Science.gov

Sample records for 180-day generic exclusivity

  1. A new history and discussion of 180-day exclusivity.

    PubMed

    Korn, David E; Lietzan, Erika; Scott, Shaw W

    2009-01-01

    Congress created 180-day exclusivity for generic drug applicants in the 1984 Hatch-Waxman amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) and amended the provision substantially in the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA). The fundamental goal behind 180-day exclusivity was to provide an incentive for generic drug applicants to challenge innovator patents, and the core of the concept--as it has been applied by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the courts--is that the first generic drug applicant to challenge an innovator's patent is entitled to six months of exclusivity against subsequent patent challengers for the same innovator drug. 180-day exclusivity is governed by sections 505(j)(5)(B)(iv) and 505(j)(5)(D) of the FDCA. In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive resource on 180-day exclusivity for old abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) (but less detail in some places where the 2007 article may be referenced) but focus more discussion on the new provisions as well as some policy and legal issues related to 180-day exclusivity that have not previously addressed.

  2. 78 FR 30390 - Applications Delayed More Than 180 Days

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Applications Delayed More Than 180 Days AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of Applications Delayed... of Hazardous Materials Special Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  3. Respiratory mechanics after 180 days space mission (EUROMIR'95)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturoli, Daniele; Semino, Paola; Negrini, Daniela; Miserocchi, Giuseppe

    The present study reports data on respiratory function of lung and chest wall following the 180 days long European — Russian EuroMir '95 space mission. Data reported refer to two subjects studied before the mission, on day 9 and 175 in flight and on days 1, 10, 12, 27 and 120 after return. In-flight vital capacity (VC) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV) were similar to those in supine posture, namely ~ 5% and ~ 30% less than in sitting posture. On day 1 after return, VC was reduced by ~30 % in both postures. This reflected a decrease in ERV (~0.5 L) and in IC (inspiratory capacity, ~ 1.7 L) that could be attributed to a marked weakening of the respiratory muscles. Regain of normal preflight values barely occurred 120 days after return. Post-flight pressure-volume curves of the lung, chest wall and total respiratory system are equal to preflight ones. The pressure-volume curve of the lung in supine posture is displaced to the right relative to sitting posture and shows a lower compliance. As far as the lung in-flight condition resembles that occurring in supine posture, this implies a lower compliance, a greater amount of blood in the pulmonary microvascular bed, a more homogeneous lung perfusion and therefore a greater microvascular filtration rate towards lung interstitium.

  4. 78 FR 12417 - List of Special Permit Applications Delayed 180 Days

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration List of Special Permit Applications Delayed 180 Days AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of applications... of Hazardous Materials Special Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  5. 49 CFR 24.401 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day homeowner-occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Has actually owned and occupied the displacement dwelling for not less than 180 days immediately prior... displacement dwelling or, in the case of condemnation, the date the full amount of the estimate of just... homeowner-occupant is paid for the displacement dwelling, or the date a comparable replacement dwelling...

  6. A subchronic (180-day) oral toxicity study of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether, a bioethanol, in rats.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Katsumi; Koga, Takayuki; Aso, Sunao; Hoshuyama, Satsuki; Ajimi, Syozo; Furukawa, Kotaro

    2014-07-01

    A subchronic (180-day) toxicity study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), a biomass fuel, in male and female rats. ETBE was administered at dose levels of 0, 5, 25, 100 and 400 mg/kg/body weight (b.w.)/day by gavage. No treatment-related adverse effects were observed at 5, 25 or 100 mg/kg. Centrilobular hypertrophy of hepatocytes was observed in males and females and their relative liver weights were increased, suggesting enhanced metabolic activity. From these results, we concluded that the no observed adverse effect level of ETBE was 100 mg/kg b.w./day under the conditions tested. PMID:24252074

  7. An Administrative Meter Maid: Using Inter Partes Review and Post-Grant Review to Curb Exclusivity Parking via the "Failure to Market" Provision of the Hatch-Waxman Act.

    PubMed

    Apel, Brian T

    2015-01-01

    Congress created the unique Hatch-Waxman framework in 1984 to increase the availability of low-cost generic drugs while preserving patent incentives for new drug development. The Hatch-Waxman Act rewards generic drug companies that successfully challenge a pharmaceutical patent: 180 days of market exclusivity before any other generic firm can enter the market. When a generic firm obtains this reward, sometimes drug developers agree to pay generic firms to delay entering the market. These pay-for-delay agreements give rise to exclusivity parking and run counter to congressional intent by delaying full generic drug competition. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act created several statutory forfeiture provisions that proved only marginally effective at curbing the practice of exclusivity parking. More recently, Congress created new quasi-judicial administrative proceedings that effectively replace certain kinds of district court patent litigation. This Note describes the complex statutory scheme that gave rise to exclusivity parking, explains why previous and current attempts to curtail exclusivity parking were and remain ineffective, and suggests amending the "failure to market" provision to include these new administrative proceedings as a way to help curb exclusivity parking.

  8. Extended healing validation of an artificial tendon to connect the quadriceps muscle to the Tibia: 180-day study.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Alan J; Litsky, Alan S; Mayerson, Joel L; Stringer, Keith; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia

    2012-07-01

    Whenever a tendon or its bone insertion is disrupted or removed, existing surgical techniques provide a temporary connection or scaffolding to promote healing, but the interface of living to non-living materials soon breaks down under the stress of these applications, if it must bear the load more than acutely. Patients are thus disabled whose prostheses, defect size, or mere anatomy limit the availability or outcomes of such treatments. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device to join skeletal muscle to prosthetic or natural structures without this interface breakdown. In this study, the goat knee extensor mechanism (quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar tendon) was removed from the right hind limb in 16 goats. The device connected the quadriceps muscle to a stainless steel bone plate on the tibia. Mechanical testing and histology specimens were collected from each operated leg and contralateral unoperated control legs at 180 days. Maximum forces in the operated leg (vs. unoperated) were 1,400 ± 93 N (vs. 1,179 ± 61 N), linear stiffnesses were 33 ± 3 N/mm (vs. 37 ± 4 N/mm), and elongations at failure were 92.1 ± 5.3 mm (vs. 68.4 ± 3.8 mm; mean ± SEM). Higher maximum forces (p = 0.02) and elongations at failure (p=0.008) of legs with the device versus unoperated controls were significant; linear stiffnesses were not (p=0.3). We believe this technology will yield improved procedures for clinical challenges in orthopedic oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and tendon injury reconstruction.

  9. Extended Healing Validation of an Artificial Tendon to Connect the Quadriceps Muscle to the Tibia: 180-day Study

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, Alan J.; Litsky, Alan S.; Mayerson, Joel L.; Stringer, Keith; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Whenever a tendon or its bone insertion is disrupted or removed, existing surgical techniques provide a temporary connection or scaffolding to promote healing, but the interface of living to nonliving materials soon breaks down under the stress of these applications, if it must bear the load more than acutely. Patients are thus disabled whose prostheses, defect size, or mere anatomy limit the availability or outcomes of such treatments. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device to join skeletal muscle to prosthetic or natural structures without this interface breakdown. In this study, the goat knee extensor mechanism (quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar tendon) was removed from the right hind limb in 16 goats. The device connected the quadriceps muscle to a stainless steel bone plate on the tibia. Mechanical testing and histology specimens were collected from each operated leg and contra lateral unoperated control legs at 180 days. Maximum forces in the operated leg (vs. unoperated) were 1400± 93N (vs. 1179± 61 N), linear stiffnesses were 33± 3 N/mm (vs. 37 ± 4N/mm), and elongations at failure were 92.1 ± 5.3 mm (vs. 68.4 ± 3.8 mm; mean ± SEM). Higher maximum forces (p = 0.02) and elongations at failure (p = 0.008) of legs with the device versus unoperated controls were significant; linear stiffnesses were not (p = 0.3). We believe this technology will yield improved procedures for clinical challenges in orthopaedic oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and tendon injury reconstruction. PMID:22179930

  10. 49 CFR 24.502 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile homeowner displaced from a mobile home, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... decent, safe and sanitary dwelling. (d) Owner-occupant not displaced from the mobile home. If the Agency... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 180-day mobile homeowner displaced from a mobile home, and/or from the acquired mobile home site. 24.502 Section...

  11. Can Chronic Pain Patients Be Adequately Treated Using Generic Pain Medications to the Exclusion of Brand-Name Ones?

    PubMed

    Candido, Kenneth D; Chiweshe, Joseph; Anantamongkol, Utchariya; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2016-01-01

    According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reports, approximately 8 in 10 prescriptions filled in the United States are for generic medications, with an expectation that this number will increase over the next few years. The impetus for this emphasis on generics is the cost disparity between them and brand-name products. The use of FDA-approved generic drugs saved 158 billion dollars in 2010 alone. In the current health care climate, there is continually increasing pressure for prescribers to write for generic alternative medications, occasionally at the expense of best clinical practices. This creates a conflict wherein both physicians and patients may find brand-name medications clinically superior but nevertheless choose generic ones. The issue of generic versus brand medications is a key component of the discussion of health payers, physicians and their patients. This review evaluates some of the important medications in the armamentarium of pain physicians that are frequently used in the management of chronic pain, and that are currently at the forefront of this issue, including Opana (oxymorphone; Endo Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Malvern, PA), Gralise (gabapentin; Depomed, Newark, CA), and Horizant (gabapentin enacarbil; XenoPort, Santa Clara, CA) that are each available in generic forms as well. We also discuss the use of Lyrica (pregabalin; Pfizer, New York, NY), which is currently unavailable as generic medication, and Cymbalta (duloxetine; Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, IN), which has been recently FDA approved to be available in a generic form. It is clear that the use of generic medications results in large financial savings for the cost of prescriptions on a national scale. However, cost-analysis is only part of the equation when treating chronic pain patients and undervalues the relationships of enhanced compliance due to single-daily dosing and stable and reliable pharmacokinetics associated with extended-duration preparations using either retentive

  12. A call for a moratorium on the .health generic top-level domain: preventing the commercialization and exclusive control of online health information.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Eysenbach, Gunther; Liang, Bryan A; Kohler, Jillian C; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Attaran, Amir

    2014-09-26

    In just a few weeks, the Internet could be expanded to include a new .health generic top-level domain name run by a for-profit company with virtually no public health credentials - unless the international community intervenes immediately. This matters to the future of global public health as the "Health Internet" has begun to emerge as the predominant source of health information for consumers and patients. Despite this increasing use and reliance on online health information that may have inadequate quality or reliability, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) recently announced it intends to move forward with an auction to award the exclusive, 10 year rights to the .health generic top-level domain name. This decision is being made over the protests of the World Medical Association, World Health Organization, and other stakeholders, who have called for a suspension or delay until key questions can be resolved. However, rather than engage in constructive dialogue with the public health community over its concerns, ICANN chose the International Chamber of Commerce-a business lobbying group for industries to adjudicate the .health concerns. This has resulted in a rejection of challenges filed by ICANN's own independent watchdog and others, such that ICANN's Board decided in June 2014 that there are "no noted objections to move forward" in auctioning the .health generic top-level domain name to the highest bidder before the end of the year. This follows ICANN's award of several other health-related generic top-level domain names that have been unsuccessfully contested. In response, we call for an immediate moratorium/suspension of the ICANN award/auction process in order to provide the international public health community time to ensure the proper management and governance of health information online.

  13. Exposure to Pb, Cd, and As mixtures potentiates the production of oxidative stress precursors: 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day drinking water studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Margaret H; Wang, Gensheng; Chen, Xue-Qing; Lipsky, Michael; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Fowler, Bruce A

    2011-07-15

    Exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and is of particular concern due to their appearance in sources of drinking water. Despite this, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to date to understand the health impact of chemical mixtures compared to single chemicals. Interactive effects of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were evaluated in 30-, 90-, and 180-day factorial design drinking water studies in rats designed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of such mixtures at individual component Lowest-Observed-Effect-Levels (LOELs) results in increased levels of the pro-oxidant delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA), iron, and copper. LOEL levels of Pb, Cd, and As mixtures resulted in the increased presence of mediators of oxidative stress such as ALA, copper, and iron. ALA increases were followed by statistically significant increases in kidney copper in the 90- and 180-day studies. Statistical evidence of interaction was identified for six biologically relevant variables: blood delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), kidney ALAD, urinary ALA, urinary iron, kidney iron, and kidney copper. The current investigations underscore the importance of considering interactive effects that common toxic agents such as Pb, Cd, and As may have upon one another at low-dose levels. The interactions between known toxic trace elements at biologically relevant concentrations shown here demonstrate a clear need to rigorously review methods by which national/international agencies assess health risks of chemicals, since exposures may commonly occur as complex mixtures.

  14. Exposure to Pb, Cd, and As mixtures potentiates the production of oxidative stress precursors: 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day drinking water studies in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, Margaret H.; Wang, Gensheng; Chen Xueqing; Lipsky, Michael; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Fowler, Bruce A.

    2011-07-15

    Exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and is of particular concern due to their appearance in sources of drinking water. Despite this, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to date to understand the health impact of chemical mixtures compared to single chemicals. Interactive effects of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were evaluated in 30-, 90-, and 180-day factorial design drinking water studies in rats designed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of such mixtures at individual component Lowest-Observed-Effect-Levels (LOELs) results in increased levels of the pro-oxidant delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA), iron, and copper. LOEL levels of Pb, Cd, and As mixtures resulted in the increased presence of mediators of oxidative stress such as ALA, copper, and iron. ALA increases were followed by statistically significant increases in kidney copper in the 90- and 180-day studies. Statistical evidence of interaction was identified for six biologically relevant variables: blood delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), kidney ALAD, urinary ALA, urinary iron, kidney iron, and kidney copper. The current investigations underscore the importance of considering interactive effects that common toxic agents such as Pb, Cd, and As may have upon one another at low-dose levels. The interactions between known toxic trace elements at biologically relevant concentrations shown here demonstrate a clear need to rigorously review methods by which national/international agencies assess health risks of chemicals, since exposures may commonly occur as complex mixtures.

  15. Age Discrimination--Notice--Filing Notice of Intent to Sue Within 180 Days After the Alleged Violation Is a Jurisdictional Prerequisite to an Action Under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act. Hiscott v. General Elec. Co., 521 F. 2d 632 (6th Cir. 1975)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiltner, L. Del

    1976-01-01

    The Hiscott decision indicates that the court will require notice to meet specific standards before an individual's right to maintain a civil action under the ADEA becomes operative. It also suggests that strict compliance with the 180-day notice provision will continue to be a condition precedent to suit. (Author/LBH)

  16. Drug patent expirations and the speed of generic entry.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, J P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Using recent data, to analyze the generic drug entry phenomenon to determine the factors that influence the speed and likelihood of generic drug entries. DATA SOURCES: Data for 81 drugs that have lost patent between 1987 and 1994. Patent and exclusive marketing rights expiration dates: Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalent Evaluations (1986-1989). Generic entry dates: FDA Drug and Device Product Approvals (Jan. 1987-Dec. 1994). Numbers of pending generic applications: FDA Office of Generic Drugs Quantitative Report-ANDAs and AADAs (Nov. 1990-Jan. 1993). Sales revenue: Pharmaceutical Data Services, Walsh-America. STUDY DESIGN: This study appropriately recognizes generic entry as a survival problem, and uses a proportional hazard method for analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1) There is a negative relationship between an innovative drug's sales revenue and the time to generic entry. (2) Entries of generics tend to be slower for drugs that have either very few or a very large number of competing brands in the marketplace. (3) The time to generic entry increased overall between 1987 and 1994. (4) Drugs that primarily treat chronic symptoms tend to enter faster than the types of drugs that primarily treat acute illnesses. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis shows that the generic industry is targeting large-revenue products and chronic drug markets. Entry of a generic drug is influenced by the existing branded substitutes in the marketplace. Surprisingly, the generic drug entry process has slowed despite many changes that would facilitate entry. PMID:9108806

  17. Conceptual Distinctions amongst Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasada, Sandeep; Khemlani, Sangeet; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Glucksberg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Generic sentences (e.g., bare plural sentences such as "dogs have four legs" and "mosquitoes carry malaria") are used to talk about "kinds" of things. Three experiments investigated the conceptual foundations of generics as well as claims within the formal semantic approaches to generics concerning the roles of prevalence, cue validity and…

  18. Bioequivalence of generic drugs.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-09-01

    Generic drugs are bioequivalent to the original brand; this is a prerequisite for marketing approval. It is theoretically possible that one generic drug may overestimate the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of the original and another generic may underestimate these PK parameters; in consequence, these 2 generics may not be bioequivalent between themselves. The result could be loss of efficacy or development of drug-related adverse effects if these generics are interchanged in stable patients. In a recent study involving 292 indirect comparisons of generic formulations of 9 different drugs, mathematical modeling showed that in most cases (87.0% for maximum concentration, 90.1% for area under the curve, and 80.5% for both) generic drugs are bioequivalent to each other. These reassuring findings notwithstanding, prudence dictates that, in stable patients, generic drugs should be interchanged only if there is a good reason for it. This is because bioequivalent brands of drugs may differ in their excipient content, and this can result in variations in safety profiles. PMID:26455677

  19. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  20. Bioequivalence of generic drugs.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-09-01

    Generic drugs are bioequivalent to the original brand; this is a prerequisite for marketing approval. It is theoretically possible that one generic drug may overestimate the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of the original and another generic may underestimate these PK parameters; in consequence, these 2 generics may not be bioequivalent between themselves. The result could be loss of efficacy or development of drug-related adverse effects if these generics are interchanged in stable patients. In a recent study involving 292 indirect comparisons of generic formulations of 9 different drugs, mathematical modeling showed that in most cases (87.0% for maximum concentration, 90.1% for area under the curve, and 80.5% for both) generic drugs are bioequivalent to each other. These reassuring findings notwithstanding, prudence dictates that, in stable patients, generic drugs should be interchanged only if there is a good reason for it. This is because bioequivalent brands of drugs may differ in their excipient content, and this can result in variations in safety profiles.

  1. Product, generic, and random generic quantum satisfiability

    SciTech Connect

    Laumann, C. R.; Sondhi, S. L.; Laeuchli, A. M.; Moessner, R.; Scardicchio, A.

    2010-06-15

    We report a cluster of results on k-QSAT, the problem of quantum satisfiability for k-qubit projectors which generalizes classical satisfiability with k-bit clauses to the quantum setting. First we define the NP-complete problem of product satisfiability and give a geometrical criterion for deciding when a QSAT interaction graph is product satisfiable with positive probability. We show that the same criterion suffices to establish quantum satisfiability for all projectors. Second, we apply these results to the random graph ensemble with generic projectors and obtain improved lower bounds on the location of the SAT-unSAT transition. Third, we present numerical results on random, generic satisfiability which provide estimates for the location of the transition for k=3 and k=4 and mild evidence for the existence of a phase which is satisfiable by entangled states alone.

  2. Generic POCC architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This document describes a generic POCC (Payload Operations Control Center) architecture based upon current POCC software practice, and several refinements to the architecture based upon object-oriented design principles and expected developments in teleoperations. The current-technology generic architecture is an abstraction based upon close analysis of the ERBS, COBE, and GRO POCC's. A series of three refinements is presented: these may be viewed as an approach to a phased transition to the recommended architecture. The third refinement constitutes the recommended architecture, which, together with associated rationales, will form the basis of the rapid synthesis environment to be developed in the remainder of this task. The document is organized into two parts. The first part describes the current generic architecture using several graphical as well as tabular representations or 'views.' The second part presents an analysis of the generic architecture in terms of object-oriented principles. On the basis of this discussion, refinements to the generic architecture are presented, again using a combination of graphical and tabular representations.

  3. Generic robot architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  4. Generic Airspace Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Bridges, Wayne; Gujarl, Vimmy; Lee, Paul U.; Preston, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an extension of generic airspace research to explore the amount of memorization and specialized skills required to manage sectors with specific characteristics or factors. Fifty-five retired controllers were given an electronic survey where they rated the amount of memorization or specialized skills needed for sixteen generic airspace factors. The results suggested similarities in the pattern of ratings between different areas of the US (East, Central, and West). The average of the ratings for each area also showed some differences between regions, with ratings being generally higher in the East area. All sixteen factors were rated as moderately to highly important and may be useful for future research on generic airspace, air traffic controller workload, etc.

  5. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  6. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  7. Generic EO sensor simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerman, Alexander, III; Hoffman, George A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A generic sensor simulation has been developed which emulates the imagery produced by closed circuit television sensors. Applications to date include a monochromatic vidicon and a color CCD camera. The core software program was extracted from the MARSAM II model embedded within the Avionics Laboratory Sensor Performance Model (ALSPM).

  8. Generic telemetry processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Richard L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Flight Operations Center (SFOC) is a generic suite of ground data systems software. One main subsystem of SFOC is the Telemetry Input Subsystem (TIS). Utilizing techniques for the abstract representation of data, the TIS has provided a flexible software base that can be used as a baseline for multiple spacecraft missions.

  9. Generic Sentences in English and French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschensohn, Julia

    Previous accounts of "generic" have been either too broad in including several sentence types as generic, or too narrow in limiting the definition of generic to the noun or verb alone. This research critically examines data and previous treatments of the generic verb, generic noun, and generic sentence. Because every generic sentence may also have…

  10. The Safe Drinking Water Act First 180 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Jay H.

    1975-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act protects our drinking and ground water resources. The Water Advisory Council interprets and implements the law. Implementation principles include high priorities for public health, cost considerations, state and local participation, environmental impact, decentralized decision making, and use of federal and state…

  11. Generic safety documentation model

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  12. Generics: keep a balanced view.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Once the different kinds of commercial protection (patents, etc.) granted to the manufacturer of an "originator" drug have expired, the drug in question may be copied by other companies. These copies are known as generics. The characteristics and pharmaceutical quality of generics are governed by international standards. The marketing authorisation procedure for generic drugs dispenses with preclinical and clinical trials, which already exist for the originator drug. In contrast, proof of bioequivalence must be provided. In practice, this means demonstrating that the effects of the generic are similar (but not necessarily identical) to those of the originator drug. Slight differences between a generic and its brand-name counterpart are allowed, provided they do not markedly affect the efficacy or adverse effect profile in comparison to the originator drug. The accepted degree of difference between a generic and the original brand-name drug is the same as the acceptable difference between two batches of the originator drug. The rules governing generic manufacturing conditions are identical to those applying to originator drugs. And issues raised by drug production abroad, particularly to Asian countries, apply to originator just as much as to generic drugs. Generics represent a significant source of financial savings for society. In France, various measures have been introduced to encourage doctors, pharmacists and patients, respectively, to prescribe, dispense and use generics. Criticisms of the efficacy or quality of generics are often unfounded and sometimes deliberately orchestrated. Smear campaigns conducted by drug companies that market originator drugs, and also by some healthcare professionals, sow confusion, to the detriment of generic use. There is no tangible proof that generics are less safe than originator drugs, provided they are chosen wisely, taking into account factors such as their packaging quality. It is up to healthcare professionals to decide

  13. Generic Initiation and Adherence to Antidepressant Therapy under Medicare Part D

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yuhua; Ryan, Andrew M.; Shao, Huibo; Pincus, Harold Alan; Donohue, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effect of initiating antidepressant therapy with a generic prescription on adherence to antidepressant therapy among Medicare patients. A second objective is to assess how the effect might be moderated by the Medicare Part D coverage gap. Research Design Adherence to antidepressant therapy was measured by (a lack of) disruption in medication use defined by a gap of >=30 days in antidepressant possession and monthly days of possession, both measured over 180 days since antidepressant initiation. We used a 5% random sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries who received a new depression diagnosis in the first half of 2007 and initiated antidepressant therapy within 60 days (n=16,778). We estimated a Cox proportional hazard model for antidepressant disruption and a mixed-effects linear model for monthly possession. All analyses were stratified by four cohorts defined by Part D low-income subsidy (LIS) status and Medicare entitlement (aged vs. disabled). Results Generic initiation was associated with improved adherence among all four cohorts, with a stronger effect among the non-LIS patients. Hazard ratios for antidepressant disruption ranged from 0.71 (95% CI: 0.53 to 0.96) among the non-LIS, disabled to 0.88 (95% CI: [0.79, 0.98]) among the LIS, aged. Generic initiation was associated with increases in days of monthly possession in all four cohorts and an additional benefit during the coverage gap for non-LIS patients. Conclusions Generic initiation can be an important tool to improve adherence to antidepressant treatment among Medicare patients and to mitigate the negative effects of the Part D coverage gap. PMID:24512035

  14. A generic multibody simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopping, K. A.; Kohn, W.

    1986-01-01

    Described is a dynamic simulation package which can be configured for orbital test scenarios involving multiple bodies. The rotational and translational state integration methods are selectable for each individual body and may be changed during a run if necessary. Characteristics of the bodies are determined by assigning components consisting of mass properties, forces, and moments, which are the outputs of user-defined environmental models. Generic model implementation is facilitated by a transformation processor which performs coordinate frame inversions. Transformations are defined in the initialization file as part of the simulation configuration. The simulation package includes an initialization processor, which consists of a command line preprocessor, a general purpose grammar, and a syntax scanner. These permit specifications of the bodies, their interrelationships, and their initial states in a format that is not dependent on a particular test scenario.

  15. Generic names in Magnaporthales.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Luo, Jing; Rossman, Amy Y; Aoki, Takayuki; Chuma, Izumi; Crous, Pedro W; Dean, Ralph; de Vries, Ronald P; Donofrio, Nicole; Hyde, Kevin D; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Talbot, Nicholas J; Tharreau, Didier; Tosa, Yukio; Valent, Barbara; Wang, Zonghua; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2016-06-01

    The order Magnaporthales comprises about 200 species and includes the economically and scientifically important rice blast fungus and the take-all pathogen of cereals, as well as saprotrophs and endophytes. Recent advances in phylogenetic analyses of these fungi resulted in taxonomic revisions. In this paper we list the 28 currently accepted genera in Magnaporthales with their type species and available gene and genome resources. The polyphyletic Magnaporthe 1972 is proposed for suppression, and Pyricularia 1880 and Nakataea 1939 are recommended for protection as the generic names for the rice blast fungus and the rice stem rot fungus, respectively. The rationale for the recommended names is also provided. These recommendations are made by the Pyricularia/Magnaporthe Working Group established under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). PMID:27433445

  16. Generic concepts in Nectriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, L.; van der Merwe, N.A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The ascomycete family Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) includes numerous important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used extensively in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. Members of the family are unified by phenotypic characters such as uniloculate ascomata that are yellow, orange-red to purple, and with phialidic asexual morphs. The generic concepts in Nectriaceae are poorly defined, since DNA sequence data have not been available for many of these genera. To address this issue we performed a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences for the 28S large subunit (LSU) nrDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), the large subunit of the ATP citrate lyase (acl1), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (rpb1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), α-actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), calmodulin (cmdA), histone H3 (his3), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene regions for available type and authentic strains representing known genera in Nectriaceae, including several genera for which no sequence data were previously available. Supported by morphological observations, the data resolved 47 genera in the Nectriaceae. We re-evaluated the status of several genera, which resulted in the introduction of six new genera to accommodate species that were initially classified based solely on morphological characters. Several generic names are proposed for synonymy based on the abolishment of dual nomenclature. Additionally, a new family is introduced for two genera that were previously accommodated in the Nectriaceae. PMID:26955195

  17. Generic Optimization Program

    1998-07-01

    GenOpt is a generic optimization program for nonlinear, constrained optimization. For evaluating the objective function, any simulation program that communicates over text files can be coupled to GenOpt without code modification. No analytic properties of the objective function are used by GenOpt. ptimization algorithms and numerical methods can be implemented in a library and shared among users. Gencpt offers an interlace between the optimization algorithm and its kernel to make the implementation of new algorithmsmore » fast and easy. Different algorithms of constrained and unconstrained minimization can be added to a library. Algorithms for approximation derivatives and performing line-search will be implemented. The objective function is evaluated as a black-box function by an external simulation program. The kernel of GenOpt deals with the data I/O, result sotrage and report, interlace to the external simulation program, and error handling. An abstract optimization class offers methods to interface the GenOpt kernel and the optimization algorithm library.« less

  18. New generic indexing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

  19. Dimensional regularization is generic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    The absence of the quadratic divergence in the Higgs sector of the Standard Model in the dimensional regularization is usually regarded to be an exceptional property of a specific regularization. To understand what is going on in the dimensional regularization, we illustrate how to reproduce the results of the dimensional regularization for the λϕ4 theory in the more conventional regularization such as the higher derivative regularization; the basic postulate involved is that the quadratically divergent induced mass, which is independent of the scale change of the physical mass, is kinematical and unphysical. This is consistent with the derivation of the Callan-Symanzik equation, which is a comparison of two theories with slightly different masses, for the λϕ4 theory without encountering the quadratic divergence. In this sense the dimensional regularization may be said to be generic in a bottom-up approach starting with a successful low energy theory. We also define a modified version of the mass independent renormalization for a scalar field which leads to the homogeneous renormalization group equation. Implications of the present analysis on the Standard Model at high energies and the presence or absence of SUSY at LHC energies are briefly discussed.

  20. Generic file format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felgate, Nick

    2002-11-01

    The Generic File Format (GFF) is a file format developed within the UK ASW community for the interchange and storage of underwater sonar data. Originally developed for the interchange of time-series data between analysis systems, it has been extended to provide for storage of processed acoustic data (e.g., power and DEMON spectrum, lofargram grey-scale), nonacoustic data (e.g., own-ship dynamics, sensor configuration) and event data (e.g., tracker output, sonar intercepts). The format employs the chunk concept, as used in the WAV and AIFF file formats, to provide extendability (including local variants) while providing a measure of backward compatability. However, the basic concept has been adapted to allow for the mixing in the one file of multiple channels of different sample-rates and data-types through the inclusion of a data frame concept and multiple data blocks. Chunk cross-referencing has been employed to ensure data consistency. A provision is made in the header of the file to store details of the sensor and processing for the data (e.g., the number of hydrophones, beam direction, FFT size) so that an analysis system does not need to know about the sensor or other system from which the data originated.

  1. Generic Comparison of Protein Inference Engines*

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Manfred; Reiter, Lukas; Hengartner, Michael O.; Buhmann, Joachim M.; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2012-01-01

    Protein identifications, instead of peptide-spectrum matches, constitute the biologically relevant result of shotgun proteomics studies. How to appropriately infer and report protein identifications has triggered a still ongoing debate. This debate has so far suffered from the lack of appropriate performance measures that allow us to objectively assess protein inference approaches. This study describes an intuitive, generic and yet formal performance measure and demonstrates how it enables experimentalists to select an optimal protein inference strategy for a given collection of fragment ion spectra. We applied the performance measure to systematically explore the benefit of excluding possibly unreliable protein identifications, such as single-hit wonders. Therefore, we defined a family of protein inference engines by extending a simple inference engine by thousands of pruning variants, each excluding a different specified set of possibly unreliable identifications. We benchmarked these protein inference engines on several data sets representing different proteomes and mass spectrometry platforms. Optimally performing inference engines retained all high confidence spectral evidence, without posterior exclusion of any type of protein identifications. Despite the diversity of studied data sets consistently supporting this rule, other data sets might behave differently. In order to ensure maximal reliable proteome coverage for data sets arising in other studies we advocate abstaining from rigid protein inference rules, such as exclusion of single-hit wonders, and instead consider several protein inference approaches and assess these with respect to the presented performance measure in the specific application context. PMID:22057310

  2. Generic Substitution Issues: Brand-generic Substitution, Generic-generic Substitution, and Generic Substitution of Narrow Therapeutic Index (NTI)/Critical Dose Drugs

    PubMed Central

    PAVELIU, Marian Sorin; BENGEA, Simona; PAVELIU, Fraga Silvia

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Doctors accuse individual variability or lack of quality of generic drugs for adverse reactions or lack of efficacy. The variability of effect of generic substitution, although accepted by clinicians as possible, is little discussed or even understood by them. The situation is really serious in the case of generic substitution of drugs with narrow therapeutic index (NTI) or critical dose. In this paper we review the basic notions of variability and effectiveness of generic medication and change of attitude that would improve the use of these drugs. PMID:21977191

  3. Generic interpreters and microprocessor verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, Phillip J.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) generic interpreters; (2) Viper microprocessors; (3) microprocessor verification; (4) determining correctness; (5) hierarchical decomposition; (6) interpreter theory; (7) AVM-1; (8) phase-level specification; and future work.

  4. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  5. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    1987-01-01

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  6. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  7. Primordial nucleosynthesis with generic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. P.; Kolb, E. W.; Turner, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    A revision of the standard model for Big Bang nucleosynthesis is discussed which allows for the presence of generic particle species. The primordial production of He-4 and D + He-3 is calculated as a function of the mass, spin degrees of freedom, and spin statistics of the generic particle for masses in the range 0.01-100 times the electron mass. The particular case of the Gelmini and Roncadelli majoron model for massive neutrinos is discussed.

  8. 27 CFR 4.24 - Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.24 Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations... a class or type of wine, shall be deemed to have become generic only if so found by the... for a class or type of wine are: Vermouth, Sake. (b)(1) A name of geographic significance, which...

  9. Generic Example Proving Criteria for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…

  10. Retailing policies for generic medicines.

    PubMed

    Narciso, Susana

    2005-06-01

    As there is general disagreement about the way generic medicines should be commercialized, two retailing policies are analyzed, taking into account their effects on the welfare of patients, government, pharmacies and physicians. In the first policy scenario, pharmacies are allowed to substitute generic medicines for branded ones, while in the second, substitution is forbidden. In both cases a pharmacies association is allowed to have a share in the production of generic medicines. The model predicts that under some conditions patients may prefer substitution by pharmacies but when doctors' decisions are binding, they are never "excessively bad". However, the policy choice belongs to the government, which prefers to allow for substitution more often than patients would like. PMID:15912315

  11. Generic medications for hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Donald M; Sebhatu, Phoebe; Reau, Nancy S

    2016-07-01

    The recent development and approval of expensive but highly effective oral agents against hepatitis C has led to restrictions and access limitations in many countries with limited healthcare budgets. Generic formulations of many of these agents are available at a fraction of the retail price in several countries because of generic licensure agreements. The discounted alternatives are only accessible in developing countries and require manufacturing and distribution regulations to ensure the quality and bioequivalence of the new drug formulations. The continued medication access limitations have driven great interest in the practice of personal drug importation of the generic formulations. This review and debate will address the medical and legal issues involved in the purchase and importation of these medicines. PMID:27306302

  12. Retailing policies for generic medicines.

    PubMed

    Narciso, Susana

    2005-06-01

    As there is general disagreement about the way generic medicines should be commercialized, two retailing policies are analyzed, taking into account their effects on the welfare of patients, government, pharmacies and physicians. In the first policy scenario, pharmacies are allowed to substitute generic medicines for branded ones, while in the second, substitution is forbidden. In both cases a pharmacies association is allowed to have a share in the production of generic medicines. The model predicts that under some conditions patients may prefer substitution by pharmacies but when doctors' decisions are binding, they are never "excessively bad". However, the policy choice belongs to the government, which prefers to allow for substitution more often than patients would like.

  13. Software synthesis using generic architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhansali, Sanjay

    1993-01-01

    A framework for synthesizing software systems based on abstracting software system designs and the design process is described. The result of such an abstraction process is a generic architecture and the process knowledge for customizing the architecture. The customization process knowledge is used to assist a designer in customizing the architecture as opposed to completely automating the design of systems. Our approach using an implemented example of a generic tracking architecture which was customized in two different domains is illustrated. How the designs produced using KASE compare to the original designs of the two systems, and current work and plans for extending KASE to other application areas are described.

  14. Generic Software Architecture for Launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carre, Emilien; Gast, Philippe; Hiron, Emmanuel; Leblanc, Alain; Lesens, David; Mescam, Emmanuelle; Moro, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    The definition and reuse of generic software architecture for launchers is not so usual for several reasons: the number of European launcher families is very small (Ariane 5 and Vega for these last decades); the real time constraints (reactivity and determinism needs) are very hard; low levels of versatility are required (implying often an ad hoc development of the launcher mission). In comparison, satellites are often built on a generic platform made up of reusable hardware building blocks (processors, star-trackers, gyroscopes, etc.) and reusable software building blocks (middleware, TM/TC, On Board Control Procedure, etc.). If some of these reasons are still valid (e.g. the limited number of development), the increase of the available CPU power makes today an approach based on a generic time triggered middleware (ensuring the full determinism of the system) and a centralised mission and vehicle management (offering more flexibility in the design and facilitating the long term maintenance) achievable. This paper presents an example of generic software architecture which could be envisaged for future launchers, based on the previously described principles and supported by model driven engineering and automatic code generation.

  15. Generic Information Can Retrieve Known Biological Associations: Implications for Biomedical Knowledge Discovery

    PubMed Central

    van Haagen, Herman H. H. B. M.; 't Hoen, Peter A. C.; Mons, Barend; Schultes, Erik A.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation Weighted semantic networks built from text-mined literature can be used to retrieve known protein-protein or gene-disease associations, and have been shown to anticipate associations years before they are explicitly stated in the literature. Our text-mining system recognizes over 640,000 biomedical concepts: some are specific (i.e., names of genes or proteins) others generic (e.g., ‘Homo sapiens’). Generic concepts may play important roles in automated information retrieval, extraction, and inference but may also result in concept overload and confound retrieval and reasoning with low-relevance or even spurious links. Here, we attempted to optimize the retrieval performance for protein-protein interactions (PPI) by filtering generic concepts (node filtering) or links to generic concepts (edge filtering) from a weighted semantic network. First, we defined metrics based on network properties that quantify the specificity of concepts. Then using these metrics, we systematically filtered generic information from the network while monitoring retrieval performance of known protein-protein interactions. We also systematically filtered specific information from the network (inverse filtering), and assessed the retrieval performance of networks composed of generic information alone. Results Filtering generic or specific information induced a two-phase response in retrieval performance: initially the effects of filtering were minimal but beyond a critical threshold network performance suddenly drops. Contrary to expectations, networks composed exclusively of generic information demonstrated retrieval performance comparable to unfiltered networks that also contain specific concepts. Furthermore, an analysis using individual generic concepts demonstrated that they can effectively support the retrieval of known protein-protein interactions. For instance the concept “binding” is indicative for PPI retrieval and the concept “mutation abnormality” is

  16. Generic Language and Judgements about Category Membership: Can Generics Highlight Properties as Central?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Raman, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Many languages distinguish generic utterances (e.g., "Tigers are ferocious") from non-generic utterances (e.g., "Those tigers are ferocious"). Two studies examined how generic language specially links properties and categories. We used a novel-word extension task to ask if 4- to 5-year-old children and adults distinguish between generic and…

  17. Generic Language in Parent-Child Conversations.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Susan A; Goetz, Peggy J; Sarnecka, Barbara W; Flukes, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Generic knowledge concerns kinds of things (e.g., birds fly; a chair is for sitting; gold is a metal). Past research demonstrated that children spontaneously develop generic knowledge by preschool age. The present study examines when and how children learn to use the multiple devices provided by their language to express generic knowledge. We hypothesize that children assume, in the absence of specifying information or context, that nouns refer to generic kinds, as a default. Thus, we predict that (a) Children should talk about kinds from an early age. (b) Children should learn generic forms with only minimal parental scaffolding. (c) Children should recognize a variety of different linguistic forms as generic. Results from longitudinal samples of adult-child conversations support all three hypotheses. We also report individual differences in the use of generics, suggesting that children differ in their tendency to form the abstract generalizations so expressed. PMID:21765807

  18. Generic Language in Parent-Child Conversations

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Goetz, Peggy J.; Sarnecka, Barbara W.; Flukes, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Generic knowledge concerns kinds of things (e.g., birds fly; a chair is for sitting; gold is a metal). Past research demonstrated that children spontaneously develop generic knowledge by preschool age. The present study examines when and how children learn to use the multiple devices provided by their language to express generic knowledge. We hypothesize that children assume, in the absence of specifying information or context, that nouns refer to generic kinds, as a default. Thus, we predict that (a) Children should talk about kinds from an early age. (b) Children should learn generic forms with only minimal parental scaffolding. (c) Children should recognize a variety of different linguistic forms as generic. Results from longitudinal samples of adult-child conversations support all three hypotheses. We also report individual differences in the use of generics, suggesting that children differ in their tendency to form the abstract generalizations so expressed. PMID:21765807

  19. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, Scott Leroy; Chu, Shaoping; Harp, Dylan Robert; Perry, Frank Vinton; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  20. Patients’ beliefs about generic medicines in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Zhi Y.; Hassali, Mohamed A.; Alrasheedy, Alian A.; Saleem, Fahad; Yahaya, Abdul H.; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acceptance of generic medicines by patients is an essential factor given that they are the end users of these medicines. In fact, adequate knowledge and positive perceptions are prerequisite to patients’ acceptance and use of generic medicines. Objective: To assess the current belief and views of patients about generic medicines in Malaysia. Method: This was a self-administered questionnaire-based study. The study was conducted with patients visiting outpatient pharmacy department at a tertiary care hospital in Malaysia. The Malaysian version of Generic Medicines Scale (GMS) was used. The GMS consists of two subscales: efficacy and similarity of generic medicines to original brand medicines. The efficacy subscale consists of 10 items while the similarity subscale consists of 6 items. The responses to the items were framed as a five-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree). Results: A total of 202 out of 300 patients participated in the study, giving a response rate of 67.3%. In this study, only 49% of them (n=99) knew the term ‘generic medicine’. Moreover, only 53.5% of the respondents (n=108) believed that the efficacy of generic medicines was the same as original brand medicines. In terms of quality, only 44% of the respondents (n=89) disagreed that generic medicines were of a lower quality. About one third (n=65, 32.2%) believed that generic medicines were cheaper because they were less efficacious. In terms of side effects, 44.5% of the respondents (n=90) believed that generic medicines had the same side effect profile as original brand medicines. Conclusions: The study finding showed that almost half of the respondents had negative belief in generic medicines. Similarly, many patients were not aware of the similarities and differences between generic and original brand medicines. Therefore, there is a need to provide patients with adequate information about generic medicines. PMID:25580171

  1. GLAD: A Generic LAttice Debugger

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.J.

    1991-11-01

    Today, numerous simulation and analysis codes exist for the design, commission, and operation of accelerator beam lines. There is a need to develop a common user interface and database link to run these codes interactively. This paper will describe a proposed system, GLAD (Generic LAttice Debugger), to fulfill this need. Specifically, GLAD can be used to find errors in beam lines during commissioning, control beam parameters during operation, and design beam line optics and error correction systems for the next generation of linear accelerators and storage rings.

  2. Generic thin-shell gravastars

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt; Garcia, Nadiezhda Montelongo; Lobo, Francisco S.N. E-mail: nmontelongo@fis.cinvestav.mx E-mail: matt.visser@msor.vuw.ac.nz

    2012-03-01

    We construct generic spherically symmetric thin-shell gravastars by using the cut-and-paste procedure. We take considerable effort to make the analysis as general and unified as practicable; investigating both the internal physics of the transition layer and its interaction with 'external forces' arising due to interactions between the transition layer and the bulk spacetime. Furthermore, we discuss both the dynamic and static situations. In particular, we consider 'bounded excursion' dynamical configurations, and probe the stability of static configurations. For gravastars there is always a particularly compelling configuration in which the surface energy density is zero, while surface tension is nonzero.

  3. Descriptive Model of Generic WAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, John F.; DeSteese, John G.

    2007-06-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Transmission Reliability Program is supporting the research, deployment, and demonstration of various wide area measurement system (WAMS) technologies to enhance the reliability of the Nation’s electrical power grid. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE National SCADA Test Bed Program to conduct a study of WAMS security. This report represents achievement of the milestone to develop a generic WAMS model description that will provide a basis for the security analysis planned in the next phase of this study.

  4. Toward a generic UGV autopilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Kevin L.; Whitehorn, Mark; Weinstein, Alejandro J.; Xia, Junjun

    2009-05-01

    Much of the success of small unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) has arguably been due to the widespread availability of low-cost, portable autopilots. While the development of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) has led to significant achievements, as typified by recent grand challenge events, to date the UGV equivalent of the UAV autopilot is not available. In this paper we describe our recent research aimed at the development of a generic UGV autopilot. Assuming we are given a drive-by-wire vehicle that accepts as inputs steering, brake, and throttle commands, we present a system that adds sonar ranging sensors, GPS/IMU/odometry, stereo camera, and scanning laser sensors, together with a variety of interfacing and communication hardware. The system also includes a finite state machine-based software architecture as well as a graphical user interface for the operator control unit (OCU). Algorithms are presented that enable an end-to-end scenario whereby an operator can view stereo images as seen by the vehicle and can input GPS waypoints either from a map or in the vehicle's scene-view image, at which point the system uses the environmental sensors as inputs to a Kalman filter for pose estimation and then computes control actions to move through the waypoint list, while avoiding obstacles. The long-term goal of the research is a system that is generically applicable to any drive-by-wire unmanned ground vehicle.

  5. Generic Hypersonic Inlet Module Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Chares E., Jr.; Huebner, Lawrence D.

    2004-01-01

    A computational study associated with an internal inlet drag analysis was performed for a generic hypersonic inlet module. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of computing the internal drag force for a generic scramjet engine module using computational methods. The computational study consisted of obtaining two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions using the Euler and parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations. The solution accuracy was assessed by comparisons with experimental pitot pressure data. The CFD analysis indicates that the 3D PNS solutions show the best agreement with experimental pitot pressure data. The internal inlet drag analysis consisted of obtaining drag force predictions based on experimental data and 3D CFD solutions. A comparative assessment of each of the drag prediction methods is made and the sensitivity of CFD drag values to computational procedures is documented. The analysis indicates that the CFD drag predictions are highly sensitive to the computational procedure used.

  6. Generic Airspace Concepts and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate methods for reducing the training and memorization required to manage air traffic in mid-term, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) airspace. We contrasted the performance of controllers using a sector information display and NextGen automation tools while working with familiar and unfamiliar sectors. The airspace included five sectors from Oakland and Salt Lake City Centers configured as a "generic center" called "West High Center." The Controller Information Tool was used to present essential information for managing these sectors. The Multi Aircraft Control System air traffic control simulator provided data link and conflict detection and resolution. There were five experienced air traffic controller participants. Each was familiar with one or two of the five sectors, but not the others. The participants rotated through all five sectors during the ten data collection runs. The results addressing workload, traffic management, and safety, as well as controller and observer comments, supported the generic sector concept. The unfamiliar sectors were comparable to the familiar sectors on all relevant measures.

  7. Generic domain models in software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiden, Neil

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of generic models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these generic models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of generic domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.

  8. Higher-order generic functions for CLOS

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J.E.

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for developing higher-order generic functions within the Common Lisp Object System similar to the ones in Common Lisp for processing sequences. The framework consist of several CLOS classes which define a protocol that allows other classes to inherit default methods for many higher-order generic functions. These generic functions provide an elegant and uniform framework for processing CLOS objects that primarily represent collections of other objects.

  9. Generic drugs and the prescribing physician.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, S L; Morrison, J C

    1987-09-01

    While generic substitution is not a new phenomenon, a number of factors have combined to markedly increase generic drug use. The most important factor is a 1984 law, the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act, which facilitates the entry into the marketplace of generic versions of brand name drugs. This law and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) policies are designed to approve for marketing generic drug products that are therapeutically equivalent to their brand name counterparts. With increased availability of generic drugs, physicians have expressed the need for more information about the FDA process for determining that generic versions of brand name drug products are both safe and effective and that generic drug products will produce the same therapeutic results as those achieved by the brand name products. This article describes FDA procedures for approving generic drug products and examines issues important to the prescribing physician, in particular, therapeutic equivalence. The article also describes the role of the states in generic substitution and the availability of information from the FDA on the therapeutic equivalence of drug products.

  10. Rational use of generic psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Maren; Correll, Christoph U

    2013-05-01

    For economic reasons, the generic substitution of branded medications is common and welcome. These replacements are based on the concept of bioequivalence, which is considered equal to therapeutic equivalence. Regulatory standards for bioequivalence require the 90 % confidence intervals of group averages of pharmacokinetic measures of a generic and the original drug to overlap within ±20 %. However, therapeutic equivalence has been challenged for several psychotropic agents by retrospective studies and case reports. To evaluate the degree of bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence of branded and generic psychotropic drugs, we performed an electronic search (from database inception until 24 May 2012 and without language restrictions) in PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Search terms were "(generic) AND (psychotropic OR psychoactive OR antipsychotic OR antiepileptic OR antidepressant OR stimulant OR benzodiazepine)" or the respective individual substances. We included clinical studies, regardless of design, comparing branded with generic psychotropic drug formulations, identifying 35 such studies. We also included case reports/series reporting on outcomes after a switch between brand and generic psychotropics, identifying 145 clinical cases. Bioequivalence studies in healthy controls or animals, in-vitro studies, and health economics studies without medical information were excluded. An overview of the few randomized controlled studies supports that US FDA regulations assure clinically adequate drug delivery in the majority of patients switched from brand to generic. However, with a growing number of competing generic products for one substance, and growing economic pressure to substitute with the currently cheapest generic, frequent generic-generic switches, often unbeknownst to prescribing clinicians, raise concerns, particularly for antiepileptics/mood stabilizers. Generic-generic switches may vary by more than ±20 % from each other in

  11. Analysis of French generic medicines retail market: why the use of generic medicines is limited.

    PubMed

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2014-12-01

    The market share of generic medicines in France is low compared to other European countries. This perspective paper provides an overview of the generic medicines retail market in France and how the current policy environment may affect the long-term sustainability. Looking at the French generic medicines retail market and the surrounding regulatory framework, all conditions seem to be in place to create a healthy generic medicines market: the country has well-respected regulatory authorities, generic medicines enter the market in a timely manner and prices of generic medicines are competitive compared with other European countries. Despite the success of the demand-side policies targeted at pharmacists and patients, those targeted at physicians were less successful due to a lack of enforcement and a lack of trust in generic medicines by French physicians. Recommendations to increase the use of generic medicines in France round off this perspective paper.

  12. Pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven; De Bruyn, Kristien; Bogaert, Marc; Laekeman, Gert

    2005-01-01

    Pressure to control pharmaceutical expenditure and price competition among pharmaceutical companies are fuelling the development of generic drug markets in EU countries. However, in Belgium, the market for generic drugs is underdeveloped compared with other countries. To promote the use of generic drugs, the government introduced a reference pricing (RP) scheme in 2001. The aim of this paper is to discuss Belgian pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs and to analyse how the Belgian drug market has evolved following initiation of the RP scheme. The market share held by generic drugs increased following implementation of the RP scheme. Focusing on volume, average market share (by semester) for generic drugs amounted to 2.05% of the total pharmaceutical market from January 1998 to June 2001, compared with 6.11% from July 2001 to December 2003. As new generic drugs are introduced, their market share tends to increase in the first couple of months, after which it levels off. Faced with increasing generic competition, some manufacturers have launched new variants of their original drug, thereby effectively extending the period of patent protection. Strategies consisting of price reductions in return for the abolition of prescribing conditions and the launch of new dosages or formulations appear to have been successful in maintaining the market share of original drugs. Nevertheless, the introduction of the RP scheme was associated with savings amounting to 1.8% of pharmaceutical expenditure by the third-party payer in 2001 and 2.1% in 2002. The findings of this paper indicate that the RP scheme has stimulated the Belgian generic drug market. However, existing policy has largely failed to take into account the role that physicians and pharmacists can play in stimulating generic drug use. Therefore, further development of the Belgian generic drug market seems to hinge on the creation of appropriate incentives for physicians to prescribe, and for pharmacists to

  13. Children's generic interpretation of pretense.

    PubMed

    Baer, Carolyn; Friedman, Ori

    2016-10-01

    We report two experiments investigating how 3- to 5-year-olds learn general knowledge from pretend play-how they learn about kinds of things (e.g., information about dogs) from information about particular individuals in pretend play (a certain dog in a pretend scenario). Children watched pretend-play enactments in which animals showed certain behaviors or heard utterances conveying the same information. When children were subsequently asked about who shows the behavior, children who watched pretend play were more likely to give generic responses than were children who heard the utterances. These findings show that children generalize information from pretend play to kinds even without being prompted to think about kinds, that pretend play can be informative about familiar kinds, and also that pretend play is a more potent source for general knowledge than are utterances about individuals. PMID:27268159

  14. Children's generic interpretation of pretense.

    PubMed

    Baer, Carolyn; Friedman, Ori

    2016-10-01

    We report two experiments investigating how 3- to 5-year-olds learn general knowledge from pretend play-how they learn about kinds of things (e.g., information about dogs) from information about particular individuals in pretend play (a certain dog in a pretend scenario). Children watched pretend-play enactments in which animals showed certain behaviors or heard utterances conveying the same information. When children were subsequently asked about who shows the behavior, children who watched pretend play were more likely to give generic responses than were children who heard the utterances. These findings show that children generalize information from pretend play to kinds even without being prompted to think about kinds, that pretend play can be informative about familiar kinds, and also that pretend play is a more potent source for general knowledge than are utterances about individuals.

  15. Generic Propellants Transfer Unit (GPTU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    The Generic Propellants Transfer Unit (GPTU) is being designed to support spacecraft liquid propellant operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Eastern Test Range (ETR). The GPTU will have a 500 gallon capacity and be Department Of Transportation (DOT) approved for over-the-road transportation of hypergolic propellants. The use of these containers will allow the users to increase efficiency and reduce the following costs: design/construction, transportation (to/from the launch site), propellant transfer operations, and decontamination operations. The user also acquires the flexibility of transporting to an offsite location for processing or storage without obtaining special exemptions or permits. These containers will incorporate their own quantity gaging and temperature sensing systems, and be integrated onto a transport trailer which contains work platforms and a fluid transfer system.

  16. Developmental Changes in the Understanding of Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Bloom, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Generic sentences (such as "Birds lay eggs") are important in that they refer to kinds (e.g., birds as a group) rather than individuals (e.g., the birds in the henhouse). The present set of studies examined aspects of how generic nouns are understood by English speakers. Adults and children (4- and 5-year-olds) were presented with scenarios about…

  17. HTGR generic technology program plan (FY 80)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Purpose of the program is to develop base technology and to perform design and development common to the HTGR Steam Cycle, Gas Turbine, and Process Heat Plants. The generic technology program breaks into the base technology, generic component, pebble-bed study, technology transfer, and fresh fuel programs. (DLC)

  18. Generic Proving: Reflections on Scope and Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leron, Uri; Zaslavsky, Orit

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role of generic proofs in helping students access difficult proofs more easily and naturally. We present three examples of generic proving--an elementary one on numbers, a more advanced one on permutations, and yet more advanced one on groups--and consider the affordances and pitfalls of the method by reflecting on these examples. A…

  19. Generic Language Facilitates Children's Cross-Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific…

  20. Generic Skills. Keys to Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Arthur De W.

    The generic skills studies in Canada have as their objectives the formulation of generic skills, the identification of their uses for certain occupational groups, and the preparation of specifications for instructional modules in an attempt to provide greater flexibility to workers, employers, and vocational training programs. Another objective of…

  1. Children's Interpretation of Generic Noun Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Star, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Two studies used a comprehension task and an elicited production task to examine whether preschool children and adults appreciated the semantic properties of generic utterances. Findings indicated that in both tasks, 4-year-olds and adults treated generics ("bears live in caves") as distinct from both indefinites ("some") and universal quantifiers…

  2. 40 CFR 721.545 - Polyalkenylalkylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.545 Polyalkenylalkylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a Polyalkenylalkylphenol (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.450 - Hydrofluorochloroalkene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.450 Hydrofluorochloroalkene (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a hydrofluorochloroalkene...

  4. 40 CFR 721.450 - Hydrofluorochloroalkene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.450 Hydrofluorochloroalkene (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a hydrofluorochloroalkene...

  5. 40 CFR 721.545 - Polyalkenylalkylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.545 Polyalkenylalkylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a Polyalkenylalkylphenol (PMN...

  6. Initial steps in the regulation of generic biological drugs: a comparison of U.S. and Canadian regimes.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Kenneth J; Wolanski, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Biological drug products are poised to overtake traditional pharmaceuticals as the best selling products in the pharmaceutical industry. Accordingly, both innovator and generic drug companies have a vested interest in the rules and regulations governing the approval and market entry of follow-on ("generic") biologic drug products as well as relevant procedures for litigating disputes involving biologic drug products. The U.S. and Canada both regulate the development and sale of traditional generic drugs through complex legal and regulatory schemes that seek to maintain a balance of interests between the innovator and generic sectors of the pharmaceutical industry. With the continued emergence of biological drugs, both countries have recently set forth legal and regulatory schemes to address the unique issues presented by generic biologic drug products. These issues include the requirements needed to submit an application for a generic biologic; biosimilarity vs. interchangeability designations; market and data exclusivity; and procedures for litigating disputes involving biologic drugs. Like the respective rules governing traditional pharmaceuticals, the recent U.S. and Canadian regulations addressing biological drugs contain both similarities and differences. As such, an understanding of both countries regulatory schemes will help both innovators and generics in decision making and legal strategy related to biological drugs. This article provides a comparative overview of the two systems to assist in such an understanding.

  7. [Should the ophthalmologist prescribe generic drugs?].

    PubMed

    Nordmann, J-P

    2003-10-01

    It seems obvious that an ophthalmologist should encourage the use of generic drugs. However, it is important to know the exact definition of a generic drug and the type of studies to be conducted before a generic drug is released on the market. A generic drug is a drug that has the same composition quantitatively as well as qualitatively of the active compound as the original drug. It also has the same pharmaceutical mode of action and the same bioavailability, as determined with bioavailability studies. Ophthalmic drops contain both an active compound and many adjuvants used to stabilize the drug. Globally speaking, the active compound corresponds to the efficacy of a topical drug and the adjuvant to its tolerance. It is likely that the efficacy of a generic drug is identical to that of the brand-name drug, even though only bioavailability studies in non-human models are required to evaluate tolerance which is less likely to be identical, as adjuvants can differ. A survey of 520 French ophthalmologists has recently been conducted. It shows that doctors rarely think of prescribing generic drugs, as they do not consider cost as a major issue in treating glaucoma. However, they see no reason not to prescribe generic drugs. This mixed perception is shared by patients who willingly accept that doctors prescribe a generic drug, but do not wish the pharmacist to take the initiative of filling a prescription with a generic drug, which sometimes gives patients the impression of being less well treated. The use of generic drugs should be encouraged, keeping in mind that good tolerance should be ensured. PMID:14646825

  8. Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John; Milora, Stanley

    2015-11-01

    The original Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor paper was published in 1986. This update describes what has changed in 30 years. Notably, the construction of ITER is providing important benchmark numbers for technologies and costs. In addition, we use a more conservative neutron wall flux and fluence. But these cost-increasing factors are offset by greater optimism on the thermal-electric conversion efficiency and potential availability. The main examples show the cost of electricity (COE) as a function of aspect ratio and neutron flux to the first wall. The dependence of the COE on availability, thermo-electric efficiency, electrical power output, and the present day's low interest rates is also discussed. Interestingly, at fixed aspect ratio there is a shallow minimum in the COE at neutron flux around 2.5 MW/m2. The possibility of operating with only a small COE penalty at even lower wall loadings (to 1.0 MW/m2 at larger plant size) and the use of niobium-titanium coils are also investigated. J. Sheffield was supported by ORNL subcontract 4000088999 with the University of Tennessee.

  9. Generic theory for channel sinuosity

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Eli D.; Constantine, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as “inherited” from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a generic theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support. PMID:23610390

  10. Generic physical protection logic trees

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  11. Generic OPC UA Server Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiel, Piotr P.; Farnham, Benjamin; Filimonov, Viatcheslav; Schlenker, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a new approach for generic design and efficient development of OPC UA servers. Development starts with creation of a design file, in XML format, describing an object-oriented information model of the target system or device. Using this model, the framework generates an executable OPC UA server application, which exposes the per-design OPC UA address space, without the developer writing a single line of code. Furthermore, the framework generates skeleton code into which the developer adds the necessary logic for integration to the target system or device. This approach allows both developers unfamiliar with the OPC UA standard, and advanced OPC UA developers, to create servers for the systems they are experts in while greatly reducing design and development effort as compared to developments based purely on COTS OPC UA toolkits. Higher level software may further benefit from the explicit OPC UA server model by using the XML design description as the basis for generating client connectivity configuration and server data representation. Moreover, having the XML design description at hand facilitates automatic generation of validation tools. In this contribution, the concept and implementation of this framework is detailed along with examples of actual production-level usage in the detector control system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN and beyond.

  12. Distinguishability of generic quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Pawela, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol

    2016-06-01

    Properties of random mixed states of dimension N distributed uniformly with respect to the Hilbert-Schmidt measure are investigated. We show that for large N , due to the concentration of measure, the trace distance between two random states tends to a fixed number D ˜=1 /4 +1 /π , which yields the Helstrom bound on their distinguishability. To arrive at this result, we apply free random calculus and derive the symmetrized Marchenko-Pastur distribution, which is shown to describe numerical data for the model of coupled quantum kicked tops. Asymptotic value for the root fidelity between two random states, √{F }=3/4 , can serve as a universal reference value for further theoretical and experimental studies. Analogous results for quantum relative entropy and Chernoff quantity provide other bounds on the distinguishablity of both states in a multiple measurement setup due to the quantum Sanov theorem. We study also mean entropy of coherence of random pure and mixed states and entanglement of a generic mixed state of a bipartite system.

  13. Generic substitution, financial interests, and imperfect agency.

    PubMed

    Rischatsch, Maurus; Trottmann, Maria; Zweifel, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Policy makers around the world seek to encourage generic substitution. In this paper, the importance of prescribing physicians' imperfect agency is tested using the fact that some Swiss jurisdictions allow physicians to dispense drugs on their own account (physician dispensing, PD) while others disallow it. We estimate a model of physician drug choice with the help of drug claim data, finding a significant positive association between PD and the use of generics. While this points to imperfect agency, generics are prescribed more often to patients with high copayments or low incomes.

  14. Generic substitution: issues for problematic drugs.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J D; Esham, R H

    2001-01-01

    The methodology and criteria for bioequivalence testing have been firmly established by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). For certain drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g., digoxin, levothyroxine, warfarin), generic substitution may not be advisable or even allowable, depending on the substitution laws of individual states. Digoxin and levothyroxine tablets are examples of drugs for which no New Drug Applications (NDAs) currently exist. However, commercially available generic products for both of these drugs have not been determined by the FDA to be therapeutically equivalent to the innovator products. Generic versions of warfarin have been approved by the FDA as being therapeutically equivalent to the innovator products, as have generic versions of the rescue inhaler albuterol. Yet, misinformation and myths persist regarding the adequacy and proven reliability of the FDA's determination of bioequivalence for these products.

  15. Generic data modeling for clinical repositories.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To construct a large-scale clinical repository that accurately captures a detailed understanding of the data vital to the process of health care and that provides highly efficient access to patient information for the users of a clinical information system. DESIGN: Conventional approaches to data modeling encourage the development of a highly specific data schema in order to capture as much information as possible about a given domain. In contrast, current database technology functions most effectively for clinical databases when a generic data schema is used. The technique of "generic data modeling" is presented as a method of reconciling these opposing views of clinical data, using formal operations to transform a detailed schema into a generic one. RESULTS: A complex schema consisting of hundreds of entities and representing a rich set of constraints about the patient care domain is transformed into a generic schema consisting of roughly two dozen tables. The resulting database design is efficient for patient-oriented queries and is highly flexible in adapting to the changing information needs of a health care institution, particularly changes involving the collection of new data elements. CONCLUSION: Conventional approaches to data modeling can be used to develop rich, complex models of clinical data that are useful for understanding and managing the process of patient care. Generic data modeling techniques can successfully transform a detailed design into an efficient generic design that is flexible enough to meet the needs of an operational clinical information system. PMID:8880680

  16. Generic hypersonic vehicle performance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Frank R.; Schmidt, David K.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated computational model of a generic hypersonic vehicle was developed for the purpose of determining the vehicle's performance characteristics, which include the lift, drag, thrust, and moment acting on the vehicle at specified altitude, flight condition, and vehicular configuration. The lift, drag, thrust, and moment are developed for the body fixed coordinate system. These forces and moments arise from both aerodynamic and propulsive sources. SCRAMjet engine performance characteristics, such as fuel flow rate, can also be determined. The vehicle is assumed to be a lifting body with a single aerodynamic control surface. The body shape and control surface location are arbitrary and must be defined. The aerodynamics are calculated using either 2-dimensional Newtonian or modified Newtonian theory and approximate high-Mach-number Prandtl-Meyer expansion theory. Skin-friction drag was also accounted for. The skin-friction drag coefficient is a function of the freestream Mach number. The data for the skin-friction drag coefficient values were taken from NASA Technical Memorandum 102610. The modeling of the vehicle's SCRAMjet engine is based on quasi 1-dimensional gas dynamics for the engine diffuser, nozzle, and the combustor with heat addition. The engine has three variable inputs for control: the engine inlet diffuser area ratio, the total temperature rise through the combustor due to combustion of the fuel, and the engine internal expansion nozzle area ratio. The pressure distribution over the vehicle's lower aft body surface, which acts as an external nozzle, is calculated using a combination of quasi 1-dimensional gas dynamic theory and Newtonian or modified Newtonian theory. The exhaust plume shape is determined by matching the pressure inside the plume, calculated from the gas dynamic equations, with the freestream pressure, calculated from Newtonian or Modified Newtonian theory. In this manner, the pressure distribution along the vehicle after body

  17. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  18. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  19. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  20. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  1. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  2. Enhanced Information Exclusion Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing

    2016-07-01

    In Hall’s reformulation of the uncertainty principle, the entropic uncertainty relation occupies a core position and provides the first nontrivial bound for the information exclusion principle. Based upon recent developments on the uncertainty relation, we present new bounds for the information exclusion relation using majorization theory and combinatoric techniques, which reveal further characteristic properties of the overlap matrix between the measurements.

  3. Central Exclusive Dijet Production

    SciTech Connect

    Dechambre, A.; Cudell, J. R.; Ivanov, I. P.; Hernandez, O.

    2008-08-29

    The ingredients of central exclusive production cross section include large perturbative corrections and soft quantities that must be parametrized and fitted to data. In this talk, we summarize the results of a study of the uncertainties coming from these ingredients, in the case of exclusive dijet production.

  4. Enhanced Information Exclusion Relations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing

    2016-01-01

    In Hall's reformulation of the uncertainty principle, the entropic uncertainty relation occupies a core position and provides the first nontrivial bound for the information exclusion principle. Based upon recent developments on the uncertainty relation, we present new bounds for the information exclusion relation using majorization theory and combinatoric techniques, which reveal further characteristic properties of the overlap matrix between the measurements. PMID:27460975

  5. Generic guidelines versus site-specific assessments: Does marriage make sense?

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudet, C.L.; Keenleyside, K.A.; Smith, S.L.; Kent, R.A.; Wong, M.P.

    1995-12-31

    The maintenance, protection and restoration of a high level of environmental quality requires the availability of practical scientific tools. Environmental quality guidelines (also called criteria) are one such scientific tool that help measure progress towards these goals. These guidelines provide scientific benchmarks that can offer consistency and clarity in defining scientific measures for environmental quality that are easily understood, communicated, and implemented as the basis for management decisions. At the same time, debate exists over the use of generic guidelines versus site-specific risk assessments. It is the contention that generic and site-specific approaches are not mutually exclusive, but complementary decision-support tools and that any apparent controversy stems from an incomplete understanding of the nature and intent of generic environmental quality guidelines or from the use of guidelines in the absence of a coherent framework. The authors advocate an approach that marries the strengths of the generic and site-specific approaches and promotes consistent, scientifically-defensible decisions that support broad societal goals for environmental protection. Using Canadian environmental quality guidelines as an example, they provide an overview of the role of environmental quality guidelines in decision-making, with concrete examples of their implementation in addressing specific environmental quality issues.

  6. Generic medicines: issues and relevance for global health.

    PubMed

    Rana, Proteesh; Roy, Vandana

    2015-12-01

    Generic medicine is a pharmaceutical product which is bioequivalent to the innovator product in terms of dosage form, strength, route of administration, quality, safety, performance characteristics, and intended use. Generic medicines are a cornerstone for providing affordable medicines to patients. The major generic markets in the world include United States of America followed by European Union, Canada, Japan, and Australia. The major suppliers of generic medicines China and India are showing tremendous growth in the generic medicine sector. There are many legal and regulatory issues along with quality concerns associated with the use of the generic products. Lately, bilateral international agreements called free trade agreements, delaying tactics by originator companies like strategic patenting and litigations on generic manufacturers, have been a major setback for the generic medicine industry. These issues need to be addressed to optimize the use of generic medicines. The sustainability of generic medicine sector is crucial for improving access to essential medicines for the worldwide. PMID:26405851

  7. Children's Group Nous: Understanding and Applying Peer Exclusion Within and Between Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Pelletier, Joseph; Ferrell, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    In Study 1, 167 English children aged 6-8 or 9-11 evaluated peer English or French soccer fans that were loyal or partially disloyal. In Study 2, 149 children aged 5-11 made judgments about generic inclusion norms between and within competitive groups. In both studies, children's understanding of intergroup inclusion/exclusion norms (group nous)…

  8. Effects of generic versus non-generic feedback on motor learning in children.

    PubMed

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Drews, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Non-generic feedback refers to a specific event and implies that performance is malleable, while generic feedback implies that task performance reflects an inherent ability. The present study examined the influences of generic versus non-generic feedback on motor performance and learning in 10-year-old children. In the first experiment, using soccer ball kicking at a target as a task, providing participants with generic feedback resulted in worse performance than providing non-generic feedback, after both groups received negative feedback. The second experiment measured more permanent effects. Results of a retention test, performed one day after practicing a throwing task, showed that participants who received non-generic feedback during practice outperformed the generic feedback group, after receiving a negative feedback statement. The findings demonstrate the importance of the wording of feedback. Even though different positive feedback statements may not have an immediate influence on performance, they can affect performance, and presumably individuals' motivation, when performance is (purportedly) poor. Feedback implying that performance is malleable, rather than due to an inherent ability, seems to have the potential to inoculate learners against setbacks--a situation frequently encountered in the context of motor performance and learning.

  9. 77 FR 30560 - Proposed Generic Communication; Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Operating Reactors'' published on September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54507). The draft Generic Letter, ``Seismic Risk...: On September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54507), the NRC published for public comment Draft Generic Letter 2011-XX..., 2011 (76 FR 57767), the NRC issued a correction and extended the public comment period to November...

  10. A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

    1996-01-01

    Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

  11. 76 FR 57767 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... appearing in the Federal Register on September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54507), that requested public comment on Draft... Register document 2011-22422, published September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54507), in the second column, under the... COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations...

  12. Expression-invariant three-dimensional face reconstruction from a single image by facial expression generic elastic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeini, Ali; Faez, Karim; Moeini, Hossein

    2014-09-01

    An efficient method for expression-invariant three-dimensional (3-D) face reconstruction from a frontal face image with a variety of facial expressions (FE) using the FE generic elastic model (GEM) is proposed. Three generic models are employed for FE modeling in the generic elastic model (GEM) framework, which are combined based on the similarity distance around the lips. Exclusively, FE-GEM demonstrated that it is more precisely able to estimate a 3-D model of a frontal face, attaining a more robust and better quality 3-D face reconstruction under a variety of FEs compared to the original GEM approach. It is tested on an available 3-D face database and its accuracy and robustness are demonstrated compared to the GEM approach under a variety of FEs. Also, the FE-GEM method is tested on available two-dimensional face databases and a new synthesized pose is generated from gallery images for handling pose variations in face recognition.

  13. Generic Rigidity for Circle Diffeomorphisms with Breaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocić, Saša

    2016-06-01

    We prove that {C^r}-smooth ({r > 2}) circle diffeomorphisms with a break, i.e., circle diffeomorphisms with a single singular point where the derivative has a jump discontinuity, are generically, i.e., for almost all irrational rotation numbers, not {C^{1+\\varepsilon}}-rigid, for any {\\varepsilon > 0}. This result complements our recent proof, joint with Khanin (Geom Funct Anal 24:2002-2028, 2014), that such maps are generically {C^1}-rigid. It stands in remarkable contrast to the result of Yoccoz (Ann Sci Ec Norm Sup 17:333-361, 1984) that {C^r}-smooth circle diffeomorphisms are generically {C^{r-1-κ}}-rigid, for any {κ > 0}.

  14. Generic language facilitates children's cross-classification

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific language. Experiment 1 showed that generics facilitate 5-year-olds' and adults' cross-classification when expressed at an appropriate level of generalization (e.g., “foods,” “birthday party things”), whereas Experiment 2 showed that such effects disappeared when labels were at an inappropriate level of generalization (e.g., “pizzas,” “balloons”). Experiments 3 and 4 offered additional controls. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that language can guide and direct children's multiple categorizations. PMID:22888182

  15. Mixed WTO ruling on generic drug development.

    PubMed

    Elliott, R

    2000-01-01

    On 17 March 2000, the World Trade Organization upheld the provision in Canada's patent laws that allows generic drug manufacturers to develop (but not sell) their cheaper versions of patented medicines before the 20-year patients expire. The decision prevents pharmaceutical companies from enjoying market monopolies beyond their patent terms, avoiding what would otherwise be even lengthier delays in the sale of cheaper, generic drugs in Canada. This decision is of significance not only to Canada, but also to other WTO member countries and to all individuals who use pharmaceutical products. However, the decision is not all positive: the WTO also ruled that Canada is violating international agreements by letting generic manufacturers stockpile their versions of patented drugs before patents expire. This article explains the issues, the arguments, and the decision.

  16. Self-Efficacy and Illicit Opioid Use in a 180-Day Methadone Detoxification Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Patrick M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied self-efficacy and treatment outcomes in a sample of opioid addicts. Results show self-efficacy influenced subsequent drug use in parallel with previous behavior. Suggests that psychological constructs like self-efficacy may hold promise for understanding and decreasing illicit opioid use during long-term methadone detoxification treatment.…

  17. 49 CFR 24.401 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day homeowner-occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... not exceed rates normal to similar real estate transactions in the area; (iii) The Agency determines... surveys and plats, and recording fees. (2) Lender, FHA, or VA application and appraisal fees. (3) Loan... ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Replacement...

  18. 76 FR 17755 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting 180-Day Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Manufacturing Company; (10) HTP Inc.; (11) Johnson Controls Inc.; (12) Laars Heating Systems Company; (13... Manufacturing Company; (10) HTP Inc.; (11) Johnson Controls Inc.; (12) Laars Heating Systems Company; (13... energy consumption. 75 FR 64621. More specifically, this test procedure final rule included a...

  19. 76 FR 19902 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting 180-Day Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ....; (11) Johnson Controls Inc.; (12) Laars Heating Systems Company; (13) Lennox International Inc.; (14..., DOE published a notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 17755) which announced receipt of petitions... (75 FR 64621) from the following 27 companies: (1) Adams Manufacturing Company; (2) Allied...

  20. 49 CFR 24.401 - Replacement housing payment for 180-day homeowner-occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... related costs, including those for title search, preparing conveyance instruments, notary fees, preparing...) Escrow agent's fee. (8) State revenue or documentary stamps, sales or transfer taxes (not to exceed...

  1. Generic health/safety/environment cases

    SciTech Connect

    Kelland, A.N.; Primrose, M.; Pickles, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    A desire to implement HSE Management Systems including HSE Cases in all Shell companies operations prompted the development of a relational data base software package (THESIS) to provide a structured way of preparing an HSE Case. The software includes features which facilitate the management of {open_quotes}Keeping the Case Alive{close_quotes}, enabling the dissemination of tasks and hazard information to the workplace. During the software development it was recognized that a significant reduction could be made in the resources which would be required to prepare an HSE Case for each and every operation by the building of {open_quotes}Generic HSE Cases{close_quotes} addressing specific activities which were repeated across the Company`s operations. This was recognized to be particularly valid for the smaller Single String Venture type of operations. The activities selected for the initial Generic HSE Case development include Land Drilling Operations, Land Seismic Acquisition, and Land Transport. To establish the Generic HSE Case, the THESIS data base is populated with data for a generic operation, identifying all the hazards and activities associated with that operation including all the associated controls, with established formats for the textual sections. In effect, the Generic Case defines the standards required for that type of operation. To generate an operation specific HSE Case, the Generic Case thereafter requires to be modified/adapted so that it represents the actual situation in the operation which it defines. This process includes itemization of all the operation specific details, and may involve the inclusion/deletion of any additional/existing activities or hazards together with their associated controls.

  2. Benefits of Digital Equipment Generic Qualification Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, James E.; Steiman, Samuel C.

    2002-07-01

    As a result of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control obsolescence issues, there have been numerous activities during recent years relating to the qualification of digital equipment. Some of these activities have been 'generic' in nature in that the qualification was not limited to plant specific applications, but was intended to cover a broad base of potential applications of the digital equipment. These generic qualifications have been funded by equipment manufacturers and by utility groups and organizations. The generic activities sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have been pilot projects for an overall generic qualification approach. The primary benefit resulting from the generic qualification work to date is that a number of digital platforms and digital devices are now available for use in various nuclear safety-related applications. Many of the tests and evaluations necessary to support plant specific applications have been completed. The amount of data and documentation that each utility must develop on a case by case basis has been significantly reduced. There are also a number of additional benefits resulting from these industry efforts. The challenges and difficulties in qualifying digital equipment for safety-related applications are now more clearly understood. EPRI has published a lessons learned document (EPRI Report 1001452, Generic Qualification of Commercial Grade Digital Devices: Lessons Learned from Initial Pilots, which covers several different qualification areas, including device selection, project planning, vendor surveys and design reviews, and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) qualification. Application of the experience and lessons learned from the EPRI pilot activities should help reduce the effort and cost required for future qualification work. Most generic qualification activities for commercial equipment have been conducted using the approach of EPRI TR-106439, Guideline on Evaluation and Acceptance

  3. The formal verification of generic interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, P.; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    The task assignment 3 of the design and validation of digital flight control systems suitable for fly-by-wire applications is studied. Task 3 is associated with formal verification of embedded systems. In particular, results are presented that provide a methodological approach to microprocessor verification. A hierarchical decomposition strategy for specifying microprocessors is also presented. A theory of generic interpreters is presented that can be used to model microprocessor behavior. The generic interpreter theory abstracts away the details of instruction functionality, leaving a general model of what an interpreter does.

  4. Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA): Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, Richard B.; Stovall, John R.

    1992-01-01

    A space generic open avionics architecture created for NASA is described. It will serve as the basis for entities in spacecraft core avionics, capable of being tailored by NASA for future space program avionics ranging from small vehicles such as Moon ascent/descent vehicles to large ones such as Mars transfer vehicles or orbiting stations. The standard consists of: (1) a system architecture; (2) a generic processing hardware architecture; (3) a six class architecture interface model; (4) a system services functional subsystem architectural model; and (5) an operations control functional subsystem architectural model.

  5. Thermodynamics of Ideal Fermi Gas Under Generic Power Law Potential in d-dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruk, M. M.; Bhuiyan, G. M.

    Thermodynamics of ideal Fermi gas trapped in an external generic power law potential $U=\\sum_{i=1} ^d c_i |\\frac{x_i}{a_i}|^{n_i}$ are investigated systematically from the grand thermodynamic potential in $d$ dimensional space. These properties are explored deeply in the degenerate limit ($\\mu>> K_BT$), where the thermodynamic properties are greatly dominated by Pauli exclusion principle. Pressure and energy along with the isothermal compressibilty is non zero at $T=0K$, denoting trapped Fermi system is quite live even at absolute zero temperature. The nonzero value of compressibilty denotes zero point pressure is not just a constant but depends on volume.

  6. Generic Planning Target Margin for Rectal Cancer Treatment Setup Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, John M. Campbell, Jonathon P.; Yan Di

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To calculate the generic planning target margin (GPTM) for patients receiving radiation therapy (RT) for rectal cancer placed in a prone position with a customized cradle for small-bowel exclusion. Methods and Materials: A total of 25 consecutive rectal cancer patients were treated for 25 or 28 fractions in a prone position using a cradle to maximize small bowel exclusion. Treatment planning computed tomography (CT) scans were used to create orthogonally digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) for portal image registration, which were compared with daily portal images from an electronic portal-imaging device (EPID). Translation values needed to align the DRRs and EPIDs were recorded for the superior to inferior (SI), right to left (RL), and anterior to posterior (AP) directions, and used to calculate the GPTM using the four-parameter model. Age, weight, and body mass index were tested compared with the setup variation using a Pearson correlation and a t test for significance. Gender versus setup variation was compared with a t test. Results: A total of 1,723 EPID images were reviewed. The GPTM was 10 mm superior, 8 mm inferior, 7 mm RL and 10 mm AP. Age and gender were unrelated to setup variation. Weight was significantly associated with systematic AP variation (p < 0.05). BMI was significantly associated with systematic SI (p < 0.05) and AP (p < 0.01) variation and random RL variation (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The GPTM for rectal cancer is asymmetric with a maximum of 10 mm in the superior, anterior and posterior dimensions. Body mass index may effect setup variation. Research using advanced treatment planning should include these margins in the planning target volume definition.

  7. Enhanced Information Exclusion Relations

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing

    2016-01-01

    In Hall’s reformulation of the uncertainty principle, the entropic uncertainty relation occupies a core position and provides the first nontrivial bound for the information exclusion principle. Based upon recent developments on the uncertainty relation, we present new bounds for the information exclusion relation using majorization theory and combinatoric techniques, which reveal further characteristic properties of the overlap matrix between the measurements. PMID:27460975

  8. European Generic Medicines Association (EGA)--16th Annual Conference.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Bob

    2010-08-01

    The 16th Annual Conference of the European Generic Medicines Association (EGA), held in Rome, included topics covering new developments and challenges in the generic medicines industry in Europe. This conference report highlights selected presentations on developments for generics in the Italian healthcare system, a summary of the EGA pharmaceutical sector inquiry on the delayed market entry of generics, developments and trends in the European generics market, the evolution and growth of the global generics industry, and a CEO perspective on the challenges facing the industry.

  9. The importance of being first: evidence from Canadian generic pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Aidan

    2002-12-01

    This paper uses pooled cross-section data on Canadian ethical drug sales to examine the effect of entry timing on sales of generic drugs. The data is for all drugs for which the first generic competitor entered during the years 1994-1997. It is found that the first generic entrant has a lasting competitive advantage: being first into the market appears to lead to an increase of around 30% in market share (among generics) over a period of at least 4 years. This finding has considerable implications for the current policy of allowing brandname drug companies to issue pseudo-generic equivalents as a preemptive strike against true generic competitors.

  10. Focussing on Generic Skills in Training Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, Susan

    A study assessed whether training packages gave sufficient focus to attainment of generic skills and examined approaches that can be used to enhance the delivery of these skills so students are better prepared for the new demands of the workplace. A literature review and consultations with stakeholders provided information on development of the…

  11. A Generic Biokinetic Model for C-14

    SciTech Connect

    Manger, Ryan P

    2011-01-01

    The generic biokinetic model currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the treatment of systemic radiocarbon assumes uniform distribution of activity in tissues and a biological half-time of 40 d. This model is intended to generate cautiously high estimates of dose per unit intake of C-14 and, in fact, generally predicts a much higher effective dose than systemic models that have been developed on the basis of biokinetic studies of specific carbon compounds. The simplistic model formulation precludes its application as a bioassay model or adjustment to fit case-specific bioassay data. This paper proposes a new generic biokinetic model for systemic radiocarbon that is less conservative than the current ICRP model but maintains sufficient conservatism to overestimate the effective dose coefficients generated by most radiocarbon-compound-specific models. The proposed model includes two systemic pools with different biological half-times representing an initial systemic form of absorbed radiocarbon, a submodel describing the behaviour of labelled carbon dioxide produced in vivo, and three excretion pathways: breath, urine and faeces. Generic excretion rates along each path are based on multi-phase excretion curves observed in experimental studies of radiocarbons. The generic model structure is designed so that the user may adjust the level of dosimetric conservatism to fit the information at hand and may adjust parameter values for consistency with subject-specific or site-specific bioassay data.

  12. Defining and Assessing Competence in Generic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Hilary; Godfrey, Helen

    1999-01-01

    Argues that attempts to provide university students in the United Kingdom with generic skills (such as study and information technology skills) are hampered by the differing needs and expectations of various disciplines and courses and of diverse student population groups. Describes and critically analyzes a case study of one such course,…

  13. Baldrige Theory into Practice: A Generic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arif, Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The education system globally has moved from a push-based or producer-centric system to a pull-based or customer centric system. Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award (MBQA) model happens to be one of the latest additions to the pull based models. The purpose of this paper is to develop a generic framework for MBQA that can be used by…

  14. Towards One Generic Name for Monophyletic Lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the integration of asexually reproducing fungi into meaningful phylogenies, the need to use the same generic name for a monophyletic lineage has become urgent. At present Article 59 of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) requires the use of a sexual state name for sexually r...

  15. A generic biokinetic model for Carbon-14.

    PubMed

    Manger, R P

    2011-01-01

    The generic biokinetic model currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the treatment of systemic radiocarbon assumes uniform distribution of activity in tissues and a biological half-time of 40 d. This model is intended to generate cautiously high estimates of dose per unit intake of C-14 and, in fact, generally predicts a much higher effective dose than systemic models that have been developed on the basis of biokinetic studies of specific carbon compounds. The simplistic model formulation precludes its application as a bioassay model or adjustment to fit case-specific bioassay data. This paper proposes a new generic biokinetic model for systemic radiocarbon that is less conservative than the current ICRP model but maintains sufficient conservatism to overestimate the effective dose coefficients generated by most radiocarbon-compound-specific models. The proposed model includes two systemic pools with different biological half-times representing an initial systemic form of absorbed radiocarbon, a submodel describing the behaviour of labelled carbon dioxide produced in vivo, and three excretion pathways: breath, urine and faeces. Generic excretion rates along each path are based on multi-phase excretion curves observed in experimental studies of radiocarbons. The generic model structure is designed so that the user may adjust the level of dosimetric conservatism to fit the information at hand and may adjust parameter values for consistency with subject-specific or site-specific bioassay data. PMID:21075764

  16. Comparison of Generic Accelerated Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaddorura, Mahmood; Williams, Collette

    2012-01-01

    Case study pedagogy is a teaching strategy in which teachers hope to help students develop and use critical thinking (CT) abilities. This study compared CT skills of 75 second year generic accelerated baccalaureate nursing students during their Fundamentals of Nursing course before and after being educated using case study pedagogical method.…

  17. A Generic Archive Protocol and an Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, J. M.; Jennings, D. G.; McGlynn, T. A.; Ruggiero, N. G.; Serlemitsos, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    Archiving vast amounts of data has become a major part of every scientific space mission today. GRASP, the Generic Retrieval/Ar\\-chive Services Protocol, addresses the question of how to archive the data collected in an environment where the underlying hardware archives and computer hosts may be rapidly changing.

  18. Patent and Exclusivity Status of Essential Medicines for Non-Communicable Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Tim K.; Liang, Bryan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The threat of non-communicable diseases (“NCDs”) is increasingly becoming a global health crisis and are pervasive in high, middle, and low-income populations resulting in an estimated 36 million deaths per year. There is a need to assess intellectual property rights (“IPRs”) that may impede generic production and availability and affordability to essential NCD medicines. Methods Using the data sources listed below, the study design systematically eliminated NCD drugs that had no patent/exclusivity provisions on API, dosage, or administration route. The first step identified essential medicines that treat certain high disease burden NCDs. A second step examined the patent and exclusivity status of active ingredient, dosage and listed route of administration using exclusion criteria outlined in this study. Materials We examined the patent and exclusivity status of medicines listed in the World Health Organization’s (“WHO”) Model List of Essential Drugs (Medicines) (“MLEM”) and other WHO sources for drugs treating certain NCDs. i.e., cardiovascular and respiratory disease, cancers, and diabetes. We utilized the USA Food and Drug Administration Orange Book and the USA Patent and Trademark Office databases as references given the predominant number of medicines registered in the USA. Results Of the 359 MLEM medicines identified, 22% (79/359) address targeted NCDs. Of these 79, only eight required in-depth patent or exclusivity assessment. Upon further review, no NCD MLEM medicines had study patent or exclusivity protection for reviewed criteria. Conclusions We find that ensuring availability and affordability of potential generic formulations of NCD MLEM medicines appears to be more complex than the presence of IPRs with API, dosage, or administration patent or exclusivity protection. Hence, more sophisticated analysis of NCD barriers to generic availability and affordability should be conducted in order to ensure equitable access to global

  19. 40 CFR 721.10258 - Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10258 Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10258 - Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10258 Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10258 - Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10258 Aromatic hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic hydrocarbon (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10689 - Organo zinc salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Organo zinc salts (generic). 721.10689... Substances § 721.10689 Organo zinc salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as organo zinc salts (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10524 - Fluorinated alkylsulfonamidol urethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10524 Section 721.10524 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10524 Fluorinated alkylsulfonamidol urethane polymer (generic). (a... generically as fluorinated alkylsulfonamidol urethane polymer (PMN P-11-384) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10524 - Fluorinated alkylsulfonamidol urethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10524 Section 721.10524 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10524 Fluorinated alkylsulfonamidol urethane polymer (generic). (a... generically as fluorinated alkylsulfonamidol urethane polymer (PMN P-11-384) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  13. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10460 - Azo nickel complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Azo nickel complex (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10460 Azo nickel complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as azo nickel complex (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10460 - Azo nickel complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Azo nickel complex (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10460 Azo nickel complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as azo nickel complex (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10035 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10035 Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzene sulfonate...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10035 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10035 Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzene sulfonate...

  19. Emerging Patterns of Initial Preparation for Teachers: Generic Teaching Domains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denemark, George; Nelli, Elizabeth

    Generic teaching knowledge and skill is seen as a central component of preservice teacher education programs. Generic domains of teaching are the common base of knowledge and skills important to all teachers regardless of subject matter or grade level. Most classifications of generic teaching skills fall generally into one of two categories, one…

  20. 40 CFR 721.10318 - Mannich bases (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mannich bases (generic). 721.10318... Substances § 721.10318 Mannich bases (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as mannich bases (PMNs P-02-1078 and...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10318 - Mannich bases (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mannich bases (generic). 721.10318... Substances § 721.10318 Mannich bases (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as mannich bases (PMNs P-02-1078 and...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10318 - Mannich bases (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mannich bases (generic). 721.10318... Substances § 721.10318 Mannich bases (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as mannich bases (PMNs P-02-1078 and...

  3. Defining and Comparing Generic Competences in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallioinen, Outi

    2010-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the importance of defining generic competences in alignment with the European definitions. As a case study the generic competences defined by Laurea University of Applied Sciences are compared with European definitions of generic competences. The purpose is to open up the various perspectives within this…

  4. 40 CFR 721.9720 - Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9720 Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name). Link to an amendment... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as disubstituted alkyl triazines (PMNs...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10233 - Linear alkyl epoxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10233 Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as linear alkyl epoxide (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). 721... Substances § 721.555 Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10341 - Amino alkyl organoborane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amino alkyl organoborane (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10341 Amino alkyl organoborane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amino...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tetra...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1852 - Di-alkyl borane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Di-alkyl borane (generic). 721.1852... Substances § 721.1852 Di-alkyl borane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as di-alkyl borane (PMN P-00-1087) is...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2155 - Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic... Substances § 721.2155 Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  13. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). 721... Substances § 721.555 Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10385 - Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10385 Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phenoxy alkyl ether (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10073 - Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10073 Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10385 - Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10385 Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phenoxy alkyl ether (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9572 - Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic... Substances § 721.9572 Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted...

  19. 40 CFR 721.647 - Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). 721... Substances § 721.647 Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkoxylated alkyl amine...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tetra...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2155 - Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic... Substances § 721.2155 Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  2. 40 CFR 721.647 - Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). 721... Substances § 721.647 Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkoxylated alkyl amine...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10385 - Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10385 Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phenoxy alkyl ether (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10233 - Linear alkyl epoxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10233 Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as linear alkyl epoxide (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10341 - Amino alkyl organoborane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amino alkyl organoborane (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10341 Amino alkyl organoborane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amino...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2155 - Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic... Substances § 721.2155 Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10073 - Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10073 Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1852 - Di-alkyl borane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Di-alkyl borane (generic). 721.1852... Substances § 721.1852 Di-alkyl borane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as di-alkyl borane (PMN P-00-1087) is...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1852 - Di-alkyl borane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Di-alkyl borane (generic). 721.1852... Substances § 721.1852 Di-alkyl borane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as di-alkyl borane (PMN P-00-1087) is...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1852 - Di-alkyl borane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Di-alkyl borane (generic). 721.1852... Substances § 721.1852 Di-alkyl borane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as di-alkyl borane (PMN P-00-1087) is...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9572 - Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic... Substances § 721.9572 Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9572 - Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic... Substances § 721.9572 Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10073 - Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10073 Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10073 - Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10073 Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9572 - Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic... Substances § 721.9572 Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  1. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). 721... Substances § 721.555 Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10233 - Linear alkyl epoxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10233 Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as linear alkyl epoxide (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). 721... Substances § 721.555 Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10073 - Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10073 Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10341 - Amino alkyl organoborane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amino alkyl organoborane (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10341 Amino alkyl organoborane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amino...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9572 - Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic... Substances § 721.9572 Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1852 - Di-alkyl borane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Di-alkyl borane (generic). 721.1852... Substances § 721.1852 Di-alkyl borane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as di-alkyl borane (PMN P-00-1087) is...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2155 - Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic... Substances § 721.2155 Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  9. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). 721... Substances § 721.555 Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs...

  10. 40 CFR 721.647 - Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). 721... Substances § 721.647 Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkoxylated alkyl amine...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2155 - Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic... Substances § 721.2155 Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  12. 40 CFR 721.647 - Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). 721... Substances § 721.647 Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkoxylated alkyl amine...

  13. 40 CFR 721.647 - Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). 721... Substances § 721.647 Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkoxylated alkyl amine...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2673 - Aromatic epoxide resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.2673 Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic epoxide resin (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  18. Genericization: A Theory of Semantic Broadening in the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clankie, Shawn M.

    2000-01-01

    Genericization theory developed as a response to claims from outside of linguistics that generic use in brand names (for example, using Kleenex as a generic noun for all facial tissues, or Xerox for all photocopiers) is the result of marketing factors or misuse by consumers. This paper examines the linguistic factors that create an environment…

  19. 40 CFR 721.10680 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10680... Substances § 721.10680 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMNs...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10686 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10686... Substances § 721.10686 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMNs...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as glycerol...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10691 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10691... Substances § 721.10691 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-13-267) is...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as glycerol...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as glycerol...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10463 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10463... Substances § 721.10463 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5965 - Substituted S-phenylthiazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted S-phenylthiazole (generic... Substances § 721.5965 Substituted S-phenylthiazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1680 - Substituted benzoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted benzoic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1680 Substituted benzoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted benzoic acid (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5546 - Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic... Substances § 721.5546 Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as halogen substituted...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5546 - Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic... Substances § 721.5546 Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as halogen substituted...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5546 - Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic... Substances § 721.5546 Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as halogen substituted...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5546 - Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic... Substances § 721.5546 Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as halogen substituted...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5546 - Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic... Substances § 721.5546 Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as halogen substituted...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5548 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.5548... Substances § 721.5548 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a mixed metal oxide (PMN P-97-956)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4610 - Mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.4610... Substances § 721.4610 Mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxides (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4610 - Mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.4610... Substances § 721.4610 Mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxides (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4610 - Mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.4610... Substances § 721.4610 Mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxides (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.10006... Substances § 721.10006 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxide (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10631 - Mixed metal borate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed metal borate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10631 Mixed metal borate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal borate (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4610 - Mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.4610... Substances § 721.4610 Mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxides (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5548 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.5548... Substances § 721.5548 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a mixed metal oxide (PMN P-97-956)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.10006... Substances § 721.10006 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxide (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10628 - Mixed metal oxalate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed metal oxalate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10628 Mixed metal oxalate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxalate (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5548 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.5548... Substances § 721.5548 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a mixed metal oxide (PMN P-97-956)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10495 - Metal silicate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metal silicate (generic). 721.10495... Substances § 721.10495 Metal silicate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as metal silicate (PMN P-05-634) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4610 - Mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.4610... Substances § 721.4610 Mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxides (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10495 - Metal silicate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metal silicate (generic). 721.10495... Substances § 721.10495 Metal silicate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as metal silicate (PMN P-05-634) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.10006... Substances § 721.10006 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxide (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5548 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.5548... Substances § 721.5548 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a mixed metal oxide (PMN P-97-956)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5548 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.5548... Substances § 721.5548 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a mixed metal oxide (PMN P-97-956)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.10006... Substances § 721.10006 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxide (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.10006... Substances § 721.10006 Mixed metal oxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxide (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10631 - Mixed metal borate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed metal borate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10631 Mixed metal borate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal borate (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10628 - Mixed metal oxalate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed metal oxalate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10628 Mixed metal oxalate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxalate (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  20. Generic Skills in Vocational Education and Training: Research Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Jennifer, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Possessing generic or employability skills is vital in the current labour market. The vocational education and training (VET) sector, like other education sectors, must ensure its clients gain and develop generic skills. This volume of readings summarises NCVER managed research into generic skills undertaken in 2001 and 2002. The work covers four…

  1. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10128 - Modified imidazole (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified imidazole (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10128 Modified imidazole (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified imidazole (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as rare earth phophate (PMNs...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2673 - Aromatic epoxide resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.2673 Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic epoxide resin (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10431 - Phosphoric acid esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid esters (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10431 Phosphoric acid esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphoric acid esters (PMNs...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1680 - Substituted benzoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted benzoic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1680 Substituted benzoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted benzoic acid (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10463 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10463... Substances § 721.10463 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1680 - Substituted benzoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted benzoic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1680 Substituted benzoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted benzoic acid (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1655 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1655 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzenesulfonic acid...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1680 - Substituted benzoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted benzoic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1680 Substituted benzoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted benzoic acid (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1655 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1655 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzenesulfonic acid...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1655 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1655 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzenesulfonic acid...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1655 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1655 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzenesulfonic acid...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1680 - Substituted benzoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted benzoic acid (generic... Substances § 721.1680 Substituted benzoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted benzoic acid (PMN...

  8. Professional Teaching Standards: Generic, Subject-Specific or Third Wave?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadbourne, Rod

    2001-01-01

    Explores the issue of generic versus subject-specific standards in terms of their role in teachers' professional development. Suggests generic and subject-specific standards share a symbiotic relationship. Outlines a basis for a "third wave": some teachers may find at a particular stage in their career that generic standards are more useful than…

  9. 40 CFR 721.10537 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10537... Substances § 721.10537 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-01-579) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  11. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10431 - Phosphoric acid esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid esters (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10431 Phosphoric acid esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphoric acid esters (PMNs...

  13. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10477 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10477... Substances § 721.10477 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-04-290) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10477 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10477... Substances § 721.10477 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-04-290) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate...

  17. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10537 - Acrylate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate ester (generic). 721.10537... Substances § 721.10537 Acrylate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate ester (PMN P-01-579) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  3. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate...

  6. The Development of a Generic Pharmaceutical Training Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Lynn William; Boerner, Hank

    The manufacture of generic drugs is a growing industry, generally composed of small companies that are more dependent than brand-name companies on hiring entry-level workers. To provide standardized training for employees in the generic drug manufacturing field, the Generic Pharmaceutical Training Institute (GPTI) was established by a partnership…

  7. 40 CFR 721.10069 - Ether amine phosphonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10069 Ether amine phosphonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as ether amine phosphonate (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10069 - Ether amine phosphonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10069 Ether amine phosphonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as ether amine phosphonate (PMN...

  9. 78 FR 59911 - Generic Information Collection for Land Management Planning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... example of a communication strategy that could be supported by this generic ICR would be the solicitation... Forest Service Generic Information Collection for Land Management Planning AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... information collection, Generic Information Collection for Land Management Planning. DATES: Comments must...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10506 - Alkylated phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylated phenols (generic). 721.10506... Substances § 721.10506 Alkylated phenols (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkylated phenols (PMNs...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10249 - Disubstituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disubstituted phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10249 Disubstituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted phenol (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10249 - Disubstituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disubstituted phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10249 Disubstituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted phenol (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10387 - Substituted bis-phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted bis-phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10387 Substituted bis-phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted bis-phenol (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10386 - Substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10386 Substituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted phenol (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10387 - Substituted bis-phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted bis-phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10387 Substituted bis-phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted bis-phenol (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10386 - Substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10386 Substituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted phenol (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10249 - Disubstituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disubstituted phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10249 Disubstituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted phenol (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10561 - Substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10561 Substituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted phenol (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10561 - Substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10561 Substituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted phenol (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10386 - Substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10386 Substituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted phenol (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10387 - Substituted bis-phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted bis-phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10387 Substituted bis-phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted bis-phenol (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10506 - Alkylated phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylated phenols (generic). 721.10506... Substances § 721.10506 Alkylated phenols (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkylated phenols (PMNs...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1747 - Substituted benzophenone (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted benzophenone (generic... Substances § 721.1747 Substituted benzophenone (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted benzophenone...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1747 - Substituted benzophenone (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted benzophenone (generic... Substances § 721.1747 Substituted benzophenone (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted benzophenone...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1747 - Substituted benzophenone (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted benzophenone (generic... Substances § 721.1747 Substituted benzophenone (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted benzophenone...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1747 - Substituted benzophenone (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted benzophenone (generic... Substances § 721.1747 Substituted benzophenone (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted benzophenone...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1747 - Substituted benzophenone (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted benzophenone (generic... Substances § 721.1747 Substituted benzophenone (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted benzophenone...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9685 - Mixed trialkylamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed trialkylamines (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9685 Mixed trialkylamines (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as mixed trialkylamines (PMNs...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  12. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10262 - Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10262 Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxime, Me vinyl silane (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10262 - Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10262 Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxime, Me vinyl silane (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10262 - Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10262 Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxime, Me vinyl silane (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2673 - Aromatic epoxide resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.2673 Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic epoxide resin (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10307 - Acrylate resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate resin (generic). 721.10307... Substances § 721.10307 Acrylate resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate resin (PMN P-01-343) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10307 - Acrylate resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylate resin (generic). 721.10307... Substances § 721.10307 Acrylate resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylate resin (PMN P-01-343) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2673 - Aromatic epoxide resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.2673 Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic epoxide resin (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin...

  6. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic... Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine...

  7. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic... Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic... Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as sodium salts...

  9. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10567 - Amidoamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amidoamine salt (generic). 721.10567... Substances § 721.10567 Amidoamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amidoamine salt (PMN P-08-300) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic... Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as sodium salts...

  12. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic... Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as sodium salts...

  14. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic... Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic... Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as sodium salts...

  16. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic... Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine...

  17. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10567 - Amidoamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amidoamine salt (generic). 721.10567... Substances § 721.10567 Amidoamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amidoamine salt (PMN P-08-300) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic... Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2585 - Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic... Substances § 721.2585 Sodium salts of dodecylphenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as sodium salts...

  1. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  2. 17 CFR 230.135a - Generic advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Generic advertising. 230.135a... REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.135a Generic advertising. (a) For the purposes only of... different generic types or having various investment objectives, such as balanced funds, growth...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10250 - Zirconium lysine complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zirconium lysine complex (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10250 Zirconium lysine complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10250 - Zirconium lysine complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zirconium lysine complex (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10250 Zirconium lysine complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10250 - Zirconium lysine complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zirconium lysine complex (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10250 Zirconium lysine complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10551 - Bisphenol S mono ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10551 Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol S mono ether (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10551 - Bisphenol S mono ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10551 Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol S mono ether (PMN...

  13. Unsteady Pressures on a Generic Capsule Shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, Nathan; Ross, James C.

    2015-01-01

    While developing the aerodynamic database for the Orion spacecraft, the low-speed flight regime (transonic and below) proved to be the most difficult to predict and measure accurately. The flow over the capsule heat shield in descent flight was particularly troublesome for both computational and experimental efforts due to its unsteady nature and uncertainty about the boundary layer state. The data described here were acquired as part of a study to improve the understanding of the overall flow around a generic capsule. The unsteady pressure measurements acquired on a generic capsule shape are presented along with a discussion about the effects of various flight conditions and heat-shield surface roughness on the resulting pressure fluctuations.

  14. Generic sequential sampling for metamodel approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, C. J.; Campbell, M. I.

    2003-01-01

    Metamodels approximate complex multivariate data sets from simulations and experiments. These data sets often are not based on an explicitly defined function. The resulting metamodel represents a complex system's behavior for subsequent analysis or optimization. Often an exhaustive data search to obtain the data for the metalnodel is impossible, so an intelligent sampling strategy is necessary. While inultiple approaches have been advocated, the majority of these approaches were developed in support of a particular class of metamodel, known as a Kriging. A more generic, cotninonsense approach to this problem allows sequential sampling techniques to be applied to other types of metamodeis. This research compares recent search techniques for Kriging inetamodels with a generic, inulti-criteria approach combined with a new type of B-spline metamodel. This B-spline metamodel is competitive with prior results obtained with a Kriging metamodel. Furthermore, the results of this research highlight several important features necessary for these techniques to be extended to more complex domains.

  15. [The patents game. Generic and biosimilar drugs].

    PubMed

    Villamañán, E; González, D; Armada, E; Ruano, M; Álvarez-Sala, R; Herrero, A

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by patents on medicines has a limited duration. The expiry of patents expiration allows copies of the drugs to be released, competing with original. At first, they were identical to the original, known as generic drugs, but in recent years, due to the marketing of biological therapies and the expiry of many of their patents, biosimilar drugs have also emerged. These are not exact copies of the original, but, like generic drugs, biosimilar drugs have to demonstrate equivalence to the reference drugs in quality, safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, despite their importance and contribution to sustainability of health system, doctors are sometimes unaware of differences between them, and their impact in terms of clinical and economic effects. An attempt is made to review and clarify certain aspects often unknown by physicians, despite their involvement in their use. PMID:26542789

  16. [The patents game. Generic and biosimilar drugs].

    PubMed

    Villamañán, E; González, D; Armada, E; Ruano, M; Álvarez-Sala, R; Herrero, A

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by patents on medicines has a limited duration. The expiry of patents expiration allows copies of the drugs to be released, competing with original. At first, they were identical to the original, known as generic drugs, but in recent years, due to the marketing of biological therapies and the expiry of many of their patents, biosimilar drugs have also emerged. These are not exact copies of the original, but, like generic drugs, biosimilar drugs have to demonstrate equivalence to the reference drugs in quality, safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, despite their importance and contribution to sustainability of health system, doctors are sometimes unaware of differences between them, and their impact in terms of clinical and economic effects. An attempt is made to review and clarify certain aspects often unknown by physicians, despite their involvement in their use.

  17. Generic Stellarator-like Magnetic Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John; Spong, Donald

    2015-11-01

    The Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor paper, published in 1985, has been updated, reflecting the improved science and technology base in the magnetic fusion program. Key changes beyond inflation are driven by important benchmark numbers for technologies and costs from ITER construction, and the use of a more conservative neutron wall flux and fluence in modern fusion reactor designs. In this paper the generic approach is applied to a catalyzed D-D stellarator-like reactor. It is shown that an interesting power plant might be possible if the following parameters could be achieved for a reference reactor: R/ < a > ~ 4 , confinement factor, fren = 0.9-1.15, < β > ~ 8 . 0 -11.5 %, Zeff ~ 1.45 plus a relativistic temperature correction, fraction of fast ions lost ~ 0.07, Bm ~ 14-16 T, and R ~ 18-24 m. J. Sheffield was supported under ORNL subcontract 4000088999 with the University of Tennessee.

  18. Savannah River Site generic data base development

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard , A.

    2000-01-04

    This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River Site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values. A representative list of components and failure modes for SRS risk models was generated by reviewing existing safety analyses and component failure data bases and from suggestions from SRS safety analysts. Then sources of data or failure rate estimates were identified and reviewed for applicability. A major source of information was the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability, or NUCLARR. This source includes an extensive collection of failure data and failure rate estimates for commercial nuclear power plants. A recent Idaho National Engineering Laboratory report on failure data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was also reviewed. From these and other recent sources, failure data and failure rate estimates were collected for the components and failure modes of interest. For each component failure mode, this information was aggregated to obtain a recommended generic failure rate distribution (mean and error factor based on a lognormal distribution). Results are presented in a table in this report. A major difference between generic database and previous efforts is that this effort estimates failure rates based on actual data (failure events) rather than on existing failure rate estimates. This effort was successful in that over 75% of the results are now based on actual data. Also included is a section on guidelines for more advanced applications of failure rate data. This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values.

  19. Generic documentation tree for science ground segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-López, F.; Lock, T.; Texier, D.

    2014-08-01

    The competences of the Science Ground Segment, for an ESA science mission, include: science operations planning, science instrument handling, data reception and processing, and archiving as well as providing science support. This paper presents a generic documentation structure applicable during the analysis, definition, implementation and operational phases of an ESA Science Ground Segment. This is the conclusion of the analysis performed in the scope of the current ESAC Science Ground Segment developments and is derived from the experience of previous ESA science missions and the ESA standardization efforts (ECSS Standards). It provides a guideline to support the Science Ground Segment documentation processes during all mission phases; representing a new approach for the development of future ESA science missions, and providing an initial documentation structure that might be tailored depending on the specific scientific, engineering and managerial characteristics of each mission. This paper also describes the process followed to produce the generic documentation tree and how the development and operations experience feedback in the updated versions of this generic documentation tree.

  20. Developing Generic Software for Spacecraft Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    A proposed approach to the development of software for spacecraft avionics is based partly on a concept of generic software that could be tailored to satisfy requirements for specific missions. The proposed approach would stand in contrast to the conventional approach of first defining avionics requirements for a specific mission, then developing software specific to those requirements. The proposed approach might also be adaptable to programming computers that control and monitor other complex equipment systems that range in scale from automobiles to factories. The concept of a spacecraft avionics functional model (SAFM) is a major element of the proposed approach. An SAFM would be, essentially, a systematic and hierarchical description of the functionality required of the avionics software (and hardware) for a given mission. Although the initial input information used to start the construction of an SAFM would typically amount to a high-level description, the SAFM would thereafter be decomposed to a low level. The resulting low-level version of the model would be used to develop a set of generic requirements that could be expected to include a large fraction of all requirements for a large fraction of all missions. The generic requirements would be used to develop software modules that could be included in, or excluded from, the final flight software to satisfy the requirements of a specific mission.

  1. Generic legislation of new psychoactive drugs.

    PubMed

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-03-01

    New psychoactive drugs (NPDs, new psychoactive substances) enter the market all the time. However, it takes several months to ban these NPDs and immediate action is generally not possible. Several European countries and drug enforcement officers insist on a faster procedure to ban NPDs. Introduction of generic legislation, in which clusters of psychotropic drugs are banned in advance, has been mentioned as a possible solution. Here we discuss the pros and cons of such an approach. First, generic legislation could unintentionally increase the expenditures of enforcement, black market practices, administrative burden and health risks for users. Second, it may have a negative impact on research and the development of new treatments. Third, due to the complexity of generic legislation, problems in the enforcement are anticipated due to lack of knowledge about the chemical nomenclature. Finally, various legal options are already available to ban the use, sale and trade of NPDs. We therefore conclude that the currently used scientific benefit-risk evaluation should be continued to limit the adverse health effects of NPDs. Only in emergency cases, where fatal incidents (may) occur, should this approach be overruled.

  2. Generic superweak chaos induced by Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Ben-Harush, Moti; Dana, Itzhack

    2016-05-01

    We introduce and study the "kicked Hall system" (KHS), i.e., charged particles periodically kicked in the presence of uniform magnetic (B) and electric (E) fields that are perpendicular to each other and to the kicking direction. We show that for resonant values of B and E and in the weak-chaos regime of sufficiently small nonintegrability parameter κ (the kicking strength), there exists a generic family of periodic kicking potentials for which the Hall effect from B and E significantly suppresses the weak chaos, replacing it by "superweak" chaos (SWC). This means that the system behaves as if the kicking strength were κ^{2} rather than κ. For E=0, SWC is known to be a classical fingerprint of quantum antiresonance, but it occurs under much less generic conditions, in particular only for very special kicking potentials. Manifestations of SWC are a decrease in the instability of periodic orbits and a narrowing of the chaotic layers, relative to the ordinary weak-chaos case. Also, for global SWC, taking place on an infinite "stochastic web" in phase space, the chaotic diffusion on the web is much slower than the weak-chaos one. Thus, the Hall effect can be relatively stabilizing for small κ. In some special cases, the effect is shown to cause ballistic motion for almost all parameter values. The generic global SWC on stochastic webs in the KHS appears to be the two-dimensional closest analog to the Arnol'd web in higher dimensional systems. PMID:27300880

  3. Generic superweak chaos induced by Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Harush, Moti; Dana, Itzhack

    2016-05-01

    We introduce and study the "kicked Hall system" (KHS), i.e., charged particles periodically kicked in the presence of uniform magnetic (B ) and electric (E ) fields that are perpendicular to each other and to the kicking direction. We show that for resonant values of B and E and in the weak-chaos regime of sufficiently small nonintegrability parameter κ (the kicking strength), there exists a generic family of periodic kicking potentials for which the Hall effect from B and E significantly suppresses the weak chaos, replacing it by "superweak" chaos (SWC). This means that the system behaves as if the kicking strength were κ2 rather than κ . For E =0 , SWC is known to be a classical fingerprint of quantum antiresonance, but it occurs under much less generic conditions, in particular only for very special kicking potentials. Manifestations of SWC are a decrease in the instability of periodic orbits and a narrowing of the chaotic layers, relative to the ordinary weak-chaos case. Also, for global SWC, taking place on an infinite "stochastic web" in phase space, the chaotic diffusion on the web is much slower than the weak-chaos one. Thus, the Hall effect can be relatively stabilizing for small κ . In some special cases, the effect is shown to cause ballistic motion for almost all parameter values. The generic global SWC on stochastic webs in the KHS appears to be the two-dimensional closest analog to the Arnol'd web in higher dimensional systems.

  4. Generic legislation of new psychoactive drugs.

    PubMed

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-03-01

    New psychoactive drugs (NPDs, new psychoactive substances) enter the market all the time. However, it takes several months to ban these NPDs and immediate action is generally not possible. Several European countries and drug enforcement officers insist on a faster procedure to ban NPDs. Introduction of generic legislation, in which clusters of psychotropic drugs are banned in advance, has been mentioned as a possible solution. Here we discuss the pros and cons of such an approach. First, generic legislation could unintentionally increase the expenditures of enforcement, black market practices, administrative burden and health risks for users. Second, it may have a negative impact on research and the development of new treatments. Third, due to the complexity of generic legislation, problems in the enforcement are anticipated due to lack of knowledge about the chemical nomenclature. Finally, various legal options are already available to ban the use, sale and trade of NPDs. We therefore conclude that the currently used scientific benefit-risk evaluation should be continued to limit the adverse health effects of NPDs. Only in emergency cases, where fatal incidents (may) occur, should this approach be overruled. PMID:23343598

  5. Generic Environment for Simulating Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Martin; Mollaghasemi, Mansooreh; Rabadi, Ghaith

    2006-01-01

    GEM-FLO (A Generic Simulation Environment for Modeling Future Launch Operations) is a computer program that facilitates creation of discrete-event simulation models of ground processes in which reusable or expendable launch vehicles (RLVs) are prepared for flight. GEM-FLO includes a component, developed in Visual Basic, that generates a graphical user interface (GUI) and a component, developed in the Arena simulation language, that creates a generic discrete-event simulation model. Through the GUI, GEM-FLO elicits RLV design information from the user. The design information can include information on flight hardware elements, resources, and ground processes. GEM-FLO translates the user s responses into mathematical variables and expressions that populate the generic simulation model. The variables and expressions can represent processing times, resource capacities, status variables, and other process parameters needed to configure a simulation model that reflects the ground processing flow and requirements of a specific RLV. Upon execution of the model, GEMFLO puts out data on many measures of performance, including the flight rate, turnaround time, and utilization of resources. This information can serve as the basis for determining whether design goals can be met, and for comparing characteristics of competing RLV designs

  6. Generic drug names and social welfare.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Félix; Feldman, Roger

    2013-06-01

    This article studies how well International Nonproprietary Names (INNs), the "generic" names for pharmaceuticals, address the problems of imperfect information. Left in private hands, the identification of medicines leads to confusion and errors. Developed in the 1950s by the World Health Organization, INNs are a common, global, scientific nomenclature designed to overcome this failure. Taking stock after sixty years, we argue that the contribution of INNs to social welfare is paramount. They enhance public health by reducing errors and improving patient safety. They also contribute to economic efficiency by creating transparency as the foundation of competitive generic drug markets, reducing transaction costs, and favoring trade. The law in most countries requires manufacturers to designate pharmaceuticals with INNs in labeling and advertising. Generic substitution is also permitted or mandatory in many countries. But not all the benefits of INNs are fully realized because prescribers may not use them. We advocate strong incentives or even legally binding provisions to extend the use of INNs by prescribing physicians and dispensing pharmacists, but we do not recommend replacing brand names entirely with INNs. Instead, we propose dual use of brand names and INNs in prescribing, as in drug labeling.

  7. Assessing lay beliefs about generic medicines: Development of the generic medicines scale.

    PubMed

    Figueiras, Maria J; Alves, Nuno C; Marcelino, Dália; Cortes, Maria A; Weinman, John; Horne, Rob

    2009-05-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a scale to assess lay beliefs about generic medicines, and to investigate whether these beliefs differ according to demographic factors in an opportunistic general public sample. In the pilot study, the participants were 92 men and 136 women, and in the main study there were 314 men and 505 women. At both stages, the participants completed a questionnaire measuring beliefs about generic medicines, preference for medicines and demographic information. The scale has good face validity, showing a satisfactory level of internal consistency. An exploratory principal component analysis revealed a two-factor structure concerning beliefs about generic medicines, comprising two core themes (efficacy and similarity to brand medicines), in two different samples. Older participants showed a stronger belief in similarity with brand names than the younger group. Higher educated participants showed a stronger belief in the efficacy of generics. The opportunity to assess beliefs about generic medicines may have implications for adherence, for the implementation of health policies and for decision making about medicines. PMID:19444709

  8. An experimental intervention: stimulating patient requests for generic prescription medications.

    PubMed

    Perri, M

    1989-01-01

    This experiment tested the effect of an informational radio advertising intervention on consumer attitudes toward generic medications, consumer attitudes toward the advertising of generic medicines, and the potential for consumers to request generic substitutes for their prescriptions in the future. The informational themes of the advertising intervention included price, quality, product availability, safety, and the role of the pharmacist in drug product selection. Results indicated 28% of the 205 radio station listeners surveyed were able to recall the generic ads. The attitudes of respondents indicating recall of the advertisements were no different from those of respondents unable to recall the advertisements. Consumer attitudes toward generics and the advertising of generic medicines were favorable. Most consumers (73%) thought that subjects such as generic medications should be advertised more often. Many consumers (50%) indicated they would like to hear more ads about generic medications. Patients believed the ads provided information they have a right to know (83%) and information that would be useful to them (77%). Consumers thought generic drugs were just as safe (67%) and effective (62%) as brand name medications. Consumers who recalled the ads were significantly (p less than .05) more likely to indicate they would ask their pharmacists about generic medications on their next prescriptions. This implies that the informational advertising intervention may have been effective in stimulating patient requests for generics in the future. PMID:10295632

  9. Generic drugs in Brazil: known by many, used by few.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Andréa D; Barros, Aluísio J D; Hallal, Pedro C

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated knowledge and use of generic drugs in a population-based sample of adults from a southern Brazilian city. The outcomes were: the proportion of generics in total medicines used; theoretical and practical knowledge about generics; and strategies used to buy medicines on medical prescriptions. The recall period for drug utilization was 15 days. The proportion of generics in total medicines was 3.9%. While 86.0% knew that generics cost less and 70.0% that the quality is similar to brand name medicines, only 57.0% knew any packaging characteristics that distinguish generics from other medicines. The highest proportion of generic drug utilization was in the antimicrobial pharmacological group. A brand name medicine (with a brand similar to the generic name) was mistakenly classified as a generic through photos by 48.0% of the interviewees. Among subjects who bought medicines in the 15-day period, 18.9% reported buying a generic, but this result should be interpreted with caution, because the population frequently fails to differentiate between generics and other medicines.

  10. Inclusive and Exclusive |Vub|

    SciTech Connect

    Petrella, Antonio; /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara

    2011-11-17

    The current status of the determinations of CKM matrix element |V{sub ub}| via exclusive and inclusive charmless semileptonic B decays is reviewed. The large datasets collected at the B-Factories, and the increased precision of theoretical calculations have allowed an improvement in the determination of |V{sub ub}|. However, there are still significant uncertainties. In the exclusive approach, the most precise measurement of the pion channel branching ratio is obtained by an untagged analysis. This very good precision can be reached by tagged analyses with more data. The problem with exclusive decays is that the strong hadron dynamics can not be calculated from first principles and the determination of the form factor has to rely on light-cone sum rules or lattice QCD calculations. The current data samples allow a comparison of different FF models with data distributions. With further developments on lattice calculations, the theoretical error should shrink to reach the experimental one. The inclusive approach still provides the most precise |V{sub ub}| determinations. With new theoretical calculations, the mild (2.5{sigma}) discrepancy with respect to the |V{sub ub}| value determined from the global UT fit has been reduced. As in the exclusive approach, theoretical uncertainties represent the limiting factor to the precision of the measurement. Reducing the theoretical uncertainties to a level comparable with the statistical error is challenging. New measurements in semileptonic decays of charm mesons could increase the confidence in theoretical calculations and related uncertainties.

  11. Mutually Exclusive, Complementary, or . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloemer, Cathy G.

    2016-01-01

    Whether students are beginning their study of probability or are well into it, distinctions between complementary sets and mutually exclusive sets can be confusing. Cathy Schloemer writes in this article that for years she used typical classroom examples but was not happy with the student engagement or the level of understanding they produced.…

  12. The nocebo effect: a reason for patients' non-adherence to generic substitution?

    PubMed

    Weissenfeld, J; Stock, S; Lüngen, M; Gerber, A

    2010-07-01

    Substituting generic formulations of the same chemical agent is a common practice in German health care on the basis of so called rebate contracts. The substitution of a medication may affect the patients' adherence or result in adverse events. While adverse events which may be caused by the pharmacological activity of the agent itself can be explained, some non-specific side effects cannot be substantiated referring to pharmacological factors. These adverse reactions are summarized under the term nocebo effect. Since patients experiencing a nocebo effect can subsequently become non-adherent or even discontinue an appropiate therapy, the aim of this article is to study patients' adherence to generic substitution and the extent of the nocebo effect. In MEDLINE and EMBASE, a search was carried out for articles which were published between March 25th, 1989 and March 25th, 2009 by using the following search terms: generic substitution, adherence, non-adherence, non-persistence, rebate contracts, patients' attitude, nocebo, negative placebo effects, placebo adverse reactions, placebo induced side effects and negative placebo responses. In addition a manual search was performed in the reference lists of the articles retrieved. 14 studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were included in this article. The generic substitution was generally accepted by over two thirds of the study populations. But up to 34% of patients being treated for psychological diseases confronted with a change of their medication had additional adverse events. On the basis of the studies analysed, the conclusion can be drawn that the nocebo effect can play a crucial role in the treatment of psychological diseases. Therefore, physicians and pharmacists should be responsible to prevent the nocebo effect through adequately educating the patients. PMID:20662309

  13. Prescribing generic drugs using a generic name: Are we teaching it right?

    PubMed

    Kamath, Ashwin

    2016-01-01

    The Indian Medical Council (Professional conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002, state that "Every physician should, as far as possible, prescribe drugs with generic names and he/she shall ensure that there is a rational prescription and use of drugs.". Undergraduate medical students are introduced to drug nomenclature early on during their pharmacology course. They are told that generic name or, more appropriately, non-proprietary name (usually international non-proprietary name INN), is to be used while writing prescriptions. PMID:27474700

  14. Generic hierarchical engine for mask data preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalus, Christian K.; Roessl, Wolfgang; Schnitker, Uwe; Simecek, Michal

    2002-07-01

    Electronic layouts are usually flattened on their path from the hierarchical source downstream to the wafer. Mask data preparation has certainly been identified as a severe bottleneck since long. Data volumes are not only doubling every year along the ITRS roadmap. With the advent of optical proximity correction and phase-shifting masks data volumes are escalating up to non-manageable heights. Hierarchical treatment is one of the most powerful means to keep memory and CPU consumption in reasonable ranges. Only recently, however, has this technique acquired more public attention. Mask data preparation is the most critical area calling for a sound infrastructure to reduce the handling problem. Gaining more and more attention though, are other applications such as large area simulation and manufacturing rule checking (MRC). They all would profit from a generic engine capable to efficiently treat hierarchical data. In this paper we will present a generic engine for hierarchical treatment which solves the major problem, steady transitions along cell borders. Several alternatives exist how to walk through the hierarchy tree. They have, to date, not been thoroughly investigated. One is a bottom-up attempt to treat cells starting with the most elementary cells. The other one is a top-down approach which lends itself to creating a new hierarchy tree. In addition, since the variety, degree of hierarchy and quality of layouts extends over a wide range a generic engine has to take intelligent decisions when exploding the hierarchy tree. Several applications will be shown, in particular how far the limits can be pushed with the current hierarchical engine.

  15. Generic seismic ruggedness of power plant equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, K.L. )

    1991-08-01

    This report updates the results of a program with the overall objective of demonstrating the generic seismic adequacy of as much nuclear power plant equipment as possible by means of collecting and evaluating existing seismic qualification test data. These data are then used to construct ruggedness'' spectra below which equipment in operating plants designed to earlier earthquake criteria would be generically adequate. This document is an EPRI Tier 1 Report. The report gives the methodology for the collection and evaluation of data which are used to construct a Generic Equipment Ruggedness Spectrum (GERs) for each equipment class considered. The GERS for each equipment class are included in an EPRI Tier 2 Report with the same title. Associated with each GERS are inclusion rules, cautions, and checklists for field screening of in-place equipment for GERS applicability. A GERS provides a measure of equipment seismic resistance based on available test data. As such, a GERS may also be used to judge the seismic adequacy of similar new or replacement equipment or to estimate the seismic margin of equipment re-evaluated with respect to earthquake levels greater than considered to date, resulting in fifteen finalized GERS. GERS for relays (included in the original version of this report) are now covered in a separate report (NP-7147). In addition to the presentation of GERS, the Tier 2 report addresses the applicability of GERS to equipment of older vintage, methods for estimating amplification factors for evaluating devices installed in cabinets and enclosures, and how seismic test data from related studies relate to the GERS approach. 28 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. 75 FR 80798 - Availability for Exclusive, Non-Exclusive, or Partially-Exclusive Licensing of Inventions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Department of the Army Availability for Exclusive, Non-Exclusive, or Partially-Exclusive Licensing of... AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Announcement is made of the availability... of the Army, has rights to this invention. ADDRESSES: Commander, U.S. Army Medical Research...

  17. Static aeroelastic analysis for generic configuration wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, IN; Miura, Hirokazu; Chargin, Mladen K.

    1991-01-01

    A static aeroelastic analysis capability that calculates flexible air loads for generic configuration wings was developed. It was made possible by integrating a finite element structural analysis code (MSC/NASTRAN) and a panel code of aerodynamic analysis based on linear potential flow theory. The framework already built in MSC/NASTRAN was used, and the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix was computed externally and inserted in the NASTRAN by means of a DMAP program. It was shown that deformation and flexible air loads of an oblique wing configuration including asymmetric wings can be calculated reliably by this code both in subsonic and supersonic speeds.

  18. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    A new distributed intelligence control system has become operational at the AGS for transport, injection, and acceleration of heavy ions. A brief description of the functionality of the physical devices making up the system is given. An attempt has been made to integrate the devices for accelerator specific interfacing into a standard microprocessor system, namely, the Universal Device Controller (UDC). The main goals for such a generic device controller are to provide: local computing power; flexibility to configure; and real time event handling. The UDC assemblies and software are described. (LEW)

  19. [Generic and biosimilar drug substitution: a panacea?].

    PubMed

    Daly, M J; Guignard, B; Nendaz, M

    2015-10-14

    Drugs are the third largest source of expenditure under Switzerland's compulsory basic health insurance. Generics, the price of which should be at least 30 per cent less than the cost of the original drugs, can potentially allow substantial savings. Their approval requires bioequivalence studies and their use is safe, although some factors may influence patients' and physicians' acceptance. The increased substitution of biosimilar drugs for more expensive biotech drugs should allow further cost savings. In an attempt to extend the monopoly granted by the original drug patent, some pharmaceutical companies implement "evergreening" strategies including small modifications of the original substance for which the clinical benefit is not always demonstrated. PMID:26665661

  20. Speech enhancement using a generic noise codebook.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sriram; Rao Naidu, D Hanumantha

    2012-08-01

    Although single-microphone noise reduction methods perform well in stationary noise environments, their performance in non-stationary conditions remains unsatisfactory. Use of prior knowledge about speech and noise power spectral densities in the form of trained codebooks has been previously shown to address this limitation. While it is possible to use trained speech codebooks in a practical system, the variety of noise types encountered in practice makes the use of trained noise codebooks less practical. This letter presents a method that uses a generic noise codebook for speech enhancement that can be generated on-the-fly and provides good performance.

  1. The Spectral Dimension of Generic Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur; Jonsson, Thordur; Wheater, John F.

    2007-09-01

    We define generic ensembles of infinite trees. These are limits as N→∞ of ensembles of finite trees of fixed size N, defined in terms of a set of branching weights. Among these ensembles are those supported on trees with vertices of a uniformly bounded order. The associated probability measures are supported on trees with a single spine and Hausdorff dimension d h =2. Our main result is that the spectral dimension of the ensemble average is d s =4/3, and that the critical exponent of the mass, defined as the exponential decay rate of the two-point function along the spine, is 1/3.

  2. Generic Mapping Tools: Improved Version Released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Paul; Smith, Walter H. F.; Scharroo, Remko; Luis, Joaquim; Wobbe, Florian

    2013-11-01

    Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) is an open-source software package for the analysis and display of geoscience data, helping scientists to analyze, interpolate, filter, manipulate, project, and plot time series and gridded data sets. The GMT toolbox includes about 80 core and 40 supplemental program modules sharing a common set of command options, file structures, and documentation. Its power to process data and produce publication-quality graphic presentations has made it vital to a large scientific community that now includes more than 25,000 individual users. GMT's website (http://gmt.soest.hawaii.edu/) exceeds 20,000 visits per month, and server logs show roughly 2000 monthly downloads.

  3. Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Nancy; Stodieck, Louis; Cushing, Paula; Stowe, Mark; Hamilton, Mary Ann; Werner, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03 (CSI-03) is the third set of investigations in the CSI program series. The CSI program provides the K-12 community opportunities to utilize the unique microgravity environment of the International Space Station as part of the regular classroom to encourage learning and interest in science, technology, engineering and math. CSI-03 will examine the complete life cycle of the painted lady butterfly and the ability of an orb weaving spider to spin a web, eat and remain healthy in space.

  4. Entry decisions in the generic pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Morton, F M

    1999-01-01

    Data on all generic drug entries in the period 1984-1994 are used to estimate which markets heterogeneous potential entrants will decide to enter. I find that organizational experience predicts entry. Firms tend to enter markets with supply and demand characteristics similar to the firm's existing drugs. Larger revenue markets, markets with more hospital sales, and products that treat chronic conditions attract more entry. The simultaneous nature of entry leads to an additional interpretation: specialization is profitable because of the severe risk to profits when a market is "overentered." However, I am unable to make any conclusions about the efficiency of entry decisions. PMID:10558596

  5. [Generic and biosimilar drug substitution: a panacea?].

    PubMed

    Daly, M J; Guignard, B; Nendaz, M

    2015-10-14

    Drugs are the third largest source of expenditure under Switzerland's compulsory basic health insurance. Generics, the price of which should be at least 30 per cent less than the cost of the original drugs, can potentially allow substantial savings. Their approval requires bioequivalence studies and their use is safe, although some factors may influence patients' and physicians' acceptance. The increased substitution of biosimilar drugs for more expensive biotech drugs should allow further cost savings. In an attempt to extend the monopoly granted by the original drug patent, some pharmaceutical companies implement "evergreening" strategies including small modifications of the original substance for which the clinical benefit is not always demonstrated.

  6. Generic Wing-Body Aerodynamics Data Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Olsen, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The wing-body aerodynamics data base consists of a series of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations about a generic wing body configuration consisting of a ogive-circular-cylinder fuselage and a simple symmetric wing mid-mounted on the fuselage. Solutions have been obtained for Nonlinear Potential (P), Euler (E) and Navier-Stokes (N) solvers over a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers and angles of attack. In addition, each solution has been computed on a series of grids, coarse, medium and fine to permit an assessment of grid refinement errors.

  7. Generic attack approaches for industrial control systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, David P.

    2006-01-01

    This report suggests a generic set of attack approaches that are expected to be used against Industrial Control Systems that have been built according to a specific reference model for control systems. The posed attack approaches are ordered by the most desirable, based upon the goal of an attacker. Each attack approach is then graded by the category of adversary that would be capable of utilizing that attack approach. The goal of this report is to identify necessary levels of security required to prevent certain types of attacks against Industrial Control Systems.

  8. Social exclusion in finite populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2015-04-01

    Social exclusion, keeping free riders from benefit sharing, plays an important role in sustaining cooperation in our world. Here we propose two different exclusion regimes, namely, peer exclusion and pool exclusion, to investigate the evolution of social exclusion in finite populations. In the peer exclusion regime, each excluder expels all the defectors independently, and thus bears the total cost on his own, while in the pool exclusion regime, excluders spontaneously form an institution to carry out rejection of the free riders, and each excluder shares the cost equally. In a public goods game containing only excluders and defectors, it is found that peer excluders outperform pool excluders if the exclusion costs are small, and the situation is converse once the exclusion costs exceed some critical points, which holds true for all the selection intensities and different update rules. Moreover, excluders can dominate the whole population under a suitable parameters range in the presence of second-order free riders (cooperators), showing that exclusion has prominent advantages over common costly punishment. More importantly, our finding indicates that the group exclusion mechanism helps the cooperative union to survive under unfavorable conditions. Our results may give some insights into better understanding the prevalence of such a strategy in the real world and its significance in sustaining cooperation. PMID:25974550

  9. Social exclusion in finite populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2015-04-01

    Social exclusion, keeping free riders from benefit sharing, plays an important role in sustaining cooperation in our world. Here we propose two different exclusion regimes, namely, peer exclusion and pool exclusion, to investigate the evolution of social exclusion in finite populations. In the peer exclusion regime, each excluder expels all the defectors independently, and thus bears the total cost on his own, while in the pool exclusion regime, excluders spontaneously form an institution to carry out rejection of the free riders, and each excluder shares the cost equally. In a public goods game containing only excluders and defectors, it is found that peer excluders outperform pool excluders if the exclusion costs are small, and the situation is converse once the exclusion costs exceed some critical points, which holds true for all the selection intensities and different update rules. Moreover, excluders can dominate the whole population under a suitable parameters range in the presence of second-order free riders (cooperators), showing that exclusion has prominent advantages over common costly punishment. More importantly, our finding indicates that the group exclusion mechanism helps the cooperative union to survive under unfavorable conditions. Our results may give some insights into better understanding the prevalence of such a strategy in the real world and its significance in sustaining cooperation.

  10. Social exclusion in finite populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2015-04-01

    Social exclusion, keeping free riders from benefit sharing, plays an important role in sustaining cooperation in our world. Here we propose two different exclusion regimes, namely, peer exclusion and pool exclusion, to investigate the evolution of social exclusion in finite populations. In the peer exclusion regime, each excluder expels all the defectors independently, and thus bears the total cost on his own, while in the pool exclusion regime, excluders spontaneously form an institution to carry out rejection of the free riders, and each excluder shares the cost equally. In a public goods game containing only excluders and defectors, it is found that peer excluders outperform pool excluders if the exclusion costs are small, and the situation is converse once the exclusion costs exceed some critical points, which holds true for all the selection intensities and different update rules. Moreover, excluders can dominate the whole population under a suitable parameters range in the presence of second-order free riders (cooperators), showing that exclusion has prominent advantages over common costly punishment. More importantly, our finding indicates that the group exclusion mechanism helps the cooperative union to survive under unfavorable conditions. Our results may give some insights into better understanding the prevalence of such a strategy in the real world and its significance in sustaining cooperation.

  11. A Generic Nonlinear Aerodynamic Model for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grauer, Jared A.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2014-01-01

    A generic model of the aerodynamic coefficients was developed using wind tunnel databases for eight different aircraft and multivariate orthogonal functions. For each database and each coefficient, models were determined using polynomials expanded about the state and control variables, and an othgonalization procedure. A predicted squared-error criterion was used to automatically select the model terms. Modeling terms picked in at least half of the analyses, which totalled 45 terms, were retained to form the generic nonlinear aerodynamic (GNA) model. Least squares was then used to estimate the model parameters and associated uncertainty that best fit the GNA model to each database. Nonlinear flight simulations were used to demonstrate that the GNA model produces accurate trim solutions, local behavior (modal frequencies and damping ratios), and global dynamic behavior (91% accurate state histories and 80% accurate aerodynamic coefficient histories) under large-amplitude excitation. This compact aerodynamics model can be used to decrease on-board memory storage requirements, quickly change conceptual aircraft models, provide smooth analytical functions for control and optimization applications, and facilitate real-time parametric system identification.

  12. Generic element processor (application to nonlinear analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Gary

    1989-01-01

    The focus here is on one aspect of the Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) Testbed: finite element technology. The approach involves a Generic Element Processor: a command-driven, database-oriented software shell that facilitates introduction of new elements into the testbed. This shell features an element-independent corotational capability that upgrades linear elements to geometrically nonlinear analysis, and corrects the rigid-body errors that plague many contemporary plate and shell elements. Specific elements that have been implemented in the Testbed via this mechanism include the Assumed Natural-Coordinate Strain (ANS) shell elements, developed with Professor K. C. Park (University of Colorado, Boulder), a new class of curved hybrid shell elements, developed by Dr. David Kang of LPARL (formerly a student of Professor T. Pian), other shell and solid hybrid elements developed by NASA personnel, and recently a repackaged version of the workhorse shell element used in the traditional STAGS nonlinear shell analysis code. The presentation covers: (1) user and developer interfaces to the generic element processor, (2) an explanation of the built-in corotational option, (3) a description of some of the shell-elements currently implemented, and (4) application to sample nonlinear shell postbuckling problems.

  13. Generic hyper-diversity in Stachybotriaceae.

    PubMed

    Lombard, L; Houbraken, J; Decock, C; Samson, R A; Meijer, M; Réblová, M; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2016-06-01

    The family Stachybotriaceae was recently introduced to include the genera Myrothecium, Peethambara and Stachybotrys. Members of this family include important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. However, the generic boundaries in Stachybotriaceae are still poorly defined, as type material and sequence data are not readily available for taxonomic studies. To address this issue, we performed multi-locus phylogenetic analyses using partial gene sequences of the 28S large subunit (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer regions and intervening 5.8S nrRNA (ITS), the RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), calmodulin (cmdA), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) and β-tubulin (tub2) for all available type and authentic strains. Supported by morphological characters these data resolved 33 genera in the Stachybotriaceae. These included the nine already established genera Albosynnema, Alfaria, Didymostilbe, Myrothecium, Parasarcopodium, Peethambara, Septomyrothecium, Stachybotrys and Xepicula. At the same time the generic names Melanopsamma, Memnoniella and Virgatospora were resurrected. Phylogenetic inference further showed that both the genera Myrothecium and Stachybotrys are polyphyletic resulting in the introduction of 13 new genera with myrothecium-like morphology and eight new genera with stachybotrys-like morphology. PMID:27616791

  14. The generic danger and the idiosyncratic support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temme, Arnaud; Nijp, Jelmer; van der Meij, Marijn; Samia, Jalal; Masselink, Rens

    2016-04-01

    This contribution argues two main points. First, that generic landscapes used in some modelling studies sometimes have properties or cause simulation results that are unrealistic. Such initially flat or straight-sloped landscapes, sometimes with minor random perturbations, e.g. form the backdrop for ecological simulations of vegetation growth and competition that predict catastrophic shifts. Exploratory results for semi-arid systems suggest that the results based on these generic landscapes are end-members from a distribution of results, rather than an unbiased, typical outcome. Apparently, the desire to avoid idiosyncrasy has unintended consequences. Second, we argue and illustrate that in fact new insights often come from close inspection of idiosyncratic case studies. Our examples from landslide systems, connectivity and soil formation show how a central role for the case study - either in empirical work or to provide model targets - has advanced our understanding. Both points contribute to the conclusion that it is dangerous to forget about annoying, small-scale, idiosyncratic and, indeed, perhaps bad-ass case studies in Earth Sciences.

  15. Individual differences in children's and parents' generic language

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Ware, Elizabeth A.; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Generics (“Dogs bark”) convey important information about categories and facilitate children’s learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N=104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked to conceptual factors. For both children and parents, individual differences in rate of generic production were stable across time, contexts, and domains, and parents' generic usage significantly correlated with that of their own children. Furthermore, parents’ essentialist beliefs correlated with their own and their children’s rates of generic frequency. These results indicate that generic language use exhibits substantial stability and may reflect individual differences in speakers’ conceptual attitudes toward categories. PMID:24266531

  16. Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA) reference model technical guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, Richard B.; Stovall, John R.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a full description of the Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA). The SGOAA consists of a generic system architecture for the entities in spacecraft avionics, a generic processing architecture, and a six class model of interfaces in a hardware/software system. The purpose of the SGOAA is to provide an umbrella set of requirements for applying the generic architecture interface model to the design of specific avionics hardware/software systems. The SGOAA defines a generic set of system interface points to facilitate identification of critical interfaces and establishes the requirements for applying appropriate low level detailed implementation standards to those interface points. The generic core avionics system and processing architecture models provided herein are robustly tailorable to specific system applications and provide a platform upon which the interface model is to be applied.

  17. Contact Geometry of Hyperbolic Equations of Generic Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The, Dennis

    2008-08-01

    We study the contact geometry of scalar second order hyperbolic equations in the plane of generic type. Following a derivation of parametrized contact-invariants to distinguish Monge-Ampère (class 6-6), Goursat (class 6-7) and generic (class 7-7) hyperbolic equations, we use Cartan's equivalence method to study the generic case. An intriguing feature of this class of equations is that every generic hyperbolic equation admits at most a nine-dimensional contact symmetry algebra. The nine-dimensional bound is sharp: normal forms for the contact-equivalence classes of these maximally symmetric generic hyperbolic equations are derived and explicit symmetry algebras are presented. Moreover, these maximally symmetric equations are Darboux integrable. An enumeration of several submaximally symmetric (eight and seven-dimensional) generic hyperbolic structures is also given.

  18. Individual differences in children's and parents' generic language.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Susan A; Ware, Elizabeth A; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M; Stilwell, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Generics ("Dogs bark") convey important information about categories and facilitate children's learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N = 104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are as follows: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked to conceptual factors. For both children and parents, individual differences in rate of generic production were stable across time, contexts, and domains, and parents' generic usage significantly correlated with that of their own children. Furthermore, parents' essentialist beliefs correlated with their own and their children's rates of generic frequency. These results indicate that generic language use exhibits substantial stability and may reflect individual differences in speakers' conceptual attitudes toward categories.

  19. Current approaches to the use of generic antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Krämer, G; Biraben, A; Carreno, M; Guekht, A; de Haan, G J; Jedrzejczak, J; Josephs, D; van Rijckevorsel, K; Zaccara, G

    2007-08-01

    Generic substitution is encouraged as a cost containment strategy for the management of health care resources. However, in epilepsy, the consequences of loss of symptom control are important, and antiepileptic drugs have narrow therapeutic indices. For this reason, generic substitution may be problematic, and certain health authorities have excluded antiepileptic drugs from overall policy recommendations on generic prescribing. The absence of bioequivalence data among generic forms and the relatively broad criteria for bioequivalence with the branded drug allow differences in drug exposure to arise that may be clinically relevant and necessitate monitoring of plasma levels when switching formulations to avoid loss of seizure control or emergence of side effects. Management of these issues carries a significant cost, which should be weighed carefully against the cost savings acquired when purchasing the drug. Both physicians and patients have a right to be informed and approve before pharmacists make a generic substitution or switch between generics.

  20. [Strategies for pharmaceutical research and development. II. Generic drugs].

    PubMed

    Kuchar, M

    1996-07-01

    When the patent protection is terminated, the original registered-mark preparation becomes a generic drug, which results in a decrease in its price as compared with the original pharmaceutical. The effects of changes in price relation are discussed from the viewpoint of the generic firms and the manufacturers of original preparations. The differences in the insurance system and legislative regulations of the registration of generic preparations can markedly the size influence of the share of generic drugs in the total consumption of drugs. The future development of generic drugs from a general viewpoint is discussed in relation to the contemporary extensive expiration of patent protection of drugs. The hitherto results are summed up and the topics for the present strategy of the development of generic drugs in the Research Institute for Pharmacy and Biochemistry, or in the Czech Republic, respectively are discussed.

  1. Brand loyalty, patients and limited generic medicines uptake.

    PubMed

    Costa-Font, Joan; Rudisill, Caroline; Tan, Stefanie

    2014-06-01

    The sluggish development of European generic drug markets depends heavily on demand side factors, and more specifically, patients' and doctors' loyalty to branded products. Loyalty to originator drugs, to the point where originator prices rise upon generic entry has been described as the 'generics paradox'. Originator loyalty can emerge for a plethora of reasons; including costs, perceptions about quality and physician advice. We know very little about the behavioural underpinnings of brand loyalty from the consumer or patient standpoint. This paper attempts to test the extent to which patients are brand loyal by drawing upon Spain's 2002 Health Barometer survey as it includes questions about consumer acceptance of generics in a country with exceptionally low generic uptake and substitution at the time of the study. Our findings suggest that at least 13% of the population would not accept generics as substitutes to the originator. These results confirm evidence of brand loyalty for a minority. Alongside high levels of awareness of generics, we find that low cost-sharing levels explain consumer brand loyalty but their impact on acceptance of generic substitution is very small. Higher cost-sharing and exempting fewer patients from cost-sharing have the potential to encourage generic acceptance. PMID:24573104

  2. Generics market in Greece: the pharmaceutical industry's beliefs.

    PubMed

    Geitona, Mary; Zavras, Dimitrios; Hatzikou, Magda; Kyriopoulos, John

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs and perspectives of the pharmaceutical industry on generic medication in Greece. Questionnaires were mailed to all 58 members of the Hellenic Association of Pharmaceutical Companies from November 2002 to February 2003. The response rate was 52%, namely 30 questionnaires were completed and returned. The questionnaire requested information on companies' involvement in generics, their opinion on generics' characteristics and on public policies affecting the demand and supply of generic medication. A descriptive analysis of the outcomes, that is percentage comparison through binomial tests and Fisher tests, was performed. According to our findings, 43% of the respondents were involved in the production and distribution of generics and the mean period of their involvement was 12 years. The majority of the respondents were in favor of their companies' involvement in generics, despite the relatively small market share of generics in Greece; 9.7% of total pharmaceutical market in 2003. Bearing in mind that in Greece the promotion of generics is not encouraged, pharmaceutical companies believe that the mandatory introduction of bioequivalence studies is an indirect promotional strategy towards generics. Additionally, the majority declared that their main competitive advantages are their safety, efficacy and effectiveness as well as their economic benefit to the society. Finally, the respondents expressed their preference for the introduction of pharmacoeconomic submissions for drugs' reimbursement by social insurance funds. PMID:16386326

  3. Generic medicine pricing in Europe: current issues and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven

    2008-01-01

    This editorial discusses a number of trends affecting the pricing of generic medicines in Europe. With respect to pricing, recent evidence has emerged that European generic medicine manufacturers face competition from Indian manufacturers; that the price level of generic medicines varies substantially between European countries; and that generic medicine manufacturers engage in competition by discount rather than price competition in France, The Netherlands and the UK. These trends suggest that there may be scope for further reducing the prices of generic medicines in several countries. In relation to reference pricing, most European countries have incorporated market incentives within reference pricing systems with a view to promoting price competition. The European experience indicates that the generic medicines industry delivers competitive prices under a reference pricing system if demand-side policies are in place that stimulate physicians, pharmacists and patients to use generic medicines. Finally, caution needs to be exercised when focusing on the drivers of generic medicine pricing as these drivers not only vary between countries, but may also vary within a country. Manufacturers of originator and generic medicines do not take a single pricing approach following patent expiry, but vary their pricing strategy from molecule to molecule.

  4. Generics market in Greece: the pharmaceutical industry's beliefs.

    PubMed

    Geitona, Mary; Zavras, Dimitrios; Hatzikou, Magda; Kyriopoulos, John

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs and perspectives of the pharmaceutical industry on generic medication in Greece. Questionnaires were mailed to all 58 members of the Hellenic Association of Pharmaceutical Companies from November 2002 to February 2003. The response rate was 52%, namely 30 questionnaires were completed and returned. The questionnaire requested information on companies' involvement in generics, their opinion on generics' characteristics and on public policies affecting the demand and supply of generic medication. A descriptive analysis of the outcomes, that is percentage comparison through binomial tests and Fisher tests, was performed. According to our findings, 43% of the respondents were involved in the production and distribution of generics and the mean period of their involvement was 12 years. The majority of the respondents were in favor of their companies' involvement in generics, despite the relatively small market share of generics in Greece; 9.7% of total pharmaceutical market in 2003. Bearing in mind that in Greece the promotion of generics is not encouraged, pharmaceutical companies believe that the mandatory introduction of bioequivalence studies is an indirect promotional strategy towards generics. Additionally, the majority declared that their main competitive advantages are their safety, efficacy and effectiveness as well as their economic benefit to the society. Finally, the respondents expressed their preference for the introduction of pharmacoeconomic submissions for drugs' reimbursement by social insurance funds.

  5. Position and enforcement practice of the People's Republic of China's pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Yu, Xiang; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The concept of pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection comes from the West. The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) establishes the basic rules for pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection. People's Republic of China's domestic law is consistent with the TRIPS agreement. In the drug registration approval process of the People's Republic of China's Drug Supervision Department, pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection has encountered some problems, including data authentication, exclusive rights to data, number of drugs requiring data to be submitted, and drug costs. In view of the long-term interests of the People's Republic of China's pharmaceutical industry and intellectual property protection trends, there are a lot of difficulties in the enforcement of pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection law that need to be overcome. Some measures can be taken, such as establishing a shorter data exclusivity protection period, only protecting the data submitted and relied on in the People's Republic of China, only protecting the drugs that use new chemical components, allowing application and necessary research before the expiry of pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection period of generic drugs.

  6. Position and enforcement practice of the People's Republic of China's pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Yu, Xiang; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The concept of pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection comes from the West. The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) establishes the basic rules for pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection. People's Republic of China's domestic law is consistent with the TRIPS agreement. In the drug registration approval process of the People's Republic of China's Drug Supervision Department, pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection has encountered some problems, including data authentication, exclusive rights to data, number of drugs requiring data to be submitted, and drug costs. In view of the long-term interests of the People's Republic of China's pharmaceutical industry and intellectual property protection trends, there are a lot of difficulties in the enforcement of pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection law that need to be overcome. Some measures can be taken, such as establishing a shorter data exclusivity protection period, only protecting the data submitted and relied on in the People's Republic of China, only protecting the drugs that use new chemical components, allowing application and necessary research before the expiry of pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection period of generic drugs. PMID:27382254

  7. Exclusion performance and learning by exclusion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Zaine, Isabela; Domeniconi, Camila; de Rose, Julio C

    2016-05-01

    Responding by exclusion is a type of emergent repertoire in which an individual chooses an alternative by the apparent exclusion of other available alternatives. In this case it is possible to respond appropriately to an undefined stimulus (one that has not previously acquired discriminative functions) by excluding the defined alternatives. There is evidence of exclusion in humans and nonhuman animals, although learning as an outcome of exclusion does not always occur. This study aimed to investigate exclusion in visual simple discriminations and learning of new simple discriminations resulting from exclusion in four border collies. Subjects were trained to perform simple simultaneous discriminations between pairs of tridimensional objects, and were then tested for exclusion, novelty control and learning of new simple discriminations. All dogs successfully responded by exclusion, choosing an undefined stimulus displayed with an S-. For three dogs, it was possible to conclude that these previously undefined stimuli acquired S+ functions, documenting learning of new simple discriminations. However, this required up to four exposures to exclusion trials with each pair of stimuli.

  8. Mutual exclusivity and exclusion: Converging evidence from two contrasting traditions

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, Kenneth R.; Ghezzi, Patrick M.

    1993-01-01

    Mutual exclusivity and exclusion are two terms used by cognitive psychologists and behavior analysts, respectively, to identify essentially the same phenomenon. While cognitive psychologists view mutual exclusivity in terms of a hypothesis that individuals use intuitively while acquiring language, behavior analysts regard exclusion as a derived stimulus relation that bears upon the acquisition and elaboration of verbal behavior. Each research tradition, though at odds with respect to accounting for the phenomenon, employs similar procedures to answer comparable questions. Insofar as both cognitive and behavioral psychologists are studying the same phenomenon, the ground work is established for collaboration between them. PMID:22477081

  9. Hard Exclusive Pion Leptoproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, Peter

    2016-08-01

    In this talk it is reported on an analysis of hard exclusive leptoproduction of pions within the handbag approach. It is argued that recent measurements of this process performed by HERMES and CLAS clearly indicate the occurrence of strong contributions from transversely polarized photons. Within the handbag approach such γ ^{ *}_T→ π transitions are described by the transversity GPDs accompanied by twist-3 pion wave functions. It is shown that the handbag approach leads to results on cross sections and single-spin asymmetries in fair agreement with experiment. Predictions for other pseudoscalar meson channels are also briefly discussed.

  10. Static aeroelastic analysis for generic configuration aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, IN; Miura, Hirokazu; Chargin, Mladen K.

    1987-01-01

    A static aeroelastic analysis capability that can calculate flexible air loads for generic configuration aircraft was developed. It was made possible by integrating a finite element structural analysis code (MSC/NASTRAN) and a panel code of aerodynamic analysis based on linear potential flow theory. The framework already built in MSC/NASTRAN was used and the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix is computed externally and inserted in the NASTRAN by means of a DMAP program. It was shown that deformation and flexible airloads of an oblique wing aircraft can be calculated reliably by this code both in subsonic and supersonic speeds. Preliminary results indicating importance of flexibility in calculating air loads for this type of aircraft are presented.

  11. Generic aerocapture atmospheric entry study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An atmospheric entry study to fine a generic aerocapture vehicle capable of missions to Mars, Saturn, and Uranus is reported. A single external geometry was developed through atmospheric entry simulations. Aerocapture is a system design concept which uses an aerodynamically controlled atmospheric entry to provide the necessary velocity depletion to capture payloads into planetary orbit. Design concepts are presented which provide the control accuracy required while giving thermal protection for the mission payload. The system design concepts consist of the following elements: (1) an extendable biconic aerodynamic configuration with lift to drag ratio between 1.0 and 2.0; (2) roll control system concepts to control aerodynamic lift and disturbance torques; (3) aeroshell design concepts capable of meeting dynamic pressure loads during aerocapture; and (4) entry thermal protection system design concepts to meet thermodynamic loads during aerocapture.

  12. Toward a generic evaluation of image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Jaime S; Corte-Real, Luís

    2005-11-01

    Image segmentation plays a major role in a broad range of applications. Evaluating the adequacy of a segmentation algorithm for a given application is a requisite both to allow the appropriate selection of segmentation algorithms as well as to tune their parameters for optimal performance. However, objective segmentation quality evaluation is far from being a solved problem. In this paper, a generic framework for segmentation evaluation is introduced after a brief review of previous work. A metric based on the distance between segmentation partitions is proposed to overcome some of the limitations of existing approaches. Symmetric and asymmetric distance metric alternatives are presented to meet the specificities of a wide class of applications. Experimental results confirm the potential of the proposed measures. PMID:16279178

  13. Generic small modular reactor plant design.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Baum, Gregory A.

    2012-12-01

    This report gives an overview of expected design characteristics, concepts, and procedures for small modular reactors. The purpose of this report is to provide those who are interested in reducing the cost and improving the safety of advanced nuclear power plants with a generic design that possesses enough detail in a non-sensitive manner to give merit to their conclusions. The report is focused on light water reactor technology, but does add details on what could be different in a more advanced design (see Appendix). Numerous reactor and facility concepts were used for inspiration (documented in the bibliography). The final design described here is conceptual and does not reflect any proposed concept or sub-systems, thus any details given here are only relevant within this report. This report does not include any design or engineering calculations.

  14. Generic Entity Resolution in Relational Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidló, Csaba István

    Entity Resolution (ER) covers the problem of identifying distinct representations of real-world entities in heterogeneous databases. We consider the generic formulation of ER problems (GER) with exact outcome. In practice, input data usually resides in relational databases and can grow to huge volumes. Yet, typical solutions described in the literature employ standalone memory resident algorithms. In this paper we utilize facilities of standard, unmodified relational database management systems (RDBMS) to enhance the efficiency of GER algorithms. We study and revise the problem formulation, and propose practical and efficient algorithms optimized for RDBMS external memory processing. We outline a real-world scenario and demonstrate the advantage of algorithms by performing experiments on insurance customer data.

  15. A generic reaction-based biogeochemical simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Yilin; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Yeh, Gour T.; C.T. Miller, M.W. Farthing, W.G. Gray, and G.F. Pinder

    2004-06-17

    This paper presents a generic biogeochemical simulator, BIOGEOCHEM. The simulator can read a thermodynamic database based on the EQ3/EQ6 database. It can also read user-specified equilibrium and kinetic reactions (reactions not defined in the format of that in EQ3/EQ6 database) symbolically. BIOGEOCHEM is developed with a general paradigm. It overcomes the requirement in most available reaction-based models that reactions and rate laws be specified in a limited number of canonical forms. The simulator interprets the reactions, and rate laws of virtually any type for input to the MAPLE symbolic mathematical software package. MAPLE then generates Fortran code for the analytical Jacobian matrix used in the Newton-Raphson technique, which are compiled and linked into the BIOGEOCHEM executable. With this feature, the users are exempted from recoding the simulator to accept new equilibrium expressions or kinetic rate laws. Two examples are used to demonstrate the new features of the simulator.

  16. An object oriented generic controller using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nivens, Cody R.

    1990-01-01

    In today's applications, the need for the division of code and data has focused on the growth of object oriented programming. This philosophy gives software engineers greater control over the environment of an application. Yet the use of object oriented design does not exclude the need for greater understanding by the application of what the controller is doing. Such understanding is only possible by using expert systems. Providing a controller that is capable of controlling an object by using rule-based expertise would expedite the use of both object oriented design and expert knowledge of the dynamic of an environment in modern controllers. This project presents a model of a controller that uses the CLIPS expert system and objects in C++ to create a generic controller. The polymorphic abilities of C++ allow for the design of a generic component stored in individual data files. Accompanying the component is a set of rules written in CLIPS which provide the following: the control of individual components, the input of sensory data from components and the ability to find the status of a given component. Along with the data describing the application, a set of inference rules written in CLIPS allows the application to make use of sensory facts and status and control abilities. As a demonstration of this ability, the control of the environment of a house is provided. This demonstration includes the data files describing the rooms and their contents as far as devices, windows and doors. The rules used for the home consist of the flow of people in the house and the control of devices by the home owner.

  17. Exclusive Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Peter Lepage, G.

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * NONRELATIVISTIC FORM FACTORS FOR HEAVY-QUARK MESONS * HADRONIC WAVEFUNCTIONS * DEFINITIONS * LIGHT-CONE BOUND-STATE EQUATIONS * GENERAL PROPERTIES OF LIGHT-CONE WAVEFUNCTIONS * RENORMALIZATION * CALCULATING * A PERTURBATIVE ANALYSIS * FACTORIZATION—LEADING ORDER ANALYSIS * THE QUARK DISTRIBUTION AMPLITUDE * DETERMINATION OF DISTRIBUTION AMPLITUDES * HIGHER ORDER ANALYSIS * COMPLICATIONS * How LARGE IS ASYMPTOTIC Q? * APPLICATIONS OF QCD TO THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF EXCLUSIVE REACTIONS * GENERAL FEATURES OF EXCLUSIVE PROCESSES IN QCD * ELECTROMAGNETIC FORM FACTORS * COMPARISON OF QCD SCALING WITH EXPERIMENT * EXCLUSIVE ANTI-PROTON PROTON ANNIHILATION PROCESSES * ADDITIONAL TESTS OF GLUON SPIN IN EXCLUSIVE PROCESSES * HADRONIC WAVEFUNCTION PHENOMENOLOGY * CALCULATING TH * THE PRE-QCD DEVELOPMENT OF EXCLUSIVE REACTIONS * EXCLUSIVE e+ e- ANNIHILATION PROCESSES * J/ψ DECAY TO HADRON PAIRS * THE π-ρ PUZZLE * FORM FACTOR ZEROS IN QCD * EXCLUSIVE γγ REACTIONS * QCD PROCESSES IN NUCLEI * EXCLUSIVE NUCLEAR REACTIONS - REDUCED AMPLITUDES * COLOR TRANSPARENCY * SPIN CORRELATIONS IN PROTON-PROTON SCATTERING * CONCLUSIONS * APPENDIX I BARYON FORM FACTORS AND EVOLUTION EQUATIONS * APPENDIX II LIGHT CONE QUANTIZATION AND PERTURBATION THEORY * APPENDIX III A NONPERTURBATIVE ANALYSIS OF EXCLUSIVE REACTIONS-DISCRETIZED LIGHT-CONE QUANTIZATION * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  18. Changes in Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Fragile Adults over Fifty Years of Age and in Elderly People Exclusively Fed Enteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Maria D.; Olza, Josune; Gonzalez-Anton, Carolina; Aguilera, Concepcion M.; Moreno-Torres, Rosario; Jimenez, Africa; Perez de la Cruz, Antonio; Ruperez, Azahara I.; Gil, Angel

    2016-01-01

    We aim to evaluate whether exclusive feeding of an enteral formula enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) affects oxidative stress and the antioxidant defence system and may improve the levels of some relevant inflammatory, and cardiovascular biomarkers in frail adults over fifty years of age and in elderly subjects. Fifty-five patients were divided into two groups and were exclusively fed a newly designed normoproteic and isocaloric enteral formula enriched with eicosapentaenoic (98 mg/d) and docosahexaenoic acids (46 mg/d) (n = 26) or a reference enteral diet (n = 29). Oxidative, inflammatory and cardiovascular risk biomarkers and red blood cell fatty acid profiles were determined at the beginning and after 90 and 180 days of feeding. The n-3 LC-PUFA percentage tended to be higher (P = 0.053) in the experimental group than in the reference group. Administration of the n-3 LC-PUFA diet did not increase oxidative stress or modify plasma antioxidant capacity but decreased antioxidant enzymatic activities. MMP-9 plasma concentration decreased with both formulae, whereas tPAI-1 tended to decrease (P = 0.116) with the administration of the experimental formula. In conclusion, administration of the new n-3 LC-PUFA-enriched product for 6 months did not negatively alter the oxidative status and improved some cardiovascular risk biomarkers. PMID:26697137

  19. 40 CFR 721.10676 - Aromatic hydrocarbon mixture (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic hydrocarbon mixture (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10676 Aromatic hydrocarbon mixture (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... hydrocarbon mixture (PMN P-12-551) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2340 - Dialkenylamide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dialkenylamide (generic name). 721.2340 Section 721.2340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.2340 Dialkenylamide (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4497 - Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). 721.4497 Section 721.4497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4497 Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1738 - Substituted benzotriazole (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted benzotriazole (generic name). 721.1738 Section 721.1738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1738 Substituted benzotriazole (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3840 - Tetraglycidalamines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tetraglycidalamines (generic name). 721.3840 Section 721.3840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.3840 Tetraglycidalamines (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4700 - Metalated alkylphenol copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metalated alkylphenol copolymer (generic name). 721.4700 Section 721.4700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4700 Metalated alkylphenol copolymer (generic name). (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4484 - Halogenated indane (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halogenated indane (generic name). 721.4484 Section 721.4484 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.4484 Halogenated indane (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2340 - Dialkenylamide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkenylamide (generic name). 721.2340 Section 721.2340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.2340 Dialkenylamide (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4484 - Halogenated indane (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated indane (generic name). 721.4484 Section 721.4484 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.4484 Halogenated indane (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1700 - Halonitrobenzoic acid, substituted (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halonitrobenzoic acid, substituted (generic name). 721.1700 Section 721.1700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1700 Halonitrobenzoic acid, substituted (generic name). (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1738 - Substituted benzotriazole (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted benzotriazole (generic name). 721.1738 Section 721.1738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1738 Substituted benzotriazole (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2527 - Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). 721.2527 Section 721.2527 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2527 Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2527 - Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). 721.2527 Section 721.2527 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2527 Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3840 - Tetraglycidalamines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tetraglycidalamines (generic name). 721.3840 Section 721.3840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.3840 Tetraglycidalamines (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1700 - Halonitrobenzoic acid, substituted (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halonitrobenzoic acid, substituted (generic name). 721.1700 Section 721.1700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1700 Halonitrobenzoic acid, substituted (generic name). (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2560 - Alkylated diphenyl oxide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylated diphenyl oxide (generic name). 721.2560 Section 721.2560 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.2560 Alkylated diphenyl oxide (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10287 - Infused carbon nanostructures (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Infused carbon nanostructures (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10287 Infused carbon nanostructures (generic). (a) Chemical substance... infused carbon nanostructures (PMN P-11-188) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10287 - Infused carbon nanostructures (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Infused carbon nanostructures (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10287 Infused carbon nanostructures (generic). (a) Chemical substance... infused carbon nanostructures (PMN P-11-188) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10706 - Infused carbon nanostructures (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Infused carbon nanostructures (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10706 Infused carbon nanostructures (generic). (a) Chemical substance... infused carbon nanostructures (PMN P-12-576) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10287 - Infused carbon nanostructures (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Infused carbon nanostructures (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10287 Infused carbon nanostructures (generic). (a) Chemical substance... infused carbon nanostructures (PMN P-11-188) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10255 - Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10255 Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... carboxylic acid ester (PMN P-09-400) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10255 - Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10255 Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... carboxylic acid ester (PMN P-09-400) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10255 - Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10255 Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... carboxylic acid ester (PMN P-09-400) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10146 - Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10146 Section 721.10146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10146 Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as partially fluorinated condensation polymer (PMN P-07-87) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10146 - Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10146 Section 721.10146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10146 Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as partially fluorinated condensation polymer (PMN P-07-87) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10246 - Alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10246 Alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (PMN P-09-234) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10146 - Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10146 Section 721.10146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10146 Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as partially fluorinated condensation polymer (PMN P-07-87) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10036 - Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10036 Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... based polymer (PMN P-02-406) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10246 - Alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10246 Alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (PMN P-09-234) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10036 - Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10036 Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... based polymer (PMN P-02-406) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10036 - Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10036 Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... based polymer (PMN P-02-406) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10246 - Alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10246 Alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkylpolyhydroxy polymer (PMN P-09-234) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5900 - Trisubstituted phenol (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trisubstituted phenol (generic name... Substances § 721.5900 Trisubstituted phenol (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance trisubstituted phenol (PMN P-85-605) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5900 - Trisubstituted phenol (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trisubstituted phenol (generic name... Substances § 721.5900 Trisubstituted phenol (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance trisubstituted phenol (PMN P-85-605) is subject...

  16. Expressing Generic Concepts with and without a Language Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin-Meadow, S.; Gelman, S.A.; Mylander, C.

    2005-01-01

    Utterances expressing generic kinds (''birds fly'') highlight qualities of a category that are stable and enduring, and thus provide insight into conceptual organization. To explore the role that linguistic input plays in children's production of generic nouns, we observed American and Chinese deaf children whose hearing losses prevented them from…

  17. 40 CFR 721.6498 - Modified polyisocyanates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6498 Modified polyisocyanates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polyisocyanates (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6498 - Modified polyisocyanates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6498 Modified polyisocyanates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polyisocyanates (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6498 - Modified polyisocyanates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6498 Modified polyisocyanates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polyisocyanates (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10677 - Alkyl phosphonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10677 Alkyl phosphonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl phosphonate (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10711 - Alkyl substituted catechol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10711 Alkyl substituted catechol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  2. Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

  3. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9720 - Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9720 Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name). (a) Chemical... as disubstituted alkyl triazines (PMNs P-85-932 and P-85-933) are subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10669 - Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10669 Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkyl ether (PMN P-13-78) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10701 - Polyfluorinated alkyl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyfluorinated alkyl amine (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10701 Polyfluorinated alkyl amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyfluorinated alkyl amine (PMN P-11-532) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10453 - Polyglycerin alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyglycerin alkyl ether (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10453 Polyglycerin alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkyl ether (PMN P-02-796) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9720 - Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9720 Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name). (a) Chemical... as disubstituted alkyl triazines (PMNs P-85-932 and P-85-933) are subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10696 - Polyfluorinated alkyl thiol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyfluorinated alkyl thiol (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10696 Polyfluorinated alkyl thiol (generic). (a) Chemical substances and... polyfluorinated alkyl thiol (PMNs P-11-483 and P-11-528) are subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10453 - Polyglycerin alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyglycerin alkyl ether (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10453 Polyglycerin alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkyl ether (PMN P-02-796) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  13. Generic Skills for the New Economy. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    The generic skills needed for the new economy were identified through a review of research studies. First, the development of sets of key competencies/key skills in Great Britain, the United States, and Australia were examined. The U.S. model, which involves a broader, more flexible, and more holistic set of generic skills, was contrasted with the…

  14. 40 CFR 721.9720 - Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9720 Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name). (a) Chemical... as disubstituted alkyl triazines (PMNs P-85-932 and P-85-933) are subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10692 - Fluorinated alkyl dianiline (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fluorinated alkyl dianiline (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10692 Fluorinated alkyl dianiline (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkyl dianiline (PMN P-13-288) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10698 - Polyfluorinated alkyl halide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyfluorinated alkyl halide (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10698 Polyfluorinated alkyl halide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyfluorinated alkyl halide (PMN P-11-527) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9720 - Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9720 Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name). (a) Chemical... as disubstituted alkyl triazines (PMNs P-85-932 and P-85-933) are subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10669 - Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10669 Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkyl ether (PMN P-13-78) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...