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Sample records for 180-day generic exclusivity

  1. 78 FR 30390 - Applications Delayed More Than 180 Days

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Applications Delayed More Than 180 Days AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of Applications Delayed... of Hazardous Materials Special Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  2. 12 CFR 313.163 - Notification of debts of 180 days or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notification of debts of 180 days or less. 313... Notification of debts of 180 days or less. The Director, in his discretion, may also notify the Secretary of the Treasury of debts that have been delinquent for 180 days or less, including debts the FDIC...

  3. 12 CFR 313.163 - Notification of debts of 180 days or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notification of debts of 180 days or less. 313... Notification of debts of 180 days or less. The Director, in his discretion, may also notify the Secretary of the Treasury of debts that have been delinquent for 180 days or less, including debts the FDIC...

  4. 49 CFR 24.401 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day homeowner-occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 180-day homeowner... Payments § 24.401 Replacement housing payment for 180-day homeowner-occupants. (a) Eligibility. A displaced person is eligible for the replacement housing payment for a 180-day homeowner-occupant if the person:...

  5. 12 CFR 313.163 - Notification of debts of 180 days or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notification of debts of 180 days or less. 313... Notification of debts of 180 days or less. The Director, in his discretion, may also notify the Secretary of the Treasury of debts that have been delinquent for 180 days or less, including debts the FDIC...

  6. 12 CFR 313.163 - Notification of debts of 180 days or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notification of debts of 180 days or less. 313... Notification of debts of 180 days or less. The Director, in his discretion, may also notify the Secretary of the Treasury of debts that have been delinquent for 180 days or less, including debts the FDIC...

  7. 12 CFR 313.163 - Notification of debts of 180 days or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of debts of 180 days or less. 313... Notification of debts of 180 days or less. The Director, in his discretion, may also notify the Secretary of the Treasury of debts that have been delinquent for 180 days or less, including debts the FDIC...

  8. Respiratory mechanics after 180 days space mission (EUROMIR'95)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturoli, Daniele; Semino, Paola; Negrini, Daniela; Miserocchi, Giuseppe

    The present study reports data on respiratory function of lung and chest wall following the 180 days long European — Russian EuroMir '95 space mission. Data reported refer to two subjects studied before the mission, on day 9 and 175 in flight and on days 1, 10, 12, 27 and 120 after return. In-flight vital capacity (VC) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV) were similar to those in supine posture, namely ~ 5% and ~ 30% less than in sitting posture. On day 1 after return, VC was reduced by ~30 % in both postures. This reflected a decrease in ERV (~0.5 L) and in IC (inspiratory capacity, ~ 1.7 L) that could be attributed to a marked weakening of the respiratory muscles. Regain of normal preflight values barely occurred 120 days after return. Post-flight pressure-volume curves of the lung, chest wall and total respiratory system are equal to preflight ones. The pressure-volume curve of the lung in supine posture is displaced to the right relative to sitting posture and shows a lower compliance. As far as the lung in-flight condition resembles that occurring in supine posture, this implies a lower compliance, a greater amount of blood in the pulmonary microvascular bed, a more homogeneous lung perfusion and therefore a greater microvascular filtration rate towards lung interstitium.

  9. Respiratory mechanics after 180 days space mission (EUROMIR'95).

    PubMed

    Venturoli, D; Semino, P; Negrini, D; Miserocchi, G

    1998-01-01

    The present study reports data on respiratory function of lung and chest wall following the 180 days long European - Russian EuroMir '95 space mission. Data reported refer to two subjects studied before the mission, on day 9 and 175 in flight and on days 1, 10, 12, 27 and 120 after return. In-flight vital capacity (VC) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV) were similar to those in supine posture, namely approximately 5% and approximately 30% less than in sitting posture. On day 1 after return, VC was reduced by approximately 30% in both postures. This reflected a decrease in ERV (approximately 0.5 L) and in IC (inspiratory capacity, approximately 1.7 L) that could be attributed to a marked weakening of the respiratory muscles. Regain of normal preflight values barely occurred 120 days after return. Post-flight pressure-volume curves of the lung, chest wall and total respiratory system are equal to preflight ones. The pressure-volume curve of the lung in supine posture is displaced to the right relative to sitting posture and shows a lower compliance. As far as the lung in-flight condition resembles that occurring in supine posture, this implies a lower compliance, a greater amount of blood in the pulmonary microvascular bed, a more homogeneous lung perfusion and therefore a greater microvascular filtration rate towards lung interstitium.

  10. Nonequilibrium steady states in a closed inhomogeneous asymmetric exclusion process with generic particle nonconservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daga, Bijoy; Mondal, Souvik; Chandra, Anjan Kumar; Banerjee, Tirthankar; Basu, Abhik

    2017-01-01

    We study the totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) on a nonuniform one-dimensional ring consisting of two segments having unequal hopping rates, or defects. We allow weak particle nonconservation via Langmuir kinetics (LK), which are parametrized by generic unequal attachment and detachment rates. For an extended defect, in the thermodynamic limit the system generically displays inhomogeneous density profiles in the steady state—the faster segment is either in a phase with spatially varying density having no density discontinuity, or a phase with a discontinuous density changes. Nonequilibrium phase transitions between the above phases are controlled by the inhomogeneity and LK. The slower segment displays only macroscopically uniform bulk density profiles in the steady states, reminiscent of the maximal current phase of TASEP but with a bulk density generally different from half. With a point defect, there are spatially uniform low- and high-density phases as well, in addition to the inhomogeneous density profiles observed for an extended defect. In all the cases, it is argued that the mean particle density in the steady state is controlled only by the ratio of the LK attachment and detachment rates.

  11. 76 FR 19902 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting 180-Day Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... 180-Day Extension of Compliance Date for Residential Furnaces and Boilers Test Procedure Amendments... amendments to the DOE test procedure for residential furnaces and boilers related to the standby mode and off... residential furnaces and boilers starting on October 15, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Michael...

  12. 49 CFR 24.401 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day homeowner-occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... displacement dwelling or the term of the new mortgage, whichever is shorter. (3) The interest rate on the new...) Has actually owned and occupied the displacement dwelling for not less than 180 days immediately prior... displacement dwelling or, in the case of condemnation, the date the full amount of the estimate of...

  13. 49 CFR 24.401 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day homeowner-occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... displacement dwelling or the term of the new mortgage, whichever is shorter. (3) The interest rate on the new...) Has actually owned and occupied the displacement dwelling for not less than 180 days immediately prior... displacement dwelling or, in the case of condemnation, the date the full amount of the estimate of...

  14. 49 CFR 24.401 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day homeowner-occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... displacement dwelling or the term of the new mortgage, whichever is shorter. (3) The interest rate on the new...) Has actually owned and occupied the displacement dwelling for not less than 180 days immediately prior... displacement dwelling or, in the case of condemnation, the date the full amount of the estimate of...

  15. Effect of Generic Competition on Atorvastatin Prescribing and Patients' Out-of-Pocket Spending.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Seeger, John D; Donneyong, Macarius; Gagne, Joshua J; Avorn, Jerry; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-09-01

    In November 2011, the cholesterol level-lowering medication atorvastatin calcium became available in the United States as a generic drug. However, only a single generic form (from a manufacturer that qualified for market exclusivity by challenging several of Pfizer's patents) and an authorized generic form (a brand-name drug sold as a generic) were available for the first 180 days. To describe trends in the prescribing of generic atorvastatin after expiration of market exclusivity for the brand-name medication and the effect on patients' out-of-pocket spending. A US population-based study used commercial claims data from the Optum Clinformatics research database (UnitedHealth Group) from December 1, 2010, to May 31, 2013. Participants were 1 968 709 adults with commercial insurance who had been prescribed 1 or more statins (13 285 223 statin prescriptions). An interrupted times series model was used to examine the effect of limited and full generic competition on brand-name and generic atorvastatin prescriptions. Data were analyzed from December 1, 2010, to May 31, 2013. Prescription of brand-name atorvastatin, generic atorvastatin, and authorized generic atorvastatin were distinguished using National Drug Codes. Total number of prescriptions dispensed per month and out-of-pocket expenditures for a typical 30-day supply of 20-mg atorvastatin during the periods of brand-name availability only, limited generic competition (lasting 180 days after market exclusivity ended), and full generic competition. Of the 1 968 709 beneficiaries, 1 483 066 (58.8% male and 41.2% female; mean [SD] age, 55.6 [10.2] years) received a prescription for a single statin and were included in the analysis. The introduction of the first generic competitor was associated with a reduction in monthly brand-name atorvastatin fills by 20 896 prescriptions (level change, P = .001), an 18.1% change compared with the month preceding loss of exclusivity. Full generic competition

  16. Studies of effects of closed microbial ecology. Report of 180-day test period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the influence closed microbial ecologies have on modification or simplification of natural intestinal flora of ferrets in a closed environmental system. On the basis of previous tests in which certain species (Salmonella and Bacteroides) were decreased at 90 days of enclosure, a second trial was constructed for 180-day tests. In this trial there was little difference in the 8 major classes of intestinal flora between animals in the Open and Closed environmental groups except for the level of Lactobacillus. It is of extreme importance to note that when both Open and Closed groups contracted hemorrhagic gastritis, the interrelationship of this agent with other intestinal flora produced a more profound effect on animals from the Closed Group, particularly with reference to Lactobacillus levels.

  17. Generic dynamical phase transition in one-dimensional bulk-driven lattice gases with exclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarescu, Alexandre

    2017-06-01

    Dynamical phase transitions are crucial features of the fluctuations of statistical systems, corresponding to boundaries between qualitatively different mechanisms of maintaining unlikely values of dynamical observables over long periods of time. They manifest themselves in the form of non-analyticities in the large deviation function of those observables. In this paper, we look at bulk-driven exclusion processes with open boundaries. It is known that the standard asymmetric simple exclusion process exhibits a dynamical phase transition in the large deviations of the current of particles flowing through it. That phase transition has been described thanks to specific calculation methods relying on the model being exactly solvable, but more general methods have also been used to describe the extreme large deviations of that current, far from the phase transition. We extend those methods to a large class of models based on the ASEP, where we add arbitrary spatial inhomogeneities in the rates and short-range potentials between the particles. We show that, as for the regular ASEP, the large deviation function of the current scales differently with the size of the system if one considers very high or very low currents, pointing to the existence of a dynamical phase transition between those two regimes: high current large deviations are extensive in the system size, and the typical states associated to them are Coulomb gases, which are highly correlated; low current large deviations do not depend on the system size, and the typical states associated to them are anti-shocks, consistently with a hydrodynamic behaviour. Finally, we illustrate our results numerically on a simple example, and we interpret the transition in terms of the current pushing beyond its maximal hydrodynamic value, as well as relate it to the appearance of Tracy-Widom distributions in the relaxation statistics of such models. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working

  18. Can Chronic Pain Patients Be Adequately Treated Using Generic Pain Medications to the Exclusion of Brand-Name Ones?

    PubMed

    Candido, Kenneth D; Chiweshe, Joseph; Anantamongkol, Utchariya; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2016-01-01

    According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reports, approximately 8 in 10 prescriptions filled in the United States are for generic medications, with an expectation that this number will increase over the next few years. The impetus for this emphasis on generics is the cost disparity between them and brand-name products. The use of FDA-approved generic drugs saved 158 billion dollars in 2010 alone. In the current health care climate, there is continually increasing pressure for prescribers to write for generic alternative medications, occasionally at the expense of best clinical practices. This creates a conflict wherein both physicians and patients may find brand-name medications clinically superior but nevertheless choose generic ones. The issue of generic versus brand medications is a key component of the discussion of health payers, physicians and their patients. This review evaluates some of the important medications in the armamentarium of pain physicians that are frequently used in the management of chronic pain, and that are currently at the forefront of this issue, including Opana (oxymorphone; Endo Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Malvern, PA), Gralise (gabapentin; Depomed, Newark, CA), and Horizant (gabapentin enacarbil; XenoPort, Santa Clara, CA) that are each available in generic forms as well. We also discuss the use of Lyrica (pregabalin; Pfizer, New York, NY), which is currently unavailable as generic medication, and Cymbalta (duloxetine; Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, IN), which has been recently FDA approved to be available in a generic form. It is clear that the use of generic medications results in large financial savings for the cost of prescriptions on a national scale. However, cost-analysis is only part of the equation when treating chronic pain patients and undervalues the relationships of enhanced compliance due to single-daily dosing and stable and reliable pharmacokinetics associated with extended-duration preparations using either retentive

  19. An Administrative Meter Maid: Using Inter Partes Review and Post-Grant Review to Curb Exclusivity Parking via the "Failure to Market" Provision of the Hatch-Waxman Act.

    PubMed

    Apel, Brian T

    2015-01-01

    Congress created the unique Hatch-Waxman framework in 1984 to increase the availability of low-cost generic drugs while preserving patent incentives for new drug development. The Hatch-Waxman Act rewards generic drug companies that successfully challenge a pharmaceutical patent: 180 days of market exclusivity before any other generic firm can enter the market. When a generic firm obtains this reward, sometimes drug developers agree to pay generic firms to delay entering the market. These pay-for-delay agreements give rise to exclusivity parking and run counter to congressional intent by delaying full generic drug competition. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act created several statutory forfeiture provisions that proved only marginally effective at curbing the practice of exclusivity parking. More recently, Congress created new quasi-judicial administrative proceedings that effectively replace certain kinds of district court patent litigation. This Note describes the complex statutory scheme that gave rise to exclusivity parking, explains why previous and current attempts to curtail exclusivity parking were and remain ineffective, and suggests amending the "failure to market" provision to include these new administrative proceedings as a way to help curb exclusivity parking.

  20. A call for a moratorium on the .health generic top-level domain: preventing the commercialization and exclusive control of online health information.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Eysenbach, Gunther; Liang, Bryan A; Kohler, Jillian C; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Attaran, Amir

    2014-09-26

    In just a few weeks, the Internet could be expanded to include a new .health generic top-level domain name run by a for-profit company with virtually no public health credentials - unless the international community intervenes immediately. This matters to the future of global public health as the "Health Internet" has begun to emerge as the predominant source of health information for consumers and patients. Despite this increasing use and reliance on online health information that may have inadequate quality or reliability, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) recently announced it intends to move forward with an auction to award the exclusive, 10 year rights to the .health generic top-level domain name. This decision is being made over the protests of the World Medical Association, World Health Organization, and other stakeholders, who have called for a suspension or delay until key questions can be resolved. However, rather than engage in constructive dialogue with the public health community over its concerns, ICANN chose the International Chamber of Commerce-a business lobbying group for industries to adjudicate the .health concerns. This has resulted in a rejection of challenges filed by ICANN's own independent watchdog and others, such that ICANN's Board decided in June 2014 that there are "no noted objections to move forward" in auctioning the .health generic top-level domain name to the highest bidder before the end of the year. This follows ICANN's award of several other health-related generic top-level domain names that have been unsuccessfully contested. In response, we call for an immediate moratorium/suspension of the ICANN award/auction process in order to provide the international public health community time to ensure the proper management and governance of health information online.

  1. A subchronic (180-day) oral toxicity study of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether, a bioethanol, in rats.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Katsumi; Koga, Takayuki; Aso, Sunao; Hoshuyama, Satsuki; Ajimi, Syozo; Furukawa, Kotaro

    2014-07-01

    A subchronic (180-day) toxicity study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), a biomass fuel, in male and female rats. ETBE was administered at dose levels of 0, 5, 25, 100 and 400 mg/kg/body weight (b.w.)/day by gavage. No treatment-related adverse effects were observed at 5, 25 or 100 mg/kg. Centrilobular hypertrophy of hepatocytes was observed in males and females and their relative liver weights were increased, suggesting enhanced metabolic activity. From these results, we concluded that the no observed adverse effect level of ETBE was 100 mg/kg b.w./day under the conditions tested.

  2. Extended healing validation of an artificial tendon to connect the quadriceps muscle to the Tibia: 180-day study.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Alan J; Litsky, Alan S; Mayerson, Joel L; Stringer, Keith; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia

    2012-07-01

    Whenever a tendon or its bone insertion is disrupted or removed, existing surgical techniques provide a temporary connection or scaffolding to promote healing, but the interface of living to non-living materials soon breaks down under the stress of these applications, if it must bear the load more than acutely. Patients are thus disabled whose prostheses, defect size, or mere anatomy limit the availability or outcomes of such treatments. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device to join skeletal muscle to prosthetic or natural structures without this interface breakdown. In this study, the goat knee extensor mechanism (quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar tendon) was removed from the right hind limb in 16 goats. The device connected the quadriceps muscle to a stainless steel bone plate on the tibia. Mechanical testing and histology specimens were collected from each operated leg and contralateral unoperated control legs at 180 days. Maximum forces in the operated leg (vs. unoperated) were 1,400 ± 93 N (vs. 1,179 ± 61 N), linear stiffnesses were 33 ± 3 N/mm (vs. 37 ± 4 N/mm), and elongations at failure were 92.1 ± 5.3 mm (vs. 68.4 ± 3.8 mm; mean ± SEM). Higher maximum forces (p = 0.02) and elongations at failure (p=0.008) of legs with the device versus unoperated controls were significant; linear stiffnesses were not (p=0.3). We believe this technology will yield improved procedures for clinical challenges in orthopedic oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and tendon injury reconstruction.

  3. Extended Healing Validation of an Artificial Tendon to Connect the Quadriceps Muscle to the Tibia: 180-day Study

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, Alan J.; Litsky, Alan S.; Mayerson, Joel L.; Stringer, Keith; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Whenever a tendon or its bone insertion is disrupted or removed, existing surgical techniques provide a temporary connection or scaffolding to promote healing, but the interface of living to nonliving materials soon breaks down under the stress of these applications, if it must bear the load more than acutely. Patients are thus disabled whose prostheses, defect size, or mere anatomy limit the availability or outcomes of such treatments. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device to join skeletal muscle to prosthetic or natural structures without this interface breakdown. In this study, the goat knee extensor mechanism (quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar tendon) was removed from the right hind limb in 16 goats. The device connected the quadriceps muscle to a stainless steel bone plate on the tibia. Mechanical testing and histology specimens were collected from each operated leg and contra lateral unoperated control legs at 180 days. Maximum forces in the operated leg (vs. unoperated) were 1400± 93N (vs. 1179± 61 N), linear stiffnesses were 33± 3 N/mm (vs. 37 ± 4N/mm), and elongations at failure were 92.1 ± 5.3 mm (vs. 68.4 ± 3.8 mm; mean ± SEM). Higher maximum forces (p = 0.02) and elongations at failure (p = 0.008) of legs with the device versus unoperated controls were significant; linear stiffnesses were not (p = 0.3). We believe this technology will yield improved procedures for clinical challenges in orthopaedic oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and tendon injury reconstruction. PMID:22179930

  4. Aromatic hydrocarbons in a controlled ecological life support system during a 4-person-180-day integrated experiment.

    PubMed

    Dai, Kun; Yu, Qingni; Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Xinming

    2018-01-01

    Indoor air quality is vital to the health and comfort of people who live inside a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) built for long-term space explorations. Here we measured aromatic hydrocarbons to assess their sources and health risks during a 4-person-180-day integrated experiment inside a CELSS with four cabins for growing crops, vegetables and fruits and other two cabins for working, accommodations and resources management. During the experiment, the average concentrations of benzene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylenes and o-xylene were found to decrease exponentially from 7.91±3.72, 37.2±35.2, 100.8±111.7 and 46.8±44.1μg/m(3) to 0.39±0.34, 1.4±0.5, 2.8±0.7 and 2.1±0.9μg/m(3), with half-lives of 25.3, 44.8, 44.7 and 69.3days, respectively. Toluene to benzene ratios indicated emission from construction materials or furniture to be a dominant source for toluene, and concentrations of toluene fluctuated during the experiment largely due to the changing sorption by growing plants. The cancer and no-cancer risks based on exposure pattern of the crews were insignificant in the end of the experiment. This study also suggested that using low-emitting materials/furniture, growing plants and purifying air actively would all help to lower hazardous air pollutants inside CELSS. Broadly, the results would benefit not only the development of safe and comfort life support systems for space exploration but also the understanding of interactions between human and the total environment in closed systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 49 CFR 24.502 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile homeowner displaced from a mobile home, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile homeowner displaced from a mobile home, and/or from the acquired mobile home site. 24.502 Section 24.502... ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Mobile Homes § 24.502 Replacement housing payment...

  6. 49 CFR 24.502 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile homeowner displaced from a mobile home, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile homeowner displaced from a mobile home, and/or from the acquired mobile home site. 24.502 Section 24.502... ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Mobile Homes § 24.502 Replacement housing payment...

  7. 49 CFR 24.502 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile homeowner displaced from a mobile home, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile homeowner displaced from a mobile home, and/or from the acquired mobile home site. 24.502 Section 24.502... ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Mobile Homes § 24.502 Replacement housing payment...

  8. 49 CFR 24.502 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile homeowner displaced from a mobile home, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile homeowner displaced from a mobile home, and/or from the acquired mobile home site. 24.502 Section 24.502... ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Mobile Homes § 24.502 Replacement housing payment...

  9. 49 CFR 24.502 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile homeowner displaced from a mobile home, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile homeowner displaced from a mobile home, and/or from the acquired mobile home site. 24.502 Section 24.502... ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Mobile Homes § 24.502 Replacement housing payment...

  10. Oxidative stress induced by lead, cadmium and arsenic mixtures: 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day drinking water studies in rats: an overview.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Bruce A; Whittaker, Margaret H; Lipsky, Mike; Wang, Gensheng; Chen, Xue-Qing

    2004-10-01

    Humans are frequently exposed to combinations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and Arsenic (As) but there is a paucity of actual data on the molecular effects of these agents at low dose levels. The present factorial design studies were undertaken in rats to examine the effects of these agents at LOEL dose levels on a number of molecular parameters of oxidative stress in hematopoietic and renal organ systems following oral exposure in drinking water at 30, 90 and 180 day time points. Results of these studies demonstrated dynamic, time-dependent alterations in both molecular targets and inducible oxidative stress protective systems in target cell populations. In general, cellular protective systems, which protected against oxidative damage at the 90 day time point, appeared to be finite such that molecular manifestations of oxidative stress became statistically significant at the 180 day time point for several of the combination exposure groups. These data demonstrate the importance of duration of exposure in assessing the toxic potential of Pb, Cd and As mixtures at low dose levels.

  11. Exposure to Pb, Cd, and As mixtures potentiates the production of oxidative stress precursors: 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day drinking water studies in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, Margaret H.; Wang, Gensheng; Chen Xueqing; Lipsky, Michael; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Fowler, Bruce A.

    2011-07-15

    Exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and is of particular concern due to their appearance in sources of drinking water. Despite this, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to date to understand the health impact of chemical mixtures compared to single chemicals. Interactive effects of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were evaluated in 30-, 90-, and 180-day factorial design drinking water studies in rats designed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of such mixtures at individual component Lowest-Observed-Effect-Levels (LOELs) results in increased levels of the pro-oxidant delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA), iron, and copper. LOEL levels of Pb, Cd, and As mixtures resulted in the increased presence of mediators of oxidative stress such as ALA, copper, and iron. ALA increases were followed by statistically significant increases in kidney copper in the 90- and 180-day studies. Statistical evidence of interaction was identified for six biologically relevant variables: blood delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), kidney ALAD, urinary ALA, urinary iron, kidney iron, and kidney copper. The current investigations underscore the importance of considering interactive effects that common toxic agents such as Pb, Cd, and As may have upon one another at low-dose levels. The interactions between known toxic trace elements at biologically relevant concentrations shown here demonstrate a clear need to rigorously review methods by which national/international agencies assess health risks of chemicals, since exposures may commonly occur as complex mixtures.

  12. Drug discovery market exclusivity after KSR: the challenge to pharmaceutical scientists and the US congress.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Manfred E

    2011-08-01

    The Hatch-Waxman Act provides 180 days of market exclusivity to encourage generic companies to challenge the validity of pharmaceutical patents issued to innovator pharmaceutical companies. The consequent patent losses have been exacerbated owing to the application of holdings of the 2007 Supreme Court KSR decision to questions of pharmaceutical patentability by the judiciary and the US Patent Office. The resulting negative effect on support for new drug and formulation discovery by pharmaceutical scientists is discussed. To counteract the societal detriment of this negative effect, the adoption of a 12-year US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) market exclusivity paradigm for all approved new chemical entities including prodrugs is proposed. Such market exclusivities have already been enacted in the United States for follow-on biologicals and are in substantial harmony with those of the European Union, Japan, and Canada. An extension of the existing 3-year FDA market exclusivity for new formulations under 21 U.S.C. (United States Code) §505(b)(2) to 5 years should also be considered.

  13. Exposure to Pb, Cd, and As mixtures potentiates the production of oxidative stress precursors: 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day drinking water studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Margaret H; Wang, Gensheng; Chen, Xue-Qing; Lipsky, Michael; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Fowler, Bruce A

    2011-07-15

    Exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and is of particular concern due to their appearance in sources of drinking water. Despite this, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to date to understand the health impact of chemical mixtures compared to single chemicals. Interactive effects of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were evaluated in 30-, 90-, and 180-day factorial design drinking water studies in rats designed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of such mixtures at individual component Lowest-Observed-Effect-Levels (LOELs) results in increased levels of the pro-oxidant delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA), iron, and copper. LOEL levels of Pb, Cd, and As mixtures resulted in the increased presence of mediators of oxidative stress such as ALA, copper, and iron. ALA increases were followed by statistically significant increases in kidney copper in the 90- and 180-day studies. Statistical evidence of interaction was identified for six biologically relevant variables: blood delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), kidney ALAD, urinary ALA, urinary iron, kidney iron, and kidney copper. The current investigations underscore the importance of considering interactive effects that common toxic agents such as Pb, Cd, and As may have upon one another at low-dose levels. The interactions between known toxic trace elements at biologically relevant concentrations shown here demonstrate a clear need to rigorously review methods by which national/international agencies assess health risks of chemicals, since exposures may commonly occur as complex mixtures. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Prognostic models based on administrative data alone inadequately predict the survival outcomes for critically ill patients at 180 days post-hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Bohensky, Megan A; Jolley, Damien; Pilcher, David V; Sundararajan, Vijaya; Evans, Sue; Brand, Caroline A

    2012-08-01

    There is interest in evaluating the quality of critical care by auditing patient outcomes after hospital discharge. Risk adjustment using acuity of illness scores, such as Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE III) scores, derived from clinical databases is commonly performed for in-hospital mortality outcome measures. However, these clinical databases do not routinely track patient outcomes after hospital discharge. Linkage of clinical databases to administrative data sets that maintain records on patient survival after discharge can allow for the measurement of survival outcomes of critical care patients after hospital discharge while using validated risk adjustment methods. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of 4 methods of risk adjustment to predict survival of critically ill patients at 180 days after hospital discharge: one using only variables from an administrative data set, one using only variables from a clinical database, a model using a full range of administrative and clinical variables, and a model using administrative variables plus APACHE III scores. This was a population-based cohort study. The study sample consisted of adult (>15 years of age) residents of Victoria, Australia, admitted to a public hospital intensive care unit between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2006 (n = 47,312 linked cases). Logistic regression analyses were used to develop the models. The administrative-only model was the poorest predictor of mortality at 180 days after hospital discharge (C = 0.73). The clinical model had substantially better predictive capabilities (C = 0.82), whereas the full-linked model achieved similar performance (C = 0.83). Adding APACHE III scores to the administrative model also had reasonable predictive capabilities (C = 0.83). The addition of APACHE III scores to administrative data substantially improved model performance to the level of the clinical model. Although linking data systems requires some investment

  15. Generic Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    Generic Drugs: The Same Medicine for Less Money What is a generic drug? A generic is a copy of a brand-name drug. A brand- name drug has a patent. When ... benefit to your health, and you will save money. 7KH IHGHUDO )RRG DQG 'UXJ $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ )'$ UHJXODWHV ERWK ...

  16. Authorized generic drugs, price competition, and consumers' welfare.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Ernst R; Mortimer, Richard; Bhattacharjya, Ashoke; Parece, Andrew; Tuttle, Edward

    2007-01-01

    The growing frequency of authorized generics has important implications for the welfare of prescription drug consumers. Authorized generic entry could affect the timing of generic entry, brand-name and generic prices, and generic penetration. We reviewed 1999-2003 data and found that generic entry in the absence of short-run exclusivity restrictions benefits consumers through lower short-run prices. We suggest that these benefits likely also result from authorized generics. We posit that long-run prices and shares are likely essentially unaffected by authorized generics and that potential costs to consumers from any delayed generic entry are likely small.

  17. Learning generics.

    PubMed

    Shulkin, D J

    1992-01-01

    The growing use of generic drug substitution may have important implications on quality of care. This study was conducted to determine resident physicians' knowledge of restrictive prescribing policies at the hospitals where they primarily practice.

  18. Generic drug approval: a US perspective.

    PubMed

    Nagori, B P; Mathur, V; Garg, S

    2011-03-01

    Generic drugs are identical or bioequivalent versions of the brand name drugs. They are the economic alternative of the costlier brand name drugs. This article presents a general overview of the procedure and regulatory aspects relating to generic drug approval in the US. A computerized search was conducted to find literature on generic drug approval in the US. The literature was searched using the following key words: generic drug, brand name drug, Hatch-Waxman Act, Medicare Act, NDA, ANDA, CTD and exclusivity. The search results were filtered for the literature describing and analyzing the procedure and regulatory provisions for generic drug approval in the US. After the screening total 19 applicable literature remained. In the US standardized procedures for the recognition of generic drugs have been laid down under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act, 1984 (the Hatch-Waxman Act). Provisions of this Act such as patent challenge, patent term extension and data exclusivity have created profound effects on the approval, sale and distribution of the pharmaceuticals in the US. The Hatch-Waxman Act is an excellent piece of legislation that takes care of the rights of both the brand name and generic drug companies. This article presents only an overview of generic drug approvals and for all practical purposes official resources should be referred.

  19. The generic drug market in Japan: will it finally take off?

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Toshiaki; Kubo, Kensuke

    2011-07-01

    Historically, brand-name pharmaceuticals have enjoyed long periods of market exclusivity in Japan, given the limited use of generics after patent expiration. To improve the efficiency of the health-care system, however, the government has recently implemented various policies aimed at increasing generic substitution. Although this has created expectations that the Japanese generic drug market may finally take off, to date, generic usage has increased only modestly. After reviewing the incentives of key market participants to choose generics, we argue that previous government policies did not provide proper incentives for pharmacies to boost generic substitution. We offer some recommendations that may help to increase generic usage.

  20. Drug patent expirations and the speed of generic entry.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, J P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Using recent data, to analyze the generic drug entry phenomenon to determine the factors that influence the speed and likelihood of generic drug entries. DATA SOURCES: Data for 81 drugs that have lost patent between 1987 and 1994. Patent and exclusive marketing rights expiration dates: Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalent Evaluations (1986-1989). Generic entry dates: FDA Drug and Device Product Approvals (Jan. 1987-Dec. 1994). Numbers of pending generic applications: FDA Office of Generic Drugs Quantitative Report-ANDAs and AADAs (Nov. 1990-Jan. 1993). Sales revenue: Pharmaceutical Data Services, Walsh-America. STUDY DESIGN: This study appropriately recognizes generic entry as a survival problem, and uses a proportional hazard method for analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1) There is a negative relationship between an innovative drug's sales revenue and the time to generic entry. (2) Entries of generics tend to be slower for drugs that have either very few or a very large number of competing brands in the marketplace. (3) The time to generic entry increased overall between 1987 and 1994. (4) Drugs that primarily treat chronic symptoms tend to enter faster than the types of drugs that primarily treat acute illnesses. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis shows that the generic industry is targeting large-revenue products and chronic drug markets. Entry of a generic drug is influenced by the existing branded substitutes in the marketplace. Surprisingly, the generic drug entry process has slowed despite many changes that would facilitate entry. PMID:9108806

  1. Conceptual Distinctions amongst Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasada, Sandeep; Khemlani, Sangeet; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Glucksberg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Generic sentences (e.g., bare plural sentences such as "dogs have four legs" and "mosquitoes carry malaria") are used to talk about "kinds" of things. Three experiments investigated the conceptual foundations of generics as well as claims within the formal semantic approaches to generics concerning the roles of prevalence, cue validity and…

  2. Conceptual Distinctions amongst Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasada, Sandeep; Khemlani, Sangeet; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Glucksberg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Generic sentences (e.g., bare plural sentences such as "dogs have four legs" and "mosquitoes carry malaria") are used to talk about "kinds" of things. Three experiments investigated the conceptual foundations of generics as well as claims within the formal semantic approaches to generics concerning the roles of prevalence, cue validity and…

  3. Generic antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Susan J; Krauss, Gregory L

    2008-07-01

    Generic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) generally provide safe, effective, lower-cost alternatives to brand-name drugs. To be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), manufacturers must show that generic drugs are comparable to brand-name formulations, meeting bioequivalence, dissolution, and manufacturing quality standards. Bioequivalence for most generic formulations is evaluated by measuring blood pharmacokinetic values in a small, crossover study of adult volunteers taking single doses of brand-name and generic AEDs. Bioequivalence standards require that ratios of average peak drug concentrations (C(max)) and total extent of absorption (area under the curve, AUC) for a test drug be within 80% to 125% of the reference brand-name drug, with a confidence interval of 90%. Bioequivalence of most generic AEDs, however, has not been evaluated in patients with epilepsy or in other special populations such as elderly patients or patients taking multiple AEDs and prodrugs. Moreover, evidence is limited regarding the adequacy of FDA generic standards for AEDs, particularly for "narrow therapeutic ratio" medications such as oxcarbazepine, although two carbamazepine studies are supportive. Most patients can successfully initiate therapy with generic AEDs and can safely switch from brand-name to generic AEDs (and sometimes back again). The FDA, however, has not shown safety in generic-to-generic switches, which could potentially cause drug concentration changes of up to 40%. Less expensive generic formulations will soon be available for most of the "second generation" AEDs--onisamide, for example, recently had 17 generic formulations approved in the United States--providing substantial savings in health care costs. In summary, although generic AEDs are generally safe and effective for most patients, the current bioequivalence standards may not be sufficient for certain patient populations and for certain drugs, requiring vulnerable patients to be monitored very

  4. What makes a generic medication generic?

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2009-12-01

    By law, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) can approve generic versions of brand-name drugs without requiring that research be conducted to prove them safe and effective. However, compared with a brand-name drug, a generic drug must demonstrate that it (a) contains the same active ingredients; (b) is identical in strength, dosage form, and route of administration; (c) is bioequivalent; (d) has the same clinical use indications; (e) meets the same batch requirements for identity, strength, purity, and quality; and (f) is manufactured according to the same FDA regulations. The most important aspect of generic drug development are the concepts of bioavailability and bioequivalence. According to the concept of bioequivalence, if a drug product contains an active ingredient that is chemically identical and is delivered to the site of action at the same rate and extent as another drug product, then it is considered to be clinically equivalent and can be substituted for that drug product.

  5. Patients’ Perceptions Of Generic Medications

    PubMed Central

    Shrank, William H.; Cox, Emily R.; Fischer, Michael A.; Mehta, Jyotsna; Choudhry, Niteesh K.

    2009-01-01

    Insurers and policymakers encourage the use of generic drugs to reduce costs, but generics remain underused. We conducted a national survey of commercially insured adults to evaluate their perceptions about generic drugs. Patients agreed that generics are less expensive and a better value than brand-name drugs, and are just as safe. However, although 56 percent reported that Americans should use more generics, only 37.6 percent prefer to take generics. We discuss perceptions about communicating with practitioners about generics, generic substitution, and policymakers’ role in influencing generic use. These findings underscore the challenge that providers, insurers, and policymakers face in stimulating the cost-effective use of medications. PMID:19276015

  6. Generic Fortran Containers (GFC)

    SciTech Connect

    Liakh, Dmitry

    2016-09-01

    The Fortran language does not provide a standard library that implements generic containers, like linked lists, trees, dictionaries, etc. The GFC software provides an implementation of generic Fortran containers natively written in Fortran 2003/2008 language. The following containers are either already implemented or planned: Stack (done), Linked list (done), Tree (done), Dictionary (done), Queue (planned), Priority queue (planned).

  7. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...

  8. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  9. Bioequivalence of generic drugs.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-09-01

    Generic drugs are bioequivalent to the original brand; this is a prerequisite for marketing approval. It is theoretically possible that one generic drug may overestimate the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of the original and another generic may underestimate these PK parameters; in consequence, these 2 generics may not be bioequivalent between themselves. The result could be loss of efficacy or development of drug-related adverse effects if these generics are interchanged in stable patients. In a recent study involving 292 indirect comparisons of generic formulations of 9 different drugs, mathematical modeling showed that in most cases (87.0% for maximum concentration, 90.1% for area under the curve, and 80.5% for both) generic drugs are bioequivalent to each other. These reassuring findings notwithstanding, prudence dictates that, in stable patients, generic drugs should be interchanged only if there is a good reason for it. This is because bioequivalent brands of drugs may differ in their excipient content, and this can result in variations in safety profiles. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  11. Product, generic, and random generic quantum satisfiability

    SciTech Connect

    Laumann, C. R.; Sondhi, S. L.; Laeuchli, A. M.; Moessner, R.; Scardicchio, A.

    2010-06-15

    We report a cluster of results on k-QSAT, the problem of quantum satisfiability for k-qubit projectors which generalizes classical satisfiability with k-bit clauses to the quantum setting. First we define the NP-complete problem of product satisfiability and give a geometrical criterion for deciding when a QSAT interaction graph is product satisfiable with positive probability. We show that the same criterion suffices to establish quantum satisfiability for all projectors. Second, we apply these results to the random graph ensemble with generic projectors and obtain improved lower bounds on the location of the SAT-unSAT transition. Third, we present numerical results on random, generic satisfiability which provide estimates for the location of the transition for k=3 and k=4 and mild evidence for the existence of a phase which is satisfiable by entangled states alone.

  12. Developing competitive and sustainable Polish generic medicines market.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven

    2009-10-01

    To descriptively analyze the policy environment surrounding the Polish generic medicines retail market. The policy analysis was based on an international literature review. Also, a simulation exercise was carried out to compute potential savings from substituting generic for originator medicines in Poland using IMS Health pharmaceutical intelligence data. Poland has a mature, high-volume, low-value generic medicines market, primarily driven by the establishment of the reference price at the price of the cheapest medicine in combination with pricing regulation and the low level of medicine prices. The practice of discounting in the distribution chain implies that the National Health Fund and patients do not capture the potential savings from a generic medicines market where companies compete on price. This high-volume market has benefited in the past from the limited availability of originator medicines and a short data exclusivity period, even though there are no incentives for physicians to prescribe generic medicines and a financial disincentive for pharmacists to dispense generic medicines. Increased generic substitution would be expected to reduce public expenditure on originator medicines by 21%. To develop a competitive and sustainable market, Poland needs to consider moving away from competition by discount to competition by price. This could be achieved by replacing maximum distribution margins by fixed margins. Also, Poland may wish to raise reference prices as a temporary measure to boost market entry for medicine classes with few generic medicines.

  13. Generic POCC architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This document describes a generic POCC (Payload Operations Control Center) architecture based upon current POCC software practice, and several refinements to the architecture based upon object-oriented design principles and expected developments in teleoperations. The current-technology generic architecture is an abstraction based upon close analysis of the ERBS, COBE, and GRO POCC's. A series of three refinements is presented: these may be viewed as an approach to a phased transition to the recommended architecture. The third refinement constitutes the recommended architecture, which, together with associated rationales, will form the basis of the rapid synthesis environment to be developed in the remainder of this task. The document is organized into two parts. The first part describes the current generic architecture using several graphical as well as tabular representations or 'views.' The second part presents an analysis of the generic architecture in terms of object-oriented principles. On the basis of this discussion, refinements to the generic architecture are presented, again using a combination of graphical and tabular representations.

  14. Generic Airspace Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Bridges, Wayne; Gujarl, Vimmy; Lee, Paul U.; Preston, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an extension of generic airspace research to explore the amount of memorization and specialized skills required to manage sectors with specific characteristics or factors. Fifty-five retired controllers were given an electronic survey where they rated the amount of memorization or specialized skills needed for sixteen generic airspace factors. The results suggested similarities in the pattern of ratings between different areas of the US (East, Central, and West). The average of the ratings for each area also showed some differences between regions, with ratings being generally higher in the East area. All sixteen factors were rated as moderately to highly important and may be useful for future research on generic airspace, air traffic controller workload, etc.

  15. Generic robot architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  16. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  17. Generic Entry, Reformulations, and Promotion of SSRIs

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Julie M.; Koss, Catherine; Berndt, Ernst R.; Frank, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    for the drug was not changed. In contrast, FDA approval to market Paxil and Zoloft for social anxiety disorder (SAD) did not affect the manufacturers’ detailing expenditures but did result in a greater likelihood of DTCA outlays. Conclusion The introduction of new product formulations appears to be a common strategy for attempting to extend market exclusivity for medications facing impending generic entry. Manufacturers that introduced a reformulation before generic entry shifted most promotion dollars from the original brand to the reformulation long before generic entry, and in some cases manufacturers appeared to target a particular promotion type for a given indication. Given the significant impact pharmaceutical promotion has on demand for prescription drugs, these findings have important implications for prescription drug spending and public health. PMID:18563951

  18. Generic Sentences in English and French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschensohn, Julia

    Previous accounts of "generic" have been either too broad in including several sentence types as generic, or too narrow in limiting the definition of generic to the noun or verb alone. This research critically examines data and previous treatments of the generic verb, generic noun, and generic sentence. Because every generic sentence may…

  19. Generic Survey Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matross, Ron; Roesler, Jon

    Hints on conducting surveys appropriate for university use are outlined, and sample checklists and forms are provided. The following research elements concerning generic surveys are covered: sequences of events for surveys conducted by mail (15 weeks) and telephone (11 weeks); algorithms for estimating materials costs and quantities; a catalog of…

  20. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  1. What use is generic prescribing?

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Michael

    1985-01-01

    The dispensing of generic preparations at four dispensing chemist shops was investigated by means of a questionnaire. Certain generic prescriptions result in the dispensing of proprietary products despite the existence of generic preparations, and the pharmacist may be reimbursed for the cost of the proprietary drug which has been dispensed. Not all generic prescriptions result in the dispensing of cheaper drugs because of the methods of payment to chemists. If doctors write more generic prescriptions there will ultimately be more dispensing of generic products. Even in the case of drugs still under patent, prescribing by generic name should be encouraged. The savings achieved by generic prescribing are to some extent at the cost of the dispensing chemists. The method and scale of payments for dispensing requires urgent review. PMID:4032358

  2. 37 CFR 404.7 - Exclusive, co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exclusive, co-exclusive and... Exclusive, co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses. (a)(1) Exclusive, co-exclusive or partially... practical application or otherwise promote the invention's utilization by the public. (B) Exclusive,...

  3. 37 CFR 404.7 - Exclusive, co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exclusive, co-exclusive and..., co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses. (a)(1) Exclusive, co-exclusive or partially exclusive... practical application or otherwise promote the invention's utilization by the public. (B) Exclusive,...

  4. 37 CFR 404.7 - Exclusive, co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exclusive, co-exclusive and... Exclusive, co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses. (a)(1) Exclusive, co-exclusive or partially... practical application or otherwise promote the invention's utilization by the public. (B) Exclusive,...

  5. 37 CFR 404.7 - Exclusive, co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusive, co-exclusive and... Exclusive, co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses. (a)(1) Exclusive, co-exclusive or partially... practical application or otherwise promote the invention's utilization by the public. (B) Exclusive,...

  6. 37 CFR 404.7 - Exclusive, co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exclusive, co-exclusive and..., co-exclusive and partially exclusive licenses. (a)(1) Exclusive, co-exclusive or partially exclusive... practical application or otherwise promote the invention's utilization by the public. (B) Exclusive,...

  7. Generic safety documentation model

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  8. Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, C.P.

    1999-05-14

    A Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture is described that allows a simulation to be automatically distributed over a heterogeneous network of computers and executed with very little human direction. A prototype Framework is presented that implements the elements of the Architecture and demonstrates the feasibility of the concepts. It provides a basis for a future, improved Framework that will support legacy models. Because the Framework is implemented in Java, it may be installed on almost any modern computer system.

  9. The Safe Drinking Water Act First 180 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Jay H.

    1975-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act protects our drinking and ground water resources. The Water Advisory Council interprets and implements the law. Implementation principles include high priorities for public health, cost considerations, state and local participation, environmental impact, decentralized decision making, and use of federal and state…

  10. Generics: keep a balanced view.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Once the different kinds of commercial protection (patents, etc.) granted to the manufacturer of an "originator" drug have expired, the drug in question may be copied by other companies. These copies are known as generics. The characteristics and pharmaceutical quality of generics are governed by international standards. The marketing authorisation procedure for generic drugs dispenses with preclinical and clinical trials, which already exist for the originator drug. In contrast, proof of bioequivalence must be provided. In practice, this means demonstrating that the effects of the generic are similar (but not necessarily identical) to those of the originator drug. Slight differences between a generic and its brand-name counterpart are allowed, provided they do not markedly affect the efficacy or adverse effect profile in comparison to the originator drug. The accepted degree of difference between a generic and the original brand-name drug is the same as the acceptable difference between two batches of the originator drug. The rules governing generic manufacturing conditions are identical to those applying to originator drugs. And issues raised by drug production abroad, particularly to Asian countries, apply to originator just as much as to generic drugs. Generics represent a significant source of financial savings for society. In France, various measures have been introduced to encourage doctors, pharmacists and patients, respectively, to prescribe, dispense and use generics. Criticisms of the efficacy or quality of generics are often unfounded and sometimes deliberately orchestrated. Smear campaigns conducted by drug companies that market originator drugs, and also by some healthcare professionals, sow confusion, to the detriment of generic use. There is no tangible proof that generics are less safe than originator drugs, provided they are chosen wisely, taking into account factors such as their packaging quality. It is up to healthcare professionals to decide

  11. Are biosimilars really generics?

    PubMed

    Misra, Anoop

    2010-04-01

    Ever since the formation of the first biotechnology company almost three decades ago, more than 150 biopharmaceutical products have been marketed across the globe. The oldest of these biotechnology-derived products are now at the end of their patent lives, as a result of which, the development of 'biosimilars' is increasing. The review highlights aspects in which biosimilars differ from generic drugs. The active substance of a biosimilar medicine is similar to the one of the biological reference medicine; however, biosimilars differ from generics of pharmacological drugs in aspects like size and complexity of the active substance, and the nature of the manufacturing process. The manufacture of a biopharmaceutical product is complex and involves several isolation and purification steps. These procedures are proprietary to the manufacturer of the originator product and hence even minor changes in production can have serious implications in terms of safety and efficacy of the product. Biosimilars should not be brought to market using the same procedure applied to generics, and existing and future regulation should prevent inappropriate and automatic substitution of a biosimilar for a reference biopharmaceutical product.

  12. Physician perceptions about generic drugs.

    PubMed

    Shrank, William H; Liberman, Joshua N; Fischer, Michael A; Girdish, Charmaine; Brennan, Troyen A; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2011-01-01

    With constrained health-care resources, there is a need to understand barriers to cost-effective medication use. To study physician perceptions about generic medications. Physicians used 5-point Likert scales to report perceptions about cost-related medication nonadherence, the efficacy and quality of generic medications, preferences for generic use, and the implications of dispensing medication samples. Descriptive statistics were used to assess physician perceptions and logistic regression models were used to evaluate predictors of physician perceptions. Among the invited sample, 839 (30.4%) responded and 506 (18.3%) were eligible and included in the final study population. Over 23% of physicians surveyed expressed negative perceptions about efficacy of generic drugs, almost 50% reported negative perceptions about quality of generic medications, and more than one quarter do not prefer to use generics as first-line medications for themselves or for their family. Physicians over the age of 55 years were 3.3 times more likely to report negative perceptions about generic quality, 5.8 times more likely to report that they would not use generics themselves, and 7.5 times more likely to state that they would not recommend generics for family members (p < 0.05 for all). Physicians reported that pharmaceutical company representatives are the most common (75%) source of information about market entry of a generic medication. Almost half of the respondents expressed concern that free samples may adversely affect subsequent affordability, yet two thirds of respondents provide free samples. A meaningful proportion of physicians expressed negative perceptions about generic medications, representing a potential barrier to generic use. Payors and policymakers trying to encourage generic use may consider educational campaigns targeting older physicians.

  13. Generic medications in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Zore, Matt; Harris, Alon; Tobe, Leslie Abrams; Siesky, Brent; Januleviciene, Ingrida; Behzadi, Jennifer; Amireskandari, Annahita; Egan, Patrick; Garff, Kevin; Wirostko, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the process of genericisation of medications in the US and Europe with a focus on ophthalmic drugs. Regulatory guidelines of the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency will be discussed, and the advantages and concerns of genericisation will be explored. We will look at various studies concerning the safety and efficacy of generic drugs compared to their branded counterparts. In particular, the challenges of assuring bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence in topical ophthalmic drugs will be examined.

  14. The rise of the generic drug market and its implications for dermatology.

    PubMed

    Bhosle, Monali; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Dewan, Tina; Yelverton, Christopher B; Feldman, Steven R

    2005-01-01

    Recent data from the pharmaceutical industry suggest that generic medications are occupying an increasing percentage of the prescription drug market. The objective of this paper was to review the trends in branded and generic dermatological and overall medications in the United States. A thorough literature search of research papers for the period 1990-2003 was performed. In addition, we utilized data from a number of medical databases to obtain and compare information on the manufacturing, production, patents and prescription of branded and generic drugs. Two of the top 10 drugs used exclusively for dermatological conditions prescribed in 2003 were generics. For all drugs, the number of generic equivalents increased from 2 (in 1990) to 6 (in 2003) of the top 10 prescription drugs. The economic, social and scientific implications of the rising prominence of generic drugs are incredibly complex. Dermatologists, pharmacists, pharmacy benefit managers, and health policy makers should consider medication decisions carefully.

  15. Comparison of the effectiveness of brand-name and generic antipsychotic drugs for treating patients with schizophrenia in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Liang-Jen

    2017-06-16

    The purpose of this nationwide population-based study is to compare the long-term effectiveness of brand-name antipsychotics with generic antipsychotics for treating schizophrenia. We identified patients with schizophrenia who were prescribed antipsychotics from a random sample of one million records from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database, observed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2012. Only those with no prior use of antipsychotics for at least 180days were included. We selected patients who were prescribed brand-name risperidone (N=404), generic risperidone (N=145), brand-name sulpiride (N=334), or generic sulpiride (N=991). The effectiveness of the treatments researched in this study consisted of average daily doses, rates of treatment discontinuation, augmentation therapy, and psychiatric hospitalization. We found that compared to patients treated with generic risperidone, those treated with brand-name risperidone required lower daily doses (2.14mg vs. 2.61mg). However, the two groups demonstrated similar rates of treatment discontinuation, augmentation, and psychiatric hospitalization. On the other hand, in comparison with patients prescribed generic sulpiride, those treated with brand-name sulpiride not only required lower daily doses (302.72mg vs. 340.71mg) but also had lower psychiatric admission rates (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.24, 95% confidence interval: 0.10-0.56). In conclusion, for both risperidone and sulpiride, higher daily doses of the respective generic drugs were prescribed than with brand-name drugs in clinical settings. Furthermore, the brand-name sulpiride is more effective at preventing patients from hospitalization than generic sulpiride. These findings can serve as an important reference for clinical practices and healthcare economics for treating schizophrenic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. DISE: directed sphere exclusion.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Alberto; Lee, Man-Ling

    2003-01-01

    The Sphere Exclusion algorithm is a well-known algorithm used to select diverse subsets from chemical-compound libraries or collections. It can be applied with any given distance measure between two structures. It is popular because of the intuitive geometrical interpretation of the method and its good performance on large data sets. This paper describes Directed Sphere Exclusion (DISE), a modification of the Sphere Exclusion algorithm, which retains all positive properties of the Sphere Exclusion algorithm but generates a more even distribution of the selected compounds in the chemical space. In addition, the computational requirement is significantly reduced, thus it can be applied to very large data sets.

  17. Side effects of generic competition?

    PubMed

    Hellström, Jörgen; Rudholm, Niklas

    2004-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between generic drug market shares and the number of reported side effects. Yearly time-series data for the number of reported side effects and information on market shares, prices, and quantities from 1972 to 1996 were used in this study. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used in the statistical analysis. The results show that increased generic market share increases the number of reported side effects for all estimated models. When studying the relationship at the substance level, increasing generic market shares increases the number of side effects for 7 of the 15 substances. Generic substitution laws and measures to increase generic competition may thus have unintended consequences since these results show a positive relationship between generic market shares and reported side effects.

  18. Advertising and generic market entry.

    PubMed

    Königbauer, Ingrid

    2007-03-01

    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  19. The response of chironomidae (Diptera) to a long-term exclusion of terrestrial organic matter

    Treesearch

    Sally A. Entrekin; J. Bruce Wallace; Susan L. Eggert

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effects of a seven-year detrital exclusion on chironomid assemblages in an Appalachian headwater stream. We hypothesized that litter exclusion would lead to a reduction in all chironomids at both the subfamily and generic levels because organic matter serves as both food and habitat in these headwater streams. Tanytarsini total abundance and biomass...

  20. Comparison of Generic-to-Brand Switchback Rates Between Generic and Authorized Generic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Richard A; Qian, Jingjing; Berg, Richard; Linneman, James; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Dutcher, Sarah K; Raofi, Saeid; Page, C David; Peissig, Peggy

    2017-04-01

    Generic drugs contain identical active ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs and are pharmaceutically equivalent and bioequivalent, whereas authorized generic drugs (AGs) contain both identical active and inactive ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs but are marketed as generics. This study compares generic-to-brand switchback rates between generic and AGs. Retrospective cohort study. Claims and electronic health record data from a regional U.S. health care system. The full cohort consisted of 5542 unique patients who received select branded drugs during the 6 months prior to their generic drug market availability (between 1999 and 2014) and then were switched to an AG or generic drug within 30 months of generic drug entry. For these patients, 5929 unique patient-drug combinations (867 with AGs and 5062 with generic drugs) were evaluated. Ten drugs with AGs and generics marketed between 1999 and 2014 were evaluated. The date of the first generic prescription was considered the index date for each drug, and it marked the beginning of follow-up to evaluate the occurrence of generic-to-brand switchback patterns over the subsequent 30 months. Switchback rates were compared between patients receiving AGs versus those receiving generics using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for individual drug effects, age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Score, pre-index drug use characteristics, and pre-index health care utilization. Among the 5542 unique patients who switched from brand to generic or brand to AG, 264 (4.8%) switched back to the brand drug. Overall switchback rates were similar for AGs compared with generics (hazard ratio [HR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.15). The likelihood of switchback was higher for alendronate (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.23) and simvastatin (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.30-2.54) and lower for amlodipine (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.17-0.42) compared with the other drugs evaluated. Overall switchback rates were similar

  1. Central Exclusive Dijet Production

    SciTech Connect

    Dechambre, A.; Cudell, J. R.; Ivanov, I. P.; Hernandez, O.

    2008-08-29

    The ingredients of central exclusive production cross section include large perturbative corrections and soft quantities that must be parametrized and fitted to data. In this talk, we summarize the results of a study of the uncertainties coming from these ingredients, in the case of exclusive dijet production.

  2. A generic multibody simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopping, K. A.; Kohn, W.

    1986-01-01

    Described is a dynamic simulation package which can be configured for orbital test scenarios involving multiple bodies. The rotational and translational state integration methods are selectable for each individual body and may be changed during a run if necessary. Characteristics of the bodies are determined by assigning components consisting of mass properties, forces, and moments, which are the outputs of user-defined environmental models. Generic model implementation is facilitated by a transformation processor which performs coordinate frame inversions. Transformations are defined in the initialization file as part of the simulation configuration. The simulation package includes an initialization processor, which consists of a command line preprocessor, a general purpose grammar, and a syntax scanner. These permit specifications of the bodies, their interrelationships, and their initial states in a format that is not dependent on a particular test scenario.

  3. Generic criticality safety issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    An independent group has been designated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (MMES) to internally review Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs) that describe containers for shipment of radioactive material. This group is called the Energy Systems Independent Review Group (ESIRG), reporting to the MMES Transportation Safety Manager as part of a central staff function. The ESIRG focus is Y-12 Plant packages, with additional review responsibilities for the Paducah Tiger UF{sub 6} overpack and 6M package. Review questions are posed directly to the SARP preparers. This paper addresses three generic issues that arose during the ESIRG criticality reviews: analysis tools, uncertainties in results, and resulting (finite) probability of criticality. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Generic torus canards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Theodore

    2017-10-01

    Torus canards are special solutions of fast/slow systems that alternate between attracting and repelling manifolds of limit cycles of the fast subsystem. A relatively new dynamic phenomenon, torus canards have been found in neural applications to mediate the transition from tonic spiking to bursting via amplitude-modulated spiking. In R3, torus canards are degenerate: they require one-parameter families of 2-fast/1-slow systems in order to be observed and even then, they only occur on exponentially thin parameter intervals. The addition of a second slow variable unfolds the torus canard phenomenon, making it generic and robust. That is, torus canards in fast/slow systems with (at least) two slow variables occur on open parameter sets. So far, generic torus canards have only been studied numerically, and their behaviour has been inferred based on averaging and canard theory. This approach, however, has not been rigorously justified since the averaging method breaks down near a fold of periodics, which is exactly where torus canards originate. In this work, we combine techniques from Floquet theory, averaging theory, and geometric singular perturbation theory to show that the average of a torus canard is a folded singularity canard. In so doing, we devise an analytic scheme for the identification and topological classification of torus canards in fast/slow systems with two fast variables and k slow variables, for any positive integer k. We demonstrate the predictive power of our results in a model for intracellular calcium dynamics, where we explain the mechanisms underlying a novel class of elliptic bursting rhythms, called amplitude-modulated bursting, by constructing the torus canard analogues of mixed-mode oscillations. We also make explicit the connection between our results here with prior studies of torus canards and torus canard explosion in R3, and discuss how our methods can be extended to fast/slow systems of arbitrary (finite) dimension.

  5. Generic concepts in Nectriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, L.; van der Merwe, N.A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The ascomycete family Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) includes numerous important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used extensively in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. Members of the family are unified by phenotypic characters such as uniloculate ascomata that are yellow, orange-red to purple, and with phialidic asexual morphs. The generic concepts in Nectriaceae are poorly defined, since DNA sequence data have not been available for many of these genera. To address this issue we performed a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences for the 28S large subunit (LSU) nrDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), the large subunit of the ATP citrate lyase (acl1), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (rpb1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), α-actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), calmodulin (cmdA), histone H3 (his3), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene regions for available type and authentic strains representing known genera in Nectriaceae, including several genera for which no sequence data were previously available. Supported by morphological observations, the data resolved 47 genera in the Nectriaceae. We re-evaluated the status of several genera, which resulted in the introduction of six new genera to accommodate species that were initially classified based solely on morphological characters. Several generic names are proposed for synonymy based on the abolishment of dual nomenclature. Additionally, a new family is introduced for two genera that were previously accommodated in the Nectriaceae. PMID:26955195

  6. A Generic Metadata Query Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, B.; Duval, E.; Olivie, H.

    This paper discusses a generic query tool that enables an end user to query a metadata store through filters that impose search criteria on attributes. The Metadata Query Tool (MQT) is generic in the sense that it dynamically creates its user interface, based on configuration files that define the metadata scheme and the query functionalities.…

  7. The Benefits From Giving Makers Of Conventional `Small Molecule' Drugs Longer Exclusivity Over Clinical Trial Data

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Dana P.; Lakdawalla, Darius N.; Malkin, Jesse D.; Romley, John; Philipson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies and generic drug manufacturers have long been at odds over “data exclusivity” regulations. These rules require a waiting period of up to eight years before generic drug companies can access valuable clinical trial data necessary to bring less expensive forms of innovative drugs to market. Pharmaceutical companies want the data exclusivity period lengthened to protect their investment. Generic manufacturers want the period shortened so they can bring less expensive versions of drugs to patients sooner. We examine the long-term effect of extending the data exclusivity period for “conventional” small-molecule drugs to twelve years – the same exclusivity period already extended to large-molecule biologic drugs under the Affordable Care Act. We conclude that Americans would benefit from a longer period of data exclusivity. PMID:21209443

  8. Mutually Exclusive Uncertainty Relations

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan

    2016-01-01

    The uncertainty principle is one of the characteristic properties of quantum theory based on incompatibility. Apart from the incompatible relation of quantum states, mutually exclusiveness is another remarkable phenomenon in the information- theoretic foundation of quantum theory. We investigate the role of mutual exclusive physical states in the recent work of stronger uncertainty relations for all incompatible observables by Mccone and Pati and generalize the weighted uncertainty relation to the product form as well as their multi-observable analogues. The new bounds capture both incompatibility and mutually exclusiveness, and are tighter compared with the existing bounds. PMID:27824161

  9. Mutually Exclusive Uncertainty Relations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan

    2016-11-08

    The uncertainty principle is one of the characteristic properties of quantum theory based on incompatibility. Apart from the incompatible relation of quantum states, mutually exclusiveness is another remarkable phenomenon in the information- theoretic foundation of quantum theory. We investigate the role of mutual exclusive physical states in the recent work of stronger uncertainty relations for all incompatible observables by Mccone and Pati and generalize the weighted uncertainty relation to the product form as well as their multi-observable analogues. The new bounds capture both incompatibility and mutually exclusiveness, and are tighter compared with the existing bounds.

  10. Mutually Exclusive Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan

    2016-11-01

    The uncertainty principle is one of the characteristic properties of quantum theory based on incompatibility. Apart from the incompatible relation of quantum states, mutually exclusiveness is another remarkable phenomenon in the information- theoretic foundation of quantum theory. We investigate the role of mutual exclusive physical states in the recent work of stronger uncertainty relations for all incompatible observables by Mccone and Pati and generalize the weighted uncertainty relation to the product form as well as their multi-observable analogues. The new bounds capture both incompatibility and mutually exclusiveness, and are tighter compared with the existing bounds.

  11. Encouraging generic use can yield significant savings.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Christina

    2012-11-01

    Key findings. (1) Zero copayment for generic drugs is the greatest influencer of generic statin utilization. (2) Both higher copayments for generic drugs and lower copayments for competing brands are associated with a decreased probability of using generic statins. (3) Prior authorization and step therapy requirements for brand-name statins are associated with an increased use of generic drugs. (4) Greater use of generic statins should reduce costs for patients, plans, and Medicare.

  12. Dimensional Regularization is Generic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    The absence of the quadratic divergence in the Higgs sector of the Standard Model in the dimensional regularization is usually regarded to be an exceptional property of a specific regularization. To understand what is going on in the dimensional regularization, we illustrate how to reproduce the results of the dimensional regularization for the λϕ4 theory in the more conventional regularization such as the higher derivative regularization; the basic postulate involved is that the quadratically divergent induced mass, which is independent of the scale change of the physical mass, is kinematical and unphysical. This is consistent with the derivation of the Callan-Symanzik equation, which is a comparison of two theories with slightly different masses, for the λϕ4 theory without encountering the quadratic divergence. In this sense the dimensional regularization may be said to be generic in a bottom-up approach starting with a successful low energy theory. We also define a modified version of the mass independent renormalization for a scalar field which leads to the homogeneous renormalization group equation. Implications of the present analysis on the Standard Model at high energies and the presence or absence of SUSY at LHC energies are briey discussed.

  13. New generic indexing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

  14. Generic flux coupling analysis.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Arne C; Goldstein, Yaron; Bockmayr, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Flux coupling analysis (FCA) has become a useful tool for aiding metabolic reconstructions and guiding genetic manipulations. Originally, it was introduced for constraint-based models of metabolic networks that are based on the steady-state assumption. Recently, we have shown that the steady-state assumption can be replaced by a weaker lattice-theoretic property related to the supports of metabolic fluxes. In this paper, we further extend our approach and develop an efficient algorithm for generic flux coupling analysis that works with any kind of qualitative pathway model. We illustrate our method by thermodynamic flux coupling analysis (tFCA), which allows studying steady-state metabolic models with loop-law thermodynamic constraints. These models do not satisfy the lattice-theoretic properties required in our previous work. For a selection of genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions, we discuss both theoretically and practically, how thermodynamic constraints strengthen the coupling results that can be obtained with classical FCA. A prototype implementation of tFCA is available at http://hoverboard.io/L4FC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Generic Comparison of Protein Inference Engines*

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Manfred; Reiter, Lukas; Hengartner, Michael O.; Buhmann, Joachim M.; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2012-01-01

    Protein identifications, instead of peptide-spectrum matches, constitute the biologically relevant result of shotgun proteomics studies. How to appropriately infer and report protein identifications has triggered a still ongoing debate. This debate has so far suffered from the lack of appropriate performance measures that allow us to objectively assess protein inference approaches. This study describes an intuitive, generic and yet formal performance measure and demonstrates how it enables experimentalists to select an optimal protein inference strategy for a given collection of fragment ion spectra. We applied the performance measure to systematically explore the benefit of excluding possibly unreliable protein identifications, such as single-hit wonders. Therefore, we defined a family of protein inference engines by extending a simple inference engine by thousands of pruning variants, each excluding a different specified set of possibly unreliable identifications. We benchmarked these protein inference engines on several data sets representing different proteomes and mass spectrometry platforms. Optimally performing inference engines retained all high confidence spectral evidence, without posterior exclusion of any type of protein identifications. Despite the diversity of studied data sets consistently supporting this rule, other data sets might behave differently. In order to ensure maximal reliable proteome coverage for data sets arising in other studies we advocate abstaining from rigid protein inference rules, such as exclusion of single-hit wonders, and instead consider several protein inference approaches and assess these with respect to the presented performance measure in the specific application context. PMID:22057310

  16. Generic comparison of protein inference engines.

    PubMed

    Claassen, Manfred; Reiter, Lukas; Hengartner, Michael O; Buhmann, Joachim M; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2012-04-01

    Protein identifications, instead of peptide-spectrum matches, constitute the biologically relevant result of shotgun proteomics studies. How to appropriately infer and report protein identifications has triggered a still ongoing debate. This debate has so far suffered from the lack of appropriate performance measures that allow us to objectively assess protein inference approaches. This study describes an intuitive, generic and yet formal performance measure and demonstrates how it enables experimentalists to select an optimal protein inference strategy for a given collection of fragment ion spectra. We applied the performance measure to systematically explore the benefit of excluding possibly unreliable protein identifications, such as single-hit wonders. Therefore, we defined a family of protein inference engines by extending a simple inference engine by thousands of pruning variants, each excluding a different specified set of possibly unreliable identifications. We benchmarked these protein inference engines on several data sets representing different proteomes and mass spectrometry platforms. Optimally performing inference engines retained all high confidence spectral evidence, without posterior exclusion of any type of protein identifications. Despite the diversity of studied data sets consistently supporting this rule, other data sets might behave differently. In order to ensure maximal reliable proteome coverage for data sets arising in other studies we advocate abstaining from rigid protein inference rules, such as exclusion of single-hit wonders, and instead consider several protein inference approaches and assess these with respect to the presented performance measure in the specific application context.

  17. Generic Substitution Issues: Brand-generic Substitution, Generic-generic Substitution, and Generic Substitution of Narrow Therapeutic Index (NTI)/Critical Dose Drugs

    PubMed Central

    PAVELIU, Marian Sorin; BENGEA, Simona; PAVELIU, Fraga Silvia

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Doctors accuse individual variability or lack of quality of generic drugs for adverse reactions or lack of efficacy. The variability of effect of generic substitution, although accepted by clinicians as possible, is little discussed or even understood by them. The situation is really serious in the case of generic substitution of drugs with narrow therapeutic index (NTI) or critical dose. In this paper we review the basic notions of variability and effectiveness of generic medication and change of attitude that would improve the use of these drugs. PMID:21977191

  18. Generic interpreters and microprocessor verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, Phillip J.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) generic interpreters; (2) Viper microprocessors; (3) microprocessor verification; (4) determining correctness; (5) hierarchical decomposition; (6) interpreter theory; (7) AVM-1; (8) phase-level specification; and future work.

  19. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  20. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    1987-01-01

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  1. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  2. Exclusive production at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakzad, Mohsen

    2017-03-01

    A search for exclusive or quasi-exclusive γγ → W+W- production, pp → p(∗)W+W-p(∗) → p(∗)μ±e∓p(∗), at √{s }=8 TeV (7 TeV) is reported using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1 (5.5fb-1), respectively. In this study, we look for any deviations that there might be from the Standard Model, and the results are used to set limits on the Anomalous Quartic Gauge Couplings. We also report a measurement of the exclusive production of pairs of charged pions in proton-proton collisions. The differential cross sections for π+π- pairs as a function of the pion pair invariant mass is measured and compared to several phenomenological predictions.

  3. A generic coding approach for the examination of meal patterns.

    PubMed

    Woolhead, Clara; Gibney, Michael J; Walsh, Marianne C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R

    2015-08-01

    Meal pattern analysis can be complex because of the large variability in meal consumption. The use of aggregated, generic meal data may address some of these issues. The objective was to develop a meal coding system and use it to explore meal patterns. Dietary data were used from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010), which collected 4-d food diary information from 1500 healthy adults. Self-recorded meal types were listed for each food item. Common food group combinations were identified to generate a number of generic meals for each meal type: breakfast, light meals, main meals, snacks, and beverages. Mean nutritional compositions of the generic meals were determined and substituted into the data set to produce a generic meal data set. Statistical comparisons were performed against the original National Adult Nutrition Survey data. Principal component analysis was carried out by using these generic meals to identify meal patterns. A total of 21,948 individual meals were reduced to 63 generic meals. Good agreement was seen for nutritional comparisons (original compared with generic data sets mean ± SD), such as fat (75.7 ± 29.4 and 71.7 ± 12.9 g, respectively, P = 0.243) and protein (83.3 ± 26.9 and 80.1 ± 13.4 g, respectively, P = 0.525). Similarly, Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement (<5% outside limits of agreement) for many nutrients, including protein, saturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat. Twelve meal types were identified from the principal component analysis ranging in meal-type inclusion/exclusion, varying in energy-dense meals, and differing in the constituents of the meals. A novel meal coding system was developed; dietary intake data were recoded by using generic meal consumption data. Analysis revealed that the generic meal coding system may be appropriate when examining nutrient intakes in the population. Furthermore, such a coding system was shown to be suitable for use in determining meal-based dietary patterns. © 2015

  4. Generic Example Proving Criteria for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…

  5. Generic Example Proving Criteria for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…

  6. Mutually Exclusive, Complementary, or . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloemer, Cathy G.

    2016-01-01

    Whether students are beginning their study of probability or are well into it, distinctions between complementary sets and mutually exclusive sets can be confusing. Cathy Schloemer writes in this article that for years she used typical classroom examples but was not happy with the student engagement or the level of understanding they produced.…

  7. Mutually Exclusive, Complementary, or . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloemer, Cathy G.

    2016-01-01

    Whether students are beginning their study of probability or are well into it, distinctions between complementary sets and mutually exclusive sets can be confusing. Cathy Schloemer writes in this article that for years she used typical classroom examples but was not happy with the student engagement or the level of understanding they produced.…

  8. Generic medications for hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Donald M; Sebhatu, Phoebe; Reau, Nancy S

    2016-07-01

    The recent development and approval of expensive but highly effective oral agents against hepatitis C has led to restrictions and access limitations in many countries with limited healthcare budgets. Generic formulations of many of these agents are available at a fraction of the retail price in several countries because of generic licensure agreements. The discounted alternatives are only accessible in developing countries and require manufacturing and distribution regulations to ensure the quality and bioequivalence of the new drug formulations. The continued medication access limitations have driven great interest in the practice of personal drug importation of the generic formulations. This review and debate will address the medical and legal issues involved in the purchase and importation of these medicines. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 76 FR 57767 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for... NRC Generic Letter 2011- XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors. This action is...

  10. Software synthesis using generic architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhansali, Sanjay

    1993-01-01

    A framework for synthesizing software systems based on abstracting software system designs and the design process is described. The result of such an abstraction process is a generic architecture and the process knowledge for customizing the architecture. The customization process knowledge is used to assist a designer in customizing the architecture as opposed to completely automating the design of systems. Our approach using an implemented example of a generic tracking architecture which was customized in two different domains is illustrated. How the designs produced using KASE compare to the original designs of the two systems, and current work and plans for extending KASE to other application areas are described.

  11. Generic entry, reformulations and promotion of SSRIs in the US.

    PubMed

    Huskamp, Haiden A; Donohue, Julie M; Koss, Catherine; Berndt, Ernst R; Frank, Richard G

    2008-01-01

    for social anxiety disorder (SAD) did not affect the manufacturers' detailing expenditures but did result in a greater likelihood of DTCA outlays. The introduction of new product formulations appears to be a common strategy for attempting to extend market exclusivity for medications facing impending generic entry. Manufacturers who introduced a reformulation before generic entry shifted most promotion dollars from the original brand to the reformulation long before generic entry, and in some cases manufacturers appeared to target a particular promotion type for a given indication. Given the significant impact that pharmaceutical promotion has on demand for prescription drugs in the US, these findings have important implications for prescription drug spending and public health.

  12. Generic Software Architecture for Launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carre, Emilien; Gast, Philippe; Hiron, Emmanuel; Leblanc, Alain; Lesens, David; Mescam, Emmanuelle; Moro, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    The definition and reuse of generic software architecture for launchers is not so usual for several reasons: the number of European launcher families is very small (Ariane 5 and Vega for these last decades); the real time constraints (reactivity and determinism needs) are very hard; low levels of versatility are required (implying often an ad hoc development of the launcher mission). In comparison, satellites are often built on a generic platform made up of reusable hardware building blocks (processors, star-trackers, gyroscopes, etc.) and reusable software building blocks (middleware, TM/TC, On Board Control Procedure, etc.). If some of these reasons are still valid (e.g. the limited number of development), the increase of the available CPU power makes today an approach based on a generic time triggered middleware (ensuring the full determinism of the system) and a centralised mission and vehicle management (offering more flexibility in the design and facilitating the long term maintenance) achievable. This paper presents an example of generic software architecture which could be envisaged for future launchers, based on the previously described principles and supported by model driven engineering and automatic code generation.

  13. Generic Information Can Retrieve Known Biological Associations: Implications for Biomedical Knowledge Discovery

    PubMed Central

    van Haagen, Herman H. H. B. M.; 't Hoen, Peter A. C.; Mons, Barend; Schultes, Erik A.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation Weighted semantic networks built from text-mined literature can be used to retrieve known protein-protein or gene-disease associations, and have been shown to anticipate associations years before they are explicitly stated in the literature. Our text-mining system recognizes over 640,000 biomedical concepts: some are specific (i.e., names of genes or proteins) others generic (e.g., ‘Homo sapiens’). Generic concepts may play important roles in automated information retrieval, extraction, and inference but may also result in concept overload and confound retrieval and reasoning with low-relevance or even spurious links. Here, we attempted to optimize the retrieval performance for protein-protein interactions (PPI) by filtering generic concepts (node filtering) or links to generic concepts (edge filtering) from a weighted semantic network. First, we defined metrics based on network properties that quantify the specificity of concepts. Then using these metrics, we systematically filtered generic information from the network while monitoring retrieval performance of known protein-protein interactions. We also systematically filtered specific information from the network (inverse filtering), and assessed the retrieval performance of networks composed of generic information alone. Results Filtering generic or specific information induced a two-phase response in retrieval performance: initially the effects of filtering were minimal but beyond a critical threshold network performance suddenly drops. Contrary to expectations, networks composed exclusively of generic information demonstrated retrieval performance comparable to unfiltered networks that also contain specific concepts. Furthermore, an analysis using individual generic concepts demonstrated that they can effectively support the retrieval of known protein-protein interactions. For instance the concept “binding” is indicative for PPI retrieval and the concept “mutation abnormality” is

  14. 27 CFR 4.24 - Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance. 4.24 Section 4.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING...

  15. 27 CFR 4.24 - Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance. 4.24 Section 4.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING...

  16. 27 CFR 4.24 - Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance. 4.24 Section 4.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING...

  17. 27 CFR 4.24 - Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance. 4.24 Section 4.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING...

  18. 27 CFR 4.24 - Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance. 4.24 Section 4.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10198 - Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10198 Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10198 - Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10198 Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10198 - Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10198 Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10198 - Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10198 Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9929 - Polyurea (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyurea (generic). 721.9929 Section... Substances § 721.9929 Polyurea (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurea (PMN P-01-716) is subject...

  4. Social exclusion in finite populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2015-04-01

    Social exclusion, keeping free riders from benefit sharing, plays an important role in sustaining cooperation in our world. Here we propose two different exclusion regimes, namely, peer exclusion and pool exclusion, to investigate the evolution of social exclusion in finite populations. In the peer exclusion regime, each excluder expels all the defectors independently, and thus bears the total cost on his own, while in the pool exclusion regime, excluders spontaneously form an institution to carry out rejection of the free riders, and each excluder shares the cost equally. In a public goods game containing only excluders and defectors, it is found that peer excluders outperform pool excluders if the exclusion costs are small, and the situation is converse once the exclusion costs exceed some critical points, which holds true for all the selection intensities and different update rules. Moreover, excluders can dominate the whole population under a suitable parameters range in the presence of second-order free riders (cooperators), showing that exclusion has prominent advantages over common costly punishment. More importantly, our finding indicates that the group exclusion mechanism helps the cooperative union to survive under unfavorable conditions. Our results may give some insights into better understanding the prevalence of such a strategy in the real world and its significance in sustaining cooperation.

  5. 76 FR 69294 - Proposed Generic Communication Draft Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication Draft Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating... public comment Draft Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors. The public... for public comment Draft Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors...

  6. Exclusion processes with avalanches.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Uttam; Krapivsky, P L

    2014-07-01

    In an exclusion process with avalanches, when a particle hops to a neighboring empty site which is adjacent to an island the particle on the other end of the island immediately hops, and if it joins another island this triggers another hop. There are no restrictions on the length of the islands and the duration of the avalanche. This process is well defined in the low-density region ρ < 1/2. We describe the nature of steady states (on a ring) and determine all correlation functions. For the asymmetric version of the process, we compute the steady state current, and we describe shock and rarefaction waves which arise in the evolution of the step-function initial profile. For the symmetric version, we determine the diffusion coefficient and examine the evolution of a tagged particle.

  7. Market Exclusivity Time for Top Selling Originator Drugs in Canada: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lexchin, Joel

    2017-09-01

    This study looks at market exclusivity time for the top selling originator drugs in Canada. Total sales for drugs without competition were also calculated. A list of the top selling originator drugs by dollar sales from 2009 to 2015 inclusive, except for 2010, was compiled along with their annual sales. Health Canada databases were used to extract the following information: generic name, date of Notice of Compliance (NOC, date of marketing authorization), whether the product was a small molecule drug or a biologic, and date of NOC for a generic or biosimilar. Market exclusivity time was calculated in days for drugs. A total of 121 drugs were identified. There were 96 small molecule drugs (63 with a generic competitor and 33 with no generic competitor) and 25 biologics (none with a biosimilar competitor). The 63 drugs with a competitor had a mean market exclusivity time of 4478 days (12.3 years) (95% CI 4159-4798). The 58 drugs without competition had total annual sales of Can$8.59 billion and were on the market for a median of 5357 days (14.7 years) (interquartile range 3291-6679) as of January 31, 2017. Top selling originator drugs in Canada have a considerably longer period of market exclusivity than the 8 to 10 years that the research-based pharmaceutical industry claims. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Children's Group Nous: Understanding and Applying Peer Exclusion Within and Between Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Pelletier, Joseph; Ferrell, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    In Study 1, 167 English children aged 6-8 or 9-11 evaluated peer English or French soccer fans that were loyal or partially disloyal. In Study 2, 149 children aged 5-11 made judgments about generic inclusion norms between and within competitive groups. In both studies, children's understanding of intergroup inclusion/exclusion norms (group nous)…

  9. Children's Group Nous: Understanding and Applying Peer Exclusion Within and Between Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Pelletier, Joseph; Ferrell, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    In Study 1, 167 English children aged 6-8 or 9-11 evaluated peer English or French soccer fans that were loyal or partially disloyal. In Study 2, 149 children aged 5-11 made judgments about generic inclusion norms between and within competitive groups. In both studies, children's understanding of intergroup inclusion/exclusion norms (group nous)…

  10. Raising the Barriers to Access to Medicines in the Developing World - The Relentless Push for Data Exclusivity.

    PubMed

    Diependaele, Lisa; Cockbain, Julian; Sterckx, Sigrid

    2017-04-01

    Since the adoption of the WTO-TRIPS Agreement in 1994, there has been significant controversy over the impact of pharmaceutical patent protection on the access to medicines in the developing world. In addition to the market exclusivity provided by patents, the pharmaceutical industry has also sought to further extend their monopolies by advocating the need for additional 'regulatory' protection for new medicines, known as data exclusivity. Data exclusivity limits the use of clinical trial data that need to be submitted to the regulatory authorities before a new drug can enter the market. For a specified period, generic competitors cannot apply for regulatory approval for equivalent drugs relying on the originator's data. As a consequence, data exclusivity lengthens the monopoly for the original drug, impairing the availability of generic drugs. This article illustrates how the pharmaceutical industry has convinced the US and the EU to impose data exclusivity on their trade partners, many of them developing countries. The key arguments formulated by the pharmaceutical industry in favor of adopting data exclusivity and their underlying ethical assumptions are described in this article, analyzed, and found to be unconvincing. Contrary to industry's arguments, it is unlikely that data exclusivity will promote innovation, especially in developing countries. Moreover, the industry's appeal to a property rights claim over clinical test data and the idea that data exclusivity can prevent the generic competitors from 'free-riding' encounters some important problems: Neither legitimize excluding all others. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Patients' perceptions of generic drugs in Greece.

    PubMed

    Skaltsas, Leonora N; Vasileiou, Konstantinos Z

    2015-11-01

    The use of generic drugs is growing increasingly around the world and in Greece, in particular, in order to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure. However, patients' perceptions and attitudes about generics have only partially been studied so far in Greece. This study aimed to examine the factors that influence the attitude of patients and consumers regarding generic drugs. A questionnaire survey of 364 patients visiting a pharmacy was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of 29 questions, including questions regarding their knowledge about generics, the reasons for using them, their previous experience, their willingness for generic substitution, and the factors behind these choices. Nearly half of the participants in the survey know the term 'generic' and that it has a lower price compared to the brand name drug. Their views on safety and efficacy vary significantly and the main source of information on generics is the media and the internet. The lack of knowledge is the main barrier for attitudes of doctors. Health professionals play the most influential role for the substitution of a branded drug by a generic, followed by the cost of the generic. Almost half of the patients know about generic drugs, with their lower price being the most popular feature which most patients are familiar with. It seems that primarily the doctor and, subsequently the pharmacist play the most important role in a patient's decision to replace his/her medicine with a generic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exclusion performance and learning by exclusion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Zaine, Isabela; Domeniconi, Camila; de Rose, Julio C

    2016-05-01

    Responding by exclusion is a type of emergent repertoire in which an individual chooses an alternative by the apparent exclusion of other available alternatives. In this case it is possible to respond appropriately to an undefined stimulus (one that has not previously acquired discriminative functions) by excluding the defined alternatives. There is evidence of exclusion in humans and nonhuman animals, although learning as an outcome of exclusion does not always occur. This study aimed to investigate exclusion in visual simple discriminations and learning of new simple discriminations resulting from exclusion in four border collies. Subjects were trained to perform simple simultaneous discriminations between pairs of tridimensional objects, and were then tested for exclusion, novelty control and learning of new simple discriminations. All dogs successfully responded by exclusion, choosing an undefined stimulus displayed with an S-. For three dogs, it was possible to conclude that these previously undefined stimuli acquired S+ functions, documenting learning of new simple discriminations. However, this required up to four exposures to exclusion trials with each pair of stimuli.

  13. Generic Language in Parent-Child Conversations

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Goetz, Peggy J.; Sarnecka, Barbara W.; Flukes, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Generic knowledge concerns kinds of things (e.g., birds fly; a chair is for sitting; gold is a metal). Past research demonstrated that children spontaneously develop generic knowledge by preschool age. The present study examines when and how children learn to use the multiple devices provided by their language to express generic knowledge. We hypothesize that children assume, in the absence of specifying information or context, that nouns refer to generic kinds, as a default. Thus, we predict that (a) Children should talk about kinds from an early age. (b) Children should learn generic forms with only minimal parental scaffolding. (c) Children should recognize a variety of different linguistic forms as generic. Results from longitudinal samples of adult-child conversations support all three hypotheses. We also report individual differences in the use of generics, suggesting that children differ in their tendency to form the abstract generalizations so expressed. PMID:21765807

  14. The effect of Paragraph IV decisions and generic entry before patent expiration on brand pharmaceutical firms.

    PubMed

    Panattoni, Laura E

    2011-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of Paragraph IV patent infringement decisions on brand drug pharmaceutical firms. Paragraph IV decisions determine whether a generic firm can enter before the period of exclusivity ends. I construct a novel dataset of all Paragraph IV decisions and find that they disproportionately involve the highest revenue drugs, significant periods of patent protection, and a non-trivial portion of all brand drugs facing generic entry. I also estimate the impact of Paragraph IV decisions on brand firm profitability and find they have large value consequences.

  15. Exclusive Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Peter Lepage, G.

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * NONRELATIVISTIC FORM FACTORS FOR HEAVY-QUARK MESONS * HADRONIC WAVEFUNCTIONS * DEFINITIONS * LIGHT-CONE BOUND-STATE EQUATIONS * GENERAL PROPERTIES OF LIGHT-CONE WAVEFUNCTIONS * RENORMALIZATION * CALCULATING * A PERTURBATIVE ANALYSIS * FACTORIZATION—LEADING ORDER ANALYSIS * THE QUARK DISTRIBUTION AMPLITUDE * DETERMINATION OF DISTRIBUTION AMPLITUDES * HIGHER ORDER ANALYSIS * COMPLICATIONS * How LARGE IS ASYMPTOTIC Q? * APPLICATIONS OF QCD TO THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF EXCLUSIVE REACTIONS * GENERAL FEATURES OF EXCLUSIVE PROCESSES IN QCD * ELECTROMAGNETIC FORM FACTORS * COMPARISON OF QCD SCALING WITH EXPERIMENT * EXCLUSIVE ANTI-PROTON PROTON ANNIHILATION PROCESSES * ADDITIONAL TESTS OF GLUON SPIN IN EXCLUSIVE PROCESSES * HADRONIC WAVEFUNCTION PHENOMENOLOGY * CALCULATING TH * THE PRE-QCD DEVELOPMENT OF EXCLUSIVE REACTIONS * EXCLUSIVE e+ e- ANNIHILATION PROCESSES * J/ψ DECAY TO HADRON PAIRS * THE π-ρ PUZZLE * FORM FACTOR ZEROS IN QCD * EXCLUSIVE γγ REACTIONS * QCD PROCESSES IN NUCLEI * EXCLUSIVE NUCLEAR REACTIONS - REDUCED AMPLITUDES * COLOR TRANSPARENCY * SPIN CORRELATIONS IN PROTON-PROTON SCATTERING * CONCLUSIONS * APPENDIX I BARYON FORM FACTORS AND EVOLUTION EQUATIONS * APPENDIX II LIGHT CONE QUANTIZATION AND PERTURBATION THEORY * APPENDIX III A NONPERTURBATIVE ANALYSIS OF EXCLUSIVE REACTIONS-DISCRETIZED LIGHT-CONE QUANTIZATION * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  16. The Controversy over Generic Antiepileptic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Susan J.; Hartman, Adam L.

    2010-01-01

    As patent protection ends for the next generation of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), a complex debate continues over generic substitution of AEDs. On one hand, generic drug formulations provide cost savings for patients and society. On the other hand, patients with epilepsy and physicians are wary about the adequacy and efficacy of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) standards for generics. This article reviews current and proposed bioequivalence test procedures, summarizes new generic AED formulations and their costs, and discusses potential pitfalls in the current standards. These shortcomings include certain pharmacokinetic factors and clinical pharmacologic factors that may affect bioequivalence of generic AEDs, and statistical limitations of the standards. While the drug concentration differences between the brand name drug and each generic formulation are unlikely to be substantial, the differences with generic-to-generic switches will be greater and potentially clinically significant. Conversely, owing to their more favorable pharmacokinetic profile, newer AEDs may be less prone to problems with generic substitution than older ones. Unfortunately, very few data are available to guide decisions regarding what is best for an individual patient. Based on new prediction methods, generic substitution should be safe for many patients but identifying them ultimately requires more rigorous study. PMID:22477799

  17. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, Scott Leroy; Chu, Shaoping; Harp, Dylan Robert; Perry, Frank Vinton; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  18. Generic trending and analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keehan, Lori; Reese, Jay

    1994-01-01

    The Generic Trending and Analysis System (GTAS) is a generic spacecraft performance monitoring tool developed by NASA Code 511 and Loral Aerosys. It is designed to facilitate quick anomaly resolution and trend analysis. Traditionally, the job of off-line analysis has been performed using hardware and software systems developed for real-time spacecraft contacts; then, the systems were supplemented with a collection of tools developed by Flight Operations Team (FOT) members. Since the number of upcoming missions is increasing, NASA can no longer afford to operate in this manner. GTAS improves control center productivity and effectiveness because it provides a generic solution across multiple missions. Thus, GTAS eliminates the need for each individual mission to develop duplicate capabilities. It also allows for more sophisticated tools to be developed because it draws resources from several projects. In addition, the GTAS software system incorporates commercial off-the-shelf tools software (COTS) packages and reuses components of other NASA-developed systems wherever possible. GTAS has incorporated lessons learned from previous missions by involving the users early in the development process. GTAS users took a proactive role in requirements analysis, design, development, and testing. Because of user involvement, several special tools were designed and are now being developed. GTAS users expressed considerable interest in facilitating data collection for long term trending and analysis. As a result, GTAS provides easy access to large volumes of processed telemetry data directly in the control center. The GTAS archival and retrieval capabilities are supported by the integration of optical disk technology and a COTS relational database management system.

  19. Patients’ beliefs about generic medicines in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Zhi Y.; Hassali, Mohamed A.; Alrasheedy, Alian A.; Saleem, Fahad; Yahaya, Abdul H.; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acceptance of generic medicines by patients is an essential factor given that they are the end users of these medicines. In fact, adequate knowledge and positive perceptions are prerequisite to patients’ acceptance and use of generic medicines. Objective: To assess the current belief and views of patients about generic medicines in Malaysia. Method: This was a self-administered questionnaire-based study. The study was conducted with patients visiting outpatient pharmacy department at a tertiary care hospital in Malaysia. The Malaysian version of Generic Medicines Scale (GMS) was used. The GMS consists of two subscales: efficacy and similarity of generic medicines to original brand medicines. The efficacy subscale consists of 10 items while the similarity subscale consists of 6 items. The responses to the items were framed as a five-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree). Results: A total of 202 out of 300 patients participated in the study, giving a response rate of 67.3%. In this study, only 49% of them (n=99) knew the term ‘generic medicine’. Moreover, only 53.5% of the respondents (n=108) believed that the efficacy of generic medicines was the same as original brand medicines. In terms of quality, only 44% of the respondents (n=89) disagreed that generic medicines were of a lower quality. About one third (n=65, 32.2%) believed that generic medicines were cheaper because they were less efficacious. In terms of side effects, 44.5% of the respondents (n=90) believed that generic medicines had the same side effect profile as original brand medicines. Conclusions: The study finding showed that almost half of the respondents had negative belief in generic medicines. Similarly, many patients were not aware of the similarities and differences between generic and original brand medicines. Therefore, there is a need to provide patients with adequate information about generic medicines. PMID:25580171

  20. Descriptive Model of Generic WAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, John F.; DeSteese, John G.

    2007-06-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Transmission Reliability Program is supporting the research, deployment, and demonstration of various wide area measurement system (WAMS) technologies to enhance the reliability of the Nation’s electrical power grid. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE National SCADA Test Bed Program to conduct a study of WAMS security. This report represents achievement of the milestone to develop a generic WAMS model description that will provide a basis for the security analysis planned in the next phase of this study.

  1. GLAD: A Generic LAttice Debugger

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.J.

    1991-11-01

    Today, numerous simulation and analysis codes exist for the design, commission, and operation of accelerator beam lines. There is a need to develop a common user interface and database link to run these codes interactively. This paper will describe a proposed system, GLAD (Generic LAttice Debugger), to fulfill this need. Specifically, GLAD can be used to find errors in beam lines during commissioning, control beam parameters during operation, and design beam line optics and error correction systems for the next generation of linear accelerators and storage rings.

  2. Generic thin-shell gravastars

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt; Garcia, Nadiezhda Montelongo; Lobo, Francisco S.N. E-mail: nmontelongo@fis.cinvestav.mx E-mail: matt.visser@msor.vuw.ac.nz

    2012-03-01

    We construct generic spherically symmetric thin-shell gravastars by using the cut-and-paste procedure. We take considerable effort to make the analysis as general and unified as practicable; investigating both the internal physics of the transition layer and its interaction with 'external forces' arising due to interactions between the transition layer and the bulk spacetime. Furthermore, we discuss both the dynamic and static situations. In particular, we consider 'bounded excursion' dynamical configurations, and probe the stability of static configurations. For gravastars there is always a particularly compelling configuration in which the surface energy density is zero, while surface tension is nonzero.

  3. Exclusive meson production at HERMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbroucke, A.

    2005-10-01

    Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) provide a new level of insight into the quark structure of the nucleon. Experimentally they can be probed by hard exclusive electroproduction of both scalar and vector mesons. Results for the cross section for the reaction ep → enπ+, and a first result for the asymmetry AUT for exclusive ρ0 production are presented.

  4. Evaluating Alternatives to Exclusive "He."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd-Mancillas, William R.

    A study was conducted to determine the effects on reading comprehension of the use of the exclusive pronoun "he" and more or less contrived alternatives. Subjects, 358 students enrolled in an introduction to human communication at a large northeastern university, read three different forms of the same essay. One essay form exclusively used "he,"…

  5. Updated trends in US brand-name and generic drug competition.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Henry; Long, Genia; Mortimer, Richard; Boyo, Ani

    2016-09-01

    To provide updated evidence on US trends in: market exclusivity periods (MEPs, time between brand-name drug launch and first generic competitors) for new molecular entities (NMEs); likelihood, timing and number of Hatch-Waxman Act Paragraph IV patent challenges; and generic drug penetration. This study used IMS Health National Sales Perspectives(TM) US data to calculate MEPs for the 288 NMEs experiencing initial generic entry between January 1995 and December 2014, the number of generic competitors for 12 months afterward (by level of annual sales prior to generic entry), and generic penetration rates. The likelihood, timing and number of Paragraph IV challengers were calculated using data from Abbreviated New Drug Approval (ANDA) letters, the FDA website, public information searches, and ParagraphFour.com. For drugs experiencing initial generic entry in 2013-2014, the MEP was 12.5 years for drugs with sales greater than $250 million (in 2008 dollars) in the year prior to generic entry ($250 million + NMEs), 13.6 years overall. After generic entry, brands rapidly lost sales, with their average unit share being 7% at 1 year for $250 million + NMEs, 12% overall. Ninety-four percent of $250 million + NMEs experiencing initial generic entry in 2013-2014 had faced at least one Paragraph IV challenge, an average of 5.2 years after brand launch (76% and 5.9 years for all NMEs). NMEs faced an average of 5.1 and 6.2 Paragraph IV challenges per NME, for all and $250 million + NMEs, respectively. Analyses, including Paragraph IV calculations, were restricted to NMEs where generic entry had occurred. The average 2013-2014 MEP of 12.5 years for $250 million + NMEs, 13.6 overall remains consistent with prior research. MEPs are lower, and Paragraph IV challenges are more frequent and occur earlier for $250 million + drugs. Generic share erosion is also greater, and continues to intensify for both NME types.

  6. Generic Airspace Concepts and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate methods for reducing the training and memorization required to manage air traffic in mid-term, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) airspace. We contrasted the performance of controllers using a sector information display and NextGen automation tools while working with familiar and unfamiliar sectors. The airspace included five sectors from Oakland and Salt Lake City Centers configured as a "generic center" called "West High Center." The Controller Information Tool was used to present essential information for managing these sectors. The Multi Aircraft Control System air traffic control simulator provided data link and conflict detection and resolution. There were five experienced air traffic controller participants. Each was familiar with one or two of the five sectors, but not the others. The participants rotated through all five sectors during the ten data collection runs. The results addressing workload, traffic management, and safety, as well as controller and observer comments, supported the generic sector concept. The unfamiliar sectors were comparable to the familiar sectors on all relevant measures.

  7. Generic Hypersonic Inlet Module Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Chares E., Jr.; Huebner, Lawrence D.

    2004-01-01

    A computational study associated with an internal inlet drag analysis was performed for a generic hypersonic inlet module. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of computing the internal drag force for a generic scramjet engine module using computational methods. The computational study consisted of obtaining two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions using the Euler and parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations. The solution accuracy was assessed by comparisons with experimental pitot pressure data. The CFD analysis indicates that the 3D PNS solutions show the best agreement with experimental pitot pressure data. The internal inlet drag analysis consisted of obtaining drag force predictions based on experimental data and 3D CFD solutions. A comparative assessment of each of the drag prediction methods is made and the sensitivity of CFD drag values to computational procedures is documented. The analysis indicates that the CFD drag predictions are highly sensitive to the computational procedure used.

  8. Toward a generic UGV autopilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Kevin L.; Whitehorn, Mark; Weinstein, Alejandro J.; Xia, Junjun

    2009-05-01

    Much of the success of small unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) has arguably been due to the widespread availability of low-cost, portable autopilots. While the development of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) has led to significant achievements, as typified by recent grand challenge events, to date the UGV equivalent of the UAV autopilot is not available. In this paper we describe our recent research aimed at the development of a generic UGV autopilot. Assuming we are given a drive-by-wire vehicle that accepts as inputs steering, brake, and throttle commands, we present a system that adds sonar ranging sensors, GPS/IMU/odometry, stereo camera, and scanning laser sensors, together with a variety of interfacing and communication hardware. The system also includes a finite state machine-based software architecture as well as a graphical user interface for the operator control unit (OCU). Algorithms are presented that enable an end-to-end scenario whereby an operator can view stereo images as seen by the vehicle and can input GPS waypoints either from a map or in the vehicle's scene-view image, at which point the system uses the environmental sensors as inputs to a Kalman filter for pose estimation and then computes control actions to move through the waypoint list, while avoiding obstacles. The long-term goal of the research is a system that is generically applicable to any drive-by-wire unmanned ground vehicle.

  9. [Generic drugs in morocco: survey of physicians].

    PubMed

    Zaoui, Sanaa; Hakkou, Farid; Filali, Houda

    2011-01-01

    To assess the knowledge of physicians about generic drugs and their prescribing habits, with a view to making proposals for developing the use of generic drug in Morocco. Prospective study conducted among 100 physicians working in different sectors, using a questionnaire comprising 14 questions. The points raised in this questionnaire focused on assessing the knowledge of physicians about generic drugs, their prescribing habits, and their point of view towards the rights of substitution. The prescription of generic medicines is more than 20% of drug prescriptions in less than half of doctors. For 68% of physicians, a generic is not always effective. When the definition of generic drug only 66% of physicians mentioned bioequivalence with the brand-name drug, and when the definition of bioequivalence, for almost half (51%) of physicians, a generic drug bioequivalent to the brand-name drug is a drug with the same half-life. Eighty-eight percent (88%) of the doctors prescribe generic drugs when lower cost is met. Seventy percent of physicians (70%) prescribe generics when bioequivalence is demonstrated with the brand-name drug. Sixty-eight percent (68%) of doctors are against the substitution because it presents an obstacle to their freedom of prescription. In order to increase the use of generic drugs, better information for physicians is necessary. Other ways can be implemented, first establish the quality of Moroccan generic by bioequivalence studies and think about steps to put in place to encourage doctors and pharmacists to prescribe and dispense generic drugs, particularly the rights of substitution. © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  10. Generic domain models in software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiden, Neil

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of generic models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these generic models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of generic domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.

  11. Determinants of generic drug substitution in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since generic drugs have the same therapeutic effect as the original formulation but at generally lower costs, their use should be more heavily promoted. However, a considerable number of barriers to their wider use have been observed in many countries. The present study examines the influence of patients, physicians and certain characteristics of the generics' market on generic substitution in Switzerland. Methods We used reimbursement claims' data submitted to a large health insurer by insured individuals living in one of Switzerland's three linguistic regions during 2003. All dispensed drugs studied here were substitutable. The outcome (use of a generic or not) was modelled by logistic regression, adjusted for patients' characteristics (gender, age, treatment complexity, substitution groups) and with several variables describing reimbursement incentives (deductible, co-payments) and the generics' market (prices, packaging, co-branded original, number of available generics, etc.). Results The overall generics' substitution rate for 173,212 dispensed prescriptions was 31%, though this varied considerably across cantons. Poor health status (older patients, complex treatments) was associated with lower generic use. Higher rates were associated with higher out-of-pocket costs, greater price differences between the original and the generic, and with the number of generics on the market, while reformulation and repackaging were associated with lower rates. The substitution rate was 13% lower among hospital physicians. The adoption of the prescribing practices of the canton with the highest substitution rate would increase substitution in other cantons to as much as 26%. Conclusions Patient health status explained a part of the reluctance to substitute an original formulation by a generic. Economic incentives were efficient, but with a moderate global effect. The huge interregional differences indicated that prescribing behaviours and beliefs are probably the

  12. Rational use of generic psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Maren; Correll, Christoph U

    2013-05-01

    For economic reasons, the generic substitution of branded medications is common and welcome. These replacements are based on the concept of bioequivalence, which is considered equal to therapeutic equivalence. Regulatory standards for bioequivalence require the 90 % confidence intervals of group averages of pharmacokinetic measures of a generic and the original drug to overlap within ±20 %. However, therapeutic equivalence has been challenged for several psychotropic agents by retrospective studies and case reports. To evaluate the degree of bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence of branded and generic psychotropic drugs, we performed an electronic search (from database inception until 24 May 2012 and without language restrictions) in PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Search terms were "(generic) AND (psychotropic OR psychoactive OR antipsychotic OR antiepileptic OR antidepressant OR stimulant OR benzodiazepine)" or the respective individual substances. We included clinical studies, regardless of design, comparing branded with generic psychotropic drug formulations, identifying 35 such studies. We also included case reports/series reporting on outcomes after a switch between brand and generic psychotropics, identifying 145 clinical cases. Bioequivalence studies in healthy controls or animals, in-vitro studies, and health economics studies without medical information were excluded. An overview of the few randomized controlled studies supports that US FDA regulations assure clinically adequate drug delivery in the majority of patients switched from brand to generic. However, with a growing number of competing generic products for one substance, and growing economic pressure to substitute with the currently cheapest generic, frequent generic-generic switches, often unbeknownst to prescribing clinicians, raise concerns, particularly for antiepileptics/mood stabilizers. Generic-generic switches may vary by more than ±20 % from each other in

  13. Analysis of French generic medicines retail market: why the use of generic medicines is limited.

    PubMed

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2014-12-01

    The market share of generic medicines in France is low compared to other European countries. This perspective paper provides an overview of the generic medicines retail market in France and how the current policy environment may affect the long-term sustainability. Looking at the French generic medicines retail market and the surrounding regulatory framework, all conditions seem to be in place to create a healthy generic medicines market: the country has well-respected regulatory authorities, generic medicines enter the market in a timely manner and prices of generic medicines are competitive compared with other European countries. Despite the success of the demand-side policies targeted at pharmacists and patients, those targeted at physicians were less successful due to a lack of enforcement and a lack of trust in generic medicines by French physicians. Recommendations to increase the use of generic medicines in France round off this perspective paper.

  14. Anticipated Impact of Generic Imatinib Market Entry on the Costs of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bloudek, Lisa M; Makenbaeva, Dinara; Eaddy, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Imatinib was the first BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) approved in the United States for the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia and is currently the most prescribed TKI. The impending loss of patent exclusivity for imatinib has the potential to reduce costs for payers. The primary objectives of this study were to estimate the economic impact of the loss of patent exclusivity for branded imatinib and to calculate the relative impact of requiring prior authorization (PA) for the use of generic imatinib before a branded TKI. The secondary objective was to evaluate the potential relative cost impact of using a preferred branded TKI in addition to the PA requirement for generic imatinib before a branded TKI. A Microsoft Excel-based model was developed from the perspective of a US payer (commercial and Medicare) for a 2-year period. Data on utilization, patient out-of-pocket cost, and market share were obtained from an analysis of Truven Health MarketScan claims. It was assumed that the cost of generic imatinib would be 47.8% of the price of branded imatinib. It was assumed that 70% of patients receiving branded imatinib would shift to generic imatinib in year 1, and 95% would shift in year 2 after loss of patent exclusivity. Formulary management could be applied through PA requiring the use of generic imatinib before a branded TKI for patients newly prescribed TKI therapy. It was assumed that 74% of PA requests would be approved, and that the administrative cost of each would be $20. In a hypothetical 1 million member commercial plan, the loss of patent exclusivity for branded imatinib produced cost-savings of $6.8 million during 2 years, or 28.8% of the total pharmacy spending on the TKI class. The savings were even greater in a 1 million member Medicare plan, at $22.9 million (28.8%). Formulary management reduced incremental TKI spending by 1.1% and 2.2% for the commercial and Medicare plans, respectively. In the absence of formulary

  15. Generic Language and Judgements about Category Membership: Can Generics Highlight Properties as Central?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Raman, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Many languages distinguish generic utterances (e.g., "Tigers are ferocious") from non-generic utterances (e.g., "Those tigers are ferocious"). Two studies examined how generic language specially links properties and categories. We used a novel-word extension task to ask if 4- to 5-year-old children and adults distinguish…

  16. Generic Language and Judgements about Category Membership: Can Generics Highlight Properties as Central?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Raman, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Many languages distinguish generic utterances (e.g., "Tigers are ferocious") from non-generic utterances (e.g., "Those tigers are ferocious"). Two studies examined how generic language specially links properties and categories. We used a novel-word extension task to ask if 4- to 5-year-old children and adults distinguish…

  17. Generic linear microcircuit test requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanemura, Steve K.; Mitchell, Ronald R.

    1991-04-01

    The Generic Linear Microcircuit Test Requirements Program is outlined. The objective was to develop new series-4000 test specifications to standardize testing of linear devices. The drafts developed will replace the existing series-4000 methods in MIL-STD-883C. New series-4000 drafts for 11 device families were developed, which will cover the majority of the linear microcircuits used in military systems. The test methods specified in each draft referenced a variety of sources including M38510 slash sheets, industry standard procedures, literature, existing test methods in MIL-STD-883C, and newly developed methods. Completion of these drafts will provide more consistent testing of linear devices. All aspects of the program are reviewed.

  18. [Original brands and generic preparations].

    PubMed

    Petersen, K U

    2000-01-15

    Modern guidelines of drug approval aim at interchangeability of drugs containing the same active ingredients. Therapeutic equivalence of original and generic drugs is assumed as soon as bioequivalence is documented. For this to be accepted, first, pharmaceutical equivalence must prevail (the same amount of active substances in the same dosage forms) and, second, differences in bioavailabilities must not exceed certain limits. Drastic deviations from the original--not infrequent in the past--have become rare under the new sets of rules. However, there is still room for sometimes stunning discrepancies between approved drugs, since the current procedures--mainly for economic reasons--do not cover some potentially relevant aspects: Usually, studies are performed on young, healthy, mostly male volunteers; possible effects of meals on bioavailability are not investigated and, after approval of a drug, maintenance of attested quality--as with all manufacturers--is not monitored. Moreover, the tolerated deviations from the bioavailability of the original drug are quite large; with certain substances, a change from the generic drug with the lowest bioavailability to that with the highest could mean transition from low efficacy to a toxic dose level. Documented examples include carbamazepine, phenytoin, levothyroxin, verapamil, and aspirin. In conclusion, even today's sophisticated rules do not suffice to cover all eventualities. In particular, drugs with a narrow therapeutic range require close scrutiny in product selection. Pertinent are drug documentation as well as the distinguishing features of the respective manufacturers, mainly scientific support and record of product reliability. Besides the sometimes insufficient official documentation, the internet has been gaining importance as a source of information.

  19. Determinants of Market Exclusivity for Prescription Drugs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Avorn, Jerry

    2017-09-11

    The high prices of brand-name prescription drugs are a growing source of controversy in the United States. Manufacturers of brand-name drugs can command high prices because they are protected from generic competition by two types of government-granted monopoly rights. The first are patents on the drugs that generally define the basic period of brand-name-only sales. The second is awarded at the time of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and usually defines the minimum time until a generic can be sold. The initial patents last for 20 years and may be extended to account for time spent in clinical trials and regulatory review; other laws prevent approval of other manufacturers' versions of new drugs for about 6 to 7 years, and for new biologics for 12 years. Overall, most new drugs receive about 12 to 16 years of market exclusivity from both kinds of monopoly protection combined. We reviewed the peer-reviewed medical and health policy literature to identify studies that described the different types of patent protection and regulatory exclusivities that shield brand-name prescription drugs from competition and thus help to sustain high drug prices. We also identified potential policy reforms intended to modify exclusivity periods to address public health needs by balancing drug affordability and industry revenue. The goal of policy in this area should be to ensure that drug market exclusivity periods provide for fair return on investment but do not indefinitely block availability of lower-cost generic drugs.

  20. Children's Interpretation of Generic Noun Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Star, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Two studies used a comprehension task and an elicited production task to examine whether preschool children and adults appreciated the semantic properties of generic utterances. Findings indicated that in both tasks, 4-year-olds and adults treated generics ("bears live in caves") as distinct from both indefinites ("some") and universal quantifiers…

  1. Generic Language Facilitates Children's Cross-Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific…

  2. Developmental Changes in the Understanding of Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Bloom, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Generic sentences (such as "Birds lay eggs") are important in that they refer to kinds (e.g., birds as a group) rather than individuals (e.g., the birds in the henhouse). The present set of studies examined aspects of how generic nouns are understood by English speakers. Adults and children (4- and 5-year-olds) were presented with scenarios about…

  3. Generic drugs in dermatology: part I.

    PubMed

    Payette, Michael; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2012-03-01

    The cost of health care in the United States is increasing. In order to help control these rising costs, all parties involved in the delivery of health care, including dermatologists, need to be part of the solution of ethically reducing the cost of delivery of care. One potential means of meeting this goal is to increase the use of generic medications in daily practice. Generic medications can offer equally efficacious therapy at significantly lower prices, which can translate into large scale savings for the individual patient, the payer, and the overall health care system. Herein we provide an overview of new drug development, review the history of the generic drug industry, describe how generic drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and define the concepts of bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence. In part II, we explore various factors impacting generic drug use, provide cost analyses of dermatologic brand name and generic drugs, and review data addressing potential differences in the effectiveness of brand name versus generic drugs in dermatology. The cost of brand name and generic medications is highly variable by pharmacy, state, and payer. We used one source (www.drugstore.com) as an example and for consistency across all medications discussed herein. Prices included here may not reflect actual retail prices across the United States. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. HTGR generic technology program plan (FY 80)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Purpose of the program is to develop base technology and to perform design and development common to the HTGR Steam Cycle, Gas Turbine, and Process Heat Plants. The generic technology program breaks into the base technology, generic component, pebble-bed study, technology transfer, and fresh fuel programs. (DLC)

  5. Generic Language Facilitates Children's Cross-Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific…

  6. Defining Generic Skills. At a Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Generic skills--skills that apply across a variety of jobs and life contexts--are taking on increased importance in Australia and internationally. There is a high demand for generic skills in the workplace because employers seek to ensure business success by recruiting and retaining employees who have a variety of skills and personal attributes as…

  7. Children's Interpretation of Generic Noun Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Star, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Two studies used a comprehension task and an elicited production task to examine whether preschool children and adults appreciated the semantic properties of generic utterances. Findings indicated that in both tasks, 4-year-olds and adults treated generics ("bears live in caves") as distinct from both indefinites ("some") and universal quantifiers…

  8. Generic Proving: Reflections on Scope and Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leron, Uri; Zaslavsky, Orit

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role of generic proofs in helping students access difficult proofs more easily and naturally. We present three examples of generic proving--an elementary one on numbers, a more advanced one on permutations, and yet more advanced one on groups--and consider the affordances and pitfalls of the method by reflecting on these examples. A…

  9. Generic Skills. Keys to Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Arthur De W.

    The generic skills studies in Canada have as their objectives the formulation of generic skills, the identification of their uses for certain occupational groups, and the preparation of specifications for instructional modules in an attempt to provide greater flexibility to workers, employers, and vocational training programs. Another objective of…

  10. Mapping Generic Skills Curricula: A Recommended Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robley, Will; Whittle, Sue; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Since the 1997 Dearing Report, generic skills development has become an essential part of higher education in the UK. Generic skills programmes are, in the main, either run in parallel with existing curricula or "embedded" within them. In 1993 the General Medical Council introduced student selected components (SSCs) into the UK medical…

  11. 78 FR 55687 - Notice of Intent To Grant an Exclusive, Partially Exclusive or Non-Exclusive License of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... prospective exclusive, partially exclusive, or non-exclusive license of the following U.S. Patent Application... business at 201 Ruther Drive, Suite 3, Newark, DE 19711. DATES: Written objections must be filed not later...

  12. Generic versus branded medicines: An observational study among patients with chronic diseases attending a public hospital outpatient department.

    PubMed

    Das, Manisha; Choudhury, Supriyo; Maity, Somnath; Hazra, Avijit; Pradhan, Tirthankar; Pal, Aishee; Roy, Ranendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The concept of generic prescription is widely accepted in various parts of the world. Nevertheless, it has failed to gain popularity in India due to factors such as nonavailability and distrust on the product quality. However, since 2012, the Government of West Bengal, India, has initiated exclusive generic drug outlets called "fair price medicine shop" (FPMS) inside the government hospital premises in a "public-private-partnership" model. This study was undertaken to evaluate the experience and attitude of patients who were consuming generic drugs purchased from these FPMS. It was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study where we have interviewed 100 patients each consuming generic and branded drugs, respectively. The perceived effectiveness, reported safety, medication adherence, cost of therapy, and availability of drugs was compared between two mentioned groups. Medication adherence was estimated through Drug Attitude Inventory-10. 93% of generic and 87% branded drug users believed that their drugs were effective (P = 0.238) in controlling their ailments. No significant difference (9% generic, 10% branded drug users, P = 1.000) was observed in reported adverse effects between generic and branded drug users. 82% and 77% of patients were adherent generic and branded drugs, respectively (P = 0.289). As expected, a significantly lower cost of generic drugs was observed compared to its branded counterpart. The policy of FPMS implemented by the Government of West Bengal, India appeared to be promising in terms of perceived effectiveness, safety, and adherence of generic drugs from FPMS compared to drugs purchased from open market retailers. Therefore, this study might act as an impetus for the policy-makers to initiate similar models across the country.

  13. Generic versus branded medicines: An observational study among patients with chronic diseases attending a public hospital outpatient department

    PubMed Central

    Das, Manisha; Choudhury, Supriyo; Maity, Somnath; Hazra, Avijit; Pradhan, Tirthankar; Pal, Aishee; Roy, Ranendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: The concept of generic prescription is widely accepted in various parts of the world. Nevertheless, it has failed to gain popularity in India due to factors such as nonavailability and distrust on the product quality. However, since 2012, the Government of West Bengal, India, has initiated exclusive generic drug outlets called “fair price medicine shop” (FPMS) inside the government hospital premises in a “public-private-partnership” model. This study was undertaken to evaluate the experience and attitude of patients who were consuming generic drugs purchased from these FPMS. Materials and Methods: It was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study where we have interviewed 100 patients each consuming generic and branded drugs, respectively. The perceived effectiveness, reported safety, medication adherence, cost of therapy, and availability of drugs was compared between two mentioned groups. Medication adherence was estimated through Drug Attitude Inventory-10. Results: 93% of generic and 87% branded drug users believed that their drugs were effective (P = 0.238) in controlling their ailments. No significant difference (9% generic, 10% branded drug users, P = 1.000) was observed in reported adverse effects between generic and branded drug users. 82% and 77% of patients were adherent generic and branded drugs, respectively (P = 0.289). As expected, a significantly lower cost of generic drugs was observed compared to its branded counterpart. Conclusion: The policy of FPMS implemented by the Government of West Bengal, India appeared to be promising in terms of perceived effectiveness, safety, and adherence of generic drugs from FPMS compared to drugs purchased from open market retailers. Therefore, this study might act as an impetus for the policy-makers to initiate similar models across the country. PMID:28250671

  14. [Generic drugs: good or bad? Physician's knowledge of generic drugs and prescribing habits].

    PubMed

    García, A J; Martos, F; Leiva, F; Sánchez de la Cuesta, F

    2003-01-01

    In this article we analyze the responses of 1220 Spanish physicians who participated in a survery about generic drugs. A previously validated questionnaire was sent to physicians through the Spanish Medical Councils of the different provinces. Four items were analyzed: what doctors know about generic drugs (knowledge); physicians' prescribing habits concerning these drugs (attitude and professional competence); how prescription of generic drugs effects pharmaceutical costs amd, finally, what doctors believe a generic drug should be. The influence of physician-related variables (age, type of contract, specialty, workload, etc.) on prescribing of generic drugs was also analyzed. In view of the results, we believe that to rationalize expenditure through and appropriate policy on generic drugs Spanish health authorities should offer more and better training and information (clear and independent) about what generic drugs are.

  15. Dynamic competition in pharmaceuticals. Patent expiry, generic penetration, and industry structure.

    PubMed

    Magazzini, Laura; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2004-06-01

    This paper investigates patterns of industrial dynamics and competition in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular reference to the consequences of patent expiry in different countries. We focus on the competition at the level of single chemical entities, distinguishing between original brands and generic products. Quarterly data, spanning from July 1987 to December 1998, on sales of pharmaceutical products in four countries (USA, UK, Germany, and France) constitute the basis of our analysis. All the products containing major molecules whose patent expiration date lies between 1986 and 1996 are included in our sample. We show how diffusion of generics is linked to the characteristics of the market and investigate how price dynamics of original products are affected by generic competition. Our empirical investigation shows that the dynamics of drug prices and the competition by generic drugs vary significantly across countries. This heterogeneity notwithstanding, a clear distinction seems to emerge. On the one hand, systems that rely on market-based competition in pharmaceuticals promote a clear distinction between firms that act as innovators and firms that act as imitators after patent expiry. Here, original products enjoy premium prices and exclusivity profits under patent protection, and face fierce price competition after patent expiry. On the other hand, in systems that rely on administered prices, penetration by generic drugs tends to be rather limited. Its descriptive and preliminary nature notwithstanding, our analysis seems to have relevant implications at different levels of generality, especially for Europe.

  16. A Generic Method for Design of Oligomer-Specific Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Brännström, Kristoffer; Lindhagen-Persson, Malin; Gharibyan, Anna L.; Iakovleva, Irina; Vestling, Monika; Sellin, Mikael E.; Brännström, Thomas; Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla; Forsgren, Lars; Olofsson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies that preferentially and specifically target pathological oligomeric protein and peptide assemblies, as opposed to their monomeric and amyloid counterparts, provide therapeutic and diagnostic opportunities for protein misfolding diseases. Unfortunately, the molecular properties associated with oligomer-specific antibodies are not well understood, and this limits targeted design and development. We present here a generic method that enables the design and optimisation of oligomer-specific antibodies. The method takes a two-step approach where discrimination between oligomers and fibrils is first accomplished through identification of cryptic epitopes exclusively buried within the structure of the fibrillar form. The second step discriminates between monomers and oligomers based on differences in avidity. We show here that a simple divalent mode of interaction, as within e.g. the IgG isotype, can increase the binding strength of the antibody up to 1500 times compared to its monovalent counterpart. We expose how the ability to bind oligomers is affected by the monovalent affinity and the turnover rate of the binding and, importantly, also how oligomer specificity is only valid within a specific concentration range. We provide an example of the method by creating and characterising a spectrum of different monoclonal antibodies against both the Aβ peptide and α-synuclein that are associated with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, respectively. The approach is however generic, does not require identification of oligomer-specific architectures, and is, in essence, applicable to all polypeptides that form oligomeric and fibrillar assemblies. PMID:24618582

  17. Initial steps in the regulation of generic biological drugs: a comparison of U.S. and Canadian regimes.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Kenneth J; Wolanski, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Biological drug products are poised to overtake traditional pharmaceuticals as the best selling products in the pharmaceutical industry. Accordingly, both innovator and generic drug companies have a vested interest in the rules and regulations governing the approval and market entry of follow-on ("generic") biologic drug products as well as relevant procedures for litigating disputes involving biologic drug products. The U.S. and Canada both regulate the development and sale of traditional generic drugs through complex legal and regulatory schemes that seek to maintain a balance of interests between the innovator and generic sectors of the pharmaceutical industry. With the continued emergence of biological drugs, both countries have recently set forth legal and regulatory schemes to address the unique issues presented by generic biologic drug products. These issues include the requirements needed to submit an application for a generic biologic; biosimilarity vs. interchangeability designations; market and data exclusivity; and procedures for litigating disputes involving biologic drugs. Like the respective rules governing traditional pharmaceuticals, the recent U.S. and Canadian regulations addressing biological drugs contain both similarities and differences. As such, an understanding of both countries regulatory schemes will help both innovators and generics in decision making and legal strategy related to biological drugs. This article provides a comparative overview of the two systems to assist in such an understanding.

  18. GenMed 010: a one day workshop on generic medicines.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Pr; Hassali, Ma; Subish, P; Piryani, Rm; Thapa, Bb; Mishra, N

    2011-01-01

    This report outlines the content of a one-day workshop on Generic Medicines that was held at KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal on 13(th) December 2010, which was attended by 32 delegates from different institutions in Nepal, including pharmacists, pharmacologists and medical doctors. Right medicine, right patient, right dose, right frequency and duration, right information and right monitoring are conditions to be fulfilled for the rational use of medicine (RUM). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines generic medicine as 'a pharmaceutical product, usually intended to be interchangeable with the innovator product, marketed after the expiry of patent or other exclusivity rights'. Economic factors, supportive legislation and regulation, public and professional acceptance and quality assurance are key enabling factors promoting use of generics. Increased patent protection for medicines and removing process patents is a key feature of new trade agreements and newer medicines for diseases like HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and infectious diseases are likely to be more expensive. The Medicine and Therapeutics Committee (MTC) can play a key role in promoting generic medicine use in institutions.Nepal being among the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) need not provide patent protection for medicines until 31(st) December 2015. Only a few 'true' generics are available in Nepal and there is huge cost variation in the price of different branded generics. Clinicians have concerns about the quality of medicines in general, substitution of poor quality brands by pharmacists and about therapeutic substitution. Generics have to meet the same regulatory requirements and be bioequivalent to reference preparations assuring their quality.

  19. 78 FR 59911 - Generic Information Collection for Land Management Planning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Forest Service Generic Information Collection for Land Management Planning AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... information collection, Generic Information Collection for Land Management Planning. DATES: Comments must be... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Generic Information Collection for Land Management...

  20. Generic drugs in dermatology: part II.

    PubMed

    Payette, Michael; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2012-03-01

    In part I, we discussed new drug development, reviewed the history of the generic drug industry, described how generic drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and defined the concepts of bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence. Herein, we explore various factors impacting generic drug use across the different parties involved: the prescriber, the pharmacist, the patient, and the payer. We also include original cost analysis of dermatologic brand name and generic drugs and show the potential cost savings that can be achieved through generic substitution. We conclude with a review of the data addressing potential differences in the effectiveness of brand name versus generic drugs in dermatology. The cost of brand name and generic medications is highly variable by pharmacy, state, and payer. We used one source (www.drugstore.com) as an example and for consistency across all medications discussed herein. Prices included here may not reflect actual retail prices across the United States. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Risks and benefits of generic antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Alonso, Juan; Kanner, Andrés M; Herranz, José Luis; Molins, Albert; Gil-Nagel, Antonio

    2008-11-01

    In most therapeutic areas, prescribing generic drugs seems to lower costs without sacrificing efficacy. The use of generic drugs for treating epilepsy may, however, be more controversial. A systematic review of the literature on generic antiepileptic drugs has been carried out based primarily on a bibliographical search in the Medline database. Published studies are usually of a descriptive nature and are sometimes based on generic drugs that were approved in times when regulatory agency requirements were not as strict as they are now. Experts claim that a change in pharmaceutical formulations could cause seizure recurrence in cases that had been successfully controlled in the past, with severe effects on patients. Meanwhile, several health organizations have provided inconsistent recommendations on the use of generic antiepileptic drugs. In order to obtain scientific evidence on the potential risks and benefits of interchanging branded and generic antiepileptic drugs, high methodological comparative studies are necessary. These studies could bring consensus about the role of generic drugs for treating epilepsy.

  2. Generic antibiotic drugs: is effectiveness guaranteed?

    PubMed

    Gauzit, R; Lakdhari, M

    2012-04-01

    There are recently published arguments suggesting all generic antibiotic drugs do not present the full reliability needed to claim therapeutic equivalence with branded drugs. The problem is especially crucial for generic intravenous drugs, which do not need any bioequivalence study before they can be marketed. The evaluation of generic antibiotic drug effectiveness yields an important dispersion of results according to antibiotic agents and for the same antibiotic agent all generic drugs are not equivalent. There are differences at all levels: drug components, levels of impurity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship, in vitro effectiveness, therapeutic effectiveness in experimental models, etc. So that finally, the specifications approved in the initial submission file of a brand name drugs are not always respected by a generic drug. There is also a specific problem of taste and treatment acceptability for pediatric oral antibiotic drugs. Available data on clinical effectiveness is excessively rare. The marketing of a great number of generic drugs of the same specialty is followed by a sometimes very important increase of their use, even in countries where consumption is low. The corollary of this increase in consumption is an increase of resistance, and this is especially true for oral fluoroquinolones. Even if most of this information needs to be verified, it seems necessary to review regulations for marketing authorization of generic antibiotic drugs.

  3. A reappraisal of generic bisphosphonates in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kanis, J A; Reginster, J-Y; Kaufman, J-M; Ringe, J-D; Adachi, J D; Hiligsmann, M; Rizzoli, R; Cooper, C

    2012-01-01

    The competitive price of generic bisphosphonates has had a marked effect on practice guidelines, but an increasing body of evidence suggests that they have more limited effectiveness than generally assumed. The purpose of this study is to review the impact of generic bisphosphonates on effectiveness in the treatment of osteoporosis. This study is a literature review. A substantial body of evidence indicates that many generic formulations of alendronate are more poorly tolerated than the proprietary preparations which results in significantly poorer adherence and thus effectiveness. Poorer effectiveness may result from faster disintegration times of many generics that increase the likelihood of adherence of particulate matter to the oesophageal mucosa. Unfortunately, market authorisation, based on the bioequivalence of generics with a proprietary formulation, does not take into account the potential concerns about safety. The poor adherence of many generic products has implications for guideline development, cost-effectiveness and impact of treatment on the burden of disease. The impact of generic bisphosphonates requires formal testing to re-evaluate their role in the management of osteoporosis.

  4. Generic oncology drugs: are they all safe?

    PubMed

    Yang, Y Tony; Nagai, Sumimasa; Chen, Brian K; Qureshi, Zaina P; Lebby, Akida A; Kessler, Samuel; Georgantopoulos, Peter; Raisch, Dennis W; Sartor, Oliver; Hermanson, Terhi; Kane, Robert C; Hrushesky, William J; Riente, Joshua J; Norris, LeAnn B; Bobolts, Laura R; Armitage, James O; Bennett, Charles L

    2016-11-01

    Although the availability of generic oncology drugs allows access to contemporary care and reduces costs, there is international variability in the safety of this class of drugs. In this Series paper, we review clinical, policy, safety, and regulatory considerations for generic oncology drugs focusing on the USA, Canada, the European Union (EU), Japan, China, and India. Safety information about generic formulations is reviewed from one agent in each class, for heavy metal drugs (cisplatin), targeted agents (imatinib), and cytotoxic agents (docetaxel). We also review regulatory reports from Japan and the USA, countries with the largest pharmaceutical expenditures. Empirical studies did not identify safety concerns in the USA, Canada, the EU, and Japan, where regulations and enforcement are strong. Although manufacturing problems for generic pharmaceuticals exist in India, where 40% of all generic pharmaceuticals used in the USA are manufactured, increased inspections and communication by the US Food and Drug Administration are occurring, facilitating oversight and enforcement. No safety outbreaks among generic oncology drugs were reported in developed countries. For developing countries, oversight is less intensive, and concerns around drug safety still exist. Regulatory agencies should collaboratively develop procedures to monitor the production, shipment, storage, and post-marketing safety of generic oncology drugs. Regulatory agencies for each country should also aim towards identical definitions of bioequivalence, the cornerstone of regulatory approval. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John; Milora, Stanley

    2015-11-01

    The original Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor paper was published in 1986. This update describes what has changed in 30 years. Notably, the construction of ITER is providing important benchmark numbers for technologies and costs. In addition, we use a more conservative neutron wall flux and fluence. But these cost-increasing factors are offset by greater optimism on the thermal-electric conversion efficiency and potential availability. The main examples show the cost of electricity (COE) as a function of aspect ratio and neutron flux to the first wall. The dependence of the COE on availability, thermo-electric efficiency, electrical power output, and the present day's low interest rates is also discussed. Interestingly, at fixed aspect ratio there is a shallow minimum in the COE at neutron flux around 2.5 MW/m2. The possibility of operating with only a small COE penalty at even lower wall loadings (to 1.0 MW/m2 at larger plant size) and the use of niobium-titanium coils are also investigated. J. Sheffield was supported by ORNL subcontract 4000088999 with the University of Tennessee.

  6. Generic theory for channel sinuosity.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Eli D; Constantine, José Antonio

    2013-05-21

    Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as "inherited" from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a generic theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support.

  7. Fast generic polar harmonic transforms.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thai V; Tabbone, Salvatore

    2014-07-01

    Generic polar harmonic transforms have recently been proposed to extract rotation-invariant features from images and their usefulness has been demonstrated in a number of pattern recognition problems. However, direct computation of these transforms from their definition is inefficient and is usually slower than some efficient computation strategies that have been proposed for other methods. This paper presents a number of novel computation strategies to compute these transforms rapidly. The proposed methods are based on the inherent recurrence relations among complex exponential and trigonometric functions used in the definition of the radial and angular kernels of these transforms. The employment of these relations leads to recursive and addition chain-based strategies for fast computation of harmonic function-based kernels. Experimental results show that the proposed method is about 10× faster than direct computation and 5× faster than fast computation of Zernike moments using the q-recursive strategy. Thus, among all existing rotation-invariant feature extraction methods, polar harmonic transforms are the fastest.

  8. Distinguishability of generic quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Pawela, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol

    2016-06-01

    Properties of random mixed states of dimension N distributed uniformly with respect to the Hilbert-Schmidt measure are investigated. We show that for large N , due to the concentration of measure, the trace distance between two random states tends to a fixed number D ˜=1 /4 +1 /π , which yields the Helstrom bound on their distinguishability. To arrive at this result, we apply free random calculus and derive the symmetrized Marchenko-Pastur distribution, which is shown to describe numerical data for the model of coupled quantum kicked tops. Asymptotic value for the root fidelity between two random states, √{F }=3/4 , can serve as a universal reference value for further theoretical and experimental studies. Analogous results for quantum relative entropy and Chernoff quantity provide other bounds on the distinguishablity of both states in a multiple measurement setup due to the quantum Sanov theorem. We study also mean entropy of coherence of random pure and mixed states and entanglement of a generic mixed state of a bipartite system.

  9. Generic OPC UA Server Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiel, Piotr P.; Farnham, Benjamin; Filimonov, Viatcheslav; Schlenker, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a new approach for generic design and efficient development of OPC UA servers. Development starts with creation of a design file, in XML format, describing an object-oriented information model of the target system or device. Using this model, the framework generates an executable OPC UA server application, which exposes the per-design OPC UA address space, without the developer writing a single line of code. Furthermore, the framework generates skeleton code into which the developer adds the necessary logic for integration to the target system or device. This approach allows both developers unfamiliar with the OPC UA standard, and advanced OPC UA developers, to create servers for the systems they are experts in while greatly reducing design and development effort as compared to developments based purely on COTS OPC UA toolkits. Higher level software may further benefit from the explicit OPC UA server model by using the XML design description as the basis for generating client connectivity configuration and server data representation. Moreover, having the XML design description at hand facilitates automatic generation of validation tools. In this contribution, the concept and implementation of this framework is detailed along with examples of actual production-level usage in the detector control system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN and beyond.

  10. Generic theory for channel sinuosity

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Eli D.; Constantine, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as “inherited” from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a generic theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support. PMID:23610390

  11. Generic physical protection logic trees

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  12. Perception of Generic Prescription Drugs and Utilization of Generic Drug Discount Programs

    PubMed Central

    Omojasola, Anthony; Hernandez, Mike; Sansgiry, Sujit; Jones, Lovell

    2012-01-01

    Objective Our study aimed to assess patient’s perceptions of generic drugs and utilization of generic drug discount programs. Design, Setting and Participants A survey was administered to adult participants at community health centers and community-based organizations in Houston, Texas, USA (n=525). Main Outcome Measures Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the strength of association between generic drug perception and utilization of generic drug discount programs. Results Respondents who agreed that “Generic prescription drugs are as effective as brand name prescription drugs,” were 3 times as likely to utilize generic drug discount programs (AOR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.8–4.8, P<.001). Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans (OR: 10.2; 95% CI: 1.4–76.4) and Hispanics (OR: 10.3; 95% CI: 1.3–79.4) were 10 times as likely to agree that generic drugs have more side effects than brand name drugs. Conclusion Race/ethnicity had no impact in utilization of generic drug discount programs, despite racial disparities in perception toward generic drugs’ side effects and generic drugs being inferior to brand name drugs. PMID:23140080

  13. Generic substitution, financial interests, and imperfect agency.

    PubMed

    Rischatsch, Maurus; Trottmann, Maria; Zweifel, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Policy makers around the world seek to encourage generic substitution. In this paper, the importance of prescribing physicians' imperfect agency is tested using the fact that some Swiss jurisdictions allow physicians to dispense drugs on their own account (physician dispensing, PD) while others disallow it. We estimate a model of physician drug choice with the help of drug claim data, finding a significant positive association between PD and the use of generics. While this points to imperfect agency, generics are prescribed more often to patients with high copayments or low incomes.

  14. Generic tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Taube, D; Jones, G; O'Beirne, J; Wennberg, L; Connor, A; Rasmussen, A; Backman, L

    2014-05-01

    The availability of a wide range of immunosuppressive therapies has revolutionized the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, the cost of immunosuppressive drugs remains high. This situation has led to the development of generic equivalents, which are similar in quality, safety, and efficacy to their approved innovator drugs. There are data available for three generic brands, tacrolimus (Intas), tacrolimus (PharOS), and tacrolimus (Sandoz). Bioequivalence has been demonstrated for generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) within a narrow therapeutic range to its innovator tacrolimus drug (Prograf) in both healthy volunteers and kidney transplant patients. Clinical experience with this generic tacrolimus formulation has also been established in both de novo and conversion patients who have undergone kidney and liver transplantation, as well as in conversion of other SOT patients, including lung and heart recipients.

  15. [Generic competences in medical undergraduate education].

    PubMed

    Kääpä, Pekka; Hoffren, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    In medical practice physicians need both vocational and generic competences. The importance of generic competences In medical undergraduate curriculum is often poorly appreciated. We assessed by questionnaires the opinions of medical students of the importance of generic competences in medical practice and of their anticipated development during undergraduate medical education in the University of Turku. Students thought that application of medical knowledge in practice, information acquisition, independent working and problem solving skills are important in medical practice and are also well-handled in undergraduate education. On the other hand, students felt that competences, like coping at work, tolerance of uncertainty and organizing skills are often needed in medical profession, but are insufficiently considered in basic education. The balance between importance in medical practice and educational development of generic competences should be more explicitly considered in undergraduate medical teaching.

  16. Are generic drugs really inferior medicines?

    PubMed

    Moore, N; Berdaï, D; Bégaud, B

    2010-09-01

    In this issue Gagne et al. report an elegant case-crossover study of seizures in patients on antiepileptic drugs. They found that a dispensation episode approximately triples the risk of having a seizure within 21 days, but the risk is not statistically different whether the dispensation was of the same brand-name or generic drug as previously used or a switch from brand-name to a generic or from a generic to a brand name. The cause of the seizure might be a delay in taking medication or late redispensation, among others, but apparently the nature of the product dispensed is not relevant in this study; this may alleviate some of the concerns about generic drugs and epilepsy.

  17. [Economy of generic drugs in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Tobar, Federico

    2008-01-01

    In terms of economics, implementing generic drug policy is nothing other than consolidating (or even, creating) drug markets that set competitive prices, the result of which favors public access to essential drugs. This article approaches the topic of generic drugs from the economic perspective by examining various regulatory models in order to evaluate and leverage generic drug policy implementation options as a mechanism for battling some of the markets' specific weaknesses. The conclusion is that there is no single unequivocal method for promoting the use of generic drugs, and that the most favorable way to integrate markets may be through a broad combination of alternatives. These alternatives are grouped and analyzed according to the market issues or challenges that must be overcome. Several options are then identified based on the degree of market consolidation to be obtained.

  18. Hydrodynamic design of generic pump components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastland, A. H. J.; Dodson, H. C.

    1991-01-01

    Inducer and impellar base geometries were defined for a fuel pump for a generic generator cycle. Blade surface data and inlet flowfield definition are available in sufficient detail to allow computational fluid dynamic analysis of the two components.

  19. [Medical mistakes due to generic substitution].

    PubMed

    Rölfing, Jan Hendrik Duedal

    2012-08-27

    Generic substitution is a major cause of medical mistakes in the general population. Danish legislation obligates pharmacies to substitute prescribed medicine with the cheapest equivalent formulation, despite variations in product name, packaging, shape and colour. Consequently, medical mistakes occur. Scientific evidence on the consequences of generic substitution is sparse. Call upon fellow health workers to report medical mistakes to the national entities and scientific peers, in order to increase awareness and scientific evidence about the problem.

  20. [Generic drugs in the treatment of epilepsy].

    PubMed

    González de Dios, J; Ochoa-Sangrador, C; Sempere, A P

    We discuss some controversial aspects with prescription of generic drugs (GD) and the problems concerning bioequivalence, mainly in the case of drugs with non-linear pharmacokinetics and/or narrow therapeutic rank, like the antiepileptic drugs (AED). There is considerable debate about GD in the treatment of epilepsy, with clearly advantages (cost saving) and disadvantages (loss of seizure control or drug toxicity) in prescribing generics anticonvulsants. We make a systematic review of the literature in primary (PubMed) and secondary (Tripdatabase and Cochrane Library) bibliographic databases in relation to GD and AED. The main information is about classical AED (phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid and primidone) and we don't found studies in this area about the new AED. The level of evidence is, generally, weak, based on case-series and expert opinion without explicit critical appraisal (except in phenytoin with level of evidence moderate, based on some analytical studies). In Spain, at this moment, there are only two generic AED, one-classical (carbamazepine) and one-new (gabapentin). The American Academy of Neurology and Epilepsy Foundation maintains that the individual and physician should be notified and give their consent before a switch in antiepileptic medications is made, whether it involves generic substitution for brand name products, or generic to generic substitutions.

  1. Overcoming Exclusion through Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Ian; Walshe, John

    Strategies for overcoming exclusion through adult learning were identified through case studies of 19 initiatives in the following countries: Belgium; Mexico; the Netherlands; Norway; Portugal; and the United Kingdom. The study programs involved a diverse array of formal, nonformal, and informal public sector, community, and enterprise-based…

  2. University Ranking as Social Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsler, Sarah S.; Bolsmann, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore the dual role of global university rankings in the creation of a new, knowledge-identified, transnational capitalist class and in facilitating new forms of social exclusion. We examine how and why the practice of ranking universities has become widely defined by national and international organisations as an important…

  3. Exclusive processes in quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    Large momentum transfer exclusive processes and the short distance structure of hadronic wave functions can be systematically analyzed within the context of perturbative QCD. Predictions for meson form factors, two-photon processes ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. M anti M, hadronic decays of heavy quark systems, and a number of other related QCD phenomena are reviewed.

  4. University Ranking as Social Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsler, Sarah S.; Bolsmann, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore the dual role of global university rankings in the creation of a new, knowledge-identified, transnational capitalist class and in facilitating new forms of social exclusion. We examine how and why the practice of ranking universities has become widely defined by national and international organisations as an important…

  5. Position and enforcement practice of the People's Republic of China's pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Yu, Xiang; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The concept of pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection comes from the West. The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) establishes the basic rules for pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection. People's Republic of China's domestic law is consistent with the TRIPS agreement. In the drug registration approval process of the People's Republic of China's Drug Supervision Department, pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection has encountered some problems, including data authentication, exclusive rights to data, number of drugs requiring data to be submitted, and drug costs. In view of the long-term interests of the People's Republic of China's pharmaceutical industry and intellectual property protection trends, there are a lot of difficulties in the enforcement of pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection law that need to be overcome. Some measures can be taken, such as establishing a shorter data exclusivity protection period, only protecting the data submitted and relied on in the People's Republic of China, only protecting the drugs that use new chemical components, allowing application and necessary research before the expiry of pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection period of generic drugs.

  6. The diffusion of generics after patent expiry in Germany.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Katharina Elisabeth; Stargardt, Tom

    2016-11-01

    To identify the influences on the diffusion of generics after patent expiry, we analyzed 65 generic entries using prescription data of a large German sickness fund between 2007 and 2012 in a sales model. According to theory, several elements are responsible for technology diffusion: (1) time reflecting the rate of adaption within the social system, (2) communication channels, and (3) the degree of incremental innovation, e.g., the modifications of existing active ingredient's strength. We investigated diffusion in two ways: (1) generic market share (percentage of generic prescriptions of all prescriptions of a substance) and, (2) generic sales quantity (number of units sold) over time. We specified mixed regression models. Generic diffusion takes considerable time. An average generic market share of about 75 % was achieved not until 48 months. There was a positive effect of time since generic entry on generic market share (p < 0.001) and sales (p < 0.001). Variables describing the communication channels and the degree of innovation influenced generic market share (mostly p < 0.001), but not generic sales quantity. Market structure, e.g., the number of generic manufacturers (p < 0.001) and prices influenced both generic market share and sales. Imperfections in generic uptake through informational cascades seem to be largely present. Third-party payers could enhance means to promote generic diffusion to amplify savings through generic entry.

  7. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  8. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  9. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  10. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  11. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  12. Information provided by generic and brand-name pharmaceutical manufacturers in response to a request.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Vazquez Gomez, Isabel

    2007-12-01

    To assess the medical information provided by manufacturers in response to a specific request, and to compare the responses between generic and brand-name companies. Community pharmacy in Spain. A systematic request for product monographs was made between 1999 and 2002 to manufacturers registering new medicines in Spain. A standardised letter was sent to the medical affairs departments. If there was no reply after 3 months, a second standardised letter was sent requesting the monograph. Blood derivatives, intravenous medicines, and radiological contrast agents were excluded. The delay that occurred in receiving information and the type of material sent in response to the request was compared between the two types of companies. About of 833 medicines from 185 manufacturers were registered during the time period studied. After applying exclusion criteria, 805 medicines, including 419 (52.0%) generic and 386 (48.0%) brand-name products, were analyzed. No replies were received for 242 (30.0%) requests 183 (43.7%) generics and 59 (15.3%) brand-names; P < 0.005). We received 369 (65.5% of 533) replies after the first request: 140 of 236 (59.3%) generics and 229 of 327 (70.0%) brand-names (P = 0.009). The average response delay was 9.7 days [CI95%: 8.65-10.68]. There was a statistically significant difference between generic and brand-name companies after the first request (P = 0.001), but not after the second request (P = 0.312). Brand-name manufacturers reply more often, more quickly, and with better quality information than generic manufacturers.

  13. Examining patterns in medication documentation of trade and generic names in an academic family practice training centre.

    PubMed

    Summers, Alexander; Ruderman, Carly; Leung, Fok-Han; Slater, Morgan

    2017-09-22

    Studies in the United States have shown that physicians commonly use brand names when documenting medications in an outpatient setting. However, the prevalence of prescribing and documenting brand name medication has not been assessed in a clinical teaching environment. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of generic versus brand names for a select number of pharmaceutical products in clinical documentation in a large, urban academic family practice centre. A retrospective chart review of the electronic medical records of the St. Michael's Hospital Academic Family Health Team (SMHAFHT). Data for twenty commonly prescribed medications were collected from the Cumulative Patient Profile as of August 1, 2014. Each medication name was classified as generic or trade. Associations between documentation patterns and physician characteristics were assessed. Among 9763 patients prescribed any of the twenty medications of interest, 45% of patient charts contained trade nomenclature exclusively. 32% of charts contained only generic nomenclature, and 23% contained a mix of generic and trade nomenclature. There was large variation in use of generic nomenclature amongst physicians, ranging from 19% to 93%. Trade names in clinical documentation, which likely reflect prescribing habits, continue to be used abundantly in the academic setting. This may become part of the informal curriculum, potentially facilitating undue bias in trainees. Further study is needed to determine characteristics which influence use of generic or trade nomenclature and the impact of this trend on trainees' clinical knowledge and decision-making.

  14. A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

    1996-01-01

    Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

  15. Effects of generic versus non-generic feedback on motor learning in children.

    PubMed

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Drews, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Non-generic feedback refers to a specific event and implies that performance is malleable, while generic feedback implies that task performance reflects an inherent ability. The present study examined the influences of generic versus non-generic feedback on motor performance and learning in 10-year-old children. In the first experiment, using soccer ball kicking at a target as a task, providing participants with generic feedback resulted in worse performance than providing non-generic feedback, after both groups received negative feedback. The second experiment measured more permanent effects. Results of a retention test, performed one day after practicing a throwing task, showed that participants who received non-generic feedback during practice outperformed the generic feedback group, after receiving a negative feedback statement. The findings demonstrate the importance of the wording of feedback. Even though different positive feedback statements may not have an immediate influence on performance, they can affect performance, and presumably individuals' motivation, when performance is (purportedly) poor. Feedback implying that performance is malleable, rather than due to an inherent ability, seems to have the potential to inoculate learners against setbacks--a situation frequently encountered in the context of motor performance and learning.

  16. Using Masculine Generics: Does Generic He' Increase Male Bias in the User's Imagery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mykol C.

    1988-01-01

    Studies the effect of the use of the male generic on imagery. Finds that male bias is higher in the masculine generic condition than in the unbiased condition, and that male subjects are more male-biased than female subjects. Discusses findings in terms of linguistic relativity, prototypicality, and activation of multiple meanings. (FMW)

  17. Generic guidelines versus site-specific assessments: Does marriage make sense?

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudet, C.L.; Keenleyside, K.A.; Smith, S.L.; Kent, R.A.; Wong, M.P.

    1995-12-31

    The maintenance, protection and restoration of a high level of environmental quality requires the availability of practical scientific tools. Environmental quality guidelines (also called criteria) are one such scientific tool that help measure progress towards these goals. These guidelines provide scientific benchmarks that can offer consistency and clarity in defining scientific measures for environmental quality that are easily understood, communicated, and implemented as the basis for management decisions. At the same time, debate exists over the use of generic guidelines versus site-specific risk assessments. It is the contention that generic and site-specific approaches are not mutually exclusive, but complementary decision-support tools and that any apparent controversy stems from an incomplete understanding of the nature and intent of generic environmental quality guidelines or from the use of guidelines in the absence of a coherent framework. The authors advocate an approach that marries the strengths of the generic and site-specific approaches and promotes consistent, scientifically-defensible decisions that support broad societal goals for environmental protection. Using Canadian environmental quality guidelines as an example, they provide an overview of the role of environmental quality guidelines in decision-making, with concrete examples of their implementation in addressing specific environmental quality issues.

  18. Intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Ura, Mitsuhiro; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    People have a fundamental need to belong with others. Social exclusion impairs this need and has various effects on cognition, affect, and the behavior of excluded individuals. We have previously reported that activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) could be a neurocognitive index of social exclusion (Kawamoto et al., 2012). In this article, we provide an integrative framework for understanding occurrences during and after social exclusion, by reviewing neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies of dACC and rVLPFC, within the framework of intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion. As a result, we have indicated directions for future studies to further clarify the phenomenon of social exclusion from the following perspectives: (1) constructional elements of social exclusion, (2) detection sensitivity and interpretation bias in social exclusion, (3) development of new methods to assess the reactivity to social exclusion, and (4) sources of social exclusion. PMID:25798081

  19. Nanofluidic Size-Exclusion Chromatograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Sabrina; Svehla, Danielle; Grunthaner, Frank; Feldman, Jason; Shakkottai, P.

    2004-01-01

    Efforts are under way to develop a nanofluidic size-exclusion chromatograph (SEC), which would be a compact, robust, lightweight instrument for separating molecules of interest according to their sizes and measuring their relative abundances in small samples. About as large as a deck of playing cards, the nanofluidic SEC would serve, in effect, as a laboratory on a chip that would perform the functions of a much larger, conventional, bench-top SEC and ancillary equipment, while consuming much less power and much smaller quantities of reagent and sample materials. Its compactness and low power demand would render it attractive for field applications in which, typically, it would be used to identify and quantitate a broad range of polar and nonpolar organic compounds in soil, ice, and water samples. Size-exclusion chromatography is a special case of high-performance liquid chromatography. In a conventional SEC, a sample plug is driven by pressure along a column packed with silica or polymer beads that contain uniform nanopores. The interstices between, and the pores in, the beads collectively constitute a size-exclusion network. Molecules follow different paths through the size-exclusion network, such that characteristic elution times can be related to sizes of molecules: basically, smaller molecules reach the downstream end of the column after the larger ones do because the smaller ones enter minor pores and stay there for a while, whereas the larger ones do not enter the pores. The volume accessible to molecules gradually diminishes as their size increases. All molecules bigger than a pore size elute together. For most substances, the elution times and sizes of molecules can be correlated directly with molecular weights. Hence, by measuring the flux of molecules arriving at the downstream end as a function of time, one can obtain a liquid mass spectrum for the molecules present in a sample over a broad range of molecular weights.

  20. Exclusive breastfeeding: measurement and indicators.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the duration of exclusive breastfeeding is complicated by factors related to definitions, timing, duration of recall, methods of analysis, and sample biases. Clearly prospective methods are likely to be more accurate but are too expensive to use in most large-scale surveys. Internationally, most surveys use a point-in-time or current status measurement (usually 24-hour recall) and report their findings using an indicator established by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1991 that involves combining all babies less than six months old in order to obtain a large enough sample size to result in stable proportions that can be compared over time. However, this indicator is complex to understand and explain and is widely misunderstood, even within the breastfeeding community. It is commonly cited in ways that greatly exaggerate how common exclusive breastfeeding actually is. A life-long or since birth indicator, introduced in 2000, counts infants as no longer exclusively breastfed as soon as anything else is fed to them. This is appropriate to do if for example data are being used to link infant feeding patterns with vertical transmission of HIV or later patterns of infant allergy. However, this indicator underestimates the total extent of exclusive breastfeeding, since some women interrupt but then resume it after a period of supplementation (which could for example only be a small amount of water given a single time). Exactly which indicator is best to use depends on the purpose for which the data are being used. However, for surveys, the best approach, rarely used, would be to report indicators based on both point-in-time and life-long data.

  1. Generic perturbations of linear integrable Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounemoura, Abed

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate perturbations of linear integrable Hamiltonian systems, with the aim of establishing results in the spirit of the KAM theorem (preservation of invariant tori), the Nekhoroshev theorem (stability of the action variables for a finite but long interval of time) and Arnold diffusion (instability of the action variables). Whether the frequency of the integrable system is resonant or not, it is known that the KAM theorem does not hold true for all perturbations; when the frequency is resonant, it is the Nekhoroshev theorem that does not hold true for all perturbations. Our first result deals with the resonant case: we prove a result of instability for a generic perturbation, which implies that the KAM and the Nekhoroshev theorem do not hold true even for a generic perturbation. The case where the frequency is nonresonant is more subtle. Our second result shows that for a generic perturbation the KAM theorem holds true. Concerning the Nekhrosohev theorem, it is known that one has stability over an exponentially long (with respect to some function of ɛ -1) interval of time and that this cannot be improved for all perturbations. Our third result shows that for a generic perturbation one has stability for a doubly exponentially long interval of time. The only question left unanswered is whether one has instability for a generic perturbation (necessarily after this very long interval of time).

  2. [Analysis of generic drug supply in France].

    PubMed

    Taboulet, F; Haramburu, F; Latry, Ph

    2003-09-01

    The list of generic medicines (LGM), published since 1997 by the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (AFFSSaPS), the French Medicine Agency, concerns a special part of the medicines reimbursed by the National Health Insurance (Social Security). The objectives of the present study were: i) to describe the components of this list, based on pharmaceutical, economical and therapeutic characteristics, ii) to study differences between generic and reference products (formulations, excipients, prices, etc.), iii) to analyze information on excipients provided to health care professionals. The 21st version of the LGM (April 2001) was used. Therapeutic value was retrieved from the 2001 AFSSaPS report on the therapeutic value of 4490 reimbursed medicines. Information on excipients in the LGM and the Vidal dictionary (reference prescription book in France) was compared. The products included in the LGM represent 20% of all reimbursed medicines. The mean price differences between generics and their reference products vary between 30 and 50% for more than two thirds of the generic groups. The therapeutic value of the products of the LGM was judged important in 71% of cases (vs 63% for the 4409 assessed medicines) and insufficient in 13% of cases (vs 19%). Information on excipients is often missing and sometimes erroneous. Although the LGM is regularly revised and thus the generic market in perpetual change, the 2001 cross description of this pharmaceutical market provides much informations and raises some concern.

  3. Generic Rigidity for Circle Diffeomorphisms with Breaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocić, Saša

    2016-06-01

    We prove that {C^r}-smooth ({r > 2}) circle diffeomorphisms with a break, i.e., circle diffeomorphisms with a single singular point where the derivative has a jump discontinuity, are generically, i.e., for almost all irrational rotation numbers, not {C^{1+\\varepsilon}}-rigid, for any {\\varepsilon > 0}. This result complements our recent proof, joint with Khanin (Geom Funct Anal 24:2002-2028, 2014), that such maps are generically {C^1}-rigid. It stands in remarkable contrast to the result of Yoccoz (Ann Sci Ec Norm Sup 17:333-361, 1984) that {C^r}-smooth circle diffeomorphisms are generically {C^{r-1-κ}}-rigid, for any {κ > 0}.

  4. The formal verification of generic interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, P.; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    The task assignment 3 of the design and validation of digital flight control systems suitable for fly-by-wire applications is studied. Task 3 is associated with formal verification of embedded systems. In particular, results are presented that provide a methodological approach to microprocessor verification. A hierarchical decomposition strategy for specifying microprocessors is also presented. A theory of generic interpreters is presented that can be used to model microprocessor behavior. The generic interpreter theory abstracts away the details of instruction functionality, leaving a general model of what an interpreter does.

  5. Generic dynamic scaling in kinetic roughening

    PubMed

    Ramasco; Lopez; Rodriguez

    2000-03-06

    We study the dynamic scaling hypothesis in invariant surface growth. We show that the existence of power-law scaling of the correlation functions (scale invariance) does not determine a unique dynamic scaling form of the correlation functions, which leads to the different anomalous forms of scaling recently observed in growth models. We derive all the existing forms of anomalous dynamic scaling from a new generic scaling ansatz. The different scaling forms are subclasses of this generic scaling ansatz associated with bounds on the roughness exponent values. The existence of a new class of anomalous dynamic scaling is predicted and compared with simulations.

  6. Generic programming in POOMA and PETE

    SciTech Connect

    Crotinger, J.A.; Cummings, J.C.; Haney, S.W.; Humphrey, W.F.; Karmesin, S.R.; Reynders, J.V.; Smith, S.A.; Williams, T.J.

    1998-12-31

    POOMA is a C++ framework for developing portable scientific applications for serial and parallel computers using high-level physical abstractions. PETE is the expression template library used by POOMA. This paper discusses generic programming techniques that are used to achieve flexibility and high performance in POOMA and PETE. POOMA uses an engine class that factors the data representation out of its array classes. PETE`s expression templates are used to build up and operate efficiently on expressions. PETE itself uses generic techniques to adapt to a variety of client-class interfaces, and to provide a powerful and flexible compile-time expression-tree traversal mechanism.

  7. Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA): Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, Richard B.; Stovall, John R.

    1992-01-01

    A space generic open avionics architecture created for NASA is described. It will serve as the basis for entities in spacecraft core avionics, capable of being tailored by NASA for future space program avionics ranging from small vehicles such as Moon ascent/descent vehicles to large ones such as Mars transfer vehicles or orbiting stations. The standard consists of: (1) a system architecture; (2) a generic processing hardware architecture; (3) a six class architecture interface model; (4) a system services functional subsystem architectural model; and (5) an operations control functional subsystem architectural model.

  8. 76 FR 38122 - Notice of Availability for Exclusive, Non-Exclusive, or Partially-Exclusive Licensing of an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Department of the Army Notice of Availability for Exclusive, Non-Exclusive, or Partially-Exclusive Licensing..., Synthesis of and Methods of Use Thereof AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... represented by the Secretary of the Army, has rights to this invention. ADDRESSES: Commander, U.S....

  9. 78 FR 6814 - Notice of Availability for Exclusive, Non-Exclusive, or Partially-Exclusive Licensing of an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Department of the Army Notice of Availability for Exclusive, Non-Exclusive, or Partially-Exclusive Licensing... Epitopes AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Announcement is made of the... September 22, 2006. The United States Government as represented by the Secretary of the Army has rights...

  10. 76 FR 38122 - Notice of Availability for Exclusive, Non-Exclusive, or Partially-Exclusive Licensing of an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Department of the Army Notice of Availability for Exclusive, Non-Exclusive, or Partially-Exclusive Licensing... Agents, Synthesis of and Methods of Use Thereof AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice... United States Government, as represented by the Secretary of the Army, has rights to this...

  11. 77 FR 2278 - Notice of Availability for Exclusive, Non-Exclusive, or Partially-Exclusive Licensing of an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Notice of Availability for Exclusive, Non-Exclusive, or Partially-Exclusive Licensing of an Invention Concerning a Method and Device for Detection of Bioavailable Drug Concentration in a...

  12. Impact of a generic substitution reform on patients' and society's expenditure for pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Karolina; Bergström, Gina; Petzold, Max G; Carlsten, Anders

    2007-05-01

    Sweden's pharmaceutical expenditure has increased during the last decades. On 1 October 2002 mandatory generic substitution was introduced in Sweden with the purpose to reduce the growth in pharmaceutical expenditure. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the implementation of generic substitution was associated with changes in patients' expenses and reimbursed cost for prescribed pharmaceuticals included in the Swedish Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). Monthly pharmacy sales data was obtained from the National Corporation of Swedish Pharmacies (Apoteket AB). The study period ranged between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2004. Changes in pharmaceutical expenditure associated with the introduction of generic substitution were analysed with a linear segmented regression. The study comprised outpatient prescription pharmaceuticals encompassed by PBS for Sweden in total and each county council. Two different data sets were analysed. The first comprised all prescribed pharmaceuticals. The second contained only pharmaceuticals on regular prescriptions (i.e. exclusion of multidose dispensed drugs). Changes in patient co-payment per 1000 inhabitants and working day and subsidised cost per 1000 inhabitants and working day associated with the introduction of generic substitution were analysed. Expenditure was expressed in Swedish krona, SEK (SEK 1=US$ 0.14/euro 0.11, 7 July 2006). The Swedish Consumer Price Index was used to inflation-adjust expenditures with 2004 as base. The introduction of generic substitution was associated with a significant change in slope for patient co-payment in both all prescribed pharmaceuticals and pharmaceuticals on regular prescriptions (p<0.005) for Sweden in total. The slope shifted direction from a slight increase before the reform into a decline after the reform was implemented. This was also found for the average slope of patient co-payment for all county councils (p<0.0001). The introduction of generic substitution was

  13. A perturbative approach to central exclusive production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harland-Lang, L. A.; Khoze, V. A.; Ryskin, M. G.

    2015-02-01

    We review some selected results within the Durham model of central exclusive production. We present a detailed discussion of this theoretical approach for modeling exclusive processes and we briefly review some of its phenomenological applications.

  14. 76 FR 17755 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting 180-Day Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Compliance Date for Residential Furnaces and Boilers Test Procedure Amendments AGENCY: Office of Energy... the compliance date related to recent amendments to the DOE test procedure for residential furnaces... furnaces and boilers starting on October 15, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Michael G....

  15. Self-Efficacy and Illicit Opioid Use in a 180-Day Methadone Detoxification Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Patrick M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied self-efficacy and treatment outcomes in a sample of opioid addicts. Results show self-efficacy influenced subsequent drug use in parallel with previous behavior. Suggests that psychological constructs like self-efficacy may hold promise for understanding and decreasing illicit opioid use during long-term methadone detoxification treatment.…

  16. 78 FR 12417 - List of Special Permit Applications Delayed 180 Days

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... 05-31-2013 Fernando, CA. ] RENEWAL SPECIAL PERMITS APPLICATIONS 14455-R EnergySolutions, LLC Oak Ridge, 3 03-31-2013 TN. 15228-R FedEx Express Memphis, TN....... 3 03-31-2013 BILLING CODE 4910-60-M...

  17. 49 CFR 24.401 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day homeowner-occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... such one year period for good cause): (i) The date the displaced person receives final payment for the... the displaced person. (2) Owner retention of displacement dwelling. If the owner retains ownership of... the amount to be paid to a displaced person under paragraph (b)(2) of this section. The payment...

  18. Self-Efficacy and Illicit Opioid Use in a 180-Day Methadone Detoxification Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Patrick M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied self-efficacy and treatment outcomes in a sample of opioid addicts. Results show self-efficacy influenced subsequent drug use in parallel with previous behavior. Suggests that psychological constructs like self-efficacy may hold promise for understanding and decreasing illicit opioid use during long-term methadone detoxification treatment.…

  19. Exclusion Bounds for Extended Anyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Simon; Lundholm, Douglas

    2017-08-01

    We introduce a rigorous approach to the many-body spectral theory of extended anyons, that is quantum particles confined to two dimensions that interact via attached magnetic fluxes of finite extent. Our main results are many-body magnetic Hardy inequalities and local exclusion principles for these particles, leading to estimates for the ground-state energy of the anyon gas over the full range of the parameters. This brings out further non-trivial aspects in the dependence on the anyonic statistics parameter, and also gives improvements in the ideal (non-extended) case.

  20. Approximating spatially exclusive invasion processes.

    PubMed

    Ross, Joshua V; Binder, Benjamin J

    2014-05-01

    A number of biological processes, such as invasive plant species and cell migration, are composed of two key mechanisms: motility and reproduction. Due to the spatially exclusive interacting behavior of these processes a cellular automata (CA) model is specified to simulate a one-dimensional invasion process. Three (independence, Poisson, and 2D-Markov chain) approximations are considered that attempt to capture the average behavior of the CA. We show that our 2D-Markov chain approximation accurately predicts the state of the CA for a wide range of motility and reproduction rates.

  1. Should Physicians be Encouraged to use Generic Names and to Prescribe Generic Drugs?

    PubMed

    Riaz, Haris; Krasuski, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    While using the brand names seems like a trivial issue at the outset, using these names is inherently problematic. Cardiovascular drugs remain the most commonly prescribed drugs by the physicians. The junior doctors are likely to introject practices of their seniors and consequently to reciprocate from the experiences learnt from their preceptors. Using the generic names may be one way to facilitate prescription of the generic drugs who have a better cost profile and similar efficacy than the more expensive branded drugs. In this editorial, we have outlined several arguments to suggest the importance of using the generic names in academic discussions and clinical documentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The importance of being first: evidence from Canadian generic pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Aidan

    2002-12-01

    This paper uses pooled cross-section data on Canadian ethical drug sales to examine the effect of entry timing on sales of generic drugs. The data is for all drugs for which the first generic competitor entered during the years 1994-1997. It is found that the first generic entrant has a lasting competitive advantage: being first into the market appears to lead to an increase of around 30% in market share (among generics) over a period of at least 4 years. This finding has considerable implications for the current policy of allowing brandname drug companies to issue pseudo-generic equivalents as a preemptive strike against true generic competitors.

  3. European Generic Medicines Association (EGA)--16th Annual Conference.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Bob

    2010-08-01

    The 16th Annual Conference of the European Generic Medicines Association (EGA), held in Rome, included topics covering new developments and challenges in the generic medicines industry in Europe. This conference report highlights selected presentations on developments for generics in the Italian healthcare system, a summary of the EGA pharmaceutical sector inquiry on the delayed market entry of generics, developments and trends in the European generics market, the evolution and growth of the global generics industry, and a CEO perspective on the challenges facing the industry.

  4. 40 CFR 1508.4 - Categorical exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1508.4 Section 1508.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.4 Categorical exclusion. Categorical exclusion means a category of actions which do not individually...

  5. 5 CFR 582.103 - Exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusions. 582.103 Section 582.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY Purpose, Definitions, and Exclusions § 582.103 Exclusions. In determining the...

  6. Comparison of Generic Accelerated Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaddorura, Mahmood; Williams, Collette

    2012-01-01

    Case study pedagogy is a teaching strategy in which teachers hope to help students develop and use critical thinking (CT) abilities. This study compared CT skills of 75 second year generic accelerated baccalaureate nursing students during their Fundamentals of Nursing course before and after being educated using case study pedagogical method.…

  7. Focussing on Generic Skills in Training Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, Susan

    A study assessed whether training packages gave sufficient focus to attainment of generic skills and examined approaches that can be used to enhance the delivery of these skills so students are better prepared for the new demands of the workplace. A literature review and consultations with stakeholders provided information on development of the…

  8. Baldrige Theory into Practice: A Generic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arif, Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The education system globally has moved from a push-based or producer-centric system to a pull-based or customer centric system. Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award (MBQA) model happens to be one of the latest additions to the pull based models. The purpose of this paper is to develop a generic framework for MBQA that can be used by…

  9. Using a Generic Invasion Game for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Tactical approaches to teaching are, arguably, still under-utilized in physical education settings, and this may be due to the lack of pertinent assessment materials. The purpose of this article is to present a generic invasion-game unit and to link it to a variety of assessment materials using three tactical components from the Game Performance…

  10. Generic Certificates. Agricultural Economic Report Number 594.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glauber, Joseph W.

    The Food Security Act of 1985 authorizes the U.S. Department of Agriculture to issue generic certificates in lieu of cash payments due to program participants and merchants of agricultural products under provisions of several programs. The certificates may be used to acquire stocks held as collateral on government loans or owned by the Commodity…

  11. A Generic Biokinetic Model for C-14

    SciTech Connect

    Manger, Ryan P

    2011-01-01

    The generic biokinetic model currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the treatment of systemic radiocarbon assumes uniform distribution of activity in tissues and a biological half-time of 40 d. This model is intended to generate cautiously high estimates of dose per unit intake of C-14 and, in fact, generally predicts a much higher effective dose than systemic models that have been developed on the basis of biokinetic studies of specific carbon compounds. The simplistic model formulation precludes its application as a bioassay model or adjustment to fit case-specific bioassay data. This paper proposes a new generic biokinetic model for systemic radiocarbon that is less conservative than the current ICRP model but maintains sufficient conservatism to overestimate the effective dose coefficients generated by most radiocarbon-compound-specific models. The proposed model includes two systemic pools with different biological half-times representing an initial systemic form of absorbed radiocarbon, a submodel describing the behaviour of labelled carbon dioxide produced in vivo, and three excretion pathways: breath, urine and faeces. Generic excretion rates along each path are based on multi-phase excretion curves observed in experimental studies of radiocarbons. The generic model structure is designed so that the user may adjust the level of dosimetric conservatism to fit the information at hand and may adjust parameter values for consistency with subject-specific or site-specific bioassay data.

  12. Genericity and Aspect in L2 Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slabakova, Roumyana; Montrul, Silvina

    2003-01-01

    In this experimental study, we focus on the following semantic universal: if a habitual clause reading, then generic pronominal subject; if an episodic clause reading, then specific pronominal subject. We argue that although this set of two conditionals is a universal property of all natural languages, English-speaking second-language (L2)…

  13. Comparison of Generic Accelerated Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaddorura, Mahmood; Williams, Collette

    2012-01-01

    Case study pedagogy is a teaching strategy in which teachers hope to help students develop and use critical thinking (CT) abilities. This study compared CT skills of 75 second year generic accelerated baccalaureate nursing students during their Fundamentals of Nursing course before and after being educated using case study pedagogical method.…

  14. A Critique of Generic Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Generic Learning Outcomes (GLOs) are intended to enable cultural heritage organisations to be aware of the effectiveness of the environment for learning that they provide and to provide quantitative evidence of the impact of museums libraries and archives on learning, nationally. This paper presents a logical critique of their strengths and…

  15. 40 CFR 721.3062 - Haloarylalkylketoester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3062 Haloarylalkylketoester (generic). Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34637, June 18, 2014. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The...

  16. Baldrige Theory into Practice: A Generic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arif, Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The education system globally has moved from a push-based or producer-centric system to a pull-based or customer centric system. Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award (MBQA) model happens to be one of the latest additions to the pull based models. The purpose of this paper is to develop a generic framework for MBQA that can be used by…

  17. Focussing on Generic Skills in Training Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, Susan

    A study assessed whether training packages gave sufficient focus to attainment of generic skills and examined approaches that can be used to enhance the delivery of these skills so students are better prepared for the new demands of the workplace. A literature review and consultations with stakeholders provided information on development of the…

  18. Social exclusion decreases prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Baumeister, Roy F; DeWall, C Nathan; Ciarocco, Natalie J; Bartels, J Michael

    2007-01-01

    In 7 experiments, the authors manipulated social exclusion by telling people that they would end up alone later in life or that other participants had rejected them. Social exclusion caused a substantial reduction in prosocial behavior. Socially excluded people donated less money to a student fund, were unwilling to volunteer for further lab experiments, were less helpful after a mishap, and cooperated less in a mixed-motive game with another student. The results did not vary by cost to the self or by recipient of the help, and results remained significant when the experimenter was unaware of condition. The effect was mediated by feelings of empathy for another person but was not mediated by mood, state self-esteem, belongingness, trust, control, or self-awareness. The implication is that rejection temporarily interferes with emotional responses, thereby impairing the capacity for empathic understanding of others, and as a result, any inclination to help or cooperate with them is undermined. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Choreography of Ig allelic exclusion.

    PubMed

    Cedar, Howard; Bergman, Yehudit

    2008-06-01

    Allelic exclusion guarantees that each B or T cell only produces a single antigen receptor, and in this way contributes to immune diversity. This process is actually initiated in the early embryo when the immune receptor loci become asynchronously replicating in a stochastic manner with one early and one late allele in each cell. This distinct differential replication timing feature then serves an instructive mark that directs a series of allele-specific epigenetic events in the immune system, including programmed histone modification, nuclear localization and DNA demethylation that ultimately bring about preferred rearrangement on a single allele, and this decision is temporally stabilized by feedback mechanisms that inhibit recombination on the second allele. In principle, these same molecular components are also used for controlling monoallelic expression at other genomic loci, such as those carrying interleukins and olfactory receptor genes that require the choice of one gene out of a large array. Thus, allelic exclusion appears to represent a general epigenetic phenomenon that is modeled on the same basis as X chromosome inactivation.

  20. Exclusion Process with Slow Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldasso, Rangel; Menezes, Otávio; Neumann, Adriana; Souza, Rafael R.

    2017-06-01

    We study the hydrodynamic and the hydrostatic behavior of the simple symmetric exclusion process with slow boundary. The term slow boundary means that particles can be born or die at the boundary sites, at a rate proportional to N^{-θ }, where θ > 0 and N is the scaling parameter. In the bulk, the particles exchange rate is equal to 1. In the hydrostatic scenario, we obtain three different linear profiles, depending on the value of the parameter θ ; in the hydrodynamic scenario, we obtain that the time evolution of the spatial density of particles, in the diffusive scaling, is given by the weak solution of the heat equation, with boundary conditions that depend on θ . If θ \\in (0,1), we get Dirichlet boundary conditions, (which is the same behavior if θ =0, see Farfán in Hydrostatics, statical and dynamical large deviations of boundary driven gradient symmetric exclusion processes, 2008); if θ =1, we get Robin boundary conditions; and, if θ \\in (1,∞), we get Neumann boundary conditions.

  1. The Portuguese generic medicines market: a policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven

    2009-04-01

    This study aims to conduct a descriptive analysis of the policy environment surrounding the generic medicines retail market in Portugal. The policy analysis focuses on supply-side measures (i.e. market access, pricing, reference-pricing and reimbursement of generic medicines) and demand-side measures (i.e. incentives for physicians to prescribe, for pharmacists to dispense and for patients to use generic medicines). The policy analysis was based on an international literature review. Also, a simulation exercise was carried out to compute potential savings from substituting generic for originator medicines in Portugal using IMS Health data. Portugal has developed a successful generic medicines market by increasing reimbursement of generic medicines (until October 2005), by introducing a reference-pricing system, by encouraging physicians to prescribe by international non-proprietary name (INN), and by allowing generic substitution by pharmacists. However, the development of the generic medicines market has been hindered by the existence of copies, pricing regulation, certain features of the reference-pricing system, weak incentives for physicians to prescribe generic medicines and a financial disincentive for pharmacists to dispense generic medicines. Increased generic substitution would be expected to reduce public expenditure on originator medicines by 45%. The development of the Portuguese generic medicines market has mainly been fuelled by supply-side measures. To support the further expansion of the market, policy makers need to strengthen demand-side measures inciting physicians to prescribe, pharmacists to dispense and patients to use generic medicines.

  2. Exclusive Dijet production from CDF2LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.

    2005-04-01

    Exclusive dijet production at the Tevatron can be used as a benchmark to establish predictions on exclusive diffractive Higgs production, a process with a much smaller cross section. Exclusive dijet production in Double Pomeron Exchange processes, including diffractive Higgs production with measurements at the Tevatron and predictions for the Large Hadron Collider are presented. Using new data from the Tevatron and dedicated diffractive triggers, no excess over a smooth falling distribution for exclusive dijet events could be found. Upper limits on the exclusive dijet production cross section are presented and compared to current theoretical predictions.

  3. Pharmacists' experiences and attitudes regarding generic drugs and generic substitution: two sides of the coin.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Erika; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2012-12-01

    Generic drug substitution reduces costs for medicines, but the downsides include unintentional double medication, confusion and anxiety among patients. Information from pharmacists affects patients' experiences of substitution with generic drugs. The aim of this study was to explore experiences and attitudes to generic substitution among Swedish community pharmacists. An interview guide was developed. Semi-structured interviews with community pharmacists were conducted and transcribed verbatim. Analysis was inductive; extracts from the transcripts were compared and combined to form themes and subcategories. Pharmacists from a heterogeneous convenience sample of pharmacies were interviewed until data saturation had been achieved. Sixteen pharmacists were interviewed. Three main themes and twelve subcategories were identified, with the main themes being the role of the pharmacist, pharmacists' concerns regarding patients, and the generic drug. Pharmacists found it positive that generic substitution decreases the costs for pharmaceuticals but also emphasized that the switch can confuse and worry patients, which could result in less benefit from treatment. Respondents claimed that generic substitution has changed the focus in the pharmacist-patient meeting towards economics and regulations. According to the interviewed pharmacists generic substitution is not primarily an issue of generic versus brand-name products, but concerns above all the challenges that the switch implies for patients and pharmacists. To prevent known confusion and concerns among patients it is important that community pharmacists acquire the necessary tools and knowledge to manage this situation; pharmacists themselves as well as pharmacy owners and authorities share responsibility for this. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Prescribing generic drugs using a generic name: Are we teaching it right?

    PubMed

    Kamath, Ashwin

    2016-01-01

    The Indian Medical Council (Professional conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002, state that "Every physician should, as far as possible, prescribe drugs with generic names and he/she shall ensure that there is a rational prescription and use of drugs.". Undergraduate medical students are introduced to drug nomenclature early on during their pharmacology course. They are told that generic name or, more appropriately, non-proprietary name (usually international non-proprietary name INN), is to be used while writing prescriptions.

  5. Incorporating cultural beliefs in promoting exclusive breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Reinsma, Kathryn; Bolima, Nancy; Fonteh, Florence; Okwen, Patrick; Yota, Daniel; Montgomery, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Since 2003, the World Health Organization has recommended exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life. In the Northwest region of Cameroon approximately 90% of women initiate breastfeeding, yet only 34% of these women exclusively breastfeed for the recommended six months. Aim To determine influences on women’s exclusive breastfeeding practices. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six women and six men followed by focus group discussions with three groups of women and three groups of men in the Kumbo West Health District, Northwest region, Cameroon. All participants were selected using theoretical sampling to assure triangulation. Results Three themes emerged that influence exclusive breastfeeding practices: woman’s readiness to exclusively breastfeed; cultural influences towards exclusive breastfeeding; and perceived constraints to exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion These emergent themes were used to create a theoretical framework that is useful for developing a breastfeeding health education intervention in non-Western settings. PMID:26973717

  6. Towards a lightweight generic computational grid framework for biological research

    PubMed Central

    Halling-Brown, Mark D; Moss, David S; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2008-01-01

    Background An increasing number of scientific research projects require access to large-scale computational resources. This is particularly true in the biological field, whether to facilitate the analysis of large high-throughput data sets, or to perform large numbers of complex simulations – a characteristic of the emerging field of systems biology. Results In this paper we present a lightweight generic framework for combining disparate computational resources at multiple sites (ranging from local computers and clusters to established national Grid services). A detailed guide describing how to set up the framework is available from the following URL: . Conclusion This approach is particularly (but not exclusively) appropriate for large-scale biology projects with multiple collaborators working at different national or international sites. The framework is relatively easy to set up, hides the complexity of Grid middleware from the user, and provides access to resources through a single, uniform interface. It has been developed as part of the European ImmunoGrid project. PMID:18831735

  7. Psychiatrists' decision making between branded and generic drugs.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Johannes; Mendel, Rosmarie; Kissling, Werner; Leucht, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    To study psychiatrists' decision making between generic and branded antipsychotics or antidepressants a hypothetical decision scenario involving decisions between branded and generic drugs was presented to a sample of German psychiatrists. Factors influencing this decision were identified using a regression analysis. n=410 Psychiatrists participated in the survey. Psychiatrists were more likely to choose branded drugs when imagining choosing the drug for themselves (vs. recommending a drug to a patient). In addition, psychiatrists were more likely to choose generic antidepressants than generic antipsychotics. Additional predictors for choosing a generic drug were a higher share of outpatients, less negative attitudes toward generics and higher uncertainty tolerance. In conclusion, psychiatrists' decision making in choosing between branded or generic antidepressants or antipsychotics is to a large extent influenced by vague attitudes towards properties of generics and branded drugs as well as by "non-evidence based" factors such as uncertainty tolerance. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Requirements for generic antiepileptic medicines: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Trinka, Eugen; Krämer, Günter; Graf, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Many antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are now available as a generic product. This can potentially save the healthcare providers massive costs. Hence, governmental authorities have introduced rules and incentives for clinicians to switch from the original branded AED to a generic product. Clinicians and patients with epilepsy are reluctant to switch. The licensing of generic AEDs is based on the equation that bioavailability means therapeutic equivalence. However, from a clinical standpoint one has to consider several other relevant issues: (1) Do generic AEDs have the same efficacy, safety and quality? (2) Can generic AEDs be used as substitutions for brand AEDs? (3) Can generic products of AEDs be used interchangeably? (4) Does the generic AED manufacturer guarantee the long-term consistency of availability on the market? (4) Do generic AEDs reduce the costs, and--if so--are these costs worth any additional risk to patient's safety? This article reviews the clinical issues related to current bioequivalence, prescribability, and switchability of AEDs.

  9. Generic omeprazole delayed-release capsules: in vitro performance evaluations.

    PubMed

    Moore, Terry; Smith, Anjanette; Ye, Wei; Toler, Duckhee Y; Westenberger, Benjamin J; Lionberger, Robert; Raw, Andre; Yu, Lawrence; Buhse, Lucinda F

    2009-08-01

    After the patent on omeprazole delayed-release capsules expired, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved several generic omeprazole delayed-release capsule applications. FDA has received some complaints concerning a lack of therapeutic effect of the generic omeprazole delayed-release capsules. To investigate the quality of five different marketed generic omeprazole delayed-release capsules. The dissolution characteristics of these generic omeprazole delayed-release capsules were determined according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Additional dissolution studies under simulated in vivo physiological conditions were also conducted to determine whether generic omeprazole capsules would perform similarly under these conditions. The experimental data show that all the generic omeprazole delayed-release capsules met the USP standards. The in vitro dissolution of generic drugs is similar to that of the brand omeprazole product. There is no scientific evidence to support the claims that the generic omeprazole delayed-release capsules perform differently from the brand omeprazole product in vitro.

  10. Generic penetration in the retail atypical antipsychotic market.

    PubMed

    Lenderts, Susan; Kalali, Amir H; Buckley, Peter

    2010-03-01

    In this article, we explore the penetration of generic atypical antipsychotics in the United States market before and after the availability of generic risperidone in July 2008. Analysis suggests that, overall, generic penetration into the atypical antipsychotic market has grown from approximately three percent in January 2008 to more than 25 percent in December 2009. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  11. Central exclusive production at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Adamczyk, Leszek; Guryn, Włodek; Turnau, Jacek

    2014-11-10

    The present status and future plans of the physics program of Central Exclusive Production (CEP) at RHIC are described. The measurements are based on the detection of the forward protons from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process in the Roman Pot system and of the recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process measured in the STAR experiment’s Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data described here were taken using polarized proton-proton collisions at ps = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two pion and four pion invariant mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudo-rapidity | | < 1, are presented. Near future plans to take data with the current system at center-of-mass energy ps = 200 GeV and plans to upgrade the forward proton tagging sys- tem are presented. Also a possible addition of the Roman Pots to the sPHENIX detector is discussed.

  12. Hard Exclusive Reactions at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Kubarovsky, Valery P.

    2011-09-20

    Dedicated experiments to study Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP) have been carried out at Jefferson Lab. DVCS helicity--dependent and helicity--independent cross sections and beam spin asymmetries have been measured, as well as cross sections and asymmetries for the $\\pi^0$, $\\eta$, $\\rho^0$, $\\rho^+$, $\\omega$ and $\\phi$ for exclusive electroproduction. The data were taken in a wide kinematic range in $Q^2$=1--4.5 GeV$^2$, $x_B$=0.1--0.5, and $|t|$ up to 2 GeV$^2$. The presented results offer a unique opportunity to study the structure of the nucleon at the parton level as one has access to Bjorken $x_B$ and momentum transfer to the nucleon $t$ at the same time.

  13. The Development of a Generic Pharmaceutical Training Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Lynn William; Boerner, Hank

    The manufacture of generic drugs is a growing industry, generally composed of small companies that are more dependent than brand-name companies on hiring entry-level workers. To provide standardized training for employees in the generic drug manufacturing field, the Generic Pharmaceutical Training Institute (GPTI) was established by a partnership…

  14. 40 CFR 721.10689 - Organo zinc salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Organo zinc salts (generic). 721.10689... Substances § 721.10689 Organo zinc salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as organo zinc salts (PMN P-13-225...

  15. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium salt...

  16. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium salt...

  17. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium salt...

  18. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium salt...

  19. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium salt...

  20. Generic Skills in Vocational Education and Training: Research Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Jennifer, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Possessing generic or employability skills is vital in the current labour market. The vocational education and training (VET) sector, like other education sectors, must ensure its clients gain and develop generic skills. This volume of readings summarises NCVER managed research into generic skills undertaken in 2001 and 2002. The work covers four…

  1. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl ester...

  2. A developmental analysis of generic nouns in Southern Peruvian Quechua.

    PubMed

    Mannheim, Bruce; Gelman, Susan A; Escalante, Carmen; Huayhua, Margarita; Puma, Rosalía

    2010-01-01

    Generic noun phrases (e.g., "Cats like to drink milk") are a primary means by which adults express generalizations to children, yet they pose a challenging induction puzzle for learners. Although prior research has established that English speakers understand and produce generic noun phrases by preschool age, little is known regarding the cross-cultural generality of generic acquisition. Southern Peruvian Quechua provides a valuable comparison because, unlike English, it is a highly inflected language in which generics are marked by the absence rather than the presence of any linguistic markers. Moreover, Quechua is spoken in a cultural context that differs markedly from the highly educated, middle-class contexts within which earlier research on generics was conducted. We presented participants from 5 age groups (3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 14-35, and 36-90 years of age) with two tasks that examined the ability to distinguish generic from non-generic utterances. In Study 1, even the youngest children understood generics as applying broadly to a category (like "all") and distinct from indefinite reference ("some"). However, there was a developmental lag before children understood that generics, unlike "all", can include exceptions. Study 2 revealed that generic interpretations are more frequent for utterances that (a) lack specifying markers and (b) are animate. Altogether, generic interpretations are found among the youngest participants, and may be a default mode of quantification. These data demonstrate the cross-cultural importance of generic information in linguistic expression.

  3. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid ester...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid ester...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs...

  6. Genericization: A Theory of Semantic Broadening in the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clankie, Shawn M.

    2000-01-01

    Genericization theory developed as a response to claims from outside of linguistics that generic use in brand names (for example, using Kleenex as a generic noun for all facial tissues, or Xerox for all photocopiers) is the result of marketing factors or misuse by consumers. This paper examines the linguistic factors that create an environment…

  7. 40 CFR 721.1655 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1655 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1680 - Substituted benzoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted benzoic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1680 Substituted benzoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted benzoic acid (PMN P...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid ester...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid ester...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1655 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1655 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1680 - Substituted benzoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted benzoic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1680 Substituted benzoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted benzoic acid (PMN P...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10431 - Phosphoric acid esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid esters (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10431 Phosphoric acid esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphoric acid esters (PMNs P...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1680 - Substituted benzoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted benzoic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1680 Substituted benzoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted benzoic acid (PMN P...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1655 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1655 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1680 - Substituted benzoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted benzoic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1680 Substituted benzoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted benzoic acid (PMN P...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10463 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10463... Substances § 721.10463 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMN P-03-388...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1655 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1655 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5546 - Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic... Substances § 721.5546 Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as halogen substituted...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5546 - Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic... Substances § 721.5546 Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as halogen substituted...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5546 - Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic... Substances § 721.5546 Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as halogen substituted...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5546 - Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic... Substances § 721.5546 Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as halogen substituted...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5546 - Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic... Substances § 721.5546 Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as halogen substituted...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid ester...

  6. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl ester...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic... Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as sodium salts...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic... Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as sodium salts...

  9. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic... Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10567 - Amidoamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amidoamine salt (generic). 721.10567... Substances § 721.10567 Amidoamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amidoamine salt (PMN P-08-300) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic... Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as sodium salts...

  12. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic... Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine...

  13. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic... Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic... Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as sodium salts...

  15. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic... Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10567 - Amidoamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amidoamine salt (generic). 721.10567... Substances § 721.10567 Amidoamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amidoamine salt (PMN P-08-300) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic... Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as sodium salts...

  18. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic... Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10233 - Linear alkyl epoxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10233 Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as linear alkyl epoxide (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10233 - Linear alkyl epoxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10233 Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as linear alkyl epoxide (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10233 - Linear alkyl epoxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10233 Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as linear alkyl epoxide (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10035 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10035 Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzene sulfonate...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10035 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10035 Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzene sulfonate...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2155 - Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic... Substances § 721.2155 Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2155 - Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic... Substances § 721.2155 Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2155 - Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic... Substances § 721.2155 Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2155 - Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic... Substances § 721.2155 Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2155 - Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic... Substances § 721.2155 Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10163 - Chloro fluoro alkane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chloro fluoro alkane (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10163 Chloro fluoro alkane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as chloro fluoro alkane (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.535 - Halogenated alkane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated alkane (generic). 721.535... Substances § 721.535 Halogenated alkane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halogenated alkane (PMN P-01-433) is...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1680 - Substituted benzoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted benzoic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1680 Substituted benzoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted benzoic acid (PMN P...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2675 - Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name... Substances § 721.2675 Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as perfluoroalkyl epoxide (PMN P...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2675 - Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name... Substances § 721.2675 Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as perfluoroalkyl epoxide (PMN P...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2675 - Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name... Substances § 721.2675 Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as perfluoroalkyl epoxide (PMN P...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2675 - Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name... Substances § 721.2675 Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as perfluoroalkyl epoxide (PMN P...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2675 - Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name... Substances § 721.2675 Perfluoroalkyl epoxide (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as perfluoroalkyl epoxide (PMN P...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5965 - Substituted S-phenylthiazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted S-phenylthiazole (generic... Substances § 721.5965 Substituted S-phenylthiazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted s-phenylthiazole...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10431 - Phosphoric acid esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid esters (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10431 Phosphoric acid esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphoric acid esters (PMNs P...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10258 - Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10258 Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN P-09...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10258 - Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10258 Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN P-09...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10258 - Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10258 Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN P-09...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917... Substances § 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917... Substances § 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.988 - Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic... Substances § 721.988 Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a pyrazolone azomethine...

  5. 40 CFR 721.988 - Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic... Substances § 721.988 Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a pyrazolone azomethine...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917... Substances § 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917... Substances § 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917... Substances § 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.988 - Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic... Substances § 721.988 Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a pyrazolone azomethine...

  10. 40 CFR 721.988 - Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic... Substances § 721.988 Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a pyrazolone azomethine...

  11. 40 CFR 721.988 - Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic... Substances § 721.988 Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a pyrazolone azomethine...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  15. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  16. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). 721... Substances § 721.555 Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs P-96...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5350 - Substituted nitrile (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted nitrile (generic name... Substances § 721.5350 Substituted nitrile (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted nitrile (PMN P-83...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10250 - Zirconium lysine complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zirconium lysine complex (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10250 Zirconium lysine complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zirconium...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs P...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs P...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs P...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs P...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10250 - Zirconium lysine complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zirconium lysine complex (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10250 Zirconium lysine complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zirconium...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10250 - Zirconium lysine complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zirconium lysine complex (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10250 Zirconium lysine complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zirconium...

  5. Defining and Comparing Generic Competences in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallioinen, Outi

    2010-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the importance of defining generic competences in alignment with the European definitions. As a case study the generic competences defined by Laurea University of Applied Sciences are compared with European definitions of generic competences. The purpose is to open up the various perspectives within this…

  6. Defining and Comparing Generic Competences in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallioinen, Outi

    2010-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the importance of defining generic competences in alignment with the European definitions. As a case study the generic competences defined by Laurea University of Applied Sciences are compared with European definitions of generic competences. The purpose is to open up the various perspectives within this…

  7. 40 CFR 721.10254 - Substituted acrylamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted acrylamide (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10254 Substituted acrylamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted acrylamide (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10254 - Substituted acrylamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted acrylamide (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10254 Substituted acrylamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted acrylamide (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10254 - Substituted acrylamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted acrylamide (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10254 Substituted acrylamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted acrylamide (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10554 - Iso-tridecanol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iso-tridecanol (generic). 721.10554... Substances § 721.10554 Iso-tridecanol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as iso-tridecanol (PMN P-06-153) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10554 - Iso-tridecanol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iso-tridecanol (generic). 721.10554... Substances § 721.10554 Iso-tridecanol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as iso-tridecanol (PMN P-06-153) is subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.646 - Aminofluoran derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aminofluoran derivative (generic name... Substances § 721.646 Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aminofluoran derivative (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.646 - Aminofluoran derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aminofluoran derivative (generic name... Substances § 721.646 Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aminofluoran derivative (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10330 - Pyrazolone derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pyrazolone derivative (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10330 Pyrazolone derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as pyrazolone derivative (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.646 - Aminofluoran derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aminofluoran derivative (generic name... Substances § 721.646 Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aminofluoran derivative (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10172 - Alkylamide derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylamide derivative (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10172 Alkylamide derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylamide derivative (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10172 - Alkylamide derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylamide derivative (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10172 Alkylamide derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylamide derivative (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.646 - Aminofluoran derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aminofluoran derivative (generic name... Substances § 721.646 Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aminofluoran derivative (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10330 - Pyrazolone derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pyrazolone derivative (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10330 Pyrazolone derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as pyrazolone derivative (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10172 - Alkylamide derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylamide derivative (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10172 Alkylamide derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylamide derivative (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10330 - Pyrazolone derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pyrazolone derivative (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10330 Pyrazolone derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as pyrazolone derivative (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10172 - Alkylamide derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylamide derivative (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10172 Alkylamide derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylamide derivative (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10172 - Alkylamide derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkylamide derivative (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10172 Alkylamide derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylamide derivative (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.646 - Aminofluoran derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aminofluoran derivative (generic name... Substances § 721.646 Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aminofluoran derivative (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2083 - Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydroxylamine (generic). 721.2083 Section 721.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2083 Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic). (a... generically as a polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (PMN P-97-878) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2083 - Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydroxylamine (generic). 721.2083 Section 721.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2083 Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic). (a... generically as a polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (PMN P-97-878) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2083 - Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydroxylamine (generic). 721.2083 Section 721.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2083 Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic). (a... generically as a polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (PMN P-97-878) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2083 - Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hydroxylamine (generic). 721.2083 Section 721.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2083 Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic). (a... generically as a polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (PMN P-97-878) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2083 - Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydroxylamine (generic). 721.2083 Section 721.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2083 Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic). (a... generically as a polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (PMN P-97-878) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  11. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  12. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10477 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10477... Substances § 721.10477 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-04-290) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10477 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10477... Substances § 721.10477 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-04-290) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10537 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10537... Substances § 721.10537 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-01-579) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10537 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10537... Substances § 721.10537 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-01-579) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2673 - Aromatic epoxide resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.2673 Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic epoxide resin (PMN P...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2673 - Aromatic epoxide resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.2673 Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic epoxide resin (PMN P...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10460 - Azo nickel complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Azo nickel complex (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10460 Azo nickel complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as azo nickel complex (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10460 - Azo nickel complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Azo nickel complex (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10460 Azo nickel complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as azo nickel complex (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10113 - Thioether epoxy (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Thioether epoxy (generic). 721.10113... Substances § 721.10113 Thioether epoxy (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as thioether epoxy (PMN P-04-547) is subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10113 - Thioether epoxy (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Thioether epoxy (generic). 721.10113... Substances § 721.10113 Thioether epoxy (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as thioether epoxy (PMN P-04-547) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10113 - Thioether epoxy (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thioether epoxy (generic). 721.10113... Substances § 721.10113 Thioether epoxy (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as thioether epoxy (PMN P-04-547) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10113 - Thioether epoxy (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thioether epoxy (generic). 721.10113... Substances § 721.10113 Thioether epoxy (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as thioether epoxy (PMN P-04-547) is subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10113 - Thioether epoxy (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Thioether epoxy (generic). 721.10113... Substances § 721.10113 Thioether epoxy (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as thioether epoxy (PMN P-04-547) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  15. 40 CFR 721.303 - Substituted acetate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted acetate (generic). 721.303... Substances § 721.303 Substituted acetate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted acetate (PMN P-99...

  16. 40 CFR 721.303 - Substituted acetate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted acetate (generic). 721.303... Substances § 721.303 Substituted acetate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted acetate (PMN P-99...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10318 - Mannich bases (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mannich bases (generic). 721.10318... Substances § 721.10318 Mannich bases (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as mannich bases (PMNs P-02-1078 and...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10318 - Mannich bases (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mannich bases (generic). 721.10318... Substances § 721.10318 Mannich bases (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as mannich bases (PMNs P-02-1078 and...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10318 - Mannich bases (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mannich bases (generic). 721.10318... Substances § 721.10318 Mannich bases (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as mannich bases (PMNs P-02-1078 and...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10691 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10691... Substances § 721.10691 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-13-267) is...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10463 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10463... Substances § 721.10463 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10680 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10680... Substances § 721.10680 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMNs...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4610 - Mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.4610... Substances § 721.4610 Mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxides (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10628 - Mixed metal oxalate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed metal oxalate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10628 Mixed metal oxalate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxalate (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.10006... Substances § 721.10006 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxide (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10628 - Mixed metal oxalate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed metal oxalate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10628 Mixed metal oxalate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxalate (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.10006... Substances § 721.10006 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxide (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10495 - Metal silicate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metal silicate (generic). 721.10495... Substances § 721.10495 Metal silicate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as metal silicate (PMN P-05-634) is subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5548 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.5548... Substances § 721.5548 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a mixed metal oxide (PMN P-97-956)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4610 - Mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.4610... Substances § 721.4610 Mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxides (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5548 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.5548... Substances § 721.5548 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a mixed metal oxide (PMN P-97-956)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5548 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.5548... Substances § 721.5548 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a mixed metal oxide (PMN P-97-956)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10631 - Mixed metal borate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed metal borate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10631 Mixed metal borate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal borate (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5548 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.5548... Substances § 721.5548 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a mixed metal oxide (PMN P-97-956)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4610 - Mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.4610... Substances § 721.4610 Mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxides (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.10006... Substances § 721.10006 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxide (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10631 - Mixed metal borate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed metal borate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10631 Mixed metal borate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal borate (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.10006... Substances § 721.10006 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxide (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5548 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.5548... Substances § 721.5548 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a mixed metal oxide (PMN P-97-956)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4610 - Mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.4610... Substances § 721.4610 Mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxides (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4610 - Mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.4610... Substances § 721.4610 Mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxides (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10495 - Metal silicate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metal silicate (generic). 721.10495... Substances § 721.10495 Metal silicate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as metal silicate (PMN P-05-634) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.10006... Substances § 721.10006 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxide (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate ester...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN P...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN P...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate ester...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN P...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate ester...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate ester...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate ester...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10393 - Sodium bromide MDA complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium bromide MDA complex (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10393 Sodium bromide MDA complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as sodium...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN P-01...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN P-01...

  20. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate polymer...

  1. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate polymer...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN P-01...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10524 - Fluorinated alkylsulfonamidol urethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10524 Section 721.10524 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10524 Fluorinated alkylsulfonamidol urethane polymer (generic). (a... generically as fluorinated alkylsulfonamidol urethane polymer (PMN P-11-384) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate polymer...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10524 - Fluorinated alkylsulfonamidol urethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10524 Section 721.10524 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10524 Fluorinated alkylsulfonamidol urethane polymer (generic). (a... generically as fluorinated alkylsulfonamidol urethane polymer (PMN P-11-384) is subject to reporting under...

  6. Generic drug discount programs: are prescriptions being submitted for pharmacy benefit adjudication?

    PubMed

    Tungol, Alexandra; Starner, Catherine I; Gunderson, Brent W; Schafer, Jeremy A; Qiu, Yang; Gleason, Patrick P

    2012-01-01

    supply on July 1, 2006, was the index claim. Members with a Kmart pharmacy index claim were excluded, since the Kmart membership drug discount program began prior to July 1, 2006. Levothyroxine claims capture nonpersistency, defined as the occurrence of a claim supply end date prior to a 180-day gap, was the primary outcome variable and was assessed from July 1, 2006, through June 30, 2010 (follow-up period). The odds of levothyroxine claims capture nonpersistency by pharmacy group were assessed using a logistic regression analysis adjusted for the following covariates: age, gender, median income in the ZIP code of residence (binomial for ≤ $50,000 vs. greater than $50,000), switch to a brand levothyroxine product during the follow-up period, index levothyroxine claim supply of 90 days or more, and index levothyroxine claim member cost share per 30-day supply in tertiles (≤ $5.00, $5.01-$7.99, ≥ $8.00). Of 2,632,855 eligible members aged 18 years or older, 13,427 met all study eligibility criteria. The baseline pharmacy groups were membership with 3,595 (26.8%), nonmembership with 1,919 (14.3%), and all other pharmacies with 7,913 (58.9%) members. The rates of levothyroxine claims capture persistency throughout the 4-year follow-up period were 85.4% for nonmembership (P = 0.593 vs. all other pharmacies), 77.7% for the membership group (P  less than  0.001 vs. all other pharmacies), and 85.9% for all other pharmacies. The Kaplan-Meier comparison of claims capture persistency found nearly identical claims capture loss for the nonmembership compared with all other pharmacies group, and when compared in a multivariate logistic regression model, there was no difference in the odds of levothyroxine claims capture over 4 years follow-up (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.88-1.16, P = 0.900). The membership generic drug discount programs (Walgreens, CVS, Alberstons, and Savon pharmacies) had a statistically significant 61% higher odds (OR = 1.61, 95

  7. Changes in Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Fragile Adults over Fifty Years of Age and in Elderly People Exclusively Fed Enteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Maria D.; Olza, Josune; Gonzalez-Anton, Carolina; Aguilera, Concepcion M.; Moreno-Torres, Rosario; Jimenez, Africa; Perez de la Cruz, Antonio; Ruperez, Azahara I.; Gil, Angel

    2016-01-01

    We aim to evaluate whether exclusive feeding of an enteral formula enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) affects oxidative stress and the antioxidant defence system and may improve the levels of some relevant inflammatory, and cardiovascular biomarkers in frail adults over fifty years of age and in elderly subjects. Fifty-five patients were divided into two groups and were exclusively fed a newly designed normoproteic and isocaloric enteral formula enriched with eicosapentaenoic (98 mg/d) and docosahexaenoic acids (46 mg/d) (n = 26) or a reference enteral diet (n = 29). Oxidative, inflammatory and cardiovascular risk biomarkers and red blood cell fatty acid profiles were determined at the beginning and after 90 and 180 days of feeding. The n-3 LC-PUFA percentage tended to be higher (P = 0.053) in the experimental group than in the reference group. Administration of the n-3 LC-PUFA diet did not increase oxidative stress or modify plasma antioxidant capacity but decreased antioxidant enzymatic activities. MMP-9 plasma concentration decreased with both formulae, whereas tPAI-1 tended to decrease (P = 0.116) with the administration of the experimental formula. In conclusion, administration of the new n-3 LC-PUFA-enriched product for 6 months did not negatively alter the oxidative status and improved some cardiovascular risk biomarkers. PMID:26697137

  8. Changes in Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Fragile Adults over Fifty Years of Age and in Elderly People Exclusively Fed Enteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Maria D; Olza, Josune; Gonzalez-Anton, Carolina; Aguilera, Concepcion M; Moreno-Torres, Rosario; Jimenez, Africa; Perez de la Cruz, Antonio; Ruperez, Azahara I; Gil, Angel

    2015-01-01

    We aim to evaluate whether exclusive feeding of an enteral formula enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) affects oxidative stress and the antioxidant defence system and may improve the levels of some relevant inflammatory, and cardiovascular biomarkers in frail adults over fifty years of age and in elderly subjects. Fifty-five patients were divided into two groups and were exclusively fed a newly designed normoproteic and isocaloric enteral formula enriched with eicosapentaenoic (98 mg/d) and docosahexaenoic acids (46 mg/d) (n = 26) or a reference enteral diet (n = 29). Oxidative, inflammatory and cardiovascular risk biomarkers and red blood cell fatty acid profiles were determined at the beginning and after 90 and 180 days of feeding. The n-3 LC-PUFA percentage tended to be higher (P = 0.053) in the experimental group than in the reference group. Administration of the n-3 LC-PUFA diet did not increase oxidative stress or modify plasma antioxidant capacity but decreased antioxidant enzymatic activities. MMP-9 plasma concentration decreased with both formulae, whereas tPAI-1 tended to decrease (P = 0.116) with the administration of the experimental formula. In conclusion, administration of the new n-3 LC-PUFA-enriched product for 6 months did not negatively alter the oxidative status and improved some cardiovascular risk biomarkers.

  9. [The patents game. Generic and biosimilar drugs].

    PubMed

    Villamañán, E; González, D; Armada, E; Ruano, M; Álvarez-Sala, R; Herrero, A

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by patents on medicines has a limited duration. The expiry of patents expiration allows copies of the drugs to be released, competing with original. At first, they were identical to the original, known as generic drugs, but in recent years, due to the marketing of biological therapies and the expiry of many of their patents, biosimilar drugs have also emerged. These are not exact copies of the original, but, like generic drugs, biosimilar drugs have to demonstrate equivalence to the reference drugs in quality, safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, despite their importance and contribution to sustainability of health system, doctors are sometimes unaware of differences between them, and their impact in terms of clinical and economic effects. An attempt is made to review and clarify certain aspects often unknown by physicians, despite their involvement in their use. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Mission specification for three generic mission classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Mission specifications for three generic mission classes are generated to provide a baseline for definition and analysis of data acquisition platform system concepts. The mission specifications define compatible groupings of sensors that satisfy specific earth resources and environmental mission objectives. The driving force behind the definition of sensor groupings is mission need; platform and space transportation system constraints are of secondary importance. The three generic mission classes are: (1) low earth orbit sun-synchronous; (2) geosynchronous; and (3) non-sun-synchronous, nongeosynchronous. These missions are chosen to provide a variety of sensor complements and implementation concepts. Each mission specification relates mission categories, mission objectives, measured parameters, and candidate sensors to orbits and coverage, operations compatibility, and platform fleet size.

  11. Generic Stellarator-like Magnetic Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John; Spong, Donald

    2015-11-01

    The Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor paper, published in 1985, has been updated, reflecting the improved science and technology base in the magnetic fusion program. Key changes beyond inflation are driven by important benchmark numbers for technologies and costs from ITER construction, and the use of a more conservative neutron wall flux and fluence in modern fusion reactor designs. In this paper the generic approach is applied to a catalyzed D-D stellarator-like reactor. It is shown that an interesting power plant might be possible if the following parameters could be achieved for a reference reactor: R/ < a > ~ 4 , confinement factor, fren = 0.9-1.15, < β > ~ 8 . 0 -11.5 %, Zeff ~ 1.45 plus a relativistic temperature correction, fraction of fast ions lost ~ 0.07, Bm ~ 14-16 T, and R ~ 18-24 m. J. Sheffield was supported under ORNL subcontract 4000088999 with the University of Tennessee.

  12. Unsteady Pressures on a Generic Capsule Shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, Nathan; Ross, James C.

    2015-01-01

    While developing the aerodynamic database for the Orion spacecraft, the low-speed flight regime (transonic and below) proved to be the most difficult to predict and measure accurately. The flow over the capsule heat shield in descent flight was particularly troublesome for both computational and experimental efforts due to its unsteady nature and uncertainty about the boundary layer state. The data described here were acquired as part of a study to improve the understanding of the overall flow around a generic capsule. The unsteady pressure measurements acquired on a generic capsule shape are presented along with a discussion about the effects of various flight conditions and heat-shield surface roughness on the resulting pressure fluctuations.

  13. Savannah River Site generic data base development

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, C.H.; Eide, S.A.

    1993-06-30

    This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure data base for the Savannah River Site (SRS). A representative list of components and failure modes for SRS risk models was generated by reviewing existing safety analyses and component failure data bases and from suggestions from SRS safety analysts. Then sources of data or failure rate estimates were identified and reviewed for applicability. A major source of information was the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability, or NUCLARR. This source includes an extensive collection of failure data and failure rate estimates for commercial nuclear power plants. A recent Idaho National Engineering Laboratory report on failure data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was also reviewed. From these and other recent sources, failure data and failure rate estimates were collected for the components and failure modes of interest. This information was aggregated to obtain a recommended generic failure rate distribution (mean and error factor) for each component failure mode.

  14. Savannah River Site generic data base development

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard , A.

    2000-01-04

    This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River Site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values. A representative list of components and failure modes for SRS risk models was generated by reviewing existing safety analyses and component failure data bases and from suggestions from SRS safety analysts. Then sources of data or failure rate estimates were identified and reviewed for applicability. A major source of information was the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability, or NUCLARR. This source includes an extensive collection of failure data and failure rate estimates for commercial nuclear power plants. A recent Idaho National Engineering Laboratory report on failure data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was also reviewed. From these and other recent sources, failure data and failure rate estimates were collected for the components and failure modes of interest. For each component failure mode, this information was aggregated to obtain a recommended generic failure rate distribution (mean and error factor based on a lognormal distribution). Results are presented in a table in this report. A major difference between generic database and previous efforts is that this effort estimates failure rates based on actual data (failure events) rather than on existing failure rate estimates. This effort was successful in that over 75% of the results are now based on actual data. Also included is a section on guidelines for more advanced applications of failure rate data. This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values.

  15. Generic superweak chaos induced by Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Ben-Harush, Moti; Dana, Itzhack

    2016-05-01

    We introduce and study the "kicked Hall system" (KHS), i.e., charged particles periodically kicked in the presence of uniform magnetic (B) and electric (E) fields that are perpendicular to each other and to the kicking direction. We show that for resonant values of B and E and in the weak-chaos regime of sufficiently small nonintegrability parameter κ (the kicking strength), there exists a generic family of periodic kicking potentials for which the Hall effect from B and E significantly suppresses the weak chaos, replacing it by "superweak" chaos (SWC). This means that the system behaves as if the kicking strength were κ^{2} rather than κ. For E=0, SWC is known to be a classical fingerprint of quantum antiresonance, but it occurs under much less generic conditions, in particular only for very special kicking potentials. Manifestations of SWC are a decrease in the instability of periodic orbits and a narrowing of the chaotic layers, relative to the ordinary weak-chaos case. Also, for global SWC, taking place on an infinite "stochastic web" in phase space, the chaotic diffusion on the web is much slower than the weak-chaos one. Thus, the Hall effect can be relatively stabilizing for small κ. In some special cases, the effect is shown to cause ballistic motion for almost all parameter values. The generic global SWC on stochastic webs in the KHS appears to be the two-dimensional closest analog to the Arnol'd web in higher dimensional systems.

  16. Developing Generic Software for Spacecraft Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    A proposed approach to the development of software for spacecraft avionics is based partly on a concept of generic software that could be tailored to satisfy requirements for specific missions. The proposed approach would stand in contrast to the conventional approach of first defining avionics requirements for a specific mission, then developing software specific to those requirements. The proposed approach might also be adaptable to programming computers that control and monitor other complex equipment systems that range in scale from automobiles to factories. The concept of a spacecraft avionics functional model (SAFM) is a major element of the proposed approach. An SAFM would be, essentially, a systematic and hierarchical description of the functionality required of the avionics software (and hardware) for a given mission. Although the initial input information used to start the construction of an SAFM would typically amount to a high-level description, the SAFM would thereafter be decomposed to a low level. The resulting low-level version of the model would be used to develop a set of generic requirements that could be expected to include a large fraction of all requirements for a large fraction of all missions. The generic requirements would be used to develop software modules that could be included in, or excluded from, the final flight software to satisfy the requirements of a specific mission.

  17. Generic drug names and social welfare.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Félix; Feldman, Roger

    2013-06-01

    This article studies how well International Nonproprietary Names (INNs), the "generic" names for pharmaceuticals, address the problems of imperfect information. Left in private hands, the identification of medicines leads to confusion and errors. Developed in the 1950s by the World Health Organization, INNs are a common, global, scientific nomenclature designed to overcome this failure. Taking stock after sixty years, we argue that the contribution of INNs to social welfare is paramount. They enhance public health by reducing errors and improving patient safety. They also contribute to economic efficiency by creating transparency as the foundation of competitive generic drug markets, reducing transaction costs, and favoring trade. The law in most countries requires manufacturers to designate pharmaceuticals with INNs in labeling and advertising. Generic substitution is also permitted or mandatory in many countries. But not all the benefits of INNs are fully realized because prescribers may not use them. We advocate strong incentives or even legally binding provisions to extend the use of INNs by prescribing physicians and dispensing pharmacists, but we do not recommend replacing brand names entirely with INNs. Instead, we propose dual use of brand names and INNs in prescribing, as in drug labeling.

  18. Generic Environment for Simulating Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Martin; Mollaghasemi, Mansooreh; Rabadi, Ghaith

    2006-01-01

    GEM-FLO (A Generic Simulation Environment for Modeling Future Launch Operations) is a computer program that facilitates creation of discrete-event simulation models of ground processes in which reusable or expendable launch vehicles (RLVs) are prepared for flight. GEM-FLO includes a component, developed in Visual Basic, that generates a graphical user interface (GUI) and a component, developed in the Arena simulation language, that creates a generic discrete-event simulation model. Through the GUI, GEM-FLO elicits RLV design information from the user. The design information can include information on flight hardware elements, resources, and ground processes. GEM-FLO translates the user s responses into mathematical variables and expressions that populate the generic simulation model. The variables and expressions can represent processing times, resource capacities, status variables, and other process parameters needed to configure a simulation model that reflects the ground processing flow and requirements of a specific RLV. Upon execution of the model, GEMFLO puts out data on many measures of performance, including the flight rate, turnaround time, and utilization of resources. This information can serve as the basis for determining whether design goals can be met, and for comparing characteristics of competing RLV designs

  19. Generic documentation tree for science ground segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-López, F.; Lock, T.; Texier, D.

    2014-08-01

    The competences of the Science Ground Segment, for an ESA science mission, include: science operations planning, science instrument handling, data reception and processing, and archiving as well as providing science support. This paper presents a generic documentation structure applicable during the analysis, definition, implementation and operational phases of an ESA Science Ground Segment. This is the conclusion of the analysis performed in the scope of the current ESAC Science Ground Segment developments and is derived from the experience of previous ESA science missions and the ESA standardization efforts (ECSS Standards). It provides a guideline to support the Science Ground Segment documentation processes during all mission phases; representing a new approach for the development of future ESA science missions, and providing an initial documentation structure that might be tailored depending on the specific scientific, engineering and managerial characteristics of each mission. This paper also describes the process followed to produce the generic documentation tree and how the development and operations experience feedback in the updated versions of this generic documentation tree.

  20. 76 FR 40981 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY... service delivery, the Maritime Administration is submitting a Generic Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service...

  1. A trade agreement's impact on access to generic drugs.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2009-01-01

    Millions of people lack access to affordable medicines. The intellectual property rules in the Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) provide pharmaceutical companies with monopoly protections that allow them to market some drugs without competition by less costly generics. We examined availability of certain drugs in Guatemala and found that CAFTA intellectual property rules reduced access to some generic drugs already on the market and delayed new entry of other generics. Some drugs protected from competition in Guatemala will become open for generic competition in the United States before generic versions will be legally available in Guatemala.

  2. Nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svehla, D.; Feldman, S.; Feldman, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Shakkottai, P.; Castillo, L. del; White, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph (nSEC) based on the principle that molecules traveling through amicrocolumn containing nano-fabricated features will have characteristic elution times that directly correlate to molecular weight. Compared to conventional size exclusion chromatography, the nSEC offers greater control over the size exclusion process; mass fabrication; integration of the separation column with associated valves, pumps, and detectors; and dramatic reductions in instrument mass and power requirements.

  3. Nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svehla, D.; Feldman, S.; Feldman, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Shakkottai, P.; Castillo, L. del; White, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph (nSEC) based on the principle that molecules traveling through amicrocolumn containing nano-fabricated features will have characteristic elution times that directly correlate to molecular weight. Compared to conventional size exclusion chromatography, the nSEC offers greater control over the size exclusion process; mass fabrication; integration of the separation column with associated valves, pumps, and detectors; and dramatic reductions in instrument mass and power requirements.

  4. 7 CFR 520.5 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... implementation which are related to routine activities such as personnel, organizational changes or similar... agency. (c) Exceptions to categorical exclusions. An environmental assessment shall be prepared for an...

  5. Price regulation and relative delays in generic drug adoption.

    PubMed

    Costa-Font, Joan; McGuire, Alistair; Varol, Nebibe

    2014-12-01

    Increasing the adoption of generic drugs has the potential to improve static efficiency in a health system without harming pharmaceutical innovation. However, very little is known about the timing of generic adoption and diffusion. No prior study has empirically examined the differential launch times of generics across a comprehensive set of markets, or more specifically the delays in country specific adoption of generics relative to the first country of (generic) adoption. Drawing on data containing significant country and product variation across a lengthy time period (1999-2008), we use duration analysis to examine relative delays, across countries, in the adoption of generic drugs. Our results suggest that price regulation has a significant effect on reducing the time to launch of generics, with faster adoption in higher priced markets. The latter result is dependent on the degree of competition and the expected market size.

  6. Central exclusive production at RHIC

    DOE PAGES

    Adamczyk, Leszek; Guryn, Włodek; Turnau, Jacek

    2014-11-10

    The present status and future plans of the physics program of Central Exclusive Production (CEP) at RHIC are described. The measurements are based on the detection of the forward protons from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process in the Roman Pot system and of the recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process measured in the STAR experiment’s Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data described here were taken using polarized proton-proton collisions at ps = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two pion and four pion invariant mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudo-rapidity | |more » < 1, are presented. Near future plans to take data with the current system at center-of-mass energy ps = 200 GeV and plans to upgrade the forward proton tagging sys- tem are presented. Also a possible addition of the Roman Pots to the sPHENIX detector is discussed.« less

  7. Exclusion Criteria in National Health State Valuation Studies: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Engel, Lidia; Bansback, Nick; Bryan, Stirling; Doyle-Waters, Mary M; Whitehurst, David G T

    2016-10-01

    Health state valuation data are often excluded from studies that aim to provide a nationally representative set of values for preference-based health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments. The purpose was to provide a systematic examination of exclusion criteria used in the derivation of societal scoring algorithms for preference-based HRQoL instruments. Data sources included MEDLINE, official instrument websites, and publication reference lists. Analyses that used data from national valuation studies and reported a scoring algorithm for a generic preference-based HRQoL instrument were included. Data extraction included exclusion criteria and associated justifications, exclusion rates, the characteristics of excluded respondents, and analyses that explored consequential implications of exclusion criteria on the respective national tariff. Seventy-six analyses (from 70 papers) met the inclusion criteria. In addition to being excluded for logical inconsistencies, respondents were often excluded if they valued fewer than 3 health states or if they gave the same value to all health states. Numerous other exclusion criteria were identified, with varying degrees of justification, often based on an assumption that respondents did not understand the task or as a consequence of the chosen statistical modeling techniques. Rates of exclusion ranged from 0% to 65%, with excluded respondents more likely to be older, less educated, and less healthy. Limitations included that the database search was confined to MEDLINE; study selection focused on national valuation studies that used standard gamble, time tradeoff, and/or visual analog scale techniques; and only English-language studies were included. Exclusion criteria used in national valuation studies vary considerably. Further consideration is necessary in this important and influential area of research, from the design stage to the reporting of results. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Rational design of FRET sensor proteins based on mutually exclusive domain interactions.

    PubMed

    Merkx, Maarten; Golynskiy, Misha V; Lindenburg, Laurens H; Vinkenborg, Jan L

    2013-10-01

    Proteins that switch between distinct conformational states are ideal to monitor and control molecular processes within the complexity of biological systems. Inspired by the modular architecture of natural signalling proteins, our group explores generic design strategies for the construction of FRET-based sensor proteins and other protein switches. In the present article, I show that designing FRET sensors based on mutually exclusive domain interactions provides a robust method to engineer sensors with predictable properties and an inherently large change in emission ratio. The modularity of this approach should make it easily transferable to other applications of protein switches in fields ranging from synthetic biology, optogenetics and molecular diagnostics.

  9. Competition between multiple totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes for a finite pool of resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, L. Jonathan; Zia, R. K. P.; Schmittmann, B.

    2009-09-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations and a domain-wall theory, we discuss the effect of coupling several totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes (TASEPs) to a finite reservoir of particles. This simple model mimics directed biological transport processes in the presence of finite resources such as protein synthesis limited by a finite pool of ribosomes. If all TASEPs have equal length, we find behavior which is analogous to a single TASEP coupled to a finite pool. For the more generic case of chains with different lengths, several unanticipated regimes emerge. A generalized domain-wall theory captures our findings in good agreement with simulation results.

  10. Position and enforcement practice of the People’s Republic of China’s pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Yu, Xiang; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The concept of pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection comes from the West. The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) establishes the basic rules for pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection. People’s Republic of China’s domestic law is consistent with the TRIPS agreement. In the drug registration approval process of the People’s Republic of China’s Drug Supervision Department, pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection has encountered some problems, including data authentication, exclusive rights to data, number of drugs requiring data to be submitted, and drug costs. In view of the long-term interests of the People’s Republic of China’s pharmaceutical industry and intellectual property protection trends, there are a lot of difficulties in the enforcement of pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection law that need to be overcome. Some measures can be taken, such as establishing a shorter data exclusivity protection period, only protecting the data submitted and relied on in the People’s Republic of China, only protecting the drugs that use new chemical components, allowing application and necessary research before the expiry of pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection period of generic drugs. PMID:27382254

  11. Two-year-olds use the generic/non-generic distinction to guide their inferences about novel kinds

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Susan A.; Nayer, Samantha L.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    These studies investigated 24- and 30-month-olds’ sensitivity to generic versus nongeneric language when acquiring knowledge about novel kinds. Toddlers were administered an inductive inference task, during which they heard a generic noun-phrase (e.g., “Blicks drink milk”) or a non-generic noun-phrase (e.g., “This blick drinks milk”) paired with an action (e.g., drinking) modeled on an object. They were then provided with the model and a non-model exemplar and asked to imitate the action. After hearing non-generic phrases, 30-month-olds, but not 24-month-olds, imitated more often with the model than with the non-model exemplar. In contrast, after hearing generic phrases, 30-month-olds imitated equally often with both exemplars. These results suggest that 30-month-olds use the generic/non-generic distinction to guide their inferences about novel kinds. PMID:21410928

  12. Exclusive Hyperon Production at CLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carman, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    This talk will provide an overview of the exclusive hyperon production experiments being carried out by the CLAS Collaboration at Jefferson Laboratory. The program is designed to measure cross sections and a complete set of beam, target, and recoil hyperon polarization observables for both Kλ and Kσ final states with beam energies up to 6 GeV. These data will span a broad kinematic range in momentum transfer Q^2 and invariant energy W, and nearly the full center-of-mass angular range of the kaon. Analyses of data on both proton and neutron targets are underway or planned for the near future involving polarized beams (longitudinally polarized electrons, circularly and linearly polarized photons) and polarized targets (longitudinally and transversely polarized). The main goal of this series of measurements is to provide precision data needed to disentangle the resonant and non-resonant amplitudes in the intermediate state to uncover baryon resonances that couple to the strangeness channels (N^* ->Kλ, Kσ, &*circ;->Kσ). This will improve our understanding of the nucleon excitation spectrum, and hence, probe the effective degrees of freedom of the nucleon. These data will also serve to improve our understanding of the dynamics underlying strangeness production in general. Over the next several years it is expected that a full coupled-channels analysis, including hadroproduction data, as well as data with both real and virtual photons, will be completed by several groups, including the Excited Baryon Analysis Center (EBAC) at Jefferson Laboratory. The precision data from CLAS will be a crucial input for these analyses. Within the next five years, the CLAS facility will be significantly upgraded for use with the higher-energy electron beams available with the 12-GeV Jefferson Laboratory energy upgrade. The future of the strangeness physics program with the new CLAS12 facility will be highlighted.

  13. Consumer choice between common generic and brand medicines in a country with a small generic market.

    PubMed

    Fraeyman, Jessica; Peeters, Lies; Van Hal, Guido; Beutels, Philippe; De Meyer, Guido R Y; De Loof, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Generic medicines offer an opportunity for governments to contain pharmaceutical expenditures, since generics are generally 10%-80% lower in price than brand medicines. Belgium has a small generic market that takes up 15% of the total pharmaceutical market in packages sold. To determine the knowledge of consumers about the different available packages of a common over-the-counter medicine (acetaminophen) with regard to price advantage, quality, and effectiveness in a country with a small generic market. We conducted an online survey in the general Flemish population using a questionnaire with 25 statements. The questionnaire also contained 2 informative interventions. First, we showed the price per package and per tablet that the patient would pay in the pharmacy. Second, we provided the respondent with general information about generic medication (equivalence, effectiveness, price, and recognition). Before and after the interventions, we probed for preferences and knowledge about the different packages. Multivariate logistic models were used to examine the independent effects of consumer characteristics on responses to the survey statements. We obtained a sample of 1,636 respondents. The general attitude towards generic medication was positive-only 5% would rather not use a generic. Nevertheless, only 17% of the respondents were able to recognize a generic medicine. Older consumers (aged 60 years and above) were more often confused about the different packages (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.76-3.80, P ≤ 0.001). Consumers without a higher education degree tended to be more doubtful about the difference in effectiveness and quality between the different brands (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.44-0.79, P ≤ 0.001). Consumer recognition of the name of the active substance of acetaminophen was poor. When different brands were displayed, possible price advantage seemed to be an important motive to switch to a cheaper brand. Consumers generally found medicines

  14. 47 CFR 76.107 - Exclusivity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exclusivity contracts. 76.107 Section 76.107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout...

  15. 47 CFR 76.107 - Exclusivity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exclusivity contracts. 76.107 Section 76.107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout...

  16. 47 CFR 76.107 - Exclusivity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exclusivity contracts. 76.107 Section 76.107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout...

  17. 12 CFR 229.42 - Exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusions. 229.42 Section 229.42 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Collection of Checks § 229.42 Exclusions....

  18. 47 CFR 76.107 - Exclusivity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exclusivity contracts. 76.107 Section 76.107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports...

  19. 47 CFR 76.107 - Exclusivity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exclusivity contracts. 76.107 Section 76.107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports...

  20. 10 CFR 830.2 - Exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusions. 830.2 Section 830.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.2 Exclusions. This part does not apply to: (a) Activities that are... 1974, as amended; and (e) Activities related to the launch approval and actual launch of nuclear...