is proportional to τ-1 in two cases: (i) the above loop has a nonzero area, (ii) the functions v(t) and u(t) are proportional to each other (zero loop area) and include intervals of fast changes with small durations τ0 on the period τ of their variations. In both of these cases, the efficiency of energy conversion, η=Pout/Pin, tends to unity at large variations of the barriers v(t). In the second case, the deviation of η from unity can be split into two contributions: The former decreases exponentially with increasing amplitude v0 of v(t), while the latter is a small nonadiabatic correction proportional to v0-3/2. It is the nonadiabatic correction that limits high efficiencies at large variations of barriers.

  13. Timing Studies of X Persei and the Discovery of Its Transient Quasi-periodic Oscillation Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuner, Z.; Inam,S. C.; Sahiner, S.; Serim, M. M.; Baykal, A.; Swank, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a timing analysis of X Persei (X Per) using observations made between 1998 and 2010 with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and with the INTEGRAL Soft Gamma-Ray Imager (ISGRI). All pulse arrival times obtained from the RXTE-PCA observations are phase-connected and a timing solution is obtained using these arrival times. We update the long-term pulse frequency history of the source by measuring its pulse frequencies using RXTE-PCA and ISGRI data. From the RXTEPCA data, the relation between the frequency derivative and X-ray flux suggests accretion via the companion's stellar wind. However, the detection of a transient quasi-periodic oscillation feature, peaking at approximately 0.2 Hz, suggests the existence of an accretion disc. We find that doublebreak models fit the average power spectra well, which suggests that the source has at least two different accretion flow components dominating the overall flow. From the power spectrum of frequency derivatives, we measure a power-law index of approximately - 1, which implies that, on short time-scales, disc accretion dominates over noise, while on time-scales longer than the viscous time-scales, the noise dominates. From pulse profiles, we find a correlation between the pulse fraction and the count rate of the source.

  14. Detection of faults in rotating machinery using periodic time-frequency sparsity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yin; He, Wangpeng; Chen, Binqiang; Zi, Yanyang; Selesnick, Ivan W.

    2016-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of extracting periodic oscillatory features in vibration signals for detecting faults in rotating machinery. To extract the feature, we propose an approach in the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) domain where the periodic oscillatory feature manifests itself as a relatively sparse grid. To estimate the sparse grid, we formulate an optimization problem using customized binary weights in the regularizer, where the weights are formulated to promote periodicity. In order to solve the proposed optimization problem, we develop an algorithm called augmented Lagrangian majorization-minimization algorithm, which combines the split augmented Lagrangian shrinkage algorithm (SALSA) with majorization-minimization (MM), and is guaranteed to converge for both convex and non-convex formulation. As examples, the proposed approach is applied to simulated data, and used as a tool for diagnosing faults in bearings and gearboxes for real data, and compared to some state-of-the-art methods. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively detect and extract the periodical oscillatory features.

  15. Transfer-matrix approach for finite-difference time-domain simulation of periodic structures.

    PubMed

    Deinega, Alexei; Belousov, Sergei; Valuev, Ilya

    2013-11-01

    Optical properties of periodic structures can be calculated using the transfer-matrix approach, which establishes a relation between amplitudes of the wave incident on a structure with transmitted or reflected waves. The transfer matrix can be used to obtain transmittance and reflectance spectra of finite periodic structures as well as eigenmodes of infinite structures. Traditionally, calculation of the transfer matrix is performed in the frequency domain and involves linear algebra. In this work, we present a technique for calculation of the transfer matrix using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and show the way of its implementation in FDTD code. To illustrate the performance of our technique we calculate the transmittance spectra for opal photonic crystal slabs consisting of multiple layers of spherical scatterers. Our technique can be used for photonic band structure calculations. It can also be combined with existing FDTD methods for the analysis of periodic structures at an oblique incidence, as well as for modeling point sources in a periodic environment. PMID:24329377

  16. Resonating Vector Strength: How to Find Periodicity in a Time Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2013-03-01

    For a given periodic stimulus with angular frequency ω∘ = 2 π /T∘ we find responses as events at times {t1 ,t2 , ... ,tn } located on the real axis R. How periodic are they? And do they repeat in ``some'' sense in accordance with the stimulus period T∘? The question and the answer are at least as old as a classical paper of von Mises dating back to 1918. The key idea is simply this. We map the events tj onto the unit circle or torus through tj |-> exp (iωtj) and consider their center of gravity, ρ (ω) , a complex number in the unit disk. Its absolute value | ρ (ω∘) | with ω : =ω∘ is what von Mises studied and is now called the vector strength. We prove that the nearer | ρ (ω∘) | is to 1 the more periodic the events tj are w.r.t. T∘. Furthermore, we also show why it is useful to study ρ (ω) as a function of ω so as to obtain a `resonating' vector strength, an idea strongly deviating from the classical characteristic function. Work done in collaboration with A.N. Vollmayr. Partially supported by BCCN-Munich.

  17. Unstable and exact periodic solutions of three-particles time-dependent FPU chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi-Huai; Xing, Ming-Yan; Li, Xin-Xiang; Wang, Chao

    2015-12-01

    For lower dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) chains, the α-chain is completely integrable and the Hamiltonian of the β-chain can be identified with the Hénon-Heiles Hamiltonian. When the strengths α, β of the nonlinearities depend on time periodically with the same frequencies as the natural angular frequencies, the resonance phenomenon is inevitable. In this paper, for certain periodic functions α(t) and β(t) with resonance frequencies, we give the existence and stability of some nontrivial exact periodic solutions for a one-dimensional αβ-FPU model composed of three particles with periodic boundary conditions. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11301106, 11201288, and 11261013), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (Grant No. 2014GXNSFBA118017), the Innovation Project of Graduate Education of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, (Grant No. YCSZ2014143), and the Guangxi Experiment Center of Information Science (Grant No. YB1410).

  18. Transfer-matrix approach for finite-difference time-domain simulation of periodic structures.

    PubMed

    Deinega, Alexei; Belousov, Sergei; Valuev, Ilya

    2013-11-01

    Optical properties of periodic structures can be calculated using the transfer-matrix approach, which establishes a relation between amplitudes of the wave incident on a structure with transmitted or reflected waves. The transfer matrix can be used to obtain transmittance and reflectance spectra of finite periodic structures as well as eigenmodes of infinite structures. Traditionally, calculation of the transfer matrix is performed in the frequency domain and involves linear algebra. In this work, we present a technique for calculation of the transfer matrix using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and show the way of its implementation in FDTD code. To illustrate the performance of our technique we calculate the transmittance spectra for opal photonic crystal slabs consisting of multiple layers of spherical scatterers. Our technique can be used for photonic band structure calculations. It can also be combined with existing FDTD methods for the analysis of periodic structures at an oblique incidence, as well as for modeling point sources in a periodic environment.

  19. Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Liam D.; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J.; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners’ perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: ‘importance of extra-time’, ‘rule changes’, ‘efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision’, ‘nutritional timing’, ‘future research directions’, ‘preparatory modulations’ and ‘recovery’. The majority of practitioners (63%) either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50%) and do not (50%) account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority) were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses

  20. Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility of Citrobacter freundii isolates in two different time periods.

    PubMed

    Wang, J T; Chang, S C; Chen, Y C; Luh, K T

    2000-12-01

    Citrobacter freundii was first identified in 1932, since then it has been reported to cause a variety of infections in aged, immunocompromised, and debilitated patients. With the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, C. freundii has become increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents. In order to determine the chronological changes in susceptibility and current susceptibility status of C. freundii, we compared the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. freundii in two different time periods, from 1987 to 1988 and from 1997 to 1998. In both time periods, 61 isolates of C. freundii were randomly selected for study from all clinical isolates at National Taiwan University Hospital. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and susceptible rates of 15 antimicrobial agents were compared, and it was found that most C. freundii isolates were resistant to anti-pseudomonal penicillins, first, second, and third generation cephalosporins, gentamicin, tobramycin, and aztreonam. The results indicate that the susceptible rates of C. freundii to aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin decreased markedly during the period from 1987 to 1998. Cefepime, cefpirome, imipenem, and meropenem remained the most active agents against C. freundii.

  1. Reaction time-related activity reflecting periodic, task-specific cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Barber, Anita D; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2016-01-01

    Reaction time (RT) is associated with increased amplitude of the Blood Oxygen-Level Dependent (BOLD) response in cognitive control regions. The current study examined whether the Primary Condition (PC) effect and RT-BOLD effect both reflect the same cognitive control processes. In addition, RT-BOLD effects were examined in two Go/No-go tasks with different demands to determine whether RT-related activity is task-dependent, reflecting the recruitment of task-specific cognitive processes. Data simulations showed that RT-related activity could be distinguished from that of the primary condition if it is mean-centered. In that case, RT-related activity reflects periodically-engaged processes rather than "time-on-task" (ToT). RT-related activity was mostly distinct from that of the primary Go contrast, particularly for the perceptual decision task. Therefore, RT effects can reflect additional cognitive processes that are not captured by the PC contrast consistent with a periodic-engagement account. RT-BOLD effects occurred in a separate set of regions for the two tasks. For the task requiring a perceptual decision, RT-related activity occurred within occipital and posterior parietal regions supporting visual attention. For the task requiring a working memory decision, RT-related activity occurred within fronto-parietal regions supporting the maintenance and retrieval of task representations. The findings suggest that RT-related activity reflects task-specific processes that are periodically-engaged, particularly during less demanding tasks. PMID:26318935

  2. Periodical gait asymmetry assessment using real-time wireless gyroscopes gait monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Gouwanda, D; Senanayake, S M N A

    2011-11-01

    A real-time gait monitoring system that incorporates an immediate and periodical assessment of gait asymmetry is described. This system was designed for gait analysis and rehabilitation of patients with pathologic gait. It employs wireless gyroscopes to measure the angular rate of the thigh and shank in real time. Cross-correlation of the lower extremity (Cc(norm)), and normalized Symmetry Index (SI(norm)) are implemented as new approaches to periodically determine the gait asymmetry in each gait cycle. Cc(norm) evaluates the signal patterns measured by wireless gyroscopes in each gait cycle. SI(norm) determines the movement differences between the left and right limb. An experimental study was conducted to examine the viability of these methods. Artificial asymmetrical gait was simulated by placing a load on one side of the limbs. Results showed that there were significant differences between the normal gait and asymmetrical gait (p < 0.01). They also indicated that the system worked well in periodically assessing the gait asymmetry.

  3. Estimation of the Unextendable Dead Time Period in a Flow of Physical Events by the Method of Maximum Likelihood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezhel'skaya, L. A.

    2016-09-01

    A flow of physical events (photons, electrons, and other elementary particles) is studied. One of the mathematical models of such flows is the modulated MAP flow of events circulating under conditions of unextendable dead time period. It is assumed that the dead time period is an unknown fixed value. The problem of estimation of the dead time period from observations of arrival times of events is solved by the method of maximum likelihood.

  4. Performance of ROB's near real-time ionospheric product during normal and disturbed space weather periods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeot, Nicolas; Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Bruyninx, Carine

    2015-04-01

    Several agencies are routinely monitoring the vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) using GNSS data. Derived maps are available with different latencies, area extents, and grid/time resolutions. However, no high-resolution maps are publically available over Europe in near real-time. In this frame, the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) developed the ROB-IONO software which takes advantage of the dense EUREF Permanent GNSS Network (EPN) to monitor the ionosphere. The main ROB products consist of ionospheric vTEC maps over Europe and their variability estimated in near real-time every 15 min on 0.5° x 0.5° grids using GPS observations. The maps are available online with a latency of ~3 min in the IONEX format at ftp://gnss.oma.be and as interactive web pages at www.gnss.be. During normal ionospheric activity, the ROB-TEC maps show a good agreement with widely used post-processed global products from IGS, CODE and ESA, with mean differences of 1.3 ± 0.9, 0.6 ± 0.7 and 0.4 ± 1.6 TECu respectively for the period 2012 to mid-2013. For a disturbed period, such as the 2003 Halloween ionospheric storm, the mean differences with IGS, CODE and ESA maps are respectively 0.9 ± 2.2, 0.1 ± 2.0 and 0.6 ± 6.8 TECu, with maximum differences (>38 TECu) occurring during the major phase of the storm. These differences are due to the lower resolution of global products in time and space compared to the ROB-TEC maps. A description of two recent events, on March 17, 2013 and February 27, 2014 highlights the capability of the method adopted to detect in near real-time abnormal ionospheric behaviour over Europe. The potential of the variability maps as an indicator of rapid ionospheric variations during the 15 min of observations is also highlighted. More than 30 ionospheric events associated with Space weather were detected during the period 2012-2014. The ionospheric perturbations are associated with Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs, ~70% of the time), active geomagnetic conditions

  5. Time-periodic forcing of Turing patterns in the Brusselator model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, B.; Pérez-García, C.

    Experiments on periodic illumination of the CDIMA (chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid) reaction have revealed that Turing patterns can be supressed for sufficiently high intensities [1]. The illumination modifies linearly the chemical kinetics. Here we present a preliminar work on Turing patterns under a time-periodic forcing of the control parameter in the Brusselator model. We have performed numerical simulations of the model under conditions for which reentrant hexagons appear. Surprisingly, the oscillating pattern can change its symmetry for a high enough amplitude forcing: a hexagonal pattern is replaced by oscillating squares, a kind of pattern still unobserved in chemical experiments. The theoretical mechanism underlying this change of symmetry is still under discussion.

  6. Practical time-delay synchronization of a periodically modulated self-excited oscillators with uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Kakmeni, F M Moukam; Bowong, S; Senthikumar, D V; Kurths, J

    2010-12-01

    This paper studies time-delay synchronization of a periodically modulated Duffing Van der Pol (DVP) oscillator subjected to uncertainties with emphasis on complete synchronization. A robust adaptive response system is designed to synchronize with the uncertain drive periodically modulated DVP oscillator. Adaptation laws on the upper bounds of uncertainties are proposed to guarantee the boundedness of both the synchronization error and the estimated feedback coupling gains. Numerical results are presented to check the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization scheme. The results suggest that the linear and nonlinear terms in the feedback coupling play a complementary role in increasing the synchronization regime in the parameter space of the synchronization manifold. The proposed method can be successfully applied to a large variety of physical systems. PMID:21198091

  7. Time-headway distribution for periodic totally asymmetric exclusion process with various updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrabák, P.; Krbálek, M.

    2016-03-01

    The totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with periodic boundaries is considered as traffic flow model. The large-L approximation of the stationary state is used for the derivation of the time-headway distribution (an important microscopic characteristic of traffic flow) for the model with generalized update (genTASEP) in both, forward- and backward-sequential representations. The usually used updates, fully-parallel and regular forward- and backward-sequential, are analyzed as special cases of the genTASEP. It is shown that only for those cases, the time-headway distribution is determined by the flow regardless to the density. The qualitative comparison of the results with traffic data demonstrates that the genTASEP with backward order and attractive interaction evinces similar properties of time-headway distribution as the real traffic sample.

  8. Ultrafast time dynamics studies of periodic lattices with free electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, W.; Busse, G.; Hallmann, J.; More, R.; Petri, M.; Rajkovic, I.; Krasniqi, F.; Rudenko, A.; Tschentscher, T.; Stojanovic, N.; Duesterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Tolkiehn, M.; Techert, S.

    2012-11-01

    It has been proposed that radiation from free electron laser (FEL) at Hamburg (FLASH) can be used for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments based on the near-infrared (NIR) pump/FEL probe scheme. Here, investigation probing the ultrafast structural dynamics of periodic nano-crystalline organic matter (silver behenate) with such a scheme is reported. Excitation with a femtosecond NIR laser leads to an ultrafast lattice modification which time evolution has been studied through the scattering of vacuum ultraviolet FEL pulses. The found effect last for 6 ps and underpins the possibility for studying nanoperiodic dynamics down to the FEL source time resolution. Furthermore, the possibility of extending the use of silver behenate (AgBh) as a wavelength and temporal calibration tool for experiments with soft x-ray/FEL sources is suggested.

  9. Evaluation of indoor air composition time variation in air-tight occupied spaces during night periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, Detelin

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an easy-to-understand procedure for prediction of indoor air composition time variation in air-tight occupied spaces during the night periods. The mathematical model is based on the assumptions for homogeneity and perfect mixing of the indoor air, the ideal gas model for non-reacting gas mixtures, mass conservation equations for the entire system and for each species, a model for prediction of basal metabolic rate of humans as well as a model for prediction of O2 consumption rate and both CO2 and H2O generation rates by breathing. Time variation of indoor air composition is predicted at constant indoor air temperature for three scenarios based on the analytical solution of the mathematical model. The results achieved reveal both the most probable scenario for indoor air time variation in air-tight occupied spaces as well as the cause for morning tiredness after having a sleep in a modern energy efficient space.

  10. Time-Periodic Solutions of Driven-Damped Trimer Granular Crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Charalampidis, E. G.; Li, F.; Chong, C.; Yang, J.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2015-01-01

    We consider time-periodic structures of granular crystals consisting of alternate chrome steel (S) and tungsten carbide (W) spherical particles where each unit cell follows the pattern of a 2 : 1 trimer: S-W-S. The configuration at the left boundary is driven by a harmonic in-time actuation with given amplitude and frequency while the right one is a fixed wall. Similar to the case of a dimer chain, the combination of dissipation, driving of the boundary, and intrinsic nonlinearity leads to complex dynamics. For fixed driving frequencies in each of the spectral gaps, we find that the nonlinear surface modes and the statesmore » dictated by the linear drive collide in a saddle-node bifurcation as the driving amplitude is increased, beyond which the dynamics of the system becomes chaotic. While the bifurcation structure is similar for solutions within the first and second gap, those in the first gap appear to be less robust. We also conduct a continuation in driving frequency, where it is apparent that the nonlinearity of the system results in a complex bifurcation diagram, involving an intricate set of loops of branches, especially within the spectral gap. The theoretical findings are qualitatively corroborated by the experimental full-field visualization of the time-periodic structures.« less

  11. Hydromagnetic natural convection flow between vertical parallel plates with time-periodic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesanya, S. O.; Oluwadare, E. O.; Falade, J. A.; Makinde, O. D.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the free convective flow of magnetohydrodynamic fluid through a channel with time periodic boundary condition is investigated by taking the effects of Joule dissipation into consideration. Based on simplifying assumptions, the coupled governing equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear boundary valued problem. Approximate solutions are obtained by using semi-analytical Adomian decomposition method. The effect of pertinent parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature distribution, Nusselt number and skin friction are presented graphically and discussed. The result of the computation shows that an increase in the magnetic field intensity has significant influence on the fluid flow.

  12. Geometric tools for solving the FDI problem for linear periodic discrete-time systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, Sauro; Monteriù, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    This paper studies the problem of detecting and isolating faults in linear periodic discrete-time systems. The aim is to design an observer-based residual generator where each residual is sensitive to one fault, whilst remaining insensitive to the other faults that can affect the system. Making use of the geometric tools, and in particular of the outer observable subspace notion, the Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) problem is formulated and necessary and solvability conditions are given. An algorithmic procedure is described to determine the solution of the FDI problem.

  13. The Cluster Science Archive: from Time Period to Physics Based Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, A.; Escoubet, C. P.; Laakso, H. E.; Perry, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2000, the Cluster spacecraft relay the most detailed information on how the solar wind affects our geospace in three dimensions. Science output from Cluster is a leap forward in our knowledge of space plasma physics: the science behind space weather. It has been key in improving the modeling of the magnetosphere and understanding its various physical processes. Cluster data have enabled the publication of more than 2000 refereed papers and counting. This substantial scientific return is often attributed to the online availability of the Cluster data archive, now called the Cluster Science Archive (CSA). It is being developed by the ESAC Science Data Center (ESDC) team and maintained alongside other science ESA archives at ESAC (ESA Space Astronomy Center, Madrid, Spain). CSA is a public archive, which contains the entire set of Cluster high-resolution data, and other related products in a standard format and with a complete set of metadata. Since May 2015, it also contains data from the CNSA/ESA Double Star mission (2003-2008), a mission operated in conjunction with Cluster. The total amount of data format now exceeds 100 TB. Accessing CSA requires to be registered to enable user profiles and CSA accounts more than 1,500 users. CSA provides unique tools for visualizing its data including - on-demand particle distribution functions visualization - fast data browsing with more than 15TB of pre-generated plots - inventory plots It also offers command line capabilities (e.g. data access via Matlab or IDL softwares, data streaming). Despite its reliability, users can only request data for a specific time period while scientists often focus on specific regions or data signatures. For these reasons, a data-mining tool is being developed to do just that. It offers an interface to select data based not only on a time period but on various criteria including: key physical parameters, regions of space and spacecraft constellation geometry. The output of this tool is a

  14. Thermomagnetic convection in a ferrofluid layer exposed to a time-periodic magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matura, P.; Lücke, M.

    2009-08-01

    We have investigated the influence of a time-periodic and spatially homogeneous magnetic field on the linear stability properties and on the nonlinear response of a ferrofluid layer heated from below and from above. A competition between stabilizing thermal and viscous diffusion and destabilizing buoyancy and Kelvin forces occurs. Floquet theory is used to determine the stability boundaries of the motionless conductive state for a harmonic and subharmonic response. Full numerical simulations with a finite difference method were made to obtain nonlinear convective states. The effect of low- and high-frequency modulation on the stability boundaries as well as on the nonlinear oscillations that may occur is investigated.

  15. Finite-time position and velocity estimation adapted to noisy biased acceleration measurements from periodic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Antonio; Efimov, Denis; Perruquetti, Wilfrid

    2016-09-01

    The present work focuses on the problem of velocity and position estimation. A solution is presented for a class of oscillating systems in which position, velocity and acceleration are zero mean signals. The proposed scheme considers that the dynamic model of the system is unknown. Only noisy acceleration measurements, that may be contaminated by zero mean noise and constant bias, are considered to be available. The proposal uses the periodic nature of the signals obtaining finite-time estimations while tackling integration drift accumulation.

  16. Stability analysis of a time-periodic 2-dof MEMS structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniffka, Till Jochen; Welte, Johannes; Ecker, Horst

    2012-11-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are becoming important for all kinds of industrial applications. Among them are filters in communication devices, due to the growing demand for efficient and accurate filtering of signals. In recent developments single degree of freedom (1-dof) oscillators, that are operated at a parametric resonances, are employed for such tasks. Typically vibration damping is low in such MEM systems. While parametric excitation (PE) is used so far to take advantage of a parametric resonance, this contribution suggests to also exploit parametric anti-resonances in order to improve the damping behavior of such systems. Modeling aspects of a 2-dof MEM system and first results of the analysis of the non-linear and the linearized system are the focus of this paper. In principle the investigated system is an oscillating mechanical system with two degrees of freedom x = [x1x2]T that can be described by Mx+Cx+K1x+K3(x2)x+Fes(x,V(t)) = 0. The system is inherently non-linear because of the cubic mechanical stiffness K3 of the structure, but also because of electrostatic forces (1+cos(ωt))Fes(x) that act on the system. Electrostatic forces are generated by comb drives and are proportional to the applied time-periodic voltage V(t). These drives also provide the means to introduce time-periodic coefficients, i.e. parametric excitation (1+cos(ωt)) with frequency ω. For a realistic MEM system the coefficients of the non-linear set of differential equations need to be scaled for efficient numerical treatment. The final mathematical model is a set of four non-linear time-periodic homogeneous differential equations of first order. Numerical results are obtained from two different methods. The linearized time-periodic (LTP) system is studied by calculating the Monodromy matrix of the system. The eigenvalues of this matrix decide on the stability of the LTP-system. To study the unabridged non-linear system, the bifurcation software ManLab is employed

  17. Long-Term Safety and Longevity of a Mixture of Polymethyl Methacrylate and Cross-Linked Dextran (Lipen-10®) after Penile Augmentation: Extension Study from Six to 18 Months of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ma Tae; Ko, Kyungtae; Lee, Won Ki; Kim, Sae Chul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate the long-term efficacy and safety of a mixture of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and cross-linked dextran Lipen-10® used for penile augmentation under the physical impact generated during sexual intercourse. Materials and Methods From March 2010 to October 2011, a total of 20 patients with a mean age of 44 years (interquartile range, 20~70 years) who requested penile augmentation participated in this study. Lipen-10® filler is a mixture of 75% cross-linked dextran, 15% PMMA, and 10% hypromellose solution. With the patient in the supine position, Lipen-10® was injected into the subcutaneous tissue between the dartos fascia and Buck's fascia of the penis using a fanning technique. Penile length and circumference were measured before the procedure and six, 12, and 18 months after the procedure. Values were compared using the Student's t-test and the paired t-test. Results A total of 15 patients completed this study. The increases in circumference and length observed six months after the procedure were found to have been maintained without change at 12 and 18 months of follow-up. At 12 and 18 months of follow-up, no abnormal findings were observed. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging conducted at 18 months of follow-up showed no trace of the injected filler having migrated to other sites, and the volume was well maintained. Conclusions Lipen-10®, a mixture of PMMA and cross-linked dextran, showed good durability and tolerability over 18 months of follow-up during which the participants were sexually active. PMID:26770941

  18. Time series modelling of increased soil temperature anomalies during long period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvani, Amin; Moradi, Farzad; Moosavi, Ali Akbar

    2015-10-01

    Soil temperature just beneath the soil surface is highly dynamic and has a direct impact on plant seed germination and is probably the most distinct and recognisable factor governing emergence. Autoregressive integrated moving average as a stochastic model was developed to predict the weekly soil temperature anomalies at 10 cm depth, one of the most important soil parameters. The weekly soil temperature anomalies for the periods of January1986-December 2011 and January 2012-December 2013 were taken into consideration to construct and test autoregressive integrated moving average models. The proposed model autoregressive integrated moving average (2,1,1) had a minimum value of Akaike information criterion and its estimated coefficients were different from zero at 5% significance level. The prediction of the weekly soil temperature anomalies during the test period using this proposed model indicated a high correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted data - that was 0.99 for lead time 1 week. Linear trend analysis indicated that the soil temperature anomalies warmed up significantly by 1.8°C during the period of 1986-2011.

  19. Evolution of illustrations in anatomy: a study from the classical period in Europe to modern times.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Illustrations constitute an essential element of learning anatomy in modern times. However it required a significant evolutionary process spread over centuries, for illustrations to achieve the present status in the subject of anatomy. This review article attempts to outline the evolutionary process by highlighting on the works of esteemed anatomists in a chronological manner. Available literature suggests that illustrations were not used in anatomy during the classical period when the subject was dominated by the descriptive text of Galen. Guido da Vigevano was first to use illustrations in anatomy during the Late Middle Ages and this concept developed further during the Renaissance period when Andreas Vesalius pioneered in illustrations becoming an indispensable tool in conveying anatomical details. Toward later stages of the Renaissance period, Fabricius ab Aquapendente endeavored to restrict dramatization of anatomical illustrations which was a prevalent trend in early Renaissance. During the 18th century, anatomical artwork was characterized by the individual styles of prominent anatomists leading to suppression of anatomical details. In the 19th century, Henry Gray used illustrations in his anatomical masterpiece that focused on depicting anatomical structures and were free from any artistic style. From early part of the 20th century medical images and photographs started to complement traditional handmade anatomical illustrations. Computer technology and advanced software systems played a key role in the evolution of anatomical illustrations during the late 20th century resulting in new generation 3D image datasets that are being used in the 21st century in innovative formats for teaching and learning anatomy.

  20. Periodic boundary conditions for long-time nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of incompressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a generalization of the Kraynik-Reinelt (KR) boundary conditions for nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. In the simulation of steady, homogeneous flows with periodic boundary conditions, the simulation box deforms with the flow, and it is possible for image particles to become arbitrarily close, causing a breakdown in the simulation. The KR boundary conditions avoid this problem for planar elongational flow and general planar mixed flow [T. A. Hunt, S. Bernardi, and B. D. Todd, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 154116 (2010)] through careful choice of the initial simulation box and by periodically remapping the simulation box in a way that conserves image locations. In this work, the ideas are extended to a large class of three-dimensional flows by using multiple remappings for the simulation box. The simulation box geometry is no longer time-periodic (which was shown to be impossible for uniaxial and biaxial stretching flows in the original work by Kraynik and Reinelt [Int. J. Multiphase Flow 18, 1045 (1992)]. The presented algorithm applies to all flows with nondefective flow matrices, and in particular, to uniaxial and biaxial flows.

  1. Time-dependent Mott transition in the periodic Anderson model with nonlocal hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Felix; Potthoff, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The time-dependent Mott transition in a periodic Anderson model with off-site, nearest-neighbor hybridization is studied within the framework of nonequilibrium self-energy functional theory. Using the two-site dynamical-impurity approximation, we compute the real-time dynamics of the optimal variational parameter and of different observables initiated by sudden quenches of the Hubbard-U and identify the critical interaction. The time-dependent transition is orbital selective, i.e., in the final state, reached in the long-time limit after the quench to the critical interaction, the Mott gap opens in the spectral function of the localized orbitals only. We discuss the dependence of the critical interaction and of the final-state effective temperature on the hybridization strength and point out the various similarities between the nonequilibrium and the equilibrium Mott transition. It is shown that these can also be smoothly connected to each other by increasing the duration of a U-ramp from a sudden quench to a quasi-static process. The physics found for the model with off-site hybridization is compared with the dynamical Mott transition in the single-orbital Hubbard model and with the dynamical crossover found for the real-time dynamics of the conventional Anderson lattice with on-site hybridization.

  2. On Bifurcating Time-Periodic Flow of a Navier-Stokes Liquid Past a Cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galdi, Giovanni P.

    2016-10-01

    We provide general sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of branching out of a time-periodic family of solutions from steady-state solutions to the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the exterior of a cylinder. By separating the time-independent averaged component of the velocity field from its oscillatory one, we show that the problem can be formulated as a coupled elliptic-parabolic nonlinear system in appropriate and distinct function spaces, with the property that the relevant linearized operators become Fredholm of index 0. In this functional setting, the notorious difficulty of 0 being in the essential spectrum entirely disappears and, in fact, it is even meaningless. Our approach is different and, we believe, more natural and simpler than those proposed by previous authors discussing similar questions. Moreover, the latter all fail, when applied to the problem studied here.

  3. Period-independent novel circadian oscillators revealed by timed exercise and palatable meals

    PubMed Central

    Flôres, Danilo E. F. L.; Bettilyon, Crystal N.; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian circadian system is a hierarchical network of oscillators organized to optimally coordinate behavior and physiology with daily environmental cycles. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is at the top of this hierarchy, synchronizing to the environmental light-dark cycle, and coordinates the phases of peripheral clocks. The Period genes are critical components of the molecular timekeeping mechanism of these clocks. Circadian clocks are disabled in Period1/2/3 triple mutant mice, resulting in arrhythmic behavior in constant conditions. We uncovered rhythmic behavior in this mutant by simply exposing the mice to timed access to a palatable meal or running wheel. The emergent circadian behavior rhythms free-ran for many cycles under constant conditions without cyclic environmental cues. Together, these data demonstrate that the palatable meal-inducible circadian oscillator (PICO) and wheel-inducible circadian oscillator (WICO) are generated by non-canonical circadian clocks. Entrainment of these novel oscillators by palatable snacks and timed exercise could become novel therapeutics for human conditions caused by disruptions of the circadian clocks. PMID:26904978

  4. Impact of Masked Replacement of Sugar-Sweetened with Sugar-Free Beverages on Body Weight Increases with Initial BMI: Secondary Analysis of Data from an 18 Month Double–Blind Trial in Children

    PubMed Central

    Katan, Martijn B.; de Ruyter, Janne C.; Kuijper, Lothar D. J.; Chow, Carson C.; Hall, Kevin D.; Olthof, Margreet R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. This effect may be more pronounced in children with a high body mass index (BMI) because their sensing of kilocalories might be compromised. We investigated the impact of sugar-free versus sugary drinks separately in children with a higher and a lower initial BMI z score, and predicted caloric intakes and degree of compensation in the two groups. Methods and Findings This is a secondary, explorative analysis of our double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) which showed that replacement of one 250-mL sugary drink per day by a sugar—free drink for 18 months significantly reduced weight gain. In the 477 children who completed the trial, mean initial weights were close to the Dutch average. Only 16% were overweight and 3% obese. Weight changes were expressed as BMI z-score, i.e. as standard deviations of the BMI distribution per age and sex group. We designated the 239 children with an initial BMI z-score below the median as ‘lower BMI’ and the 238 children above the median as ‘higher BMI’. The difference in caloric intake from experimental beverages between treatments was 86 kcal/day both in the lower and in the higher BMI group. We used a multiple linear regression and the coefficient of the interaction term (initial BMI group times treatment), indicated whether children with a lower BMI responded differently from children with a higher BMI. Statistical significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Relative to the sugar sweetened beverage, consumption of the sugar—free beverage for 18 months reduced the BMI z-score by 0.05 SD units within the lower BMI group and by 0.21 SD within the higher BMI group. Body weight gain was reduced by 0.62 kg in the lower BMI group and by 1.53 kg in the higher BMI group. Thus the treatment reduced the BMI z-score by 0.16 SD units more in the higher BMI group than in the lower BMI group (p = 0.04; 95% CI -0.31 to -0.01). The impact of the

  5. Enhanced Transport of Passive Tracers In A Time Periodic Two-dimensional Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffetta, G.; Cencini, M.; Espa, S.; Musacchio, S.

    , investigating systems in which the second condition is violated is much more inter- esting. With this purpose, some experiments have shown how superdiffusion arises in a two-dimensional quasi-geostrophic (planetary-type) flow, where particles can jump for very long time in the same direction performing a Levy flight (Castiglione et al., 2001 ). Moreover, two recent papers (Vulpiani, 1998; Solomon, 2001) show how, also in very simple two-dimensional, time and space periodic cellular flows,anomalous diffusive behaviours can appear. In this paper we present an experimental study of transport in an electromagnetically forced time periodic two-dimensional flow. The flow is generated by applying an electromagnetic forcing on a thin layer of an elec- trolyte solution and reveals in a square grid of alternating vortices. Time dependence can be easily obtained by changing the time dependence of the electric fields. In par- ticular, considering certain values of the imposed oscillation frequencies, particles can display very long jump. Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) is used to measure the flow field. This technique is the most suitable for studying dispersion phenomena in a Lagrangian framework allowing the direct evaluation of particle displacements and related quantities (Cenedese, Querzoli; 2000). Moreover, due to the characteristics of the analyzed flow and to the improvement of the tracking procedure, we have been able to track a great number of particles for time intervals greater than the charac- teristic time-scales of the flow. In order to characterize the time correlations we will evaluate the so-called jumps probabilities with memory which represent the probabil- ities to jump in a given direction conditioned to having experienced jumps in the same direction at previous times. Such statistics will revealed very useful and suitable for detecting the onset of the aforementioned correlations. 2

  6. Evolution of illustrations in anatomy: a study from the classical period in Europe to modern times.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Illustrations constitute an essential element of learning anatomy in modern times. However it required a significant evolutionary process spread over centuries, for illustrations to achieve the present status in the subject of anatomy. This review article attempts to outline the evolutionary process by highlighting on the works of esteemed anatomists in a chronological manner. Available literature suggests that illustrations were not used in anatomy during the classical period when the subject was dominated by the descriptive text of Galen. Guido da Vigevano was first to use illustrations in anatomy during the Late Middle Ages and this concept developed further during the Renaissance period when Andreas Vesalius pioneered in illustrations becoming an indispensable tool in conveying anatomical details. Toward later stages of the Renaissance period, Fabricius ab Aquapendente endeavored to restrict dramatization of anatomical illustrations which was a prevalent trend in early Renaissance. During the 18th century, anatomical artwork was characterized by the individual styles of prominent anatomists leading to suppression of anatomical details. In the 19th century, Henry Gray used illustrations in his anatomical masterpiece that focused on depicting anatomical structures and were free from any artistic style. From early part of the 20th century medical images and photographs started to complement traditional handmade anatomical illustrations. Computer technology and advanced software systems played a key role in the evolution of anatomical illustrations during the late 20th century resulting in new generation 3D image datasets that are being used in the 21st century in innovative formats for teaching and learning anatomy. PMID:25053471

  7. Long-time asymptotics of the periodic Toda lattice under short-range perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamvissis, Spyridon; Teschl, Gerald

    2012-07-01

    We compute the long-time asymptotics of periodic (and slightly more generally of algebro-geometric finite-gap) solutions of the doubly infinite Toda lattice under a short-range perturbation. In particular, we prove that the perturbed lattice asymptotically approaches a modulated lattice. More precisely, let g be the genus of the hyperelliptic curve associated with the unperturbed solution. We show that, apart from the phenomenon of solitons travelling in a quasi-periodic background, the n/t-pane contains g + 2 areas where the perturbed solution is close to a finite-gap solution on the same isospectral torus. In between there are g + 1 regions where the perturbed solution is asymptotically close to a modulated lattice which undergoes a continuous phase transition (in the Jacobian variety) and which interpolates between these isospectral solutions. In the special case of the free lattice (g = 0), the isospectral torus consists of just one point and we recover the known result. Both the solutions in the isospectral torus and the phase transition are explicitly characterized in terms of Abelian integrals on the underlying hyperelliptic curve. Our method relies on the equivalence of the inverse spectral problem to a vector Riemann-Hilbert problem defined on the hyperelliptic curve and generalizes the so-called nonlinear stationary phase/steepest descent method for Riemann-Hilbert problem deformations to Riemann surfaces.

  8. A General Time-Periodic Driving Approach to Realize Topological Phases in Cold Atomic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhongbo; Li, Bo; Yang, Xiaosen; Wan, Shaolong

    2015-01-01

    For time-reversal symmetric cold atomic insulating systems, it is found that the usual driving approach based on electromagnetic field used in solid state systems loses its power to drive them from trivial regimes to topological regimes if the driven systems still hold time-reversal symmetry (TRS). For such systems, we point out that simply varying the optical lattice potential periodically provides a general and effective way to drive them into topological regimes without breaking their symmetries. Based on this approach, we find that the time-reversal symmetric Kane-Mele model can be effectively driven from the trivial phase to topological phases named as Floquet Quantum Spin Hall insulator. Due to the existence of two gaps in the Floquet system, this novel state of matter can stably host one or two pair of gapless helical states on the same boundary, which suggests this state is not a simple analog of the Quantum Spin Hall insulator. This new driving approach to a system without TRS is also investigated. PMID:26541611

  9. Dynamical generalized Hurst exponent as a tool to monitor unstable periods in financial time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Raffaello; Di Matteo, T.; Gramatica, Ruggero; Aste, Tomaso

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the use of the Hurst exponent, dynamically computed over a weighted moving time-window, to evaluate the level of stability/instability of financial firms. Financial firms bailed-out as a consequence of the 2007-2008 credit crisis show a neat increase with time of the generalized Hurst exponent in the period preceding the unfolding of the crisis. Conversely, firms belonging to other market sectors, which suffered the least throughout the crisis, show opposite behaviors. We find that the multifractality of the bailed-out firms increase at the crisis suggesting that the multi fractal properties of the time series are changing. These findings suggest the possibility of using the scaling behavior as a tool to track the level of stability of a firm. In this paper, we introduce a method to compute the generalized Hurst exponent which assigns larger weights to more recent events with respect to older ones. In this way large fluctuations in the remote past are less likely to influence the recent past. We also investigate the scaling associated with the tails of the log-returns distributions and compare this scaling with the scaling associated with the Hurst exponent, observing that the processes underlying the price dynamics of these firms are truly multi-scaling.

  10. A General Time-Periodic Driving Approach to Realize Topological Phases in Cold Atomic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhongbo; Li, Bo; Yang, Xiaosen; Wan, Shaolong

    2015-11-01

    For time-reversal symmetric cold atomic insulating systems, it is found that the usual driving approach based on electromagnetic field used in solid state systems loses its power to drive them from trivial regimes to topological regimes if the driven systems still hold time-reversal symmetry (TRS). For such systems, we point out that simply varying the optical lattice potential periodically provides a general and effective way to drive them into topological regimes without breaking their symmetries. Based on this approach, we find that the time-reversal symmetric Kane-Mele model can be effectively driven from the trivial phase to topological phases named as Floquet Quantum Spin Hall insulator. Due to the existence of two gaps in the Floquet system, this novel state of matter can stably host one or two pair of gapless helical states on the same boundary, which suggests this state is not a simple analog of the Quantum Spin Hall insulator. This new driving approach to a system without TRS is also investigated.

  11. Sustained and transient attentional processes modulate neural predictors of memory encoding in consecutive time periods.

    PubMed

    Padovani, Tullia; Koenig, Thomas; Eckstein, Doris; Perrig, Walter J

    2013-07-01

    Memory formation is commonly thought to rely on brain activity following an event. Yet, recent research has shown that even brain activity previous to an event can predict later recollection (subsequent memory effect, SME). In order to investigate the attentional sources of the SME, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by task cues preceding target words were recorded in a switched task paradigm that was followed by a surprise recognition test. Stay trials, that is, those with the same task as the previous trial, were contrasted with switch trials, which included a task switch compared to the previous trial. The underlying assumption was that sustained attention would be dominant in stay trials and that transient attentional reconfiguration processes would be dominant in switch trials. To determine the SME, local and global statistics of scalp electric fields were used to identify differences between subsequently remembered and forgotten items. Results showed that the SME in stay trials occurred in a time window from 2 to 1 sec before target onset, whereas the SME in switch trials occurred subsequently, in a time window from 1 to 0 sec before target onset. Both SMEs showed a frontal negativity resembling the topography of previously reported effects, which suggests that sustained and transient attentional processes contribute to the prestimulus SME in consecutive time periods. PMID:24381815

  12. Multi Band Insar Analysis of Subsidence Development Based on the Long Period Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çomut, F. C.; Ustun, A.; Lazecky, M.; Aref, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The SAR Interferometry (InSAR) application has shown great potential in monitoring of land terrain changes and in detection of land deformations such as subsidence. Longer time analysis can lead to understand longer trends and changes. Using different bands of SAR satellite (C- from ERS 1-2 and Envisat, L- from ALOS) over the study area, we achieve knowledge of movements in long-term and evaluation of its dynamic changes within observed period of time. Results from InSAR processing fit with the position changes in vertical direction based on GPS network established over the basin as an effective geodetic network. Time series (StaMPS PS+SB) of several points over Çumra County in eastern part of Konya City show a general trend of the deformation that is expected to be approximately between -13 to -17 mm/year. Northern part of Karaman is affected by faster subsidence, borders of the subsidence trough were identified from Envisat. Presenting InSAR results together with GIS information about locations and time of occurrence of sudden subsidence, urban/industrial growth in time and climate changes helps in better understanding of the situation. This way, the impact of natural and man-made changes will be shown for urban planning thanks to InSAR and GIS comparisons with hydrogeological modeling. In this study we present results of differential and multitemporal InSAR series using different bands and GIS conjunction associated with seasonal and temporal groundwater level changes in Konya Closed Basin.

  13. Periodic coupling strength-dependent multiple coherence resonance by time delay in Newman-Watts neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanan; Gong, Yubing; Xu, Bo

    2013-12-01

    Recently, multiple coherence resonance induced by time delay has been observed in neuronal networks with constant coupling strength. In this paper, by employing Newman-Watts Hodgkin-Huxley neuron networks with time-periodic coupling strength, we study how the temporal coherence of spiking behavior and coherence resonance by time delay change when the frequency of periodic coupling strength is varied. It is found that delay induced coherence resonance is dependent on periodic coupling strength and increases when the frequency of periodic coupling strength increases. Periodic coupling strength can also induce multiple coherence resonance, and the coherence resonance occurs when the frequency of periodic coupling strength is approximately multiple of the spiking frequency. These results show that for periodic coupling strength time delay can more frequently optimize the temporal coherence of spiking activity, and periodic coupling strength can repetitively optimize the temporal coherence of spiking activity as well. Frequency locking may be the mechanism for multiple coherence resonance induced by periodic coupling strength. These findings imply that periodic coupling strength is more efficient for enhancing the temporal coherence of spiking activity of neuronal networks, and thus it could play a more important role in improving the time precision of information processing and transmission in neural networks.

  14. Stochastic extinction of tumor cells due to synchronization effect through time periodic treatment in a tumor-immune interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisu, Ryota; Horita, Takehiko

    The response to a time periodic treatment of the immunotherapy in a stochastic model of tumor-immune interaction is numerically investigated. Due to the effect of synchronization among the intrinsic oscillation and the treatment, an enhanced extinction of the tumor cells is observed. It suggests that compared with the static treatment, by controlling the period of the treatment, the time periodic treatment could be an effective way of treatment leading to tumor extinction.

  15. Crossing rule for a PT-symmetric two-level time-periodic system

    SciTech Connect

    Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2011-05-15

    For a two-level system in a time-periodic field we show that in the non-Hermitian PT case the level crossing is of two quasistationary states that have the same dynamical symmetry property. At the field's parameters where the two levels which have the same dynamical symmetry cross, the corresponding quasienergy states coalesce and a self-orthogonal state is obtained. This situation is very different from the Hermitian case where a crossing of two quasienergy levels happens only when the corresponding two quasistationary states have different dynamical symmetry properties and, unlike the situation in the non-Hermitian case, the spectrum remains complete also when the two levels cross.

  16. Fluctuation relations for heat engines in time-periodic steady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, Sourabh; Rana, Shubhashis; Jayannavar, A. M.

    2012-11-01

    A fluctuation relation for heat engines has been derived recently. In the beginning, the system is in contact with the cooler bath. The system is then coupled to the hotter bath and external parameters are changed cyclically, eventually bringing the system back to its initial state, once the coupling with the hot bath is switched off. In this work, we lift the condition of initial thermal equilibrium and derive a new fluctuation relation for the central system (heat engine) being in a time-periodic steady state (TPSS). Carnot’s inequality for classical thermodynamics follows as a direct consequence of this fluctuation theorem even in the TPSS. For the special cases of the absence of hot bath and no extraction of work, we obtain the integral fluctuation theorem for total entropy and the generalized exchange fluctuation theorem, respectively. Recently, microsized heat engines have been realized experimentally in the TPSS. We numerically simulate the same model and verify our proposed theorems.

  17. Efficiency, Power and Period of a model quantum heat engine working in a finite time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekele, Mulugeta; Dima, Tolasa A.; Alemye, Mekuannent; Chegeno, Warga

    We take a spin-half quantum particle undergoing Carnot type cyclic process in a finite time assisted by two heat reservoirs and an external magnetic field. We find that the power of the heat engine is maximum at a particular period of the cyclic process and efficiency at the maximum power is at least half of the Carnot efficiency. We further apply the Omega-criterion for a figure of merit representing a compromise between useful power and lost power determining the corresponding efficiency for the optimization criterion to be at least three fourth of the Carnot efficiency. The authers are thankful to the International Science programme, IPS, Uppsala, Sweden for their support to our research lab.

  18. Controllability discrepancy and irreducibility/reducibility of Floquet factorisations in linear continuous-time periodic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Lu, Xinbiao; Qian, Huimin

    2016-09-01

    The paper reports interesting but unnoticed facts about irreducibility (resp., reducibility) of Flouqet factorisations and their harmonic implication in term of controllability in finite-dimensional linear continuous-time periodic (FDLCP) systems. Reducibility and irreducibility are attributed to matrix logarithm algorithms during computing Floquet factorisations in FDLCP systems, which are a pair of essential features but remain unnoticed in the Floquet theory so far. The study reveals that reducible Floquet factorisations may bring in harmonic waves variance into the Fourier analysis of FDLCP systems that in turn may alter our interpretation of controllability when the Floquet factors are used separately during controllability testing; namely, controllability interpretation discrepancy (or simply, controllability discrepancy) may occur and must be examined whenever reducible Floquet factorisations are involved. On the contrary, when irreducible Floquet factorisations are employed, controllability interpretation discrepancy can be avoided. Examples are included to illustrate such observations.

  19. Intercomparison of UT1 measurements during the MERIT campaign period. [Universal Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spieth, M. A.; Eubanks, T. M.; Steppe, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Universal time (UT1) measurements obtained using VLBI, lunar laser ranging (LLR), and BIH optical astronomy are compared. The JPL Kalman filter for the earth rotation and the polar motion is utilized to smooth one data set or combine data sets for intercomparison. The differences between raw UT1 data and independently smoothed data are employed to assess the accuracy of the measured series and the sufficiency of the error budget. Systematic errors in periodic signatures and length of day estimates are analyzed. The data reveal that the techniques of LLR and VLBI agree to within their formal errors. It is determined that the residual error for the LLR is too large and the residual error estimated for the BIH data is too small.

  20. Observations of the April 2002 Storm Period with TIMED-TIDI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niciejewski, R.; Killeen, T.; Wu, Q.; Skinner, W.; Solomon, S.; Ortland, D.; Kafkalidis, J.; Gell, D.; Gablehouse, D.; Johnson, R.

    2002-12-01

    TIDI is meeting its basic requirement, which is to measure the global wind field in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, the core study region. Since February 2002, TIDI has been in a routine science data-taking mode. During April 2002, TIMED was positioned at a high beta angle (angle between the plane of the satellite orbit and the Earth-Sun line) resulting in a series of TIDI measurements near the dusk/dawn terminator. The field of view of TIDI allows it to obtain measurements from pole to pole, while the repetition rate of the sky-scanner allows it to obtain several scans within the auroral oval region on each orbit. This paper will discuss TIDI measurements obtained during the April 2002 storm period, including OI (5577\\x8F) intensity data and neutral wind data sets.

  1. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  2. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  3. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  4. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  5. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  6. The timing and duration of a sensitive period in human flavor learning: a randomized trial1234

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A; Lukasewycz, Laura D; Castor, Sara M; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2011-01-01

    Background: By using the response to protein hydrolysate formula (PHF) as a model system, we discovered the existence of a sensitive period, before 4 mo, when exposure determines the hedonic tone to flavors. Objective: We aimed to characterize the timing and duration of this sensitive period. Design: Healthy infants, whose parents had chosen formula feeding, were randomly assigned into 1 of 6 groups at age 0.5 mo: 2 control groups, one fed cow milk–based formula (CMF) and the other fed PHF for 7 mo; 2 groups fed PHF for either 1 or 3 mo beginning at 1.5 mo and CMF otherwise; and 2 groups fed PHF for 1 mo beginning at either 2.5 or 3.5 mo and CMF otherwise. Brief access taste tests were conducted monthly, and complete “meals” of both formulas occurred at the end of the study. Results: Three months of PHF exposure led to acceptance similar to that at 1 mo of exposure. Although these infants were more accepting than were infants with no exposure, they were less accepting than were infants with 7 mo of exposure, which suggests a dosing effect. The time when flavor experiences began was also significant. Among infants exposed to PHF for 1 mo, those who were first fed PHF at 3.5 mo rejected PHF relative to CMF more than did infants exposed at younger ages. Conclusion: The general principles observed are likely of broader significance, indicating a fundamental feature of mammalian development and reflecting the importance of familiarizing infants with flavors that their mothers consume and transmit to breast milk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00994747. PMID:21310829

  7. Low-thrust roundtrip trajectories to Mars with one-synodic-period repeat time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okutsu, Masataka; Landau, Damon F.; Rogers, Blake A.; Longuski, James M.

    2015-05-01

    Cycler trajectories-both ballistic and powered-are reported in the literature in which there are two-vehicle, three-vehicle, and four-vehicle cases. Such trajectories permit the installation of cycler vehicles which provide safe and comfortable living conditions for human space travel between Earth and Mars during every synodic opportunity. The question the present paper answers is a logical, obvious one: Does a single-vehicle, one-synodic-period cycler exist? The answer is yes: such a trajectory can be flown-but only with a high-power electric propulsion system. In our example, it is found that "stopover" trajectories that spend 30 days in orbit about Earth and 30 days about Mars, and return astronauts to Earth in one synodic period require a 90-t power generator with a power level of 11 MWe. Fortuitously, and in lieu of using chemical propulsion, the high power level of the electric propulsion system would also be effective in hauling the cargo payload via a spiral trajectory about the Earth. But because one synodic period is not enough for the cycler vehicle to fly both the interplanetary trajectories and the Earth-spiral trajectories, we suggest developing two nuclear power generators, which could alternate flying the interplanetary trajectories and the Earth-spiral trajectories. Once these power generators are launched and begin operating in space, the mass requirement in seven subsequent missions (over a period of 15 years beginning in 2022) would be modest at 250-300 metric tons to low-Earth orbit per mission. Thus two cargo launches of NASA's Space Launch System and one crew launch of the Falcon Heavy, for example, would be adequate to maintain support for each consecutive mission. Although we propose developing two sets of electric propulsion systems to account for the Earth-spiral phases, only one vehicle is flown on a heliocentric trajectory at any given time. Thus, our low-thrust stopover cycler with zero encounter velocities falls into a category of a

  8. Safety and immunogenicity of two doses of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine or one dose of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine, both administered concomitantly with routine immunization to 12- to 18-month-old children

    PubMed Central

    Noya, Francisco; McCormack, Deirdre; Reynolds, Donna L; Neame, Dion; Oster, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the immunogenicity and safety of a two-dose series of a quadrivalent meningococcal (serogroups A, C, Y and W) polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACYW-D) administered to toddlers. METHODS: Children were randomly assigned (1:1) at study entry to receive MenACYW-D at 12 and 18 months of age (group 1; n=61) or meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine (MCC) at 12 months of age (group 2; n=62). All received routine childhood immunizations. A, C, Y and W antibody titres were measured in group 1 before and one month after the 18-month MenACYW-D vaccination and were measured in group 2 at one and seven months post-MCC vaccination. Antibodies elicited by diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed combined with inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine coadministered at the 18-month vaccination were measured one month later. Safety data were collected. RESULTS: At 19 months of age, ≥96% in group 1 achieved protective titres for the four meningococcal serogroups after dose 2; 67% in group 2 exhibited protective titres against serogroup C 28 days after MCC vaccination at 12 months of age, declining to 27% seven months later. DTaP-IPV-Hib elicited high antibody concentrations/titres in groups 1 and 2, consistent with historical values. The safety profiles after each dose generated no unexpected safety signals; no serious adverse events were related to vaccination. DISCUSSION: A two-dose series of MenACYW-D given concomitantly with a DTaP-IPV-Hib booster dose at 18 months of age demonstrated a good immunogenicity and safety profile. A two-dose series of MenACYW-D can be used as an alternative to one dose of MCC and provides protection against additional serogroups (NCT ID: NCT01359449). PMID:25285126

  9. Effectiveness of Using the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers in Two-Stage Screening of Autism Spectrum Disorder at the 18-Month Health Check-Up in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Koyama, Tomonori; Inokuchi, Eiko; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Kuroda, Miho

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) in conjunction with the routine 18-month health check-up identifies Japanese toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Two-stage screening using the M-CHAT was conducted with 1,851 children attending the check-up. Final ASD diagnosis was confirmed at age =3 years.…

  10. Estimating interevent time distributions from finite observation periods in communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivelä, Mikko; Porter, Mason A.

    2015-11-01

    A diverse variety of processes—including recurrent disease episodes, neuron firing, and communication patterns among humans—can be described using interevent time (IET) distributions. Many such processes are ongoing, although event sequences are only available during a finite observation window. Because the observation time window is more likely to begin or end during long IETs than during short ones, the analysis of such data is susceptible to a bias induced by the finite observation period. In this paper, we illustrate how this length bias is born and how it can be corrected without assuming any particular shape for the IET distribution. To do this, we model event sequences using stationary renewal processes, and we formulate simple heuristics for determining the severity of the bias. To illustrate our results, we focus on the example of empirical communication networks, which are temporal networks that are constructed from communication events. The IET distributions of such systems guide efforts to build models of human behavior, and the variance of IETs is very important for estimating the spreading rate of information in networks of temporal interactions. We analyze several well-known data sets from the literature, and we find that the resulting bias can lead to systematic underestimates of the variance in the IET distributions and that correcting for the bias can lead to qualitatively different results for the tails of the IET distributions.

  11. Estimating interevent time distributions from finite observation periods in communication networks.

    PubMed

    Kivelä, Mikko; Porter, Mason A

    2015-11-01

    A diverse variety of processes-including recurrent disease episodes, neuron firing, and communication patterns among humans-can be described using interevent time (IET) distributions. Many such processes are ongoing, although event sequences are only available during a finite observation window. Because the observation time window is more likely to begin or end during long IETs than during short ones, the analysis of such data is susceptible to a bias induced by the finite observation period. In this paper, we illustrate how this length bias is born and how it can be corrected without assuming any particular shape for the IET distribution. To do this, we model event sequences using stationary renewal processes, and we formulate simple heuristics for determining the severity of the bias. To illustrate our results, we focus on the example of empirical communication networks, which are temporal networks that are constructed from communication events. The IET distributions of such systems guide efforts to build models of human behavior, and the variance of IETs is very important for estimating the spreading rate of information in networks of temporal interactions. We analyze several well-known data sets from the literature, and we find that the resulting bias can lead to systematic underestimates of the variance in the IET distributions and that correcting for the bias can lead to qualitatively different results for the tails of the IET distributions. PMID:26651750

  12. The Effects of Time-Periodic Shear on a Diffusion Flame Anchored to a Model Propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isfahani, Amir H. G.; Zhang, Ju; Jackson, Thomas L.

    2008-11-01

    Propellants of solid rocket motors are subject to intense time-dependent shear flows and the response of the combustion field to these flows is of fundamental interest. Erosive burning (EB), the enhanced regression rate that can arise due to these flows, affects the performance of the solid rocket motor: the specific-impulse history. It is generally agreed that EB results from an increased heat transfer to the surface. The geometry is that of two quarter-planes of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and binder (or a blend of AP/binder). Three step kinetics is considered: AP decomposition and two diffusion flames, one between the virgin AP gases and binder and one between AP decomposed gases and binder. Gas and solid phases are coupled and temperature along the surface as well as the burn rate is solved for. We present an estimation of the shear parameters as a function of the motor size using a 2D planar periodic rocket (PPR) analysis without resorting to fully time-dependent three-dimensional turbulent simulations. These parameters are then used to study the change in the heat flux to the surface and the burn rate. It is shown that the burn rate is increased by more than two folds for larger amplitudes and frequencies.

  13. Estimating interevent time distributions from finite observation periods in communication networks.

    PubMed

    Kivelä, Mikko; Porter, Mason A

    2015-11-01

    A diverse variety of processes-including recurrent disease episodes, neuron firing, and communication patterns among humans-can be described using interevent time (IET) distributions. Many such processes are ongoing, although event sequences are only available during a finite observation window. Because the observation time window is more likely to begin or end during long IETs than during short ones, the analysis of such data is susceptible to a bias induced by the finite observation period. In this paper, we illustrate how this length bias is born and how it can be corrected without assuming any particular shape for the IET distribution. To do this, we model event sequences using stationary renewal processes, and we formulate simple heuristics for determining the severity of the bias. To illustrate our results, we focus on the example of empirical communication networks, which are temporal networks that are constructed from communication events. The IET distributions of such systems guide efforts to build models of human behavior, and the variance of IETs is very important for estimating the spreading rate of information in networks of temporal interactions. We analyze several well-known data sets from the literature, and we find that the resulting bias can lead to systematic underestimates of the variance in the IET distributions and that correcting for the bias can lead to qualitatively different results for the tails of the IET distributions.

  14. Time Dependence of Anodal and Cathodal Refractory Periods in Cardiac Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Jonathan A.; Roth, Bradley J.

    1997-11-01

    Cathodal and anodal make and break excitation have been observed in cardiac tissue. Make excitation occurs when a stimulus pulse is turned on and has a lower threshold than break excitation, which occurs when a stimulus pulse is turned off. Mehra et al. (PACE 3:526) observed that over time the anodal refractory period (RP) becomes longer than the cathodal RP. After implantation, damaged tissue accumulates around the electrode, thereby increasing its effective surface area. We investigate this time-dependent change numerically by stimulating cardiac tissue using small and large electrodes. The tissue is represented as a bidomain with a Beeler-Reuter membrane. Like Mehra et al., we define the RP to be the threshold interval at a strength of 8 mA. The anodal RP is longer than the cathodal RP for the large electrode, whereas it is shorter for the small electrode. However, anode break threshold for the small electrode is less than 8 mA, but for the large electrode it is greater than 8 mA. The lengthening of the anodal RP is caused by excluding the anode break excitation with the larger electrode. This result is consistent with Mehra et al., and suggests that their observation resulted from their definition of RP.

  15. Growth mechanism of photoreduced silver nanostructures on periodically proton exchanged lithium niobate: Time and concentration dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Carville, N.; Denning, Denise; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia

    2013-05-14

    Photodeposition of metallic nanostructures onto ferroelectric surfaces, which have been chemically patterned using a proton exchange process, has recently been demonstrated. By varying the molar concentration of the AgNO{sub 3} solution and the illumination time, one can determine the initial nucleation sites, control the rate of nucleation and the height of silver nanostructures formed, and study the mechanisms by which these processes occurs. The nanoparticles are found to deposit preferentially in the boundary between ferroelectric and proton exchanged regions, in an area proton exchanged via lateral diffusion under the masking layer used for chemical patterning, consistent with our previous results. Using a short illumination time (3 min), we are able to determine that the initial nucleation of the silver nanostructure, having a width of 0.17 {+-} 0.02 {mu}m and a height of 1.61 {+-} 0.98 nm, occurs near the edge of the reactive ion etched area within this lateral diffusion region. Over longer illumination times (15 min), we find that the silver deposition has spread to a width of 1.29 {+-} 0.06 {mu}m, extending across the entire lateral diffusion region. We report that at a high molar concentration of AgNO{sub 3} (10{sup -2} M), the amount of silver deposition for 5 min UV illumination is greater (2.88 {+-} 0.58 nm) compared to that at low (10{sup -4} M) concentrations (0.78 {+-} 0.35 nm), however, this is not the case for longer time periods. With increasing illumination time (15 min), experiments at 10{sup -4} M had greater overall deposition, 6.90 {+-} 1.52 nm, compared to 4.50 {+-} 0.76 nm at 10{sup -2} M. For longer exposure times (30 min) at 10{sup -2} M, the nanostructure height is 4.72 {+-} 0.59 nm, suggesting a saturation in the nanostructure height. The results are discussed in terms of the electric double layer that forms at the crystal surface. There is an order of magnitude difference between the Debye lengths for 10{sup -2} and 10{sup -4} M

  16. Almost periodic solutions for a memristor-based neural networks with leakage, time-varying and distributed delays.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Zeng, Zhigang; Chen, Jiejie

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we study the existence and global exponential stability of almost periodic solution for memristor-based neural networks with leakage, time-varying and distributed delays. Using a new Lyapunov function method, we prove that this delayed neural network has a unique almost periodic solution, which is globally exponentially stable. Moreover, the obtained conclusion on the almost periodic solution is applied to prove the existence and stability of periodic solution (or equilibrium point) for this delayed neural network with periodic coefficients (or constant coefficients).

  17. Timing and return period of major palaeoseismic events in the Shillong Plateau, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhija, B. S.; Rao, M. N.; Reddy, D. V.; Nagabhushanam, P.; Hussain, Syed; Chadha, R. K.; Gupta, H. K.

    1999-07-01

    The close temporal occurrence of four great earthquakes in the past century, including the great Assam earthquake of 1897 in the Shillong Plateau, necessitated examination of the palaeoseismicity of the region. The results from such investigation would definitely aid in addressing the problem of the earthquake hazard evaluation more realistically. Our recent palaeoseismological study in the Shillong Plateau has led us to identify and provide geological evidence for large/major earthquakes and estimate the probable recurrence period of such violent earthquakes in parts of the Shillong Plateau and the adjoining Brahmaputra valley. Trenching along the Krishnai River, a tributary of the River Brahmaputra, has unravelled very conspicuous and significant earthquake-induced signatures in the alluvial deposits of the valley. The geological evidence includes: (1) palaeoliquefaction features, like sand dykes and sand blows; (2) deformational features, like tilted beds; (3) fractures and syndepositional deformational features, like flame structures caused by coeval seismic events. Chronological constraints of the past large/major earthquakes are provided from upper and lower radiocarbon age bounds in the case of the palaeoliquefaction features, and the coeval timing of the palaeoseismic events is obtained from the radiocarbon dating of the organic material associated with the deformed horizon as well as buried tree trunks observed wide distances apart. Our palaeoseismic measurements, which are the first from the area, indicate that the Shillong Plateau has been struck by large/major earthquakes around 500±150, 1100±150 and >1500±150 yr BP, in addition to the well-known great seismic event of 1897, thereby the 14C dates indicate a recurrence period of the order of 500 yr for large earthquakes in the Shillong Plateau.

  18. Identification of Under-Detected Periodicity in Time-Series Microarray Data by Using Empirical Mode Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chaang-Ray; Shu, Wun-Yi; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Hsu, Ian C.

    2014-01-01

    Detecting periodicity signals from time-series microarray data is commonly used to facilitate the understanding of the critical roles and underlying mechanisms of regulatory transcriptomes. However, time-series microarray data are noisy. How the temporal data structure affects the performance of periodicity detection has remained elusive. We present a novel method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to examine this effect. We applied EMD to a yeast microarray dataset and extracted a series of intrinsic mode function (IMF) oscillations from the time-series data. Our analysis indicated that many periodically expressed genes might have been under-detected in the original analysis because of interference between decomposed IMF oscillations. By validating a protein complex coexpression analysis, we revealed that 56 genes were newly determined as periodic. We demonstrated that EMD can be used incorporating with existing periodicity detection methods to improve their performance. This approach can be applied to other time-series microarray studies. PMID:25372711

  19. The last interglacial period on the Pacific Coast of North America: Timing and paleoclimate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    New, high-precision U-series ages of solitary corals (Balanophyllia elegans) coupled with molluscan faunal data from marine terraces on the Pacific Coast of North America yield information about the timing and warmth of the last interglacial sea-level highstand. Balanophyllia elegans takes up U in isotopic equilibrium with seawater during growth and shortly after death. Corals from the second terrace on San Clemente Island (offshore southern California), the third terrace on Punta Banda (on the Pacific Coast of northern Baja California), and the Discovery Point Formation on Isla de Guadalupe (in the Pacific Ocean offshore Baja California) date to the peak of the last interglacial period and have U-series ages ranging from ca. 123 to 114 ka. The first terrace on Punta Banda has corals with ages ranging from ca. 83 to 80 ka, which corresponds to a sea-level highstand formed in the late last interglacial period. U-series analyses of corals from the Cayucos terrace (central California) and the Nestor terrace at Point Loma (southern California) show that these fossils have evidence of open-system history, similar to what has been reported by other workers for the same localities. Nevertheless, a model of continuous, secondary U and Th uptake shows that two ages of corals are likely present at these localities, representing the ca. 105 and ca. 120 ka sea-level highstands reported elsewhere. U-series ages of last interglacial corals from the Pacific Coast overlap with, but are on average younger than the ages of corals from Barbados, the Bahamas, and Hawaii. This age difference is explained by the nature of the geomorphic response to sea-level change: fringing or barrier reefs on low-latitude coastlines have an accretionary growth style that keeps pace with rising sea level, whether on a tectonically rising or stable coastline. In contrast, midlatitude, high-energy coastlines are sites of platform cutting during the early part of a sea-level high stand and terrace

  20. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    PubMed

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  1. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  2. Technical performance reduces during the extra-time period of professional soccer match-play.

    PubMed

    Harper, Liam D; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of extra-time in determining progression in specific soccer tournament matches, few studies have profiled the demands of 120-minutes of soccer match-play. With a specific focus on the extra-time period, and using a within-match approach, we examined the influence of prolonged durations of professional soccer match-play on markers of technical (i.e., skilled) performance. In 18 matches involving professional European teams played between 2010 and 2014, this retrospective study quantified the technical actions observed during eight 15-minute epochs (E1: 00∶00-14∶59 min, E2: 15∶00-29∶59 min, E3: 30∶00-44∶59 min, E4: 45∶00-59∶59 min, E5: 60∶00-74∶59 min, E6: 75∶00-89∶59 min, E7: 90∶00-104∶59 min, E8: 105∶00-119∶59 min). Analysis of players who completed the demands of the full 120 min of match-play revealed that the cumulative number of successful passes observed during E8 (61±23) was lower than E1-4 (E1: 88±23, P = 0.001; E2: 77±21, P = 0.005; E3: 79±18, P = 0.001; E4: 80±21, P = 0.001) and E7 (73±20, P = 0.002). Similarly, the total number of passes made in E8 (71±25) was reduced when compared to E1 (102±22, P = 0.001), E3 (91±19, P = 0.002), E4 (93±22, P≤0.0005) and E7 (84±20, P = 0.001). The cumulative number of successful dribbles reduced in E8 (9±4) when compared to E1 (14±4, P = 0.001) and E3 (12±4, P≤0.0005) and the total time the ball was in play was less in E8 (504±61 s) compared to E1 (598±70 s, P≤0.0005). These results demonstrate that match-specific factors reduced particular indices of technical performance in the second half of extra-time. Interventions that seek to maintain skilled performance throughout extra-time warrant further investigation.

  3. The variations of long time period slow slip events along the Ryukyu subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Y. T.; Heki, K.

    2014-12-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) are a type of slow earthquakes that can be observed with Global Positioning System (GPS) networks in the world. Those events are detected on intensely coupled plate boundaries such as Cascadia subduction zone (Dragert et al., 2001), western North America, Mexico (Kostoglodov et al., 2003), Alaska (Ohta et al., 2007) and Tokai and Boso areas (Ozawa et al., 2002, 2003), central Japan and are considered to have relations to large subduction thrust earthquakes. However, in southwestern Ryukyu trench where most of researchers believe that it should be a decoupled plate boundary, SSEs recur regularly and are located at a patch that is as deep as 20 to 40 km (Heki and Kataoka, 2008). For comprehending the characteristics and time variations of SSEs in this area, the GEONET GPS data of 16 years are used in this study. During 1997 to 2014, more than thirty SSEs are identified near Hateruma Island, Ryukyu. The average recurrence interval is calculated to be 6.3 months and release seismic moment is Mw 6.6 on average. However, the values of recurrence interval are not invariable. From 1997 to 2002, interval period of SSEs is 7.5 months, but during 2002 to 2008, the interval period decreases suddenly to 5.5 months. After 2008, the value restores to 7.2 months again. Furthermore, the slip amount of SSEs in this area varies with time. From 1997 to 2002, the slip is 9.5 cm/year; and during 2002 to 2008, the value slightly increases to 10.5 cm/year. However, in 2008 to 2013, the slip drops to 6.6 cm/year, but accord to the trend of cumulative slip, the slip value would increase in 2014. Considering these data, we find the slip values increase conspicuously in 2002 and 2013. Coincidentally, one Mw 7.1 thrust earthquake occurred in 2002 and earthquake swarm activity started in the Okinawa trough approximately 50km north of the SSE patch. In 2013, another earthquake swarm activity occurred in nearly the same area as the 2002 activity. This suggests that the

  4. Estimating return periods of extreme values from relatively short time series of winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonasson, Kristjan; Agustsson, Halfdan; Rognvaldsson, Olafur; Arfeuille, Gilles

    2013-04-01

    An important factor for determining the prospect of individual wind farm sites is the frequency of extreme winds at hub height. Here, extreme winds are defined as the value of the highest 10 minutes averaged wind speed with a 50 year return period, i.e. annual exceeding probability of 2% (Rodrigo, 2010). A frequently applied method to estimate winds in the lowest few hundred meters above ground is to extrapolate observed 10-meter winds logarithmically to higher altitudes. Recent study by Drechsel et al. (2012) showed however that this methodology is not as accurate as interpolating simulated results from the global ECMWF numerical weather prediction (NWP) model to the desired height. Observations of persistent low level jets near Colima in SW-Mexico also show that the logarithmic approach can give highly inaccurate results for some regions (Arfeuille et al., 2012). To address these shortcomings of limited, and/or poorly representative, observations and extrapolations of winds one can use NWP models to dynamically scale down relatively coarse resolution atmospheric analysis. In the case of limited computing resources one has typically to make a compromise between spatial resolution and the duration of the simulated period, both of which can limit the quality of the wind farm siting. A common method to estimate maximum winds is to fit an extreme value distribution (e.g. Gumbel, gev or Pareto) to the maximum values of each year of available data, or the tail of these values. If data are only available for a short period, e.g. 10 or 15 years, then this will give a rather inaccurate estimate. It is possible to deal with this problem by utilizing monthly or weekly maxima, but this introduces new problems: seasonal variation, autocorrelation of neighboring values, and increased discrepancy between data and fitted distribution. We introduce a new method to estimate return periods of extreme values of winds at hub height from relatively short time series of winds, simulated

  5. Dynamics of landslide model with time delay and periodic parameter perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostić, Srđan; Vasović, Nebojša; Franović, Igor; Jevremović, Dragutin; Mitrinovic, David; Todorović, Kristina

    2014-09-01

    In present paper, we analyze the dynamics of a single-block model on an inclined slope with Dieterich-Ruina friction law under the variation of two new introduced parameters: time delay Td and initial shear stress μ. It is assumed that this phenomenological model qualitatively simulates the motion along the infinite creeping slope. The introduction of time delay is proposed to mimic the memory effect of the sliding surface and it is generally considered as a function of history of sliding. On the other hand, periodic perturbation of initial shear stress emulates external triggering effect of long-distant earthquakes or some non-natural vibration source. The effects of variation of a single observed parameter, Td or μ, as well as their co-action, are estimated for three different sliding regimes: β < 1, β = 1 and β > 1, where β stands for the ratio of long-term to short-term stress changes. The results of standard local bifurcation analysis indicate the onset of complex dynamics for very low values of time delay. On the other side, numerical approach confirms an additional complexity that was not observed by local analysis, due to the possible effect of global bifurcations. The most complex dynamics is detected for β < 1, with a complete Ruelle-Takens-Newhouse route to chaos under the variation of Td, or the co-action of both parameters Td and μ. These results correspond well with the previous experimental observations on clay and siltstone with low clay fraction. In the same regime, the perturbation of only a single parameter, μ, renders the oscillatory motion of the block. Within the velocity-independent regime, β = 1, the inclusion and variation of Td generates a transition to equilibrium state, whereas the small oscillations of μ induce oscillatory motion with decreasing amplitude. The co-action of both parameters, in the same regime, causes the decrease of block's velocity. As for β > 1, highly-frequent, limit-amplitude oscillations of initial

  6. Generational and Time Period Differences in American Adolescents’ Religious Orientation, 1966–2014

    PubMed Central

    Twenge, Jean M.; Exline, Julie J.; Grubbs, Joshua B.; Sastry, Ramya; Campbell, W. Keith

    2015-01-01

    In four large, nationally representative surveys (N = 11.2 million), American adolescents and emerging adults in the 2010s (Millennials) were significantly less religious than previous generations (Boomers, Generation X) at the same age. The data are from the Monitoring the Future studies of 12th graders (1976–2013), 8th and 10th graders (1991–2013), and the American Freshman survey of entering college students (1966–2014). Although the majority of adolescents and emerging adults are still religiously involved, twice as many 12th graders and college students, and 20%–40% more 8th and 10th graders, never attend religious services. Twice as many 12th graders and entering college students in the 2010s (vs. the 1960s–70s) give their religious affiliation as “none,” as do 40%–50% more 8th and 10th graders. Recent birth cohorts report less approval of religious organizations, are less likely to say that religion is important in their lives, report being less spiritual, and spend less time praying or meditating. Thus, declines in religious orientation reach beyond affiliation to religious participation and religiosity, suggesting a movement toward secularism among a growing minority. The declines are larger among girls, Whites, lower-SES individuals, and in the Northeastern U.S., very small among Blacks, and non-existent among political conservatives. Religious affiliation is lower in years with more income inequality, higher median family income, higher materialism, more positive self-views, and lower social support. Overall, these results suggest that the lower religious orientation of Millennials is due to time period or generation, and not to age. PMID:25962174

  7. Generational and time period differences in American adolescents' religious orientation, 1966-2014.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Exline, Julie J; Grubbs, Joshua B; Sastry, Ramya; Campbell, W Keith

    2015-01-01

    In four large, nationally representative surveys (N = 11.2 million), American adolescents and emerging adults in the 2010s (Millennials) were significantly less religious than previous generations (Boomers, Generation X) at the same age. The data are from the Monitoring the Future studies of 12th graders (1976-2013), 8th and 10th graders (1991-2013), and the American Freshman survey of entering college students (1966-2014). Although the majority of adolescents and emerging adults are still religiously involved, twice as many 12th graders and college students, and 20%-40% more 8th and 10th graders, never attend religious services. Twice as many 12th graders and entering college students in the 2010s (vs. the 1960s-70s) give their religious affiliation as "none," as do 40%-50% more 8th and 10th graders. Recent birth cohorts report less approval of religious organizations, are less likely to say that religion is important in their lives, report being less spiritual, and spend less time praying or meditating. Thus, declines in religious orientation reach beyond affiliation to religious participation and religiosity, suggesting a movement toward secularism among a growing minority. The declines are larger among girls, Whites, lower-SES individuals, and in the Northeastern U.S., very small among Blacks, and non-existent among political conservatives. Religious affiliation is lower in years with more income inequality, higher median family income, higher materialism, more positive self-views, and lower social support. Overall, these results suggest that the lower religious orientation of Millennials is due to time period or generation, and not to age. PMID:25962174

  8. Generational and time period differences in American adolescents' religious orientation, 1966-2014.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Exline, Julie J; Grubbs, Joshua B; Sastry, Ramya; Campbell, W Keith

    2015-01-01

    In four large, nationally representative surveys (N = 11.2 million), American adolescents and emerging adults in the 2010s (Millennials) were significantly less religious than previous generations (Boomers, Generation X) at the same age. The data are from the Monitoring the Future studies of 12th graders (1976-2013), 8th and 10th graders (1991-2013), and the American Freshman survey of entering college students (1966-2014). Although the majority of adolescents and emerging adults are still religiously involved, twice as many 12th graders and college students, and 20%-40% more 8th and 10th graders, never attend religious services. Twice as many 12th graders and entering college students in the 2010s (vs. the 1960s-70s) give their religious affiliation as "none," as do 40%-50% more 8th and 10th graders. Recent birth cohorts report less approval of religious organizations, are less likely to say that religion is important in their lives, report being less spiritual, and spend less time praying or meditating. Thus, declines in religious orientation reach beyond affiliation to religious participation and religiosity, suggesting a movement toward secularism among a growing minority. The declines are larger among girls, Whites, lower-SES individuals, and in the Northeastern U.S., very small among Blacks, and non-existent among political conservatives. Religious affiliation is lower in years with more income inequality, higher median family income, higher materialism, more positive self-views, and lower social support. Overall, these results suggest that the lower religious orientation of Millennials is due to time period or generation, and not to age.

  9. “Pre-schoolers in the playground” an outdoor physical activity intervention for children aged 18 months to 4 years old: study protocol for a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The pre-school years are considered critical for establishing healthy lifestyle behaviours such as physical activity. Levels of physical activity track through childhood into adulthood, thus establishing habitual physical activity early in life is vital. Time spent outdoors is associated with greater physical activity and playground interventions have been shown to increase physical activity in school aged children. There are few pre-school, playground-based interventions, and evaluations of these have found mixed results. A recent report published by the UK Chief Medical Officer (CMO) highlighted that new interventions to promote movement in the early years (0–5 years old) are needed. The aim of this study is to undertake a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) of an outdoor playground-based physical activity intervention for parents and their children aged 18 months to 4 years old (“Pre-schoolers in the Playground”; PiP) and to assess the feasibility of conducting a full scale cluster RCT. The PiP intervention is grounded in behavioural theory (Social Cognitive Theory), and is in accordance with the CMO guidance for physical activity in the early years. It is informed by existing literature and data collected from focus groups with parents. Methods/Design One hundred and fifty pre-school children affiliated to 10 primary schools will be recruited. Schools will be randomised to either the PiP intervention arm or the control arm (usual practice). Children in the intervention arm will be invited to attend three 30 minute outdoor play sessions per week for 30 weeks (3 school terms) at the school. Feasibility will be assessed by examining recruitment rates, attendance, attrition, acceptability of the trial and of the PiP intervention to parents, fidelity of intervention implementation, capability and capacity for schools to deliver the intervention. Health outcomes and the feasibility of outcome measurement tools will be assessed. These

  10. Precise timing of the last interglacial period from mass spectrometric determination of thorium-230 in corals

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.L.; Chen, J.H.; Ku, T.L.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1987-06-19

    The development of mass spectrometric techniques for determination of STTh abundance has made it possible to reduce analytical errors in STYU-STUU-STTh dating of corals even with very small samples. Samples of 6 x 10Y atoms of STTh can be measured to an accuracy of +/- 3% (2sigma) and 3 x 10 atoms of STTh can be measured to an accuracy of +/- 0.2%. The time range over which useful age data on corals can be obtained now ranges from about 50 to about 500,000 years. For young corals, this approach may be preferable to UC dating. The precision should make it possible to critically test the Milankovitch hypothesis concerning Pleistocene climate fluctuations. Analyses of a number of corals that grew during the last interglacial period yield ages of 122,000 to 130,000 years. The ages coincide with, or slightly postdate, the summer solar insolation high at 65N latitude which occurred 128,000 years ago. This supports the idea that changes in Pleistocene climate can be the result of variations in the distribution of solar insolation caused by changes in the geometry of the earth's orbit and rotation axis.

  11. Mars exploration, Venus swingby and conjunction class mission modes, time period 2000 to 2045

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. C.; Mulqueen, J. A.; Skinner, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Trajectory and mission requirement data are presented for Earth-Mars opposition class and conjunction class round trip stopover mission opportunities available during the time period year 2000 to year 2045. The opposition class mission employs the gravitational field of Venus to accelerate the space vehicle on either the outbound or inbound leg. The gravitational field of Venus was used to reduce the propulsion requirement associated with the opposition class mission. Representative space vehicle systems are sized to compare the initial mass required in low Earth orbit of one mission opportunity with another mission opportunity. The interplanetary space vehicle is made up of the spacecraft and the space vehicle acceleration system. The space vehicle acceleration system consists of three propulsion stages. The first propulsion stage performs the Earth escape maneuver; the second stage brakes the spacecraft and Earth braking stage into the Mars elliptical orbit and effects the escape maneuver from the Mars elliptical orbit. The third propulsion stage brakes the mission module into an elliptical orbit at Earth return. The interplanetary space vehicle was assumed to be assembled in and depart from the space station circular orbit.

  12. Precise timing of the last interglacial period from mass spectrometric determination of thorium-230 in corals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Ku, T.-L.; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    The development of mass spectrometric techniques for determination of Th-230 abundance has made it possible to reduce analytical errors in (U-238)-(U-234)-(Th-230) dating of corals even with very small samples. Samples of 6 x 10 to the 8th atoms of Th-230 can be measured to an accuracy of + or - 3 percent (2sigma), and 3 x 10 to the 10th atoms of Th-230 can be measured to an accuracy of + or - 0.2 percent. The time range over which useful age data on corals can be obtained now ranges from about 50 to about 500,000 years. For young corals, this approach may be preferable to C-14 dating. The precision with which the age of a coral can now be determined should make it possible to critically test the Milankovitch hypothesis concerning Pleistocene climate fluctuations. Analyses of a number of corals that grew during the last interglacial period yield ages of 122,000 to 130,000 years. The ages coincide with, or slightly post-date, the summer solar insolation high at 65 deg N latitude which occurred 128,000 years ago. This supports the idea that changes in Pleistocene climate can be the result of variations in the distribution of solar insolation caused by changes in the geometry of the earth's orbit and rotation axis.

  13. Studies of cortical interactions over short periods of time during the search for verbal associations.

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, A R; Ivanitskii, G A; Ivanitskii, A M

    2001-01-01

    Interactions between cortical areas were studied during the search for verbal associations and reading of words. The functional anatomy and the sequence of involvement of cortical areas during the solution of these tasks have been described previously, in studies using positron emission tomography and multichannel recordings of evoked potentials combined with identification of the locations of dipole sources [8, 9, 19, 25]. Cortical interactions reflected in terms of the synchronization of EEG rhythms were studied by developing a method based on correlating curve wavelets, which allows the moments at which this synchronization occurs to be identified over short periods of time comparable with the speeds of individual thought operations (up to 100 msec). Three main stages were identified in the search for associations. During the first 200 msec after stimulus presentation, cortical connections were seen between the right and left frontal areas; at 200-500 msec, there were connections between the frontal and the temporal-parietal areas; finally, at 450-700 sec, there were connections between the left temporal and the right frontal-central-temporal areas. These results are in good agreement with data obtained previously using other methods and supplement them with mapping data on cortical connections. A number of differences in the mechanisms of information processing during the search for associations and reading were also identified.

  14. Platelet aggregation responses vary over a period of time in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Refaai, Majed A; Frenkel, Eugene; Sarode, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Platelet aggregation study is performed to investigate platelet function abnormality. A normal healthy control sample is usually run with the patient sample as a quality control measure. At our institution, we observed variations in platelet aggregation responses in our normal repeat controls. Therefore, we analysed aggregation parameters in these controls. Whole blood aggregation studies were performed with adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA), collagen and ristocetin. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion was also measured simultaneously by leuciferin-leuciferase reaction. During a 5-year period, a total of 86 studies were performed on seven controls. Aggregations were within the acceptable range in 67% of the time. Collagen was the most affected agonist in our study. On five occasions, four controls had subnormal aggregations with two agonists. All abnormal responses were hypoaggregation except for two who had hyperaggregation with collagen and AA. Only one out of seven controls was always normal. In the presence of a subnormal control result, a new control was run before releasing the patient's platelet aggregation results. These findings suggest that many physiological factors, other than medications, may affect platelet function even in normal individuals. Therefore, a repeat study at a later date to demonstrate a reproducible abnormality would be prudent before labeling a patient's platelets abnormal.

  15. A simple derivation for amplitude and time period of charged particles in an electrostatic bathtub potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prathap Reddy, K.

    2016-11-01

    An ‘electrostatic bathtub potential’ is defined and analytical expressions for the time period and amplitude of charged particles in this potential are obtained and compared with simulations. These kinds of potentials are encountered in linear electrostatic ion traps, where the potential along the axis appears like a bathtub. Ion traps are used in basic physics research and mass spectrometry to store ions; these stored ions make oscillatory motion within the confined volume of the trap. Usually these traps are designed and studied using ion optical software, but in this work the bathtub potential is reproduced by making two simple modifications to the harmonic oscillator potential. The addition of a linear ‘k 1|x|’ potential makes the simple harmonic potential curve steeper with a sharper turn at the origin, while the introduction of a finite-length zero potential region at the centre reproduces the flat region of the bathtub curve. This whole exercise of modelling a practical experimental situation in terms of a well-known simple physics problem may generate interest among readers.

  16. It's T time: A study on the return period of multivariate problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michailidi, Eleni Maria; Balistrocchi, Matteo; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important tasks a hydrologist must face is the proper estimation of the 'design values' of a natural variable corresponding to a given Return Period, T, of failures of the hydraulic 'structure' to be designed or verified. Sometimes the 'structure' is simply the embankments, the failure of which corresponds to the outflows of flood runoff on the surrounding land. The widely adopted definition of T, in a problem regarding the maxima of hydrological variables, is "the average time elapsing between two successive occurrences of an event exceeding a certain magnitude of the natural variables". If T is referred to the minima, the symmetric definition pertains to the "average time between two periods during which the variable ranges below a given magnitude". Conventional (and the only accepted) approaches for estimation of T involve a single natural variable (i.e. flood-peak of a river at a given cross section, the daily maximum discharge, the maximum daily rainfall depth observed at a given rain-gauge). The method of estimation of T entails a frequency analysis of the variable of interest, where the design value of a given T is needed to design the structure of interest (e.g. dams, sewers). In other words, T is used as the index value to set the assigned risk level for the hydraulic works. However, a univariate approach in complex problems ignores the effect of significant variables interrelation leading to different risk levels for each quantity of interest and resulting in a completely wrong estimate of the risk. For example, if one considers the flood inflow in a lake around which cities and villages are positioned, the variable to be investigated in relation to the risk assessment is the lake water level. It is obvious that the same water level may occur from very different flood hydrographs, even when the same initial water level and the same rate curve of outflows are considered. This is a consequence of the interaction of at least three joint

  17. Magnetic cycles and rotation periods of late-type stars from photometric time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez Mascareño, A.; Rebolo, R.; González Hernández, J. I.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We investigate the photometric modulation induced by magnetic activity cycles and study the relationship between rotation period and activity cycle(s) in late-type (FGKM) stars. Methods: We analysed light curves, spanning up to nine years, of 125 nearby stars provided by the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS). The sample is mainly composed of low-activity, main-sequence late-A to mid-M-type stars. We performed a search for short (days) and long-term (years) periodic variations in the photometry. We modelled the light curves with combinations of sinusoids to measure the properties of these periodic signals. To provide a better statistical interpretation of our results, we complement our new results with results from previous similar works. Results: We have been able to measure long-term photometric cycles of 47 stars, out of which 39 have been derived with false alarm probabilities (FAP) of less than 0.1 per cent. Rotational modulation was also detected and rotational periods were measured in 36 stars. For 28 stars we have simultaneous measurements of activity cycles and rotational periods, 17 of which are M-type stars. We measured both photometric amplitudes and periods from sinusoidal fits. The measured cycle periods range from 2 to 14 yr with photometric amplitudes in the range of 5-20 mmag. We found that the distribution of cycle lengths for the different spectral types is similar, as the mean cycle is 9.5 yr for F-type stars, 6.7 yr for G-type stars, 8.5 yr for K-type stars, 6.0 yr for early M-type stars, and 7.1 yr for mid-M-type stars. On the other hand, the distribution of rotation periods is completely different, trending to longer periods for later type stars, from a mean rotation of 8.6 days for F-type stars to 85.4 days in mid-M-type stars. The amplitudes induced by magnetic cycles and rotation show a clear correlation. A trend of photometric amplitudes with rotation period is also outlined in the data. The amplitudes of the photometric variability

  18. Vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR): a comparison between the antibody responses at the ages of 18 months and 12 years and between different methods of antibody titration.

    PubMed

    Christenson, B; Böttiger, M

    1985-04-01

    In connection with the introduction of the trivalent vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella at 18 months and 12 years of age, an evaluation of the seroconversion and booster effects in the two age-groups was carried out. This also comprised different laboratory-test methods appropriate for follow-up studies after large-scale, vaccination studies. The measles, mumps and rubella antibodies were measured by the haemolysis-in-gel (HIG) method. Measles antibodies were also measured by the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test. Borderline values or samples negative to measles or mumps were also tested by the serum-neutralization (SN) test. All but four of 150 18-month-old children lacked antibodies against measles by the HI test and one of these by the HIG method. Against mumps, 99% were seronegative in the HIG test and 97% in the SN test and two against rubella prior to vaccination. Among 247 schoolchildren, 60 (24%) lacked antibodies in the HI test and 28 (11%) of these also in the HIG test. Sixty-six schoolchildren (25%) were negative to mumps and 45% to rubella prior to vaccination. The seroconversion rate for the 18-month-old children was 96% against measles, 93% against mumps and 99% against rubella. The figure for the schoolchildren was 82% against measles, 80% against mumps and 100% against rubella. On comparing the titre levels in seroconverting children, the measles-antibody levels were found to be lower among older children, compared with younger, while the opposite was true for rubella.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Timing analysis of the periodic radio and optical brightness variations of the ultracool dwarf, TVLM 513-46546

    SciTech Connect

    Wolszczan, A.; Route, M. E-mail: matthew.route@ngc.com

    2014-06-10

    We describe the arrival time measurements and timing modeling of the periodic radio flares and optical brightness variations of the M9 ultracool dwarf, TVLM 513-46546. We confirm the stability of the observed period and determine its best-fit value to be 7054.468 ± 0.007 s over the last 7 yr, based on both the new and archival radio observations and the archival optical data. The period, when measured separately for the radio flare and the optical periodicities, is the same to within ±0.02 s. We show that the radio flares are out of phase with respect to the optical brightness maxima by 0.41 ± 0.02 of the period. Our analysis also reveals that, on shorter timescales, the period varies with the amplitude of ±1-2 s about its long-term average and that these variations are correlated between the radio and the optical wavelengths. These results provide further evidence that TVLM 513-46546 is equipped with a stable, approximately dipolar magnetic field that powers the activity of the star observed over a wide wavelength range, and that the active area has been maintaining its identity and positional stability over no less than 7 yr. A stepwise decline of the apparent radio flaring period of TVLM 513-46546, deduced from timing observations with the Arecibo radio telescope in late 2012 and early 2013, suggests that this effect may be the manifestation of differential rotation of the star.

  20. 41 CFR 302-11.23 - When must I request to have my initial time period extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... have my initial time period extended? 302-11.23 Section 302-11.23 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 11-ALLOWANCES FOR EXPENSES INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH RESIDENCE TRANSACTIONS General Rules Time...

  1. 41 CFR 302-11.23 - When must I request to have my initial time period extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... have my initial time period extended? 302-11.23 Section 302-11.23 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 11-ALLOWANCES FOR EXPENSES INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH RESIDENCE TRANSACTIONS General Rules Time...

  2. 41 CFR 302-11.23 - When must I request to have my initial time period extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... have my initial time period extended? 302-11.23 Section 302-11.23 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 11-ALLOWANCES FOR EXPENSES INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH RESIDENCE TRANSACTIONS General Rules Time...

  3. 41 CFR 302-11.23 - When must I request to have my initial time period extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... have my initial time period extended? 302-11.23 Section 302-11.23 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 11-ALLOWANCES FOR EXPENSES INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH RESIDENCE TRANSACTIONS General Rules Time...

  4. 41 CFR 302-11.23 - When must I request to have my initial time period extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... have my initial time period extended? 302-11.23 Section 302-11.23 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 11-ALLOWANCES FOR EXPENSES INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH RESIDENCE TRANSACTIONS General Rules Time...

  5. [Local fractal analysis of noise-like time series by all permutations method for 1-115 min periods].

    PubMed

    Panchelyuga, V A; Panchelyuga, M S

    2015-01-01

    Results of local fractal analysis of 329-per-day time series of 239Pu alpha-decay rate fluctuations by means of all permutations method (APM) are presented. The APM-analysis reveals in the time series some steady frequency set. The coincidence of the frequency set with the Earth natural oscillations was demonstrated. A short review of works by different authors who analyzed the time series of fluctuations in processes of different nature is given. We have shown that the periods observed in those works correspond to the periods revealed in our study. It points to a common mechanism of the phenomenon observed. PMID:26016038

  6. [Local fractal analysis of noise-like time series by all permutations method for 1-115 min periods].

    PubMed

    Panchelyuga, V A; Panchelyuga, M S

    2015-01-01

    Results of local fractal analysis of 329-per-day time series of 239Pu alpha-decay rate fluctuations by means of all permutations method (APM) are presented. The APM-analysis reveals in the time series some steady frequency set. The coincidence of the frequency set with the Earth natural oscillations was demonstrated. A short review of works by different authors who analyzed the time series of fluctuations in processes of different nature is given. We have shown that the periods observed in those works correspond to the periods revealed in our study. It points to a common mechanism of the phenomenon observed.

  7. Hemodynamics and right-ventricle functional characteristics of a swine carotid artery-jugular vein shunt model of pulmonary arterial hypertension: An 18-month experimental study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji; Luo, Xiaoju; Huang, Yuanyuan; He, Yun; Li, Zhixian

    2015-10-01

    The continuous changes in pulmonary hemodynamic properties and right ventricular (RV) function in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have not been fully characterized in large animal model of PAH induced by a carotid artery-jugular vein shunt. A minipig model of PAH was induced by a surgical anastomosis between the left common carotid artery and the left jugular vein. The model was validated by catheter examination and pathologic analyses, and the hemodynamic features and right-ventricle functional characteristics of the model were continuously observed by Doppler echocardiography. Of the 45 minipigs who received the surgery, 27 survived and were validated as models of PAH, reflected by mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg, and typical pathologic changes of pulmonary arterial remodeling and RV fibrosis. Non-invasive indices of pulmonary hemodynamics (pulmonary artery accelerating time and its ratio to RV ventricular ejection time) were temporarily increased, then reduced later, similar to changes in tricuspid annular displacement. The Tei index of the RV was elevated, indicating a progressive impairment in RV function. Surgical anastomosis between carotid artery and jugular vein in a minipig is effective to establish PAH, and non-invasive hemodynamic and right-ventricle functional indices measured by Doppler echocardiography may be used as early indicators of PAH. PMID:25595189

  8. Hemodynamics and right-ventricle functional characteristics of a swine carotid artery-jugular vein shunt model of pulmonary arterial hypertension: An 18-month experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaoju; Huang, Yuanyuan; He, Yun; Li, Zhixian

    2015-01-01

    The continuous changes in pulmonary hemodynamic properties and right ventricular (RV) function in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have not been fully characterized in large animal model of PAH induced by a carotid artery–jugular vein shunt. A minipig model of PAH was induced by a surgical anastomosis between the left common carotid artery and the left jugular vein. The model was validated by catheter examination and pathologic analyses, and the hemodynamic features and right-ventricle functional characteristics of the model were continuously observed by Doppler echocardiography. Of the 45 minipigs who received the surgery, 27 survived and were validated as models of PAH, reflected by mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg, and typical pathologic changes of pulmonary arterial remodeling and RV fibrosis. Non-invasive indices of pulmonary hemodynamics (pulmonary artery accelerating time and its ratio to RV ventricular ejection time) were temporarily increased, then reduced later, similar to changes in tricuspid annular displacement. The Tei index of the RV was elevated, indicating a progressive impairment in RV function. Surgical anastomosis between carotid artery and jugular vein in a minipig is effective to establish PAH, and non-invasive hemodynamic and right-ventricle functional indices measured by Doppler echocardiography may be used as early indicators of PAH. PMID:25595189

  9. Hemodynamics and right-ventricle functional characteristics of a swine carotid artery-jugular vein shunt model of pulmonary arterial hypertension: An 18-month experimental study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji; Luo, Xiaoju; Huang, Yuanyuan; He, Yun; Li, Zhixian

    2015-10-01

    The continuous changes in pulmonary hemodynamic properties and right ventricular (RV) function in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have not been fully characterized in large animal model of PAH induced by a carotid artery-jugular vein shunt. A minipig model of PAH was induced by a surgical anastomosis between the left common carotid artery and the left jugular vein. The model was validated by catheter examination and pathologic analyses, and the hemodynamic features and right-ventricle functional characteristics of the model were continuously observed by Doppler echocardiography. Of the 45 minipigs who received the surgery, 27 survived and were validated as models of PAH, reflected by mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg, and typical pathologic changes of pulmonary arterial remodeling and RV fibrosis. Non-invasive indices of pulmonary hemodynamics (pulmonary artery accelerating time and its ratio to RV ventricular ejection time) were temporarily increased, then reduced later, similar to changes in tricuspid annular displacement. The Tei index of the RV was elevated, indicating a progressive impairment in RV function. Surgical anastomosis between carotid artery and jugular vein in a minipig is effective to establish PAH, and non-invasive hemodynamic and right-ventricle functional indices measured by Doppler echocardiography may be used as early indicators of PAH.

  10. Assessment of high-rate GPS time series at long periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelevitz, Krisztina; Houlié, Nicolas; Boschi, Lapo; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Giardini, Domenico; Rothacher, Markus

    2015-04-01

    High-rate GPS has been proven to be sensitive to ground motions that are induced by surface waves from large earthquakes even hundreds kilometers from the epicenter (Larson et al. (2003a)). Since the broadband seismometers are less sensitive to the long period surface waves (T > 300 seconds), the seismic velocity tomography models start to diverge for depths larger than 400 km (Becker and Boschi (2002); Ritsema et al. (2011)). Because of their good accuracy at long-periods (detecting ground displacements above 2 mm), GPS measurements could be used to support broadband seismometer networks (Houliè et al. (2011); Bilich et al. (2008)) and strong motion networks in near field (Houliè et al. (2014)) by providing high-quality waveforms in displacement for periods T > 3s. We present the comparison of 1Hz high-rate GPS data, very broadband seismograms and super-conductivity gravimeter data for various period bands (T > 30 s) using the observations collected during three mega-thrust events: 2003 Hokkaido, 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Tohoku-Oki. We assess the performance of each dataset at the light of comparison with synthetic waveforms that were computed using the AXISEM and SPECFEM algorithms. With this study we aim at filling the gap between the surface wave (T < 60 seconds) and normal mode (T 1200 seconds) period ranges. We find that GPS is well capable on recovering millimeter ground motion oscillations in a wide range of periods, providing valuable information on the lithosphere and mantle heterogeneities on a scale of 300 to 3000 km.

  11. What is the Most Suitable Time Period to Assess the Time Trends in Cancer Incidence Rates to Make Valid Predictions--an Empirical Approach.

    PubMed

    Ramnath, Takiar; Shah, Varsha Premchandbhai; Krishnan, Sathish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Projections of cancer cases are particularly useful in developing countries to plan and prioritize both diagnostic and treatment facilities. In the prediction of cancer cases for the future period say after 5 years or after 10 years, it is imperative to use the knowledge of past time trends in incidence rates as well as in population at risk. In most of the recently published studies the duration for which the time trend was assessed was more than 10 years while in few studies the duration was between 5-7 years. This raises the question as to what is the optimum time period which should be used for assessment of time trends and projections. Thus, the present paper explores the suitability of different time periods to predict the future rates so that the valid projections of cancer burden can be done for India. The cancer incidence data of selected cancer sites of Bangalore, Bhopal, Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai PBCR for the period of 1991-2009 was utilized. The three time periods were selected namely 1991-2005; 1996-2005, 1999-2005 to assess the time trends and projections. For the five selected sites, each for males and females and for each registry, the time trend was assessed and the linear regression equation was obtained to give prediction for the years 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009. These predictions were compared with actual incidence data. The time period giving the least error in prediction was adjudged as the best. The result of the current analysis suggested that for projections of cancer cases, the 10 years duration data are most appropriate as compared to 7 year or 15 year incidence data. PMID:25921103

  12. 29 CFR 4000.43 - How do I compute a time period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... holidays. However, if the last day you count is a weekend or Federal holiday, extend or shorten the period..., together with the weekend and holiday rule of paragraph (a) of this section. (c) When counting months. If a... on a weekend or Federal holiday, follow the weekend and holiday rule of paragraph (a) of this...

  13. 29 CFR 4000.43 - How do I compute a time period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... holidays. However, if the last day you count is a weekend or Federal holiday, extend or shorten the period..., together with the weekend and holiday rule of paragraph (a) of this section. (c) When counting months. If a... on a weekend or Federal holiday, follow the weekend and holiday rule of paragraph (a) of this...

  14. 18 CFR 290.103 - Time of filing and reporting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reporting period. 290.103 Section 290.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF... preceding the filing year. Information for previous years and projected information for future years must...

  15. 18 CFR 290.103 - Time of filing and reporting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reporting period. 290.103 Section 290.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF... preceding the filing year. Information for previous years and projected information for future years must...

  16. Association of placenta organotin concentrations with growth and ponderal index in 110 newborn boys from Finland during the first 18 months of life: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Humans are exposed to tributyltin (TBT), previously used as an antifouling paint in ships, mainly through fish consumption. As TBT is a known obesogen, we studied the association of placenta TBT and other organotin compounds (OTCs) with ponderal index (PI) and growth during the first 18 months of life in boys. Methods In a prospective Finnish study, 110 placenta samples were collected from mothers of boys born in 1997–1999 with (n = 55) and without (n = 55) cryptorchidism. To account for the original study design, linear regression, weighted for sampling fractions of boys with (121/55) and without (5677/55) cryptorchidism from the total cohort, was used to study the association between placenta OTCs and children’s weight, length, growth rates and PI up to 18 months of age. Results Placenta TBT concentrations were above the limit of quantification (LOQ) in 99% of the samples. However, monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) concentrations were below LOQ in 90%, 35% and 57% of samples, respectively. Placenta TBT was positively associated (p = 0.024) with weight gain during the first three months of life, but no other significant associations were observed for weight or length gain. Also, no significant associations between placenta OTC concentrations and child length, weight or PI at any time point were found. Conclusions We observed a trend towards higher weight gain from birth to 3 months of age with increasing placenta TBT concentration. These results should be interpreted with caution because obesogenic effects in animal experiments were seen after in-utero TBT exposures to doses that were orders of magnitude higher. Also the number of study subjects included in this study was limited. PMID:24899383

  17. Diffusive KPP equations with free boundaries in time almost periodic environments: II. Spreading speeds and semi-wave solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang; Liang, Xing; Shen, Wenxian

    2016-08-01

    In this series of papers, we investigate the spreading and vanishing dynamics of time almost periodic diffusive KPP equations with free boundaries. Such equations are used to characterize the spreading of a new species in time almost periodic environments with free boundaries representing the spreading fronts. In the first part of the series, we showed that a spreading-vanishing dichotomy occurs for such free boundary problems (see [16]). In this second part of the series, we investigate the spreading speeds of such free boundary problems in the case that the spreading occurs. We first prove the existence of a unique time almost periodic semi-wave solution associated to such a free boundary problem. Using the semi-wave solution, we then prove that the free boundary problem has a unique spreading speed.

  18. Age-Period-Cohort Models in Cancer Surveillance Research: Ready for Prime Time?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Philip S.; Anderson, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Standard descriptive methods for the analysis of cancer surveillance data include canonical plots based on the lexis diagram, directly age-standardized rates (ASR), estimated annual percentage change (EAPC), and joinpoint regression. The age-period-cohort (APC) model has been used less often. Here, we argue that it merits much broader use. Firstly, we describe close connections between estimable functions of the model parameters and standard quantities such as the ASR, EAPC, and joinpoints. Estimable functions have the added value of being fully adjusted for period and cohort effects, and generally more precise. Secondly, the APC model provides the descriptive epidemiologist with powerful new tools, including rigorous statistical methods for comparative analyses and the ability to project the future burden of cancer. We illustrate these principles using invasive female breast cancer incidence in the United States, but these concepts apply equally well to other cancer sites for incidence or mortality. PMID:21610223

  19. A charged particle in a homogeneous magnetic field accelerated by a time-periodic Aharonov-Bohm flux

    SciTech Connect

    Kalvoda, T.; Stovicek, P.

    2011-10-15

    We consider a nonrelativistic quantum charged particle moving on a plane under the influence of a uniform magnetic field and driven by a periodically time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm flux. We observe an acceleration effect in the case when the Aharonov-Bohm flux depends on time as a sinusoidal function whose frequency is in resonance with the cyclotron frequency. In particular, the energy of the particle increases linearly for large times. An explicit formula for the acceleration rate is derived with the aid of the quantum averaging method, and then it is checked against a numerical solution and a very good agreement is found. - Highlights: > A nonrelativistic quantum charged particle on a plane. > A homogeneous magnetic field and a periodically time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm flux. > The quantum averaging method applied to a time-dependent system. > A resonance of the AB flux with the cyclotron frequency. > An acceleration with linearly increasing energy; a formula for the acceleration rate.

  20. Clustering criterion for inertial particles in two-dimensional time-periodic and three-dimensional steady flows.

    PubMed

    Sapsis, Themistoklis; Haller, George

    2010-03-01

    We derive an analytic condition that predicts the exact location of inertial particle clustering in three-dimensional steady or two-dimensional time-periodic flows. The particles turn out to cluster on attracting inertial Lagrangian coherent structures that are smooth deformations of invariant tori. We illustrate our results on three-dimensional steady flows, including the Hill's spherical vortex and the Arnold-Beltrami-Childress flow, as well as on a two-dimensional time and space periodic flow that models a meandering jet in a channel.

  1. The time-periodic diffusive competition models with a free boundary and sign-changing growth rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingxin; Zhang, Yang

    2016-10-01

    To understand the spreading of invasive and native species, in this paper we consider the diffusive competition models with a free boundary in the heterogeneous time-periodic environments, in which the variable intrinsic growth rates of these two species change signs and may be very negative in some large regions. We study the spreading-vanishing dichotomy, long-time dynamical behavior of solution, sharp criteria for spreading and vanishing, and estimates of the asymptotic spreading speed of the free boundary. Moreover, we establish the existence of positive solutions to a T-periodic boundary value problem of the diffusive competition system with sign-changing growth rates in the half line.

  2. A functional asymmetry in the Leech Heartbeat Timing Network is revealed by driving the network across various cycle periods.

    PubMed

    Masino, Mark A; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2002-06-01

    We tested predictions of a computational model (Hill et al., 2002) of the leech heartbeat timing network. The timing network consists of two segmental oscillators located in the third (G3) and fourth (G4) segmental ganglia. Each oscillator consists of two reciprocally inhibitory oscillator interneurons along with the coordinating interneuron fibers that link them. In the model, the network was driven to cycle periods around the normal period of the network by repeatedly stimulating one of the paired oscillator interneurons in G3 or G4. Here we replicate these experiments in the biological system. The model predicts that the G3 and G4 oscillators can entrain the timing network to periods faster but not slower than the inherent period of the nondriven ("follower") oscillator and that they can do so symmetrically. The biological system can be driven to periods both faster (such that the driven oscillator leads in phase) and slower (such that the driven oscillator lags in phase) than the inherent period of the timing network. Although both oscillators can entrain the network, the G4 oscillator does so over a narrower range of periods. Two differences between the assumptions of the model and the properties of the biological network, spike frequency adaptation in coordinating interneurons and asymmetry in the connections from the oscillator interneurons to the coordinating interneurons, may account for these discrepancies. Individual coordinating interneurons were also able to entrain the oscillators but with little effect of the phase relationship between the oscillators, suggesting that phase relations are determined by properties inherent to the oscillator interneurons.

  3. A mapping method for distributive mixing with diffusion: Interplay between chaos and diffusion in time-periodic sine flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlick, Conor P.; Christov, Ivan C.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2013-05-01

    We present an accurate and efficient computational method for solving the advection-diffusion equation in time-periodic chaotic flows. The method uses operator splitting, which allows the advection and diffusion steps to be treated independently. Taking advantage of flow periodicity, the advection step is solved using a mapping method, and diffusion is "added" discretely after each iteration of the advection map. This approach results in the construction of a composite mapping matrix over an entire period of the chaotic advection-diffusion process and provides a natural framework for the analysis of mixing. To test the approach, we consider two-dimensional time-periodic sine flow. By comparing the numerical solutions obtained by our method to reference solutions, we find qualitative agreement for large time steps (structure of concentration profile) and quantitative agreement for small time steps (low error). Further, we study the interplay between mixing through chaotic advection and mixing through diffusion leading to an analytical model for the evolution of the intensity of segregation with time. Additionally, we demonstrate that our operator splitting mapping approach can be readily extended to three dimensions.

  4. Framing Health Messages for Adolescents: Should We Use Objective Time Periods, Temporal Benchmarks, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael T.; Cole, Jon C.; Sumnall, Harry R.; Goudie, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Time perspective is a cognitive-motivational construct, which has been shown to be related to decision-making, motivation and adjustment. The majority of research into time perspective has been conducted in college students and/or general population samples. Focus groups were held as part of a larger investigation into the relationship between…

  5. Bats and frogs and animals in between: evidence for a common central timing mechanism to extract periodicity pitch

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, James A.; Simmons, Andrea Megela

    2012-01-01

    Widely divergent vertebrates share a common central temporal mechanism for representing periodicities of acoustic waveform events. In the auditory nerve, periodicities corresponding to frequencies or rates from about 10 Hz to over 1,000 Hz are extracted from pure tones, from low-frequency complex sounds (e.g., 1st harmonic in bullfrog calls), from mid-frequency sounds with low-frequency modulations (e.g., amplitude modulation rates in cat vocalizations), and from time intervals between high-frequency transients (e.g., pulse-echo delay in bat sonar). Time locking of neuronal responses to periodicities from about 50 ms down to 4 ms or less (about 20–300 Hz) is preserved in the auditory midbrain, where responses are dispersed across many neurons with different onset latencies from 4–5 to 20–50 ms. Midbrain latency distributions are wide enough to encompass two or more repetitions of successive acoustic events, so that responses to multiple, successive periods are ongoing simultaneously in different midbrain neurons. These latencies have a previously unnoticed periodic temporal pattern that determines the specific times for the dispersed on-responses. PMID:21072522

  6. Bats and frogs and animals in between: evidence for a common central timing mechanism to extract periodicity pitch.

    PubMed

    Simmons, James A; Megela Simmons, Andrea

    2011-05-01

    Widely divergent vertebrates share a common central temporal mechanism for representing periodicities of acoustic waveform events. In the auditory nerve, periodicities corresponding to frequencies or rates from about 10 Hz to over 1,000 Hz are extracted from pure tones, from low-frequency complex sounds (e.g., 1st harmonic in bullfrog calls), from mid-frequency sounds with low-frequency modulations (e.g., amplitude modulation rates in cat vocalizations), and from time intervals between high-frequency transients (e.g., pulse-echo delay in bat sonar). Time locking of neuronal responses to periodicities from about 50 ms down to 4 ms or less (about 20-300 Hz) is preserved in the auditory midbrain, where responses are dispersed across many neurons with different onset latencies from 4-5 to 20-50 ms. Midbrain latency distributions are wide enough to encompass two or more repetitions of successive acoustic events, so that responses to multiple, successive periods are ongoing simultaneously in different midbrain neurons. These latencies have a previously unnoticed periodic temporal pattern that determines the specific times for the dispersed on-responses.

  7. Space Radiation Cancer Risks and Uncertainities for Different Mission Time Periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim,Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Space radiation consists of solar particle events (SPEs), comprised largely of medium energy protons (less than several hundred MeV); and galactic cosmic ray (GCR), which includes high energy protons and high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei. For long duration missions, space radiation presents significant health risks including cancer mortality. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is essential for radiation protection of crews on long term space missions outside of the protection of the Earth s magnetic field and for optimization of mission planning and costs. For the assessment of organ dosimetric quantities and cancer risks, the particle spectra at each critical body organs must be characterized. In implementing a PRA approach, a statistical model of SPE fluence was developed, because the individual SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature while the frequency distribution of SPEs depends strongly upon the phase within the solar activity cycle. Spectral variability of SPEs was also examined, because the detailed energy spectra of protons are important especially at high energy levels for assessing the cancer risk associated with energetic particles for large events. An overall cumulative probability of a GCR environment for a specified mission period was estimated for the temporal characterization of the GCR environment represented by the deceleration potential (theta). Finally, this probabilistic approach to space radiation cancer risk was coupled with a model of the radiobiological factors and uncertainties in projecting cancer risks. Probabilities of fatal cancer risk and 95% confidence intervals will be reported for various periods of space missions.

  8. 18 CFR 290.103 - Time of filing and reporting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1978 COLLECTION OF COST OF SERVICE INFORMATION UNDER SECTION 133 OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 Coverage, Compliance and Definitions § 290.103 Time of filing and reporting...

  9. Supernova 1987A: 18 months later

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the significance for physics of the closest visual supernova in almost 400 years is presented. The supernova occurred in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), approx. 50 kpc away. The supernova star was a massive star of approx. 15 to 20 solar mass. Observations now show that it was once a red giant but lost its outer envelope. The lower than standard luminosity and higher observed velocities are a natural consequence of the pre-supernova star being a blue rather than a red (supergiant). Of particular importance to physicsts is the detection of neutrinos from the event by detectors in the United States and Japan. Not only did this establish extra-solar system neutrino astronomy, but it also constrained the properties of neutrino. It is shown that the well established Kamioka-IMB neutrino burst experimentally implies an event with about 2 to 4 x 10 to the 53rd power ergs emitted in neutrinos and a temperature, T sub nu e, of between 4 and 4.5 MeV. This event is in excellent agreement with what one would expect from the gravitational core collapse of a massive star. The anticipated frequency of collapse events in our Galaxy is discussed.

  10. High time-bandwidth product and high repetition rate period signal generation based on spectral hole burning crystal.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiurong; Wang, Song; Liang, Yuqing; Shan, Yunlong

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes an approach for the generation of high time-bandwidth product (TBP) and high repetition rate pulse compression period signal. The complex spectral grating is created through a reference pulse and multiple programming pulses with different start frequencies. As the multiple probe chirped pulses with different start frequencies interact with the complex spectral gratings, a high TBP and repetition rate period signal is thus generated. This technique has the potential to generate a time-bandwidth product of 10⁵ when the repetition rate reaches up to tens of GHz. At the end of this paper, two simulation results of pulse compression period signal with 4×10⁵ TBP and 20 GHz repetition rate are presented.

  11. Detecting unstable periodic orbits in high-dimensional chaotic systems from time series: reconstruction meeting with adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huanfei; Lin, Wei; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2013-05-01

    Detecting unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) in chaotic systems based solely on time series is a fundamental but extremely challenging problem in nonlinear dynamics. Previous approaches were applicable but mostly for low-dimensional chaotic systems. We develop a framework, integrating approximation theory of neural networks and adaptive synchronization, to address the problem of time-series-based detection of UPOs in high-dimensional chaotic systems. An example of finding UPOs from the classic Mackey-Glass equation is presented.

  12. 41 CFR 302-8.108 - What is the authorized time period for extended storage of my HHG?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the authorized time period for extended storage of my HHG? 302-8.108 Section 302-8.108 Public Contracts and Property...-ALLOWANCES FOR EXTENDED STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS (HHG) Extended Storage During Assignment to...

  13. 41 CFR 302-8.108 - What is the authorized time period for extended storage of my HHG?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the authorized time period for extended storage of my HHG? 302-8.108 Section 302-8.108 Public Contracts and Property...-ALLOWANCES FOR EXTENDED STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS (HHG) Extended Storage During Assignment to...

  14. 20 CFR 404.368 - When you are considered a full-time student during a period of nonattendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When you are considered a full-time student during a period of nonattendance. 404.368 Section 404.368 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents'...

  15. 20 CFR 404.368 - When you are considered a full-time student during a period of nonattendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When you are considered a full-time student during a period of nonattendance. 404.368 Section 404.368 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents'...

  16. 41 CFR 302-8.203 - What is the authorized time period for extended storage of my HHG?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... time period for extended storage of my HHG? 302-8.203 Section 302-8.203 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 8-ALLOWANCES FOR EXTENDED STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS (HHG) Extended Storage During Assignment Outside...

  17. 41 CFR 302-8.203 - What is the authorized time period for extended storage of my HHG?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... time period for extended storage of my HHG? 302-8.203 Section 302-8.203 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 8-ALLOWANCES FOR EXTENDED STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS (HHG) Extended Storage During Assignment Outside...

  18. 41 CFR 302-8.203 - What is the authorized time period for extended storage of my HHG?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... time period for extended storage of my HHG? 302-8.203 Section 302-8.203 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 8-ALLOWANCES FOR EXTENDED STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS (HHG) Extended Storage During Assignment Outside...

  19. 20 CFR 663.530 - Is there a time limit on the period of initial eligibility for training providers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Is there a time limit on the period of initial eligibility for training providers? 663.530 Section 663.530 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER...

  20. 30 CFR 250.1161 - When may I flare or vent gas for extended periods of time?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may I flare or vent gas for extended... Production Requirements Flaring, Venting, and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1161 When may I flare or vent gas... flare or vent gas for an extended period of time. The Regional Supervisor will specify the...